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Sample records for coal-water slurry transportation

  1. A computerized coal-water slurry transportation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljubicic, B.R.; Trostad, B. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P. [Univ. of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia)

    1995-12-01

    Coal-water fuel (CWF) technology has been developed to the point where full-scale commercialization is just a matter of gaining sufficient market confidence in the price stability of alternate fossil fuels. In order to generalize alternative fuel cost estimates for the desired combinations of processing and/or transportation, a great deal of flexibility is required owing to the understood lack of precision in many of the newly emerging coal technologies. Previously, decisions regarding the sequential and spatial arrangement of the various process steps were made strictly on the basis of experience, simplified analysis, and intuition. Over the last decade, computer modeling has progressed from empirically based correlation to that of intricate mechanistic analysis. Nomograms, charts, tables, and many simple rules of thumb have been made obsolete by the availability of complex computer models. Given the ability to view results graphically in real or near real time, the engineer can immediately verify, from a practical standpoint, whether the initial assumptions and inputs were indeed valid. If the feasibility of a project is being determined in the context of a lack of specific data, the ability to provide a dynamic software-based solution is crucial. Furthermore, the resulting model can be used to establish preliminary operating procedures, test control logic, and train plant/process operators. Presented in this paper is a computerized model capable of estimating the delivered cost of CWF. The model uses coal-specific values, process and transport requirements, terrain factors, and input costs to determine the final operating configuration, bill of materials, and, ultimately, the capital, operating, and unit costs.

  2. Properties of sodium lignosulfonate as dispersant of coal water slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dongjie; Qiu, Xueqing; Zhou, Mingsong; Lou, Hongming

    2007-01-01

    In order to use lignosulfonates (a by-product of pulp and paper processes) as an effective dispersant of coal water slurry five purified sodium lignosulfonate (SL) samples with different molecular weights were prepared by fractionation using ultrafiltration and dialysis. The effect of SL on the apparent viscosity of coal water slurry (CWS) was investigated. The adsorption behavior of the SL on the coal water interface has much greater effect on the viscosity of coal water slurry. The higher adsorption amount and compact adsorption film of SL on the coal surface help reduce the viscosity of CWS, and the zeta potential is also an important factor, which is influenced by the sulfonic and carboxyl group contents of the lignosulfonate molecule. Furthermore, the SL with its molecular weight ranging from 10,000 to 30,000 has both a higher adsorbed amount and zeta potential on the coal surface and the best effect on reducing the viscosity of the coal water slurry

  3. Effect of flotation on preparation of coal-water slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K.; Laskowski, J.S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    In order to study the effect of flotation reagents on the properties of coal-water slurry, a sub-bituminous coal was cleaned via either forward flotation or reverse flotation. The froth product from the forward flotation, obtained with the use of diesel oil and MIBC, and the tailings of the reverse flotation, carried out with dextrin-tannic acid depressants and dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride collector, were used in the preparation of coal-water slurries. It was shown that while it was possible to obtain the coal-water slurry with a high-solids content from the coal rendered hydrophilic (tailings from the coal reverse flotation), in the case of the hydrophobic product (froth product from the forward flotation) a dispersing agent was required to obtain the coal-water slurry of the same high-solids content.

  4. Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillian, Michael H.

    1992-01-01

    An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

  5. Rheology of Colombian coal-water slurry fuels: Effect of particle-size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulido, J E; Rojas, C P; Acero, G [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    1996-12-31

    Coal-water slurry fuels (CWSF`s) have been prepared and characterized in a research project in Colombia, sponsored by Colciencias and Ecocarbon, in order to evaluate the effects of the different composition variables on the behavior during preparation and pipe line transportation. The authors have previously presented details describing the characteristics of the slurry fuels prepared with five types of Colombian thermal coals and the influence of their chemical composition on the optimum particle-size distribution (PSD) required to prepare highly loaded and workable CWSF`s. The formulation and design of flow systems of suspensions with high solids content, such as the CWSF`s, require a detailed rheological knowledge of the suspension in terms of the governing parameters related to PSD, coal content, surface chemistry of the particles and dispersants used to stabilize the slurries. Important studies on these aspects have been reviewed and carried out experimentally by other authors specially devoted to the correlations between apparent viscosity, solids content and average coal particle-size. One of the targets to obtain an optimum control on the viscosity and flow properties of the CWSF`s must be based in correlating the Theological constants for the prevailing model of viscosity law to the characteristic parameters of the particle-size distribution and to the coal content in the slurry. In spite of the effect of PSD on the rheology of highly-loaded coal slurries have been long recognized as significant, the specific influence of the various PSD`s on the parameters of the Theological model continues to receive attention to further understanding in order to improve the slurry formulations for a specified purpose on preparation and hydraulic handling. This paper reports the results of an experimental technique of examining the various PSD`s on coal slurry fuel rheology, taking special attention for the effect on the parameters of the rheological model.

  6. Effect of organized assemblies. Part 4. Formulation of highly concentrated coal-water slurry using a natural surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debadutta Das; Sagarika Panigrahi; Pramila K. Misra; Amalendu Nayak [Sambalpur University, Orissa (India). Centre of Studies in Surface Science and Technology

    2008-05-15

    Coal-water slurry has received considerable research nowadays due to its ability in substituting energy sources. The present work reports the formulation of highly concentrated coal-water slurry using a natural occurring surface active compound, saponin, extracted from the fruits of plant Sapindous laurifolia. The isolation of saponin from the plant and its surface activity has been discussed. The rheological characteristics of coal-water slurry have been investigated as a function of coal loading, ash content of coal, pH, temperature, and amount of saponin. The viscosity of the slurry and zeta potential are substantially decreased with concomitant shift of the isoelectric point of coal on adsorption of saponin to it. In the presence of 0.8% of saponin, coal-water slurry containing 64% weight fraction of coal could be achieved. The slurry is stable for a period of as long as 1 month in contrast to 4-5 h in the case of bare coal-water slurry. The results confirm the use of saponin as a suitable additive for coal-water slurry similar to the commercially available additive such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. Basing on the effect of pH on the zeta potential and viscosity of slurry, a suitable mechanism for saponin-coal interaction and orientation of saponin at the coal-water interface has been proposed. 47 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. An investigation on characterizing dense coal-water slurry with ultrasound: theoretical and experimental method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, M.H.; Su, M.X.; Dong, L.L.; Shang, Z.T.; Cai, X.S. [Shanghai University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-07-01

    Particle size distribution and concentration in particulate two-phase flow are important parameters in a wide variety of industrial areas. For the purpose of online characterization in dense coal-water slurries, ultrasonic methods have many advantages such as avoiding dilution, the capability for being used in real time, and noninvasive testing, while light-based techniques are not capable of providing information because optical methods often require the slurry to be diluted. In this article, the modified Urick equation including temperature modification, which can be used to determine the concentration by means of the measurement of ultrasonic velocity in a coal-water slurry, is evaluated on the basis of theoretical analysis and experimental study. A combination of the coupled-phase model and the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law is employed in this work, and the attenuation spectrum is measured within the frequency region from 3 to 12 MHz. Particle size distributions of the coal-water slurry at different volume fractions are obtained with the optimum regularization technique. Therefore, the ultrasonic technique presented in this work brings the possibility of using ultrasound for online measurements of dense slurries.

  8. Energy-Saving Vibration Impulse Coal Degradation at Finely Dispersed Coal-Water Slurry Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental research results of processes of finely dispersed coal-water slurry preparation for further generation of energetic gas in direct flow and vortex gas generator plants have been presented. It has been stated that frequency parameters of parabolic vibration impulse mill influence degradation degree. Pressure influence on coal parameters in grinding cavity has been proven. Experimental researches have proven efficiency of vibration impulse mill with unbalanced mass vibrator generator development. Conditions of development on intergranular walls of coal cracks have been defined.

  9. Maximum solid concentrations of coal water slurries predicted by neural network models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jun; Li, Yanchang; Zhou, Junhu; Liu, Jianzhong; Cen, Kefa

    2010-12-15

    The nonlinear back-propagation (BP) neural network models were developed to predict the maximum solid concentration of coal water slurry (CWS) which is a substitute for oil fuel, based on physicochemical properties of 37 typical Chinese coals. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used to train five BP neural network models with different input factors. The data pretreatment method, learning rate and hidden neuron number were optimized by training models. It is found that the Hardgrove grindability index (HGI), moisture and coalification degree of parent coal are 3 indispensable factors for the prediction of CWS maximum solid concentration. Each BP neural network model gives a more accurate prediction result than the traditional polynomial regression equation. The BP neural network model with 3 input factors of HGI, moisture and oxygen/carbon ratio gives the smallest mean absolute error of 0.40%, which is much lower than that of 1.15% given by the traditional polynomial regression equation. (author)

  10. Optimal operation for 3 control parameters of Texaco coal-water slurry gasifier with MO-3LM-CDE algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Cuiwen; Zhang, Yakun; Gu, Xingsheng [Ministry of Education, East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Key Lab. of Advanced Control and Optimization for Chemical Processes

    2013-07-01

    Optimizing operation parameters for Texaco coal-water slurry gasifier with the consideration of multiple objectives is a complicated nonlinear constrained problem concerning 3 BP neural networks. In this paper, multi-objective 3-layer mixed cultural differential evolution (MO-3LM-CDE) algorithms which comprise of 4 multi-objective strategies and a 3LM-CDE algorithm are firstly presented. Then they are tested in 6 benchmark functions. Finally, the MO-3LM-CDE algorithms are applied to optimize 3 control parameters of the Texaco coal-water slurry gasifier in methanol production of a real-world chemical plant. The simulation results show that multi-objective optimal results are better than the respective single-objective optimal operations.

  11. Evaluation of treated black liquor used as dispersant of concentrated coal-water slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingsong Zhou; Qian Kong; Bing Pan; Xueqing Qiu; Dongjie Yang; Hongming Lou [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering

    2010-03-15

    The paper making waste liquor is a great water pollution source and much work has been done over the years to overcome this challenge. We present here a solution of black liquor used as dispersant of coal-water slurry (abbreviated as CWS) following chemical treatment. The treated black liquor (abbreviated as TBL) is used to prepare CWS for three bituminous coals, and the factors influencing its dispersing ability and the properties of CWS are investigated. The results show that the increasing sulfonating agent and formaldehyde dosage increase the sulfonic group content while reducing the molecular weight of TBL. The comparison with a naphthalene dispersant shows that TBL has a similar or better dispersing ability, and the large quantity of sulfonic groups engrafted in lignin molecules and the markedly increase of molecular weight are considered the key reason for the excellent performance of TBL. Moreover, the change of the molecular configuration from globular to flocculent in solution observed by TEM is also considered as an important reason for the excellent dispersing effect of TBL for CWS. 25 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Environmental indicators of the combustion of prospective coal water slurry containing petrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Nyashina, Galina S; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2017-09-15

    Negative environmental impact of coal combustion has been known to humankind for a fairly long time. Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are considered the most dangerous anthropogenic emissions. A possible solution to this problem is replacing coal dust combustion with that of coal water slurry containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Coal processing wastes and used combustible liquids (oils, sludge, resins) are promising in terms of their economic and energy yield characteristics. However, no research has yet been conducted on the environmental indicators of fuels based on CWSP. The present work contains the findings of the research of CO, CO2, NOx, SOx emissions from the combustion of coals and CWSPs produced from coal processing waste (filter cakes). It is demonstrated for the first time that the concentrations of dangerous emissions from the combustion of CWSPs (carbon oxide and dioxide), even when combustible heavy liquid fractions are added, are not worse than those of coal. As for the concentration of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, it is significantly lower for CWSPs combustion as compared to coals. The presented research findings illustrate the prospects of the wide use of CWSPs as a fuel that is cheap and beneficial, in terms of both energy output and ecology, as compared to coal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synchronized droplet size measurements for Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, K. D.; Terracina, D. P.; Payne, S. E.; Caton, J. A.

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMD's near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 (mu)m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

  14. Durability testing of medium speed diesel engine components designed for operating on coal/water slurry fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, R. E.; Giammarise, A. W.; Johnson, R. N.

    1994-01-01

    Over 200 operating cylinder hours were run on critical wearing engine parts. The main components tested included cylinder liners, piston rings, and fuel injector nozzles for coal/water slurry fueled operation. The liners had no visible indication of scoring nor major wear steps found on their tungsten carbide coating. While the tungsten carbide coating on the rings showed good wear resistance, some visual evidence suggests adhesive wear mode was present. Tungsten carbide coated rings running against tungsten carbide coated liners in GE 7FDL engines exhibit wear rates which suggest an approximate 500 to 750 hour life. Injector nozzle orifice materials evaluated were diamond compacts, chemical vapor deposited diamond tubes, and thermally stabilized diamond. Based upon a total of 500 cylinder hours of engine operation (including single-cylinder combustion tests), diamond compact was determined to be the preferred orifice material.

  15. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry in an industrial internal circulating fluidized bed boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Jiang, Xiumin; Zhou, Lingsheng; Wang, Hui; Han, Xiangxin

    2009-08-15

    Incineration has been proven to be an alternative for disposal of sludge with its unique characteristics to minimize the volume and recover energy. In this paper, a new fluidized bed (FB) incineration system for treating oil sludge is presented. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry (CWS) was investigated in the new incineration system to study combustion characteristics, gaseous pollutant emissions and ash management. The study results show the co-firing of oil sludge with CWS in FB has good operating characteristic. CWS as an auxiliary fuel can flexibly control the dense bed temperatures by adjusting its feeding rate. All emissions met the local environmental requirements. The CO emission was less than 1 ppm or essentially zero; the emissions of SO(2) and NO(x) were 120-220 and 120-160 mg/Nm(3), respectively. The heavy metal analyses of the bottom ash and the fly ash by ICP/AES show that the combustion ashes could be recycled as soil for farming.

  16. Influence of the shape of soaring particle based on coal-water slurry containing petrochemicals on ignition characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin Timur R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the laws of stable ignition of organic coal-water slurry containing petrochemicals (CWSP. The CWSP is based on the filter cake of coal and scavenge oil. The experiments are performed for individual CWSP particles soaring in a special set-up. The temperature and velocity of an oxidizer flow are varied between 500-1200 K, and 0.5-3 m/s. The dimensions (longitudinal and transverse of particles range are from 0.5 mm to 5 mm. The study indicates how the shape of a fuel particle (sphere, ellipsoid, and polyhedron influences its ignition characteristics (delay time, minimum temperature, modes, stages. Based on the experimental results, the paper explains why the surface configuration of particles influences the conditions of heat transfer with an oxidizer. The results obtained for soaring particles are compared with the results for fixed CWSP particles having different surface configurations (sphere, ellipsoid, and polyhedron. In general, the study may contribute to the expansion of the fuel resource base. The experimental data may be used for the development of the technologies of burning CWSP prepared by recycling traditional fuels. As a result of this study, several recommendations for the practical application of research results are made.

  17. The influence of atomizer internal design and liquid physical properties on effervescent atomizing of coal-water slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Meng; Duan, Yufeng [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). Inst. of Thermal Engineering

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the dependence of effervescent atomizing of coal-water slurry (CWS) on atomizer internal design and fluid properties. Results demonstrate that internal design of atomizer and fluid properties directly affect the two-phase flow pattern inside the atomizer which consequently affects the spray quality. The influence of mixing chamber length on spray quality is not significant at the ALR of 0.15 except for spray 0.75 glycerol/0.248 water/0.002 xanthan mixture. The same trend also found in the effect of angle of aeration holes at ALR of 0.15. Large diameter of the inclined aeration holes shows small SMD for water. The consistency index of fluids has no effect on the spray quality and Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) increases when polymer additions were added to the glycerin-water mixture. The radial profile of SMD for spray water are almost flat, however, the largest SMD can be obtained at the edge of spray for three other fluids.

  18. The Development of Environmentally Friendly Technologies of Using Coals and Products of Their Enrichment in the Form of Coal Water Slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murko, Vasily; Hamalainen, Veniamin

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the current state of the technology for production and combustion of fuel coal water slurries in Russia and foreign countries. Experimental and industrial facilities show the technological and economic efficiency of using this technology for disposal of wastes resulting after coal processing and enrichment. The feasibility studies of use of the technology at large Kuzbass thermal power stations are presented. The possibility of solving a serious environmental problem of reducing storage of the most toxic waste of coal enrichment in the location areas of coal washing plants and coal mining enterprises is demonstrated.

  19. Results of Study of Sulfur Oxide Reduction During Combustion of Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Through use of Sulfur Capturing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murko Vasiliy I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that an effective way of burning high sulfur coal is to burn coal-water slurry fuel (CWF prepared on its basis containing a sulfur capture agent (SCA entered in the slurry at the stage of preparation. The technique of thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions during CWF burning has been developed including burning in the presence of SCA. Using the developed calculation program, the optimal temperature conditions have been determined as required for the effective reduction of sulfur oxides in flue gases when using different types of SCA. According to the results of calculating the composition of CWF combustion products when entering various substances in the burner space as SCA it has been determined that magnesite, calcite, and dolomite are the most effective natural minerals. The analysis of calculated and experimental data proves the efficiency of SCA addition as well as validity of the obtained results.

  20. Investigation of the efect of the coal particle sizes on the interfacial and rheological properties of coal-water slurry fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, K.D.; Deignan, P. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of particle size on coal-water slurry (CWS) surface tension properties. Two different coal powder samples of different size ranges were obtained through sieving of coal from the Upper Elkhorn Seam. The surfactant (anionic DDBS-soft, dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid) concentration varied from 0 to 1.0% in weight while the coal loading remained at 40% in weight for all the cases. A du Nouy ring tensiometer and a maximum bubble pressure tensiometer measured the static and dynamic surface tensions, respectively, The results show that both static and dynamic surface tensions tend to increase with decreasing coal particle sizes suspended in CWS fuels. Examination of the peak pressure, minimum pressure, surfactant diffusion time, and dead time were also made to correlate these microscopic pressure behavior with the macroscopic dynamic surface tension and to examine the accuracy of the experiment.

  1. Coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals to solve problems of air pollution by coal thermal power stations and boiler plants: An introductory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2018-02-01

    This introductory study presents the analysis of the environmental, economic and energy performance indicators of burning high-potential coal water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP) instead of coal, fuel oil, and natural gas at typical thermal power stations (TPS) and a boiler plant. We focus on the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions of coal power industry: sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The research findings show that these emissions may be several times lower if coal and oil processing wastes are mixed with water as compared to the combustion of traditional pulverized coal, even of high grades. The study focuses on wastes, such as filter cakes, oil sludge, waste industrial oils, heavy coal-tar products, resins, etc., that are produced and stored in abundance. Their deep conversion is very rare due to low economic benefit. Effective ways are necessary to recover such industrial wastes. We present the cost assessment of the changes to the heat and power generation technologies that are required from typical power plants for switching from coal, fuel oil and natural gas to CWSPs based on coal and oil processing wastes. The corresponding technological changes pay off after a short time, ranging from several months to several years. The most promising components for CWSP production have been identified, which provide payback within a year. Among these are filter cakes (coal processing wastes), which are produced as a ready-made coal-water slurry fuel (a mixture of flocculants, water, and fine coal dust). These fuels have the least impact on the environment in terms of the emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides as well as fly ash. An important conclusion of the study is that using CWSPs based on filter cakes is worthwhile both as the main fuel for thermal power stations and boiler plants and as starting fuel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of calcium magnesium acetate on the combustion of coal-water slurries. Final project report, 1 September 1989--28 February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Wise, D.; Metghalchi, H.; Cumper, J.; Atal, A.; Estrada, K.R.; Murphy, B.; Steciak, J.; Hottel, H.C.; Simons, G.

    1993-07-01

    To conduct studies on the combustion of coal water fuels (CWFs) an appropriate facility was designed and constructed. The main components were (1) a high-temperature isothermal laminar flow furnace that facilitates observation of combustion events in its interior. The design of this system and its characterization are described in Chapter 1. (2) Apparatus for slurry droplet/agglomerate particle generation and introduction in the furnace. These devices are described in Chapters 1 and 3 and other attached publications. (3) An electronic optical pyrometer whose design, construction theory of operation, calibration and performance are presented in Chapter 2. (4) A multitude of other accessories, such as particle fluidization devices, a suction thermometer, a velocimeter, high speed photographic equipment, calibration devices for the pyrometer, etc., are described throughout this report. Results on the combustion of CWF droplets and CWF agglomerates made from micronized coal are described in Chapter 3. In the same chapter the combustion of CWF containing dissolved calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) axe described. The combustion behavior of pre-dried CWF agglomerates of pulverized grain coal is contrasted to that of agglomerates of micronized coal in Chapter 4. In the same chapter the combustion of agglomerates of carbon black and diesel soot is discussed as well. The effect of CMA on the combustion of the above materials is also discussed. Finally, the sulfur capture capability of CMA impregnated micronized and pulverized bituminous coals is examined in Chapter 5.

  3. Method of transporting radioactive slurry-like wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, K; Yusa, H; Sugimoto, Y

    1975-06-30

    The object is to prevent blockage of a transporting tube to positively and effectively transport radioactive slurry wastes. A method of transporting radioactive slurry-like wastes produced in an atomic power plant, wherein liquid wastes produced in the power plant are diluted to form into a driving liquid, by which said radioactive slurry-like wastes are transported within the pipe, and said driving liquid is recovered as the liquid waste.

  4. Predicting transport requirements for radioactive-waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motyka, T.; Randall, C.T.

    1983-01-01

    A method for predicting the transport requirements of radioactive waste slurries was developed. This method involved preparing nonradioactive sludge slurries chemically similar to the actual high-level waste. The rheological and settling characteristics of these synthetic waste slurries were measured and found to compare favorably with data on actual defense waste slurries. Pressure drop versus flow rate data obtained fom a 2-in. slurry test loop confirmed the Bingham plastic behavior of the slurry observed during viscometry measurements. The pipeline tests, however, yielded friction factors 30 percent lower than those predicted from viscometry data. Differences between the sets of data were attributed to inherent problems in interpreting accurate yield-stress values of slurry suspensions with Couette-type viscometers. Equivalent lengths of fittings were also determined and found to be less than that of water at a specified flow rate

  5. Fluidized Bed Gasification of Coal-Oil and Coal-Water-Oil Slurries by Oxygen –Steam and Oxygen-CO2 Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Jeremiáš, Michal; Kameníková, Petra; Hartman, Miloslav; Skoblia, S.; Šyc, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 1 (2012), s. 16-26 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08048; GA MŠk 7C08034 Grant - others:RFCR(XE) CT-2010-00009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidized bed * gasification * coal slurries Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 2.816, year: 2012 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-82455175439&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=svoboda%2ck&sid=ikNGw6d45E-yyuMoDwlGiWn%3a420&sot=b&sdt=b&sl=22&s=AUTHOR-NAME%28svoboda%2ck%29&relpos=1&relpos=1&searchTerm=AUTHOR-NAME(svoboda,k)

  6. Piston membrane pumps for slurries transport; Kolbenmembranpumpen fuer den Schlammtransport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechmann, F. [Abel GmbH und Co. KG, Buechen (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    As raw materials prices are rising, ore and coal mines in remote parts of the world have become profitable. Local infrastructures in these regions are not comparable with Europe. There are no rods or railways, and pipelines must be constructed parallel to rivers through deserts, mountains and rainforests. As a rule, pipelines do not follow favourable geological conditions but are constructed along the shortest possible rout to the nearest port or the nearest processing plant. Slurries are transported by pumping. (orig.)

  7. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for ground water contamination as compared to application of raw slurry.......The potential for transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a four week period......, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method although recovery rates were low (liquid slurry leached 73% and 90% more oocysts compared with columns with injected and surface applied raw slurry, respectively...

  8. Coal-water fuels - a clean coal solution for Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubicic, B.; Willson, W.; Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Stajner, K.; Popovic, R.

    1993-01-01

    Eastern Europe currently faces great economic and environmental problems. Among these problems is energy provision. Coal reserves are large but cause pollution while oil and gas need to be used for export. Formal 'clean coal technologies' are simply too expensive to be implemented on a large scale in the current economic crisis. The promised western investment and technological help has simply not taken place, western Europe must help eastern Europe with coal technology. The cheapest such technology is coal-water fuel slurry. It can substitute for oil, but research has not been carried out because of low oil prices. Coal-water fuel is one of the best methods of exploiting low rank coal. Many eastern European low rank coals have a low sulfur content, and thus make a good basis for a clean fuel. Italy and Russia are involved in such a venture, the slurry being transported in a pipeline. This technology would enable Russia to exploit Arctic coal reserves, thus freeing oil and gas for export. In Serbia the exploitation of sub-Danube lignite deposits with dredging mining produced a slurry. This led to the use and development of hot water drying, which enabled the removal of many of the salts which cause problems in pulverized fuel combustion. The system is economic, the fuel safer to transport then oil, either by rail or in pipelines. Many eastern European oil facilities could switch. 24 refs

  9. Review of coal-water fuel pulverization technology and atomization quality registration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of coal-water fuel application in industrial power engineering are considered and described. Two main problems and disadvantages of this fuel type are suggested. The paper presents information about liquid fuel atomization technologies and provides data on nozzle type for coal-water fuel pulverization. This article also mentions some of the existing technologies for coal-water slurry spraying quality determination.

  10. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Heidi H; Enemark, Heidi L; Olsen, Annette; Amin, M G Mostofa; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-09-01

    The potential for the transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a 4-week period, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method, although recovery rates were low (vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespective of the irrigation status. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether the application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for groundwater contamination compared to application of raw slurry.

  11. Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carleson, T.E.; Drown, D.C.; Hart, R.E.; Peterson, M.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs

  12. Flow velocity analysis for avoidance of solids deposition during transport of Hanford tank waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESTEY, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    This engineering analysis calculates minimum slurry transport velocities intended to maintain suspensions of solid particulate in slurries. This transport velocity is also known as the slurry flow critical velocity. It is not universally recognized that a transfer line flow velocity in excess of the slurry critical velocity is a requirement to prevent solids deposition and possible line plugging. However, slurry critical velocity seems to be the most prevalent objective measure to prevent solids deposition in transfer lines. The following critical velocity correlations from the literature are investigated: Durand (1953), Spells (1955), Sinclair (1962), Zandi and Gavatos (1967), Babcock (1968), Shook (1969), and Oroskar and Turian (1980). The advantage of these critical velocity correlations is that their use is not reliant upon any measure of bulk slurry viscosity. The input parameters are limited to slurry phase densities and mass fractions, pipe diameter, particle diameter, and viscosity of the pure liquid phase of the slurry. Consequently, the critical velocity calculation does not require determination of system pressure drops. Generalized slurry properties can, therefore, be recommended if the slurry can be adequately described by these variables and if the liquid phase viscosity is known. Analysis of these correlations are presented, indicating that the Oroskar and Turian (1980) models appear to be more conservative for smaller particulate sizes, typically those less than 100 microns diameter. This analysis suggests that the current Tank Farms waste compatibility program criteria may be insufficient to prevent particulate solids settling within slurry composition ranges currently allowed by the waste compatibility program. However, in order to relate a critical velocity associated with a certain slurry composition to a system limit, a means of relating the system capabilities to the slurry composition must be found. Generally, this means expressing the bulk

  13. Influence of coal slurry particle composition on pipeline hydraulic transportation behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-an, Zhao; Ronghuan, Cai; Tieli, Wang

    2018-02-01

    Acting as a new type of energy transportation mode, the coal pipeline hydraulic transmission can reduce the energy transportation cost and the fly ash pollution of the conventional coal transportation. In this study, the effect of average velocity, particle size and pumping time on particle composition of coal particles during hydraulic conveying was investigated by ring tube test. Meanwhile, the effects of particle composition change on slurry viscosity, transmission resistance and critical sedimentation velocity were studied based on the experimental data. The experimental and theoretical analysis indicate that the alter of slurry particle composition can lead to the change of viscosity, resistance and critical velocity of slurry. Moreover, based on the previous studies, the critical velocity calculation model of coal slurry is proposed.

  14. Research on numerical simulation and protection of transient process in long-distance slurry transportation pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, G.; Jiang, J.; Li, D. D.; Yi, W. S.; Zhao, Z.; Nie, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    The calculation of water-hammer pressure phenomenon of single-phase liquid is already more mature for a pipeline of uniform characteristics, but less research has addressed the calculation of slurry water hammer pressure in complex pipelines with slurry flows carrying solid particles. In this paper, based on the developments of slurry pipelines at home and abroad, the fundamental principle and method of numerical simulation of transient processes are presented, and several boundary conditions are given. Through the numerical simulation and analysis of transient processes of a practical engineering of long-distance slurry transportation pipeline system, effective protection measures and operating suggestions are presented. A model for calculating the water impact of solid and fluid phases is established based on a practical engineering of long-distance slurry pipeline transportation system. After performing a numerical simulation of the transient process, analyzing and comparing the results, effective protection measures and operating advice are recommended, which has guiding significance to the design and operating management of practical engineering of longdistance slurry pipeline transportation system.

  15. Research on numerical simulation and protection of transient process in long-distance slurry transportation pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, G; Jiang, J; Li, D D; Yi, W S; Zhao, Z; Nie, L N

    2013-01-01

    The calculation of water-hammer pressure phenomenon of single-phase liquid is already more mature for a pipeline of uniform characteristics, but less research has addressed the calculation of slurry water hammer pressure in complex pipelines with slurry flows carrying solid particles. In this paper, based on the developments of slurry pipelines at home and abroad, the fundamental principle and method of numerical simulation of transient processes are presented, and several boundary conditions are given. Through the numerical simulation and analysis of transient processes of a practical engineering of long-distance slurry transportation pipeline system, effective protection measures and operating suggestions are presented. A model for calculating the water impact of solid and fluid phases is established based on a practical engineering of long-distance slurry pipeline transportation system. After performing a numerical simulation of the transient process, analyzing and comparing the results, effective protection measures and operating advice are recommended, which has guiding significance to the design and operating management of practical engineering of longdistance slurry pipeline transportation system

  16. Transport of veterinary antibiotics in overland flow following the application of slurry to arable land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Paul; Blackwell, Paul A; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2005-05-01

    The environment may be exposed to veterinary medicines administered to livestock due to the application of organic fertilisers to land. Slurry is often spread on to fields following the harvest of the previous crop. Despite recommendations to do so, the slurry may not be ploughed into the soil for some time. If precipitation occurs before incorporation then it is likely that the slurry and any antibiotic residues in the slurry will be transported towards surface waters in overland flow. This phenomenon has been investigated in a plot study and transport via 'tramlines' has been compared to that through crop stubble. Three veterinary antibiotics, from the tetracycline, sulphonamide and macrolide groups, were applied to the plots in pig slurry. Twenty four hours after the application the plots were irrigated. Following this the plots received natural rainfall. Sulphachloropyridazine was detected in runoff from the tramline plot at a peak concentration of 703.2 microgl(-1) and oxytetracycline at 71.7 microgl(-1). Peak concentrations from the plot that did not contain a tramline were lower at 415.5 and 32 microgl(-1), respectively. In contrast, tylosin was not detected at all. Mass losses of the compounds were also greater from the tramline plot due to greater runoff generation. These did not exceed 0.42% for sulphachloropyridazine and 0.07% for oxytetracycline however.

  17. Solids transport formula in predictive model for pipe flow of slurry above deposit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2011), s. 89-106 ISSN 0272-6351 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/0383 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : bed friction * pipeline * pressure drop * sediment transport * slurry flow * stationary bed Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.545, year: 2011

  18. Slurry Transport : Fundamentals, a historical overview and the Delft Head Loss & Limit Deposit Velocity Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, S.A.; Ramsdell, RC

    2016-01-01

    In dredging, trenching, (deep sea) mining, drilling, tunnel boring and many other applications, sand, clay or rock has to be excavated. After the soil has been excavated it is usually transported hydraulically as a slurry over a short (TSHD’s) or a long distance (CSD’s). Estimating the pressure

  19. Transport of hydrate slurry at high water cut

    OpenAIRE

    Melchuna , Aline; Cameirão , Ana; Herri , Jean-Michel; Ouabbas , Yamina; Glenat , Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Poster; International audience; Oil transportation in pipelines at the end of field production life implies to flow high quantities of water which represents the dominant phase. The process of crystallization of gas hydrates in this system needs to be studied and compared to the opposite one widely studied in the literature where water is the dispersed phase. The laboratory is equipped with the Archimede flow loop where the hydrate crystallization and transport are monitored. The flow loop is...

  20. CO2 slurry pipeline to transport solid marketable products to improve CCS economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhning, Richard

    2010-09-15

    Carbon dioxide pipelines are anticipated to be a key element in CCS (Carbon Capture and Sequestration) to transport the carbon dioxide to sequestration sites or to oil fields for use in enhanced oil recovery applications. However the economics of CCS are such that the operations are economically challenged. The concept of using super critical (liquid) carbon dioxide in a slurry pipeline is to use the pipeline constructed for environmental purposes to transport marketable products such as sulphur, petroleum coke, limestone and others to market thereby generating additional income to make CCS carbon dioxide transportation economically attractive.

  1. Field efficiency of slurry applications involving in-field transports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn; Green, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Controlled traffic farming can significantly reduce the soil compaction caused from heavy machinery systems. However, using CTF in material handling operations executed by cooperative machines, the significantly increased in-field transports lead to a lower system’s efficiency. Recently, a discrete...

  2. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summary of Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies for FY 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-06-07

    Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  3. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summaries of Hanford Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies in FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-07-08

    This report is a collection of summary articles on FY 2000 studies of slurry transport and salt-well pumping related to Hanford tank waste transfers. These studies are concerned with the stability (steady, uninterrupted flow) of tank waste transfers, a subset of the Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Tank (TFA) Waste Chemistry effort. This work is a collaborative effort of AEA Technology plc, the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory at Mississippi State University (DIAL-MSU), the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology at Florida International University (HCET-FIU), Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of this report is to provide, in a single document, an overview of these studies to help the reader identify contacts and resources for obtaining more detailed information and to help promote useful interchanges between researchers and users. Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  4. Application of coal-water fuel technology in the People`s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, G. [International Centre for Scientific Culture (World Laboratory), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    Under the auspices of the ICSC - World Laboratory of Losanna presided by Prof. A. Zichichi, an important Project was launched on 1988 dealing with the feasibility study of coal-water fuel technology in China. The study, that is starting now with the last phase, will be completed in the 1993. The paper will report on the general line of the study and the status of the project. This is related to a complete program including: the slurry production near the coal open air mine in the region of Shemnu (new Mongolia), the transportation by pipeline for about 800 km. of 7 millions of tons/year of dry coal in form of CWF, and some possible direct utilization during the route until the final destination in one of the ports of Yellow sea. This is for the time been the biggest commercial project in the world on this area and was developed using the experiences of more than 50 italian and chinese scientists, technologists and experts coming from important and specialized italian companies under the drive of Snamprogetti (including the experiences of ENEL, Ansaldo, Laviosa, etc.) and chinese organization from the Graduate School, CUMT; Institute of Mechanics CAS; Institute of Photochemistry, CAS; in R.P.C.

  5. Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, T.M.; Melick, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), in cooperation with the University of Alabama and Jim Walter Resources, has been awarded a DOE contract to retrofit an existing fire-tube boiler with a coal-water slurry firing system. Recognizing that combustion efficiency is the principle concern when firing slurry in fire-tube boilers, EER has focused the program on innovative approaches for improving carbon burnout without major modifications to the boiler. This paper reports on the program which consists of five tasks. Task 1 provides for the design and retrofit of the host boiler to fire coal-water slurry. Task 2 is a series of optimization tests that will determine the effects of adjustable parameters on boiler performance. Task 3 will perform about 1000 hours of proof-of-concept system tests. Task 4 will be a comprehensive review of the test data in order to evaluate the economics of slurry conversions. Task 5 will be the decommissioning of the test facility if required

  6. Coal slurries: An environmental bonus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

    1994-01-01

    Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference

  7. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  8. Overview of slurry pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, R L

    1982-01-01

    Slurry pipelines have proven to be a technically feasible, environmentally attractive and economic method of transporting finely divided particles over long distances. A pipeline system normally consists of preparation, pipeline and utilization facilities and requires optimization of all three components taken together. A considerable amount of research work has been done to develop hydraulic design of a slurry pipeline. Equipment selection and estimation of corrosion-erosion are considered to be as important as the hydraulic design. Future applications are expected to be for the large-scale transport of coal and for the exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits such as iron ore and copper. Application of slurry pipelines for the exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits is illustrated by the Kudremukh iron concentrate slurry pipeline in India.

  9. Fate and transport of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in soil and runoff following land application of swine manure slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Stacey R; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Snow, Daniel D; Gilley, John E; Woodbury, Bryan L; Parker, David B; Marx, David B; Li, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Due to the use of antimicrobials in livestock production, residual antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) could enter the environment following the land application of animal wastes and could further contaminate surface and groundwater. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various manure land application methods on the fate and transport of antimicrobials and ARGs in soil and runoff following land application of swine manure slurry. Swine manure slurries were obtained from facilities housing pigs that were fed chlortetracyline, tylosin or bacitracin and were land applied via broadcast, incorporation, and injection methods. Three rainfall simulation tests were then performed on amended and control plots. Results show that land application methods had no statistically significant effect on the aqueous concentrations of antimicrobials in runoff. However, among the three application methods tested broadcast resulted in the highest total mass loading of antimicrobials in runoff from the three rainfall simulation tests. The aqueous concentrations of chlortetracyline and tylosin in runoff decreased in consecutive rainfall events, although the trend was only statistically significant for tylosin. For ARGs, broadcast resulted in significantly higher erm genes in runoff than did incorporation and injection methods. In soil, the effects of land application methods on the fate of antimicrobials in top soil were compound specific. No clear trend was observed in the ARG levels in soil, likely because different host cells may respond differently to the soil environments created by various land application methods.

  10. Flow loop studies with AMAX coal-water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildman, D.J.; Ekmann, J.M.

    1984-03-01

    The coal-water mixtures (CWM) with a stabilizer and the CWM without stabilizers were successfully transported through a flow loop facility under a variety of conditions. The handling characteristics of both CWM were reasonable. The mix tank mixer was not needed during nontesting hours to prevent settling of either material. After several days of transporting the nonstabilized material in the loop facility, the viscosity-reducing agent became ineffective. It was necessary to increase the concentration of the viscosity-reducing agent. The material with stabilizer could not be transported through the loop facility at mass flow rates greater than 209 lb/min until overnight shearing of the CWM in the tank. The CWM without a stabilizer appeared to be slightly shear-thickening, whereas the stabilized CWM initially exhibited shear-thinning behavior. The pressure losses measured for the nonstabilized material were similar to the pressure losses measured for CWM prepared at PETC with three or four percent higher concentration of Pittsburgh seam coal. Tests performed with the stabilized CWM experienced pressure losses similar to CWM prepared at PETC with Pittsburgh seam coal of five to seven percent higher concentration. Tests 1A, 2A, 1B, and 2B were not included in the comparison of in-house-prepared CWM due to differences in pretest handling procedures. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  11. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  12. Slurry flow principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shook, C A; Brenner, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Slurry Flow: Principles and Practice describes the basic concepts and methods for understanding and designing slurry flow systems, in-plan installations, and long-distance transportation systems. The goal of this book is to enable the design or plant engineer to derive the maximum benefit from a limited amount of test data and to generalize operating experience to new situations. Design procedures are described in detail and are accompanied by illustrative examples needed by engineers with little or no previous experience in slurry transport.The technical literature in this field is extensive:

  13. Transport and survival of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Enemark, Heidi; Olsen, Annette

    The widespread waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is frequently transmitted to humans via contaminated drinking and recreational water. Nearly all drinking water in Denmark is groundwater, which can be contaminated with oocysts e.g. from application of contaminated manure to the field...... in the leachates from soil columns to which Cryptosporidium positive slurry had been injected. Although recovery rates were low, regardless of slurry type, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns. Variations in the leachate patterns were recorded between soil columns added raw and liquid slurry...

  14. Transport and survival of Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocysts in Soil Columns Following Applications of Raw and Separated Liquid Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.H.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, A.

    The widespread waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is primarily transmitted to humans via contaminated drinking and recreational water. Nearly all drinking water in Denmark is groundwater, but this can be contaminated with oocysts from application of contaminated manure to the field. Oocysts...... in the leachates from soil columns to which Cryptosporidium positive slurry had been injected. Although recovery rates were low, regardless of slurry type, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns. Variations in the leachate patterns were recorded between soil columns added raw and liquid slurry...

  15. Slurry reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuerten, H; Zehner, P [BASF A.G., Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-08-01

    Slurry reactors are designed on the basis of empirical data and model investigations. It is as yet not possible to calculate the flow behavior of such reactors. The swarm of gas bubbles and cluster formations of solid particles and their interaction in industrial reactors are not known. These effects control to a large extent the gas hold-up, the gas-liquid interface and, similarly as in bubble columns, the back-mixing of liquids and solids. These hydrodynamic problems are illustrated in slurry reactors which constructionally may be bubble columns, stirred tanks or jet loop reactors. The expected effects are predicted by means of tests with model systems modified to represent the conditions in industrial hydrogenation reactors. In his book 'Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous Catalysis' (1970) Satterfield complained of the lack of knowledge about the design of slurry reactors and hence of the impossible task of the engineer who has to design a plant according to accepted rules. There have been no fundamental changes since then. This paper presents the problems facing the engineer in designing slurry reactors, and shows new development trends.

  16. One-dimensional contaminant transport model for the design of soil-bentonite slurry walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandelwal, A.; Rabideau, A.; Su, J.

    1997-01-01

    A user oriented computer model (TRANS1D) was developed for application to the analysis and design of vertical soil-bentonite barriers. TRANS1D is a collection of analytical and numerical solutions to the one dimensional advective-dispersive-reactive (ADR) equation. The primary objective in developing TRANS1D was to enable the designer of a barrier system to evaluate the potential system performance with respect to contaminant transport, without performing difficult and time consuming field or laboratory experiments. Several issues related to model application are discussed, including identification of governing transport processes, specification of boundary conditions, and parameter estimation. Model predictions are compared with the results of laboratory column experiments conducted with soil bentonite barrier material under diffusion-dominated conditions. Good agreement between model calibrations and experimental results was noted, with calibrated diffusion coefficients for organic contaminants consistent with literature values

  17. Lance for injecting highly-loaded coal slurries into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, D.

    1991-10-29

    A lance is used to inject fuel oil into a blast furnace. This simple design permits conversion of coal water and coal tar slurries to a fine mist at very low flow rates. This design prevents the build-up of deposits which increases service life and steadies the flow rate.

  18. Coal-slurry pipelines. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Transportation, and Tourism of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, August 6, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Railroad opposition to competition from coal-slurry pipelines dominated the hearing, although other concerns focused on competition for construction capital, environmental impacts, and the economic impact of duplicating rail routes. The 13 witnesses spoke for the coal, rail, and pipeline industries and for the Department of Interior. Material submitted by the Railroad Labor Executives' Association and the Slurry Transport Association follows the testimony. (DCK)

  19. Transport of Tank 241-SY-101 Waste Slurry: Effects of Dilution and Temperature on Critical Pipeline Velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KP Recknagle; Y Onishi

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the methods and results of calculations performed to predict the critical velocity and pressure drop required for the two-inch pipeline transfer of solid/liquid waste slurry from underground waste storage Tank 241-SY-101 to Tank 241-SY- 102 at the Hanford Site. The effects of temperature and dilution on the critical velocity were included in the analysis. These analyses show that Tank 241-SY-101 slurry should be diluted with water prior to delivery to Tank 241-SY-102. A dilution ratio of 1:1 is desirable and would allow the waste to be delivered at a critical velocity of 1.5 ft/sec. The system will be operated at a flow velocity of 6 ft/sec or greater therefore, this velocity will be sufficient to maintain a stable slurry delivery through the pipeline. The effect of temperature on the critical velocity is not a limiting factor when the slurry is diluted 1:1 with water. Pressure drop at the critical velocity would be approximately two feet for a 125-ft pipeline (or 250-ft equivalent straight pipeline). At 6 ft/sec, the pressure drop would be 20 feet over a 250-ft equivalent straight pipeline

  20. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.; Anderson, M.S.; Van Essen, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses

  1. Slurry explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-08-23

    A slurry explosive is comprised of (1) a composition consisting of ammonium nitrate or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate; or an alkaline earth metal nitrate; or an alkali metal nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate; at least one member selected from the group consisting of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, aluminum, smokeless powder and fuels; and water; (2) 0.1 to 2.0% of guar gum; (3) between 0% and 0.3% of a sodium, potassium, calcium or magnesium borate; and greater than 0% but not more than 20% of hexamethylene tetramine; and (4) 0.02 to 2.0% of antimony potassium tartarate, antimony trioxide, antimony trisulfide or a mixture of these antimony compounds, % by wt.

  2. Radio-frequency slurry-density measurement for dredging pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eeten, M.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Hydraulic dredgers make use of a density meter to measure the instantaneous density in the slurry transport pipeline, primarily for process control and production calculation. the current ‘golden’ standard for slurry density measurement is the radioactive density meter. It is based on a slurry

  3. Pressure Prediction of Coal Slurry Transportation Pipeline Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Kernel Function Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-cun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For coal slurry pipeline blockage prediction problem, through the analysis of actual scene, it is determined that the pressure prediction from each measuring point is the premise of pipeline blockage prediction. Kernel function of support vector machine is introduced into extreme learning machine, the parameters are optimized by particle swarm algorithm, and blockage prediction method based on particle swarm optimization kernel function extreme learning machine (PSOKELM is put forward. The actual test data from HuangLing coal gangue power plant are used for simulation experiments and compared with support vector machine prediction model optimized by particle swarm algorithm (PSOSVM and kernel function extreme learning machine prediction model (KELM. The results prove that mean square error (MSE for the prediction model based on PSOKELM is 0.0038 and the correlation coefficient is 0.9955, which is superior to prediction model based on PSOSVM in speed and accuracy and superior to KELM prediction model in accuracy.

  4. Transport of solid commodities via freight pipeline: freight pipeline technology. Volume II. First year final report. [Slurry, pneumatic, pneumo-capsule, and hydro-capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandi, I.; Gimm, K.K.

    1976-07-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of pipeline as an intercity freight transportation mode, it was necessary to examine its technological feasibility and reliability. This report describes the technology of the major generic freight pipelines in terms of both historical and current trends and operations. Additionally, it presents a state-of-the-art review of calculating energy requirements of various generic freight pipelines. It was concluded that slurry and pneumatic pipelines are technologically feasible and reliable. There are many commercial installations of both types operating around the world. Based on European experience with pneumo-capsule pipelines for mail delivery and Russian gravel- and sand-transport installations, it appears that a pneumo-capsule pipeline is a technologically feasible and operationally reliable mode for transport of solids. Since no commercial pneumo-capsule pipeline installations yet exist in the U.S., it seems desirable that a service demonstration of the advantages and feasibility of this mode of transport be undertaken to attract the shippers' confidence. Hydro-capsule pipelines are technologically feasible, but its reliability within a commercial environment remains to be tested.

  5. The rheodynamics and combustion of coal-water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdukov, A.P.; Popov, V.I.; Tomilov, V.G.; Fedosenko, V.D. [Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics (Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Science)

    2002-05-01

    Investigation methods for characteristics of movement along the tubes, combustion dynamics and gasification of separate drops were developed for the coal-water mixtures (CWM). The following parameters were determined on the basis of laser heating: thermometric, pyrometric and concentration dynamics of single-drop combustion, complete combustion times, duration of temperature phases of combustion, as well as the moment and temperature of ignition. Information on the combustion mass velocity and gasification products was also obtained using laser heating. 6 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  7. Development of a Density Sensor for In-Line Real-Time Process Control and Monitoring of Slurries during Radioactive Waste Retrieval and Transport Operations at DOE Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2000-01-01

    A density sensor (densimeter) to monitor and control slurries in-line real-time during radioactive waste retrieval and transport and detect conditions leading to degraded transport and line plugging is described. Benefits over baseline grab samples and off line analysis include: early detection and prevention of pipeline plugging, real-time density through the transfer process, elimination of grab sampling and off-line analysis, and reduced worker radiation exposure. The sensor is small, robust and could be retrofitted into existing pump pit manifolds and transfer lines. The probe uses ultrasonic signal reflection at the fluid-pipe wall interface to quantify density and features include: a non-intrusive sensing surface located flush with the pipeline wall; performance that is not affected by entrained air or by electromagnetic noise from nearby pumps and other equipment and is compact. Components were tested for chemical and radiation resistance and the spool piece was pressure tested in accordance with ASME Process Piping Code B31.3 and approved by the Hanford Site Flammable Gas Equipment Advisory Board for installation. During pipeline tests, the sensor predicted density within+ 2% oriented in vertical and horizontal position. The densimeter is installed in the modified process manifold that is installed in the prefabricated pump pit at Hanford tank SY-101 site. In FY-2002 the density sensor performance will be evaluated during transfers of both water and waste through the pipeline. A separate project developed an ultrasonic sensor that: (1) can be attached permanently to a pipeline wall, possibly as a spool piece inserted into the line or (2) can clamp onto an existing pipeline wall and be movable to another location. This method is attractive for radioactive fluids transport applications because the sensors could be applied to existing equipment without the need to penetrate the pipe pressure boundary or to open the system to install new equipment

  8. Ice slurry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffeld, M. [Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Moltkestr. 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wang, M.J.; Goldstein, V. [Sunwell Technologies Inc., 180 Caster Avenue, Woodbridge, L4L 5Y (Canada); Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single-phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. (author)

  9. Prospects for coal slurry pipelines in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The coal slurry pipeline segment of the transport industry is emerging in the United States. If accepted it will play a vital role in meeting America's urgent energy requirements without public subsidy, tax relief, or federal grants. It is proven technology, ideally suited for transport of an abundant energy resource over thousands of miles to energy short industrial centers and at more than competitive costs. Briefly discussed are the following: (1) history of pipelines; (2) California market potential; (3) slurry technology; (4) environmental benefits; (5) market competition; and (6) a proposed pipeline.

  10. Spray polyurea coatings as containment liners in coal slurry storage ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darden, J.W.; Loomis, R.; Roehm, F.T. [Willamette Valley Co., Eugene, OR (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Southern California Edison (SCE) Mohave Generating Station was built in the early 1970`s in response to the shortage of oil due to the OPEC boycott. Coal/water slurry from the Black Mesa Pipeline is used to generate energy at the plant. Eight storage ponds, each about 175,000 square feet, were built in the mid to late 1970`s to insure a constant supply of slurry to feed the generating units. This paper describes the application of POLYQuik{trademark} P400 spray polyurea coating to the Marcona Pond, a coal slurry storage area at Southern California Edison`s Mohave Generating Station. The coating forms an impermeable barrier to prevent water loss and contamination of subgrade soils. The use of these coatings reduces facility downtime and liner replacement costs, offering a cost savings over the life of the pond.

  11. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air

  12. Rheological properties of defense waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of this two-year project has been to obtain refined and reliable experimental data about the rheological properties of melter feeds. The research has involved both experimental studies and model development. Two experimental facilities have been set up to measure viscosity and pressure drop. Mathematical models have been developed as a result of experimental observation and fundamental rheological theory. The model has the capability to predict the viscosity of melter slurries in a range of experimental conditions. The final results of the investigation could be used to enhance the current design base for slurry transportation systems and improve the performance of the slurry mixing process. If successful, the cost of this waste treatment will be reduced, and disposal safety will be increased. The specific objectives for this project included: (1) the design, implementation, and validation of the experimental facility in both batch and continuous operating modes; (2) the identification and preparation of melter feed samples of both the SRS and Hanford waste slurries at multiple solids concentration levels; (3) the measurement and analysis of the melter feeds to determine the effects of the solids concentration, pH value, and other factors on the rheological properties of the slurries; (4) the correlation of the rheological properties as a function of the measured physical and chemical parameters; and (5) transmission of the experimental data and resulting correlation to the DOE site user to guide melter feed preparation and transport equipment design

  13. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Improving the stability of coal slurries. Quarterly progress report, March 15-June 15, 1986. [Sedimentation tests in the presence and absence of gum tragacanth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    In this report, we will describe the progress of our research in two key areas. The twin objectives of this research are: (a) to examine the effectiveness of hydrocolloids as stabilizers of coal-water slurries and (b) to gain an understanding of the mechanism of stabilization through the use of monodisperse polystyrene lattices as model systems. Sedimentation tests with ultrafine ground coal in presence and absence of gum tragacanth have been carried out. An isotherm of gum tragacanth binding to coal surface has been generated. We have also conducted rheological studies to characterize the stabilized coal-water slurries. Similar experiments with -200 mesh coal are currently under way. In the case of model system studies, the effect of article size on the gum tragacanth induced stability has been studied. Initial experiments on the effects of increased electrolyte concentration and the addition of nonsolvents like ethanol to the continuous phase have been undertaken. 9 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Slurry walls and slurry trenches - construction quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletto, R.J.; Good, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Slurry (panel) walls and slurry trenches have become conventional methods for construction of deep underground structures, interceptor trenches and hydraulic (cutoff) barriers. More recently polymers mixed with water are used to stabilize the excavation instead of bentonite slurry. Slurry walls are typically excavated in short panel segments, 2 to 7 m (7 to 23 ft) long, and backfilled with structural materials; whereas slurry trenches are fairly continuous excavations with concurrent backfilling of blended soils, or cement-bentonite mixtures. Slurry trench techniques have also been used to construct interceptor trenches. Currently no national standards exist for the design and/or construction of slurry walls/trenches. Government agencies, private consultants, contractors and trade groups have published specifications for construction of slurry walls/trenches. These specifications vary in complexity and quality of standards. Some place excessive emphasis on the preparation and control of bentonite or polymer slurry used for excavation, with insufficient emphasis placed on quality control of bottom cleaning, tremie concrete, backfill placement or requirements for the finished product. This has led to numerous quality problems, particularly with regard to identification of key depths, bottom sediments and proper backfill placement. This paper will discuss the inspection of slurry wall/trench construction process, identifying those areas which require special scrutiny. New approaches to inspection of slurry stabilized excavations are discussed

  16. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs

  17. Improving the stability of coal slurries. Quarterly progress report, June 15-September 15, 1986. [Adsorption of gum tragacanth on polystyrene latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    Our earlier study has shown that hydrocolloids such as gum tragacanth (GT) are effective in stabilizing coal-water slurries by the steric stabilization mechanism and also possibly by electrostatic stabilization mechanism. In this study, polystyrene latex has been chosen as the model system for coal-water slurries because of its monodispersity and its well established surface properties. The studies of the effects of ionic strength and pH on adsorption isotherms indicate that the adsorption of GT is probably hydrophobic rather than electrostatic or hydrogen-bonding. The value of pK was measured to be 2.95, from which the relation between the stability factor and the degree of dissociation of GT in the solution was obtained. Combining the results from the adsorption study and the measurement of stability factor at various pH, it was found that the stability factor significantly changes with pH even with the same amount of GT adsorbed. This indicates that the steric layer thickness or the conformation of GT on the surface of latex varies with pH. Binding studies on coal-water slurries were also carried out before and after acid leach, and the results indicate that the metal oxides on the coal surface, such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and SiO/sub 2/, may be responsible for the adsorption with GT. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Evaluation of plant available nitrogen in concentrated pig slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.; Comas, J.; Pujola, M.

    2009-01-01

    In Northeast Spin the expansion of the pig industry has brought as a result the production of vast amounts of pig slurry that exceeds field crops fertilization needs and consequently has contributed to the environmental deterioration of the region particularly ground water with NO 3 pollution. Under such circumstances, it is needed to treat and/or export pig slurry. During the last year the implantation of cogeneration plants that take advantage of the surplus of energy to produce concentrate pig slurry by water evaporation that could easily transported. (Author)

  19. System and method for slurry handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Raymond Douglas; Oppenheim, Judith Pauline

    2015-12-29

    A system includes a slurry depressurizing system that includes a liquid expansion system configured to continuously receive a slurry at a first pressure and continuously discharge the slurry at a second pressure. For example, the slurry depressurizing system may include an expansion turbine to expand the slurry from the first pressure to the second pressure.

  20. Rheology of oil sands slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R.; Zhou, J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Mineral Oil Sands Unit; Wallace, D. [Dean Wallace Consulting Inc., Beaumont, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This study focused on integrating rheology and colloid science to improve recovery of bitumen in surface mined oil sands. Factors that influence recovery, such as conditions of particle interaction, solids concentration and shear rate, were reviewed. In an effort to understand the rheological behaviour of clay-in-water suspensions, an elaborate procedure was developed to separate an inter-bedded clay layer from a site at Albian Sands Energy Inc. The variables were water chemistry, solids concentration, and shear rate. The research study was conducted at the Alberta Research Council with the support of the CONRAD Extraction Group. A controlled stress rheometer was used to provide the quantitative evaluations of the clay slurry properties. The research results indicate that the viscoelastic properties of the slurry are highly influenced by the shear history of the slurry, solids content, calcium concentration, and sample aging. Shear thinning behaviour was observed in all slurry samples, but the slurry viscosity increased with test time for a given shear rate. In order to classify the slurries, a method was developed to distinguish the gel strength. The slurries were then classified into 3 distinct patterns, including no gel, weak gel and strong gel. The evolution of the experimental protocols were described along with the current stability maps that correlate the domains of the gel strength according to the solids concentration, calcium ion content, and shear rate. It was concluded that the rheological properties of oil sands slurries influence bitumen recovery in commercial surface-mined oil sands operations. tabs., figs.

  1. Investigation of aqueous slurries as fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical and experimental studies were carried out to assess the feasibility of using an aqueous slurry, with lithium in its solid component, to meet the tritium breeding, cooling, and shielding requirements of a controlled thermonuclear reactor (CTR). The numerical studies were designed to demonstrate the theoretical ability of a conceptual slurry blanket to breed adequate tritium to sustain the CTR. The experimental studies were designed to show that the tritium retention characteristics of likely solid components for the slurry were conducive to adequate tritium recovery without the need for isotopic separation. The numerical portion of this work consisted in part of using ANISN, a one-dimensional finite difference neutron transport code, to model the neutronic performance of the slurry blanket concept. The parameters governing tritium production and retention in a slurry were computed and used to modify the results of the ANISN computer runs. The numerical work demonstrated that the slurry blanket was only marginally capable of breeding sufficient tritium without the aid of a neutron multiplying region. The experimental portion of this work consisted of several neutron irradiation experiments, which were designed to determine the retention abilities of LiF particles

  2. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: • Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. • The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. • Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. • The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. • The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (“Milk of Magnesia”) and magnesium oxide. • We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering

  3. A methodology to define the flow rate and pressure requirements for transfer of double-shell tank waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Liljegren, L.M.

    1993-04-01

    This document presents an analysis of the pressure drop and flow rate double-shell tank slurries. Experiments to requirements for transport of characterize the transport of double-shell tank slurries through piping networks and to resuspend materials that settle during pump outages are proposed. Reported values of physical properties of double-shell tank slurries were analyzed to evaluate the flow regimes that are likely to occur during transport. The results of these evaluations indicate that the slurry will be pseudohomogeneous during transport and that the slurry rheology is sufficiently non-Newtonian to affect both the pressure drop achieved during transport and the critical Reynolds number. The transport data collected in the non-Newtonian experiment will be used to determine whether a non-Newtonian correlation developed by Hanks (1978) adequately describes the experimental results

  4. Medical ice slurry production device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Kenneth E [Palos Park, IL; Oras, John [Des Plaines, IL; Son, HyunJin [Naperville, IL

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  5. Rheology of tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, I.D.; Martin, H.D.; McLain, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The rheological properties of tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry were determined. This nonradioactive slurry simulates the radioactive tetraphenylborate precipitate generated at the Savannah River Plant by the In-Tank Precipitation Process. The data obtained in this study was applied in the design of slurry pumps, transfer pumps, transfer lines, and vessel agitation for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and other High Level Waste treatment projects. The precipitate slurry behaves as a Bingham plastic. The yield stress is directly proportional to the concentration of insoluble solids over the range of concentrations studied. The consistency is also a linear function of insoluble solids over the same concentration range. Neither the yield stress nor the consistency was observed to be affected by the presence of the soluble solids. Temperature effects on flow properties of the slurry were also examined: the yield stress is inversely proportional to temperature, but the consistency of the slurry is independent of temperature. No significant time-dependent effects were found. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Catalytic mechanism of sodium compounds in black liquor during gasification of coal black liquor slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Jianping; Zhou Junhu; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2008-01-01

    The coal black liquor slurry (CBLS) was composed of coal and black pulping liquor, which has plenty of sodium compounds, lignin and cellulose. The sodium compounds have a catalytic effect on the gasification process of coal black liquor slurry, while lignin and cellulose enhance the heat value. Alkali-catalyzed gasification experiments of CBLS and CWS (coal water slurry) are investigated on the thermobalance and fixed bed reactor. The residues of the gasification of CBLS and CWS are analyzed by XRD, SEM and FT-IR. It is found that many micro- and mesopores and zigzag faces exist in the surface of the CBLS coke, which play a key role in the catalytic gasification. Sodium can enhance the reaction potential, weaken the bond of C-O and improve the gasification reaction rate. XRD results show that sodium aluminum silicate and nepheline are the main crystal components of the CBLS and CWS. The C-O stretching vibration peak in the 1060 cm -1 band in the CBLS shifts to 995.65 cm -1 in the CBLS coke after partial gasification. This means that the energy of the C-O stretching vibration in the CBLS carbon matrix decreases, so the structure of the carbon matrix is more liable to react with an oxygen ion or hydroxide ion. The amplitude of the C-O stretching vibration peak is augmented step by step due to the ground-excited level jump of the C-O band

  7. A radiotracer study on the volatilization and transport effects of thermochemical reagents used in the analysis of alumina powders by slurry electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschel, Birgit U.; Herdering, Wilhelm; Broekaert, Jose A.C.

    2007-01-01

    A neutron-activated Al 2 O 3 powder SRM 699 (NIST) containing the γ-radiation emitting radionuclides 51 Cr, 59 Fe, 60 Co and 65 Zn has been used to study the influence of thermochemical reagents on the volatilization and transport efficiency for these trace elements in electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) of Al 2 O 3 powders. From the signals in the γ-spectra for the radiotracers it has been found that less than 2% of the elements Cr, Fe, Co and Zn is left back in a graphite furnace from Al 2 O 3 powders at 2200 deg. C even without addition of a thermochemical reagent and the latter even was found to decrease the volatilization efficiencies. The recovery for the radiotracers on filters at the end of the transport tube as measured from the signals in the γ-spectra, however, was found to increase in most cases (i.e. from about 10% to more than 20%) when Pd(NO 3 ) 2 , Pd(NO 3 ) 2 + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 , PdCl 2 , IrCl 3 , SnCl 2 , AgCl, NaF, NH 4 Cl and NH 4 F were added at amounts generally used in electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. However, when adding higher amounts as stoichiometrically required for a complete halogenation of the sample matrix in the case of AgCl, C 8 F 15 O 2 Na, IrCl 3 or PdCl 2 the transport efficiencies considerably decrease again. As shown in the case of NH 4 Cl the amount of thermochemical reagent used has to be optimized so as to obtain maximum analyte transport efficiencies. A comparison of the influence of NH 4 Cl on the transport efficiencies with its influence on the ETV-ICP-MS signals for Fe demonstrates the importance of transport efficiency changes for the effects of thermochemical reagents in electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

  8. Numerical Investigation of Ice Slurry Flow in a Horizontal Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, K. S.; Pratihar, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    In the last decade, phase changing material slurry (PCMS) gained much attention as a cooling medium due to its high energy storage capacity and transportability. However the flow of PCM slurry is a complex phenomenon as it affected by various parameters, i.e. fluid properties, velocity, particle size and concentration etc.. In the present work ice is used as a PCM and numerical investigation of heterogeneous slurry flow has been carried out using Eulerian KTGF model in a horizontal pipe. Firstly the present model is validated with existing experiment results available in the literature, and then model is applied to the present problem. Results show that, flow is almost homogeneous for ethanol based ice slurry with particle diameter of 0.1 mm at the velocity of 1 m/s. It is also found that ice particle distribution is more uniform at higher velocity, concentration of ice and ethanol in slurry. Results also show that ice concentration increases on the top of the pipe, and the effect of particle wall collision is more significant at higher particle diameter.

  9. Low temperature combustion of organic coal-water fuel droplets containing petrochemicals while soaring in a combustion chamber model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin Timur R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the integral characteristics (minimum temperature, ignition delay times of stable combustion initiation of organic coal-water fuel droplets (initial radius is 0.3-1.5 mm in the oxidizer flow (the temperature and velocity varied in ranges 500-900 K, 0.5-3 m/s. The main components of organic coal-water fuel were: brown coal particles, filter-cakes obtained in coal processing, waste engine, and turbine oils. The different modes of soaring and ignition of organic coal-water fuel have been established. The conditions have been set under which it is possible to implement the sustainable soaring and ignition of organic coal-water fuel droplets. We have compared the ignition characteristics with those defined in the traditional approach (based on placing the droplets on a low-inertia thermocouple junction into the combustion chamber. The paper shows the scale of the influence of heat sink over the thermocouple junction on ignition inertia. An original technique for releasing organic coal-water fuel droplets to the combustion chamber was proposed and tested. The limitations of this technique and the prospects of experimental results for the optimization of energy equipment operation were also formulated.

  10. Ammonia abatement by slurry acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Hafner, Sasha D.

    2016-01-01

    sections with 30-32 pigs with or without daily adjustment of slurry pH to below 6. Ammonia losses from reference sections with untreated slurry were between 9.5 and 12.4% of N excreted, and from sections with acidified slurry between 3.1 and 6.2%. Acidification reduced total emissions of NH3 by 66 and 71......% in spring and autumn experiments, and by 44% in the summer experiment. Regression models were used to investigate sources and controls of NH3 emissions. There was a strong relationship between NH3 emissions and ventilation rate during spring and autumn, but less so during summer where ventilation rates were...

  11. Task 27 -- Alaskan low-rank coal-water fuel demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Development of coal-water-fuel (CWF) technology has to-date been predicated on the use of high-rank bituminous coal only, and until now the high inherent moisture content of low-rank coal has precluded its use for CWF production. The unique feature of the Alaskan project is the integration of hot-water-drying (HWD) into CWF technology as a beneficiation process. Hot-water-drying is an EERC developed technology unavailable to the competition that allows the range of CWF feedstock to be extended to low-rank coals. The primary objective of the Alaskan Project, is to promote interest in the CWF marketplace by demonstrating the commercial viability of low-rank coal-water-fuel (LRCWF). While commercialization plans cannot be finalized until the implementation and results of the Alaskan LRCWF Project are known and evaluated, this report has been prepared to specifically address issues concerning business objectives for the project, and outline a market development plan for meeting those objectives.

  12. The methods of receiving coal water suspension and its use as the modifying additive in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantuyev, S. L.; Urkhanova, L. A.; Lkhasaranov, S. A.; Stebenkova, Y. Y.; Khmelev, A. B.; Kondratenko, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Results of research of the coal water suspension (CWS) from a cake received in the electrodigit ways in the fluid environment and gas are given in article and also the possibilities of its use as the modifying additive in concrete are considered. Use of a coal cake is perspective as it is a withdrawal of the coal and concentrating enterprises and has extremely low cost. Methods of receiving CWS and possibility of formation of carbon nanomaterials (CNM) are given in their structure. Research and the analysis of a microstructure of a surface of exemplars before electrodigit processing, their element structure, dependence of durability of a cement stone on a look and quantity of an additive of CWS is conducted. For modification of cement the carbon nanomaterials received from the following exemplars of water coal suspensions were used: foams from a cake from a scrubber of the plasma modular reactor, coal water suspension from a cake from electrodigit installation. The product which can find further application for a power engineering as fuel for combustion, and also in structural materials science, in particular, as the modifying additive in concrete allows to receive these methods.

  13. Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

    1999-08-01

    Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

  14. Putting the coal slurry pipelines to the test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauermann, H B

    1978-03-01

    This paper deals with the advantages and disadvantages of coal slurry pipelines and describes coal slurry tests undertaken in three test circuits with 100, 200 and 250 mm diameter pipes. The test results from the test circuits were used to scale-up pressure gradients to larger pipe diameters. The construction and installation of hydraulic transport pipelines is simple and requires a minimum of space. The crossing of rivers, roads, railways or any other obstacles is comparatively easy. The operation, supervision and maintenance of a pipeline is simple since any pipeline can be easily adapted for fully automatic control. For this reason manpower requirements are small resulting in only small increases in operating costs during the life of a pipeline. This is an attractive feature in any economy troubled by inflationary trends. In transporting a commodity such as coal the quantities handled are usually large and the distances are long. The profitability of hydraulic transportation systems benefits from such operating conditions. Even though the various components of a slurry transport system, such as the slurrying facilities at the mine end and the dewatering facilities at the utilization end, are complex, their reliability is high. Against the advantages, the following limitations can be visualized: It is practically impossible to transport solids other than those for which the pipeline was designed; in this regard, road and rail transportation is more versatile. The solids throughput through a pipeline cannot be economically increased beyond its design throughput. Pipelining involves the use of fluids, in most cases water, which in some instances may not be readily available.

  15. Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

    1991-10-01

    There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

  16. Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

    1991-10-01

    There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

  17. Design and construction of a deep slurry trench barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deming, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    A 24 m (80 ft) deep slurry trench surrounding a former chromium manufacturing facility on the Patapsco River in Baltimore, Maryland was constructed in 1995 to contain groundwater and site Soils, and to reduce the volume of groundwater extracted to maintain an inward gradient. In 1992, an embankment made of crushed stone was constructed in the Patapsco River to make land for barrier construction outboard of the bulkheads, and to protect the barrier. Stability of the slurry-supported trench excavation in the embankment required construction from an elevated work platform. An extended reach backhoe was used to excavate the deep slurry trench and to clean the trench bottom. Soil-Bentonite backfill was prepared at a central mixing area and transported by truck to the perimeter barrier. A synthetic membrane was inserted partially into the backfill for connection to a multimedia cap, and for redundancy and erosion control in the tidal zone. Hydraulic testing of the aquitard contained by the barrier demonstrated excellent performance of the barrier and bottom closure. Detailed definition of subsurface conditions and the closure stratum was necessary for the design and successful construction of the barrier, and is recommended for comparable slurry trench construction projects

  18. Fluidization mechanisms in slurry flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C. S.

    1989-01-01

    There are two mechanisms by which heavy settling particles may be suspended in a horizontal slurry flow: (1) by particle-particle interactions (e.g. Bagnold dispersive stresses) and (2) by particle-fluid interactions (e.g. entrainment of the particles by turbulent eddies.) The purpose of this investigation is to determine to what extent each fluidization mechanism is active and the effect of the fluidization mechanism on the global properties of the slurry. The technique employs the understanding that the particles entrained in the turbulence of the fluid will appear as an increased hydrostatic head across the channel. This may be directly measured and can be related to the fraction of the mass of particles that are supported by fluid-particle forces. (The rest must therefore be supported by particle-particle forces.) 17 refs., 26 figs.

  19. The Rheology of a Three Component System: COAL/WATER/#4 Oil Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Barbara Jean

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the rheology of a three component system, coal/water/#4 oil emulsions (COW), in which the third component, water, was present in a significant concentration, and to determine the applicability of existing theories from suspension rheology to the three component system studied. In a coal/water/oil emulsion, free coal particles adhere to the surface of the water droplets, preventing their coagulation, while the larger coal particles reside in the matrix of stabilized water droplets. The use of liquid fuels containing coal is a means of utilizing our nation's coal reserves while conserving oil. These fuels can be burned in conventional oil-fired furnaces. In this investigation, a high sulfur, high ash, bituminous coal was used, along with a heavy #4 oil to prepare the emulsions. The coal was ground to a log-normal distribution with an average particle size of 62 microns. A Haake RV3 concentric cylinder viscometer, with a ribbed measuring system, was used to determine the viscosity of the emulsions. A physical pendulum settling device measured the shift in center of mass of the COW as a function of time. The flow behavior of the fuel in pipes was also tested. In interpreting the data from the viscometer and the pipe flow experiments, a power law analysis was used in the region from 30 s('-1) to 200 s('-1). Extrapolation methods were used to obtain the low and high shear behavior of the emulsions. In the shear rate region found in boiler feed systems, COW are shear thinning with a flow behavior index of 0.7. The temperature dependent characteristic of the emulsions studied were similar and followed an Arrhenius type relationship. The viscosity of the COW decreases with increasing coal average particle size and is also a function of the width of the size distribution used. The type of coal used strongly influences the rheology of the fuel. The volatile content and the atomic oxygen to nitrogen ratio of the coal are the most

  20. Technical Report on NETL's Non Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Workshop: A path forward to understanding non-Newtonian multiphase slurry flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Chris [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Garg, Rahul [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-08-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.

  1. Ignition of a floating droplet of organic coal-water fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakoryakov, V. E.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2016-06-01

    The results of experimental investigations are presented for the ignition of droplets (particles) of organic coal-water fuels (OCWFs) floating in a flow of an oxidizer using a special combustion chamber from high-temperature quartz glass. The temperature and the velocity of motion of the oxidizer vary in the ranges of 500-900 K and 0.5-3 m/s. The initial sizes (radii) of fuel droplets amounted to 0.3-1.5 mm. As the basic OCWF components, particles (of 80-100 µm in size) of brown coal "B2," water, mazut, and waste castor and compressor oils are used. With use of the system of high-velocity video registration, the conditions providing for floating of OCWF particles without initiation of burning and with the subsequent steady ignition are established. Four modes of OCWF-droplet ignition with different trajectories of their motion in the combustion chamber are singled out. The times of the OCWF-ignition delay in dependence on the size of fuel particles and oxidizer temperatures are determined. The deviations of the OCWF-ignition-delay times obtained under conditions of suspension of a droplet on the thermocouple junction and while floating in the oxidizer flow are established.

  2. Effect of dispersing and stabilizing additives on rheological characteristics of the upgraded brown coal water mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Datin Fatia; Muta'alim; Usui, Hiromoto; Komoda, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Upgraded brown coal water mixture (UBCWM) preparation by using an Indonesian upgraded coal produced by upgraded brown coal (UBC) process, was carried out to study the effect of dispersing and stabilizing additives on rheological behavior of the UBCWM. Three kinds of anionic dispersing additives, naphthalene sulfonic formaldehyde condensate (NSF), poly (meth) acrylate (PMA) and poly styrene sulfonic acid (PSS) and three kinds of stabilizing additives, carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC), rhansam gum (S-194) and gellan gum (S-60) were used in this study. Results indicate that the addition of NSF 0.3 wt.% together with S-194 0.01 wt.% is effective in preparing UBCWM with good slurryability and stability, based on its rheological characteristics with the apparent viscosity at shear rate of 100 s - 1 and yield stress at zero point of shear rate. The rheological behavior of all of the UBCWM that prepared, exhibits non-Newtonian Bingham plastic. From the economical point of view, the price of S-194 is expensive. On the other hand, CMC is cheap and abundant. Therefore, the addition of CMC 0.01 wt.% together with NSF 0.3 wt.% is also effective in preparing UBCWM with good fluidity and stability. (author)

  3. Preparation and combustion of coal-water fuel from the Sin Pun coal deposit, southern Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources in Thailand, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a program to assess the responsiveness of Sin Pun lignite to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying. The results indicate that drying made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 27 wt% for the raw coal to about 15 wt% for the hot-water-dried (HWD) coals. The energy density for a pumpable coal-water fuel (CWF) indicates an increase from 4500 to 6100 Btu/lb by hot-water drying. Approximately 650 lb of HWD Sin Pun CWF were fired in the EERC`s combustion test facility. The fuel burned extremely well, with no feed problems noted during the course of the test. Fouling and slagging deposits each indicated a very low rate of ash deposition, with only a dusty layer formed on the cooled metal surfaces. The combustor was operated at between 20% and 25% excess air, resulting in a flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration averaging approximately 6500 parts per million.

  4. The production of high load coal-water mixtures on the base of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, Y.; Bruer, G.; Kolesnikova, S. [Research and Design Institute for Problems of Development of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (KATEKNilugol), Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The results of the {open_quotes}KATEKNIIugol{close_quotes} work on the problems of high load coal-water mixtures are given in this article. General principles of the mixture production, short characteristics of Kansk-Achinsk coals, the experimental results of the coal mixture production on a test-industrial scale, the suspension preparation on the base of coal mixtures, technical-economical indexes of tested coal pipeline variants based on Kansk-Achinsk coals are described.

  5. Fluid dynamic studies for a simulated Melton Valley Storage Tank slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylton, T.D.; Youngblood, E.L.; Cummins, R.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), are used for the collection and storage of remote-handled radioactive liquid wastes. These wastes, which were typically acidic when generated, were neutralized with the addition of sodium hydroxide to protect the storage tanks from corrosion, but this caused the transuranic and heavy metals to precipitate. These wastes will eventually need to be removed from the tanks for ultimate disposal. The objective of the research activities discussed in this report is to support the design of a pipeline transport system between the MVSTs and a treatment facility. Since the wastes in the MVSTs are highly radioactive, a surrogate slurry was developed for this study. Rheological properties of the simulated slurry were determined in a test loop in which the slurry was circulated through three pipeline viscometers of different diameters. Pressure drop data at varying flow rates were used to obtain shear stress and shear rate data. The data were analyzed, and the slurry rheological properties were analyzed by the Power Law model and the Bingham plastic model. The plastic viscosity and yield stress data obtained from the rheological tests were used as inputs for a piping design software package, and the pressure drops predicted by the software compared well with the pressure drop data obtained from the test loop. The minimum transport velocity was determine for the slurry by adding known nominal sizes of glass spheres to the slurry. However, it was shown that the surrogate slurry exhibited hindered settling, which may substantially decrease the minimum transport velocity. Therefore, it may be desired to perform additional tests with a surrogate with a lower concentration of suspended solids to determine the minimum transport velocity

  6. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.; Bonin, John H.; Daniel, Arnold D.

    1984-03-27

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

  7. Slurry discharge management-beach profile prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, R.; Nawrot, J.R. [Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Mine tailings dams are embankments used by the mining industry to retain the tailings products after the mineral preparation process. Based on the acid-waste stereotype that all coal slurry is acid producing, current reclamation requires a four foot soil cover for inactive slurry disposal areas. Compliance with this requirement is both difficult and costly and in some case unnecessary, as not all the slurry, or portions of slurry impoundments are acid producing. Reduced costs and recent popularity of wetland development has prompted many operators to request reclamation variances for slurry impoundments. Waiting to address slurry reclamation until after the impoundment is full, limits the flexibility of reclamation opportunities. This paper outlines a general methodology to predict the formation of the beach profile for mine tailings dams, by the discharge volume and location of the slurry into the impoundment. The review is presented under the perspective of geotechnical engineering and waste disposal management emphasizing the importance of pre-planning slurry disposal land reclamation. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Comparison and analysis of organic components of biogas slurry from eichhornia crassipes solms and corn straw biogas slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Li, Y. B.; Liu, Z. H.; Min, J.; Cui, Y.; Gao, X. H.

    2017-11-01

    Biogas slurry is one of anaerobic fermentations, and biomass fermentation biogas slurries with different compositions are different. This paper mainly presents through the anaerobic fermentation of Eichhornia crassipes solms biogas slurry and biogas slurry of corn straw, the organic components of two kinds of biogas slurry after extraction were compared by TLC, HPLC and spectrophotometric determination of nucleic acid and protein of two kinds of biogas slurry organic components, and analyzes the result of comparison.

  9. Design and Operation of the World's First Long Distance Bauxite Slurry Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Ramesh; Weston, Mike; Talavera, Maru; Brittes, Geraldo Pereira; Barbosa, Eder

    Mineracão Bauxita Paragominas (MBP) is the first long distance slurry pipeline transporting bauxite slurry. Bauxite had developed a reputation for being difficult to hydraulically transport using long distance pipelines. This myth has now been proven wrong. The 245-km- long, 13.5 MTPY capacity MBP pipeline was designed and commissioned by PSI for CVRD. The pipeline is located in the State of Para, Brazil. The Miltonia bauxite mine is in a remote location with no other efficient means of transport. The bauxite slurry is delivered to Alunorte Alumina refinery located near Barcarena. This first of its kind pipeline required significant development work in order to assure technical and economic feasibility. This paper describes the technical aspects of design of the pipeline. It also summarizes the operating experience gained during the first year of operation.

  10. Advanced computational model for three-phase slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2001-10-01

    In the second year of the project, the Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column is further developed. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and makes use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. An experimental set for studying a two-dimensional bubble column is also developed. The operation of the bubble column is being tested and diagnostic methodology for quantitative measurements is being developed. An Eulerian computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column is also being developed. The liquid and bubble motions are being analyzed and the results are being compared with the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures is also being studied. Further progress was also made in developing a thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion. The balance laws are obtained and the constitutive laws are being developed. Progress was also made in measuring concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. The general objective of this project is to provide the needed fundamental understanding of three-phase slurry reactors in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel synthesis. The other main goal is to develop a computational capability for predicting the transport and processing of three-phase coal slurries. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop a thermodynamically consistent rate-dependent anisotropic model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction for application to coal liquefaction. Also establish the

  11. Advanced computational model for three-phase slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2000-11-01

    In the first year of the project, solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were analyzed. The model predictions are compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Progress was also made in analyzing the gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures. An Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column is being developed. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of gas liquid flows in the bubble column, and makes use of the Lagrangian particle tracking procedure to analyze the particle motions. Progress was also made in developing a rate dependent thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows in a state of turbulent motion. The new model includes the effect of phasic interactions and leads to anisotropic effective phasic stress tensors. Progress was also made in measuring concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow. The formulation of a thermodynamically consistent model for chemically active multiphase solid-fluid flows in a turbulent state of motion was also initiated. The general objective of this project is to provide the needed fundamental understanding of three-phase slurry reactors in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel synthesis. The other main goal is to develop a computational capability for predicting the transport and processing of three-phase coal slurries. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop a thermodynamically consistent rate-dependent anisotropic model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction for application to coal liquefaction. Also to establish the material parameters of the model. (2) To provide experimental data for phasic fluctuation and mean velocities, as well as the solid volume fraction in the shear flow devices. (3) To develop an accurate computational capability incorporating the new rate-dependent and anisotropic model for analyzing reacting and

  12. Biogas slurry utilization in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asser, C. [Ministry of Mines and Energy, Accra (Ghana)

    1999-07-01

    The biogas Technology Programme developed for villages remote from the national grid relies solely on cow-dung and human waste as raw materials for electricity generation. The technology helps control deforestation and desertification and reduces the long hours spent looking for fuelwood for cooking and the health risk that smoke from fuelwood poses. Rural electricity generation also supplies pipe-borne water, community toilets and organic fertilizer for farmers. The slurry, which is the by-product of the biogas, is an odourless, pathogen free organic fertilizer that is high in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. It is useful for crop production, fish farming and mushroom cultivation. Farmers now realize that energy can be extracted from cowdung, human waste, agricultural residue and other biomass resources and the biomass can still maintain its function as good organic manure. (author)

  13. Oxygen transfer in slurry bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Y; Moo-Young, M

    1991-04-25

    The oxygen transfer in bioreactors with slurries having a yield stress was investigated. The volumetric mass transfer coefficients in a 40-L bubble column with simulated fermentation broths, the Theological properties of which were represented by the Casson model, were measured. Experimental data were compared with a theoretical correlation developed on the basis of a combination of Higbie's penetration theory and Kolmogoroff's theory of isotropic turbulence. Comparisons between the proposed correlation and data for the simulated broths show good agreement. The mass transfer data for actual mycelial fermentation broths reported previously by the authors were re-examined. Their Theological data was correlated by the Bingham plastic model. The oxygen transfer rate data in the mycelial fermentation broths fit the predictions of the proposed theoretical correlation.

  14. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Slurry Management Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    This report contains the results of Life Cycle Assessments of two slurry management technologies - acidification and decentred incineration. The LCA foundation can be used by the contributing companies for evaluating the environmental sustainability of a specific technology from a holistic Life...... Cycle perspective. Through this the companies can evaluate the environmental benefits and disadvantages of introducing a specific technology for slurry management. From a societal perspective the results can contribute to a clarification of which slurry management technologies (or combination...... of technologies) having the largest potential for reducing the overall environmental impacts....

  16. Non-aqueous slurries used as thickeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatfield, J C

    1982-04-07

    A non-aqueous slurry is described that is suitable for use as a thickener or viscosifier in oil or gas drilling, fracturing, flow diversion completion or workover fluids. The slurry comprises a water-soluble cellulose ether polymer, a water-insoluble liquid hydrocarbon, a non-ionic surfactant having an HLB of from 7 to 14, and an organo modified clay. There also is described a process for thickening or viscosifying a drilling, fracturing, flow diversion, completion or workover fluid. The use of the slurry prevents bumping during addition to aqueous fluids. (27 claims)

  17. Reducing Pumping Power in Hydronic Heating and Cooling Systems with Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Kristoffer Jason

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are being used increasingly in a variety of thermal transfer and thermal storage applications. This thesis presents the results of a laboratory study into the feasibility of improving the performance of hydronic heating and cooling systems by adding microcapsules filled with a PCM to the water used as heat transport media in these systems. Microencapsulated PCMs (MPCMs) increase the heat carrying capacity of heat transport liquids by absorbing or releasing heat at a constant temperature through a change of phase. Three sequences of tests and their results are presented: 1) Thermal cycling tests conducted to determine the melting temperatures and extent of supercooling associated with the MPCMs tested. 2) Hydronic performance tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped through a fin-and-tube, air-to-liquid heat exchanger and their thermal transfer performance compared against that of ordinary water. 3) Mechanical stability tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped in a continuous loop in order to gauge the extent of rupture due to pumping. It is shown that slurries consisting of water and MPCMs ˜ 14-24 mum in diameter improve thermal performance and offer the potential for power savings in the form of reduced pumping requirements. In addition, it is shown that while slurries of MPCMs 2-5 mum in diameter appear to exhibit better mechanical stability than slurries of larger diameter MPCMs, the smaller MPCMs appear to reduce the thermal performance of air-to-liquid heat exchangers.

  18. Life cycle assessment ultra-clean micronized coal-water-oil fuel preparation and its usage in diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, X.; Wang, Z.; Novelli, G.; Benedetti, B. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2005-08-15

    The study described the preparation of ultra-clean micronized coal-water-oil fuel (UCMWOF) and its usage in diesel engine. The production and usage of UCMCWOF and diesel oil, on a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) basis, were evaluated. A comparison between the two systems shows that beside reducing of photochemical ozone creation potential and rest indicators in UCMCWOF increase. This predicates that the system of UCMCWOF is characterized by high global environmental impact, but its local impacts are lower if compared with the use of diesel and traditional coal. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Deep conversion of black oils with Eni Slurry technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panariti, Nicoletta; Rispoli, Giacomo

    2010-09-15

    Eni Slurry Technology represents a significant technological innovation in residue conversion and unconventional oils upgrading. EST allows the almost total conversion of heavy feedstocks into useful products, mainly transportation fuels, with a great major impact on the economic and environmental valorization of hydrocarbon resources. The peculiar characteristics of EST in terms of yields, products quality, absence of undesired by-products and feedstock flexibility constitute its superior economic and environmental attractiveness. The first full scale industrial plant based on this new technology will be realized in Eni's Sannazzaro refinery (23,000 bpd). Oil in is scheduled by 4th quarter 2012.

  20. Rotary drum dryers for coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baunack, F

    1983-04-01

    The suitability, sizing and internal equipment of rotary drum dryers for high-ash coal slurries are discussed. Rotary dryers will handle also difficult slurries; by suitable drum sizes, lifter blades and chains not only high specific evaporation capacities can be achieved but also very high throughputs of up to 400 tons/h of finished product and high evaporation capacities of 60 tons/h.

  1. Metals attenuation in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J.; Adams, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    In current practice, a soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall is a mixture of water, soil, and bentonite that is designed to serve as a passive barrier to ground water and contaminant transport. This study evaluated the transformation of a passive slurry trench cutoff wall barrier to an active barrier system. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers presently serve as passive barriers to contaminated ground water. An active barrier will not only fulfill the functions of the present passive barrier system, but also retard contaminant transport by adsorptive processes. Attapulgite, Na-chabazite, and Ca-chabazite were added to open-quotes activateclose quotes the conventional soil-bentonite backfill. Batch extraction tests were performed to determine the partitioning coefficients of cadmium and zinc between the liquid and solid phase when in contact with the backfill mixes. Batch extraction and mathematical modeling results demonstrate the ability of an active barrier to retard the transport of cadmium and zinc. The reactivity of the soil-bentonite vertical barrier depends heavily on the inorganic being adsorbed. The reactivity of the barrier also depends on the adsorptive capabilities of the clay minerals added to the conventional soil-bentonite vertical barrier. The results of laboratory studies suggest that passive barrier systems can be transformed to active systems. Further, the data suggests that although conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are presently designed as passive barriers, they already have adsorptive capacity associated with active barriers

  2. The differences between soil grouting with cement slurry and cement-water glass slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingting; Sui, Haitong; Yang, Honglu

    2018-01-01

    Cement slurry and cement-water glass slurry are the most widely applied for soil grouting reinforcement project. The viscosity change of cement slurry is negligible during grouting period and presumed to be time-independent while the viscosity of cement-water glass slurry increases with time quickly and is presumed to be time-dependent. Due to the significantly rheology differences between them, the grouting quality and the increasing characteristics of grouting parameters may be different, such as grouting pressure, grouting surrounding rock pressure, i.e., the change of surrounding rock pressure deduced by grouting pressure. Those are main factors for grouting design. In this paper, a large-scale 3D grouting simulation device was developed to simulate the surrounding curtain grouting for a tunnel. Two series of surrounding curtain grouting experiments under different geo-stress of 100 kPa, 150 kPa and 200 kPa were performed. The overload test on tunnel was performed to evaluate grouting effect of all surrounding curtain grouting experiments. In the present results, before 240 seconds, the grouting pressure increases slowly for both slurries; after 240 seconds the increase rate of grouting pressure for cement-water glass slurry increases quickly while that for cement slurry remains roughly constant. The increasing trend of grouting pressure for cement-water glass is similar to its viscosity. The setting time of cement-water glass slurry obtained from laboratory test is less than that in practical grouting where grout slurry solidifies in soil. The grouting effect of cement-water glass slurry is better than that of cement slurry and the grouting quality decreases with initial pressure.

  3. Utilization technology on slurried ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Yoshio; Yasuda, Minoru; Furuki, Yasuhiko [The Coal Mining Research Centre, Japan, Tokyo, Japan; Electric Power Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1987-08-01

    Three research results of the utilization technology on slurried ash were reported. As for the utilization as the fly ash quick setting (FQS) backfill grout for tail void in shield works of tunneling, grout blending was simplified, the blended solution of cement, clay, additives and water was stabilized, and a favorable workability and long term durability were obtained. As for the utilization as the material of a SMW (soil mixing wall) method for continuous walls in long shaft digging, a fly ash-gypsum-cement (FGC) stabilizer showed an excellent workability and remarkably high water-tightness as compared with conventional cement bentonite. As for the utilization as the material of an injection method of overlay mats in foundation works of light weight structures on the sea bed mud foundation, since a FGC concrete weight in water was remarkably light as 0.7t/m{sup 3}, no both large mold form strength and vibration compacting were required. 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Studies of coal slurries property; Slurry no seijo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, M.; Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sakaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Hirosue, H. [Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It was previously found that the increase of slurry temperature provides a significant effect of slurry viscosity reduction for the coal slurry with high concentration of 50 wt%. To investigate the detailed influence of slurry temperature for the coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt%, influence of temperature on the successive change of apparent viscosity was observed at the constant shear rate. When the concentration of coal was increased from 45 wt% to 50 wt%, viscosity of the slurry was rapidly increased. When heated above 70{degree}C, the apparent viscosity decreased during heating to the given temperature, but it increased successively after reaching to the given temperature. The apparent viscosity showed higher value than that of the initial viscosity. The coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt% showed the fluidity of Newtonian fluid at the lower shear rate region, but showed the fluidity of pseudo-plastic fluid at the higher shear rate region. The slurry having high apparent viscosity by the successive change showed higher apparent viscosity with increasing the higher even by changing the shear rate. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  5. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Seop [Tongmyong University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  6. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do; Lee, Hyun Seop

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  7. Conductivity and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4 slurry in the lithium slurry battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Caimei; Chen, Yongchong; Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Ping

    2017-06-01

    Lithium slurry battery is a new type of energy storage technique which uses the slurry of solid active materials, conductive additions and liquid electrolyte as the electrode. The proportion of conductive addition and the active material has significant influence on the conductivity and electrochemical performance of the slurry electrode. In the present work, slurries with different volume ratios of LiFePO4 (LFP) and Ketjenblack (KB) were investigated by the electrochemical workstation and charge-discharge testing system (vs. Li/Li+). Results show that the conductivity of the slurry increases linearly with the addition of KB, and the measured specific capacity of the slurry reaches its theoretical value when the volume ratio of KB to LFP is around 0.2. Based on this ratio, a slurry battery with higher loading of LFP (19.1 wt.% in the slurry) was tested, and a specific capacity of 165 mAh/g at 0.2 mA/cm2 and 102 mAh/g at 5 mA/cm2 was obtained for LFP.

  8. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  9. Improving the stability of coal slurries: Quarterly progress report for the period Sep. 15, 1986-Dec. 15, 1986. [Adsorption of gum tragacanth on coal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    The last quarterly progress report focused on the adsorption study of the polystyrene latex spheres with gum tragacanth (GT), and the adsorption mechanism was found to be hydrophobic rather than electrostatic. Also, the effect of the amount of GT adsorbed, the bulk concentration of GT, incubation time and pH on the stability factor was examined, and the results indicated that the conformation of GT on the surface of latex spheres plays an important role in the stabilization. This report presents the results of the coal-water slurries, mainly focusing on the adsorption study of GT by changing pH and ionic strength. It was found from the experiment in which the ionic strength was changed that the adsorption of GT on the coal particles is hindered by the coulombic repulsion between GT and coal. In addition, the experiment in which pH was changed also indicated that the adsorption mechanism is electrostatic in nature. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Heavy cement slurries; Pastas pesadas de cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Francisco Avelar da; Conceicao, Antonio C. Farias [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao; Marins, Carlos Cesar Silva [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Dept. de Perfuracao. Div. de Revestimento e Cimentacao

    1990-12-31

    When going deeper in a high pressure well, the only way to successfully cement your casing or linear is through the use of heavy cement slurry. In 1987 PETROBRAS geologists presented to the Drilling Department a series of deep, hot and high pressure wells to be drilled. The Casing and Cement Division of this department then started a program to face this new challenge. This paper introduces the first part of this program and shows how PETROBRAS is dealing with heavy weight slurries. We present the slurry formulations tested in laboratory, the difficulties found in mixing them in the field, rheology measurements, API free water and API fluid loss from both laboratory and field samples. (author) 3 tabs.

  11. Physico-chemical principles of slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiber, C.O.

    1984-12-01

    Spectacular accidents have occurred in mining with products considered non-explosive. In view of the disastrous consequences of these accidents, the old 'Anfo' idea has been revived (= ammonium nitrate and fuel oil). Experiments in wet wells have led to the development of a new type of non-explosive blasting agents, i.e. the so-called slurries. Detonation of these slurries is divided into an energy release process and an energy conversion process. The basic mechanisms are described with a view to practical problems, e.g. detonation control, temperature dependence of the blasting characteristics, pressure dependence of the ignition process, critical diameter, slurry state problems, and sensitivity.

  12. Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Slurry Rheology: Nuclear Waste Simulant Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Jaehun; Oh, Takkeun; Luna, Maria L.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Controlling the rheological properties of slurries has been of great interest in various industries such as cosmetics, ceramic processing, and nuclear waste treatment. Many physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, ionic strength, and mass/volume fraction of particles, can influence the rheological properties of slurry. Among such parameters, the particle size distribution of slurry would be especially important for nuclear waste treatment because most nuclear waste slurries show a broad particle size distribution. We studied the rheological properties of several different low activity waste nuclear simulant slurries having different particle size distributions under high salt and high pH conditions. Using rheological and particle size analysis, it was found that the percentage of colloid-sized particles in slurry appears to be a key factor for rheological characteristics and the efficiency of rheological modifiers. This behavior was shown to be coupled with an existing electrostatic interaction between particles under a low salt concentration. Our study suggests that one may need to implement the particle size distribution as a critical factor to understand and control rheological properties in nuclear waste treatment plants, such as the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford and Savannah River sites, because the particle size distributions significantly vary over different types of nuclear waste slurries.

  13. Study on the degradation of chitosan slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Martini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we measured the degradation rate of different chitosan slurries. Several parameters were monitored such as temperature (25 °C, 37 °C, 50 °C; chitosan concentration (1% and 2% (w/V; and polymer molecular weight. The samples were tested in dynamic sweep test mode. This test is able to provide a reliable estimation of viscosity variations of the slurries; in turn, these variations could be related to degradation rate of the system in the considered conditions. The resulting information is particularly important especially in applications in which there is a close relationship between physical properties and molecular structure.

  14. Biovailability of copper and zinc in pig and cattle slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubus, M.; Dach, J.; Starmans, D.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Slurry is an important source of macronutrients, micro-nutrients and organic matter. Despite the considerable fertilizer value of slurry, it may be abundant in amounts of copper and zinc originating from dietary. The study presents quantitative changes in copper and zinc in individual slurries (pig

  15. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooher, J.P. [Adelphi Univ., Garden City, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  16. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita; Veith, Tamie L; Laegdsmand, Mette

    2016-12-15

    Animal manure application to agricultural land provides beneficial organic matter and nutrients but can spread harmful contaminants to the environment. Contamination of fresh produce, surface water and shallow groundwater with the manure-borne pollutants can be a critical concern. Leaching and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns at a rate of 50 t ha -1 and followed with four irrigation events: 3.5-h period at 10 mm h -1 after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The disturbed columns delayed the leaching of a conservative tracer and microorganisms in the first irrigation event compared to the intact columns due to the effect of disturbed macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils. In contrast, NO 3 -N leaching from the intact soil was higher for all events except the first event, probably due to a lower nitrification rate in the disturbed soil. A week after the last irrigation event, the redistribution of all slurry constituents except NO 3 -N in most of the sections of the soil column was higher for the disturbed soil. Total recovery of E. coli was significantly higher from the disturbed soil and total leaching of mineral nitrogen was significantly

  17. A big step change : new mobile slurry preparation and crushing technology on the horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2007-09-15

    The efficiency and productivity of the trucks used in oil sands mining operations can be compromised by unstable terrain, and they consume large amount of fuel. Hydro-transport systems with slurry preparation facilities may soon eliminate the expenses associated with truck and shovel processes. The slurry preparation facilities use on-board reject handling systems to remove large pieces of ore that can't be used in crushers. However, they are hard to move. Researchers are now focusing on the development of a semi-mobile slurry preparation facility that uses mobile crushing and sizing equipment. The equipment uses large tractor tracks instead of wheels and tires, and can accomplish the same amount of work as 6 trucks. Using the system, mine scoop shovels dump ore into a hopper on the mobile unit. The ore is then conveyed to the mobile unit's onboard primary crusher or sizer. Staged crushing is combined with water addition and mixing at the mine site to prepare an oil and slurry ready for hydro-transport. It was concluded that the system may significantly reduce the use of shovel and truck operations in the oil sands industry. 2 figs.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of dairy farm slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, C

    1973-04-01

    Bell described the intermittent operation of a pilot-scale anaerobic digester receiving dilute dairy farm slurry. A 65 to 75 percent reduction of the ''permanganate (COD) value'' could be obtained at 35/sup 0/ and a 60 day detention time. Methane content of the gases ranged between 40 and 70 percent.

  19. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  20. Bio-slurry as fertilizer : is bio-slurry from household digesters a better fertilizer than manure? : a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, L.T.C.; Zwart, K.B.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Postma, R.; Haas, de M.J.G.; Nysingh, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    In many developing countries manure is anaerobically digested to produce biogas. The residue of manure digestion, bio-slurry, can be used as fertilizer for crop production and aquaculture. This study compared bio-slurry and manure as fertilizers. Nutrients in bio-slurry, especially nitrogen, are

  1. Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2005-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours

  2. A quantitative evaluation of the production performance of ice slurry by the oscillatory moving cooled wall method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masahiko; Fukusako, Shoichiro [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Kawabe, Hiromichi [Senshu Univ., Bibai (Japan). Hokkaido College. Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    2002-03-01

    Ice slurry has recently been utilized for a variety of engineering fields such as thermal energy storage and high-density energy transportation. In this paper, as a production method of ice slurry, the oscillatory rotating cooled tube method was proposed. A vertical cooled tube was installed in a test vessel that was filled with ethylene glycol solution being forced to move within an aqueous binary solution to produce the ice slurry. Production performance of ice slurry by the present method was determined under a variety of conditions, such as initial concentration of solution, angular acceleration and rotation angle for the oscillation motion of the cooled tube. The production performance was evaluated analytically by constructing a numerical model. The analysis was made to determine the separation condition of ice layer from the cooled tube surface at first, then the production rate of ice slurry was assessed. It was found from the present study that the ice slurry was produced continuously under the appropriate operating conditions in which the separation of ice layer was caused by oscillating motion of the cooled tube. (Author)

  3. Comparison of rheological evaluation techniques and turbulent flow prediction of a simulated nuclear waste melter slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carleson, T.E.; Hart, R.E.; Drown, D.C.; Peterson, M.E.

    1987-03-01

    An experimental study was performed on a simulated nuclear waste slurry containing the type of waste sludge and glass-forming chemicals that will be converted to a stable glass in a high-temperature furnace. The rheological properties of the slurry must be determined in order to design the transport and mixing systems. The rheological parameters for the slurry were determined by a variety of viscometers including a rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and a pipe flow apparatus. Experiments revealed the absence of wall slip and sufficient non-Newtonian behavior to require adjustments of the results. The slurry was characterized as a yield pseudoplastic fluid. Different rheological constants were obtained for all three viscometers. Predictions of the shear stress as a function of shear rate showed good agreement between the constants determined by the rotational viscometer and the pipe loop apparatus. Laminar and turbulent flows in the pipe loop correlated closely with a recent theoretical model. 16 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Environmental Consequences of Pig Slurry Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke

    occur during manure storage and after field application. The main emissions are ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrate, phosphorus and odour. Slurry treatment technologies have been and are being developed in order to reduce the environmental impacts of manure. However, it is important...... and excluding biogenic carbon, marine and freshwater eutrophication potential, terrestrial acidification and eutrophication potential, and fossil resource depletion potential. The different types of treatment technologies showed varying environmental profiles, meaning that one type of technology was beneficial...... technology, or co-substrate for anaerobic digestion). With respect to odorous emissions, an LCIA method was developed, but due to a lack of data it proved difficult to include odour in LCA. Regulations appear to have an influence on the environmental impacts of slurry treatment. A decrease in N application...

  5. Pump transients in FGD slurry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce-Campos, C.D., Thoy, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the start-up transient of a limestone slurry system used for a power plant scrubber is discussed. Particular characteristics of these kind of systems are pointed out and incorporated into an ad-hoc numerical model. Three possible start-up scenarios are discussed and compared with field experimental data. The results illustrate well the importance of air pocket purging prior to system start-up

  6. Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactor modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Harke, F.W. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports experimental and theoretical results on hydrodynamic studies. The experiments were conducted in a hot-pressurized Slurry-Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). It includes experimental results of Drakeol-10 oil/nitrogen/glass beads hydrodynamic study and the development of an ultrasonic technique for measuring solids concentration. A model to describe the flow behavior in reactors was developed. The hydrodynamic properties in a 10.16 cm diameter bubble column with a perforated-plate gas distributor were studied at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.36 MPa, and at temperatures from 20 to 200{degrees}C, using a dual hot-wire probe with nitrogen, glass beads, and Drakeol-10 oil as the gas, solid, and liquid phase, respectively. It was found that the addition of 20 oil wt% glass beads in the system has a slight effect on the average gas holdup and bubble size. A well-posed three-dimensional model for bed dynamics was developed from an ill-posed model. The new model has computed solid holdup distributions consistent with experimental observations with no artificial {open_quotes}fountain{close_quotes} as predicted by the earlier model. The model can be applied to a variety of multiphase flows of practical interest. An ultrasonic technique is being developed to measure solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 180 {degrees}C and 0.1 MPa. The data show that both the sound speed and attenuation are well-defined functions of both the solid and gas concentrations in the slurries. The results suggest possibilities to directly measure solids concentration during the operation of an autoclave reactor containing molten wax.

  7. Engineering properties of nuclear waste slurries - 16378

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, Simon; Fairweather, Michael; Hunter, Timothy; Omokanye, Qanitalillahi; Peakall, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The type of particulate systems encountered in legacy nuclear waste slurries is highly complicated, with the aggregation and flow behaviour being at times very variable. However, deconstructing the complex overall slurry activity to singular particle-particle interactions can lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms involved with particle aggregation, and so to predictions of their settling and flow in nuclear systems. Of particular importance to legacy waste is the role of salts in controlling the attraction of particles (and so in dictating the rheological properties of the system) as sludge may contain a variety of specific ions and generally have high ionic conductivity [1]. In this paper, particle-particle interactions are characterised using a number of complimentary methods, and their influence on resulting flow and bed compression is measured. The methods used to characterise the particle-particle interactions under various salt and pH conditions were electro-acoustic analysis (zeta potential) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Following on from the analysis of particle-particle properties, bulk sediment behaviour was investigated using shear and compressive yield stress measurements, vital parameters in dictating flow and dewatering performance, respectively. Together, these techniques enable the characterisation of a range of particulate systems that may be encountered in legacy wastes, and results point to a number of important factors that can help explain the observed variability in industrial slurry behaviour. (authors)

  8. Slurry explosive containing an improved thickening agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakazono, Y.; Otsuka, Y.

    1970-08-18

    A slurry explosive having stable physical properties and a thickening agent which when blended with a slurry explosive, maintains it in a uniform and stable state as a good suspended dispersion condition over a long period of time, are described. The slurry explosive has a composition consisting essentially of ammonium nitrate, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate, at least one member selected from the group consisting of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, aluminum, smokeless powder and fuels, and water, 0.1 to 2.0% guar gum, not more than 0.3% of a borate or borates, and/or not more than 20% of hexamethylene tetramine, and 0.02 to 2.0% of an antimony compound or compounds, all percents being by weight. (6 claims)

  9. Effect of sodium aromatic sulfonate group in anionic polymer dispersant on the viscosity of coal-water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshio Kakui; Hidehiro Kamiya [Lion Corporation, Tokyo (Japan). Chemicals Research Laboratories, Chemicals Division

    2004-06-01

    This paper focused on the effect of sodium aromatic sulfonate in anionic polymer dispersants on the viscosity of coal-water mixtures (CWMs) with a Tatung coal powder. To determine the optimum molecular structure of a polymer dispersant for the minimum viscosity of a CWM, various anionic co-polymers with different hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups or different molecular weights were prepared, using various types of monomers. Anionic co-polymers with sodium aromatic sulfonate, such as sodium styrene-sulfonate and sodium naphthalene-sulfonate, reduced the viscosity of dense CWMs. In particular, a co-polymer of sodium styrene-sulfonate and sodium acrylate with a molar ratio of 70:30 and a molecular weight of {approximately} 10 000 gave the minimum viscosity of a 70 wt % CWM. To obtain a low viscosity for a CWM, a large electrostatic repulsive force with an absolute value of the zeta potential of the coal particles of {gt} 70 mV and {gt} 6.5 mg/g of adsorbed polymer on the coal surface were needed. The mixture of sodium polystyrene-sulfonate and sodium polyacrylate with a weight ratio of 50:50 also gave a low viscosity of 70 wt % CWM. On the basis of the results, the adsorption behavior of polymer dispersants on the coal surface is examined by measuring the wettability of coal powder pellets. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Development of a pulsed coal combustor fired with CWM (coal-water mixture): Phase 3, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, M.N.; Durai-Swamy, K.

    1986-11-01

    This report presents the results of an R and D program aimed at developing a new burner technology for coal-water mixture (CWM) fuels to enable the substitution of these new fuels in utility and industrial boilers and process heaters currently firing oil and gas. The application of pulse combustion to CWM fuels is chosen to alleviate many of the physical plant and environmental constraints presently associated with the direct use of these fuels in equipment designed for oil and gas firing. Pulse combustion has been shown to be capable of high-intensity burning of coal for acceptably complete combustion within relatively small equipment volumes. It also has the inherent capability to agglomerate ash particles, thus rendering ash more easily separable from the combustion gas prior to its entrance into the convective section of the boiler or heater, thereby reducing ash buildup and pluggage. Pulse combustion is also well-suited to staged combustion for NO/sub x/ control and has excellent potential for enhanced in-furnace SO/sub 2/ removal due to the enhanced levels of mass transfer brought about by the vigorous flow oscillations. The primary objective of the Phase 2 work was to develop a detailed program for laboratory development and evaluation of the pulse CWM combustor and system design concepts. 112 refs., 40 figs., 94 tabs.

  11. Low frequency aeration of pig slurry affects slurry characteristics and emissions of greenhouse gases and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Salvador; Hunt, John; Misselbrook, Tom H

    2017-07-01

    Low frequency aeration of slurries may reduce ammonia (NH 3 ) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions without increasing nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions. The aim of this study was to quantify this potential reduction and to establish the underlying mechanisms. A batch experiment was designed with 6 tanks with 1 m 3 of pig slurry each. After an initial phase of 7 days when none of the tanks were aerated, a second phase of 4 weeks subjected three of the tanks to aeration (2 min every 6 h, airflow 10 m 3  h -1 ), whereas the other three tanks remained as a control. A final phase of 9 days was established with no aeration in any tank. Emissions of NH 3 , CH 4 , carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and N 2 O were measured. In the initial phase no differences in emissions were detected, but during the second phase aeration increased NH 3 emissions by 20% with respect to the controls (8.48 vs. 7.07 g m -3  [slurry] d -1 , P emissions were 40% lower in the aerated tanks (2.04 vs. 3.39 g m -3  [slurry] d -1 , P emissions remained after the aeration phase had finished. No effect was detected for CO 2 , and no relevant N 2 O emissions were detected during the experiment. Our results demonstrate that low frequency aeration of stored pig slurry increases slurry pH and increases NH 3 emissions.

  12. Availability of phosphorus in cow slurry using isotopic labelling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongsakul, P.; Bertelsen, F.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.

    1988-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of cow slurry on P uptake by corn and to estimate the readily available P in the slurry by using an isotopic labelling techique. Water-soluble P in soil was increased and isotopic equilibrium of available P was attained after labelled slurry was mixed thoroughly throughout the soil. Labelled slurry applied at planting increased the P uptake by corn, whereas the same amount applied one week before harvest did not affect the P uptake. It was estimated that 46-54% of the total P uptake in plants is derived from the slurry. The readily available P (the L-value) in the slurry was at least 26 mg/kg which equals 3.7% of the total P. (author)

  13. Biogas slurry pricing method based on nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-ai; Guo, Honghai; Yang, Zhengtao; Xin, Shurong

    2017-11-01

    In order to promote biogas-slurry commercialization, A method was put forward to valuate biogas slurry based on its nutrient contents. Firstly, element contents of biogas slurry was measured; Secondly, each element was valuated based on its market price, and then traffic cost, using cost and market effect were taken into account, the pricing method of biogas slurry were obtained lastly. This method could be useful in practical production. Taking cattle manure raw meterial biogas slurry and con stalk raw material biogas slurry for example, their price were 38.50 yuan RMB per ton and 28.80 yuan RMB per ton. This paper will be useful for recognizing the value of biogas projects, ensuring biogas project running, and instructing the cyclic utilization of biomass resources in China.

  14. Heterogeneous ice slurry flow and concentration distribution in horizontal pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jihong; Zhang, Tengfei; Wang, Shugang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A Mixture CFD model is applied to describe heterogeneous ice slurry flow. • The ice slurry rheological behavior is considered piecewise. • The coupled flow and concentration profiles in heterogeneous slurry flow is acquired. • The current numerical model achieves good balance between precision and universality. -- Abstract: Ice slurry is an energy-intensive solid–liquid mixture fluid which may play an important role in various cooling purposes. Knowing detailed flow information is important from the system design point of view. However, the heterogeneous ice slurry flow makes it difficult to be quantified due to the complex two phase flow characteristic. The present study applies a Mixture computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on different rheological behavior to characterize the heterogeneous ice slurry flow. The Mixture CFD model was firstly validated by three different experiments. Then the validated Mixture CFD model was applied to solve the ice slurry isothermal flow by considering the rheological behavior piecewise. Finally, the numerical solutions have displayed the coupled flow information, such as slurry velocity, ice particle concentration and pressure drop distribution. The results show that, the ice slurry flow distribution will appear varying degree of asymmetry under different operating conditions. The rheological behavior will be affected by the asymmetric flow distributions. When mean flow velocity is high, Thomas equation can be appropriate for describing ice slurry viscosity. While with the decreasing of mean flow velocity, the ice slurry behaves Bingham rheology. As compared with experimental pressure drop results, the relative errors of numerical computation are almost within ±15%. The Mixture CFD model is validated to be an effective model for describing heterogeneous ice slurry flow and could supply plentiful flow information

  15. Slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for steelmaking flue dust analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coedo, A. G.; Dorado, T.; Padilla, I.; Maibusch, R.; Kuss, H.-M.

    2000-02-01

    A commercial atomic absorption graphite furnace (AAGF), with a self-made adapter and valve system, was used as a slurry sampling cell for electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS). The system was applied to the determination of As, Sn, Sb, Se, Te, Bi, Cd, V, Ti and Mo in steelmaking flue dusts. Experimental conditions with respect to ETV and ICP-MS operating parameters were optimized. Compared to aqueous solutions, slurry samples were found to present better analyte transport. Microgram amounts of Rh were used to reduce the difference in analyte response in sensitivity for aqueous solutions of the tested analytes. No such increasing effect was observed for slurry samples and aqueous standards. An added quantity of Rh acting as modifier/carrier resulted in an increase for the same analytes in matrix-slurry solutions, even the addition of an extra Rh quantity has resulted in a decrease in the signals. The effect of Triton X-100 (used as a dispersant agent) on analyte intensity and precision was also studied. External calibration from aqueous standards spiked with 100 μg ml -1 Rh was performed to quantified 0.010 g/100 ml slurry samples. Results are presented for a certified reference electrical arc furnace flue dust (EAF): CRM-876-1 (Bureau of Analysis Samples Ltd., Cleveland, UK), a reference sample of coke ashes X-3705 (from AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany), and a representative sample of EAF flue dust from a Spanish steelmaking company (CENIM-1). For the two reference materials an acceptable agreement with certificate values was achieved, and the results for the CENIM sample matched with those obtained from conventional nebulization solution.

  16. Physical Characterization of Solid-Liquid Slurries at High Weight Fractions Using Optical and Ultrasonic Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, L.W.; Brodsky, A.M.; Panetta P.D.

    2005-01-01

    Remediation of highly radioactive waste is a major technical and programmatic challenge for the DOE. Rapid, on-line physical characterization of highly concentrated slurries is required for the safe and efficient remediation of 90 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (HLW), sodium bearing waste, and mixed waste. The research presented here, describes a collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) to directly address the need for rapid on-line characterization of the physical properties of HLW slurries during all phases of the remediation process, from in-tank characterization of sediments to monitoring of the concentration, particle size, and degree of agglomeration and gelation of slurries during transport. Near-surface characterization of the slurry flow in the particle size range from nanometer to micrometer is examined using optical low coherence reflectometry. Volumetric characterization at depths in the slurry flow, up to several centimeters in the particle size range from the micrometer to millimeter, is realized by utilizing ultrasonic backscatter and diffuses fields. One of the strengths, the teaming up of significant talents in both experimental and theoretical optics and in ultrasonics, provides a synergistic approach to integrate these complimentary techniques. One of the benefits of this combined approach is the physical characterization of HLW over a concentration and particle size range that is broader than can be achieved with today's technology. This will avoid a costly increase in waste stream volume due to excess dilution, and will lessen chance of plugging pipes that could shut down expensive processing lines

  17. Overview of the long distance iron ore slurry pipeline from Anglo Ferrous Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adarlan M.; Passos, Aline C.; Santos, Daniel; Orban, Eduardo M.; Lisboa, Helder D.; Goncalves, Nilton; Guimaraes, Robson C. [Anglo Ferrous Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the long distance iron ore slurry pipeline from Anglo Ferrous Brazil. Anglo Ferrous Brazil is a company of Anglo American plc that is one of the world's largest mining and natural resource company. Minas-Rio is a world class iron ore project which has been developed in Brazil aiming to produce 26.6 million tons per year of concentrate. The mine, concentrator and pump station 1 will be located in Conceicao do Mato Dentro, Minas Gerais state, and the terminal station will be located at Acu Port in Sao Joao da Barra, Rio de Janeiro state. The long distance iron ore slurry pipeline will be one of major differentials of Minas-Rio Project and its useful life was initially estimated in 20 years. The slurry pipeline has a total length of 525 kilometers and will be constructed from predominately 26 inches external diameter API 5L X70 pipes. From kilometer 314 to kilometer 480, 24 inches pipe will be installed to prevent slack flow downstream pump station 2. The pump station 1 is designed to provide the hydraulic head necessary to transport the concentrate iron ore slurry with 8 positive displacement pumps to pump station 2. The pump station 2, located 240 kilometers downstream pump station 1, is designed to operate with 10 positive displacement pumps. The valve station will be located at kilometer 347 and will be used to break the static head between pump station 2 and the terminal station during a slurry pipeline shutdown. (author)

  18. System and method for continuous solids slurry depressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Thomas Frederick; Steele, Raymond Douglas; Cordes, Stephen Michael

    2017-07-11

    A system includes a first pump having a first outlet and a first inlet, and a controller. The first pump is configured to continuously receive a flow of a slurry into the first outlet at a first pressure and to continuously discharge the flow of the slurry from the first inlet at a second pressure less than the first pressure. The controller is configured to control a first speed of the first pump against the flow of the slurry based at least in part on the first pressure, wherein the first speed of the first pump is configured to resist a backflow of the slurry from the first outlet to the first inlet.

  19. State of the art on phase change material slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Ziad; Delahaye, Anthony; Huang Li; Trinquet, François; Fournaison, Laurence; Pollerberg, Clemens; Doetsch, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A bibliographic study on PCM slurries. ► Clathrate Hydrate slurry, Microencapsulated PCM Slurry, shape-stabilized PCM slurries and Phase Change Material Emulsions. ► Formation, thermo-physical, rheological, heat transfers properties and applications of these four PCS systems. ► The use of thermal energy storage and distribution based on PCM slurries can improve the refrigerating machine performances. - Abstract: The interest in using phase change slurry (PCS) media as thermal storage and heat transfer fluids is increasing and thus leading to an enhancement in the number of articles on the subject. In air-conditioning and refrigeration applications, PCS systems represent a pure benefit resulting in the increase of thermal energy storage capacity, high heat transfer characteristics and positive phase change temperatures which can occur under low pressures. Hence, they allow the increase of energy efficiency and reduce the quantity of thermal fluids. This review describes the formation, thermo-physical, rheological, heat transfer properties and applications of four PCS systems: Clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS), Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials Slurry (MPCMS), shape-stabilized PCM slurries (SPCMSs) and Phase Change Material Emulsions (PCMEs). It regroups a bibliographic summary of important information that can be very helpful when such systems are used. It also gives interesting and valuable insights on the choice of the most suitable PCS media for laboratory and industrial applications.

  20. Deposition Velocities of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Slurries in Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poloski, Adam P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrefah, John [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Andrew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hohimer, Ryan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nigl, Franz [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Toth, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yokuda, Satoru T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The WTP pipe plugging issue, as stated by the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) Executive Summary, is as follows: “Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging.” A strategy was employed to perform critical-velocity tests on several physical simulants. Critical velocity is defined as the point where a stationary bed of particles deposits on the bottom of a straight horizontal pipe during slurry transport operations. Results from the critical velocity testing provide an indication of slurry stability as a function of fluid rheological properties and transport conditions. The experimental results are compared to the WTP design guide on slurry transport velocity in an effort to confirm minimum waste velocity and flushing velocity requirements as established by calculations and critical line velocity correlations in the design guide. The major findings of this testing is discussed below. Experimental results indicate that the use of the Oroskar and Turian (1980) correlation in the design guide is conservative—Slurry viscosity has a greater affect on particles with a large surface area to mass ratio. The increased viscous forces on these particles result in a decrease in predicted critical velocities from this traditional industry derived equations that focus on particles large than 100 μm in size. Since the Hanford slurry particles generally have large surface area to mass ratios, the reliance on such equations in the Hall (2006) design guide is conservative. Additionally, the use of the 95% percentile particle size as an input to this equation is conservative. However, test results indicate that the use of an average particle density as an input to the equation is not conservative. Particle density has a large influence on the overall result returned by the correlation. Lastly, the viscosity

  1. Multiphase Model of Semisolid Slurry Generation and Isothermal Holding During Cooling Slope Rheoprocessing of A356 Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prosenjit; Samanta, Sudip K.; Mondal, Biswanath; Dutta, Pradip

    2018-04-01

    In the present paper, we present an experimentally validated 3D multiphase and multiscale solidification model to understand the transport processes involved during slurry generation with a cooling slope. In this process, superheated liquid alloy is poured at the top of the cooling slope and allowed to flow along the slope under the influence of gravity. As the melt flows down the slope, it progressively loses its superheat, starts solidifying at the melt/slope interface with formation of solid crystals, and eventually exits the slope as semisolid slurry. In the present simulation, the three phases considered are the parent melt as the primary phase, and the solid grains and air as secondary phases. The air phase forms a definable air/liquid melt interface as the free surface. After exiting the slope, the slurry fills an isothermal holding bath maintained at the slope exit temperature, which promotes further globularization of microstructure. The outcomes of the present model include prediction of volume fractions of the three different phases considered, grain evolution, grain growth, size, sphericity and distribution of solid grains, temperature field, velocity field, macrosegregation and microsegregation. In addition, the model is found to be capable of making predictions of morphological evolution of primary grains at the onset of isothermal coarsening. The results obtained from the present simulations are validated by performing quantitative image analysis of micrographs of the rapidly oil-quenched semisolid slurry samples, collected from strategic locations along the slope and from the isothermal slurry holding bath.

  2. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, E.W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO 3 solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO 3 solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s

  3. Pig slurry characteristics, nutrient balance and biogas production as affected by separation and acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S G; Hjorth, Maibritt; Leahy, J J

    2015-01-01

    and separation fraction applied to fields and crop need. Total biogas production was not affected by separation, whereas acidification reduced biogas production because the process was inhibited by a low pH and a high sulphur concentration. The amount of copper applied per hectare in the liquid manure...... to the wheat field was lower than the amount taken up and more zink and copper was applied in the solid fraction to maize field than taken up. The transportation and field application of solids and liquids did not increase management costs when compared to the transportation of slurry alone, but the investment...

  4. Technical Development of Slurry Three-Dimensional Printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cho-Pei; Hsu, Huang-Jan; Lee, Shyh-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the technical development of slurry three-dimensional printer (3DP) which based on photo-polymerization and constrained surface method. Basically, slurry consists of ceramic powder, resin and photo-initiator. The light engines for solidifying the photo-curable slurry can be classified as laser, liquid crystal panel (LCD), digital light processing (DLP). The slurry can be reacted and solidified by selective ray according to the reaction spectrum of photo-initiator. Ceramic powder used in this study is zirconia oxide. Experimental results show that ceramic particle size affects the viscosity of slurry severely resulting in low accuracy and the occurrence of micro crack in the layer casting procedure. Therefore, the effect of particle size on the curability and accuracy of built green part is discussed. A single dental crown is proposed to be fabricated by these three light engines as a benchmark for comparison. In addition, the cost and the limitation are compared in the aspect of dental crown fabrication. Consequently, the lowest cost is LCD-type slurry 3DP system. DLP-type slurry 3DP can produce green body with the fastest fabrication time. The volumetric error of sintered part that made by these three fabrication methods is similar because the composition of slurry is the same.

  5. Drag reduction of dense fine-grained slurries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Štern, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2010), s. 261-270 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/1574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : kaolin slurry * drag reduction * experimental investigation * peptization * slurry rheology Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.553, year: 2010

  6. Cattle slurry on grassland - application methods and nitrogen use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalor, S.T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cattle slurry represents a significant resource on grassland-based farming systems. The objective of this thesis was to investigate and devise cattle slurry application methods and strategies that can be implemented on grassland farms to improve the efficiency with which nitrogen (N) in

  7. The Settling and Compaction of Nuclear Waste Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MACLEAN, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The settling and compaction of simulated and real nuclear waste slurries were extensively studied. Experiments were carried out with simulated wastes at laboratory and large-scale sizes, and the results compared. A model of settling was derived and a method developed to correlate and scale-up settling data for different slurries and vessel sizes

  8. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification using sulfuric acid reduces ammonia emissions but also affects sulfur (S) cycling. Emission of sulfur is a source of malodor and reduces the sulfur fertilizer value of the slurry. We investigated the effect of sulfate and methionine amendments, alone or in combination...

  9. Comparison of catalytic ethylene polymerization in slurry and gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daftaribesheli, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) with the annual consumption of 70 million tones in 2007 is mostly produced in slurry, gas-phase or combination of both processes. This work focuses on a comparison between the slurry and gas phase processes. Why does PE produced in theses two processes can show extremely different

  10. A Qualitative Investigation of Deposition Velocities of a Non-Newtonian Slurry in Complex Pipeline Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokuda, Satoru T.; Poloski, Adam P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Karri, Naveen K.; Luna, Maria; Minette, Michael J.; Tingey, Joel M.

    2009-05-11

    The External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) has identified the issues relating to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pipe plugging. Per the review’s executive summary, “Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging.” To evaluate the potential for plugging, testing was performed to determine critical velocities for the complex WTP piping layout. Critical velocity is defined as the point at which a moving bed of particles begins to form on the pipe bottom during slurry-transport operations. Pressure drops across the fittings of the test pipeline were measured with differential pressure transducers, from which the critical velocities were determined. A WTP prototype flush system was installed and tested upon the completion of the pressure-drop measurements. We also provide the data for the overflow relief system represented by a WTP complex piping geometry with a non-Newtonian slurry. A waste simulant composed of alumina (nominally 50 μm in diameter) suspended in a kaolin clay slurry was used for this testing. The target composition of the simulant was 10 vol% alumina in a suspending medium with a yield stress of 3 Pa. No publications or reports are available to confirm the critical velocities for the complex geometry evaluated in this testing; therefore, for this assessment, the results were compared to those reported by Poloski et al. (2008) for which testing was performed for a straight horizontal pipe. The results of the flush test are compared to the WTP design guide 24590-WTP-GPG-M-0058, Rev. 0 (Hall 2006) in an effort to confirm flushing-velocity requirements.

  11. A Qualitative Investigation of Deposition Velocities of a Non-Newtonian Slurry in Complex Pipeline Geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokuda, Satoru T.; Poloski, Adam P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Karri, Naveen K.; Luna, Maria; Minette, Michael J.; Tingey, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    The External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) has identified the issues relating to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pipe plugging. Per the review's executive summary, ''Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging.'' To evaluate the potential for plugging, testing was performed to determine critical velocities for the complex WTP piping layout. Critical velocity is defined as the point at which a moving bed of particles begins to form on the pipe bottom during slurry-transport operations. Pressure drops across the fittings of the test pipeline were measured with differential pressure transducers, from which the critical velocities were determined. A WTP prototype flush system was installed and tested upon the completion of the pressure-drop measurements. We also provide the data for the overflow relief system represented by a WTP complex piping geometry with a non-Newtonian slurry. A waste simulant composed of alumina (nominally 50 (micro)m in diameter) suspended in a kaolin clay slurry was used for this testing. The target composition of the simulant was 10 vol% alumina in a suspending medium with a yield stress of 3 Pa. No publications or reports are available to confirm the critical velocities for the complex geometry evaluated in this testing; therefore, for this assessment, the results were compared to those reported by Poloski et al. (2008) for which testing was performed for a straight horizontal pipe. The results of the flush test are compared to the WTP design guide 24590-WTP-GPG-M-0058, Rev. 0 (Hall 2006) in an effort to confirm flushing-velocity requirements.

  12. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  13. Improved Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons or alcohols involves highly exothermic reactions. Temperature control is a critical issue in these reactors for a number of reasons. Runaway reactions can be a serious safety issue, even raising the possibility of an explosion. Catalyst deactivation rates tend to increase with temperature, particularly of there are hot spots in the reactor. For alcohol synthesis, temperature control is essential because it has a large effect on the selectivity of the catalysts toward desired products. For example, for molybdenum disulfide catalysts unwanted side products such as methane, ethane, and propane are produced in much greater quantities if the temperature increases outside an ideal range. Slurry reactors are widely regarded as an efficient design for these reactions. In a slurry reactor a solid catalyst is suspended in an inert hydrocarbon liquid, synthesis gas is sparged into the bottom of the reactor, un-reacted synthesis gas and light boiling range products are removed as a gas stream, and heavy boiling range products are removed as a liquid stream. This configuration has several positive effects for synthesis gas reactions including: essentially isothermal operation, small catalyst particles to reduce heat and mass transfer effects, capability to remove heat rapidly through liquid vaporization, and improved flexibility on catalyst design through physical mixtures in addition to use of compositions that cannot be pelletized. Disadvantages include additional mass transfer resistance, potential for significant back-mixing on both the liquid and gas phases, and bubble coalescence. In 2001 a multiyear project was proposed to develop improved FT slurry reactors. The planned focus of the work was to improve the reactors by improving mass transfer while considering heat transfer issues. During the first year of the project the work was started and several concepts were developed to prepare for bench-scale testing. Power

  14. Feasibility study on a complete system of production, transportation and utilization of about 7 MTa of CWS from Shenmu area and Yellow Sea (China). Results of a Beijing symposium on the subject in Beijing (April 1994) and creation of a World Laboratory research centre ad hoc in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, G.; Wang Zuna [ICSC World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland). Project NET-1

    1996-12-31

    The authors had occasion at a coal-water slurry conference in Clearwater to present a preliminary part of a feasibility study, in cooperation with an Italian and a Chinese team, for a complete integrated project of mining, slurryfication, transportation via pipeline, and utilization of 7 millions tons/year of coal. This study started in 1987 and was presented to the Chinese authority on April 1994 in a specific symposium in Beijing with a participation of 60 scientists from Italy and P.R. China. During this long period of cooperation and exchange between the parties, it was possible to organize a complete and advanced Centre of Research in Beijing supplied with modern equipment that is now in full operation and is producing work of very good quality. The goal of this paper is to summarize the above mentioned experience and describe the new Centre, the present status and the future developments. The study and the equipment of the Centre was sponsored by the World Laboratory an International Institution established in Lausanne under the presidency of Prof. A. Zichichi. This organization supported particularly by the Italian government is responsible for several programs of cooperation between N-S-E-W countries in all the critical areas of planetary importance (health, energy, agriculture, food, environment).

  15. Enhanced conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using a CNT-incorporated TiO2 slurry-based photoanode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoping Cai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A new titanium dioxide (TiO2 slurry formulation is herein reported for the fabrication of TiO2 photoanode for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The prepared TiO2 photoanode featured a highly uniform mesoporous structure with well-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles. The energy conversion efficiency of the resulting TiO2 slurry-based DSSC was ∼63% higher than that achieved by a DSSC prepared using a commercial TiO2 slurry. Subsequently, the incorporation of acid-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs into the TiO2 slurry was examined. More specifically, the effect of varying the concentration of the CNTs in this slurry on the performance of the resulting DSSCs was studied. The chemical state of the CNTs-incorporated TiO2 photoanode was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A high energy conversion efficiency of 6.23% was obtained at an optimum CNT concentration of ∼0.06 wt.%. The obtained efficiency corresponds to a 63% enhancement when compared with that obtained from a DSSC based on a commercial TiO2 slurry. The higher efficiency was attributed to the improvement in the collection and transport of excited electrons in the presence of the CNTs.

  16. Enhanced conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using a CNT-incorporated TiO2 slurry-based photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiaoping; Chen, Zexiang; Li, Jun; Wang, Yan; Xiang, Dong; Zhang, Jijun; Li, Hai

    2015-02-01

    A new titanium dioxide (TiO2) slurry formulation is herein reported for the fabrication of TiO2 photoanode for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The prepared TiO2 photoanode featured a highly uniform mesoporous structure with well-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles. The energy conversion efficiency of the resulting TiO2 slurry-based DSSC was ˜63% higher than that achieved by a DSSC prepared using a commercial TiO2 slurry. Subsequently, the incorporation of acid-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the TiO2 slurry was examined. More specifically, the effect of varying the concentration of the CNTs in this slurry on the performance of the resulting DSSCs was studied. The chemical state of the CNTs-incorporated TiO2 photoanode was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A high energy conversion efficiency of 6.23% was obtained at an optimum CNT concentration of ˜0.06 wt.%. The obtained efficiency corresponds to a 63% enhancement when compared with that obtained from a DSSC based on a commercial TiO2 slurry. The higher efficiency was attributed to the improvement in the collection and transport of excited electrons in the presence of the CNTs.

  17. Ice slurries; Les coulis de glace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The safety and environmental problems linked with the use of refrigerants (toxicity, flammability, ozone layer, greenhouse effect) are the object of numerous research works in order to reduce their harmful impact in the case of accidental situation. The use of 'coldness carriers' is particularly justified in the case of industrial refrigerating facilities involving long loops and important quantities of refrigerating fluids. The use of single-phase 'coldness carriers' is a very old technique which encounters a revival today with researches in progress about the use of two-phase (liquid-solid) compounds named ice-slurries. This book takes stock of the status of this research work in a practical and exhaustive way. (J.S.)

  18. Regulatory controls and slurry fracture injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M. B.; Bilak, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The technological and regulatory framework necessary for the safe operation of solid waste disposal using slurry fracture injection (SFI) in Saskatchewan and Alberta was studied. Seven current SFI sites were used as the source of experience. Regular audits of volumes, continuous pressure recording, careful deformation monitoring and analysis, and repeated evaluation of reservoir properties were considered to be the essential features. In the case of toxic wastes, microseismic monitoring and regular well interference or tracer tests might be additional measures used to increase confidence in the containment method. Given the recent introduction of SFI technology, guarding against over-regulation was recommended to allow SFI to operate under the most effective operating conditions, and to preserve its attractiveness as an environmentally attractive and safe waste disposal alternative. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  19. Drilling mud and cement slurry rheology manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    This book is not primarily concerned with theory. Its basic approach is practical. It has attempted to present a logical treatment which will be easy to apply in practice. As a result, certain computing methods were omitted, and precision sometimes has to be sacrificed to simplicity. However, no apology is made for the use of such approximations; in fact, any attempt at rigor would be doomed to failure, in view of the many inherent factors which do not lend themselves to quantitative treatment. Chapter 1: deals with fundamental concepts. Chapter 2: refers to the general principles involved in determining rheological parameters of drilling fluids and cement slurries. Chapter 3: relates to practical methods for using the results obtained in the first two Chapters, in units employed on the worksite. It is primarily intended for technicians called upon to make ''hydraulic'' computations during drilling. Chapter 4: contains several examples.

  20. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D. [IIT Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  1. PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy's, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period

  2. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v and 1.95% (v/v respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v. Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR, while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent.

  3. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  4. Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples

  5. Interactions between Soil Texture and Placement of Dairy Slurry Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    soils. We compared leaching of slurry-applied bromide through intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) of differing textures following surface application or injection of slurry. The volumetric fraction of soil pores >30 μm ranged from 43% in a loamy sand to 28% in a sandy loam and 15% in a loam...... physical protection against leaching of bromide was reflected by 60.2% of the bromide tracer was recovered in the effluent after injection, compared with 80.6% recovery after surface application. No effect of slurry injection was observed in the loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Our findings point to soil...

  6. Use of radiation-induced polymers in cement slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.; Gogarty, W.B.

    1976-01-01

    Water loss from cement slurries is reduced by incorporating within a cement slurry a polymer obtained as a product of radiation-induced polymerization of acrylamide and/or methacrylamide and acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, and/or alkali metal salts thereof. The polymerization is preferably carried out in 10-60 percent aqueous monomer solution with gamma radiation. The aqueous monomer solution preferably contains 25-99 percent acrylamide and 75-1 percent sodium acrylate. The polymer can be present in concentration of about 0.001 to about 3.0 weight percent, based on the aqueous phase of the slurry

  7. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, M. G. Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita

    2016-01-01

    at a rate of 50 t ha(-1) and followed with four irrigation events: 3.5-h period at 10 mm h(-1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The disturbed columns delayed the leaching of a conservative tracer and microorganisms in the first irrigation event compared to the intact columns due to the effect of disturbed...... macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect...... of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils...

  8. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi

    The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly to examine the relationship between dry matter content (DM) and specific gravity (SG) and viscosity in slurry and the liquid fraction from slurry separation, and secondly to investigate the potential of energy production from combustion of manure fibre...... from slurry separation and phosphorus (P) fertilizer production from recycling of the ash. Manure fibre has a positive calorific value and may be used as a CO2-neutral fuel for combustion. The ashes from combustion are rich in P, an essential fertilizer compound. The study is based on samples of animal...

  9. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    different slurry separation technologies have been assessed and compared to a business-as-usual reference slurry management scenario. The results show that the environmental benefits of such biogas production are highly dependent upon the efficiency of the separation technology used to concentrate......This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involving...... the volatile solids in the solid fraction. The biogas scenario involving the most efficient separation technology resulted in a dry matter separation efficiency of 87% and allowed a net reduction of the global warming potential of 40%, compared to the reference slurry management. This figure comprises...

  10. Progress on radioactive waste slurry incineration with oxygen and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, M.; Hayashi, M.; Oda, I.; Nonaka, N.; Kuwayama, K.; Shigeta, T.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactive waste (radwaste) slurry generated from the nuclear power plant operation, such as spent ion-exchange resins (powdered, bead), fire-retardant oils including phosphate ester and concentrated laundry (by the wet method) liquid waste, has been stored in an untreated condition on the plant site. Recently, since the Condensate Filter Demineralizer (CFD) has been applied in advanced BWR plants, the discharged volume of untreated spent powered resin slurry has been increasing steadily. TEE and NCE have been developing an effective new volume reduction system to treat this radwaste slurry based on an innovative incineration concept. The new system is called the IOS process, the feature of which is incineration with oxygen and steam admixture instead of conventional air. The IOS process, which consists mainly of high heat load incineration with slurry atomization, and combustion gas cooling and condensation by the wet method, has several advantages which are summarized in this paper

  11. A study on the treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Moon, J.S.; Jung, K.J.

    1998-12-01

    The influence of anionic flocculants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries has been investigated in a laboratory-scale vacuum filtration unit. Simultaneously the influence of certain surfactants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries with anionic flocculants has also been investigated. Test results show that the flocculated filter cake generally contains higher residual water than the unflocculated cake. The non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 was effective in reducing the moisture content of the cake

  12. A study on the treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Moon, J.S.; Jung, K.J

    1998-12-01

    The influence of anionic flocculants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries has been investigated in a laboratory-scale vacuum filtration unit. Simultaneously the influence of certain surfactants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries with anionic flocculants has also been investigated. Test results show that the flocculated filter cake generally contains higher residual water than the unflocculated cake. The non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 was effective in reducing the moisture content of the cake.

  13. Improved system for pumping slurry of gel explosives into boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, T K; Clay, R B; Udy, L L

    1967-05-16

    A method is described for injecting an explosive slurry into a borehole containing water. The slurry is heavier than water and is pumped through the tubing to a depth close to the bottom of the well. Injection is continued until all water has been displaced above the lower end of the tubing. This type of immiscible displacement results in substantially no mixing between the water and the explosive. (15 claims)

  14. Comparison of catalytic ethylene polymerization in slurry and gas phase

    OpenAIRE

    Daftaribesheli, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) with the annual consumption of 70 million tones in 2007 is mostly produced in slurry, gas-phase or combination of both processes. This work focuses on a comparison between the slurry and gas phase processes. Why does PE produced in theses two processes can show extremely different properties and extremely different reaction behaviour even if the same Ziegler-Natta (ZN) catalyst is used? Generally, it is known that the reason can be found in the differences of local condition...

  15. Environmental consequences of future biogas technologies based on separated slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn M

    2011-07-01

    This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involving different slurry separation technologies have been assessed and compared to a business-as-usual reference slurry management scenario. The results show that the environmental benefits of such biogas production are highly dependent upon the efficiency of the separation technology used to concentrate the volatile solids in the solid fraction. The biogas scenario involving the most efficient separation technology resulted in a dry matter separation efficiency of 87% and allowed a net reduction of the global warming potential of 40%, compared to the reference slurry management. This figure comprises the whole slurry life cycle, including the flows bypassing the biogas plant. This study includes soil carbon balances and a method for quantifying the changes in yield resulting from increased nitrogen availability as well as for quantifying mineral fertilizers displacement. Soil carbon balances showed that between 13 and 50% less carbon ends up in the soil pool with the different biogas alternatives, as opposed to the reference slurry management.

  16. Effect of lapping slurry on critical cutting depth of spinel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhan-kui; Wang, Zhuan-kui; Zhu, Yong-wei; Su, Jian-xiu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Measured spinel wafers’ hardness and crack length in different slurries. • Evaluated the softened layer thickness in different slurries. • Discussed the effect of slurries on critical cutting depth of spinel. - Abstract: The critical cutting depth for lapping process is very important because it influences the mode of material removal. In this paper, a serial of microscopic indentation experiments were carried out for measuring spinel wafers’ hardness and crack length in different lapping slurries. Their critical cutting depth and fracture toughness were calculated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was also employed to study the surface chemical composition and softened layer thickness of wafers in different slurries. Experimental results indicate that the softened layers of spinel wafers are formed due to the corrosion of lapping slurries, which leads to a lower hardness and a larger fracture toughness of samples, and increases the critical cutting depth. Among them, the critical cutting depth in ethylene glycol solution is the largest and up to 21.8 nm. The increase of critical cutting depth is helpful to modify the surface quality of the work-piece being lapped via ductile removal mode instead of brittle fracture mode

  17. Experimental study on the rheological behaviour of coal ash slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assefa K.M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental investigations were carried out to evaluate the rheological behaviour of fly ash (FA slurry without and with the addition of bottom ash (BA and BA slurry without and with the addition of FA. The FA slurries exhibited Bingham behaviour at solid mass concentrations ranging from 60–65% and mixing proportions from 10– 40%. A substantial reduction in yield stress was observed except for mixing proportion of 40% on which the yield stress and viscosity were increased drastically for all solid concentrations. Hence, it can be concluded that the yield stress and viscosity of FA slurry were very much influenced by adding BA up to the mixing proportion of 30%. The rheological behaviour of BA slurries with and without the addition of FA in proportions of 10–50% was investigated and exhibited Newtonian behaviours for solid mass concentrations ranging from 30–50% without and with the addition of FA. The viscosity increases with increasing the solid concentrations and proportion of FA. Based on these experimental data, a correlation was developed to predict the relative viscosity of BA slurries as a function of solid volume fraction and FA mass proportion of 0–50% and the RMSE and R2 values showed good agreement between the experimental and the predicted data.

  18. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  19. A simple biofilter for treatment of pig slurry in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, S G; Mathanpaal, G; Dass, G T

    2005-03-01

    On commercial pig production farms in South East (SE) Asia, the liquid effluent is often discharged into rivers. The discharge is a hazard to the environment and to the health of people using water from the river either for consumption or for irrigation. Therefore, a simple percolation biofilter for treatment of the liquid effluent was developed. Pig slurry was treated in test-biofilters packed with different biomass for the purpose of selecting the most efficient material, thereafter the efficiency of the biofilter was examined at farm scale with demo biofilters using the most efficient material. The effect of using "Effective Microorganisms" (EM) added to slurry that was treated with biofilter material mixed with Glenor KR+ was examined. Slurry treatment in the test-biofilters indicated that rice straw was better than coconut husks, wood shavings, rattan strips and oil palm fronds in reducing BOD. Addition of EM and Glenor KR+ to slurry and biofilter material, respectively, had no effect on the temperature of the biofilter material or on the concentrations of organic and inorganic components of the treated slurry. The BOD of slurry treated in test biofilters is reduced to between 80 and 637 mg O2 I(-1) and in the demo biofilter to between 3094 and 3376 mg O2 l(-1). The concentration of BOD in the effluent is related to the BOD in the slurry being treated and the BOD concentration in slurry treated in test biofilters was lower than BOD of slurry treated in demo biofilters. The demo biofilter can reduce BOD to between 52 an 56% of the original value, and TSS, COD (chemical oxygen demand) and ammonium (NH4+) to 41-55% of the original slurry. The treated effluent could not meet the standards for discharge to rivers. The composted biofilter material has a high content of nitrogen and phosphorus; consequently, the fertilizer value of the compost is high. The investments costs were 123 US dollar per SPP which has to be reduced if this method should be a treatment option

  20. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  1. Physical Characterization of Solid-Liquid Slurries at High Weight Fractions Using Optical and Ultrasonic Methods. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, Lloyd W.

    2009-01-01

    Remediation of highly radioactive waste is a major technical and programmatic challenge for the DOE. Rapid, on-line physical characterization of highly concentrated slurries is required for the safe and efficient remediation of 90 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (HLW), sodium bearing waste, and mixed waste. The research presented here, describes a collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington to directly address the need for rapid on-line characterization of the physical properties of HLW slurries during all phases of the remediation process, from in-tank characterization of sediments to monitoring of the concentration, particle size, and degree of agglomeration and gelation of slurries during transport. Near-surface characterization of the slurry flow in the particle size range from nanometer to micrometer is examined using optical low coherence reflectometry. Volumetric characterization at depths in the slurry flow, up to several centimeters in the particle size range from the micrometer to millimeter, is realized by utilizing ultrasonic backscatter and diffuses fields. One of the strengths, the teaming up of significant talents in both experimental and theoretical optics (University of Washington) and in ultrasonics (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)) provides a synergistic approach to integrate these complimentary techniques. One of the benefits of this combined approach is the physical characterization of HLW over a concentration and particle size range that is broader than can be achieved with today's technology. This will avoid a costly increase in waste stream volume due to excess dilution, and will lessen chance of plugging pipes that could shut down expensive processing lines.

  2. Experimental study of the thermal characteristics of phase change slurries for active cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W.; Tassou, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Tween 60 and hexadecanol can be employed to produce paraffin-in-water emulsions. ► Paraffin with longer carbon chain than the paraffin in the emulsion can act as nucleate agent to reduce supercooling. ► Increasing the quantity of paraffin increases the viscosity of the emulsion. ► Antifreeze and traces of thickener can cause a significant increase to the viscosity of the emulsion. ► Well prepared emulsions are stable with storage and thermal cycles. -- Abstract: Phase change materials (PCMs) are increasingly being used for thermal energy storage in buildings and industry to produce energy savings and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. PCM slurries are also being investigated for active thermal energy storage or as alternatives to conventional single phase fluids because they are pumpable and have advanced heat transport performance with phase change. The present study investigates several types of phase change materials for the preparation of PCM slurries which have potential for cooling applications. The thermophysical properties of paraffin in water emulsions, such as latent heat of fusion, melting and freezing temperature ranges, viscosity and the effect of surfactants, have been tested using appropriate experimental techniques. It has been identified that the use of small quantities of higher melting temperature paraffin and surfactants in the emulsion can reduce the effect of supercooling and increase the useful heat of fusion. However there are negative impacts on viscosity which should be considered in heat transport applications.

  3. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  4. Predicting wear of hydrotransport pipelines in oil sand slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Been, J.; Lu, B.; Wolodko, J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kiel, D. [Coanda Research and Development Corp., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An overview of erosion and corrosion methods and techniques was presented. Wear to pipelines is influenced by slurry flow and chemistry; solids loading; and electrochemical interactions. While several experimental techniques have been developed to rank the performance of different pipeline materials, experiments do not currently provide accurate quantitative prediction of pipeline wear in the field. Rotating cylinder electrodes (RCE) and jet impingement methods are used to study the effect of flow velocity on corrosion rate. Slurry pot erosion-corrosion testers are used to rank materials for use in more dilute, less turbulent slurries. Coriolois slurry erosion testers are used to rank the erosion resistance of different pipeline materials. A pilot-scale flow loop is now being constructed by the Alberta Research Council (ARC) in order to replicate wet erosion phenomena in oil sands applications. The flow loop will be used to simulate the field conditions of oil sands pipelines and develop predictive wear data and models. Coulombic shear stress and characteristic wall velocities have been determined using a 2-layer model designed to represent flow as 2 distinct layers. To date, the flow loop pilot study has demonstrated that wear rates in smaller diameter flow loops are not significantly different than larger diameter field installations. Preliminary calculations have demonstrated that the flow loop can be used to accurately simulate the hydrodynamics and wear typically experienced in field slurry flows. 67 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  5. Methane Fermentation of Slurry with Chemical and Biological Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Smurzyńska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of proper slurry management is primarily present in intensive livestock production. Industrialized livestock farms generate enormous quantities of manure droppings in a livestock-litter-free system. The traditional management of slurry is made by using it as a fertilizer. Alternative techniques used for neutralizing the detrimental effect of slurry are based on the use of chemical and biological additives, as well as by introducing aerobic environment through aerobic or anaerobic digestion, leading to methane fermentation. In the experiment, cattle manure was used, which came from the Przybroda farm belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Poznan. The aim of the study was to determine the biogas yield of slurry using the chemical and biological additive available on the Polish market. Mesophilic and thermophilic fermentation was used for the indication of the effectiveness of the employed fermentation process. The slurry was supplemented by a biological and chemical additive, i.e. effective microorganisms and – PRP, respectively. The experiment allowed to achieve a higher biogas yield during the use of effective microorganisms.

  6. Gas migration through cement slurries analysis: A comparative laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arian Velayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cementing is an essential part of every drilling operation. Protection of the wellbore from formation fluid invasion is one of the primary tasks of a cement job. Failure in this task results in catastrophic events, such as blow outs. Hence, in order to save the well and avoid risky and operationally difficult remedial cementing, slurry must be optimized to be resistant against gas migration phenomenon. In this paper, performances of the conventional slurries facing gas invasion were reviewed and compared with modified slurry containing special gas migration additive by using fluid migration analyzer device. The results of this study reveal the importance of proper additive utilization in slurry formulations. The rate of gas flow through the slurry in neat cement is very high; by using different types of additives, we observe obvious changes in the performance of the cement system. The rate of gas flow in neat class H cement was reported as 36000 ml/hr while the optimized cement formulation with anti-gas migration and thixotropic agents showed a gas flow rate of 13.8 ml/hr.

  7. Protozoan predation in soil slurries compromises determination of contaminant mineralization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R.; Brandt, Kristian K.; Sørensen, Jan; Aamand, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Soil suspensions (slurries) are commonly used to estimate the potential of soil microbial communities to mineralize organic contaminants. The preparation of soil slurries disrupts soil structure, however, potentially affecting both the bacterial populations and their protozoan predators. We studied the importance of this “slurry effect” on mineralization of the herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, 14 C-labelled), focussing on the effects of protozoan predation. Mineralization of MCPA was studied in “intact” soil and soil slurries differing in soil:water ratio, both in the presence and absence of the protozoan activity inhibitor cycloheximide. Protozoan predation inhibited mineralization in dense slurry of subsoil (soil:water ratio 1:3), but only in the most dilute slurry of topsoil (soil:water ratio 1:100). Our results demonstrate that protozoan predation in soil slurries may compromise quantification of contaminant mineralization potential, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low and their growth is controlled by predation during the incubation period. - Highlights: ► We studied the protozoan impact on MCPA mineralization in soil slurries. ► Cycloheximide was used as protozoan inhibitor. ► Protozoa inhibited MCPA mineralization in dilute topsoil slurry and subsoil slurry. ► Mineralization potentials may be underestimated when using soil slurries. - Protozoan predation may strongly bias the quantification of mineralization potential when performed in soil slurries, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low such as in subsoil or very dilute topsoil slurries.

  8. Cold distribution networks. Cold distribution by two-phase refrigerant fluid. Case of ice slurries; Reseaux de distribution de froid. Distribution de froid par fluide frigoporteur diphasique. Cas du coulis de glace stabilisee (2002 - 2004). Rapport final (1er juillet 2004). Programme energie. PRI 9.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL), UMR 5008, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Mercier, P. [CEA Grenoble, Groupement pour la Recherche sur les Echangeurs Thermiques (GRETH), 38 (France); Royon, L. [Paris-1 Univ., Lab. de Biorheologie et d' Hydrodynamique Physico-Chimique, 75 (France); Dumas, J.P. [L' Ecole Nationale Superieure en Genie des Technologies Industrielles, Lab. de Thermique Energetique et Procedes, 64 - Pau (France); Guilpart, J. [URGPAN/CEMAGRE, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2004-07-01

    This PRI aims to participate to the development of alternate solutions for refrigerant fluids, for the cold transport and more specially a two phase refrigerant fluid: the stabilized ice slurry. The research program presented three main axis: design, realization and characterization of stabilized ice slurry, experimental studies of transport and transfer properties, study of online measurement process of the solid content. A simulation has been realized to evaluate the energy efficiency of this refrigerant use. (A.L.B.)

  9. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  10. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1985-11-05

    The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

  11. Gas distribution effects on waste properties: Viscosities of bubbly slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Shah, R.R.; Davis, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns for double-shell tanks that contain waste slurries. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to develop models for the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of a particulate slurry, develop an experimental method (capillary rheometer), collect data on the viscosity of a bubbly slurry, and develop a theoretical basis for interpreting the experimental data from the capillary rheometer

  12. Radioactive waste slurry dehydrating and drum filling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihashi, Toshio; Abe, Kazuaki; Hasegawa, Akira

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a device for simultaneously filling and dehydrating radioactive waste in a waste can without the necessity of a special device for dehydration. Constitution: This device includes a radioactive waste storage tank, a pump for supplying the waste from the tank to a can, a drain tube having a filter at the lower end and installed displaceable in the axial direction of the can, and a drain pump. The slurry stored in the radioactive waste storage tank is supplied by the pump to the can, and the feedwater in the slurry is removed by another pump through a drain pipe having a filter which does not pass solid content from the can. Accordingly, as the slurry is filled in the can, the feedwater contained therein is removed. Consequently, it can simultaneously dehydrate and fill the dehydrated waste in the can. (Yoshihara, H.)

  13. Microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liandong; Yan, Cheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-11-01

    Microalgal growth requires a substantial amount of chemical fertilizers. An alternative to the utilization of fertilizer is to apply biogas slurry produced through anaerobic digestion to cultivate microalgae for the production of biofuels. Plenty of studies have suggested that anaerobic digestate containing high nutrient contents is a potentially feasible nutrient source to culture microalgae. However, current literature indicates a lack of review available regarding microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for the production of biofuels. To help fill this gap, this review highlights the integration of digestate nutrient management with microalgal production. It first unveils the current status of microalgal production, providing basic background to the topic. Subsequently, microalgal cultivation technologies using biogas slurry are discussed in detail. A scale-up scheme for simultaneous biogas upgrade and digestate application through microalgal cultivation is then proposed. Afterwards, several uncertainties that might affect this practice are explored. Finally, concluding remarks are put forward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Fast and Efficient Dehydration Process for Waste Drilling Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, slurry system was converted to colloid from fluid with the colloidization of high polymer coagulants with high viscosity. The solid-liquid separation of the waste slurry was realized by the process of chemical colloidal gel breaking, coagulation function, acidification gelout. In addition, the surface morphology of slurry cake was investigated by using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. The results indicate that mud separation effect is decides on the type of flocculants, gel breaker. The solid content of mud cake increases from 40.5% to 77.5% when A-PA and H20 are employed as the flocculants, gelout, with the dosage of zero point four grams and zero point five grams.

  15. Effect of irrigation regimes on mobilization of nonreactive tracers and dissolved and particulate phosphorus in slurry-injected soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    affected by the irrigation regime. These results highlight that nonequilibrium exchange dynamics are important when evaluating processes affecting mobilization and transport in structured soils. Leaching experiments, including cycles of irrigation interruptions and gravitational drainage, thus, adds......Understanding the mobilization processes of phosphorus (P) in the plow layer are essential to quantify potential P losses and suggest management strategies to reduce P losses. This study is aimed at examining nonequilibrium exchange dynamics on the mobilization of slurry-amended Br−, and dissolved...... and particulate P in slurry-injected soils. We compared leaching from intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) under unsaturated flow (suction at the lower boundary of 5 hPa) subjected to continuous irrigation at 2 mm hr−1, and intermittent irrigation at 2 mm hr−1 and 10 mm hr−1 to with interruptions of 10 h...

  16. Startup of a Joule-heated glass melter with a graphite slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.L.; Routt, K.R.; Porter, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the theoretical equations and physical and electrical property data of various graphite slurries for starting up a glass melter. An application test is also included to demonstrate the graphite slurry startup technique

  17. REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION OF A NITROGEN HETEROCYCLIC HERBICIDE IN ANOXIC AQUIFER SLURRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the metabolic fate of bromacil in anaerobic aquifer slurries held under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, or methanogenic conditions. Liquid chromatograhy-mass spectrometry of the slurries confirmed that bromacil was debrominated under methanogenic conditions but was not...

  18. Method and apparatus for in-situ drying investigation and optimization of slurry drying methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Howe, Jane Y.; Kiggans, Jr, James O.; Sabau, Adrian S.; Wood, III, David L.; Kalnaus, Sergiy

    2016-05-10

    A method of drying casted slurries that includes calculating drying conditions from an experimental model for a cast slurry and forming a cast film. An infrared heating probe is positioned on one side of the casted slurry and a thermal probe is positioned on an opposing side of the casted slurry. The infrared heating probe may control the temperature of the casted slurry during drying. The casted slurry may be observed with an optical microscope, while applying the drying conditions from the experimental model. Observing the casted slurry includes detecting the incidence of micro-structural changes in the casted slurry during drying to determine if the drying conditions from the experimental model are optimal.

  19. Technical report on treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Jo, Eun Sung; Park, Seung Kook; Jung, Ki Jung

    1999-06-01

    By literature survey, this report deals with the technology on typical pre-treatment and filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste, produced during the operation of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor, and produced during the decommission/decontamination of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor. It is reviewed pre-treatment procedure, both physical and chemical that optimise the dewatering characteristics, and also surveyed types of dewatering devices based on centrifuges, vacuum and pressure filters with particular reference to various combined field approaches using two or more complementary driving forces to achieve better performance. Dewatering operations and devises on filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste are also analysed. (author)

  20. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  1. Slurry Coating System Statement of Work and Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The Slurry Coating System will be used to coat crystals with a polymer to support Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS) research and development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The crystals will be suspended in water in a kettle. A polymer solution is added, temperature of the kettle is raised and aggregates of the crystals and polymer form. The slurry is heated under vacuum to drive off the solvents and slowly cooled while mixing to room temperature. The resulting aggregates are then filtered and dried. The performance characteristics and fielding constraints define a unique set of requirements for a new system. This document presents the specifications and requirements for the system.

  2. Corrosion behavior of austempered ductile iron (ADI) in iron ore slurry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corrosion behavior of austempered ductile iron (ADI) in iron ore slurry was studied as a function of the microstructure developed by austempering at 380 and 300°C for different exposure time in the slurry. The corrosion rates of the ADI balls immersed in the iron ore slurry was determined using weight loss method.

  3. Effects of acidifying pig diets on emissions of ammonia, methane and sulfur from slurry during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    and feces were collected separately from twenty-four pigs fed one of four diets (Control, +BA, +CaCl2, +BA+CaCl2) in metabolic cages, and mixed as slurry. During 103 days of storage, all acidifying diets consistently reduced pH in the slurry by 0.4 - 0.6 units. There was a strong relationship between slurry...

  4. Effects of different treatments of cattle slurry manure on water-extractable phosphorus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapuis-Lardy, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cattle slurry manure applied to land increases the risk of phosphorus (P) movement to surface waters, which may lead to eutrophication. The water-extractable fraction of P in slurry manure is correlated with P concentration in runoff from soils amended with slurry smanure, and thus is an effective

  5. Draught requirement of trailing foot and shallow injection equipment for applying slurry to grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Hendriks, J.L.G.; Vermeulen, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    Surface spreading of slurry leads to the inevitable emission of ammonia into the environment. Injection of slurry on grassland reduces these emissions. However, injection of slurry by deep working injector tines with goose foot chisels (wings) requires high draught forces. This type of injection has

  6. Multi-element determinations of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) coal slurries using ICP-OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Mujuru; R.I. McCrindle; B.M. Botha; P.P. Ndibewu [Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa). Department of Chemistry

    2009-04-15

    A slurry nebulisation technique was applied for elemental analysis of bituminous coals SARM 18, SARM 19 and four coals from three different seams in Witbank, South Africa, by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, S, Si and Ti) and trace elements (Ba, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, Zn and Zr) in coal were determined. Various slurry preparations were evaluated using two dispersants (glycerol and Triton X-100) and by varying the concentration of dispersants, between 0.1% and 1.0% (v/v). The effect of initially solubilising the ground coal in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was investigated by varying the volume of DMF added. The effect of wet grinding with DMF was investigated. Wet grinding with DMF was shown to drastically reduce particle sizes (50.0% < 0.28 m and 90.0% < 6.17 {mu}m) as compared to dry grinding (50.0% < 5.25 {mu}m and 90.0% < 11.1 {mu}m). The reduced particle sizes and increased transport efficiency of the coal slurries led to improved analytical recoveries of elements in the reference coal, SARM 18. The best analytical recoveries for all elements were achieved using 0.1% Triton X-100 with 10.0% DMF. Results obtained by ICP-OES after wet grinding of the coal with DMF, using 0.1% Triton X-100, also gave excellent recoveries (Al, 100%; Ca, 103%; Cr, 106%; Fe, 102%; Mg, 100%; Mn, 104%; Ni, 109%; Si, 102%; Ti, 95.0%; and V, 108%). The results obtained with 10.0% DMF and 0.1% Triton X-100 were in agreement with certified values for all selected elements according to paired t-test at the 95.0% confidence level. Selected elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and V) were also analysed with X-ray fluorescence for comparison with results obtained from ICP-OES. Analysis by ICP-OES of microwave digested coal was also carried out. It is suggested that the DMF slurry technique could be used for routine analysis of bituminous coals. 27 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  8. Acoustic Monitor for Liquid-Solid Slurries Measurements at Low Weight Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavlarides, L. L.; Sangani, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Lee, J. S.; Dievendorf, E.

    2003-01-01

    The principal objective of the project is to develop an acoustic probe for determining the weight fraction of particles in a flowing suspension. The suspension can be solid-liquid (S-L) or solid-gas-liquid (S-G-L). The work will include testing the theory of acoustic wave propagation in suspensions and demonstrating the application of the probe by installing it on a flow loop through which a suspension is flowing and determining the particle weight fraction. The signal from the probe must be processed such that the noise arising from the presence of gas bubbles is removed to yield an accurate estimate of the particle weight fraction. Particular attention will be given to testing suspensions with low particle weight fractions since slurries to be transported in nuclear waste processing will have low particle weight fractions. Originally, the probe was to be developed and tested at Syracuse University (SU) then installed and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) for surrogate slurries from the Hanford Nuclear site. However, after discussions between SU and ORNL in June 2002 it was agreed that all tests would be conducted at SU

  9. Acoustic Monitor for Liquid-Solid Slurries Measurements at Low Weight Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavlarides, L. L.; Sangani, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Lee, J. S.; Dievendorf, E.

    2002-01-01

    The principal objective of the project is to develop an acoustic probe for determining the weight fraction of particles in a flowing suspension. The suspension can be solid-liquid (S-L) or solid-gas-liquid (S-G-L). The work will include testing the theory of acoustic wave propagation in suspensions and demonstrating the application of the probe by installing it on a flow loop through which a suspension is flowing and determining the particle weight fraction. The signal from the probe must be processed such that the noise arising from the presence of gas bubbles is removed to yield an accurate estimate of the particle weight fraction. Particular attention will be given to testing suspensions with low particle weight fractions since slurries to be transported in nuclear waste processing will have low particle weight fractions. Originally, the probe was to be developed and tested at Syracuse University (SU) then installed and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) for surrogate slurries from the Hanford Nuclear site. However, after discussions between SU and ORNL in June 2002 it was agreed that all tests would be conducted at SU

  10. Heat transfer analyses for grout disposal of radioactive double-shell slurry and customer wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Gilliam, T.M.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1987-04-01

    Grout immobilization is being considered by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell Hanford) as a permanent disposal method for several radioactive waste streams. These include disposal of customer and double-shell slurry wastes in earthen trenches and in single-shell underground waste storage tanks. Heat transfer studies have previously been made to determine the maximum heat loading for grout disposal of various wastes under similar conditions, but a sensitivity analysis of temperature profiles to input parameters was needed. This document presents the results of heat transfer calculations for trenches containing grouted customer and double-shell slurry wastes and for in situ disposal of double-shell wastes in single-shell, domed concrete storage tanks. It discusses the conditions that lead to maximum grout temperatures of 250 0 F during the curing stage and 350 0 F thereafter and shows the dependence of these temperatures on input parameters such as soil and grout thermal conductivity, grout specific heat, waste loading, and disposal geometries. Transient heat transfer calculations were made using the HEATING6 computer code to predict temperature profiles in solidified low-level radioactive waste disposal scenarios at the Rockwell Hanford site. The calculations provide guidance for the development of safe, environmentally acceptable grout formulas for the Transportable Grout Facility. 11 refs

  11. Microencapsulated PCM slurries for heat transfer and energy storage in spacecraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, David P.; Mulligan, James C.; Bryant, Yvonne G.; Duncan, John L.; Gravely, Benjamin T.

    1992-01-01

    The technical feasibility for providing significantly enhanced heat transport and storage as well as improved thermal control has been investigated during several Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) programs for NASA, the United States Air Force (USAF), and the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) using microencapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) in both aqueous and nonaqueous two-component slurries. In the program for SDIO, novel two-component coolant fluids were prepared and successfully tested at both low (300 K) and intermediate temperatures (460 to 700 K). The two-component fluid slurries of microencapsulated PCMs included organic particles in aqueous and nonaqueous liquids, as well as microencapsulated metals that potentially could be carried by liquid metals or used as powdered heat sinks. Simulation and experimental studies showed that such active cooling systems could be designed and operated with enhancements of heat capacity that exceeded 10 times or 1000 percent that for the base fluid along with significant enhancement in the fluid's heat capacity. Furthermore, this enhancement provided essentially isothermal conditions throughout the pumped primary coolant fluid loop. The results suggest that together with much higher fluid thermal capacity, greater uniformity of temperature is achievable with such fluids, and that significant reductions in pumping power, system size, and system mass are also possible.

  12. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O' Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  13. Agronomic valuing of slurry for management in common

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, M.; Estevez, M. D.; Faz, A.; Olivares, A. B.; Climent, V.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the intensification of livestock production and the concentration of holdings in specific areas, has disrupted the balance between production and utilization of swine waste in agriculture. given the volume of slurry generated in Murcia, and the total cultivable area and considering the legislation, RD 261/1996, which allows a maximum application of 170 kg N/ha year in areas designated as vulnerable, it is estimated that to implement the slurry generated in the region in a year, would require only half the arable land devoted to irrigation. In this way, this study has included detailed monitoring of the effect of the application of ping slurry at a concentration recommended on the properties and chemical, physical and biological properties of soil, water and plant to determine the influence of slurry on the reserve of organic matter in each of these crops, as well as contaminated soils, through the creation of a pilot system for managing livestock waste in accordance with preventive measures that allow for their optimal use, without risk of contamination for the system water-soil-plant. (Author 6 refs.

  14. Mineralenconcentraten uit dierlijke mest = Mineral concentrates from animal slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, P.; Buisonjé, de F.E.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 6 pilot production plants of mineral concentrates from animal manure were monitored, with the aim of gathering additional data on the chemical composition of the raw slurry and the end products. Beside that a literature review was executed to reveal the biological degradability of

  15. Radioactive slurry waste treatment (2) - surfactants dose effects on filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Jung, W. S.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of anionic flocculants on the dewatering of radioactive slurries has been investigated in a laboratory-scale vacuum filtration unit. Simultaneously the influence of certain surfactants has also been investigated. Test results show that the flocculated filter cake generally contains higher residual water than the unflocculated cake. The non-ionic surfactant was effective in reducing the moisture content of the cake

  16. Developing Archetypal Machines for a Sequence of Food- Slurry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This current work is targeted at developing various archetypal machines for the improvement of the production of these food slurries. Three prototype machines have been developed and discussed in this paper, namely, the suction sieving machine, the vibration sieving machine and the continuous flow multi-stage milling ...

  17. Automated injection of slurry samples in flow-injection analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsman, M.H.F.M.; Hulsman, M.; Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of injectors are described for introducing solid samples as slurries in flow analysis systems. A time-based and a volume-based injector based on multitube solenoid pinch valves were built, both can be characterized as hydrodynamic injectors. Reproducibility of the injections of dispersed

  18. Rheokinetic Analysis of Hydroxy Terminated Polybutadiene Based Solid Propellant Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay K Mahanta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cure kinetics of propellant slurry based on hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB and toluene diisocyanate (TDI polyurethane reaction has been studied by viscosity build up method. The viscosity (ɳ–time (t plots conform to the exponential function ɳ = aebt, where a & b are empirical constants. The rate constants (k for viscosity build up at various shear rate (rpm, evaluated from the slope of dɳ/dt versus ɳ plots at different temperatures, were found to vary from 0.0032 to 0.0052 min-1. It was observed that the increasing shear rate did not have significant effect on the reaction rate constants for viscosity build up of the propellant slurry. The activation energy (Eɳ, calculated from the Arrhenius plots, was found to be 13.17±1.78 kJ mole-1, whereas the activation enthalpy (∆Hɳ* and entropy (∆Sɳ* of the propellant slurry, calculated from Eyring relationship, were found to be 10.48±1.78 kJ mole-1 and –258.51± 5.38 J mole-1K-1, respectively. The reaction quenching temperature of the propellant slurry was found to be -9 ° C, based upon the experimental data. This opens up an avenue for a “freeze-and-store”, then “warm-up and cast”, mode of manufacturing of very large solid rocket propellant grains.

  19. The effect of slurry rheology on cold cap formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, D.D.; Hrma, P.

    1991-01-01

    Yield stress, viscosity, and flow distance were measured on three simulated nuclear waste feeds at different temperatures and oxide loadings. Hydroxide, formate, and frit feeds, to produce glass of identical composition, were tested. Application of the results to a slurry fed waste glass melter is discussed

  20. A layered model for inclined pipe flow of settling slurry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Václav; Krupička, Jan; Kesely, Mikoláš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 333, June (2018), s. 317-326 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-14271S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : inclined pipe * settling slurry * pressure drop * flow stratification * laboratory loop Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2016

  1. Debris flow rheology: Experimental analysis of fine-grained slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    The rheology of slurries consisting of ≤2-mm sediment from a natural debris flow deposit was measured using a wide-gap concentric-cylinder viscometer. The influence of sediment concentration and size and distribution of grains on the bulk rheological behavior of the slurries was evaluated at concentrations ranging from 0.44 to 0.66. The slurries exhibit diverse rheological behavior. At shear rates above 5 s−1 the behavior approaches that of a Bingham material; below 5 s−1, sand exerts more influence and slurry behavior deviates from the Bingham idealization. Sand grain interactions dominate the mechanical behavior when sand concentration exceeds 0.2; transient fluctuations in measured torque, time-dependent decay of torque, and hysteresis effects are observed. Grain rubbing, interlocking, and collision cause changes in packing density, particle distribution, grain orientation, and formation and destruction of grain clusters, which may explain the observed behavior. Yield strength and plastic viscosity exhibit order-of-magnitude variation when sediment concentration changes as little as 2–4%. Owing to these complexities, it is unlikely that debris flows can be characterized by a single rheological model.

  2. Life cycle assessment of biogas from separated slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, L.; Wesnaes, M.; Wenzel, H. (Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)); Molt Petersen, B. (Aarhus Univ.. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The environmental aspects of biogas production based on pre-treated slurry from fattening pigs and dairy cows have been investigated in a life cycle perspective. The pre-treatment consists of concentrating the slurry using a separation technology. Significant environmental benefits, compared to the status quo slurry management, can be obtained for both pig and cow slurry, especially regarding reductions of the contributions to global warming, but the results depend to a large extent on the efficiency of the separation technology. Adding separation after the biogas plant can contribute to a more efficient management of the phosphorus, and this has also been investigated. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that: 1) The environmental benefits of biogas from separated slurry are very dependent upon the separation efficiency (for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous). This particularly applies for carbon, as the separation efficiency defines the extent to which the degradable carbon contained in the slurry is transferred to the biogas plant. Efficient separation can be obtained by using polymer, but also by using a suitable separation technology. It could be mentioned that the decanter centrifuge used has a rather high efficiency of transferring volatile solids (VS) to the fibre fraction also without the use of polymer. 2) Biogas production from separated slurry can lead to significant reductions in the contributions to global warming, provided that the 'best available technologies' described in the report are used. That includes, among others: - a covered and short time storage of the fibre fraction before entering the biogas plant, - a 2-step biogas production where the post-digestion tank is covered with air-tight cover, - a covered storage of the degassed fibre fraction The benefits are also highly dependent upon the source of energy substituted by the biogas. 3) Based on evidences from reviewed studies, the cationic polyacrylamide polymer

  3. Slurry erosion induced surface nanocrystallization of bulk metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiulin; Wu, Jili; Pi, Jinghong; Cheng, Jiangbo; Shan, Yiping; Zhang, Yingtao

    2018-05-01

    Microstructure evolution and phase transformation of metallic glasses (MGs) could occur under heating condition or mechanical deformation. The cross-section of as-cast Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 MG rod was impacted by the solid particles when subjected to erosion in slurry flow. The surface microstructure was observed by XRD before and after slurry erosion. And the stress-driven de-vitrification increases with the increase of erosion time. A microstructure evolution layer with 1-2 μm thickness was formed on the topmost eroded surface. And a short range atomic ordering prevails in the microstructure evolution layer with crystalline size around 2-3 nm embedded in the amorphous matrix. The XPS analysis reveals that most of the metal elements in the MG surface, except for Cu, were oxidized. And a composite layer with ZrO2 and Al2O3 phases were formed in the topmost surface after slurry erosion. The cooling rate during solidification of MG has a strong influence on the slurry erosion induced nanocrystallization. And a lower cooling rate favors the surface nanocrystallization because of lower activation energy and thermo-stability. Finally, the slurry erosion induced surface nanocrystallization and microstructure evolution result in surface hardening and strengthening. Moreover, the microstructure evolution mechanisms were discussed and it is related to the cooling rate of solidification and the impact-induced temperature rise, as well as the combined effects of the impact-induced plastic flow, inter-diffusion and oxidation of the metal elements.

  4. Aerosols generated by spills of viscous solutions and slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Hodgson, W.H.

    1986-12-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases caused by accidents. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop methods for estimating source terms from these accidents. Experiments were run by spilling viscous solutions and slurries to determine the mass and particle-size distribution of the material made airborne. In all cases, 1 L of solution was spilled from a height of 3 m. Aqueous solutions of sucrose (0 to 56%) gave a range of viscosities from 1.3 to 46 cp. The percent of spill mass made airborne from the spills of these solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.0001. The mass of particles made airborne decreased as solution viscosity increased. Slurry loading ranged from 25 to 51% total solids. The maximum source airborne (0.0046 wt %) occurred with the slurry that had the lightest loading of soluble solids. The viscosity of the carrying solution also had an impact on the source term from spilling slurries. The effect of surface tension on the source term was examined in two experiments. Surface tension was halved in these spills by adding a surfactant. The maximum weight percent airborne from these spills was 0.0045, compared to 0.003 for spills with twice the surface tension. The aerodynamic mass medium diameters for the aerosols produced by spills of the viscous solutions, slurries, and low surface tension liquids ranged from 0.6 to 8.4 μm, and the geometric standard deviation ranged from 3.8 to 28.0

  5. Indian Creek-AML: Coal slurry reclamation (Kansas case history)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witthar, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Black and Veatch, assisted by Jack Nawrot, developed conceptual and final designs and provided construction assistance to create grasslands and wetlands in order to reclaim an abandoned coal mine for the state of Kansas. The mine included spoils, a coal refuse dump, and slurry pond in the Indian Creek drainage basin in east central Kansas. The Indian Creek flowed from an off-site abandoned mine and through the coal slurry pond where its waters became more polluted. The intent of the reclamation project was to improve water quality and create a wildlife refuge. The coal refuse was covered and seeded with a diversity of vegetation including several grasses and legume. The slurry pond was developed into a series of large wetland cells to improve water quality. Prior to reclamation, the water leaving the site had a typical pH of 3.3, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6, an iron content which typically over 22 mg/L and ranging over 100 mg/L, and contained large amounts of coal slurry. The acid sediment in the slurry killed fish and caused visible damage to a new large concrete box culvert several miles downstream of the site. Post-reclamation water quality leaving the Indian Creek site showed immediate improvement even before vegetation was reestablished. The existing wetland treatment systems have been successfully treating water for over seven years with the pH of the water leaving the wetlands above 7 and soluble iron content less than 1 mg/L. Fish in the constructed wetlands support waterfowl which now nest onsite

  6. An Evaluation of a Dual Coriolis Meter System for In-Line Monitoring of Suspended Solids Concentrations in Radioactive Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylton, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes stored in underground tanks at several of its sites. In order to comply with various regulations and to circumvent potential problems associated with tank integrity, these wastes must be retrieved from the tanks, transferred to treatment facilities (or other storage locations), and processed to stable waste forms. The sludge wastes will typically be mobilized by some mechanical means (e.g., mixer pump, submerged jet) and mixed with the respective supernatants to create slurries that can be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. Depending on the DOE site, these slurries may be transferred up to six miles. Since the wastes are radioactive, it is critically important for the transfers to be made without plugging a pipeline. To reduce such a risk, the relevant properties of the slurry (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, and particle size distribution) should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be continuously monitored and controlled within specified limits while the transfer is in progress. The baseline method for determining the transport properties of slurries involves sampling and analysis; however, this method is time-consuming, and costly, and it does not provide real-time information. In addition, personnel who collect and analyze the samples are exposed to radiation. It is also questionable as to whether a laboratory analyst can obtain representative aliquots from the sample jar for these solid-liquid mixtures. The alternative method for determining the transport properties is in-line analysis. An in-line instrument is one that is connected to the process, analyzes the slurry as it flows through or by the instrument, and provides the results within seconds. This instrument can provide immediate feedback to operators so that, when necessary, the operators can respond

  7. Studies on rheological and leaching characteristics of heavy metals through selective additive in high concentration ash slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, P K; Mohapatra, R; Pani, G K; Mishra, B K

    2012-08-30

    The generation and disposal level of thermal power plant ash in India is a challenging task. The conventional mode of dilute phase ash slurry (10-20% solids by weight) transport through pipelines being practiced in majority of these plants not only consumes huge amount of precious water and pumping energy but also causes serious environmental problem at the disposal site. The present study investigates the rheological and leaching characteristics of an Indian ash samples at high solids concentrations (>50% by weight) using sodium silicate as an additive. The flow behaviour of ash slurry in the concentration range of 50-60% by weight is described by a Bingham-plastic model. It was indicated that the addition of sodium silicate (0.2-0.6% of the total solids) could able to reduce both the slurry viscosity and the yield stress. The analysis of the ash samples for the presence of heavy metals such as Fe, Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, Co, As and Hg were carried out following Hansen and Fisher procedure. The addition of sodium silicate affected the leaching characteristics of the ash samples over a period of 300 days resulting in the reduction of leaching of heavy metals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sorption of 17b-Estradiol to Pig Slurry Separates and Soil in the Soil-Slurry Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2012-01-01

    to agricultural soils, to different size fractions of pig slurry separates, and to soils amended with each size fraction to simulate conditions in the soil–slurry environment. A crude fiber fraction (SS1) was prepared by sieving (solids removed by an on-farm separation process. Three other size...... fractions (SS2 > SS3 > SS4) were prepared from the liquid fraction of the separated slurry by sedimentation and centrifugation. Sorption experiments were conducted in 0.01 mol L−1 CaCl2 and in natural pig urine matrix. Sorption in 0.01 mol L−1 CaCl2 was higher than that in pig urine for all solids used....... Sorption of E2 to soil increased with its organic carbon content for both liquid phases. The solid–liquid partition coefficients of slurry separates were 10 to 30 times higher than those of soils, but the organoic carbon normalized partition coefficient values, reflecting sorption per unit organic carbon...

  9. Leaf absorption of atmospheric ammonia emitted from pig slurry applied beneath the canopy of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjedde Sommer, S.; Jensen, E.S.; Kofoed Schjoerring, J.

    1993-01-01

    Absorption of volatilized ammonia after application of slurry onto the soil surface (sand) between rows of a wheat crop was studied in two experiments. The slurry was labelled with 15 N-NH 4 . During seven days the accumulated gaseous N loss from the slurry varied from 6.9 to 11.1 g N m -2 . In April ammonia losses from slurry applied beneath a 5 cm high wheat crop were equal to losses from slurry applied to a fallow, but 2.2% of the lost atmospheric ammonia was taken up by the leaves. In May ammonia loss from slurry applied between the rows of a 43 cm high crop was reduced by 6% compared to the loss from fallow, because of a reduced transfer of ammonia from the slurry to the air. Of the emitted ammonia 3.3% was absorbed by the canopy. (au)

  10. Nutrient losses from cattle co-digestate slurry during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Perazzolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among environmental issues related to intensive livestock activity, emissions to air from manure management are of increasing concern. Thus the knowledge of the effect of treatment application on subsequent emissions from manure is required to assess the environment impact of management solutions. This work addresses the effect of anaerobic digestion and phase separation on emissions during storage by studying nitrogen losses from lab-scale stores and field pilot-scale stores of a co-digestate cattle slurry and its respective separated fractions. Lab-scale experiment was carried in temperature-controlled room where each fraction (untreated, separated liquid and separated solid was stored in duplicate for a period of 32 days in 30 L vessel. Pilot-scale experiment was carried out both during the cold season and during warm season for 90 days of storage. In both experimentations samples of the manure were analysed periodically for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, total ammonia nitrogen, dry matter and volatile solids and pH. These analyses allow estimating nitrogen losses in different storage conditions. Effects of mechanical separation and season were assessed by ANOVA (Wilcoxon test, P<0.05. In temperature controlled conditions nitrogen losses measured account for 13% and 26% of TKN for unseparated and separated slurries respectively. In field conditions during cold season nutrient losses were limited. On average unseparated and separated slurries lost respectively 6.8% and 12.6% of their initial TKN content. Much higher were the TKN losses from the slurries examined in warm season where losses raised up to 40% of the initial TKN content. Generally mechanical separation increases nutrient losses, but the differences were not significant in field conditions. The results highlighted that nutrient losses, in particular the nitrogen ones, can be considerable especially during summer storage. The latter, in case of separated slurries, are mainly related

  11. Deposition Velocities of Non-Newtonian Slurries in Pipelines: Complex Simulant Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poloski, Adam P.; Bonebrake, Michael L.; Casella, Andrew M.; Johnson, Michael D.; Toth, James J.; Adkins, Harold E.; Chun, Jaehun; Denslow, Kayte M.; Luna, Maria; Tingey, Joel M.

    2009-07-01

    One of the concerns expressed by the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) is about the potential for pipe plugging at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Per the review’s executive summary, “Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging.” To evaluate the potential for plugging, deposition-velocity tests were performed on several physical simulants to determine whether the design approach is conservative. Deposition velocity is defined as the velocity below which particles begin to deposit to form a moving bed of particles on the bottom of a straight horizontal pipe during slurry-transport operations. The deposition velocity depends on the system geometry and the physical properties of the particles and fluid. An experimental program was implemented to test the stability-map concepts presented in WTP-RPT-175 Rev. 01. Two types of simulant were tested. The first type of simulant was similar to the glass-bead simulants discussed in WTP-RPT-175 Rev. 0 ; it consists of glass beads with a nominal particle size of 150 µm in a kaolin/water slurry. The initial simulant was prepared at a target yield stress of approximately 30 Pa. The yield stress was then reduced, stepwise, via dilution or rheological modifiers, ultimately to a level of <1 Pa. At each yield-stress step, deposition-velocity testing was performed. Testing over this range of yield-stress bounds the expected rheological operating window of the WTP and allows the results to be compared to stability-map predictions for this system. The second simulant was a precipitated hydroxide that simulates HLW pretreated sludge from Hanford waste tank AZ-101. Testing was performed in a manner similar to that for the first simulant over a wide range of yield stresses; however, an additional test of net-positive suction-head required (NPSHR

  12. RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-02-08

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg

  13. High temperature oxidation of slurry coated interconnect alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Åsa Helen

    with this interaction mechanism mainly give a geometrical protection against oxidation by blocking oxygen access at the surface of the oxide scale. The protecting effect is gradually reduced as the oxide scale grows thicker than the diameter of the coating particles. Interaction mechanism B entails a chemical reaction...... scale. The incorporated coating particles create a geometrical protection against oxidation that should not loose their effect after the oxide scale has grown thicker than the diameter of the coating particles. The two single layer coatings consisting of (La0.85Sr0.15)MnO3 + 10% excess Mn, LSM, and (La0......In this project, high temperature oxidation experiments of slurry coated ferritic alloys in atmospheres similar to the atmosphere found at the cathode in an SOFC were conducted. From the observations possible interaction mechanisms between the slurry coatings and the growing oxide scale...

  14. Preparation of coal slurries deposited in ground settling ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Blaschke

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the hard coal washing process, considerable quantities of coal slimes are generated. They belong to grain size classes below 1, 0 mm (with the majority of grains below 0,035 mm and are often sold in order to prepare blends for the power generation. It is assessed that in Poland about 11 mln tons of such slimes were deposited. The slimes of a low ash content can be exploited and sold. The slime of high ash content must be washed. In Poland there is one coal preparation plant for slurries. The article describes the technology and presents the results of a simplified economic analysis of exploitation of the slurries and their washing.

  15. Studies on Slurry Design Fundamentals for Advanced CMP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. B.

    2013-06-14

    New developments and device performance requirements in microelectronics industry add to the challenges in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. One of the recently introduced materials is germanium which enables improved performance through better channel mobility in shallow trench isolation (STI) applications. This paper reports on the slurry design alternatives for Ge CMP with surfactant mediation to improve on the silica/germanium selectivity using colloidal silica slurry. In addition to the standard CMP tests to evaluate the material removal rates, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based wear tests were also conducted to evaluate single particle-surface interaction of the polishing system. Furthermore, nature of the surface oxide film of germanium was studied through contact angle measurements and surface roughness tested by AFM. It was observed that the CMP selectivity of the silica/germanium system and defectivity control were possible with a reasonable material removal rate value by using self-assembled structures of cationic surfactants.

  16. Design of a new abrasive slurry jet generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F. C.; Shi, L. L.; Guo, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    With the advantages of a low system working pressure, good jet convergence and high cutting quality, abrasive slurry jet (ASJ) has broad application prospects in material cutting and equipment cleaning. Considering that the generator plays a crucial role in ASJ system, the paper designed a new type ASJ generator using an electric oil pump, a separate plunger cylinder, and a spring energized seal. According to the determining of structure shape, size and seal type, a new ASJ generator has been manufactured out and tested by a series of experiments. The new generator separates the abrasive slurry from the dynamic hydraulic oil, which can improve the service life of the ASJ system. And the new ASJ system can reach 40 MPa and has good performance in jet convergence, which deserves to popularization and application in materials machining.

  17. Studies on Slurry Design Fundamentals for Advanced CMP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. B.; Karagoz, A.; Ozdemir, Z.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Chen, Long

    2013-01-01

    New developments and device performance requirements in microelectronics industry add to the challenges in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. One of the recently introduced materials is germanium which enables improved performance through better channel mobility in shallow trench isolation (STI) applications. This paper reports on the slurry design alternatives for Ge CMP with surfactant mediation to improve on the silica/germanium selectivity using colloidal silica slurry. In addition to the standard CMP tests to evaluate the material removal rates, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based wear tests were also conducted to evaluate single particle-surface interaction of the polishing system. Furthermore, nature of the surface oxide film of germanium was studied through contact angle measurements and surface roughness tested by AFM. It was observed that the CMP selectivity of the silica/germanium system and defectivity control were possible with a reasonable material removal rate value by using self-assembled structures of cationic surfactants.

  18. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patch, K.D.; Hart, R.P.; Schumacher, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The removal of CO 2 from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide [Ba(OH) 2 ] or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH) 2 ]. Such a process would be applied to scrub 14 CO 2 from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH) 2 slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH) 2 . Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated

  19. Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Brad G.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol measurements were conducted above a half-scale air sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry. Three aerosol size fractions were measured at three sampling heights at three different sparging rates using a filter based ambient air sampling technique. Aerosol concentrations in the head space above the closed tank demonstrated a wide range, varying between 97 ?g m-3 for PM2.5 and 5650 ?g m-3 for TSP. The variation in concentrations was a function of sampling heights, size fraction and sparging rate. Measured aerosol entrainment coefficients showed good agreement with existing entrainment models. The models evaluated generally over predicted the entrainment, but were within a factor of two of the measured entrainment. This indicates that the range of applicability of the models may be extendable to include sparged slurries with Bingham plastic rheological properties

  20. An oilwell cement slurry additivated with bisphenol diglycidil ether/isophoronediamine-Kinetic analysis and multivariate modelings at slurry/HCl interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cestari, Antonio R.; Vieira, Eunice F.S.; Tavares, Andrea M.G.; Andrade, Marcos A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Loss of zonal isolation in oilwell cementing operations leads to safety and environmental problems. The use of new cement slurries can help to solve this problem. In this paper, an epoxy-modified cement slurry was synthesized and characterized. The features of the modified slurries were evaluated in relation to a standard cement slurry (w/c = 0.50). A kinetic study of HCl interaction with the slurries was carried out using cubic molds. The Avrami kinetic model appears to be the most efficient in describing kinetic isotherms obtained from 25 to 55 deg. C. Type of slurry, HCl concentration and temperature effects were also evaluated in HCl adsorption onto cement slurries considering a 2 3 full factorial design. From the statistical analysis, it is inferred that the factor 'HCl concentration' has shown a profound influence on the numerical values of the Avrami kinetic constants. However, the best statistical fits were found using binary and tertiary interactive effects. It was found that the epoxy-modified cement slurry presents a good potential to be used in environmental-friendly oilwell operations.

  1. Slurry growth: the characterization of a unique phenomenon at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansky, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    Slurry growth, unique to the Hanford Site, is a significant increase in the volume of waste contained in a waste storage tank without the addition of new waste. Slurry growth is caused by gas entrapment within waste slurries which causes the slurry to swell, like bread dough. The surface of the slurry rises until either gas pressure is great enough or the weight of the slurry over the gases is great enough to cause the surface of the slurry to collapse. The gases causing slurry growth are generated from decomposition of organics present in high-level nuclear waste (HEDTA, EDTA, GLY). Predominant gases are H 2 , N 2 , N 2 O, NO/sub x/, and CO 2 . More gas is generated, and at a faster rate, as the temperature increases. Slurry growth, although not completely eliminated, is being safely and effectively controlled. The parameters affecting slurry growth have been defined, and predictive equations have been established. The knowledge gained through laboratory experiments contributes to continued safe and efficient high-level waste management practices at the Hanford Site

  2. Rheological properties of concentrated alumina slurries: influence of ph and dispersant agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewais, E.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the ph, the electrolyte concentrations and the rheological properties of high concentrated alumina slurries in aqueous medium is of great importance because it is considered to be the key to control the stability of the slurries from flocculation. Zeta potential of alumina slurries with and without Duramax C (dispersant agent) as a function of ph was studied. Two ph around the zero point of charge of alumina slurries were selected for the investigation of rheological properties. The rheological properties of aqueous alumina slurries with respect to different parameters, e.g.: viscosity, elastic modulus (storage modulus G) and viscous modulus (loss modulus G), were investigated. Viscosity measurements of the slurries as a function of Duramax C content at both ph 8.4 and 9.4) were used to determine the state of slurries. Three states of slurries, termed flocculated, partially de flocculated and fully de flocculated, were selected for further investigation. The viscosity of the three slurries at both ph as a function of shear rate was determined. Fully de flocculated slurry shows Newtonian behavior at all shear rates at both tested ph compared by the partial de flocculated and flocculated system. Results of investigation of G and G at ph of 9.4 as a function of applied stress explored the critical stress

  3. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Popovic, Olga

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Separation of pig slurry into solid and liquid fractions is gaining importance as a way to manage increasing volumes of slurry. In contrast to solid manure and slurry, little is known about pathogen survival in separated liquid slurry. The viability of Ascaris suum eggs, a conservative...... indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis...... of helminth eggs in the separated liquid slurry revealed 47 Ascaris eggs per gramme. At 25 °C, egg viability declined to zero with a similar trend in both raw slurry and the separated liquid slurry by day 308, a time when at 5 °C 88% and 42% of the eggs were still viable in separated liquid slurry and raw...

  4. Effect of alkaline slurry on the electric character of the pattern Cu wafer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yi; Liu Yuling; Liu Xiaoyan; He Yangang; Wang Liran; Zhang Baoguo

    2011-01-01

    For process integration considerations, we will investigate the impact of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) on the electrical characteristics of the pattern Cu wafer. In this paper, we investigate the impacts of the CMP process with two kinds of slurry, one of which is acid slurry of SVTC and the other is FA/O alkaline slurry purchased from Tianjin Jingling Microelectronic Material Limited. Three aspects were investigated: resistance, capacitance and leakage current. The result shows that after polishing by the slurry of FA/O, the resistance is lower than the SVTC. After polishing by the acid slurry and FA/O alkaline slurry, the difference in capacitance is not very large. The values are 0.1 nF and 0.12 nF, respectively. The leakage current of the film polished by the slurry of FA/O is 0.01 nA, which is lower than the slurry of SVTC. The results show that the slurry of FA/O produced less dishing and oxide loss than the slurry of SVTC. (semiconductor technology)

  5. Radioactive slurry waste treatment (1) - flucculant dose effects on filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Jung, W. S.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    During the past four decades, the radioactive slurry liquid waste(RSLW) is produced by operation of TRIGA Mark - II and III research reactors, producing radioisotopes and studying on RI utilization. Vacuum filtration of RSLW and flocculated RSLW with cationic, anionic and nonionic flocculants has been investigated. Test results show that critical dose of flocculant is obtained by the estimation of settling rate, cake moisture content and specific cake residence

  6. Process for the preparation of a thickened explosive slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-10-25

    A process is described for the preparation of a thickened explosive slurry, substantially aqueous. The composition consists essentially of a suspension of an inorganic oxygen salt for furnishing oxygen in a fluid matrix. This fluid matrix consists of a lower aliphatic glycol (ethylene, diethylene, propylene, dipropylene) thickened with one of the polysaccharides (glucose, mannose, galactose) or mixtures of them. The composition should have a density below 1.8 g per cu cm. (5 claims)

  7. Atomization of JP-10/B4C gelled slurry fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Guglielmi, John David

    1992-01-01

    The atomization of a gelled boron slurry fuel using two commercially available airblast atomizers was studied at atmospheric pressure in non-reacting flow. The atomization of water was also characterized for comparison. Each atomizer was operated at two different liquid mass flow rates and several air/ fuel ratios. Drop size distribution was measured using a Malvern 2600 HSD Laser Diffraction Particle Sizer, Drop sizes acceptable for use in ramjet combustors could be obtained f...

  8. Design of agitation systems in Bingham slurries by pilot simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    A method was required to determine the optimum agitator speed needed to produce overall motion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) high-level waste slurries in remote process cell vessels. Project schedule and limited process space required an accurate determination of agitator horsepower and size without the benefit of full-scale testing. The small scale testing of unique clear rheologically similar fluid is described along with tests and scale-up procedures. 2 refs., 3 figs

  9. Yield Stress Reduction of DWPF Melter Feed Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M.E.; Smith, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides and soluble sodium salts. The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit. Beads were produced from the DWPF process frit by fire polishing. The frit was allowed to free fall through a flame

  10. Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J.; McFarland, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period

  11. Surfactant mediated slurry formulations for Ge CMP applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. Bahar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, slurry formulations in the presence of self-assembled surfactant structures were investigated for Ge/SiO2 CMP applications in the absence and presence of oxidizers. Both anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate-SDS) and cationic (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-C12TAB) micelles were used in the slurry formulations as a function of pH and oxidizer concentration. CMP performances of Ge and SiO2 wafers were evaluated in terms of material removal rates, selectivity and surface quality. The material removal rate responses were also assessed through AFM wear rate tests to obtain a faster response for preliminary analyses. The surfactant adsorption characteristics were studied through surface wettability responses of the Ge and SiO2 wafers through contact angle measurements. It was observed that the self-assembled surfactant structures can help obtain selectivity on the silica/germanium system at low concentrations of the oxidizer in the slurry. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  12. Automation of the second iron ore slurry pipeline from Samarco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, Juliana M.; Fonseca, Mario L.; Drumond, Pablo P.; Barbosa, Sylvio [IHM Engenharia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The second iron ore slurry pipeline from Samarco was build to attend the Third Pellet Plant Project, which includes a new Concentration Plant at Germano-MG and a third Pellet Plant at Ubu-ES. It has 396km of extension and links the two plants by pulping the iron ore slurry prepared at Germano Unit. This works aims to present the iron ore slurry pipeline with emphasis on the automation architecture for the supervision and control system, interconnect throughout the pipe extension by fiber optics. The control system is composed of ControlLogix CLP's at the pulping and valve station and Micrologix CLP's at the pressure and cathodic protection monitoring points, totalizing 19 PLC's. The supervisory system was developed using the Wonderware IAS 3.0 suite, including the supervisory software InTouch 9.5 and the integrated ArchestrA IDE, and is composed of two data servers in redundancy and nine operation stations. The control and supervision system is interconnect through and Ethernet network using fiber optics and multiplexer modules (GE JungleMux) for voice, data and video. Among the expected results, it can be highlighted the sequence automation, greater process data availability (real and historical) and greater facility for the operation and detection of failures. (author)

  13. Efficient filtration system for paraffin-catalyst slurry separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodagholi Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The filtration efficiency for separating liquid paraffin (or water from a slurry consisting of 25 weight% spherical alumina in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR comprised of a cylindrical tube of 10 cm diameter and 150 cm length was studied. Various differential pressures (ΔP were applied to two separate tubular sintered metal stainless steel filter elements with nominal pore size of 4 and 16μm. The experimental results disclosed that the rate of filtrations increased on applying higher differential pressure to the filter element. Albeit this phenomenon is limited to moderate ΔPs and for ΔP more than 1 bar is neither harmful nor helpful. The highest filtration rates at ΔPs higher than 1 bar were 170 and 248 ml/minute for 4 and 16μm respectively. Using water as the liquid in slurry the rate of filtration enhanced to 4 folds, and this issue reveals impact of viscosity on filtration efficiency clearly. In all situations, the total amount of particles present in the filtrate part never exceeded a few parts per million (ppm. The statistical analysis of the SEM image of the filtrate indicated that by applying higher pressure difference to the filter element the frequency percent of larger particle size increases. The operation of filter cake removing was performed with back flashing of 300 ml of clean liquid with pressures of 3-5 bar of N2 gas.

  14. Very low conductivity self-hardening slurry for permanent enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallard, G.

    1997-01-01

    Attapulgite clay and ground blast furnace slag cement can form a low solids slurry which, after setting and curing, exhibits very low permeability and substantial strength. Compared to better known cement bentonite slurries, the conductivity is 3 orders of magnitude lower and the strength is four times higher at a similar solids content. Coefficients of permeability have been measured in the 10 -10 cm/sec. range. As a containment barrier, no chemical compound has had detrimental effects on the integrity of the material. Compatibility with leachates at a pH under 2 has been demonstrated. Compared to leachable Ordinary Portland Cement and to bentonite gel shrinkage in the presence of certain organic compounds, the attapulgite clay and the selected slag cement behave as remarkably inert. A number of successful applications as vertical barriers, trenched and by the vibrated beam method, have been installed at remedial sites. Applications by jet grouting have been implemented under utilities to provide continuity. The potential for placement of such materials to form horizontal barriers by jet grouting or frac-grouting/mud jacking techniques, offers the possibility of creating complete enclosures in soils. The purely mineral nature of these slurries ensures long term chemical stability necessary for permanent containment

  15. In-situ study of the thermal properties of hydrate slurry by high pressure DSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, O.; Hu, J.; Brun, F.; Erbeau, N. [Institute of Thermal Engineering, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Homsy, P. [Nestec, Vevey (Switzerland); Logel, J.-C. [Axima Refrigeration, Bischheim (France)

    2008-07-01

    Knowing the enthalpy of hydrate slurry is very essential for energy balance and industrial applications. No direct measurement processes had been developed in this field in the past time. A new experimental method with special device has been developed to carry out on-line measurement of the thermal properties for hydrate slurry under dynamic conditions. With this special device, it is possible to deliver the hydrate slurry to the high pressure DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) directly from the production tank or pipes. Thermal data acquisition will be performed afterwards by DSC. The investigated conditions were at pressure of 30 bar and temperature of {approx}+7 {sup o}C. The dissociation enthalpy of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry was about 54 kJ/kg, corresponding 10.8% of solid fraction. The on-line measurement results for CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry give a good tendency to apply this phase change slurry to the industrial refrigeration process. (author)

  16. Analysis of high-level radioactive slurries as a method to reduce DWPF turnaround times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.; Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Hay, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) samples as slurries rather than as dried or vitrified samples is an effective way to reduce sample turnaround times. Slurries can be dissolved with a mixture of concentrated acids to yield solutions for elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Slurry analyses can be performed in eight hours, whereas analyses of vitrified samples require up to 40 hours to complete. Analyses of melter feed samples consisting of the DWPF borosilicate frit and either simulated or actual DWPF radioactive sludge were typically within a range of 3--5% of the predicted value based on the relative amounts of sludge and frit added to the slurry. The results indicate that the slurry analysis approach yields analytical accuracy and precision competitive with those obtained from analyses of vitrified samples. Slurry analyses offer a viable alternative to analyses of solid samples as a simple way to reduce analytical turnaround times

  17. Enhancing protein to extremely high content in photosynthetic bacteria during biogas slurry treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Anqi; Zhang, Guangming; Meng, Fan; Lu, Pei; Wang, Xintian; Peng, Meng

    2017-12-01

    This work proposed a novel approach to achieve an extremely high protein content in photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) using biogas slurry as a culturing medium. The results showed the protein content of PSB could be enhanced strongly to 90% in the biogas slurry, which was much higher than reported microbial protein contents. The slurry was partially purified at the same time. Dark-aerobic was more beneficial than light-anaerobic condition for protein accumulation. High salinity and high ammonia of the biogas slurry were the main causes for protein enhancement. In addition, the biogas slurry provided a good buffer system for PSB to grow. The biosynthesis mechanism of protein in PSB was explored according to theoretical analysis. During biogas slurry treatment, the activities of glutamate synthase and glutamine synthetase were increased by 26.55%, 46.95% respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Load Shifting and Storage of Cooling Energy through Ice Bank or Ice Slurry Systems: modelling and experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozdek, Marino

    2009-10-15

    part of the refrigeration system in dairy and cheese factory 'Antun Bohnec' in the city of Ludbreg in Croatia. Experimental findings were compared to the simulation model. The software 'BankaLeda' presents a strong optimization tool for designers and engineers in the field by providing a high degree of freedom in defining particular system design and operating parameters. It offers a basis for assessment and testing of a new energy efficient system arrangements and measures. Besides it will give decision makers the ability to test potential solutions in the process of CTES system design. In the second part of the thesis ice slurry pressure drop and heat transfer in horizontal straight tubes have been experimentally investigated. In particular a mixture of 10.3 % of ethanol and water with an initial freezing point of -4.4 deg C was considered. It was found that the behaviour of ice slurry flow is changing with time and that ice slurry pressure drop is generally higher than for single phase flow. However for ice concentrations of 15 % and higher, for certain velocities ice slurry pressure drop is found to be of a similar value as for single phase fluid. Moreover, if ice slurry is to be used as a energy transport media it is recommended to keep the ice mass fraction at a level of 20 %. With tube geometry and thermophysical properties of a carrier fluid the heat transfer of ice slurry is generally a function of ice mass fraction and velocity. The imposed heat flux has no or has just minor influence on the heat transfer coefficient. Up to ice mass fraction between 10-15 % the mean heat transfer coefficient shows only slight (laminar flow) or no increase (turbulent flow) in comparison to single phase flow. Beyond that ice mass fraction the heat transfer coefficient is increasing significantly. The test data for pressure drop and heat transfer in laminar and turbulent regime was compared to several correlations from the literature. A new correlations for

  19. Effects of storage time and straw content of cattle slurry on the mineralization of nitrogen and carbon in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Animal slurries are stored for a variable period of time before application in the field. The effect of cattle slurry storage time and temperature on the subsequent mineralization of C and N in soil was studied under laboratory conditions. Urine and faeces from a dairy cow were sampled separately...... and mixed to a slurry. After 4 weeks of storage under anaerobic conditions at 15 degrees C, the NH4+ N content exceeded the original urinary N content of the slurry; the NH4+ content increased only slightly during the following 16 weeks of storage. After 4 weeks of storage, the proportion of slurry C...... in volatile fatty acids (VFA) amounted to 10% and increased to 15% after 20 weeks. Straw addition to the slurry caused an increase of VFA-C in stored slurry, but had a negligible influence on the proportion of slurry N in the form of NH4+. Slurries subjected to different storage conditions were added...

  20. PROGRESS TOWARDS MODELING OF FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gandrik; Steven P. Antal

    2010-11-01

    The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The

  1. The effect of particle size and concentration on the flow properties of a homogeneous slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, M.A.; Crowe, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the effects of particle size and concentration on the velocity distribution in the fully developed flow of a homogeneous slurry. The slurry consisted of chloroform and silica gel with matched index of refraction to enable Laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements through the mixture. Slurries with two particle sizes and solids concentration up to 30% by volume were studied. Measurements were made over a Reynolds number range of 1,200 to 30,000

  2. Effect of plastic viscosity and yield value on spray characteristics of magnesium-slurry fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prok, George M

    1957-01-01

    Magnesium slurries were sprayed onto a sheet of paper from an air-atomizing injector. Drop sizes and distributions were then determined from photomicrographs. Four different surface-active additives were used in preparing the slurries to give plastic viscosities between 0.22 and 0.51 poise and yield values between 150 and 810 dynes-cm(exp 2). It was found that there was no significant variation in the spray characteristics of these slurries when tested under the same conditions.

  3. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  4. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  5. Effect of Soil Slope on the Appearance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Water Running off Grassland Soil after Application of Contaminated Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, M.; Salazar, F.; Troncoso, E.; Mitchell, R. M.; Ramirez, L.; Naguil, A.; Zamorano, P.; Collins, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the effect of soil slope on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis transport into rainwater runoff from agricultural soil after application of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-contaminated slurry. Under field conditions, 24 plots of undisturbed loamy soil 1 by 2 m2 were placed on platforms. Twelve plots were used for water runoff: 6 plots at a 3% slope and 6 plots at a 15% slope. Half of the plots of each slope were treated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-contaminated slurry, and half were not treated. Using the same experimental design, 12 plots were established for soil sampling on a monthly basis using the same spiked slurry application and soil slopes. Runoff following natural rainfall was collected and analyzed for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, coliforms, and turbidity. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected in runoff from all plots treated with contaminated slurry and one control plot. A higher slope (15%) increased the likelihood of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis detection but did not affect the likelihood of finding coliforms. Daily rainfall increased the likelihood that runoff would have coliforms and the coliform concentration, but it decreased the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentration in the runoff. When there was no runoff, rain was associated with increased M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentrations. Coliform counts in runoff were related to runoff turbidity. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis presence/absence, however, was related to turbidity. Study duration decreased bacterial detection and concentration. These findings demonstrate the high likelihood that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in slurry spread on pastures will contaminate water runoff, particularly during seasons with high rainfall. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis contamination of water has potential consequences for both animal and human health. PMID:23542616

  6. Anaerobic digestion as a slurry management strategy : a consequential life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, L.; Wesnaes, M.; Wenzel, H.; Petersen, B.M. [Southern Denmark Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology

    2010-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of slurry represents an environmental opportunity for both slurry management and renewable energy production in countries with high animal density. This study evaluated the environmental impacts of 4 biogas production alternatives in which slurry was the only input in the process, without supplementary addition of easily degradable carbon. This was achieved by exposing the slurry to different separation technologies. The biomass mixture input for biogas production included solid fraction from slurry separation as well as raw slurry, proportioned in order to achieve economical methane yield. The separation processes considered in this study were mechanical separation; mechanical separation combined with the addition of flocculants; and mechanical separation combined with a thermal treatment. Four biogas alternatives were compared to a reference slurry management scenario, notably to use the slurry as a fertilizer without prior treatment. The modelling was based on Danish conditions and used the consequential life cycle assessment methodology. The produced biogas was used for production of heat and power and the degassed slurry was used as an organic fertilizer.

  7. Development of peat-oil (POM) and peat-alcohol (PAM) slurries as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D F

    1983-11-01

    The preparation and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM) is described. POM and PAM prepared using North Carolina peat and having varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios and drain times from sedimentation tubes. The peat moisture content was particularly crucial in forming stable slurries. The effect of a variety of additives at 0.5-1.0 wt% on sedimentation ratios, drain times and viscosities was studied. Calorimetric studies of several PAM and POM slurries as well as preliminary combustion tests of POM slurries in a salamander burner are also reported.

  8. The development of peat-oil (POM) and peat-alcohol (PAM) slurries as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D F; Evans, G O; Harrell, P A; Whitehurst, B M

    1983-11-01

    The preparation and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM) is described. POM and PAM prepared using North Carolina peat and having varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents, and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios and drain times from sedimentation tubes. The peat moisture content was particularly crucial in forming stable slurries. The effect of a variety of additives at 0.5-1.0 wt.% on sedimentation ratios, drain times, and viscosities was studied. Calorimetric studies of several PAM and POM slurries as well as preliminary combustion tests of POM slurries in a salamander burner are also reported.

  9. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Vitrification of SRP waste by a slurry-fed ceramic melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level waste (HLW) can be vitrified by feeding a slurry, instead of a calcine, to a joule-heated ceramic melter. Potential advantages of slurry feeding include (1) use of simpler equipment, (2) elimination of handling easily dispersed radioactive powder, (3) simpler process control, (4) effective mixing, (5) reduced off-gas volume, and (6) cost savings. Assessment of advantages and disadvantages of slurry feeding along with experimental studies indicate that slurry feeding is a promising way of vitrifying waste

  11. Soil slurry reactors for the assessment of contaminant biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, G.; Colarieti, M. L.; Greco, G.

    2012-04-01

    Slurry reactors are frequently used in the assessment of feasibility of biodegradation in natural soil systems. The rate of contaminant removal is usually quantified by zero- or first-order kinetics decay constants. The significance of such constants for the evaluation of removal rate in the field could be questioned because the slurry reactor is a water-saturated, well-stirred system without resemblance with an unsaturated fixed bed of soil. Nevertheless, a kinetic study with soil slurry reactors can still be useful by means of only slightly more sophisticated kinetic models than zero-/first-order decay. The use of kinetic models taking into account the role of degrading biomass, even in the absence of reliable experimental methods for its quantification, provides further insight into the effect of nutrient additions. A real acceleration of biodegradation processes is obtained only when the degrading biomass is in the growth condition. The apparent change in contaminant removal course can be useful to diagnose biomass growth without direct biomass measurement. Even though molecular biology techniques are effective to assess the presence of potentially degrading microorganism in a "viable-but-nonculturable" state, the attainment of conditions for growth is still important to the development of enhanced remediation techniques. The methodology is illustrated with reference to data gathered for two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway (continuous contamination by aircraft deicing fluids) and the Trecate site in Italy (aged contamination by crude oil spill). This research is part of SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7).

  12. It's sensible to mix your own slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1990-05-01

    Slurry explosives have not made the gains in the market expected of them, possibly due to the extra handling required at the mine site. One Peabody Coal Co. mine has built its own inexpensive setup that blends emulsions with Anfo to the desired ratio before loading the blend into Anfo trucks. Another mine is using a salvaged cement mixer to mix up its own batches of water gels, which are then mixed with Anfo. Both approaches result in blends that can be specialized for different areas of a mine to expand drill patterns, increase fragmentation and gain additional movements for blast casting. 2 figs.

  13. Slurry pipelines: economic and political issues. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    In the controversy surrounding the proposal to grant Federal eminent domain to coal-slurry pipelines, the fundamental issue is whether, on balance, such a grant is in the national interest. The principal subissues (peripheral issues) of economics, water supply and disposal, energy consumption and conservation, employment, safety, and environmental impact are analyzed. It is found that, as compared with unit trains, which are the only immediate alternative for movement of large quantities of Western coal, the pipelines are not against the national interest, except in the case of employment. It is concluded that, on balance, the pipelines are in the national interest and should be granted the power of Federal eminent domain.

  14. Relationships among slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions at different types of commercial Spanish pig farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becaccia, A.; Ferrer, P.; Ibañez, M.A.; Estellés, F.; Rodríguez, C.; Moset, V.; Blas, C. de; Calvet, P.; García-Rebollar, P.

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to analyse several factors of variation of slurry composition and to establish prediction equations for potential methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions. Seventy-nine feed and slurry samples were collected at two seasons (summer and winter) from commercial pig farms sited at two Spanish regions (Centre and Mediterranean). Nursery, growing-fattening, gestating and lactating facilities were sampled. Feed and slurry composition were determined, and potential CH4 and NH3 emissions measured at laboratory. Feed nutrient contents were used as covariates in the analysis. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was evaluated as a predicting tool for slurry composition and potential gaseous emissions. A wide variability was found both in feed and slurry composition. Mediterranean farms had a higher pH (p<0.001) and ash (p=0.02) concentration than those located at the Centre of Spain. Also, type of farm affected ether extract content of the slurry (p=0.02), with highest values obtained for the youngest animal facilities. Results suggested a buffer effect of dietary fibre on slurry pH and a direct relationship (p<0.05) with fibre constituents of manure. Dietary protein content did not affect slurry nitrogen content but decreased (p=0.003) total and volatile solids concentration. Prediction models of potential NH3 emissions (R2=0.89) and CH4 yield (R2=0.61) were obtained from slurry composition. Predictions from NIRS showed a high accuracy for most slurry constituents (R2>0.90) and similar accuracy of prediction of potential NH3 and CH4 emissions (R2=0.84 and 0.68, respectively) to models using slurry characteristics, which can be of interest to estimate emissions from commercial farms and establish mitigation strategies or optimize biogas production. (Author)

  15. The CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry; Le coulis de glace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, O.; Hu, J.; Eicher, S.; Brun, F. [Institute of Thermal Engineering, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Sari, O.; Hu, J. [Clean Cooling Solutions, spin off of University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Homsy, P. [Nestec Ltd, Vevey (Switzerland); Logel, J.-C. [Axima Refrigeration, Bischheim (France)

    2007-12-15

    A new, very promising refrigerant was developed, which could be used in industrial processes as well as air conditioners: the CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry. Replacing hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCFC refrigerants has a high priority, due to the strong negative environmental impact of these fluids. New refrigerants have to be environment friendly, non-inflammable, cheap and made of natural materials. CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries and/or a mixture of ice slurry and CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry meet these requirements. The University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland in Yverdon, together with industrial partners, investigated the properties of such slurries. The slurries were created using the Coldeco process: the refrigerating fluid is directly injected into the liquid brine. The evaporation of the refrigerating fluid cools the liquid down to its freezing point and homogeneously distributed small crystals appear in the liquid. A test rig was built to measure the physical and chemical properties of the slurries obtained in this way. CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries have a higher energy storage capacitance (500 kJ/kg) than ice slurries (333 kJ/kg). The production of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries in large quantities in a continuous process was demonstrated. The solid particle concentration was 10%, the pressure amounted to 30 bar and the temperature 2 to 4 {sup o}C. Such slurries can be pumped and circulated in pipe networks. Stainless steel is the appropriate material for such networks. However, the main advantage of the new refrigerant will be, according to the authors, a reduced energy consumption compared to traditional refrigerating cycles: the difference between the temperature required by the user and the refrigerant temperature is reduced, thanks to the use of the latent heat in the new process.

  16. Crystallization of tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide clathrate hydrate slurry and the related heat transfer characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, X.J.; Zhang, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Crystallization characteristics of TBAB CHS under different thermal conditions were clarified. • Overall heat transfer coefficients before and during the crystallization were obtained. • The crystallization characteristics of TBAB CHS mainly depend on the status of supercooled solution. • Dropping of TBAB CHS can accelerate the supercooling release and crystallization. - Abstract: Tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS) is a promising phase change material slurry for cold storage and transport in air-conditioning system. This slurry can be generated from the supercooled TBAB aqueous solution. In the present study, TBAB CHS was generated under different thermal conditions, i.e. different initial mass concentrations of TBAB aqueous solution and different supercooling degrees. The crystallization of TBAB CHS and the overall heat transfer coefficient under different thermal conditions were clarified. It was concluded that the crystallization characteristics of TBAB hydrate crystals mainly depended upon the thermal condition of the supercooled TBAB aqueous solution. In addition, the dropping of pre-produced TBAB CHS into supercooled TBAB aqueous solution could immediately induce the crystallization of TBAB hydrate crystals, and the initial type of TBAB hydrate crystals was only related to the status of the supercooled TBAB aqueous solution regardless of the type of the dropped TBAB CHS. Furthermore, the overall heat transfer coefficients before crystallization and during crystallization were also measured. It was found that more hydrate crystals would adhere to the vessel wall at larger supercooling degree and higher mass concentration of aqueous solution, which would deteriorate the heat transfer significantly. Moreover, images of TBAB hydrate crystals under different thermal conditions were recorded in order to help clarifying the crystallization characteristics

  17. An Enhanced Factor Analysis of Performance Degradation Assessment on Slurry Pump Impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilong Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Slurry pumps, such as oil sand pumps, are widely used in industry to convert electrical energy to slurry potential and kinetic energy. Because of adverse working conditions, slurry pump impellers are prone to suffer wear, which may result in slurry pump breakdowns. To prevent any unexpected breakdowns, slurry pump impeller performance degradation assessment should be immediately conducted to monitor the current health condition and to ensure the safety and reliability of slurry pumps. In this paper, to provide an alternative to the impeller health indicator, an enhanced factor analysis based impeller indicator (EFABII is proposed. Firstly, a low-pass filter is employed to improve the signal to noise ratios of slurry pump vibration signals. Secondly, redundant statistical features are extracted from the filtered vibration signals. To reduce the redundancy of the statistic features, the enhanced factor analysis is performed to generate new statistical features. Moreover, the statistic features can be automatically grouped and developed a new indicator called EFABII. Data collected from industrial oil sand pumps are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is able to track the current health condition of slurry pump impellers.

  18. On-farm impact of cattle slurry manure management on biological soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.; Akkermans, A.D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of dairy cattle slurry management on soil biota, soil respiration and nitrogen (N) mineralization were evaluated in a farm trial across 12 farms and a field experiment on 2 farms located in a dairy farming area in the north of the Netherlands. The slurry management consisted of slit

  19. The impact of slurry application technique on nitrous oxide emission from agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Mosquera, J.

    2011-01-01

    Direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilized soils are generally estimated using emission factors. However, the emission factors for N2O emission of applied slurry are not well quantified. The effect of slurry application technique on N2O emission was quantified in field experiments in the

  20. Semisolid slurry of 7A04 aluminum alloy prepared by electromagnetic stirring and Sc, Zr additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-wen Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Slurry preparation is one of the most critical steps for semisolid casting, and its primary goal is to prepare slurry with uniformly distributed fine globules. In this work, electromagnetic stirring (EMS and the addition of Sc and Zr elements were used to prepare semisolid slurry of 7A04 aluminum alloy in a large diameter slurry maker. The effects of different treatments on the microstructure, composition and their radial homogeneity were investigated. The results show that, compared to the slurry without any treatment, large volume slurry with finer and more uniform microstructure can be obtained when treated by EMS, Sc, or Zr additions individually. EMS is more competent in the microstructural and chemical homogenization of the slurry while Sc and Zr additions are more excellent in its microstructural refinement. The combined treatment of EMS, Sc and Zr produces premium 7A04 aluminum alloy slurry with uniformly distributed fine α-Al globules and composition. The interaction mechanism between EMS and Sc and Zr additions was also discussed.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of cement slurries additives with epoxy resins - kinetics, thermodynamic and calorimetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, A.M.G.; Andrade Junior, M.A.S.; Cestari, A.R.; Vieira, E.F.S.

    2010-01-01

    Cement has been used in the world, presenting a wide versatility. However, due to its chemical nature, it is subject to several types of chemical damages, especially for agents of acidic nature. With the purpose of increase its life-time, new cement slurries have been modified with the addition of specific additives. The objective of this work is to modify cement slurries with epoxy resins, which promote higher resistance of those materials in relation to acid attacks. Three cement slurries were synthesized with epoxy resins and a standard slurries, which was composed by cement and water. After 30 days of hydration, the samples were characterized by XDR, FTIR and thermal analysis (TG and DSC). The hydration processes of the cement slurries were studied by heat-conduction microcalorimetry. A kinetic study of HCl interaction with the new slurries were performed by the batch methodology at 25, 35, 45 e 55 deg C. It was verified that the addition of the polymers delayed the processes of hydration of the slurries, decreasing the flow of heat released as a function of the amount of added resin and, increased the resistance of those slurries to the acid attack. (author)

  2. The influence of adsorption capacity on enhanced gas absorption in activated carbon slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstvoogd, R.D.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1990-01-01

    The enhanced absorption of gases in aqueous activated carbbon slurries of fine particles is studied with a non-steady-state absorption model, taking into account the finite adsorption capacity of the carbon particles. It has been found that, for the different gas/activated carbon slurry systems

  3. Upland and wetland vegetation establishment on coal slurry in northern Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeel, V.A.; Nawrot, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Since the Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory's (CWRL) Mined Land Reclamation Program's first establishment of a wetland on slurry in 1976, industry, state, and federal agency interest in reclamation alternatives for inactive slurry has increased. CWRL has been involved in pre-reclamation site characterization and monitoring for inactive slurry impoundments throughout Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, and Washington. Geochemical site characterization of three slurry impoundments at the AECI Bee Veer Mine located near Macon, Missouri began in April 1990. A substrate sampling grid was established for all slurry impoundments with a centerline orientated parallel to the discharge to decant flow pattern. Surface (0--6 in.) and subsurface (30--36 in.) slurry samples were collected annually and analyzed for acid-base balance, immediate acidity macro- and micro-nutrients, potential phytotoxic metallic ions and salts, and texture. Water table elevations and water quality were monitored quarterly from shallow (≤12 ft.) piezometers. General reclamation plans included annual (3 years) incremental limestone amendments (35--50 tons/acre) and direct vegetation establishment. Cool and warm season grasses dominate vegetation cover in upland habitats (slurry cell RDA1) while wetland habitats (palustrine emergent seasonally-permanently inundated) have been established in slurry cells (RDA2 and RDA3). Isolated hot spots continue to be amended with limestone and supplemental vegetation establishment is scheduled

  4. Redistribution and persistence of microorganisms and steroid hormones after soil-injection of swine slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Bech, Tina B.; Forslund, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Typhimurium Bacteriophage 28B (phage 28B), Escherichia coli, steroid hormones and other slurry components (water, volatile solids, chloride and mineral N) determined in and around the injection slit. The two experiments at Silstrup and Estrup differed with respect to slurry solid content (6.3 vs. 0...

  5. Development of ultra-lightweight slurries with high compressive strength for use in oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P. [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Farias, A.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, Danilo; Fernandes, Thiago; Santos, Reened [Halliburton Energy Services Aberdeen, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Formations with low fracture gradients or depleted reservoirs often lead to difficult oil well cementing operations. Commonly employed cement slurries (14.0 to 15.8 lb/gal), generate an equivalent circulating density (ECD) higher than the fracture gradient and ultimately lead to formation damage, lost circulation and a decreased top of cement. Given the high price of oil, companies are investing in those and other wells that are difficult to explore. Naturally, lightweight cement slurries are used to reduce the ECD (10.0 to 14.0 lb/gal), using additives to trap water and stabilize the slurry. However, when the density reaches 11.0 lb/gal, the increase in water content may cause a change in characteristics. The focus of this study is extreme cases where it is necessary to employ ultra-lightweight cement slurries (5.5 to 10.0 lb/gal). Foamed slurries have been widely used, and the objective is to set an alternative by developing cement slurries containing uncompressible microspheres, aiming for a density of 7.5 lb/gal as well as high compressive strength. Another benefit in contrast to preparing foamed cement slurries is that there is no requirement for special equipment in the field. Routine laboratory tests such as fluid-loss control, sedimentation, thickening time, free water, compressive strength, and rheology (at room and high temperatures) were performed. Thus, it was concluded that the proposed cement slurries can be used in oil wells. (author)

  6. Effects of slurry application methods on soil faunal communities in permanent grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van P.C.J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of two slurry manure application methods, broadcasting manure slurry (MB) and manure slit injection (SMI), on soil faunal communities 1 week and 4 or 5 weeks after application in the spring of 2002 and the summer of 2003. No effect on total numbers of Enchytraeidae and

  7. ABSORPTION OF GASES INTO ACTIVATED CARBON WATER SLURRIES IN A STIRRED CELL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TINGE, JT; DRINKENBURG, AAH

    A surface-aerated stirred cell with a flat liquid surface was used to investigate the absorption of propane and ethene gas into slurries of activated carbon and water. Slurries with a solids concentration up to 4% by weight and particle diameters up to 565-mu-m were used. The experimental mass

  8. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure fibres from commercial pig slurry separation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Triolo, Jin M.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    and screw press on average produced approximately 220l [CH4]kg-1 [VS]. Initial methane production can be described using a first-order kinetic model. The average rate constant for manure fibres was 0.030d-1 and for pig slurry 0.071d-1, showing that pig slurry is digested much faster than manure fibres....

  9. The fate of sulfate in acidified pig slurry during storage and following application to cropped soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Peter; Elsgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    -available sulfate form. Microbial sulfate reduction during storage of acidified pig slurry was limited, presumably due to initial pH effects and a limitation in the availability of easily degradable organic matter. Sulfide accumulation was observed during storage but the sulfide levels in acidified slurry did...

  10. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-09-29

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sup 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions.

  11. Microbial examination of anaerobic sludge adaptation to animal slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moset, V; Cerisuelo, A; Ferrer, P; Jimenez, A; Bertolini, E; Cambra-López, M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the microbial population of anaerobic sludge digesters during the adaptation to pig slurry (PS) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and qualitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additionally, the relationship between microbial parameters and sludge physicochemical composition and methane yield was examined. Results showed that the addition of PS to an unadapted thermophilic anaerobic digester caused an increase in volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration, a decrease in removal efficiency and CH4 yield. Additionally, increases in total bacteria and total archaea were observed using qPCR. Scanning electron micrographs provided a general overview of the sludge's cell morphology, morphological diversity and degree of organic matter degradation. A change in microbial morphotypes from homogeneous cell morphologies to a higher morphological diversity, similar to that observed in PS, was observed with the addition of PS by SEM. Therefore, the combination of qPCR and SEM allowed expanding the knowledge about the microbial adaptation to animal slurry in thermophilic anaerobic digesters.

  12. Slurry-phase biodegradation of weathered oily sludge waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machín-Ramírez, C; Okoh, A I; Morales, D; Mayolo-Deloisa, K; Quintero, R; Trejo-Hernández, M R

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the biodegradation of a typical oily sludge waste (PB401) in Mexico using several regimes of indigenous microbial consortium and relevant bioremediation strategies in slurry-phase system. Abiotic loss of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the PB401 was insignificant, and degradation rates under the various treatment conditions ranged between 666.9 and 2168.7 mg kg(-1) day(-1) over a 15 days reaction period, while viable cell count peaked at between log(10)5.7 and log(10)7.4 cfu g(-1). Biostimulation with a commercial fertilizer resulted in 24% biodegradation of the TPH in the oily waste and a corresponding peak cell density of log(10)7.4 cfu g(-1). Addition of non-indigenous adapted consortium did not appear to enhance the removal of TPH from the oily waste. It would appear that the complexities of the components of the alkylaromatic fraction of the waste limited biodegradation rate even in a slurry system.

  13. Rheology of corn stover slurries during fermentation to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sanchari; Epps, Brenden; Lynd, Lee

    2017-11-01

    In typical processes that convert cellulosic biomass into ethanol fuel, solubilization of the biomass is carried out by saccharolytic enzymes; however, these enzymes require an expensive pretreatment step to make the biomass accessible for solubilization (and subsequent fermentation). We have proposed a potentially-less-expensive approach using the bacterium Clostridium thermocellum, which can initiate fermentation without pretreatment. Moreover, we have proposed a ``cotreatment'' process, in which fermentation and mechanical milling occur alternately so as to achieve the highest ethanol yield for the least milling energy input. In order to inform the energetic requirements of cotreatment, we experimentally characterized the rheological properties of corn stover slurries at various stages of fermentation. Results show that a corn stover slurry is a yield stress fluid, with shear thinning behavior well described by a power law model. Viscosity decreases dramatically upon fermentation, controlling for variables such as solids concentration and particle size distribution. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the changes in the physical properties of biomass during fermentation by a thermophilic bacterium.

  14. Recycling Pig Slurry Solid Fraction Compost as a Sound Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolò Pampuro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to determine the physical and acoustical properties of compacts made from composted pig slurry solid fraction (SF in order to assess the potential to recycle this agricultural waste as a sound absorber. The compacts were obtained by compression. The physical parameters investigated were bulk density, durability, and particle size distribution. The acoustical features of the compacts were studied with an impedance tube device in order to verify the acoustic absorption coefficient. Two composts were prepared: pig SF compost without a bulking agent (SSFC and pig SF compost with wood chips as a bulking agent (WCC. The study’s results indicated that compost particles dimension played a key role in the physical and acoustical properties of the compacts: the smaller the particles, the higher the physical and acoustical properties of the compacts. The densification process increased the bulk density of the investigated composts up to 690 kg m−3 for SSFC and 660 kg m−3 for WWC, with, respectively, medium (77.9% and low (66.5% durability. The addition of woody bulking agent significantly reduced the absorption coefficient: the best results, in terms of potential use as a sound absorber, were observed for compacts made from composted pig slurry solid fraction without the addition of wood chips.

  15. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-01-01

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H 2 O, CO 2 , linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions

  16. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir B. Bukur

    2004-01-01

    This report covers the second year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H 2 O, CO 2 , linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the second year of the project we completed the STSR test SB-26203 (275-343 h on stream), which was initiated during the first year of the project, and another STSR test (SB-28603 lasting 341 h). Since the inception of the project we completed 3 STSR tests, and evaluated catalyst under 25 different sets of process conditions. A precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany) was used in all tests. This catalyst was used initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. Also, during the second year we performed a qualitative analysis of experimental data from all three STSR tests. Effects of process conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, feed composition and gas space velocity) on water-gas-shift (WGS) activity and hydrocarbon product distribution have been determined

  17. Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brad G

    2006-08-01

    Previous bench-scale experiments have provided data necessary for the development of empirical models that describe aerosol entrainment from bubble bursting. However, previous work has not been extended to non-Newtonian liquid slurries. Design of a waste treatment plant on the Hanford Site in Washington required an evaluation of the applicability of these models outside of their intended range. For this evaluation, aerosol measurements were conducted above an air-sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry possessing Bingham plastic rheological properties. Three aerosol-size fractions were measured at three sampling heights and for three different sparging rates. The measured entrainment was compared with entrainment models. One model developed based on bench-scale air-water experiments agreed well with measured entrainment. Another model did not agree well with the measured entrainment. It appeared that the source of discrepancy between measured and modeled entrainment stemmed from application beyond the range of data used to develop the model. A possible separation in entrainment coefficients between air-water and steam-water systems was identified. A third entrainment model was adapted to match experimental conditions and fit a posteri to the experimental data, resulting in a modified version that resulted in estimated entrainment rates similar to the first model.

  18. An Experimental Study of Portland Cement and Superfine Cement Slurry Grouting in Loose Sand and Sandy Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Weijing Yao; Jianyong Pang; Yushan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Grouting technology is widely applied in the fields of geotechnical engineering in infrastructure. Loose sand and sandy soil are common poor soils in tunnel and foundation treatments. It is necessary to use superfine cement slurry grouting in the micro-cracks of soil. The different effectiveness of Portland cement slurry and superfine cement slurry in sandy soil by the laboratory grouting experiment method were presented in this paper. The grouting situations of superfine cement slurry inject...

  19. Experimental investigation of combustion of biomass slurry in an oil fired furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, S.V. [Mechanical Dept., M.S. Ramaiah Inst. of Tech., Bangalore (India); Shankapal, S.R. [M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bangalore (India)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental investigation of combustion of biomass slurry in an oil fired furnace was carried out using pulverized coconut shell (CSP), LDO and water. The effect of equivalence ratio on the slurry composition, calorific value and the effect of exhaust gas percentage are presented. The calorific value of the biomass slurry increases with equivalence ratio initially, attains a peak value and then decreases with the increase in equivalence ratio. It is also observed that with the increase in composition of biomass slurry, the cost of the fuel and the percentage emission of CO decreases. It was found that CSP up to a blend of 20% was more convenient to be used as a slurry fuel in the furnace. (orig.)

  20. Spread of Hepatitis E virus from pig slurry to the water environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Forslund, Anita; Breum, Solvej Østergaard

    Objectives: Spread of pig slurry as an organic fertilizer is commonly used in Danish agriculture. The slurry is spread untreated so pathogens able to survive in slurry tanks will be widely distributed in the environment. The objective of this study was to examine if hepatitis E virus (HEV), which......), and hence could present a risk for virus transmission to wildlife and shellfish. We tested the presence of HEV in water drained from a test field where slurry from a Danish pig farm had been applied and in mussels from different regions in Denmark with fields in close proximity. Methods: Slurry from......). In addition, samples of water collected from wells located along the field and groundwater. Archived mussels from different regions in Denmark were included in the study. Virus was concentrated from water using Poly Ethylene Glycol precipitation and virus from the digestive tissue of the mussels was extracted...

  1. Combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of surface modified SS410 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarendra, H. J.; Pratap, M. S.; Karthik, S.; Punitha Kumara, M. S.; Rajath, H. C.; Ranjith, H.; Shubhatunga, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    Slurry erosion and combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of thermal spray coatings are studied and compared with the as-received martensitic stainless steel material. 70Ni-Cr coatings are deposited on SS 410 material through plasma thermal spray process. The synergy effect of the combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of plasma thermal spray coatings were investigated in a slurry pot tester in the presence of bluff bodies known as Cavitation Inducers. Results showed the combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of martensitic stainless steel - 410 can be improved by plasma thermal spray coating. It is observed that the plasma spray coated specimens are better erosion resistant than the as- received material, subjected to erosion test under similar conditions. As-received and the surface modified steels are mechanically characterized for its hardness, bending. Morphological studies are conducted through scanning electron microscope.

  2. The rheology of cryovolcanic slurries: Motivation and phenomenology of methanol-water slurries with implications for Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Fang; Mitchell, Karl L.; Hays, Charles C.; Choukroun, Mathieu; Barmatz, Martin; Kargel, Jeffrey S.

    2009-08-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has revealed landforms on the surface of Titan suggested to be viscous cryovolcanic flows and possibly eruptive domes. In order to relate those surface features to the processes and chemistries that produced them, it is necessary to construct flow models, which rely on characterization of the rheological properties of the eruptants. This paper describes our initial exploratory attempts to understand the rheological characteristics of cryogenic slurries, using a 40% methanol-water mixture, as a precursor to more detailed experiments. We have devised a new automated cryogenic rotational viscometer system to more fully characterize cryovolcanic slurry rheologies. A series of measurements were performed, varying first temperature, and then strain rate, which revealed development of yield stress-like behaviors, shear-rate dependence, and thixotropic behavior, even at relatively low crystal fractions, not previously reported. At fixed shear rate our data are fit well by the Andrade equation, with the activation energy modified by a solid volume fraction. At fixed temperature, depending on shearing history, a Cross model could describe our data over a wide shear rate range. A Bingham plastic model appears to be a good constitutive model for the data measured at high shear rates when the shear was global. The yield stress like behavior implies that levee formation on cryolava flows is more likely than would be inferred from the previous studies, and may provide a partial explanation for features interpreted as steep-sided volcanic constructs on Titan.

  3. Improving profitability through slurry management: a look at the impact of slurry pH on various glass types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Abigail R.; Boffa, Christopher C.; Sarkas, Harry W.; Cureton, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    When building an optical system, optical fabricators and designers meticulously choose the glass types for their application knowing that each one will have different chemical, thermal and mechanical properties. As the requirements for new optical systems have grown more demanding, the range of available glass types has vastly expanded and the specifications on the produced products have grown tighter. In an attempt to simplify processes and streamline consumable purchases, optical polishing houses often rely on one polishing slurry to manage these vast array of glass types. An unforeseen consequence of these practices can be a reduction in productivity by reduced removal rate, poor yields and frequent rework all translating into higher costs and reduced profitability. In this paper, the authors will examine the impact slurry pH has on glass types of different compositions and chemical, thermal and mechanical properties when using a double-sided polishing process. Experiments will use material removal rate, surface quality, and surface figure to provide insight into improving process control for differing glass types. Further guidance will be provided on how simple on-site monitoring and adjustment can deliver improved profitability on challenging substrates.

  4. A Wall Boundary Condition for the Simulation of a Turbulent Non-Newtonian Domestic Slurry in Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruv Mehta

    2018-01-01

    parameters that are relevant to the prediction of pressure losses in a sewerage transporting non-Newtonian domestic slurry. Nonetheless, the application of this boundary condition could be extended to areas such as chemical and food engineering, wherein turbulent non-Newtonian flows can be found.

  5. Experimental investigation on TBAB clathrate hydrate slurry flows in a horizontal tube: Forced convective heat transfer behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenji, Song [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Rui, Xiao; Chong, Huang; Shihui, He; Kaijun, Dong; Ziping, Feng [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, CAS, No. 2 Nengyuan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Tetra-n-butyl-ammonium bromide (TBAB) clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS) is one kind of secondary refrigerants, which is promising to be applied into air-conditioning or latent-heat transportation systems as a thermal storage or cold carrying medium for energy saving. It is a solid-liquid two phase mixture which is easy to produce and has high latent heat and good fluidity. In this paper, the heat transfer characteristics of TBAB slurry were investigated in a horizontal stainless steel tube under different solid mass fractions and flow velocities with constant heat flux. One velocity region of weakened heat transfer was found. Moreover, TBAB CHS was treated as a kind of Bingham fluids, and the influences of the solid particles, flow velocity and types of flow on the forced convective heat transfer coefficients of TBAB CHS were investigated. At last, criterial correlations of Nusselt number for laminar and turbulent flows in the form of power function were summarized, and the error with experimental results was within {+-}20%. (author)

  6. Abrasive slurry jet cutting model based on fuzzy relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, C. H.; Guo, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    The cutting process of pre-mixed abrasive slurry or suspension jet (ASJ) is a complex process affected by many factors, and there is a highly nonlinear relationship between the cutting parameters and cutting quality. In this paper, guided by fuzzy theory, the fuzzy cutting model of ASJ was developed. In the modeling of surface roughness, the upper surface roughness prediction model and the lower surface roughness prediction model were established respectively. The adaptive fuzzy inference system combines the learning mechanism of neural networks and the linguistic reasoning ability of the fuzzy system, membership functions, and fuzzy rules are obtained by adaptive adjustment. Therefore, the modeling process is fast and effective. In this paper, the ANFIS module of MATLAB fuzzy logic toolbox was used to establish the fuzzy cutting model of ASJ, which is found to be quite instrumental to ASJ cutting applications.

  7. Impact of Spherical Frit Beads on Simulated DWPF Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, MICHAEL

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that the rheological properties of simulated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed with the glass former frit as mostly (90 weight percent) solid spherical particles (referred to as beads) were improved as the feed was less viscous as compared to DWPF melter feed that contained the normal irregular shaped frit particles. Because the physical design of the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), Melter Feed Tank (MFT), and melter feed loop are fixed, the impact of changing the rheology might be very beneficial. Most importantly, higher weight percent total solids feed might be processed by reducing the rheological properties (specifically yield stress) of the feed. Additionally, if there are processing problems, such as air entrainment or pumping, these problems might be alleviated by reducing the rheological properties, while maintaining targeted throughputs. Rheology modifiers are chemical, physical, or a combination of the two and can either thin or thicken the rheology of the targeted slurry. The beads are classified as a physical rheological modifier in this case. Even though the improved rheological properties of the feed in the above mentioned DWPF tanks could be quite beneficial, it is the possibility of increased melt rate that is the main driver for the use of beaded glass formers. By improving the rheological properties of the feed, the weight percent solids of the feed could be increased. This higher weight percent solids (less water) feed could be processed faster by the melter as less energy would be required to evaporate the water, and more would be available for the actual melting of the waste and the frit. In addition, the use of beads to thin the feed could possibly allow for the use of a lower targeted acid stoichiometry in the feed preparation process (if in fact acid stoichiometry is being driven by feed rheology as opposed to feed chemistry). Previous work by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with the lab

  8. Double shell slurry low-temperature corrosion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divine, J.R.; Bowen, W.M.; McPartland, S.A.; Elmore, R.P.; Engel, D.W.

    1983-09-01

    A series of year-long tests have been completed on potential double shell slurry (DSS) compositions at temperatures up to 100 0 C. These tests have sought data on uniform corrosion, pitting, and stress-corrosion cracking. No indication of the latter two types of corrosion were observed within the test matrix. Corrosion rates after four months were generally below the 1 mpy (25 μm/y) design limit. By the end of twelve months all results were below this limit and, except for very concentrated mixtures, all were below 0.5 mpy. Prediction equations were generated from a model fitted to the data. The equations provide a rapid means of estimating the corrosion rate for proposed DSS compositions

  9. Formation and filtration of flocs from coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B K

    1977-06-01

    The size and size distribution of flocs are greatly influenced by the type and concentration of the flocculant coal and dirt particles behave differently in this respect. The pH and the concentration of electrolytes also influence flocculation, by changing both the surface properties of the solid material and the effectiveness of the flocculant. The relationship between the sedimentation time and the filtration rate depends on the concentration and type of flocculant. Optimum pH values for various conditions are tabulated. When an anion-active flocculant is added to a coal-dirt mixture in an alkaline medium, selective flocculation occurs; this can be used to improve the separation of slurries.

  10. An integrated approach to route selection in slurry pipeline design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy G.; Altmann, Nara [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    The pressure to get engineering projects done and constructed as fast as possible in order to take advantage of the high prices in metals and petrochemicals has been driving companies to skip the conceptual phase and go straight into basic engineering with cost estimates in the level of 15% accuracy. By-passing early engineering and demanding higher cost estimating accuracy is a contradiction. In most cases, savings made on capital investment is much higher had money been spent in conceptual studies which allow for the optimal solution to be found. This paper reviews one of the key aspects in conceptual engineering of slurry pipeline designs: route selection. This activity is often overlooked, causing capital cost and operating difficulties to rise unnecessarily. This paper describes and gives example on how an integrated client/engineering company's approach to route selection can produce significant savings in pipeline construction and operating costs. (author)

  11. The role of heterotrophic microorganism Galactomyces sp. Z3 in improving pig slurry bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Zheng, Guanyu; Zhou, Lixiang; Liu, Fenwu; Zheng, Chaocheng; Cui, Chunhong

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of removing heavy metals and eliminating pathogens from pig slurry through bioleaching involving the fungus Galactomyces sp. Z3 and two acidophilic thiobacillus (A. ferrooxidans LX5 and A. thiooxidans TS6) was investigated. It was found that the isolated pig slurry dissolved organic matter (DOM) degrader Z3 was identified as Galactomyces sp. Z3, which could grow well at pH 2.5-7 and degrade pig slurry DOM from 1973 to 942 mg/l within 48 h. During the successive multi-batch bioleaching systems, the co-inoculation of pig slurry degrader Galactomyces sp. Z3 and the two Acidithiobacillus species could improve pig slurry bioleaching efficiency compared to the single system without Galactomyces sp. Z3. The removal efficiency of Zn and Cu exceeded 94% and 85%, respectively. In addition, the elimination efficiencies of pathogens, including both total coliform and faecal coliform counts, exceeded 99% after bioleaching treatment. However, the counts of Galactomyces sp. Z3 decreased with the fall of pH and did not restore to the initial level during successive multi-batch bioleaching systems, and it is necessary to re-inoculate Galactomyces sp. Z3 cells into the bioleaching system to maintain its role in degrading pig slurry DOM. Therefore, a bioleaching technique involving both Galactomyces sp. Z3 and Acidithiobacillus species is an efficient method for removing heavy metals and eliminating pathogens from pig slurry.

  12. The stability of a novel weakly alkaline slurry of copper interconnection CMPfor GLSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Caihong; Wang, Chenwei; Niu, Xinhuan; Wang, Yan; Tian, Shengjun; Jiang, Zichao; Liu, Yuling

    2018-02-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is one of the important machining procedures of multilayered copper interconnection for GLSI, meanwhile polishing slurry is a critical factor for realizing the high polishing performance such as high planarization efficiency, low surface roughness. The effect of slurry components such as abrasive (colloidal silica), complexing agent (glycine), inhibitor (BTA) and oxidizing agent (H2O2) on the stability of the novel weakly alkaline slurry of copper interconnection CMP for GLSI was investigated in this paper. First, the synergistic and competitive relationship of them in a peroxide-based weakly alkaline slurry during the copper CMP process was studied and the stability mechanism was put forward. Then 1 wt% colloidal silica, 2.5 wt% glycine, 200 ppm BTA, 20 mL/L H2O2 had been selected as the appropriate concentration to prepare copper slurry, and using such slurry the copper blanket wafer was polished. From the variations of copper removal rate, root-mean square roughness (Sq) value with the setting time, it indicates that the working-life of the novel weakly alkaline slurry can reach more than 7 days, which satisfies the requirement of microelectronics further development. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2016ZX02301003-004-007), the Professional Degree Teaching Case Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. KCJSZ2017008), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. F2015202267), and the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (No. 16JCYBJC16100).

  13. Coal waste slurries as a fuel for integrated gasification combined cycle plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutynski Marcin A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes recent development in integrated gasification combined cycle technology and lists existing and planned IGCC plants. A brief outlook on the IGCC gasification technology is given with focus on entrained-flow gasifiers where the low-quality coal waste slurry fuel can be used. Desired properties of coal and ash for entrained-flow gasifiers are listed. The coal waste slurries, which were deposited at impoundments in Upper Silesian Coal Basin, were considered as a direct feed for such gasifiers. The average ash content, moisture content and lower heating value were analysed and presented as an average values. Entrained-flow commercial gasifiers can be considered as suitable for the coal slurry feed, however the ash content of coal slurries deposited in impoundments is too high for the direct use as the feed for the gasifiers. The moisture content of slurries calculated on as received basis meets the requirements of entrained-flow slurry feed gasifiers. The content of fines is relatively high which allow to use the slurries in entrained-flow gasifiers.

  14. Soil-bentonite design mix for slurry cutoff walls used as containment barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad, N.S.; Bachus, R.C.; Jacobson, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, soil-bentonite slurry cutoff walls have been increasingly used as containment barriers around contaminated soils to impede or, in some cases, nearly eliminate the off-site migration of contaminated ground water or other potentially hazardous liquids. The paper presents the procedures used and the results obtained during an extensive laboratory testing program performed to select varying soil-bentonite slurry mix components for a soil-bentonite slurry cutoff wall constructed around an old landfill at a former oil refinery. The landfill is underlain to varying depths by a coarse granular soils that has been exposed to oil-products. Compatibility of three commercially available bentonite products with the free oil-products and the oil-contaminated ground water found at some locations in the landfill was initially investigated. Based on the test results, one of the bentonite products was selected for use in the soil-bentonite slurry testing program. A clayey soil from a borrow source, potable water from the site, and subsurface soils from the proposed soil-bentonite slurry wall alignment were used to form different soil-bentonite slurry mixes. Slump tests were performed to evaluate the workability of the mixes. Based on the test results, a single mix was selected for further study, including permeability/compatibility testing. The results of the compatibility testing program are presented and discussed in the paper. A specific design mix methodology for evaluating the chemical compatibility of soil-bentonite slurry mixes with permeants is proposed

  15. Performance Study of Graphite Anode Slurry in Lithium-ion Flow Battery by Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Cai-mei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphite anode slurry of lithium-ion flow battery was prepared by the method of ball milling. The morphology, conductivity, specific capacity and cycle performance of graphite anode slurry were studied. Results show that the addition of conductive carbon material can improve the suspension stability of the electrode slurry; the ball milling process can not only improve the suspension stability but also reduce the resistivity of the mixed powders of graphite and conductive carbon materials, the ball milling effect is satisfactory when the mass ratio of the balls and the solid particles is 5:1, but too high ratio of the milling ball and the solid materials can destroy the layer structure of the graphite and affect the stability of the slurry. Increasing the fraction of the graphite and conductive carbon materials can form stable electrical network structure in the slurry and improve the reversible capacity; at the premise of keeping the flowability of the electrode slurry, the reversible specific capacity can be more than 40mAh/g. The capacity loss of graphite anode slurry mainly occurs in the first charging-discharging process, as the increase of the cycles, the capacity loss rate decreases, the capacity goes stable after 5 cycles.

  16. Microbial decontamination of polluted soil in a slurry process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geerdink, M.J.; Kleijntjens, R.H.; Loosdrecht, M.C.M. van; Luyben, K.C.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Oil-contaminated soil (2.3--17 g/kg), even soil with high clay and silt content, was remediated microbiologically in a slurry reactor. The presence of soil, however, limits the degradation rate of oil. In contrast with results form experiments using oil dispersed in water, the relative composition of the oil components in a soil slurry after degradation was about the same as that of the original oil. Thus the composition of the degraded oil is the same as that of the original oil, which is indicative for a physical, rather than a (bio)chemical, limitation on the oil degradation rate. About 70% of the contaminant was readily available and was degraded in less than eight days. The dual injected turbulent suspension (DITS) reactor is able to combine remediation of part of the contaminated (polydisperse) soil with separation of the soil into a heavily and a lightly polluted fraction. In continuous operation, lowering the overall soil residence time from 200 to 100 h did not significantly increase the oil concentration in the effluent soil. Therefore a soil residence time of less than 100 h is feasible. With a residence time of 100 h, overall oil degradation rates at the steady state were more than 70 times faster than in a comparable land farm. After treatment in a DITS reactor, the remaining oil in the contaminated soil fraction is slowly released from the soil. From a batch experiment it was found that another 10 weeks were needed to reach the Dutch reference level of 50 mg/kg. This can be done in a process with a low energy input, such as a landfarm

  17. ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY REACTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2004-01-01

    In this project, an Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column was developed. The approach used an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and made use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. The bubble-bubble and particle-particle collisions are included the model. The model predictions are compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found An experimental setup for studying two-dimensional bubble columns was developed. The multiphase flow conditions in the bubble column were measured using optical image processing and Particle Image Velocimetry techniques (PIV). A simple shear flow device for bubble motion in a constant shear flow field was also developed. The flow conditions in simple shear flow device were studied using PIV method. Concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow was also measured. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. An Eulerian volume of fluid (VOF) computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column was also developed. The liquid and bubble motions were analyzed and the results were compared with observed flow patterns in the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were also analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures were also studied. The simulation results were compared with the experimental data and discussed A thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion was developed. The balance laws were obtained and the constitutive laws established

  18. Alcohol synthesis in a high-temperature slurry reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, G.W.; Marquez, M.A.; McCutchen, M.S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this contract is to develop improved process and catalyst technology for producing higher alcohols from synthesis gas or its derivatives. Recent research has been focused on developing a slurry reactor that can operate at temperatures up to about 400{degrees}C and on evaluating the so-called {open_quotes}high pressure{close_quotes} methanol synthesis catalyst using this reactor. A laboratory stirred autoclave reactor has been developed that is capable of operating at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C and pressures of at least 170 atm. The overhead system on the reactor is designed so that the temperature of the gas leaving the system can be closely controlled. An external liquid-level detector is installed on the gas/liquid separator and a pump is used to return condensed slurry liquid from the separator to the reactor. In order to ensure that gas/liquid mass transfer does not influence the observed reaction rate, it was necessary to feed the synthesis gas below the level of the agitator. The performance of a commercial {open_quotes}high pressure {close_quotes} methanol synthesis catalyst, the so-called {open_quotes}zinc chromite{close_quotes} catalyst, has been characterized over a range of temperature from 275 to 400{degrees}C, a range of pressure from 70 to 170 atm., a range of H{sub 2}/CO ratios from 0.5 to 2.0 and a range of space velocities from 2500 to 10,000 sL/kg.(catalyst),hr. Towards the lower end of the temperature range, methanol was the only significant product.

  19. Biological treatment of soils contaminated with hydrophobic organics using slurry- and solid-phase techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Daniel H.; Irvine, Robert L.

    1995-10-01

    Both slurry-phase and solid-phase bioremediation are effective ex situ soil decontamination methods. Slurrying is energy intensive relative to solid-phase treatment, but provides homogenization and uniform nutrient distribution. Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rates and renders solid phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bio-slurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by aeration in solid phase bioreactors was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty clay loam contaminated with diesel fuel. The first set of experiments was designed to determine the impact of the water content and mixing time during slurrying on the rate an extent of contaminant removal in continuously aerated solid phase bioreactors. The second set of experiments compared the volatile and total diesel fuel removal in solid phase bioreactors using periodic and continuous aeration strategies. Results showed that slurrying for 1.5 hours at a water content less than saturation markedly increased the rate and extent of contaminant biodegradation in the solid phase bioreactors compared with soil having no slurry pretreatment. Slurrying the soil at or above its saturation moisture content resulted in lengthy dewatering times which prohibited aeration, thereby delaying the onset of biological treatment in the solid phase bioreactors. Results also showed that properly operated periodic aeration can provide less volatile contaminant removal and a grater fraction of biological contaminant removal than continuous aeration.

  20. Interim report: Study of benzene release from Savannah River in-tank precipitation process slurry simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappe, K.G.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1997-09-01

    At the Savannah River Site, the in-tank precipitation (ITP) process uses sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) to precipitate radioactive cesium from alkaline wastes. During this process, potassium is also precipitated to form a 4-wt% KTPB/CsTPB slurry. Residual NaTPB decomposes to form benzene, which is retained by the waste slurry. The retained benzene is also readily released from the waste during subsequent waste processing. While the release of benzene certainly poses both flammability and toxicological safety concerns, the magnitude of the hazard depends on the rate of release. Currently, the mechanisms controlling the benzene release rates are not well understood, and predictive models for estimating benzene release rates are not available. The overall purpose of this study is to obtain quantitative measurements of benzene release rates from a series of ITP slurry stimulants. This information will become a basis for developing a quantitative mechanistic model of benzene release rates. The transient benzene release rate was measured from the surface of various ITP slurry (solution) samples mixed with benzene. The benzene release rate was determined by continuously purging the headspace of a sealed sample vessel with an inert gas (nitrogen) and analyzing that purged headspace vapor for benzene every 3 minutes. The following 75-mL samples were measured for release rates: KTPB slurry with 15,000 ppm freshly added benzene that was gently mixed with the slurry, KTPB slurry homogenized (energetically mixed) with 15,000 ppm and 5,000 ppm benzene, clear and filtered KTPB salt solution saturated with benzene (with and without a pure benzene layer on top of the solution), and a slurry sample from a large demonstration experiment (DEMO slurry) containing-benzene generated in situ

  1. Development and Characterization of Gas Diffusion Layer Using Carbon Slurry Dispersed by Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate for Proton Exchange Member Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacorta, Rashida

    Gas diffusion layers (GDLs) are a critical and essential part of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). They carry out various important functions such as transportation of reactants to and from the reaction sites. The material properties and structural characteristics of the substrate and the microporous layer strongly influence fuel cell performance. The microporous layer of the GDLs was fabricated with the carbon slurry dispersed in water containing ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) using the wire rod coating method. GDLs were fabricated with different materials to compose the microporous layer and evaluated the effects on PEMFC power output performance. The consistency of the carbon slurry was achieved by adding 25 wt. % of PTFE, a binding agent with a 75:25 ratio of carbon (Pureblack and vapor grown carbon fiber). The GDLs were investigated in PEMFC under various relative humidity (RH) conditions using H2/O2 and H2/Air. GDLs were also fabricated with the carbon slurry dispersed in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) based for fuel cell performance comparison. MWCNTs and SDS exhibits the highest performance at 60% and 70% RH with a peak power density of 1100 mW.cm-2 and 850 mW.cm-2 using air and oxygen as an oxidant. This means that the gas diffusion characteristics of these two samples were optimum at 60 and 70 % RH with high limiting current density range. It was also found that the composition of the carbon slurry, specifically ALS concentration has the highest peak power density of 1300 and 500mW.cm-2 for both H2/O 2 and H2/Air at 100% RH. However, SDS and MWCNTs demonstrates the lowest power density using air and oxygen as an oxidants at 100% RH.

  2. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  3. Biotreatment of hydrocarbons from petroleum tank bottom sludges in soil slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, M.D.; Neirotti, E.; Albornoz, C.; Mostazo, M.R.; Cozzo, M.

    1996-01-01

    Biotreatment of oil wastes in aqueous slurries prepared with sandy loam soil and inoculated with selected soil cultures was evaluated. After 90 days, oil removal was 47%. Removal of each hydrocarbon class was 84% for saturates, 20% for aromatics, and 44% for asphaltenes. Resins increased by 68%. The use of a soil with a lower level of fine particles or minor organic matter content, or reinoculation with fresh culture did not improve oil elimination. Residual oil recovered from slurries was biotreated. Oil removal was 22%. Slurry-phase biotreatment showed less variability and faster oil removal than solid-phase biotreatment. (author)

  4. Disposal of oil cuttings by downhole fracturing injections : slurry product specifications issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radzuan Junin

    1994-01-01

    The technique of using on-site injection of oil contaminated drill cuttings is attracting considerable attention as a cost effective means of complying with environmental legislation concerning discharges of drilling wastes. The slurrification and injection of oil based cuttings into a casing annulus, a process developed in 1989 by a major oil and gas producer/ operator, has proven to be a significant step toward reduction of such environmental waste. This paper discusses the development of the cuttings reinjection, slurrification, slurry properties and benefits of quality slurry, and behaviour of solid laden slurries in a fracture in conjunction with down-hole disposal operations

  5. Thermogravimetric study of a Phase Change Slurry: Effect of variable conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giro-Paloma, J.; Valle-Zermeño, R. del; Fernández, A.I.; Chimenos, J.M.; Formosa, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dry or wet PCS present differences in their thermal behavior. • The optimum conditions of dry PCS were determined by TGA. • Type of atmosphere and heating rate were the variables under consideration. • T peak can be accurately determined at 1 °C·min −1 in N 2. • Fusion/latent heat can be best determined at 10 °C·min −1 . - Abstract: Microcapsules containing Phase Change Materials (MPCM) are widely used for passive systems in energy storage. When MPCM are mixed with a carrier fluid, Phase Change Slurries (PCS) are used for heat transfer fluids in active systems or heat transport systems. The thermal behavior of PCS can be measured as dry or wet basis, resulting in important differences in weight losses. This study explores the optimum conditions for analyzing the thermal behavior of dried PCS by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) varying the parameter conditions for obtaining peak temperature and heat flow (latent heat). The factors that were taken into account were the atmosphere of study (air and nitrogen) and the heating rate (0.5, 1, 5, and 10 °C·min −1 ). The best conditions to determine peak temperature are at 1 °C·min −1 and in N 2 atmosphere, whereas the decomposition fusion/latent heat of the sample is improved at higher heating velocities towards 10 °C·min −1 .

  6. Flash pyrolysis of coal-solvent slurry prepared from the oxidized coal and the coal dissolved in solvent; Ichibu yokaishita sanka kaishitsutan slurry no jinsoku netsubunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, T.; Mae, K.; Okutsu, H.; Miura, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In order to develop a high-efficiency coal pyrolysis method, flash pyrolysis was experimented on slurry prepared by using liquid-phase oxidation reformed coal and a methanol-based solvent mixture. Australian Morwell coal was used for the experiment. The oxidized coal, into which carboxyl groups have been introduced, has the condensation structure relaxed largely, and becomes highly fluid slurry by means of the solvent. Char production can be suppressed by making the oxidation-pretreated coal into slurry, resulting in drastically improved pyrolytic conversion. The slurry was divided into dissolved solution, dried substance, extracted residue, and residual slurry, which were pyrolized independently. The dissolved solution showed very high conversion. Improvement in the conversion is contributed by separating the dissolved substances (coal macromolecules) at molecular levels, coagulating the molecules, suppressing cross-link formation, and reducing molecular weight of the dissolved substances. Oxidized coal can be dissolved to 80% or higher by using several kinds of mixed solvents. As a result of the dissolution, a possibility was suggested on pyrolysis which is easy in handling and high in conversion. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Costs of slurry separation technologies and alternative use of the solid fraction for biogas production or burning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    separation, in order to establish the overall costs. Key parameters are livestock density, transport distance, price of additional land and cost of separation. The conclusion is that unless land prices or prices on slurry agreements are very high, traditional handling of animal manure has the lowest costs......The purpose of this paper is to analyse different separation concepts in order to evaluate the overall costs based on a systems approach from stable to field. When livestock are produced in livestock intensive areas the distribution of manure without creating a surplus of nutrients is often....... Decanter separation can be the cheapest if area is limited and cooperation with neighbours is possible as large volumes reduce separation costs per tonne. Flocculation is the best if much P has to be removed from the farm in the solid fraction. Separation will in the future in many cases be combined...

  8. USAGE OF PLASTIC LITTER MADE FROM SEPARATED SLURRY IN FARM ANIMAL BREEDINGS ESPECIALLY IN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ŠOCH

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The observation was performed in two dairy cows´ herds of Holstein breeding stabled in brick buildings with loose box stabling system. The separated slurry was used as litter in one of the building, classical stabling regime with straw litter was used in the other one. The experiment ascertained a significant tendency to reduction of microorganisms and parasites quantity in separated slurry modified by biometric treatment through the method of managed composting process. There was quite a small quantity of microorganisms and parasites in samples taken from litter of separated slurry and only after three weeks a gradual proliferation of them began. From the viewpoint of the dairy cows´ state of health, the quantity and quality of their milk production, the cleanness of their body surface, the periods of their lying and other ascertained welfare parameters under given microclimatic conditions the application of separated slurry as plastic litter fully complied.

  9. SYSTEM OF CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF THE PROCESS OF THE MORTAR SLURRY PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kukuj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological schema of automatic flow line allowing to prepare with minimum charges of manual labor the refined from solid additives mortar slurry with stable density is presented in the article.

  10. Slurry explosives containing the combination of nitrogen-base salt and hard solid particles as sensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, W.M.

    1971-11-02

    In recent years, blasting agents, particularly those of the type known as water gels or slurry explosives have gained considerable commercial acceptance. Generally, the slurry explosives are comprised of an inorganic oxidizing salt, predominantly ammonium nitrate, a thickening agent for the liquid, water, and fuel. The density, velocity of detonation, and ability to sustain detonation are increased so that the compositions propagate in small diameter boreholes. A water-bearing slurry explosive is described containing inorganic oxidizing salt, fuel, water and thickener together with nitrogen- base salt and solid particles having a hardness of at least 4 on the Mohs scale and that have an acoustic impedance at least 2 times that of the matrix of the slurry explosive. (15 claims)

  11. Life cycle assessment of pig slurry treatment technologies for nutrient redistribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Peters, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Animal slurry management is associated with a range of impacts on fossil resource use and the environment. The impacts are greatest when large amounts of nutrient-rich slurry from livestock production cannot be adequately utilised on adjacent land. To facilitate nutrient redistribution, a range...... of different technologies are available. This study comprised a life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts from handling 1000. kg of pig slurry ex-animal. Application of untreated pig slurry onto adjacent land was compared with using four different treatment technologies to enable nutrient...... on a combination of values derived from the literature and simulations with the Farm-N model for Danish agricultural and climatic conditions. The environmental impact categories assessed were climate change, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, natural resource use, and soil...

  12. Numerical Modeling of Mixing of Chemically Reacting, Non-Newtonian Slurry for Tank Waste Retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, David A.; Onishi, Yasuo; Rustad, James R.; Michener, Thomas E.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Ten, Arkady A.; Hier, Catherine A.

    2000-01-01

    Many highly radioactive wastes will be retrieved by installing mixer pumps that inject high-speed jets to stir up the sludge, saltcake, and supernatant liquid in the tank, blending them into a slurry. This slurry will then be pumped out of the tank into a waste treatment facility. Our objectives are to investigate interactions-chemical reactions, waste rheology, and slurry mixing-occurring during the retrieval operation and to provide a scientific basis for the waste retrieval decision-making process. Specific objectives are to: (1) Evaluate numerical modeling of chemically active, non-Newtonian tank waste mixing, coupled with chemical reactions and realistic rheology; (2) Conduct numerical modeling analysis of local and global mixing of non-Newtonian and Newtonian slurries; and (3) Provide the bases to develop a scientifically justifiable, decision-making support tool for the tank waste retrieval operation

  13. Strength properties of cement slurries with lightweights applied in oil and gas wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubnov, A S; Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Head of Laboratory Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry (Russian Federation))" >Boyko, I A; Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (PhD, Engineer, Laboratory Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry (Russian Federation))" >Khorev, V S

    2015-01-01

    The article is focused on the cement stone strength properties resulted from lightweight cement slurries that meet GOST-1581-96 (state Standards) requirements. Exfoliated vermiculite, hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (HAMs), diatomite and perlite were used as lightweighting additives

  14. Estimation of methane emissions from slurry pits under pig and cattle confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anne B.; Elsgaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment Technologies such as anaerobic digestion...... less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential...... and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source...

  15. Apparatus and method of measuring fluctuations of excavated mud amount in a slurry line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Kubota, R.; Uchida, Y.; Kasuya, T.; Seki, N.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring fluctuations in amount of soil in slurry or soil-containing fluid line is described. Each system of feeding the slurry typically to tunneling face and draining it therefrom in the slurry line is provided with gamma-ray densimeter and electromagnetic flow-meter to obtain respective amounts of soil only (dry-soil amounts) in the slurry flowing through each of said systems from respective outputs of these meters in each system, so that actually excavated amount through ground layer of a shielded excavator at the tunneling face can be measured by the difference between the respective dry-soil amounts. The excavator will be advanced depending on this measured amount

  16. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendse, H.P.

    1992-10-01

    In this paper we present a novel measurement technique for monitoring particle size distributions of industrial colloidal slurries based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical deconvolution. An on-line sensor prototype has been developed and tested extensively in laboratory and production settings using mineral pigment slurries. Evaluation to date shows that the sensor is capable of providing particle size distributions, without any assumptions regarding their functional form, over diameters ranging from 0.1 to 100 micrometers in slurries with particle concentrations of 10 to 50 volume percents. The newly developed on-line sensor allows one to obtain particle size distributions of commonly encountered inorganic pigment slurries under industrial processing conditions without dilution.

  17. Field device to measure viscosity, density, and other slurry properties in drilled shafts : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Proper performance of mineral slurries used to stabilize drilled shaft excavations is maintained by assuring the : density, viscosity, pH, and sand content stay within state specified limits. These limits have been set either by : past experience, re...

  18. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF KAOLIN/SAND SLURRY USED DURING SUBMERSIBLE MIXER PUMP TESTS AT TNX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HANSEN, ERICH

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to characterize the physical properties of the kaolin/sand slurries used during the testing of a new submersible mixer pump (SMP) which had undergone performance testing at the TNX Waste Tank mockup facility from July 2004 through May 2005. During this time period, four identical SMPs were subjected to various water tests and four different tests using different batches of kaolin/sand slurries. The physical properties of the kaolin/sand slurries were measured for three of the four tests. In these tests, three different sample locations were used to pull samples, the SMP cooling water exit (CWE), the SMP fluid flow field (FFF), and SMP effective cleaning radius (ECR). The physical properties measured, though not for each sample, included rheology, weight percent total solids (wt% TS), density, kaolin/sand slurry particle size distribution (PSD), weight percent and particles size distribution of material greater than 45 microns

  19. NPK NMR Sensor: Online Monitoring of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in Animal Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Morten K; Jensen, Ole; Bakharev, Oleg N; Nyord, Tavs; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2015-07-07

    Knowledge of the actual content of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) in animal slurry is highly important to optimize crop production and avoid environmental pollution when slurry is spread on agricultural fields. Here, we present a mobile, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensor suitable for online monitoring of the NPK content in animal slurry as an alternative to crude estimates or tedious nonspecific, off-site laboratory analysis. The sensor is based on (14)N, (17)O, (31)P, and (39)K NMR in a digital NMR instrument equipped with a 1.5 T Halbach magnet for direct detection of ammonium N, total P, and K and indirect evaluation of the organic N content, covering all practical components of NPK in animal slurry. In correlation studies, the obtained NMR measurements show good agreement with reference measurements from commercial laboratories.

  20. Improvement in water-slurry circulation at the Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabokov, A.K.; Fedotov, B.P.; Mitlash, V.V.

    1988-02-01

    The Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant (Donetskugleobogashchenie association) was put into operation in 1935. It processes 570 t/h of coal slurry with an ash content of 38.6% and produces grade T coal for coking and power generation. Coal preparation technology used is described. Shortcomings of the system cause 130 kg of high ash slurries to be recirculated per m/sup 3/ of hydrocyclone drain. Mathematical analysis of the present process and of two improved variants is presented. The analysis permits variants for clarification of the recirculated water to be developed and evaluated and the best one to be selected. The optimum variant permits the amount of thin recirculated slurry to be reduced to 48% and the amount of granular slurry to 13%. Implementation of this variant at the Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant will ensure annual savings of 20,000 rubles.

  1. USAGE OF PLASTIC LITTER MADE FROM SEPARATED SLURRY IN FARM ANIMAL BREEDINGS ESPECIALLY IN CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    M. ŠOCH; JANA ŠŤASTNÁ; V. PÁLKA; B VOSTOUPAL; P. NOVÁK; J. BROUČEK; B. ČERMÁK

    2009-01-01

    The observation was performed in two dairy cows´ herds of Holstein breeding stabled in brick buildings with loose box stabling system. The separated slurry was used as litter in one of the building, classical stabling regime with straw litter was used in the other one. The experiment ascertained a significant tendency to reduction of microorganisms and parasites quantity in separated slurry modified by biometric treatment through the method of managed composting process. There was quite a sma...

  2. Experiment of forced convection heat transfer using microencapsulated phase-change-material slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Shinji; Akino, Norio; Tanaka, Amane; Nagashima, Akira.

    1997-01-01

    The present study describes an experiment on forced convective heat transfer using a water slurry of Microencapsulated Phase-change-material. A normal paraffin hydrocarbon is microencapsulated by melamine resin, melting point of 28.1degC. The heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in a circular tube were evaluated. The heat transfer coefficient using the slurry in case with and without phase change were compared to in case of using pure water. (author)

  3. Study of the Parametric Performance of Solid Particle Erosion Wear under the Slurry Pot Test Rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. More

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stainless Steel (SS 304 is commonly used material for slurry handling applications like pipelines, valves, pumps and other equipment's. Slurry erosion wear is a common problem in many engineering applications like process industry, thermal and hydraulic power plants and slurry handling equipments. In this paper, experimental investigation of the influence of solid particle size, impact velocity, impact angle and solid concentration parameters in slurry erosion wear behavior of SS 304 using slurry pot test rig. In this study the design of experiments was considered using Taguchi technique. A comparison has been made for the experimental and Taguchi technique results. The erosion wear morphology was studied using micro-graph obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis. At shallow impact angle 30°, the material removal pattern was observed in the form of micro displacing, scratching and ploughing with plastic deformation of the material. At 60° impact angle, mixed type of micro indentations and pitting action is observed. At normal impact angle 90°, the material removal pattern was observed in form of indentation and rounded lips. It is found that particle velocity was the most influence factor than impact angle, size and solid concentration. From this investigation, it can be concluded that the slurry erosion wear is minimized by controlling the slurry flow velocity which improves the service life of the slurry handling equipments. From the comparison of experimental and Taguchi experimental design results it is found that the percentage deviation was very small with a higher correlation coefficient (r2 0.987 which is agreeable.

  4. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYSTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

    2005-01-01

    This report covers the third year of this research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H 2 O, CO 2 , linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we utilized experimental data from the STSR, that were obtained during the first two years of the project, to perform vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations and estimate kinetic parameters. We used a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) with estimated values of binary interaction coefficients for the VLE calculations. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Occasional discrepancies (for some of the experimental data) between calculated and experimental values of the liquid phase composition were ascribed to experimental errors. The VLE calculations show that the vapor and the liquid are in thermodynamic equilibrium under reaction conditions. Also, we have successfully applied the Levenberg-Marquardt method (Marquardt, 1963) to estimate parameters of a kinetic model proposed earlier by Lox and Froment (1993b) for FTS on an iron catalyst. This kinetic model is well suited for initial studies where the main goal is to learn techniques for parameter estimation and statistical analysis of estimated values of model parameters. It predicts that the chain growth parameter (α) and olefin to paraffin ratio are independent of carbon number, whereas our experimental data show that they vary with the carbon number. Predicted molar flow

  5. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul C.K. Lam; Isaac K. Gamwo; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed and is appended in this report. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The details are presented in the attached paper titled ''CFD Simulation of Flow and Turbulence in a Slurry Bubble Column''. This phase of the work is in press in a referred journal (AIChE Journal, 2002) and was presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001) in New Orleans, May 27-June 1, 2001 (Paper No. 909). The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. To better understand turbulence we studied fluidization in a liquid-solid bed. This work was also presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001, Paper No. 910). To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV

  6. Characterization of the March 2017 Tank 15 Waste Removal Slurry Sample (Combination of Slurry Samples HTF-15-17-28 and HTF-15-17-29)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-09

    Two March 2017 Tank 15 slurry samples (HTF-15-17-28 and HTF-15-17-29) were collected during the second bulk waste removal campaign and submitted to SRNL for characterization. At SRNL, the two samples were combined and then characterized by a series of physical, elemental, radiological, and ionic analysis methods. Sludge settling as a function of time was also quantified. The characterization results reported in this document are consistent with expectations based upon waste type, process knowledge, comparisons between alternate analysis techniques, and comparisons with the characterization results obtained for the November 2016 Tank 15 slurry sample (the sample collected during the first bulk waste removal campaign).

  7. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Bueno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on the tire/road noise generation. To reduce this undesirable effect on the sound performance, new designs of elastic bituminous slurries have been developed. Within the FENIX project, this work presents the acoustical characterization of an experimental bituminous slurry with crumb rubber from wasted automobile tires incorporated by the dry process. The obtained results show that, under controlled operational parameters, the close proximity sound levels associated to the experimental slurry are considerably lower than those emitted by a conventional slurry wearing course. However, after one year of supporting traffic loads and different weather conditions, the evaluated bituminous slurry, although it conserves the original noise reduction properties in relation to the conventional one, noticeably increases the generated sound emission. Therefore, it is required to continue improving the design of experimental surfaces in order to enhance its long-term performance.

  8. Feasibility Studies on Pipeline Disposal of Concentrated Copper Tailings Slurry for Waste Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Pradipta Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2017-06-01

    The conventional lean phase copper tailings slurry disposal systems create pollution all around the disposal area through seepage and flooding of waste slurry water. In order to reduce water consumption and minimize pollution, the pipeline disposal of these waste slurries at high solids concentrations may be considered as a viable option. The paper presents the rheological and pipeline flow characteristics of copper tailings samples in the solids concentration range of 65-72 % by weight. The tailings slurry indicated non-Newtonian behaviour at these solids concentrations and the rheological data were best fitted by Bingham plastic model. The influence of solids concentration on yield stress and plastic viscosity for the copper tailings samples were discussed. Using a high concentration test loop, pipeline experiments were conducted in a 50 mm nominal bore (NB) pipe by varying the pipe flow velocity from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s. A non-Newtonian Bingham plastic pressure drop model predicted the experimental data reasonably well for the concentrated tailings slurry. The pressure drop model was used for higher size pipes and the operating conditions for pipeline disposal of concentrated copper tailings slurry in a 200 mm NB pipe with respect to specific power consumption were discussed.

  9. Kinetic modeling of cement slurry synthesized with Henna extract in oil well acidizing treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Aghajafari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acidizing treatment in petroleum reservoirs is a short-term and viable strategy to preserve the productivity of a well. There is a major concern for the degradation of cement sheath integrity, leading to poor zonal isolation and environmental issues. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the cement behaves when attacked by hydrochloric acid. In this study, a cement slurry by incorporation of the Henna extract, as an environmentally friendly cement additive, was synthesized as a potential solution to solve this problem. The characteristics of the treated cement slurry were compared with a reference slurry (w/c = 0.44 which is composed of only cement and water. A kinetic study was carried out to evaluate the adsorption behavior of the cement slurries exposed to an acid solution with 0.1 M HCl in a range of 25 to 55 °C conditions. The features of the cement slurries were evaluated by multiple analytical techniques such as XRD, FTIR, TG, and DSC analysis. From the experimental data, it is concluded that the second-order Lagergren kinetic model revealed to be the best in describing kinetic isotherms taken, because the margin between experimental and calculated values was minor for this model. The results of the characterization and HCl interaction kinetic studies underlined the prominent protective role of Henna extract-modified cement slurry in the enhancement of the cement resistance against acid attack and utilization in environmentally favorable oil well acidizing treatments.

  10. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal coupled with carbohydrate production by five microalgae cultures cultivated in biogas slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fen; Wang, Zhi; Zhouyang, Siyu; Li, Heng; Xie, Youping; Wang, Yuanpeng; Zheng, Yanmei; Li, Qingbiao

    2016-12-01

    In this study, five microalgae strains were cultured for their ability to survive in biogas slurry, remove nitrogen resources and accumulate carbohydrates. It was proved that five microalgae strains adapted in biogas slurry well without ammonia inhibition. Among them, Chlorella vulgaris ESP-6 showed the best performance on carbohydrate accumulation, giving the highest carbohydrate content of 61.5% in biogas slurry and the highest ammonia removal efficiency and rate of 96.3% and 91.7mg/L/d respectively in biogas slurry with phosphorus and magnesium added. Additionally, the absence of phosphorus and magnesium that can be adverse for biomass accumulation resulted in earlier timing of carbohydrate accumulation and magnesium was firstly recognized and proved as the influence factor for carbohydrate accumulation. Microalgae that cultured in biogas slurry accumulated more carbohydrate in cell, making biogas slurry more suitable medium for the improvement of carbohydrate content, thus can be regarded as a new strategy to accumulate carbohydrate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Management of Biogas spent slurry for hastening the composting of agro residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Geeta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for energy and the fertilizers are ever increasing. Organic farming has many advantages looking to the environment pollution, unproductive soil, less yields etc. By installation of a biogas plant serves both the purposes of meeting the fuel as well as obtaining manures. The organic manures need to be added in bulk to meet the nutrient demands of the crop as it is not in concentrated form like chemical fertilizers. Hence, biogas spent slurry is the best alternate for hastening the compost preparation of abundantly available crop residues as well as obtaining enriched compost as conventional method takes long time. Moreover, slurry is composed of major nutrients besides enzymes and a rich microflora. Based on the preliminary results, the present study was conducted at farmer’s field to know whether slurry could be used for degradation of agro residues. One ton of crop residues that included banana waste, sunflower and maize waste, leaf litter of horticultural crops were inoculated individually with 60 L of spent slurry along with consortia of degrading fungi and P-solubilising bacteria. After a retention period of 60 days, nutrients were analysed. The cultures along with slurry indicated 1.5 - 1.96% N with reduction in C:N ratio between 1.6 - 1.82. The micronutrients also increased. Thus, it was concluded that efficient use of spent slurry can be made besides utilising the crop residues and the product for organic cultivation.

  12. Dynamic NMR Study of Model CMP Slurry Containing Silica Particles as Abrasives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, F.; Al-Bawab, A.; Li, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) should provide a good surface planarity with minimal surface defectivity. Since CMP slurries are multi-component systems, it is very important to understand the various processes and interactions taking place in such slurries. Several techniques have been employed for such task, however, most of them lack the molecular recognition to investigate molecular interactions without adding probes which in turn increase complexity and might alter the microenvironment of the slurry. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful technique that can be employed in such study. The longitudinal relaxation times (T1) of the different components of CMP slurries were measured using Spin Echo-NMR (SE-NMR) at a constant temperature. The fact that NMR is non-invasive and gives information on the molecular level gives more advantage to the technique. The model CMP slurry was prepared in D2O to enable monitoring of T1 for the various components' protons. SE-NMR provide a very powerful tool to study the various interactions and adsorption processes that take place in a model CMP silica based slurry which contains BTA and/or glycine and/or Cu+2 ions. It was found that BTA is very competitive towards complexation with Cu+2 ions and BTA-Cu complex adsorbs on silica surface.

  13. High static gel strength cement slurries for gas flow-laboratory surveys and case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P.; Ribeiro, Danilo [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Farias, A.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pessoa, Laudemar [University of Adelaide (Australia). Math. Bachelor Master Petroleum Engineer

    2008-07-01

    Gas migration is a phenomenon involving fluid density control, well conditioning, good adherence of the cement slurry to the contacting surfaces, chemical-physical properties, cement hydration mechanisms, and the well's geometry. This problem is evident in several producing wells with a pressurized annulus. Recently, a trend of combining operational techniques with cement slurries capable of developing very high static gel strength (SGS) has developed. Slurry designs intended to confer high SGS almost always have greater rheologies. This can make it difficult to mix the slurry on surfaces or even move the slurry placement through the well, more so because gas-producing wells are typically deep and have complex geometry. This paper evaluates the industry's understanding of this problem. It compares the major solutions with current cement slurry designs and, in addition to the conventional specific gas well parameters, it emphasizes the high SGS and low rheologies on surface conditions. This study also documents the success and efficiency of cementing at a Brazilian sedimentary basin which was completed using designs recommended in this work. This paper does not consider the gas migration occurrence through the cementing matrix. (author)

  14. Attenuation measurements of ultrasound in a kaolin-water slurry. A linear dependence upon frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, M.S.; Mai, J.L.; Good, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The attenuation of ultrasound through a kaolin-water slurry was measured for frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 MHz. The maximum concentration of the slurry was for a weight percentage of 44% (or a volume fraction of 0.24). The goal of these measurements was to assess the feasibility of using ultrasonic attenuation to determine the concentration of a slurry of known composition. The measurements were obtained by consecutively adding kaolin to the slurry and measuring the attenuation at each concentration. After reaching a maximum concentration a dilution technique was used, in which an amount of slurry was removed and water was added, to obtain the attenuation as a function of the concentration. The dilution technique was the more effective method to obtain calibration data. These measurements were carried out using two transducers, having a center frequency of 2.25 MHz, separated by 0.1016m (4.0 in.). The maximum attenuation measured in these experiments was about 100Np/m, but the experimental apparatus has the capability of measuring a larger attenuation if the distance between the two transducers is decreased. For a given frequency, the data show that ln V/V 0 depends linearly upon the volume fraction (V is the received voltage for the slurry and V 0 is that obtained for water). This indicated that each particle acts independently in attenuating ultrasound. 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Recovering low-turbidity cutting liquid from silicon slurry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzu-Hsuan; Shih, Yu-Pei

    2014-04-30

    In order to recover a low-turbidity polyalkylene glycol (PAG) liquid from silicon slurry waste by sedimentation, temperatures were adjusted, and acetone, ethanol or water was used as a diluent. The experimental results show that the particles in the waste would aggregate and settle readily by using water as a diluent. This is because particle surfaces had lower surface potential value and weaker steric stabilization in PAG-water than in PAG-ethanol or PAG-acetone solutions. Therefore, water is the suggested diluent for recovering a low-turbidity PAG (sedimentation. After 50 wt.% water-assisted sedimentation for 21 days, the solid content of the upper liquid reduced to 0.122 g/L, and the turbidity decreased to 44 NTU. The obtained upper liquid was then vacuum-distillated to remove water. The final recovered PAG with 0.37 NTU had similar viscosity and density to the unused PAG and could be reused in the cutting process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of different fibre sources in diets for growing pigs on chemical composition of faeces and slurry and ammonia emission from slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate how three different fibre sources, sugar beet pulp, soya bean hulls and pectin residue, in diets for growing pigs influenced the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in faeces, pH-value in faeces and slurry, excretion of nitrogen in urine...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTATIONAL MULTIPHASE FLOW MODEL FOR FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gribik; Steven P. Antal

    2010-09-01

    The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The

  18. Clay slurry and engineered soils as containment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.R.; Dudka, S.; Miller, W.P.; Johnson, D.O.

    1997-01-01

    Clay Slurry and Engineered Soils are containment technologies for remediation of waste disposal sites where leaching, groundwater plumes and surface runoff of contaminants are serious ecological hazards to adjacent environments. This technology is a patent-pending process which involves the use of conditioned clay materials mixed with sand and water to form a readily pourable suspension, a clay slurry, which is either placed into a trench barrier system or allowed to de-water to create Engineered Soils. The Engineered Soil forms a layer impervious to water and air, therefore by inhibiting both water and oxygen from penetrating through the soil the material. This material can be installed in layers and as a vertical barrier to create a surface barrier containment system. The clay percentage in the clay slurry and Engineered Soils varies depending on site characteristics and desired performance standards. For example Engineered Soils with 1-2% of clay (dry wt.) had a hydraulic conductivity (K) of 10 -8 to 10 -1 cm/sec. Tests of tailing materials from a kyanite and pyrite mine showed that the clay slurry was effective not only in reducing the permeability of the treated tailings, but also in decreasing their acidity due to the inherent alkalinity of the clay. The untreated tailings had pH values in the range of 2.4 - 3.1; whereas, the effluent from clay and tailings mixtures had pH values in a slightly alkaline range (7.7-7.9). Pug-mills and high volume slurry pumps can be readily adapted for use in constructing and placing caps and creating Engineered Soils. Moreover, material on site or from a local sand supply can be used to create clay slurries and engineered soils. Clay materials used in cap construction are likewise readily available commercially. As a result, the clay slurry system is very cost effective compared to other capping systems, including the commonly used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner systems

  19. Radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry with high energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Halina; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Zimek, Zbigniew; Kałuska, Iwona; Skowron, Karolina Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    The research was carried out to assess the efficiency of radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry of different density using the high energy electron beam based on the inactivation rate of Salmonella ssp, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp and Ascaris suum eggs. The experiment was conducted with use of the linear electron accelerator Elektronika 10/10 in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw. The inoculated slurry samples underwent hygienization with high energy electron beam of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Numbers of reisolated bacteria were determined according to the MPN method, using typical microbiological media. Theoretical lethal doses, D 90 doses and hygienization efficiency of high energy electron beam were determined. The theoretical lethal doses for all tested bacteria ranged from 3.63 to 8.84 kGy and for A. suum eggs from 4.07 to 5.83 kGy. Salmonella rods turned out to be the most sensitive and Enterococcus spp were the most resistant to electron beam hygienization. The effectiveness or radiation hygienization was lower in cattle than in swine slurry and in thick than in thin one. Also the species or even the serotype of bacteria determined the dose needed to inactivation of microorganisms. - Highlights: ► The hygienic efficiency of electron beam against slurry was researched. ► The hygienization efficiency depended on the slurry characteristics and microorganism species. ► In most of the cases 7 kGy dose was sufficient for slurry hygienization. ► Dose below 1 kGy allowed for 90% elimination of microorganism population. ► The radiation hygienization is a good alternative for typical slurry treatment methods

  20. Evaluation of mitigation strategies to reduce ammonia losses from slurry fertilisation on arable lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carozzi, M., E-mail: marco.carozzi@unimi.it [University of Milan, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy); Ferrara, R.M.; Rana, G. [Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Research Unit for Cropping Systems in Dry Environments, via C. Ulpiani, 5 – 70125 Bari (Italy); Acutis, M. [University of Milan, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the best practices in reducing ammonia (NH{sub 3}) losses from fertilised arable lands, six field trials were carried out in three different locations in northern Italy. NH{sub 3} emissions from cattle slurry were estimated considering the spreading techniques and the field incorporation procedures. The measurements were performed using long term exposure samplers associated to the determination of the atmospheric turbulence and the use of the backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) model WindTrax. The results obtained indicate that the NH{sub 3} emission process was exhausted in the first 24–48 h after slurry spreading. The slurry incorporation technique was able to reduce the NH{sub 3} losses with respect to the surface spreading, where a contextual incorporation led to reductions up to 87%. However, the best abatement strategy for NH{sub 3} losses from slurry applications has proved to be the direct injection into the soil, with a reduction of about 95% with respect to the surface spreading. The results obtained highlight the strong dependence of the volatilisation phenomenon by soil and weather conditions. - Highlights: ► Ammonia emissions from land-application of slurry were quantified. ► We examined and compared six different agronomic treatments in three locations. ► The faster was the soil-incorporation of slurry, the lower was the ammonia loss. ► The direct injection of slurry was found to be the best abatement strategy. ► The environmental factors were able to strongly influence the ammonia emission.

  1. Thickness control and interface quality as functions of slurry formulation and casting speed in side-by-side tape casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulatova, Regina; Jabbari, Mirmasoud; Kaiser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A novel method of co-casting called side-by-side tape casting was developed aiming to form thin functionally graded films with varying properties within a single plane. The standard organic-based recipe was optimized to co-cast slurries into thick graded tapes. Performed numerical simulations...... identified the stable flow beneath the blade with a shear rate profile independent of slurry viscosity as long as the slurry load in the casting tank was low. Thickness and interface shape could be well predicted if the rheological behaviour of slurries is known and the processing parameters are well...

  2. Choosing co-substrates to supplement biogas production from animal slurry - A life cycle assessment of the environmental consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croxatto Vega, Giovanna Catalina; Ten Hoeve, Marieke; Birkved, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Biogas production from animal slurry can provide substantial contributions to reach renewable energy targets, yet due to the low methane potential of slurry, biogas plants depend on the addition of co-substrates to make operations profitable. The environmental performance of three underexploited co......-substrates, straw, organic household waste and the solid fraction of separated slurry, were assessed against slurry management without biogas production, using LCA methodology. The analysis showed straw, which would have been left on arable fields, to be an environmentally superior co-substrate. Due to its low...

  3. SCOPING STUDIES TO DEVELOP A METHOD TO DETERMINE PARTICLE SIZE IN SIMULANT SLUDGE SLURRIES BY SIEVING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAMON, CLICK

    2005-01-01

    A physical separation method (i.e. sieving) was investigated to determine particle size distribution in non-radioactive sludge slurry simulants with the goal of implementation into the SRNL (Savannah River National Laboratory) shielded cells for use with radioactive sludge slurries. The investigation included obtaining the necessary experimental equipment, developing accessory equipment for use with the sieve shaker (to be able to sieve simulant slurries with aqueous solutions), sieving three different simulant slurries through a number of sieves and determining the particle size distribution gravimetrically, and developing a sufficient cleaning protocol of the sieves for re-use. The experimental protocol involved successive sieving of a NIST standard (to check the particle size retention of the sieves) and three non-radioactive slurry simulants (Batch 3 Tank 40 Test 3, Tank 40 Drum 3 and CETL Sludge Batch 2, which had been previously characterized by Microtrac analysis) through smaller and smaller sieves (150 microns x 5 microns) via use of the wet sieving system or by hand. For each of the three slurries, duplicate experiments were carried out using filtered supernate and DI water (to check the accuracy of the method versus Microtrac data) to sieve the slurry. Particle size determinations using the wet sieving system with DI water agree well with Microtrac data on a volume basis and in some cases the sieving data may be more accurate particularly if the material sieved had large particles. A correction factor had to be applied to data obtained from experiments done with supernate due to the dissolved solids which dried upon the sieves in the drying stage of the experiments. Upon subtraction of the correction factors, the experimental results were very similar to those obtained with DI water. It should be noted that approximately 250 mL of each of three simulant slurries was necessary to have enough filtered supernate available to carry out the experiments. The

  4. Area 3, SRC-II coal slurry preheater studies report for the technical data analysis program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    This report reviews the raw data gathered from the Preheater B test runs at Ft. Lewis, and also the Preheater B results presented in the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Final Report, Volumes 1 and 2 of Slurry Preheater Design, SRC-II Process and the Ft. Lewis Slurry Preheater Data Analysis, 1 1/2 Inch Coil by Gulf Science and Technology Corporation of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. attempts were made to correlate several variables not previously considered with slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity. Only partial success was realized. However, in the process of attempting to correlate these variables an understanding of why some variables could not be correlated was achieved. An attempt was also made, using multiple linear regression, to correlate coal slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity with several independent variables among which were temperature, coal concentration, total solids, coal type, slurry residence time, shear rate, and unit size. The final correlations included some, but not all, of these independent variables. This report is not a stand alone document and should be considered a supplement to work already done. It should be read in conjunction with the reports referenced above.

  5. The effect on slurry water as a fresh water replacement in concrete properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Shahidan, Shahiron; Hai Yee, Lau; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Concrete is the most widely used engineering material in the world and one of the largest water consuming industries. Consequently, the concrete manufacturer, ready mixed concrete plant is increased dramatically due to high demand from urban development project. At the same time, slurry water was generated and leading to environmental problems. Thus, this paper is to investigate the effect of using slurry water on concrete properties in term of mechanical properties. The basic wastewater characterization was investigated according to USEPA (Method 150.1 & 300.0) while the mechanical property of concrete with slurry water was compared according to ASTM C1602 and BS EN 1008 standards. In this research, the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and tensile strength were studied. The percentage of wastewater replaced in concrete mixing was ranging from 0% up to 50%. In addition, the resulted also suggested that the concrete with 20% replacement of slurry water was achieved the highest compressive strength and modulus of elasticity compared to other percentages. Moreover, the results also recommended that concrete with slurry water mix have better compressive strength compared to control mix concrete.

  6. Identification of Inhibitors in Lignocellulosic Slurries and Determination of Their Effect on Hydrocarbon-Producing Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify inhibitors in pretreated lignocellulosic slurries, evaluate high-throughput screening strategies, and investigate the impact of inhibitors on potential hydrocarbon-producing microorganisms. Compounds present in slurries that could inhibit microbial growth were identified through a detailed analysis of saccharified slurries by applying a combination of approaches of high-performance liquid chromatography, GC-MS, LC-DAD-MS, and ICP-MS. Several high-throughput assays were then evaluated to generate toxicity profiles. Our results demonstrated that Bioscreen C was useful for analyzing bacterial toxicity but not for yeast. AlamarBlue reduction assay can be a useful high-throughput assay for both bacterial and yeast strains as long as medium components do not interfere with fluorescence measurements. In addition, this work identified two major inhibitors (furfural and ammonium acetate for three potential hydrocarbon-producing bacterial species that include Escherichia coli, Cupriavidus necator, and Rhodococcus opacus PD630, which are also the primary inhibitors for ethanologens. This study was strived to establish a pipeline to quantify inhibitory compounds in biomass slurries and high-throughput approaches to investigate the effect of inhibitors on microbial biocatalysts, which can be applied for various biomass slurries or hydrolyzates generated through different pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis processes or different microbial candidates.

  7. Escherichia coli Contamination of Lettuce Grown in Soils Amended with Animal Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Storm, Christina; Forslund, Anita

    2013-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess the transfer of Escherichia coli from animal slurry fertilizer to lettuce, with E. coli serving as an indicator of fecal contamination and as an indicator for potential bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied as fertilizer to three Danish agric...... types between slurry, soil, and lettuce. The frequent finding of fecal-contaminated lettuce indicates that human pathogens such as Salmonella and Campylobacter can be present and represent food safety hazards.......A pilot study was conducted to assess the transfer of Escherichia coli from animal slurry fertilizer to lettuce, with E. coli serving as an indicator of fecal contamination and as an indicator for potential bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied as fertilizer to three Danish....... coli. A relatively higher frequency of E. coli in lettuce compared with the soil samples at harvest suggests environmental sources of fecal contamination, e.g., wildlife. The higher frequency was supported by the finding of 21 different PFGE types among the E. coli isolates, with only a few common PFGE...

  8. Biodegradation of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by microbial consortia in soil and slurry phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Li, Peijun; Lin, Xin; Zhang, Chungui; Li, Qi; Gong, Zongqiang

    2008-01-15

    Microbial consortia isolated from aged oil-contaminated soil were used to degrade 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (15.72 mgkg(-1)) in soil and slurry phases. The three microbial consortia (bacteria, fungi and bacteria-fungi complex) could degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the highest PAH removals were found in soil and slurry inoculated with fungi (50.1% and 55.4%, respectively). PAHs biodegradation in slurry was lower than in soil for bacteria and bacteria-fungi complex inoculation treatments. Degradation of three- to five-ring PAHs treated by consortia was observed in soil and slurry, and the highest degradation of individual PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, and benz(a)anthracene) appeared in soil (45.9-75.5%, 62-83.7% and 64.5-84.5%, respectively) and slurry (46.0-75.8%, 50.2-86.1% and 54.3-85.7%, respectively). Therefore, inoculation of microbial consortia (bacteria, fungi and bacteria-fungi complex) isolated from in situ contaminated soil to degrade PAHs could be considered as a successful method.

  9. Evaluation of planarization performance for a novel alkaline copper slurry under a low abrasive concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Mengting; Liu Yuling; Yuan Haobo; Chen Guodong; Liu Weijuan

    2014-01-01

    A novel alkaline copper slurry that possesses a relatively high planarization performance is investigated under a low abrasive concentration. Based on the action mechanism of CMP, the feasibility of using one type of slurry in copper bulk elimination process and residual copper elimination process, with different process parameters, was analyzed. In addition, we investigated the regular change of abrasive concentration effect on copper and tantalum removal rate and within wafer non-uniformity (WIWNU) in CMP process. When the abrasive concentration is 3 wt%, in bulk elimination process, the copper removal rate achieves 6125 Å/min, while WIWNU is 3.5%, simultaneously. In residual copper elimination process, the copper removal rate is approximately 2700 Å/min, while WIWNU is 2.8%. Nevertheless, the tantalum removal rate is 0 Å/min, which indicates that barrier layer isn't eliminated in residual copper elimination process. The planarization experimental results show that an excellent planarization performance is obtained with a relatively high copper removal rate in bulk elimination process. Meanwhile, after residual copper elimination process, the dishing value increased inconspicuously, in a controllable range, and the wafer surface roughness is only 0.326 nm (sq < 1 nm) after polishing. By comparison, the planarization performance and surface quality of alkaline slurry show almost no major differences with two kinds of commercial acid slurries after polishing. All experimental results are conducive to research and improvement of alkaline slurry in the future. (semiconductor technology)

  10. Improvements of marine clay slurries using chemical–physical combined method (CPCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effectiveness, applicability and validity of chemical–physical combined methods (CPCMs for treatment of marine clay (MC slurries were evaluated. The method CPCM1 combines chemical stabilization and vacuum preloading (VP, while CPCM2 is similar to CPCM1 but includes both the application of surcharge and use of geo-bags to provide confinement during surcharge preloading. The key advantage of CPCM2 using geo-bags is that the surcharge can be immediately applied on the chemically stabilized slurries. Two types of geo-bags were investigated under simulated land filling and dyke conditions, respectively. The test results show that the shear strength (cu of treated slurry by CPCM2 is generally much higher than that by CPCM1. Besides, the use of CPCM2 can significantly reduce the treatment time due to the short drainage paths created by geo-bags. Overall, CPCM2 allows faster consolidation and higher preloading that help to achieve higher mechanical properties of the stabilized slurry. There are consistent relationships between cU and water content of slurries treated by CPCM2. Several important observations were also made based on comparisons of experimental data.

  11. Spring barley yield and nitrogen recovery after application of peat manure and pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. MATTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of peat manure, manufactured of pig slurry and moderately humified Sphagnum peat (slurry:peat ca. 1:1.5 v/v, as nitrogen (N source for spring barley was investigated in a four.year field experiment on a clay loam soil in south-western Finland. Pig slurry, NPK fertilizer and plain peat were used as references. Manures were incorporated before sowing or surface-applied after sowing in spring at an ammoniacal N rate of.54.106 kg.ha-1 with or without supplementary NPK fertilizer (40.kg N.ha-1. Soil moisture conditions were varied by different irrigation treatments. Peat manure produced 5.15% higher grain yields than pig slurry, with the largest difference after surface application. Incorporation was more important for slurry than for peat manure in increasing N uptake and yield. Soil moisture deficit in spring and early summer limited the availability of manure N. Part of the manure N that was not available in the early growing period was apparently taken up by the crop later. Consequently, N concentration tended to be higher with lower yields, and differences in the recovery of manure N were smaller than the differences in grain yield. Supplementation of manures with inorganic fertilizer N increased yield by 37%, on average, and improved the N recovery.;

  12. Slurry feed variability in West Valley's melter feed tank and sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fow, C.L.; Kurath, D.E.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Bauer, B.P.

    1989-04-01

    The present plan for disposal of high-level wastes at West Valley is to vitrify the wastes for disposal in deep geologic repository. The vitrification process involves mixing the high-level wastes with glass-forming chemicals and feeding the resulting slurry to a liquid-fed ceramic melter. Maintaining the quality of the glass product and proficient melter operation depends on the ability of the melter feed system to produce and maintain a homogeneous mixture of waste and glass-former materials. To investigate the mixing properties of the melter feed preparation system at West Valley, a statistically designed experiment was conducted using synthetic melter feed slurry over a range of concentrations. On the basis of the statistical data analysis, it was found that (1) a homogeneous slurry is produced in the melter feed tank, (2) the liquid-sampling system provides slurry samples that are statistically different from the slurry in the tank, and (3) analytical measurements are the major source of variability. A statistical quality control program for the analytical laboratory and a characterization test of the actual sampling system is recommended. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Biological treatment of soils contaminated with hydrophobic organics using slurry and solid phase techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, D.P.; Irvine, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Both slurry-phase and solid-phase bioremediation are effective ex situ soil decontamination methods. Slurry is energy intensive relative to solid-phase treatment, but provides homogenization and uniform nutrient distribution. Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rates and renders solid phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bioslurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by aeration in solid phase bioreactors was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty clay load contaminated with diesel fuel. The first set of experiments was designed to determine the impact of the water content and mixing time during slurrying on the ate and extent of contaminant removal in continuously aerated solid phase bioreactors. The second set of experiments compared the volatile and total diesel fuel removal in solid phase bioreactors using periodic and continuous aeration strategies

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of melting behavior of alkane as phase change materials slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Zhonghao; Wang Shuangfeng; Wu Maochun; Zhang Yanlai; Li Fuhuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The melting behavior of phase change materials slurry was investigated by molecular dynamics simulation method. ► Four different PCM slurry systems including pure water and water/n-nonadecane composite were constructed. ► Amorphous structure and periodic boundary conditions were used in the molecular dynamics simulations. ► The simulated melting temperatures are very close to the published experimental values. - Abstract: The alkane based phase change materials slurry, with high latent heat storage capacity, is effective to enhance the heat transfer rate of traditional fluid. In this paper, the melting behavior of composite phase change materials slurry which consists of n-nonadecane and water was investigated by using molecular dynamics simulation. Four different systems including pure water and water/n-nonadecane composite were constructed with amorphous structure and periodic boundary conditions. The results showed that the simulated density and melting temperature were very close to the published experimental values. Mixing the n-nonadecane into water decreased the mobility but increased the energy storage capacity of composite systems. To describe the melting behavior of alkane based phase change materials slurry on molecular or atomic scale, molecular dynamics simulation is an effective method.

  15. Swine slurry application and soil management on double-cropped oat/maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlo Adriano Bison Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The swine production in southern Brazil is concentrated in small farms that use residues as a nutrient source for crops of economic interest. This study aimed to evaluate the use of swine slurry associated with tillage systems on double-cropped oat/maize. The experiment was carried out in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 cropping seasons, in Taquaruçu do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a factorial scheme, with four replications. Treatments consisted of the interaction of four swine slurry doses (no swine slurry, 20 m3 ha-1, 40 m3 ha-1 and 80 m3 ha-1 and mineral fertilization, in three tillage systems (no-tillage, chiseling and chiseling + disking. The swine slurry application on doublecropped oat/maize increased the dry matter and grain yield. The 80 m3 ha-1 dose provided a response statistically similar to the mineral fertilization recommended for maize. The interaction between the 80 m3 ha-1 dose and the immediate incorporation of slurry into the soil reduced N losses by ammonia volatilization, promoting a significant increase in maize grain yield, when grown on a clayish soil.

  16. Evaluation and testing of metering pumps for high-level nuclear waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.E.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Blair, H.T.

    1986-06-01

    The metering pump system that delivers high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) slurry to a melter is an integral subsystem of the vitrification process. The process of selecting a pump for this application began with a technical review of pumps typically used for slurry applications. The design and operating characteristics of numerous pumps were evaluated against established criteria. Two pumps, an air-displacement slurry (ADS) pump and an air-lift pump, were selected for further development. In the development activity, from FY 1983 to FY 1985, the two pumps were subjected to long-term tests using simulated melter feed slurries to evaluate the pumps' performances. Throughout this period, the designs of both pumps were modified to better adapt them for this application. Final reference designs were developed for both the air-displacement slurry pump and the air-lift pump. Successful operation of the final reference designs has demonstrated the feasibility of both pumps. A fully remote design of the ADS pump has been developed and is currently undergoing testing at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Five designs of the ADS pump were tested and evaluated. The initial four designs proved the operating concept of the ADS pump. Weaknesses in the ADS pump system were identified and eliminated in later designs. A full-scale air-lift pump was designed and tested as a final demonstration of the air-lift pump's capabilities

  17. Nutrient Status and Contamination Risks from Digested Pig Slurry Applied on a Vegetable Crops Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of applied digested pig slurry on a vegetable crops field were studied. The study included a 3-year investigation on nutrient characteristics, heavy metals contamination and hygienic risks of a vegetable crops field in Wuhan, China. The results showed that, after anaerobic digestion, abundant N, P and K remained in the digested pig slurry while fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs and hookworm eggs were highly reduced. High Cr, Zn and Cu contents in the digested pig slurry were found in spring. Digested pig slurry application to the vegetable crops field led to improved soil fertility. Plant-available P in the fertilized soils increased due to considerable increase in total P content and decrease in low-availability P fraction. The As content in the fertilized soils increased slightly but significantly (p = 0.003 compared with control. The Hg, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Cu contents in the fertilized soils did not exceed the maximum permissible contents for vegetable crops soils in China. However, high Zn accumulation should be of concern due to repeated applications of digested pig slurry. No fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs or hookworm eggs were detected in the fertilized soils.

  18. Slurry Erosion Behavior of Destabilized and Deep Cryogenically Treated Cr-Mn-Cu White Cast Irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of destabilization treatment and destabilization followed by cryogenic treatment have been evaluated on the microstructural evolution and sand-water slurry erosion behavior of Cr-Mn-Cu white cast irons. The phase transformations after the destabilization and cryotreatment have been characterized by bulk hardness measurement, optical and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis. The static corrosion rate has been measured in tap water (with pH=7 and the erosion-corrosion behavior has been studied by slurry pot tester using sand-water slurry. The test results indicate that the cryogenic treatment has a significant effect in minimizing the as-cast retained austenite content and transforming into martensitic and bainitic matrix embedded with ultra-fine M7C3 alloy carbides. In contrast, by conventional destabilization treatment retained austenite in the matrix are not fully eliminated. The slurry erosive wear resistance has been compared with reference to destabilized and cryotreated high chromium iron samples which are commonly employed for such applications. The cryotreated Cr-Mn-Cu irons have exhibited a comparable erosive wear performance to those of high chromium irons. Higher hardness combined with improved corrosion resistance result in better slurry erosion resistance.

  19. Enhanced acetone-butanol-ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates by using starchy slurry as supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kuittinen, Suvi; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Zhang, Junhua; Pappinen, Ari

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to improve acetone-butanol-ethanol production from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic material by supplementing starchy slurry as nutrients. In the fermentations of glucose, xylose and the hydrolysates of Salix schwerinii, the normal supplements such as buffer, minerals, and vitamins solutions were replaced with the barley starchy slurry. The ABE production was increased from 0.86 to 14.7g/L by supplementation of starchy slurry in the fermentation of xylose and the utilization of xylose increased from 29% to 81%. In the fermentations of hemicellulosic and enzymatic hydrolysates from S. schwerinii, the ABE yields were increased from 0 and 0.26 to 0.35 and 0.33g/g sugars, respectively. The results suggested that the starchy slurry supplied the essential nutrients for ABE fermentation. The starchy slurry as supplement could improve the ABE production from both hemicellulosic and cellulosic hydrolysate of lignocelluloses, and it is particularly helpful for enhancing the utilization of xylose from hemicelluloses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physio-Microstructural Properties of Aerated Cement Slurry for Lightweight Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Talal; Hamadna, Sameer; Darsanasiri, A. G. N. D.; Soroushian, Parviz; Balchandra, Anagi; Al-Chaar, Ghassan

    2018-01-01

    Cementitious composites, including ferrocement and continuous fiber reinforced cement, are increasingly considered for building construction and repair. One alternative in processing of these composites is to infiltrate the reinforcement (continuous fibers or chicken mesh) with a flowable cementitious slurry. The relatively high density of cementitious binders, when compared with polymeric binders, are a setback in efforts to introduce cementitious composites as lower-cost, fire-resistant, and durable alternatives to polymer composites. Aeration of the slurry is an effective means of reducing the density of cementitious composites. This approach, however, compromises the mechanical properties of cementitious binders. An experimental program was undertaken in order to assess the potential for production of aerated slurry with a desired balance of density, mechanical performance, and barrier qualities. The potential for nondestructive monitoring of strength development in aerated cementitious slurry was also investigated. This research produced aerated slurries with densities as low as 0.9 g/cm3 with viable mechanical and barrier qualities for production of composites. The microstructure of these composites was also investigated. PMID:29649163

  1. EVALUATION OF MIXING IN THE SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR AND MELTER FEED TANK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARINIK, ANDREW

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) vitrifies High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) currently stored in underground tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The HLW currently being processed is a waste sludge composed primarily of metal hydroxides and oxides in caustic slurry. These slurries are typically characterized as Bingham Plastic fluids. The HLW undergoes a pretreatment process in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) at DWPF. The processed HLW sludge is then transferred to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) where it is acidified with nitric and formic acid then evaporated to concentrate the solids. Reflux boiling is used to strip mercury from the waste and then the waste is transferred to the Slurry Mix Evaporator tank (SME). Glass formers are added as a frit slurry to the SME to prepare the waste for vitrification. This mixture is evaporated in the SME to the final concentration target. The frit slurry mixture is then transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) to be fed to the melter

  2. Fermentation of Anaerobic Cow Waste as Bio-Slurry Organic Fertilizer and Nitrogen Chemical Fertilizer on Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafizham; Sutarno

    2018-02-01

    The study aimed was to evaluate the effect of bio-slurry organic fertilizer and urea chemical fertilizer combination on fresh material weight, phosphorus and potassium soybean straw, and seed weight per soybean plant plot. The experiment was conducted with a randomized block design with a single treatment repeated 5 times consisting of P0: control (without fertilizer), P1: bio-slurry 10 t/ha + 25 kg of N/ha, P2: bio-slurry 10 t/ha + 50 kg of N/ha, P3: bio-slurry 10 t/ha + 75 kg of N/ha, P4: bio-slurry 10 t/ha + 100 kg of N/ha and P5: bio-slurry 10 t/ha. The results showed that bio-slurry treatment of 10 t/ha + 25 kg of N/ha resulted in the highest fresh weight and dry weight of soybean plants, respectively of 240.7 g and 22.33 g, but not significantly different from the bio-slurry treatment of 10 t/ha + 50 kg of N/ha which yielded fresh weight of 197.7 g and a dry weight of 19.08 g. P production of 10.23 g per plant was significantly higher than other treatments but didn’t differ significantly between P2 and P4 treatments of 8.05 and 7.17 g per plant. The bio-slurry treatment of 10 t/ha + 25 kg of N/ha also yielded K of 6.46 g per plant butn’t unlike the bio-slurry treatment of 10 t/ha + 50 kg of N/ha. While the number of pods per plant and weight of 100 grains of the highest soybean seeds were also produced from bio-slurry treatment of 10 t/ha + 25 kg of N/ha.

  3. Method of making a hydrogen transport membrane, and article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph M.; Corpus, Joseph M.; Lim, Hankwon

    2015-07-21

    The present invention relates to a method of manufacturing a hydrogen transport membrane and the composite article itself. More specifically, the invention relates to producing a membrane substrate, wherein the ceramic substrate is coated with a metal oxide slurry, thereby eliminating the need for an activation step prior to plating the ceramic membrane through an electroless plating process. The invention also relates to modifying the pore size and porosity of the substrate by oxidation or reduction of the particles deposited by the metal oxide slurry.

  4. The antifungal efficiency of carbide lime slurry compared with the commercial lime efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigac, J.; Mikusinec, J.; Strigacova, J.; Stevulova, N.

    2017-10-01

    The article deals with studying the antifungal efficiency of carbide lime slurry compared to industrially manufactured commercial lime. Antifungal efficiency expressed as mould proofness properties was tested on the fungi using the procedure given in standard CSN 72 4310. A mixture of fungi Aspergillus niger, Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium funiculosum, Paecilomyces variotii and Gliocladium virens was utilized for testing. The scale for evaluating mould proofness properties according to CSN 72 4310 is from 0 to 5 in degree of fungi growth, where 0 means that no fungi growth occurs and the building products and materials possess fungistatic properties. The study confirms the fungistatic propeties of carbide lime slurry as well as industrially manufactured commercial lime. However, carbide lime slurry and industrially manufactured commercial lime possess no fungicidal effect.

  5. Heat transfer enhanced microwave process for stabilization of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    The objectve of this CRADA is to combine a polymer process for encapsulation of liquid radioactive waste slurry developed by Monolith Technology, Inc. (MTI), with an in-drum microwave process for drying radioactive wastes developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), for the purpose of achieving a fast, cost-effectve commercial process for solidification of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Tests performed so far show a four-fold increase in process throughput due to the direct microwave heating of the polymer/slurry mixture, compared to conventional edge-heating of the mixer. We measured a steady-state throughput of 33 ml/min for 1.4 kW of absorbed microwave power. The final waste form is a solid monolith with no free liquids and no free particulates

  6. A site-specific slurry application technique on grassland and on arable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellberg, Jürgen; Lock, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that unequal slurry application on agricultural land contributes to N losses to the environment. Heterogeneity within fields demands adequate response by means of variable rate application. A technique is presented which allows site-specific application of slurry on grassland and arable land based on pre-defined application maps. The system contains a valve controlling flow rate by an on-board PC. During operation, flow rate is measured and scaled against set point values given in the application map together with the geographic position of the site. The systems worked sufficiently precise at a flow rate between 0 and 25 l s(-1) and an offset of actual slurry flow from set point values between 0.33 and 0.67 l s(-1). Long-term experimentation is required to test if site-specific application de facto reduces N surplus within fields and so significantly contributes to the unloading of N in agricultural areas.

  7. Design and performance of feed-delivery systems for simulated radioactive waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.M. Jr.

    1983-02-01

    Processes for vitrifying simulated high-level radioactive waste have been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) over the last several years. Paralleling this effort, several feed systems used to deliver the simulated waste slurry to the melter have been tested. Because there had been little industrial experience in delivering abrasive slurries at feed rates of less than 10 L/min, early experience helped direct the design of more-dependable systems. Also, as feed delivery requirements changed, the feed system was modified to meet these new requirements. The various feed systems discussed in this document are part of this evolutionary process, so they have not been ranked against each other. The four slurry feed systems discussed are: (1) vertical-cantilevered centrifugal pump system; (2) airlift feed systems; (3) pressurized-loop systems; and (4) positive-displacement pump system. 20 figures, 11 tables

  8. Sustainable use of pig slurry, with and without treatment, as an amendment organic in almond crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Oliver, S. G.; Faz Cano, A.

    2009-01-01

    This study consists in the use of different forms of slurry, as an organic fertilizer, on almond trees located in La Aljorra (Cartegena, Murcia). The slurry used comes from a farm near the area of study, which has a treatment system composed by tree parts: a phase separator, a bioreactor and 5 constructed wetlands of vertical flow. Different phases of slurry are obtained from each part of the system. The results show the reduction of most of the parameters lime salinity, BOD 5 QOD, nitrate, etc. The use of these effluents as an organic amend in different doses, supposes a sustainable way of management of these residues; at the same time it improves the soil properties and the agronomic quality of the almond tree crop. (Author) 4 refs.

  9. Natural convection heat transfer enhancement using Microencapsulated Phase-Change-Material slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Shinji; Akino, Norio; Tanaka, Amane; Nakano, Fumihiko; Nagashima, Akira.

    1997-01-01

    The present study investigates natural convection heat transfer from a heated cylinder cooled by a water slurry of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material (MCPCM). A normal paraffin hydrocarbon with carbon number of 18 and melting point of 27.9degC, is microencapsulated by Melamine resin into particles of which average diameter is 9.5μm and specific weight is same as water. The slurry of the MCPCM and water is put into a test apparatus, which is a rectangular enclosure with a heated horizontal cylinder. As the concentrations of PCM in the slurry are changed in 1,3 and 5%, the heat transfer coefficients of the cylinder are larger than that of water as working fluid, by 3,20 and 35% enhancements respectively. (author)

  10. Synthesis gas solubility in Fischer-Tropsch slurry: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, K.C.; Lin, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the phase equilibrium behavior of synthesis gases and products in a Fischer-Tropsch slurry reactor. A semi-flow apparatus has been designed and constructed for this purpose. Measurements have been made for hydrogen, cabon monoxide, methane, ethane, ethylene, and carbon dioxide in a heavy n-paraffin at temperatures from 100 to 300)degree)C and pressures 10 to 50 atm. Three n-paraffin waxes: n-eicosane (n-C/sub 20/), n-octacosane )n-C/sub 28/), and n-hexatriacontane (n-C/sub 36/), were studied to model the industrial wax. Solubility of synthesis gas mixtures of H/sub 2/ and CO in n-C/sub 28/ was also determined at two temperatures (200 and 300)degree)C) for each of three gas compositions (40.01, 50.01, and 66.64 mol%) of hydrogen). Measurements were extended to investigate the gas solubility in two industrial Fischer-Tropsch waxes: Mobilwax and SASOL wax. Observed solubility increases in the order: H/sub 2/, CO, CH/sub 4/, CO/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, at a given temperature pressure, and in the same solvent. Solubility increases with increasing pressure for all the gases. Lighter gases H/sub 2/ and CO show increased solubility with increasing temperature, while the heavier gases CO/sub 2/, ethane, and ethylene show decreased solubility with increasing temperature. The solubility of methane, the intermediate gas, changes little with temperature, and shows a shallow minimum at about 200)degrees)C or somewhat above. Henry's constant and partial molal volume of the gas solute at infinite dilution are determinedfrom the gas solubility data. A correlation is developed from the experimental data in the form on an equation of state. A computer program has been prepared to implement the correlation. 19 refs., 66 figs., 39 tabs.

  11. Carbon mineralization in mine tailing ponds amended with pig slurries and marble wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Zornoza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective application of organic residues to reclaim soils requires the optimization of the waste management to minimize CO2 emissions and optimize soil C sequestration efficiency. In this study, the short-term effects of pig slurry amendment alone and together with marble waste on organic matter mineralization in two tailing ponds from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain were investigated in a field remediation experiment. The treatments were: marble waste (MW, pig slurry (PS, marble waste + pig slurry (MW+PS, and control. Soil carbon mineralization was determined using a static chamber method with alkali absorption during 70 days. Soil respiration rates in all plots were higher the first days of the experiment owing to higher soil moisture and higher mean air temperature. MW plots followed the same pattern than control plots, with similar respiration rates. The addition of pig slurry caused a significant increase in the respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots, respiration rates were lower than in PS plots. The cumulative quantities of C-CO2 evolved from the pig slurry mineralization were fitted to a first-order kinetic model explaining 90% of the data. This model implies the presence of only one mineralisable pool (C0. The values of the index C0*constant rate/added C were similar for PS plots in both tailing ponds, but lower in the MW+PS treatment, suggesting that the application of marble reduces the degradability of the organic compounds present in the pig slurry. Thus, the application of marble wastes contributes to slow down the loss of organic matter by mineralization.

  12. Effects of pig slurry application on soil physical and chemical properties and glyphosate mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry applied to soil at different rates may affect soil properties and the mobility of chemical compounds within the soil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of rates of pig slurry application in agricultural areas on soil physical and chemical properties and on the mobility of glyphosate through the soil profile. The study was carried out in the 12th year of an experiment with pig slurry applied at rates of 0 (control, 50, 100 and 200 m³ ha-1 yr-1 on a Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (Hapludox soil. In the control, the quantities of P and K removed by harvested grains were replaced in the next crop cycle. Soil physical properties (bulk density, porosity, texture, and saturated hydraulic conductivity and chemical properties (organic matter, pH, extractable P, and exchangeable K were measured. Soil solution samples were collected at depths of 20, 40 and 80 cm using suction lysimeters, and glyphosate concentrations were measured over a 60-day period after slurry application. Soil physical and chemical properties were little affected by the pig slurry applications, but soil pH was reduced and P levels increased in the surface layers. In turn, K levels were increased in sub-surface layers. Glyphosate concentrations tended to decrease over time but were not affected by pig slurry application. The concentrations of glyphosate found in different depths show that the pratice of this application in agricultural soils has the potential for contamination of groundwater, especially when the water table is the surface and heavy rains occur immediately after application.

  13. Yield Stress Reduction of Radioactive Waste Slurries by Addition of Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MICHAEL, STONE

    2005-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the design/construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and melter feed processes. The use of a surface active agent, or surfactant, to increase the solids loading that can be fed to the melters would increase melt rate by reducing the heat load on the melter required to evaporate the water in the feed. The waste slurries are non-Newtonian fluids with rheological properties that were modeled using the Bingham Plastic mod el (this model is typically used by SRNL when studying the DWPF process1).The results illustrate that altering the surface chemistry of the particulates in the waste slurries can lead to a reduction in the yield stress. Dolapix CE64 is an effective surfactant over a wide range of pH values and was effective for all simulants tested. The effectiveness of the additive increased in DWPF simulants as the concentration of the additive was increased. No maxi main effectiveness was observed. Particle size measurements indicate that the additive acted as a flocculant in the DWPF samples and as a dispersant in the RPP samples

  14. Slurry Ice as a Cooling System on 30 GT Fishing Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Baheramsyah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the largest archipelago country in the world that has a sea area that is very spacious. Indonesian sea area is 5.8 million square kilometers and a coastline of 95 181 km has huge potential in the fisheries sector. In line with the need to further improve on the quality of the fish catch. One way to preserve fish is to use a slurry of ice. Slurry ice proved more effective preserving fishery products instead of using ice cubes. Ice slurry cooling system was designed and applied to the fishing vessel 30 GT. The cooling system uses a simple vapor compression system consists of five major components consisting of evaporator, condenser, compressor, and two pumps.In designing this system determined the type of refrigerant used in advance which type of refrigerant R-507a. Then do the design or selection of its main components. The design is only done on the evaporator. As for the other major components such as condensers, compressors, and pumps election in accordance with the specification of the power needed. After that dialakukan depiction of each system component. Then subsequently designing the laying of ice slurry cooling system components on a fishing vessel 30 GT.            Through calculations using simple thermodynamic equations obtained cooling load on this system amounted to 32.06 kW. Condenser with a power of 40 kW. Compressor with power 12 kW. Pump with capacity 10 m3 / h. With memepertimbangkan space left on the ship in the ice slurry system design on the main deck of the ship to the efficient use of space on board. The power requirements of the generator vessel increases due to the addition of ice slurry system components therefore do replacement generator into the generator with a power of 100 kW and penambahn fuel tank to 6,000 L.

  15. Liquid CO2/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasigan, Jose [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Goldstein, Harvey [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Dooher, John [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO2/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO2 has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO2 is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO2 through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO2 is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO2 is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO2 slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO2 has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO2 over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO2/coal slurry properties.

  16. Simulation of Reynolds number influence on heat exchange in turbulent flow of medium slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosik, A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper deals with the numerical simulation of mass and heat exchange in turbulent flow of solid-liquid mixture in the range of averaged solid particle diameter from 0.10mm to 0.80mm, named further as the medium slurry. Physical model assumes that dispersed phase is fully suspended and a turbulent flow is hydro-dynamically, and thermally developed in a straight horizontal pipeline. Taking into account the aforementioned assumptions the slurry is treated as a single-phase flow with increased density, while viscosity is equals to a carrier liquid viscosity. The mathematical model constitutes time averaged momentum equation in which the turbulent stress tensor was designated using a two-equation turbulence model, which makes use of the Boussinesq eddy-viscosity hypothesis. Turbulence damping function in the turbulence model was especially designed for the medium slurry. In addition, an energy equation has been used in which a convective term was determined from the energy balance acting on a unit pipe length, assuming linear changes of temperature in main flow direction. Finally, the mathematical model of non-isothermal medium slurry flow comprises four partial differential equations, namely momentum and energy equations, equations of kinetic energy of turbulence and its dissipation rate. Four partial differential equations were solved by a finite difference scheme using own computer code. The objective of the paper is to examine the influence of Reynolds number on temperature profiles and Nusselt number in turbulent flow of medium slurry in the range of solids concentration from 0% to 30% by volume. The effect of influential factors on heat transfer between the pipe and slurry is analysed. The paper demonstrates substantial impact of Reynolds number and solids volume fraction on the Nusselt number. The results of numerical simulation are reviewed.

  17. Scaling Theory for Pulsed Jet Mixed Vessels, Sparging, and Cyclic Feed Transport Systems for Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, William L.; Rector, David R.; Rassat, Scot D.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Minette, Michael J.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Josephson, Gary B.; Wells, Beric E.; Berglin, Eric J.

    2013-09-27

    This document is a previously unpublished work based on a draft report prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) in 2012. Work on the report stopped when WTP’s approach to testing changed. PNNL is issuing a modified version of the document a year later to preserve and disseminate the valuable technical work that was completed. This document establishes technical bases for evaluating the mixing performance of Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) pretreatment process tanks based on data from less-than-full-scale testing, relative to specified mixing requirements. The technical bases include the fluid mechanics affecting mixing for specified vessel configurations, operating parameters, and simulant properties. They address scaling vessel physical performance, simulant physical performance, and “scaling down” the operating conditions at full scale to define test conditions at reduced scale and “scaling up” the test results at reduced scale to predict the performance at full scale. Essentially, this document addresses the following questions: • Why and how can the mixing behaviors in a smaller vessel represent those in a larger vessel? • What information is needed to address the first question? • How should the information be used to predict mixing performance in WTP? The design of Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT) is being addressed in other, complementary documents.

  18. Modelling the potential of slurry management technologies to reduce the constraints of environmental legislation on pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Nicholas John; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Jensen, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Limits on land applications of slurry nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are used to restrict losses of nutrients caused by livestock production. Here, we used a model to assess technologies that enable a more even geographic distribution of slurry nutrients to land. Technologies included were screw...

  19. Electrochemistry of carbonaceous materials. 3. Reactivity of redox couples with coal slurries in 85% phosphoric acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomat, R.; Salmaso, R.; Zecchin, S. [CNR - Istituto di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparativa, Padova (Italy)

    1994-02-01

    Sardinian subbituminous coal slurries were oxidized in 85% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} by metal ions (Ce{sup 4+}, V{sup 5+}, V{sup 4+}, Mn{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and the effects of metal ion concentration, coal content of slurry, coal particle size and temperature were examined. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. An experimental investigation of the thermal/fluid properties of the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) product slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muguercia, I.; Lagos, L.; Yang, G.; Li, W.; Ebadian, M.A.; Mattus, A.J.; Lee, D.D.; Walker, J.W.; Hunt, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, a new immobilization technique for LLW, the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process, has been developed. Instead of mixing the liquid waste form directly with the cement to make concrete blocks, the NAC process eliminates the nitrate from the LLW by converting it to ammonia gas. Aluminum particles are used as a reductant to complete this conversion. The final product of the NAC process is gibbsite, which can be further sintered to a ceramic waste form. Experimental tests are conducted to measure the apparent viscosity, the pressure drop, and the heat transfer coefficient of the pipe flow of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process product slurry. The tests indicate that the NAC product slurry exhibits a typical pseudoplastic fluid behavior. The pressure drop in the pipe flow is a function of the Reynolds number and the slurry temperature. The results also indicate that at a low slurry temperature, the slurry is uniformly heated peripherally. At a high slurry temperature, however, the slurry may be thermally stratified. In a straight pipe, the Nusselt number is reduced as the slurry temperature increases

  1. Voluntary intake and digestibility by sheep of alfalfa ensiled at different moisture concentrations following fertilization with dairy slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy slurry is used commonly as an animal-sourced fertilizer in agronomic production. However, residual effects of slurry application on intake and digestibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage from subsequent harvests are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine if mois...

  2. The Variation of Interface Formation with Slurry Viscosity Change in Side-By-Side Tape Casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulatova, Regina; Jabbari, Masoud; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm

    Homogenous and flexible adjacently graded tapes were produced by casting the organic-based slurries simultaneously. To develop side-by-side tape casing (SBSTC), the material optimization, modernization of the doctor blade design, and parameters control of such processes as casting, drying, de......-bindering and sintering were studied. Solvent and binder concentrations were varied in order to optimize co-casting flow, as well as the drying and sintering shrinkage. Tapes were evaluated in terms of rheological behavior of the slurries, the green and sintered tape microstructure, the quality of the interface area...

  3. Slurry dispersion state as a parameter to control internal structure of alumina green compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, M.; Shui, A.; Tanaka, S.; Uchida, N.; Uematsu, K. [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Niigata (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The dispersion state of slurry must be controlled to produce granules with appropriated properties for pressing. In this study dispersion state of alumina slurry is changed to form granules with different morphology, deformation property and packing density, and the influence on the internal structure of green compact are presented. Novel methods applying liquid immersion technique coupled with different type of microscopy were used to characterize the internal structures of green compacts. Two types of granules were obtained: dimpled, hard and dense granule, and spherical, soft and loose granule. The respective internal structures of green compacts were totally different. (orig.)

  4. Methanotrophs, methanogens and microbial community structure in livestock slurry surface crusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Y.F.; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel

    2014-01-01

    , and Methylosarcina of Type I, and Methylocystis of Type II, dominated the methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) community, whereas Methanocorpusculum was the predominant methanogen. Higher numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) representing Type I than Type II MOB were found in all crusts. Potential CH4 oxidation...... rates were determined by incubating crusts with CH4, and CH4 oxidization was observed in cattle, but not in swine slurry crusts. Conclusions: Slurry surface crusts harbour a diverse microbial community. Type I MOB are more diverse and abundant than Type II MOB in this environment. The distinct CH4...

  5. Device for continuous radiometric determination of the calcium and iron content in raw slurry for cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasilewska, M.; Ostachowicz, J.; Lankosz, M.; Molodynska, W.

    1975-01-01

    The characteristic iron and calcium-K series were excited using a Cd-109 isotope source. In order to determine the calcium and iron content in dry slurry, the Compton-effect scattered radiation of the Cd-109 source in the sample was used. A numerical process was worked out which allowed the elimination of the influence of changing contents of iron and water on the results of the calcium content determinations, and a device for continuous radiometric determination of calcium and iron in raw slurry was designed and constructed. The device was installed in the cement plant 'Przyjazn' under technical measuring conditions and its applicability was tested. (orig./LH) [de

  6. Upgrading of the Solid Fraction of Pig Slurry as Phosphorus Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christel, Wibke

    Improved recycling of the solid fraction of separated pig slurry, which is considerably enriched in the essential plant nutrient phosphorus (P), could balance the P input in differently used agricultural areas and reduce the unsustainable depletion of the limited P rock reserves. By subsequent...... biological or thermal treatment, the P concentration of the pig slurry-derived products is furthermore increased, but these processes are also expected to affect P availability from the respective products. Consequently it was the overall objective of this PhD project to identify options for upgrading...

  7. Slurry circulation after cement compression operations; Circulacao de pasta apos operacoes de compressao de cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Clavio Roberto S [PETROBRAS, BA (Brazil). Regiao de Producao da Bahia. Divisao Regional de Complementacao

    1994-07-01

    In the traditional low pressure cement compression method, after pressure stabilization we wait for the setting and remove the hardened cement with a rock bit. The method described here suggests that following pressure stabilization, the slurry must be removed from the casing with reverse circulation, thus excluding the whole process of cutting hardened cement, optimizing rig time and equipment wear, and anticipating oil production. This work describes this experience in Reconcavo basin, Potiguar basin, and Campos basin, production regions of PETROBRAS, and suggests slurry parameters and a methodology to employ the method. (author)

  8. Side-band injection of acidified cattle slurry as starter P-fertilization for maize seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Lemming, Camilla; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    Accumulation of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils has caused increasing environmental concerns. Maize cropped for fodder implies return of animal manures rich in nutrients. In addition, starter fertilization with mineral P is used in cold conditions for maize cropping. It was hypothesized...... that the use of the additional mineral P could be excluded by increased availability of the P applied by animal manures. In a growth chamber experiment we investigated the effect of acidified slurry on the growth and nutrient uptake in maize seedlings. In special designed pot the slurries and mineral reference...

  9. Microencapsulated PCM slurry for heat transfer media. 4. Reduction of undercooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akino, Norio; Nakano, Fumihiko; Kubo, Shinji; Nagashima, Akira; Sagiya, Syojiro; Nakanishi, Masayuki.

    1997-01-01

    New heat transfer media with large heat capacity is under development, using a slurry of microencapsulated-phase-change-material (MCPCM) mixed into carrying liquid. To prepare stable MCPCM slurry, fatty acid is selected as PCM owing to relatively large density, and diameter of MCPCM particles are below 10 μm. The temperature difference between melting and freezing points, the so-called undercooling becomes remarkable. To reduce the undercooling, an additive is mixed into fatty acid to introduce nucleation cites. It is concluded that Hexatriacontane is effective to remove undercooling of microencapsulated Lauric acid, Myristic acid and their mixture, and Sebacic acid is effective for Lauric acid. (author)

  10. Kinetics of Slurry Phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski; Lech Nowicki; Madhav Nayapati

    2006-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) employing iron-based catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred-tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. Three STSR tests of the Ruhrchemie LP 33/81 catalyst were conducted to collect data on catalyst activity and selectivity under 25 different sets of process conditions. The observed decrease in 1-olefin content and increase in 2-olefin and n-paraffin contents with the increase in conversion are consistent with a concept that 1-olefins participate in secondary reactions (e.g. 1-olefin hydrogenation, isomerization and readsorption), whereas 2-olefins and n-paraffins are formed in these reactions. Carbon number product distribution showed an increase in chain growth probability with increase in chain length. Vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations were made to check validity of the assumption that the gas and liquid phases are in equilibrium during FTS in the STSR. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Discrepancies between the calculated and experimental values for the liquid-phase composition (for some of the experimental data) are ascribed to experimental errors in the amount of wax collected from the reactor, and the relative amounts of hydrocarbon wax and Durasyn 164 oil (start-up fluid) in the liquid samples. Kinetic parameters of four kinetic models (Lox and Froment, 1993b; Yang et al., 2003; Van der Laan and Beenackers, 1998, 1999; and an extended kinetic model of Van der Laan and Beenackers) were estimated from experimental data in the STSR tests. Two of these kinetic models (Lox and Froment, 1993b; Yang et al., 2003) can predict a complete product distribution (inorganic species and hydrocarbons), whereas the kinetic model of Van der Laan and Beenackers (1998, 1999) can

  11. Kinetics of Slurry Phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski; Lech Nowicki; Madhav Nayapati

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) employing iron-based catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred-tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. Three STSR tests of the Ruhrchemie LP 33/81 catalyst were conducted to collect data on catalyst activity and selectivity under 25 different sets of process conditions. The observed decrease in 1-olefin content and increase in 2-olefin and n-paraffin contents with the increase in conversion are consistent with a concept that 1-olefins participate in secondary reactions (e.g. 1-olefin hydrogenation, isomerization and readsorption), whereas 2-olefins and n-paraffins are formed in these reactions. Carbon number product distribution showed an increase in chain growth probability with increase in chain length. Vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations were made to check validity of the assumption that the gas and liquid phases are in equilibrium during FTS in the STSR. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Discrepancies between the calculated and experimental values for the liquid-phase composition (for some of the experimental data) are ascribed to experimental errors in the amount of wax collected from the reactor, and the relative amounts of hydrocarbon wax and Durasyn 164 oil (start-up fluid) in the liquid samples. Kinetic parameters of four kinetic models (Lox and Froment, 1993b; Yang et al., 2003; Van der Laan and Beenackers, 1998, 1999; and an extended kinetic model of Van der Laan and Beenackers) were estimated from experimental data in the STSR tests. Two of these kinetic models (Lox and Froment, 1993b; Yang et al., 2003) can predict a complete product distribution (inorganic species and hydrocarbons), whereas the kinetic model of Van der Laan and Beenackers (1998, 1999) can

  12. Zeolite Combined with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride Mixed with Agricultural Slurries Reduces Carbon Losses in Runoff from Grassed Soil Boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, J G; Brennan, R B; Fenton, O; Healy, M G

    2016-11-01

    Carbon (C) losses from agricultural soils to surface waters can migrate through water treatment plants and result in the formation of disinfection by-products, which are potentially harmful to human health. This study aimed to quantify total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic C losses in runoff after application of dairy slurry, pig slurry, or milk house wash water (MWW) to land and to mitigate these losses through coamendment of the slurries with zeolite (2.36-3.35 mm clinoptilolite) and liquid polyaluminum chloride (PAC) (10% AlO) for dairy and pig slurries or liquid aluminum sulfate (alum) (8% AlO) for MWW. Four treatments under repeated 30-min simulated rainfall events (9.6 mm h) were examined in a laboratory study using grassed soil runoff boxes (0.225 m wide, 1 m long; 10% slope): control soil, unamended slurries, PAC-amended dairy and pig slurries (13.3 and 11.7 kg t, respectively), alum-amended MWW (3.2 kg t), combined zeolite and PAC-amended dairy (160 and 13.3 kg t zeolite and PAC, respectively) and pig slurries (158 and 11.7 kg t zeolite and PAC, respectively), and combined zeolite and alum-amended MWW (72 and 3.2 kg t zeolite and alum, respectively). The unamended and amended slurries were applied at net rates of 31, 34, and 50 t ha for pig and dairy slurries and MWW, respectively. Significant reductions of TOC in runoff compared with unamended slurries were measured for PAC-amended dairy and pig slurries (52 and 56%, respectively) but not for alum-amended MWW. Dual zeolite and alum-amended MWW significantly reduced TOC in runoff compared with alum amendment only. We conclude that use of PAC-amended dairy and pig slurries and dual zeolite and alum-amended MWW, although effective, may not be economically viable to reduce TOC losses from organic slurries given the relatively low amounts of TOC measured in runoff from unamended slurries compared with the amounts applied. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of

  13. Preparatory studies for the on-line determination of zinc content in zinc ore slurries by radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donhoffer, D.K.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory tests were carried out to prove the feasibility of determination of Zn-content in zinc ore slurries by isotope excited x-ray fluorescence. Matrix effects were investigated on dry samples. A slurry testloop was built and measurements on slurries were made. The results indicated that the measurement on Zn in ore slurries can be made with a precision of 0,05% Zn. A working equation for interpretation of the measurements is derived. (author)

  14. Combustion characteristics of a charcoal slurry in a direct injection diesel engine and the impact on the injection system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloiu, Valentin; Lewis, Jeffery; Yoshihara, Yoshinobu; Nishiwaki, Kazuie

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the research results pertaining to the renewable biomass charcoal-diesel slurries and their use as alternative fuels for combustion in diesel generating plants. The utilization of charcoal slurry fuel aims to reduce diesel oil consumption and would decrease fossil green house emissions into the atmosphere. The paper investigates the formulation, emulsification, sprays, combustion, injection system operation, and subsequent wear with charcoal-diesel slurries. In the research, cedar wood chips were used for the production of charcoal to be emulsified with diesel oil. The slurry's viscosity of 27 cP achieved the target ( o C. Charcoal slurry displayed a high vaporization rate of 75% by wt. at 300 o C. Engine investigations showed that the top combustion pressure at 1200 rpm and 100% load (7.8 brake mean effective pressure (bmep)) was 79 bar for diesel fuel and 78 bar for the charcoal slurry fuel. From the injection and heat release history was found an ignition delay of 1.7 ms for diesel that increased to 2.1 ms for the slurry fuel. A higher net heat release for charcoal slurry was observed, up to 180 J/crank angle degrees (CAD) compared with the diesel at 145 J/CAD The maximum combustion temperature reached 2300 K for diesel and 2330 K for slurry. The heat fluxes for both fuels have similar values and trends during the entire cycle showing the good compatibility of charcoal slurry with a diesel type combustion and low soot radiation. The exhaust temperatures were about 40-50 o C higher for charcoal slurry at 19 o before top dead center (BTDC) injection timing. The engine's bsfc increased as expected due to the lower heating value of the slurry fuel. The smoke Bosch no. was lower for the slurry fuel at any load, and is believed that the oxygen from the charcoal had a beneficial effect. The measured emissions of slurry fuel were better at 13 o BTDC than those of diesel fuel with the original engine settings and the remaining 6-10% oxygen content in

  15. Utilization of 15N in the sequence of mineral fertilizer - forage - animal - slurry - forage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschke, H.

    1981-01-01

    After systematic application of 15 N-ammonium nitrate, the change of the dinuclidic composition and 15 N quantity was studied by isotope analysis of several open systems in the sequence mineral fertilizer - (soil) - forage - (animal) - slurry - (soil) - forage. The relative 15 N isotope frequency of 50 atom% in the mineral fertilizer declined to 12.2 to 21.4 atom% in the forage (beet, oats, hay) and went down to 3.15 atom% in the slurry of a dairy cow fed on this forage. Silage maize manured with the slurry of the dairy cow only showed 1.98 atom %, green oats grown after the silage maize on the same area was found to have 0.45 atom%. The 15 N quantity of 104.5 g N in the fertilizer gradually decreased to 41.6 g N in the forage, 30.5 g N in the slurry and 22.6 g N in the silage maize. The causes discussed are 15 N isotope dilution as qualitative factor and productive and unproductive N losses as quantitative factors. (author)

  16. Bacterial antibiotic resistance levels in Danish farmland as a result of treatment with pig manure slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Gitte; Agersø, Yvonne; Halling-Sørensen, B.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to tetracycline, macrolides and streptomycin was measured for a period of 8 months in soil bacteria obtained from farmland treated with pig manure slurry. This was done by spread plating bacteria on selective media (Luria Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with antibiotics). To account...

  17. SORBENT/UREA SLURRY INJECTION FOR SIMULTANEOUS SO2/NOX REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of sorbent injection and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) technologies has been investigated for simulataneous SO2/NOx removal. A slurry composed of a urea-based solution and various Ca-based sorbents was injected at a range of tempera...

  18. Paraffin Alkylation Using Zeolite Catalysts in a slurry reactor: Chemical Engineering Principles to Extend Catalyst Lifetime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, K.P. de; Mesters, C.M.A.M.; Peferoen, D.G.R.; Brugge, P.T.M. van; Groot, C. de

    1996-01-01

    The alkylation of isobutane with 2-butene is carried out using a zeolitic catalyst in a well stirred slurry reactor. Whereas application of fixed bed technology using a solid acid alkylation catalyst has in the led to catalysts lifetimes in the range of minutes, in this work we report catalyst

  19. Design of a mixing system for simulated high-level nuclear waste melter feed slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.E.; McCarthy, D.; Muhlstein, K.D.

    1986-03-01

    The Nuclear Waste Treatment Program development program consists of coordinated nonradioactive and radioactive testing combined with numerical modeling of the process to provide a complete basis for design and operation of a vitrification facility. The radioactive demonstration tests of equipment and processes are conducted before incorporation in radioactive pilot-scale melter systems for final demonstration. The mixing system evaluation described in this report was conducted as part of the nonradioactive testing. The format of this report follows the sequence in which the design of a large-scale mixing system is determined. The initial program activity was concerned with gaining an understanding of the theoretical foundation of non-Newtonian mixing systems. Section 3 of this report describes the classical rheological models that are used to describe non-Newtonian mixing systems. Since the results obtained here are only valid for the slurries utilized, Section 4, Preparation of Simulated Hanford and West Valley Slurries, describes how the slurries were prepared. The laboratory-scale viscometric and physical property information is summarized in Section 5, Laboratory Rheological Evaluations. The bench-scale mixing evaluations conducted to define the effects of the independent variables described above on the degree of mixing achieved with each slurry are described in Section 6. Bench-scale results are scaled-up to establish engineering design requirements for the full-scale mixing system in Section 7. 24 refs., 37 figs., 44 tabs

  20. Hydrodynamics of the continuously filtering slurry reactor. Influence of load of solids and particle size distribution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizenga, P.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1997-01-01

    Internal filtration in slurry bubble columns offers a possible solution to the filtration problems related to this reactor type. The applicability of the concept has already been demonstrated at full-scale for waste water treatment. Theoretical description of internal filtration is lacking, however.

  1. Hydrodynamics of the continuously filtering slurry reactor. Influence of load of solids and particle size distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizenga, P.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, W.P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Internal filtration in slurry bubble columns offers a possible solution to the filtration problems related to this reactor type. The applicability of the concept has already been demonstrated at full-scale for waste water treatment. Theoretical description of internal filtration is lacking, however.

  2. Utilization of /sup 15/N in the sequence of mineral fertilizer - forage - animal - slurry - forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peschke, H [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Pflanzenproduktion

    1981-12-01

    After systematic application of /sup 15/N-ammonium nitrate, the change of the dinuclidic composition and /sup 15/N quantity was studied by isotope analysis of several open systems in the sequence mineral fertilizer - (soil) - forage - (animal) - slurry - (soil) - forage. The relative /sup 15/N isotope frequency of 50 atom% in the mineral fertilizer declined to 12.2 to 21.4 atom% in the forage (beet, oats, hay) and went down to 3.15 atom% in the slurry of a dairy cow fed on this forage. Silage maize manured with the slurry of the dairy cow only showed 1.98 atom %, green oats grown after the silage maize on the same area was found to have 0.45 atom%. The /sup 15/N quantity of 104.5 g N in the fertilizer gradually decreased to 41.6 g N in the forage, 30.5 g N in the slurry and 22.6 g N in the silage maize. The causes discussed are /sup 15/N isotope dilution as qualitative factor and productive and unproductive N losses as quantitative factors.

  3. Pig slurry reduces the survival of Raltstonia solanacearum biovar 2 in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, A.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of added pig slurry and solarization on the survival of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 strain 1609 in soil was analysed in soil microcosms and field plots. In addition, the invasion of potato plants by R. solanacearum and the development of disease symptoms were determined, as measures

  4. Application of flexible slurries: an alternative for oil wells subject to cyclic steam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P.; Paiva, Maria D.M.; Cunha, Marcelo C.S. [Halliburton Energy Services (HES), Duncan, OK (United States); Farias, Antonio Carlos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Oil wells that receive cyclic steam injection are subject to high temperature variations during their life cycle. This causes volumetric expansion of the metallic casing which leads to cracks and channels in the formation of the cement. Studies show that volumetric expansion caused by temperature variation may cause wells to rise up to 20-in. at the surface. This paper presents alternative materials that improve the elastic properties of set cement slurries, focusing on maintaining sufficient resilience to maximize the life of the cement. We compare a set of fourteen formulations, some currently in use, selecting those with high flexibility. Analysis was based on the mechanical properties of the set slurries as well as tests according to standards from ABNT and from API Spec 10B. This work contributes new formulations for wells that under-go cyclic steam injection. These new formulations are presented as alternatives to current flexible slurry technology. We can obtain high-quality, more resilient slurries using materials that are more economical, have better cost-benefit, and are easily available in the market. (author)

  5. Detecting Poor Cement Bonding and Zonal Isolation Problems Using Magnetic Cement Slurries

    KAUST Repository

    Nair, Sriramya D.; Patzek, Tadeusz; van Oort, Eric

    2017-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of magnetorheological fluids to improve displacement efficiency of fluids (drilling fluids, spacer fluids, cement slurries) in the eccentric casing annuli. When magnetic particles are mixed with the cement slurry for improved displacement, they provide an excellent opportunity for sensing the presence and quality of cement in the annulus. This work focuses on using sophisticated 3D computational electromagnetics to simulate the use of a magnetic cement slurry for well cement monitoring. The main goal is to develop a new tool, which is capable of locating magnetic cement slurry that is placed behind a stainless steel casing. An electromagnetic coil was used to generate a magnetic field inside the borehole. It was found that when a current was passed through the electric coils, magnetic field lines passed through the stainless steel casing, the cement annulus and the rock formation. Three sensors were placed inside the cased borehole and the magnetic field strength variations were observed at these locations. Various factors that have a significant influence on zonal isolation were considered. These include, effect of debonding between casing and cement annulus, effect of changing annuli thickness, influence of a fracture in the rock formation, effect of changing magnetic permeability of cement and finally influence of annuli eccentricity. Based on the results shown in the paper along with the next generation of supersensitive magnetic sensors that are being developed, the magnetic approach appears to be a viable alternative for evaluating the quality of the cement annulus to ensure good zonal isolation.

  6. Hydrodynamics and mass transfer in slurry bubble columns : scale and pressure effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chilekar, V.P.

    2007-01-01

    Slurry bubble columns (SBC) are widely used in the chemical industry as a multiphase reactor. Applications include oxidation and hydrogenation reactions, fermentation, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, and waste water treatment. The advantages of a SBC over other multiphase reactors are the simple

  7. Dietary protein affects nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing-finishing pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canh, T.T.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Schutte, J.B.; Sutton, A.L.; Langhout, D.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary protein on nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing–finishing pigs were studied both in vitro and in a pig house. The three diets had similar contents of NE, minerals, vitamins and ileal digestible lysine, methionine cystine, threonine and tryptophan, but

  8. Dietary protein affects nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing-finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canh, T.T.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Schutte, J.B.; Sutton, A.; Langhout, D.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary protein on nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing-finishing pigs were studied both in vitro and in a pig house. The three diets had similar contents of NE, minerals, vitamins and ileal digestible lysine, methionine + cystine, threonine and tryptophan,

  9. Determination of particle size distribution of salt crystals in aqueous slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.G.

    1977-10-01

    A method for determining particle size distribution of water-soluble crystals in aqueous slurries is described. The salt slurries, containing sodium salts of predominantly nitrate, but also nitrite, sulfate, phosphate, aluminates, carbonate, and hydroxide, occur in radioactive, concentrated chemical waste from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel elements. The method involves separating the crystals from the aqueous phase, drying them, and then dispersing the crystals in a nonaqueous medium based on nitroethane. Ultrasonic treatment is important in dispersing the sample into its fundamental crystals. The dispersed crystals are sieved into appropriate size ranges for counting with a HIAC brand particle counter. A preponderance of very fine particles in a slurry was found to increase the difficulty of effecting complete dispersion of the crystals because of the tendency to retain traces of aqueous mother liquor. Traces of moisture produce agglomerates of crystals, the extent of agglomeration being dependent on the amount of moisture present. The procedure is applicable to particles within the 2 to 600 μm size range of the HIAC particle counter. The procedure provides an effective means for measuring particle size distribution of crystals in aqueous salt slurries even when most crystals are less than 10 μm in size. 19 figures

  10. Removal of enzymatic and fermentation inhibitory compounds from biomass slurries for enhanced biorefinery process efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurram, Raghu N; Datta, Saurav; Lin, Yupo J; Snyder, Seth W; Menkhaus, Todd J

    2011-09-01

    Within the biorefinery paradigm, many non-monomeric sugar compounds have been shown to be inhibitory to enzymes and microbial organisms that are used for hydrolysis and fermentation. Here, two novel separation technologies, polyelectrolyte polymer adsorption and resin-wafer electrodeionization (RW-EDI), have been evaluated to detoxify a dilute acid pretreated biomass slurry. Results showed that detoxification of a dilute acid pretreated ponderosa pine slurry by sequential polyelectrolyte and RW-EDI treatments was very promising, with significant removal of acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, and furfural (up to 77%, 60%, and 74% removed, respectively) along with >97% removal of sulfuric acid. Removal of these compounds increased the cellulose conversion to 94% and elevated the hydrolysis rate to 0.69 g glucose/L/h. When using Saccharomyces cerevisiae D(5)A for fermentation of detoxified slurry, the process achieved 99% of the maximum theoretical ethanol yield and an ethanol production rate nearly five-times faster than untreated slurry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Studies on the Ecological Adaptability of Growing Rice with Floating Bed on the Dilute Biogas Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qi; Cheng, Bowen; Liao, Zhiqi; Sun, Chengcheng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the ecological adaptability and the possibility of growing rice with floating bed on the dilute biogas slurry. The results of the experiments show that the growth stage, rice plant height, and rice yield and quality were significantly affected by multiple dilutions; rice plants cultivated with 45 multiple dilutions had better ecological adaptability than others. In the 45 multiple dilutions' group, the yield of rice was 13.3 g/bucket (8 rice plants), milled rice rate was 63.1%, and the content of crude protein in the rice was 6.3%. The concentrations of heavy metals in the rice cultivated with 30 multiple dilutions' slurry, such as total lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic, were all below the national standard. The study shows that it is possible and safe to cultivate rice plants with no soil but diluted biogas slurry. In the experiments, the yield, milled rice rate, and crude protein of the rice cultivated with slurry were not as much as those of rice cultivated with regular way in soil. This study provides the basic theoretical support for the development of biogas projects and the potential achievement of organic farming in special agricultural facilities and circular economy. PMID:27882324

  12. Tank Farm WM-182 and WM-183 Heel Slurry Samples PSD Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, T.A.; Huestis, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of INTEC Tank Farm WM-182 and WM-183 heel slurry samples were performed using a modified Horiba LA-300 PSD analyzer at the RAL facility. There were two types of testing performed: typical PSD analysis, and setting rate testing. Although the heel slurry samples were obtained from two separate vessels, the particle size distribution results were quite similar. The slurry solids were from approximately a minimum particle size of 0.5 mm to a maximum of 230 mm with about 90% of the material between 2-to-133 mm, and the cumulative 50% value at approximately 20 mm. This testing also revealed that high frequency sonication with an ultrasonic element may break-up larger particles in the WM-182 and WM-183 tank from heel slurries. This finding represents useful information regarding ultimate tank heel waste processing. Settling rate testing results were also fairly consistent with material from both vessels in that it appears that most of the mass of solids settle to an agglomerated, yet easily redispersed layer at the bottom. A dispersed and suspended material remained in the ''clear'' layer above the settled layer after about one-half an hour of settling time. This material had a statistical mode of approximately 5 mm and a maximum particle size of 30 mm

  13. Nitrogen Fertilizer Replacement Value of Concentrated Liquid Fraction of Separated Pig Slurry Applied to Grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, Van J.C.; Holshof, G.

    2017-01-01

    Seven grassland experiments on sandy and clay soils were performed during a period of 4 years to estimate the nitrogen (N) fertilizer replacement value (NFRV) of concentrated liquid fractions of separated pig slurry (mineral concentrate: MC). The risk of nitrate leaching when applying MC was

  14. Simulation and characterization of a Hanford high-level waste slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, R.L.; Smith, H.D.

    1996-09-01

    The baseline waste used for this simulant is a blend of wastes from tanks 101-AZ, 102-AZ, 106-C, and 102-AY that have been through water washing. However, the simulant used in this study represents a combination of tank waste slurries and should be viewed as an example of the slurries that might be produced by blending waste from various tanks. It does not imply that this is representative of the actual waste that will be delivered to the privatization contractor(s). This blended waste sludge simulant was analyzed for grain size distribution, theological properties both as a function of concentration and aging, and calcining characteristics. The grain size distribution allows a comparison with actual waste with respect to theological properties. Slurries with similar grain size distributions of the same phases are expected to exhibit similar theological properties. Rheological properties may also change because of changes in the slurry's particulate supernate chemistry due to aging. Low temperature calcination allows the potential for hazardous gas generation to be investigated

  15. Use of flyash and biogas slurry for improving wheat yield and physical properties of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R N; Pathak, H; Das, D K; Tomar, R K

    2005-08-01

    This study explores the potential use of by-products of energy production, i.e., (i) flyash from coal-powered electricity generation and (ii) biogas slurry from agricultural waste treatment, as nutrient sources in agriculture. These residues are available in large amounts and their disposal is a major concern for the environment. As both residues contain considerable amounts of plant nutrients, their use as soil amendment may offer a promising win-win opportunity to improve crop production and, at the same time, preventing adverse environmental impacts of waste disposal. Effect of flyash and biogas slurry on soil physical properties and growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was studied in a field experiment. Leaf area index, root length density and grain yield of wheat were higher in plots amended with flyash or biogas slurry compared to unamended plots. Both types of amendments reduced bulk density, and increased saturated hydraulic conductivity and moisture retention capacity of soil. The study showed that flyash and biogas slurry should be used as soil amendments for obtaining short-term and long-term benefits in terms of production increments and soil amelioration.

  16. Microstructure of Al-Si Slurry Coatings on Austenitic High-Temperature Creep Resisting Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka E. Kochmańska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of microstructural examinations on slurry aluminide coatings using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and X-ray diffraction. Aluminide coatings were produced in air atmosphere on austenitic high-temperature creep resisting cast steel. The function of aluminide coatings is the protection of the equipment components against the high-temperature corrosion in a carburising atmosphere under thermal shock conditions. The obtained coatings had a multilayered structure composed of intermetallic compounds. The composition of newly developed slurry was powders of aluminium and silicon; NaCl, KCl, and NaF halide salts; and a water solution of a soluble glass as an inorganic binder. The application of the inorganic binder in the slurry allowed to produce the coatings in one single step without additional annealing at an intermediate temperature as it is when applied organic binder. The coatings were formed on both: the ground surface and on the raw cast surface. The main technological parameters were temperature (732–1068°C and time of annealing (3.3–11.7 h and the Al/Si ratio (4–14 in the slurry. The rotatable design was used to evaluate the effect of the production parameters on the coatings thickness. The correlation between the technological parameters and the coating structure was determined.

  17. Direct spray drying and microencapsulation of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri from slurry fermentation with whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, M; Göpel, A; Beermann, C

    2013-10-01

    Formulations of dietary probiotics have to be robust against process conditions and have to maintain a sufficient survival rate during gastric transit. To increase efficiency of the encapsulation process and the viability of applied bacteria, this study aimed at developing spray drying and encapsulation of Lactobacillus reuteri with whey directly from slurry fermentation. Lactobacillus reuteri was cultivated in watery 20% (w/v) whey solution with or without 0·5% (w/v) yeast extract supplementation in a submerged slurry fermentation. Growth enhancement with supplement was observed. Whey slurry containing c. 10(9)  CFU g(-1) bacteria was directly spray-dried. Cell counts in achieved products decreased by 2 log cycles after drying and 1 log cycle during 4 weeks of storage. Encapsulated bacteria were distinctively released in intestinal milieu. Survival rate of encapsulated bacteria was 32% higher compared with nonencapsulated ones exposed to artificial digestive juice. Probiotic L. reuteri proliferate in slurry fermentation with yeast-supplemented whey and enable a direct spray drying in whey. The resulting microcapsules remain stable during storage and reveal adequate survival in simulated gastric juices and a distinct release in intestinal juices. Exploiting whey as a bacterial substrate and encapsulation matrix within a coupled fermentation and spray-drying process offers an efficient option for industrial production of vital probiotics. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Startup of a Joule-heated glass melter with a graphite slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.L.; Porter, M.A.; Routt, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    Startup of a Joule-heated glass melter using a graphite slurry as a conducting medium was demonstrated. This technique can be used for the initial startup and for the restart of a melter used for vitrifying high-level radioactive waste. Theory, physical property data, and a demonstration test are reported

  19. Development of gas diffusion layer using water based carbon slurry for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.F.; Liu, X.; Adame, A.; Villacorta, R. [Fuel Cell Research Laboratory, Engineering Technology Department, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States); Wertz, J. [Hollingsworth and Vose Co., A.K. Nicholson Research Lab, 219 Townsend Road, West Groton, MA 01472 (United States); Ahmad, R.; Thommes, M. [Quantachrome Instruments, 1900 Corporate Drive, Boynton Beach, FL 33426 (United States); Kannan, A.M., E-mail: amk@asu.ed [Fuel Cell Research Laboratory, Engineering Technology Department, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The micro-porous layer of gas diffusion layers (GDLs) was fabricated with the carbon slurry dispersed in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), by wire rod coating process. The aqueous carbon slurry with micelle-encapsulation was highly consistent and stable without losing any homogeneity even after adding polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder for hundreds of hours. The surface morphology, contact angle and pore size distribution of the GDLs were examined using SEM, Goniometer and Hg Porosimeter, respectively. GDLs fabricated with various SDS concentrations were assembled into MEAs and evaluated in a single cell PEMFC under diverse operating relative humidity (RH) conditions using H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/air as reactants. The peak power density of the single cell using the GDLs with optimum SDS concentration was 1400 and 500 mW cm{sup -2} with H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/air at 90% RH, respectively. GDLs were also fabricated with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) based carbon slurry for fuel cell performance comparison. It was found that the composition of the carbon slurry, specifically SDS concentration played a critical role in controlling the pore diameter as well as the corresponding pore volumes of the GDLs.

  20. Use of deep soil mixing as an alternate verticle barrier to slurry walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.D.

    1997-01-01

    Slurry walls have become an accepted subsurface remediation technique to contain contaminated zones. However, situations develop where conventional slurry wall excavation techniques are not suitable. The use of conventional containment wall construction methods may involve removal and disposal of contaminated soils, stability concerns and the risk of open excavations. For these reasons, other installation techniques have received further consideration. Deep Soil Mixing (DSM) has emerged as a viable alternative to conventional slurry wall techniques. In situations dictating limited soil removal for contamination or stability concerns, or where space is a limitation, DSM can be used for installation of the barrier. Proper installation of a DSM wall requires sufficient monitoring and sampling to evaluate the continuity, mixing effectiveness, permeability and key into the confining layer. This paper describes a case study where DSM was used to cross major highways to avoid open excavation, and along slopes to reduce stability concerns. The DSM barrier was tied to an existing conventional slurry wall that had been installed in more stable areas without highway traffic

  1. Anaerobic and aerobic slurry bioreactors for remediation of a heavy soil contaminated with lindane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles-Gonzalez, I. V.; Rios-Leal, E.; Galindez-Mayer, J.; Sastre-conde, I.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Slurry bioreactors (SB) can be used for bioremediation of polluted heavy soils such as those characterized by high contents of clay and organic matter, when the contaminants are recalcitrant, toxic, and display hysteretic behaviour, and/or when bioremediation should be accomplished in short times under the pressure and monitoring of environmental agencies and regulators. (Author)

  2. Redistribution of contaminants from pig slurry after direct injection into soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Bech, T B; Forslund, A

    2010-01-01

    The redistribution of pig manure-borne contaminants after direct injection to soil was investigated in a field study. The spatial distribution of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium Bacteriophage 28B and other slurry components in and around the injection slit was measured on day 0.15, 1, 6...

  3. Detecting Poor Cement Bonding and Zonal Isolation Problems Using Magnetic Cement Slurries

    KAUST Repository

    Nair, Sriramya D.

    2017-10-02

    There has been growing interest in the use of magnetorheological fluids to improve displacement efficiency of fluids (drilling fluids, spacer fluids, cement slurries) in the eccentric casing annuli. When magnetic particles are mixed with the cement slurry for improved displacement, they provide an excellent opportunity for sensing the presence and quality of cement in the annulus. This work focuses on using sophisticated 3D computational electromagnetics to simulate the use of a magnetic cement slurry for well cement monitoring. The main goal is to develop a new tool, which is capable of locating magnetic cement slurry that is placed behind a stainless steel casing. An electromagnetic coil was used to generate a magnetic field inside the borehole. It was found that when a current was passed through the electric coils, magnetic field lines passed through the stainless steel casing, the cement annulus and the rock formation. Three sensors were placed inside the cased borehole and the magnetic field strength variations were observed at these locations. Various factors that have a significant influence on zonal isolation were considered. These include, effect of debonding between casing and cement annulus, effect of changing annuli thickness, influence of a fracture in the rock formation, effect of changing magnetic permeability of cement and finally influence of annuli eccentricity. Based on the results shown in the paper along with the next generation of supersensitive magnetic sensors that are being developed, the magnetic approach appears to be a viable alternative for evaluating the quality of the cement annulus to ensure good zonal isolation.

  4. An internally illuminated monolith reactor: Pros and cons relative to a slurry reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, Joana T.; Carneiro, J.T.; Berger, Rob; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, kinetic models for the photo-oxidation of cyclohexane in two different photoreactor systems are discussed: a top illumination reactor (TIR) representative of a slurry reactor, and the so-called internally illuminated monolith reactor (IIMR) representing a reactor containing

  5. KINETICS OF THE HYDROXYETHYLATION OF STARCH IN ALKALINE SALT-CONTAINING AQUEOUS SLURRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWARNERS, A; STAMNHUIS, EJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    A two-phase kinetic model is presented for the base-catalyzed hydroxyethylation of potato starch using ethylene oxide at temperatures between 293 and 318 K in aqueous starch slurries containing sodium sulfate. The rate of the hydroxyethylation of starch as a function of starch anion concentration

  6. Effects of pig slurry on the sorption of sulfonamide antibiotics in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Bruhn, S; Aust, M O

    2004-07-01

    Sorption of p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) and five sulfonamide antibiotics to loess Chernozem topsoil amended with varied additions of pig slurry was investigated in batch trials. In unfertilized soil, partition coefficients (Kd) of sulfonamides ranged from 0.3 to 2.0. Strong sorption nonlinearity (1/n = 0.5 to 0.8) was best fitted by the Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.7 to 1.0) and was indicative for specific sorption mechanisms. Adsorption to pig slurry was much stronger, and nondesorbable portions were increased compared with soil. However, in a mixture of soil and slurry (50:1 w/w), sorption of the antibiotics was significantly decreased at a lower concentration range of pABA and the sulfonamides. This was attributed to competitive adsorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) constituents from manure. An increase in pig slurry amendment resulted in increased total organic matter, DOM concentration, and ionic strength, but pH decreased. As a result, the nonadsorbed portions of pABA, sulfanilamide, and sulfadiazine (logD(ow) 0.1)--remained nearly constant in the presence of increased manure input. The pH changes caused by manure amendment strongly affected ionisation status of the latter compounds, thus resulting in increased adsorption, which compensated the mobilizing effect of DOM. It is suggested that the effect of manure be considered in test methods to determine the soil retention of pharmaceutical substances.

  7. REMOVAL EFFICIENCY OF ORGANIC MATTER OF PIG SLURRY WITH BIODIGESTERS IN YUCATAN STATE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Trejo-Lizama

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the intensive pig production in the state of Yucatan, 62 biodigesters were installed in the last 10 years. However, the complexities of the anaerobic biodigestion enclose difficulties to reach the expected efficiency. The objective of the present study was to determine the removal efficiency of the organic matter in pig slurry using biodigesters in the state of Yucatan. There were visited 15 pig farms in the state of Yucatan to interview the farmer about the management of the farm and the waste disposal and to take samples of the influent of the collector of the pig slurry and the effluent of the biodigestor and evaluating the samples by laboratory analysis. The removal values found in the present study were 7 percentage points below the reference value of total volatile solids, which represent the organic matter fraction of the solids treated in the biodigestor. More than the 50 % of the farms evaluated were similar or higher than the parameters of reference. The removal efficiency of the organic matter in the pig slurry by biodigesters in the state of Yucatan is close to the reference values. However complementary treatments are necessary to continue the waste slurry treatment.

  8. An operations research and simulation based study on improving the efficiency of a slurry drying tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Jongh, E.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates to a company that produces washing powders. The focus is on improving the efficiency of gas usage (per unit of powder produced in the furnace that produces hot air. This hot air is an integral part of washing powder production: it dries the viscous slurry and transforms it into the base powder used in all washing powders. The cost of gas is the factorys largest expense. This paper attempts to increase the productivity and profitability of the operations by applying operations research using MATLAB and the non-linear optimiser called SNOPT (sparse non-linear optimiser. Using these techniques, a proposed solution that aims to balance the amount of open space between spraying slurry, as well as the overlap of spraying slurry within the furnace, is obtained. This is achieved by optimising the positioning of the top layer of 24 lances. The placement of the bottom layer of lances is done by positioning them in the areas of biggest overlap. These improvements result in a positive impact on the amount of gas burnt within the furnace to dry slurry to powder.

  9. Study of benzene release from Savannah River in-tank precipitation process slurry simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappe, K.G.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1998-08-01

    At the Savannah River Site, the in-tank precipitation (ITP) process uses sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) to precipitate radioactive cesium from alkaline wastes. During this process, potassium is also precipitated to form 4-wt% KTPB/CsTPB slurry. Residual NaTPB decomposes to form benzene, which is retained by the waste slurry. The retained benzene is also readily released from the waste during subsequent waste processing. While the release of benzene certainly poses flammability and toxicological safety concerns, the magnitude of the hazard depends on the rate of release. Currently, the mechanisms controlling the benzene release rates are not well understood, and predictive models for estimating benzene release rates are not available. The overall purpose of this study is to obtain quantitative measurements of benzene release rates from a series of ITP slurry simulants. This information will become a basis for developing a quantitative mechanistic model of benzene release rates. The transient benzene release rate was measured from the surface of various ITP slurry (solution) samples mixed with benzene. The benzene release rate was determined by continuously purging the headspace of a sealed sample vessel with an inert gas (nitrogen) and analyzing that purged headspace vapor for benzene every minute

  10. Proceedings of the sixteenth international conference on coal and slurry technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of this conference are grouped under the following headings: Update in operating slurry pipeline systems; Environmental aspects; Materials and equipment; Indirect coal, liquefaction, Pipeline technology; Coal preparation and beneficiation; Direct coal liquefaction; Rheology characterization and formulation; Atomization and combustion; Demonstrations and evaluations; Small scale applications

  11. Studies on the Ecological Adaptability of Growing Rice with Floating Bed on the Dilute Biogas Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qun; Li, Rui; Du, Qi; Cheng, Bowen; Liao, Zhiqi; Sun, Chengcheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the ecological adaptability and the possibility of growing rice with floating bed on the dilute biogas slurry. The results of the experiments show that the growth stage, rice plant height, and rice yield and quality were significantly affected by multiple dilutions; rice plants cultivated with 45 multiple dilutions had better ecological adaptability than others. In the 45 multiple dilutions' group, the yield of rice was 13.3 g/bucket (8 rice plants), milled rice rate was 63.1%, and the content of crude protein in the rice was 6.3%. The concentrations of heavy metals in the rice cultivated with 30 multiple dilutions' slurry, such as total lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic, were all below the national standard. The study shows that it is possible and safe to cultivate rice plants with no soil but diluted biogas slurry. In the experiments, the yield, milled rice rate, and crude protein of the rice cultivated with slurry were not as much as those of rice cultivated with regular way in soil. This study provides the basic theoretical support for the development of biogas projects and the potential achievement of organic farming in special agricultural facilities and circular economy.

  12. Improvement in mechanical properties of hypereutectic Al-Si-Cu alloys through sono-solidiifed slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiki Tsunekawa; Shinpei Suetsugu; Masahiro Okumiya; Naoki Nishikawa; Yoshikazu Genma

    2014-01-01

    For the wider applications, it is necessary to improve the ductility as wel as the strength and wear-resistance of hypereutectic Al-Si-Cu aloys, which are typical light-weight wear-resistant materials. An increase in the amounts of primary silicon particles causes the modiifed wear-resistance of hypereutectic Al-Si-Cu aloys, but leads to the poor strength and ductility. It is known that dual phase steels composed of hetero-structure have succeeded in bringing contradictory mechanical properties of high strength and ductility concurrently. In order to apply the idea of hetero-structure to hypereutectic Al-Si-Cu alloys for the achievement of high strength and ductility along with wear resistance, ultrasonic irradiation of the molten metal during the solidiifcation, which is caled sono-solidiifcation, was carried out from its molten state to just above the eutectic temperature. The sono-solidiifed Al-17Si-4Cu aloy is composed of hetero-structure, which are, hard primary silicon particles, soft non-equilibriuma-Al phase and the eutectic region. Rheo-casting was performed at just above the eutectic temperature with sono-solidiifed slurry to shape a disk specimen. After the rheo-casting with modiifed sono-solidiifed slurry held for 45 s at 570 ºC, the quantitative optical microscope observation exhibits that the microstructure is composed of 18area% of hard primary silicon particles and 57area% of softa-Al phase. In contrast, there exist only 5 area% of primary silicon particles and noa-Al phase in rheo-cast specimen with normaly solidiifed slurry. Hence the tensile tests of T6 treated rheo-cast specimens with modified sono-solidified slurry exhibit improved strength and 5% of elongation, regardless of having more than 3 times higher amounts of primary silicon particles compared to that of rheo-cast specimen with normaly solidiifed slurry.

  13. Effect of slurries density on the properties of ceramic foam produced via polymer replication method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Al Amin Muhammad Nor; Lee Chain Hong; Hazizan Md Akil; Zainal Ariffin Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Ceramic foams are a class of high porosity materials that are used or being considered for a wide range of technological applications. Ceramic foam was produce by polymer replication method. In this process, commercial polymeric sponge was use as template, dipping with ceramic particles slurry, drying and then sintered to yield a replica of the original foams. The study was focus on the fabrication of different density of ceramic foams by varying the density of ceramic slurries (1.1876, 1.2687, 1.3653 and 1.5295 g/cm?3). Properties of ceramic foam produced such as density was characterized accordingly to ASTM C 271-94 and porosity were characterized using Archimedes methods. Compressive and bending strength was performed accordingly to ASTM C1161-94 and C773-88 (1999), respectively. The morphological study was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and EDX. Density of ceramic foams produced was about 0.5588 and 1.1852 g/cm 3 , where as porosity was around 26.28 and 70.59 %. Compressive and bending strength was increase from strength also increases from 2.60 to 23.07 MPa and 1.20 to 11.10 MPa, respectively, with increasing of slurries density from 1.1876 to 1.3653 g/cm 3 . The SEM micrographs show that the cells structure become denser as the slurries density increased. EDX proved that the ceramic used is porcelain. As conclusion, increasing in slurries density produced ceramic foams with good mechanical properties such as compressive and bending strength and denser body. (Author)

  14. CFD simulation and experimental analysis of erosion in a slurry tank test rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erosion occurring in equipment dealing with liquid-solid mixtures such as pipeline parts, slurry pumps, liquid-solid stirred reactors and slurry mixers in various industrial applications results in operational failure and economic costs. A slurry erosion tank test rig is designed and was built to investigate the erosion rates of materials and the influencing parameters such as flow velocity and turbulence, flow angle, solid particle concentration, particles size distribution, hardness and target material properties on the material loss and erosion profiles. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD tool is used to simulate the erosion rate of sample plates in the liquid-solid slurry mixture in a cylindrical tank. The predictions were made in a steady state and also transient manner, applying the flow at the room temperature and using water and sand as liquid and solid phases, respectively. The multiple reference frame method (MRF is applied to simulate the flow behavior and liquid-solid interactions in the slurry tank test rig. The MRF method is used since it is less demanding than sliding mesh method (SM and gives satisfactory results. The computational domain is divided into three regions: a rotational or MRF zone containing the mixer, a rotational zone (MRF containing the erosion plates and a static zone (outer liquid zone. It is observed that changing the MRF zone diameter and height causes a very low impact on the results. The simulated results were obtained for two kinds of hard metals namely stainless steel and ST-50 under some various operating conditions and are found in good agreement with the experimental results.

  15. Recommendations for rheological testing and modelling of DWPF melter feed slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadday, M.A. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    The melter feed in the DWPF process is a non-Newtonian slurry. In the melter feed system and the sampling system, this slurry is pumped at a wide range of flow rates through pipes of various diameters. Both laminar and turbulent flows are encountered. Good rheology models of the melter feed slurries are necessary for useful hydraulic models of the melter feed and sampling systems. A concentric cylinder viscometer is presently used to characterize the stress/strain rate behavior of the melter feed slurries, and provide the data for developing rheology models of the fluids. The slurries exhibit yield stresses, and they are therefore modelled as Bingham plastics. The ranges of strain rates covered by the viscometer tests fall far short of the entire laminar flow range, and therefore hydraulic modelling applications of the present rheology models frequently require considerable extrapolation beyond the range of the data base. Since the rheology models are empirical, this cannot be done with confidence in the validity of the results. Axial pressure drop versus flow rate measurements in a straight pipe can easily fill in the rest of the laminar flow range with stress/strain rate data. The two types of viscometer tests would be complementary, with the concentric cylinder viscometer providing accurate data at low strain rates, near the yield point if one exists, and pipe flow tests providing data at high strain rates up to and including the transition to turbulence. With data that covers the laminar flow range, useful rheological models can be developed. In the Bingham plastic model, linear behavior of the shear stress as a function of the strain rate is assumed once the yield stress is exceeded. Both shear thinning and shear thickening behavior have been observed in viscometer tests. Bingham plastic models cannot handle this non-linear behavior, but a slightly more complicated yield/power law model can

  16. Numerical Modeling of Mixing of Chemically Reacting, Non-Newtonian Slurry for Tank Waste Retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, D.A.; Onishi, Y.

    2001-01-01

    conditions-solids are crystals, not hydrates; kinetic rates are fast; the slurry has simple rheology; and the water mass is constant. Thus, this idealized reactive transport model, ARIEL could provide a basis for addressing potentially crippling waste retrieval issues associated with hydrated mineral formation by systematically expanding its modeling capabilities

  17. Soil microbial properties after long-term swine slurry application to conventional and no-tillage systems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balota, Elcio L; Machineski, Oswaldo; Hamid, Karima I A; Yada, Ines F U; Barbosa, Graziela M C; Nakatani, Andre S; Coyne, Mark S

    2014-08-15

    Swine waste can be used as an agricultural fertilizer, but large amounts may accumulate excess nutrients in soil or contaminate the surrounding environment. This study evaluated long-term soil amendment (15 years) with different levels of swine slurry to conventional (plow) tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) soils. Long-term swine slurry application did not affect soil organic carbon. Some chemical properties, such as calcium, base saturation, and aluminum saturation were significantly different within and between tillages for various application rates. Available P and microbial parameters were significantly affected by slurry addition. Depending on tillage, soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity increased up to 120 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1) in all application rates. The NT system had higher microbial biomass and activity than CT at all application levels. There was an inverse relationship between the metabolic quotient (qCO2) and MBC, and the qCO2 was 53% lower in NT than CT. Swine slurry increased overall acid phosphatase activity, but the phosphatase produced per unit of microbial biomass decreased. A comparison of data obtained in the 3rd and 15th years of swine slurry application indicated that despite slurry application the CT system degraded with time while the NT system had improved values of soil quality indicators. For these Brazilian oxisols, swine slurry amendment was insufficient to maintain soil quality parameters in annual crop production without additional changes in tillage management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rheological study of an hydrate slurry as secondary two-phase refrigerant. Experimental results and modelling; Etude rheologique d'une suspension d'hydrates en tant que fluide frigoporteur diphasique: resultats experimentaux et modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbouret, M.

    2005-12-15

    Secondary two-phase fluids are suspensions of solid crystals. Thanks to the melting latent heat, they present a great interest for cold transportation. Moreover, they are a mean of reducing the amount of classical refrigerant. In the refrigeration field, ice slurries are already used. The goal is now to extend this technology to other temperature ranges suitable for other applications like freezing or air-conditioning. For an air-conditioning application, a TBAB (Tetra-Butyl-Ammonium Bromide) aqueous solution is studied. Under atmospheric pressure and for positive temperatures, this solution crystallizes into ice-like compounds named 'hydrates'. First, the physical properties of the aqueous solution and its crystallisation conditions were studied. Two different types of hydrates can appear. The goal of the experimental set-up is to study the rheological behaviour of two-phase fluids. Slurries are made in brushed-surface heat exchanger and pumped into pipes where flow rates and pressure drops are measured. The rheological behaviour of TBAB hydrates slurries can be described using a Bingham fluid model. We highlight that the two rheological parameters, which are the apparent viscosity and the yield shear stress, depend on the volume fraction of crystal of course, but also on the hydrate type, and on the initial concentration of the solution. The yield shear stress is interpreted as the consequence of the Van der Waals inter-particle interaction forces. Finally, possible stratification effects are modelled with a finite difference method. The principle is to calculate particle concentration and velocity profiles following the flow of the slurry. Calculations are validated with experimental velocity profiles published by P. Reghem (2002). This model underlines the influence of the particle distribution in the pipe on pressure drops. (author)

  19. Pretreatment methods to obtain pumpable high solid loading wood–water slurries for continuous hydrothermal liquefaction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dãrãbana, Iulia-Maria; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer

    2015-01-01

    Feedstock pretreatment is a prerequisite step for continuous processing of lignocellulosic biomass through HTL, in order to facilitate the pumpability of biomass aqueous slurries. Until now, HTL feedstock pumpability could only be achieved at solid mass content below 15%. In this work, two...... pretreatment methods to obtain wood-based slurries with more than 20% solid mass content, for continuous processing in HTL systems, are proposed. The effect of biomass particle size and pretreatment method on the feedstock pumpability is analyzed. The experimental results show that pumpable wood-based slurries...

  20. Characterization and Correlation of Particle-Level Interactions to the Macroscopic Rheology of Powders, Granular Slurries, and Colloidal Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poloski, Adam P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Rector, David R.; Bredt, Paul R.; Buck, Edgar C.; Berg, John C.; Saez, Avelino E.

    2006-09-29

    Hanford TRU tank sludges are complex mixtures of undissolved minerals and salt solids in an aqueous phase of high ionic strength. They show complex rheological behavior resulting from interactions at the macroscopic level, such as interparticle friction between grains in the coarse fraction, as well as from interactions at the nano-scale level, such as the agglomeration of colloidal particles. An understanding of how phenomena such as interparticle friction and aggregate stability under shear will allow better control of Hanford TRU tank sludges being processed for disposal. The project described in this report had two objectives. The first was to understand the physical properties and behavior of the Hanford transuranic (TRU) tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging, and transportation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The second objective was to develop a fundamental understanding of sludge physical properties by correlating the macroscopic behavior with interactions occurring at the particle/colloidal scale. These objectives were accomplished by: 1) developing continuum models for coarse granular slurries and 2) studying the behavior of colloidal agglomerates under shear and under irradiation.

  1. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond B Brennan

    Full Text Available Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application.

  2. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Raymond B; Healy, Mark G; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application.

  3. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  4. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-09-01

    Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables and fish ponds. Slurry may contain a variety of zoonotic pathogens, e.g. Salmonella spp., which are able to cause disease in humans either through direct contact with slurry or by fecal contamination of water and foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella spp. and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms with and 6 farms without toilet connected) located in Hanam province, Vietnam. Sampling of pig slurry and biogas effluent was done during two seasons. Results showed that the concentration of enterococci, E. coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores was overall reduced by only 1-2 log10-units in the biogas digesters when comparing raw slurry and biogas effluent. Salmonella spp. was found in both raw slurry and biogas effluent. A total of 19 Salmonella serovars were identified, with the main serovars being Salmonella Typhimurium (55/138), Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (19/138), Salmonella Weltevreden (9/138) and Salmonella Rissen (9/138). The Salmonella serovars showed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns to those previously reported from Vietnam. When promoting biogas, farmers should be made aware that effluent should only be used as fertilizer for crops not consumed raw and that indiscriminate discharge of effluent are likely to contaminate water recipients, e.g. drinking water sources, with pathogens. Relevant authorities should promote safe animal manure management

  5. Overview of the environmental concerns of coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K.; Dauzvardis, P.; Fradkin, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-02-01

    More than 30 environmental concerns were analyzed for the transportation of coal by rail, roads (trucks), high voltage transmission lines (that is, from mine-mouth generating plants to distribution networks), coal slurry pipelines, and barges. The following criteria were used to identify these problems: (1) real physical environmetal impacts for which control technologies must be developed, or regulation made effective where control technologies presently exist; (2) the level of impact is uncertain, although the potential impact may be moderate to high; (3) the concerns identified by the first two criteria are specific to or exacerbated by coal transportation. Generic transportation problems are not included. The significant environmental problems identified as a result of this study are: (1) rail transport - community traffic disruption and human health, safety, and habitat destruction; (2) coal haul roads - road degradation, traffic congestion and safety, air quality, and noise; (3) high voltage transmission lines - changed land use without local benefits, biological health and safety effects, and disruption of world weather patterns; (4) slurry pipelines - water availability, water quality, and possible spills from non-water slurry pipelines; and (5) barge transport - impacts common to all barge traffic. (DMC)

  6. Origin of high oxide to nitride polishing selectivity of ceria-based slurry in the presence of picolinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liang-Yong; Liu Bo; Song Zhi-Tang; Liu Wei-Li; Feng Song-Lin; David Huang; Babu, S.V

    2011-01-01

    We report on the investigation of the origin of high oxide to nitride polishing selectivity of ceria-based slurry in the presence of picolinic acid. The oxide to nitride removal selectivity of the ceria slurry with picolinic acid is as high as 76.6 in the chemical mechanical polishing. By using zeta potential analyzer, particle size analyzer, horizon profilometer, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the pre- and the post-polished wafer surfaces as well as the pre- and the post-used ceria-based slurries are compared. Possible mechanism of high oxide to nitride selectivity with using ceria-based slurry with picolinic acid is discussed. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  7. Convective heat transfer behavior of the product slurry of the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muguercia, I.; Yang, G.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for immobilizing liquid form low level radioactive waste (LLW). An experimental study has been conducted to measure the heat transfer properties of the NAC product slurry. The results indicate that the heat transfer coefficient for both concentration slurries is much higher than that of pure water, which may be due to the higher conductivity of the gibbsite powder. For the 20% concentration slurry, the heat transfer coefficient increased as the generalized Reynolds number and slurry temperature increased. The heat transfer coefficient of 40% is a function of the Reynolds number only. The test results also indicate that the thermal entrance region can be observed only when the generalized Reynolds number is smaller than 1,000. The correlation equation is also developed based on the experimental data in this paper

  8. Theoretical development and validation of a Sharp Front model of the dewatering of a slurry by an absorbent substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, N C; Wilson, M A; Carter, M A; Hoff, W D; Hall, Christopher; Ball, R J; El-Turki, A; Allen, G C

    2007-01-01

    The absorption of water from a slurry into an absorbent substrate is analysed using Sharp Front theory. The analysis describes the relationship between the sorptivity S of the substrate, the desorptivity R of the slurry and the transfer sorptivity A between slurry and substrate, and leads to the relationship 1/A 2 = 1/R 2 + 1/S 2 . Experimental data are presented which validate this equation for the practically important case of the absorption of water from soft mortar mixes by fired clay bricks. A unique feature of the experimental work is the measurement of the desorptivity of the mortars at a pressure equal to the wetting front capillary pressure of the clay brick substrate. Analysis of the experimental data also enables, for the first time, the calculation of the capillary potential at the slurry/substrate interface. The analysis has relevance to many aspects of ceramic and mineral processing, industrial filtration and construction engineering

  9. Methane oxidation in pig and cattle slurry storages, and effects of surface crust moisture and methane availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.O.; Ambus, P.

    2006-01-01

    Storages with liquid manure (slurry) may develop a surface crust of particulate organic matter, or an artificial crust can be established. Slurry storages are net sources of atmospheric methane (CH4), but a potential for bacterial oxidation of CH4 in surface crusts was recently suggested in a study......2 during incubation, while intact subsamples were used to characterize CH4 oxidation as a function of CH4 availability and moisture content. Methane oxidation was observed in all materials except for an expanded clay product (Leca) sampled from a pig slurry storage. Despite significant variation...... crusts indicates that there is a potential for stimulating the process by manipulation of gas phase composition above the stored slurry....

  10. Rapid Analysis of Copper Ore in Pre-Smelter Head Flow Slurry by Portable X-ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Brandon J; Lawrence, Neil J; Abourahma, Jehad N; Walker, Edward B

    2016-05-01

    Copper laden ore is often concentrated using flotation. Before the head flow slurry can be smelted, it is important to know the concentration of copper and contaminants. The concentration of copper and other elements fluctuate significantly in the head flow, often requiring modification of the concentrations in the slurry prior to smelting. A rapid, real-time analytical method is needed to support on-site optimization of the smelter feedstock. A portable, handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was utilized to determine the copper concentration in a head flow suspension at the slurry origin. The method requires only seconds and is reliable for copper concentrations of 2.0-25%, typically encountered in such slurries. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Origin of high oxide to nitride polishing selectivity of ceria-based slurry in the presence of picolinic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Liang-Yong; Liu Bo; Song Zhi-Tang; Liu Wei-Li; Feng Song-Lin; David Huang; S.V Babu

    2011-01-01

    We report on the investigation of the origin of high oxide to nitride polishing selectivity of ceria-based slurry in the presence of picolinic acid. The oxide to nitride removal selectivity of the ceria slurry with picolinic acid is as high as 76.6 in the chemical mechanical polishing. By using zeta potential analyzer, particle size analyzer, horizon profilometer, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the pre-and the post-polished wafer surfaces as well as the pre-and the post-used ceria-based slurries are compared. Possible mechanism of high oxide to nitride selectivity with using ceria-based slurry with picolinic acid is discussed.

  12. Effect of mixing digested slurry on the rate of biogas production from dairy manure in batch fermenter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalia, A.K.; Singh, S.P.

    2001-09-01

    Forty kilograms of pure cattle dung and cattle dung mixed with 10% digested slurry obtained from a field biogas plant was batch fermented in horizontal biogas digesters for 15 weeks under field conditions with mean ambient temperature 20-23{sup o}C. Compared to 821 l of biogas from digester I, containing cattle dung alone, 1457 l of biogas was obtained from digester II, containing cattle dung mixed with 10% digested slurry. Mixing of slurry not only speeded up the gas production but also enhanced its rate from 108 l/kg dry matter to 158 l/kg dry matter. It also resulted in 36.1% distraction of total volatile solid in digester II, compared to 23.93% observed in digester I. Mixing digested slurry is recommended for raising biogas production from cattle dung in dry fermenters. (author)

  13. Fabrication of tubed functionally graded material by slurry dipping process. Thickness control of dip-coated layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ryuzo

    1997-03-01

    In order to obtain long life fuel cladding tubes for the fast breeder reactor, the concept of functionally graded material was applied for the material combination of Molybdenum/stainless steel/Titanium, in which Titanium and Molybdenum were placed at the inner and outer sides, respectively. Slurry dipping method was employed because of its capability of shape forming and microstructural control. We have hitherto reported the design criteria for the graded layers, preparation of the slurry, and microstructural control of the dip-coated layers. In the present report, the thickness control of the dip-coated layer is described in detail. The thickness of the dip-coated layer depends primarily on the viscosity of the slurry. Nevertheless, for the stable dispersion of the powder in the slurry, which dominates the microstructural homogeneity, an optimum viscosity value is present for the individual slurries. With stable slurries of Ti, Mo, stainless steel powders and their mixtures, the thicknesses of dip-coated layers were controlled in dependence of their viscosities and yield values. For Ti and stainless steel powders and their mixture a PAANa was used as a dispersing agent. A NaHMP was found to be effective for the dispersion of Mo powder and Mo/stainless steel powder mixture. For all slurries tested in the present investigation PVA addition was helpful for the viscosity control. Dip-coating maps have been drawn for the stabilization of the slurries and for the formation of films with a sufficient strength for further manipulation for the slurries with low viscosity (∼10 mPa s). The final film thickness for the low-viscosity slurry with the optimum condition was about 200 μm. The slurries with high viscosities of several hundreds mPa s had a good stability and the yield value was easy to be controlled. The film thickness was able to be adjusted in the size range between several tens and several hundreds μm. The final thickness of the graded layer was determined

  14. Impact of slurry application method on phosphorus loss in runoff from grassland soils during periods of high soil moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McConnell D.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that the trailing shoe application technique reduces phosphorus (P in the runoff postslurry application when compared to the traditional splash-plate application technique. However, the effectiveness of the trailing-shoe technique as a means of reducing P losses has not been evaluated when slurry is applied during periods of high soil moisture levels and lower herbage covers. To address this issue, three treatments were examined in a 3 × 4 factorial design split-plot experiment, with treatments comprising three slurry treatments: control (no slurry, splashplate and trailing-shoe, and four slurry application dates: 7 December, 18 January, 1 March and 10 April. Dairy cow slurry was applied at a rate of 20 m3/ha, while simulated runoff was generated 2, 9 and 16 days later and analysed for a range of P fractions. Dissolved reactive P concentrations in runoff at day two was 41% lower when slurry was applied using the trailing-shoe technique, compared to the splash-plate technique (P < 0.05. In addition, P concentrations in runoff were higher (P < 0.05 from slurry applied in December and March compared to slurry applied in January or April, coinciding with periods of higher soil moisture contents. While the latter highlights that ‘calendar’-based non-spreading periods might not always achieve the desired consequences, the study demonstrated that further field-scale investigations into the trailing shoe as a mitigation measure to reduced P loss from agricultural soils is warranted.

  15. Distribution of medium-to-coarse glass beads in slurry pipe flow: evaluation of measured concentration profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Václav; Krupička, Jan; Pěník, Vojtěch

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2014), s. 186-196 ISSN 0272-6351. [7th International Conference for Conveying and Handling of Particulate Solids (CHoPS). Friedrichshafen, 10.09.2013-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/0383 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : concentration distribution * high concentrated slurry * pipeline flow * slurry flow experiment Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.523, year: 2014

  16. Assessment of the genotoxicity of Cu and Zn in raw and anaerobically digested slurry with the Vicia faba micronucleus test

    OpenAIRE

    Marcato, Claire-Emmanuelle; Pinelli, Eric; Pourrut, Bertrand; Silvestre, Jérôme; Guiresse, Agnès Maritchù

    2009-01-01

    Genotoxicity of Cu and Zn was assessed by use of the micronucleus (MN) test on Vicia faba roots. Plants were exposed to various leachates of rawand anaerobically digested pig slurry, with maximum total concentrations of 200MCu and 600MZn. The results indicated stabilisation of the organic matter during anaerobic digestion of the slurry and bioconversion of some phytotoxic organic compounds (e.g. phenols or p-cresol), but did not showa relationship between Cu and Zn concentrations and MN fr...

  17. Prevalence of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Bacterial Isolates from Manured Agricultural Soils and Pig Slurry in the United Kingdom▿

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne-Bailey, K. G.; Gaze, W. H.; Kay, P.; Boxall, A. B. A.; Hawkey, P. M.; Wellington, E. M. H.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. Isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. Phenotypic resistance to SCP was significantly higher...

  18. Prediction of changes in important physical parameters during composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of animal slurry, with solid fractions used for composting, has gained interest recently. However, efficient composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSFs) requires a better understanding of the process dynamics in terms of important physical parameters...... and their interacting physical relationships in the composting matrix. Here we monitored moisture content, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity (AFP) during composting of SSF collected from four commercially available solid-liquid separators. Composting was performed in laboratory-scale reactors...... for 30 days (d) under forced aeration and measurements were conducted on the solid samples at the beginning of composting and at 10-d intervals during composting. The results suggest that differences in initial physical properties of SSF influence the development of compost maximum temperatures (40...

  19. Natural convection heat transfer from a heated horizontal cylinder with Microencapsulated Phase-Change-Material slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Shinji; Akino, Norio; Tanaka, Amane; Nagashima, Akira

    1998-01-01

    The present study investigates natural convection heat transfer from a heated cylinder cooled by a water slurry of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material (MCPCM). A normal paraffin hydrocarbon with carbon number of 18 and melting point of 27.9degC, is microencapsulated by Melamine resin into particles of which average diameter is 9.5 μm and specific weight is same as water. The slurry of the MCPCM and water is put into a rectangular enclosure with a heated horizontal cylinder. The heat transfer coefficients of the cylinder were evaluated. Changing the concentrations of PCM and temperature difference between cylinder surface and working fluid. Addition of MCPCM into water, the heat transfer is enhanced significantly comparison with pure water in cases with phase change and is reduced slightly in cases without phase change. (author)

  20. Forced convection heat transfer with slurry of phase change material in circular ducts: A phenomenological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royon, Laurent; Guiffant, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    A model describing the thermal behaviour of a slurry of phase change material flow in a circular duct is presented. Reactors connected in series are considered for the representation of the circular duct with constant wall temperature. A phenomenological equation is formulated to take account of the heat generation due to phase change in the particles. Results of the simulation present a plateau of temperature along the longitudinal direction, characteristic of the phase change. The effect of different parameters such as the Reynolds number, the weight fraction and the temperature of the cold spring on the length of the plateau is analysed. A correlation resulting from numerical results is proposed for use in the determination of the characteristics of the exchanger for a phase change material slurry