WorldWideScience

Sample records for coal-fired flow facility

  1. The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI summarizes the results of a multi-task research and development project directed toward the development of the technology for the commercialization of the steam bottoming plant for the MHD steam combined cycle power plant. The report covers the final test in a 2000-hour proof-of-concept (POC) test series on eastern coal, the plans and progress for the facility modifications and the conduct of the POC tests to be conducted with western coal. Results summarized in the report include chloride emissions from the particle removal (ESP/BH) processes, nitrogen and sulfur oxide emissions for various tests conditions, measurements of particulate control efficiency and management of the facility holding ponds during testing. Activities relating to corrosion and deposition probe measurements during testing and the fouling of heat transfer tubes and interaction with sootblowing cycles are summarized. The performance of both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) advanced diagnostic systems is reported. Significant administrative and contractual actions are included. 2 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Construction program for a large superconducting MHD magnet system at the coal-fired flow facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Genens, L.; Gonczy, J.; Ludwig, H.; Lieberg, M.; Kraft, E.; Gacek, D.; Huang, Y.C.; Chen, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory has designed and is constructing a 6 T large aperture superconducting MHD magnet for use in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) at Tullahoma, Tennessee. The magnet system consists of the superconducting magnet, a magnet power supply, an integrated instrumentation for operation, control and protection, and a complete cryogenic facility including a CTI Model 2800 helium refrigerator/liquefier with two compressors, helium gas handling system and a 7500 liter liquid helium dewar. The complete system will be tested at Argonne, IL in 1981. The magnet design is reviewed, and the coil fabrication programs are described in detail

  3. Environmental Audit of the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The scope of the audit at the CFFF was comprehensive, addressing environmental activities in the technical areas of air; soils, sediments, and biota; surface water/drinking water; groundwater; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; quality assurance; radiation; inactive waste sites; environmental management; and environmental monitoring programs. Specifically assessed was the compliance of CFFF operations and activities with Federal, state, and local regulations; DOE Orders; internal operating standards; and best management practices. Onsite activities included inspection of CFFF facilities and operations; review of site documents; interviews with DOE and contractor personnel, as well as representatives from state regulatory agencies; and reviews of previous appraisals. Using these sources of information, the environmental audit team developed findings, which fell into two general categories: compliance findings and best management practice findings. Each finding also identifies apparent causal factor(s) that contributedto the finding and will assist line management in developing ''root causes'' for implementing corrective actions. The overall conclusion of the audit is that The University of Space Institute's Energy Conversion Research and Development Programs (ECP) management of the CFFF has not kept pace with DOE's increasing expectation for environmental performance. ECP has not applied the same door and formality to environmental compliance and protection activities as they apply to their research and development activities.A total of 31 findings were identified in this audit

  4. Pollution control and environmental monitoring efforts at DOE's Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attig, R.C.; Crawford, L.W.; Lynch, T.P.; Sheth, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale demonstration of such technology is currently being carried out at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) in Tullahoma, Tennessee and at the Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The CFFF is dedicated to the evaluation of downstream (steam cycle) components and technology that may be considered for a full-scale MHD system. The objectives of the CFFF testing include the demonstration of various pollution control devices and techniques at a scale sufficient for future scale-up. The CFFF offers a unique test environment in which emissions control techniques can be developed and evaluated through emissions and environmental monitoring. Results thus far have demonstrated the ability of sulfur oxide (SO x ), nitrogen oxide (NO x ) and particulate emissions well below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Regeneration of the potassium sulfate to produce sulfur-free compounds also has been demonstrated. The experimental program at the CFFF is now aimed at determining the optimum conditions for future commercial scale designs. Because of increased interests in Air Toxics, measurements of nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a potential greenhouse gas, priority pollutants (inorganic as well as organics), and chlorine-containing species (Cl 2 and HCl) are also included in our ongoing efforts. Environmental monitoring activities are being pursued to develop an environmental impact assessment data base. These include the use of three ambient air sites to determine the impacts of gaseous and particulate emissions, five lake water sites to determine impacts due to process water discharges and seven sites to collect terrestrial data on possible soil contamination and tree growth. In this paper, we will summarize the status of our ongoing environmental program. 16 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Coal-fired MHD test progress at the Component Development and Integration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, A.T.; Rivers, T.J.; Alsberg, C.M.; Filius, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) is a Department of Energy test facility operated by MSE, Inc. In the fall of 1984, a 50-MW t , pressurized, slag rejecting coal-fired combustor (CFC) replaced the oil-fired combustor in the test train. In the spring of 1989, a coal-fired precombustor was added to the test hardware, and current controls were installed in the spring of 1990. In the fall of 1990, the slag rejector was installed. MSE test hardware activities included installing the final workhorse channel and modifying the coalfired combustor by installing improved design and proof-of-concept (POC) test pieces. This paper discusses the involvement of this hardware in test progress during the past year. Testing during the last year emphasized the final workhorse hardware testing. This testing will be discussed. Facility modifications and system upgrades for improved operation and duration testing will be discussed. In addition, this paper will address long-term testing plans

  6. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J.E. Locke

    2005-11-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the seventh in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 1,300 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing three percent sulfur. The unit was equipped with an ESP and a limestone-based wet FGD to control particulate and SO2 emissions, respectively. At the time of sampling an SCR was not installed on this unit. Four sampling tests were performed in September 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the FGD inlet flue gas oxidized:elemental mercury ratio was roughly 2:1, with 66% oxidized mercury and 34% elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal

  7. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2006-01-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that these data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the ninth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on Unit 1 at Plant 7, a 566 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 3.6% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO

  8. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

    2006-02-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions

  9. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2004-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. This document, the second in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 330 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 1.0% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR system for NOx control and a spray dryer absorber for SO{sub 2} control followed by a baghouse unit for particulate emissions control. Four sampling tests were performed in March 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. Due to mechanical problems with the boiler feed water pumps, the actual gross output was between 195 and 221 MW during the tests. The results showed that the SCR/air heater combination oxidized nearly 95% of the elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a

  10. Low NOx combustion and SCR flow field optimization in a low volatile coal fired boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Tan, Houzhang; Wang, Yibin; Yang, Fuxin; Mikulčić, Hrvoje; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven

    2018-08-15

    Low NO x burner redesign and deep air staging have been carried out to optimize the poor ignition and reduce the NO x emissions in a low volatile coal fired 330 MW e boiler. Residual swirling flow in the tangentially-fired furnace caused flue gas velocity deviations at furnace exit, leading to flow field unevenness in the SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system and poor denitrification efficiency. Numerical simulations on the velocity field in the SCR system were carried out to determine the optimal flow deflector arrangement to improve flow field uniformity of SCR system. Full-scale experiment was performed to investigate the effect of low NO x combustion and SCR flow field optimization. Compared with the results before the optimization, the NO x emissions at furnace exit decreased from 550 to 650 mg/Nm³ to 330-430 mg/Nm³. The sample standard deviation of the NO x emissions at the outlet section of SCR decreased from 34.8 mg/Nm³ to 7.8 mg/Nm³. The consumption of liquid ammonia reduced from 150 to 200 kg/h to 100-150 kg/h after optimization. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Dry sorbent injection of trona to control acid gases from a pilot-scale coal-fired combustion facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. B. Yelverton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Gaseous and particulate emissions from the combustion of coal have been associated with adverse effects on human and environmental health, and have for that reason been subject to regulation by federal and state governments. Recent regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency have further restricted the emissions of acid gases from electricity generating facilities and other industrial facilities, and upcoming deadlines are forcing industry to consider both pre- and post-combustion controls to maintain compliance. As a result of these recent regulations, dry sorbent injection of trona to remove acid gas emissions (e.g. HCl, SO2, and NOx from coal combustion, specifically 90% removal of HCl, was the focus of the current investigation. Along with the measurement of HCl, SO2, and NOx, measurements of particulate matter (PM, elemental (EC, and organic carbon (OC were also accomplished on a pilot-scale coal-fired combustion facility. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a coal-fired combustor burning bituminous coal and using dry sorbent injection were the focus of the current study. From this investigation it was shown that high levels of trona were needed to achieve the goal of 90% HCl removal, but with this increased level of trona injection the ESP and BH were still able to achieve greater than 95% fine PM control. In addition to emissions reported, measurement of acid gases by standard EPA methods were compared to those of an infrared multi-component gas analyzer. This comparison revealed good correlation for emissions of HCl and SO2, but poor correlation in the measurement of NOx emissions.

  12. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  13. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  14. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW's Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  15. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  16. Green power production by co-gasification of biomass in coal-fired oxygen-blown entrained-flow based IGCC processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ree, R; Korbee, R; De Smidt, R P; Jansen, D [ECN Fuels Conversion and Environment, Petten (Netherlands); Baumann, H R; Ullrich, N [Krupp Uhde, Dortmund (Germany); Haupt, G; Zimmerman, [Siemens, Erlangen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The use of coal for large scale power production meets a growing environmental concern. In spite of the fact that clean coal conversion technologies integrated with high-efficiency power production facilities, such as IGCC, are developed, the aim for sustainable development strives for a power production system based on renewable energy sources. One of the most promising renewable energy sources that can be used in the Netherlands is biomass, i.e. organic waste materials and/or energy crops. To accelerate the introduction of this material, in a technical and economically acceptable way, co-gasification with fossil fuels, in particular coal, in large scale IGCC processes is considered. In this paper the technical feasibility, economic profitability, and environmental acceptability of co-gasification of biomass in coal-fired oxygen-blown entrained-flow based IGM is discussed. Both a base-case coal-fired oxygen-blown entrained-flow based IGCC process - showing strong resemblance to the Puertollano IGCC plant in Spain - and three co-gasification concepts, viz.: (1) a concept with separate dry coal and biomass feeding systems, (2) a concept with a combined dry coal/biomass-derived pyrolysis char feeding system, and (3) a concept with parallel biomass pre-treatment/gasification and combined fuel gas clean-up/power production, were defined for further consideration. The base-case system and the co-gasification concepts as well are modelled in the flowsheet simulation package ASPEN{sup +}. Steady-state integral system calculations resulted in an overall net electrical plant efficiency for the base-case system of 50. 1 %LHV (48.3 %HHV). Replacing about 10 % of the total thermal plant input (coal) by biomass (willow) resulted in a decrease of the overall net electrical plant efficiency of 1.4 to 2.1 %-points LHV, avoided specific CO2 emissions of 40-49 g/kWh{sub e}, and total avoided CO2 emissions of about 129 to 159 kt/a, all depending on the co-gasification concept

  17. Coal fired air turbine cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Pegg, R. W.

    Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

  18. Economic aspects of ecological risk due to nuclear and coal-fired electricity production (general comparison, related to the USSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.; Wahlstroem, B.; Demin, V.; Lebedev, O.; Ignatiyev, V.

    1991-05-01

    The content of this paper is reflected in the chapter headings: (1) Introduction (2) Environmental problems relating to the coal-fired power plants (3) Costs of environmental protection for coal-fired power plants (4) Comparison of economic efficiency of nuclear and coal-fired power plants (5) Cost of environmental protection for normal operation of a nuclear power plant and its fuel facilities (6) Accidental risk from off-reactor nuclear fuel cycle facilities (7) Conclusion. (Quittner)

  19. Monitoring subsurface coal fires in Jharia coalfield using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing adverse effects on the regional environment ... subsurface coal fires and to study its lateral prop- ... as is the case with the recently developed Persis- .... using Statistical-Cost, Network-Flow Algorithm ..... dence of Kolkata (Calcutta) City, India during the 1990s ... a case study in the east of France; Int. J. Remote Sens.

  20. Site Characterization for CO2 Storage from Coal-fired Power Facilities in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Peter E. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Pashin, Jack [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Carlson, Eric [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Goodliffe, Andrew [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); McIntyre-Redden, Marcella [Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Mann, Steven D. [Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Thompson, Mason [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Coal-fired power plants produce large quantities of carbon dioxide. In order to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions from these power plants, it is necessary to separate and store the carbon dioxide. Saline formations provide a potential sink for carbon dioxide and delineating the capacity of the various known saline formations is a key part of building a storage inventory. As part of this effort, a project was undertaken to access the storage capacity of saline reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. This basin has been a productive oil and gas reservoir that is well characterized to the west of the two major coal-fired power plants that are north of Birmingham. The saline zones were thought to extend as far east as the Sequatchie Anticline which is just east of the power plants. There is no oil or gas production in the area surrounding the power plants so little is known about the formations in that area. A geologic characterization well was drilled on the Gorgas Power Plant site, which is the farthest west of two power plants in the area. The well was planned to be drilled to approximately 8,000 feet, but drilling was halted at approximately 5,000 feet when a prolific freshwater zone was penetrated. During drilling, a complete set of cores through all of the potential injection zones and the seals above these zones were acquired. A complete set of openhole logs were run along with a vertical seismic profile (VSP). Before drilling started two approximately perpendicular seismic lines were run and later correlated with the VSP. While the zones that were expected were found at approximately the predicted depths, the zones that are typically saline through the reservoir were found to be saturated with a light crude oil. Unfortunately, both the porosity and permeability of these zones were small enough that no meaningful hydrocarbon production would be expected even with carbon dioxide flooding. While this part of the basin was found to be unsuitable for

  1. CEZ utility's coal-fired power plants: towards a higher environmental friendliness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindl, V.; Spilkova, T.; Vanousek, I.; Stehlik, J.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental efforts of the major Czech utility, CEZ a.s., are aimed at reducing air pollution arising from electricity and heat generating facilities. There are 3 main kinds of activity in this respect: phasing out of coal fired power plants; technological provisions to reduce emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides from those coal fired units that are to remain in operation after 1998; and completion of the Temelin nuclear power plant. In 1995, emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide from CEZ's coal fired power plants were 19%, 79%, 59%, and 60%, respectively, with respect to the situation in 1992. The break-down of electricity generation by CEZ facilities (in GWh) was as follows in 1995: hydroelectric power plants 1673, nuclear power plants 12230, coal fired power plants without desulfurization equipment 30181, and coal fired power plants with desulfurization equipment 2277. Provisions implemented to improve the environmental friendliness of the individual CEZ's coal fired power plants are described in detail. (P.A.). 5 tabs., 1 fig

  2. Feasibility Study for Bioethanol Co-Location with a Coal Fired Power Plant: 29 November 2001--28 July 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-12-01

    This study looks at the feasibility of co-locating 30, 50, and 70 million gallon per year bioethanol facilities with coal fired power plants in Indiana and Nebraska. Corn stover is the feedstock for ethanol production in both cases.

  3. Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    detect coal fire regions based on surface tem- perature ..... and non-coal fire regions have been delineated well in the ..... System Development Notes; Paterson Grant and Watson .... Schloemer S 2006 Innovative technologies for exploration,.

  4. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  5. Up the stack : coal-fired electricity's toxic impact : an OCAA air quality report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rang, S.

    2002-07-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) must report annually its releases and transfers of 268 chemicals to the federal National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI). Each OPG facility reports the amount of chemicals released to the air, land, water and injected under ground at the facility site. The facilities must also report the amount of chemicals that are transferred off-site for treatment, sewage, disposal, recycling or energy recovery. In 1999 and 2000, atmospheric releases from OPG's coal-fired plants accounted for a significant percentage of the total pollutants released for Ontario and Canada. OPG's facilities are often in the top 5 in Ontario and Canada for releases of various chemicals, including persistent toxic chemicals. In 1999, the Nanticoke coal-fired power plant on Lake Erie was ranked first in Canada for releases to the air. Data reported for the 1999 and 2000 reporting period for dioxins and furans, hexachlorobenzene, mercury, metals (chromium, nickel and arsenic), and acid gases such as hydrochloric acid, hydrogen fluoride, and sulphuric acid clearly indicates that OPG coal-fired plants are a leading source of air pollution in Canada and Ontario. The Ontario Clean Air Alliance suggests the data is sufficient to phase-out the use of coal for power generation in Ontario. It recommends conserving energy and replacing coal-fired power with renewable energy sources such as wind and water power. Converting coal facilities to high-efficiency natural gas units would also reduce the toxic impacts of OPG's coal-fired power plants. As an immediate first step, it was recommended that the government should ban non-emergency exports of coal-fired electricity during smog-alert periods in Ontario. 11 tabs

  6. Coal-fired power materials - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, V.; Purgert, R.; Rawls, P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Part 1 discussed some general consideration in selection of alloys for advanced ultra supercritical (USC) coal-fired power plant boilers. This second part covers results reported by the US project consortium, which has extensively evaluated the steamside oxidation, fireside corrosion, and fabricability of the alloys selected for USC plants. 3 figs.

  7. Coal-fired electricity generation in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    This report examines coal-fired electricity generation in Ontario and recommends actions to be taken by the provincial government to protect the environment. The recommendations are also designed to assist in making decisions about the environmental safeguards needed for a competitive electricity industry. The report examines air emissions from coal-fired generating plants in the larger context of air pollution in the province; summarizes background information on key air pollutants; provides an individual profile of all coal-fired power stations in the province; and benchmarks Ontario's emissions performance by comparing it with 19 nearby U.S. jurisdictions. Current and proposed environmental controls for fossil fuel power generation in the province are elaborated. Options for maximizing environmental performance and the framework for strengthening environmental protection are reviewed. The report also contains a series of findings and recommendations which are deemed necessary before the moratorium imposed on the sale of coal-fired electricity plants imposed in May 2000, can be lifted. tabs., figs

  8. Feasibility of applying coal-fired boiler technology to process heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, T F

    1978-01-01

    The preponderance of coal in US fossil fuel reserves has raised the question of the conversion of hydrocarbon process heaters to coal firing. A review undertaken in 1977 by an API sub-committee concluded that neither existing heaters nor existing heater designs were capable of modification or revision to burn coal, and that new coal-fired design consistent with process requirements would be needed for this purpose. In recognition of this need a cooperative investigation was undertaken by Combustion Engineering and Lummus. The present paper, reporting on this investigation, reviews existing coal-fired boiler equipment and techniques and describes their adaptation to the development of a design concept for a coal-fired process heater. To this end, the design parameters for both steam boilers and fired heaters have been compared and have been incorporated into a workable coal-fired process heater design which includes the following features; a coutant bottom for ash removal, an ash-hopper located under both radiant and convection chambers, a tangent type finned wall construction, a straight through gas flow pattern, a vertical tube convection section, horizontal firing using round burners, and an overall geometry allowing a coil arrangement capable of accommodating varying numbers of parallel serpentine coils. These features are integrated into a conceptual heater design which is detailed in a series of illustrations.

  9. Full scale calcium bromide injection with subsequent mercury oxidation and removal within wet flue gas desulphurization system: Experience at a 700 MW coal-fired power facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mark Simpson

    for existing boilers. The use of calcium bromide injection as an alternative to activated carbon approaches could save millions of dollars. The technology application described herein has the potential to reduce compliance cost by $200M for a 700 MW facility burning PRB coal.

  10. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  11. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo [Shanghai Univ. of Electric Power (China); Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  12. Cleaning up coal-fired plants : multi-pollutant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granson, E.

    2009-06-15

    Coal is the source of 41 per cent of the world's electricity. Emission reduction technologies are needed to address the rapid growth of coal-fired plants in developing countries. This article discussed a multi-pollutant technology currently being developed by Natural Resources Canada's CANMET Energy Technology Centre. The ECO technology was designed to focus on several types of emissions, including sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), mercury and particulates, as well as acid gases and other metals from the exhaust gas of coal-fired plants. The ECO process converts and absorbs incoming pollutants in a wet electrostatic precipitator while at the same time producing a valuable fertilizer. The ECO system is installed as part of the plant's existing particulate control device and treats flue gas in 3 process steps: (1) a dielectric barrier discharge reactor oxidizes gaseous pollutants to higher oxides; (2) an ammonia scrubber then removes sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) not converted by the reactor while also removing the NOx; and (3) the wet electrostatic precipitator captures acid aerosols produced by the discharge reactor. A diagram of the ECO process flow was included. It was concluded that the systems will be installed in clean coal plants by 2015. 2 figs.

  13. In-duct removal of mercury from coal-fired power plant flue gas by activated carbon: assessment of entrained flow versus wall surface contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, F.; Chirone, R.; Lancia, A. [CNR, Naples (Italy). Institute for Research on Combustion

    2008-12-15

    In-duct mercury capture efficiency by activated carbon from coal-combustion flue gas was investigated. To this end, elemental mercury capture experiments were conducted at 100 C in a purposely designed 65-mm ID labscale pyrex apparatus operated as an entrained flow reactor. Gas residence times were varied between 0.7 and 2.0 s. Commercial-powdered activated carbon was continuously injected in the reactor and both mercury concentration and carbon elutriation rate were followed at the outlet. Transient mercury concentration profiles at the outlet showed that steady-state conditions were reached in a time interval of 15-20 min, much longer than the gas residence time in the reactor. Results indicate that the influence of the walls is non-negligible in determining the residence time of fine carbon particles in the adsorption zone, because of surface deposition and/or the establishment of a fluid-dynamic boundary layer near the walls. Total mercury capture efficiencies of 20-50% were obtained with carbon injection rates in the range 0.07-0.25 g/min. However, only a fraction of this capture was attributable to free-flowing carbon particles, a significant contribution coming from activated carbon staying near the reactor walls. Entrained bed experiments at lab-scale conditions are probably not properly representative of full-scale conditions, where the influence of wall interactions is lower. Moreover, previously reported entrained flow lab-scale mercury capture data should be reconsidered by taking into account the influence of particle-wall interactions.

  14. Radiological effects of Yatagan coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlas, F.; Buke, T.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation dose calculations and also limit radiation dose calculations have been carried out by the code CAP88-PC around the Yatagan coal-fired power plant environment by using the result of previous studies about maximum measured gross alpha activity in the flying ash samples as radioactive sources. A modified Gaussian plume equation is used to estimate the average dispersion of radionuclides released from up to six emitting sources. The sources maybe either elevated stacks or uniform area sources. Assessments are done for a circular grid of distances and directions for a radius up to 80 kilometers, 16 wind sectors and 20 mesh distances around the facility in calculations. The limit doses obtained from the calculations and their radiological effects have been interpreted. Finally the effects of various radionuclides have been carried out and their results have been compared with each other. (author)

  15. Coal fired power plant fireside problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, P.; Manolescu, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the recent experience with fireside problems in coal fired subcritical boilers at Ontario Hydro*, and is concerned with boiler tube wastage. Problems with other components such as burners, air pre-heaters and ''back-end'' ductwork are not discussed. In most utilities, boiler tube failures account for a sizable portion of the total forced outages (typically about25%) as well as a very large part of the maintenance outages. The failures shown under the external deterioration category are of interest because they indicate the proportion of problems caused by the tube metal wastage processes initiated on the fireside of the boilers. Fireside problems remain an important cause of boiler tube failures year after year in spite of concentrated efforts to mitigate them

  16. Design and fabrication of a 50 MWt prototypical MHD coal-fired combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, J.; Braswell, R.; Listvinsky, G.; McAllister, M.; Myrick, S.; Ono, D.; Thom, H.

    1992-01-01

    A prototypical 50 MWt coal-fired combustor has been designed and fabricated as part of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Program. This is a DOE-funded program to develop a prototypical MHD power train to be tested at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana. The prototypical combustor is an outgrowth of the 50 MWt workhorse combustor which has previously been tested at the CDIF. In addition to meeting established performance criteria of the existing 50 MWt workhorse combustor, the prototypical combustor design is required to be scaleable for use at the 250 MWt retrofit level. This paper presents an overview of the mechanical design of the prototypical combustor and a description of its fabrication. Fabrication of the 50 MWt prototypical coal-fired combustor was completed in February 1992 and hot-fire testing is scheduled to begin in May 1992

  17. Coal-Fired Power Plant Heat Rate Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    View a report that identifies systems and equipment in coal-fired power plants where efficiency improvements can be realized, and provides estimates of the resulting net plant heat rate reductions and costs for implementation.

  18. The economics of coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    Coal-fired plants are the most polluting way to produce electricity due to their high CO2 emissions. But are they a good choice from an economic point of view? According to Greenpeace the answer is no: the price of coal is rising, construction costs are increasing and CO2 emissions will be priced. Nevertheless, E.On is developing plans for a new coal-fired plant at the Maasvlakte with the support of the Dutch government. [mk] [nl

  19. Exergy evaluation of a typical 330 MW solar-hybrid coal-fired power plant in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Shuo; Wang, Zhaoguo; Hong, Hui; Xu, Da; Jin, Hongguang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy analysis of solar-hybrid coal-fired power plant has been processed. • EUD method is utilized to obtain detailed information on the exergy destruction in each process. • Off-design thermodynamic performances are discussed to identify the advantages. • Exergy destruction of several parts under varying solar radiation is examined. - Abstract: This study discusses the thermodynamic performance of a solar-hybrid coal-fired power plant that uses solar heat with temperature lower than 300 °C to replace the extracted steam from a steam turbine to heat the feed water. Through this process, the steam that was to be extracted can efficiently expand in the steam turbine to generate electricity. The flow rate of steam returning to the turbine retains only a small part of the main stream, allowing the steam turbine to run close to design conditions for all DNI. A solar-only thermal power plant without storage is also discussed to illustrate the advantages of a solar-hybrid coal-fired power plant. The off-design performances of both plants are compared based on the energy-utilization diagram method. The exergy destruction of the solar-hybrid coal-fired power plant is found to be lower than that of the solar-only thermal power plant. The comparison of two plants, which may provide detailed information on internal phenomena, highlights several advantages of the solar-hybrid coal-fired power plant in terms of off-design operation: lower exergy destruction in the solar feed water heater and steam turbine and higher exergy and solar-to-electricity efficiency. Preliminary technological economic performances of both plants are compared. The results obtained in this study indicate that a solar-hybrid coal-fired power plant could achieve better off-design performance and economic performance than a solar-only thermal power plant

  20. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment.

  1. Coal-fired CCS demonstration plants, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The present report reviews activities taking place focused on the eventual large-scale deployment of carbon capture systems on coal-fired power plants. With this aim in mind, there are three main CO2 capture technology streams currently being developed and tested; these comprise pre-combustion capture, post-combustion capture, and systems based on oxyfuel technology. Although numerous other capture systems have been proposed, these three are currently the focus of most RD&D efforts and this report concentrates on these. More speculative technologies still at early stages in their development are not addressed. The overall aims of this report are to provide an update of recent technological developments in each of the main categories of CO2 capture, and to review the current state of development of each, primarily through an examination of larger-scale development activities taking place or proposed. However, where appropriate, data generated by smaller-scale testing is noted, especially where this is feeding directly into ongoing programmes aimed at developing further, or scaling-up the particular technology. Each is reviewed and the status of individual coal-based projects and proposals described. These are limited mainly to what are generally described as pilot and/or demonstration scale. Where available, learning experiences and operational data being generated by these projects is noted. Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) of individual projects have been used to provide an indication of technology scale and maturity. For pre-combustion capture, post-combustion capture and oxyfuel systems, an attempt has been made to identify the technological challenges and gaps in the knowledge that remain, and to determine what technology developers are doing in terms of RD&D to address these. However, issues of commercial confidentiality have meant that in some cases, information in the public domain is limited, hence it has only been possible to identify overarching

  2. Coal-fired MHD combustor development project: Phase 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    This fourth quarterly technical progress report of the Coal-Fired MHD Combustor Development Project (Phase 3D) presents the accomplishments during the period February 1 to April 30, 1985. The scope of work covered by this quarterly report encompasses development work on the 50 MW/sub t/ combustor related to test support at the CDIF, assembly and checkout of first and second stage hardware, second stage design verification testing, designs for a continuous slag rejector and low preheat inlet section, and planning for power train testing. Progress includes the following: assembly and checkout of the second first stage, two second stages, and PEM was completed and the hardware was shipped to CDIF and FETS; integration of first and second stage hardware on the FETS Cell No. 2 test stand was completed, cold flow functional tests were performed, and hot fire checkout testing was initiated; assembly of the continuous slag rejector test set-up was 70% completed; the low preheat air inlet section Preliminary Design Review was held (work on the detail design was initiated and is 85% complete); and the Users' Manual was updated to include material for the second stage and final revisions to the power train test plan were made.

  3. Cocombustion of biomass in coal-fired power plants; Meestoken van biomassa in kolengestookte E-centrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrink, W.G.M. [Stork Thermeq, Hengelo (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the desk study is to determine to what degree several types of biomass can be cofired with existing coal fired utility boilers in the Netherlands. All results with regard to boiler performances are obtained by making use of a computer model of a typical coal fired boiler which make part of a 600 MWe coal fired power plant. Because the existing coal fired units in the Netherlands do deviate more or less from the used model all outcomes and conclusions of this study are indicative. Slagging and corrosion which become more important when firing biogas in a coal fired boiler are considered superficially. More close investigations are necessary when carry out concrete projects. Furthermore all results are based on 100% boiler load and may not be used or extrapolated to part load conditions. The extent of firing biomass gas may depend on available space in the boiler house and correlated restrictions for necessary constructive adaptations. These aspects were leave out of consideration. For information the necessary size of piping for biomass gas from gasifier to the boiler has been determined for several amounts of biomass. [Dutch] Het doel van de studie is te onderzoeken hoeveel biomassa, in percentage van het thermisch vermogen, volgens verschillende concepten kan worden meegestookt in een kolengestookte elektriciteitscentrale. Dit wordt in deze studie behandeld aan de hand van een aantal aspecten: Rookgashoeveelheden door de ketel. Hierbij kornen de volgende zaken aan de orde: snelheden, drukval, belasting van DeNox, DeSox en E-filters, capaciteit van de ventilatoren; Rookgastemperaturen. Dit betreft temperaturen uitlaat vuurhaard, uitlaat ketel en uitlaat LUVO (luchtverhitter); Verslakking en corrosie van oververhitters; Water/stoomzijdige flows. Dit betreft aspecten als flows, temperaturen, flow door de turbine (slikvermogen) en uitlaatconditie stoomturbine (vochtgehalte). Voor de verwerking van biomassa worden alleen vergassing (in hoofdzaak) en, minder

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Kerr, D. R.

    1999-09-01

    Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an important component of any plan to reduce total emissions and resource consumption. A life cycle assessment (LCA) on the production of electricity from coal was performed in order to examine the environmental aspects of current and future pulverized coal boiler systems. Three systems were examined: (1) a plant that represents the average emissions and efficiency of currently operating coal-fired power plants in the US (this tells us about the status quo), (2) a new coal-fired power plant that meets the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and (3) a highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler system (LEBS).

  5. Superconducting dipole magnet for the UTSI MHD facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.; Turner, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory is designing and will build a large superconducting dipole magnet system for use in the Coal Fired Flow MHD Research Facility at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Presented in detail are the conceptual design of the magnet geometry, conductor design, cryostability evaluation, magnetic pressure computation, structural design, cryostat design, the cryogenics system design, and magnet instrumentations and control

  6. Using plasma-fuel systems at Eurasian coal-fired thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, E. I.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2009-06-01

    The development of plasma technology for igniting solid fuels at coal-fired thermal power stations in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and other Eurasian countries is briefly reviewed. Basic layouts and technical and economic characteristics of plasma-fuel systems installed in different coal-fired boiles are considered together with some results from using these systems at coal-fired thermal power stations.

  7. Off-design thermodynamic performances on typical days of a 330 MW solar aided coal-fired power plant in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Shuo; Hong, Hui; Wang, Yanjuan; Wang, Zhaoguo; Jin, Hongguang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optical loss and heat loss of solar field under different turbine load were investigated. • Off-design thermodynamic feature was disclosed by analyzing several operational parameters. • Possible schemes was proposed to improve the net solar-to-electricity efficiency. - Abstract: The contribution of mid-temperature solar thermal power to improve the performance of coal-fired power plant is analyzed in the present paper. In the solar aided coal-fired power plant, solar heat at <300 °C is used to replace the extracted steam from the steam turbine to heat the feed water. In this way, the steam that was to be extracted could consequently expand in the steam turbine to boost output power. The advantages of a solar aided coal-fired power plant in design condition have been discussed by several researchers. However, thermodynamic performances on off-design operation have not been well discussed until now. In this paper, a typical 330 MW coal-fired power plant in Sinkiang Province of China is selected as the case study to demonstrate the advantages of the solar aided coal-fired power plant under off-design conditions. Hourly thermodynamic performances are analyzed on typical days under partial load. The effects of several operational parameters, such as solar irradiation intensity, incident angle, flow rate of thermal oil, on the performance of solar field efficiency and net solar-to-electricity efficiency were examined. Possible schemes have been proposed for improving the solar aided coal-fired power plant on off-design operation. The results obtained in the current study could provide a promising approach to solve the poor thermodynamic performance of solar thermal power plant and also offer a basis for the practical operation of MW-scale solar aided coal-fired power plant

  8. acme: The Amendable Coal-Fire Modeling Exercise. A C++ Class Library for the Numerical Simulation of Coal-Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Manfred W.

    2017-04-01

    At LIAG, we use numerical models to develop and enhance understanding of coupled transport processes and to predict the dynamics of the system under consideration. Topics include geothermal heat utilization, subrosion processes, and spontaneous underground coal fires. Although the details make it inconvenient if not impossible to apply a single code implementation to all systems, their investigations go along similar paths: They all depend on the solution of coupled transport equations. We thus saw a need for a modular code system with open access for the various communities to maximize the shared synergistic effects. To this purpose we develop the oops! ( open object-oriented parallel solutions) - toolkit, a C++ class library for the numerical solution of mathematical models of coupled thermal, hydraulic and chemical processes. This is used to develop problem-specific libraries like acme( amendable coal-fire modeling exercise), a class library for the numerical simulation of coal-fires and applications like kobra (Kohlebrand, german for coal-fire), a numerical simulation code for standard coal-fire models. Basic principle of the oops!-code system is the provision of data types for the description of space and time dependent data fields, description of terms of partial differential equations (pde), their discretisation and solving methods. Coupling of different processes, described by their particular pde is modeled by an automatic timescale-ordered operator-splitting technique. acme is a derived coal-fire specific application library, depending on oops!. If specific functionalities of general interest are implemented and have been tested they will be assimilated into the main oops!-library. Interfaces to external pre- and post-processing tools are easily implemented. Thus a construction kit which can be arbitrarily amended is formed. With the kobra-application constructed with acme we study the processes and propagation of shallow coal seam fires in particular in

  9. A Study of Coal Fire Propagation with Remotely Sensed Thermal Infrared Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyuan Huo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires are a common and serious problem in most coal-bearing countries. Thus, it is very important to monitor changes in coal fires. Remote sensing provides a useful technique for investigating coal fields at a large scale and for detecting coal fires. In this study, the spreading direction of a coal fire in the Wuda Coal Field (WCF, northwest China, was analyzed using multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ thermal infrared (TIR data. Using an automated method and based on the land surface temperatures (LST that were retrieved from these thermal data, coal fires related to thermal anomalies were identified; the locations of these fires were validated using a coal fire map (CFM that was developed via field surveys; and the cross-validation of the results was also carried out using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER thermal infrared images. Based on the results from longtime series of satellite TIR data set, the spreading directions of the coal fires were determined and the coal fire development on the scale of the entire coal field was predicted. The study delineated the spreading direction using the results of the coal fire dynamics analysis, and a coal fire spreading direction map was generated. The results showed that the coal fires primarily spread north or northeast in the central part of the WCF and south or southwest in the southern part of the WCF. In the northern part of the WCF, some coal fires were spreading north, perhaps coinciding with the orientation of the coal belt. Certain coal fires scattered in the northern and southern parts of the WCF were extending in bilateral directions. A quantitative analysis of the coal fires was also performed; the results indicate that the area of the coal fires increased an average of approximately 0.101 km2 per year.

  10. Application of Paste Backfill in Underground Coal Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masniyom, M.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires are known from different coalfields worldwide. China, India, USA, Australia, Indonesia and South Africa are the main countries affected by coal fires. The fires is thermally intensive and cause numerous sinkholes, large-scale subsidence, air pollution, global warming, loss of mining productivity and increasing safety risk. The Wuda Inner Mongolia coalfield has been selected as a possible test area for paste backfill. The traditional methods, executed by fire fighting teams, by covering the coalfire areas with soil, blasting burning coal outcrops and injecting water in the subsurface fire pockets are continuously improved and extended. Initiatives to introduce modern techniques, such as backfill placement at fracture and borehole, to cool down the burning coal and cut off the air supply. This study is to investigate backfill materials and techniques suited for underground coal fires. Laboratory tests were carried out on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of different backfill materials and mixtures thereof. Special attention was paid to materials generated as by-products and other cheaply available materials e.g. fly ash from power plants. There is a good chance that one of the different material mixtures investigated can be used as a technically and economically viable backfill for underground coal fires.

  11. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  12. Effects of new environmental regulations on coal-fired generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaCount, R.

    1999-01-01

    As restructuring of the electricity industry places downward pressure on power production costs, new environmental regulations are having the opposite effect. Although power plants may be subject to a variety of environmental regulations over the next ten years including reductions in mercury, toxics, and carbon dioxide, new regulations for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) are poised to impact the electricity industry in the very short term. The cost for coal-fired power plants to comply with these new regulations has the potential to alter their competitive position. January 1, 2000 marks the beginning of Phase II for the Environmental Protection Agency's SO2 allowance market. Starting in January, all coal and oil plants above 25 MW will be required to comply with the federal SO2 provisions. Regulatory deadlines for NOX are also fast approaching; though the ultimate requirements are still subject to change. On May 1, 1999, a NOX allowance market began for states within the Northeast Ozone Transport Commission (OTC). A second phase of this program is scheduled to begin in 2003 that will lower the overall cap for allowable NOX emissions in the participating states. EPA is also working to expand the reach of regional NOX reductions in 2003 through its NOX SIP call. This program, which is currently subject to litigation, would require NOX reductions in 14 states outside of the OTC. A new study by Resource Data International (RDI), Coal-Fired Generation in Competitive Power Markets, assessed the potential impact that the new SO2 and NOX regulations may have on the competitiveness of coal-fired generation. Overall, the study shows that coal-fired generation will continue to grow despite significant environmental costs and competition from natural gas-fired units. The new environmental regulations have the effect of increasing the dispatch cost of coal-fired units from $0.65/MWh on average in the WSCC to $4.14/MWh on average in the MAAC region. The addition

  13. Online Monitoring System of Air Distribution in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Based on Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żymełka, Piotr; Nabagło, Daniel; Janda, Tomasz; Madejski, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA) nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS) data.

  14. Online Monitoring System of Air Distribution in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Based on Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żymełka Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS data.

  15. Heavy metal atmospheric emissions from coal-fired power plants - Assessment and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuyer, I.; Ungar, A.; Peter, H.; Karl, U.

    2004-01-01

    Power generation using fossil fuel combustion (coal and fuel-oil) participates, with other sectors, to heavy metal atmospheric emissions. The dispersion of these hazardous pollutants throughout the environment is more and more regulated. In order to assess the annual flows emitted from EDF coal-fired power plants, a computerized tool has been developed, based on the methodology defined by IFARE/DFIU in 1997. The heavy metal partition factors within the plant unit are determined according to the type of unit and the coal characteristics. Heavy metals output flows, and especially those emitted with flue gas at the stack, are then deduced from the actual coal consumption and chemical composition. A first inventory of heavy metal emissions from EDF coal-fired power plants has been achieved for year 2001. Values are accurate (± 40 %) for nonvolatile elements (Cr, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni, V) and for PM 10 and PM 2.5 (particulate matter below 10 μm and 2.5 μm). The uncertainty is higher (± 80 %) for volatile elements (As, Pb, Zn). Excess indicative values are given for elements which are both volatile and at low concentrations in coal (Hg, Se, Cd). (author)

  16. Coal fires in Northwest China. Detection, monitoring, and prediction using remote sensing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiangmin

    1998-01-01

    Coal fires in China occur within a region that stretches over 5,000 km in the east- western part and 750 km. in the north-southern part. These fires cause an economic and environmental threat by making a significant contribution to the global CO2 budget. The studies made in this thesis can be divided into two parts. Part one is based on field work and laboratory analysis that includes the dating of the paleo coal fires; part two concerns remote sensing applications for the active coal fires. In Chapter 2, the evolution of the paleo coal fires in Toutunhe and Xinjiang areas are studied. Several age groups of burnt rock have been recognized and their relationships with the river terraces will be discussed. The causes of the paleo coal fires are addressed, and the areas of coal fires with different ages have been dated. In Chapter 3, the physical basis of thermal infrared remote sensing for the detection and measurement of coal fires are addressed with an emphasis on the spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution. In Chapter 4, a method to reduce the effect of solar heating, the main factor of confusion when investigating the thermal anomalies of coal fires, is discussed with the help of a DEM. In Chapter 5, as the coal fires normally occupy only part of one pixel of the Landsat TM thermal channel data, the capability of sub pixel coal fire detection is addressed. In Chapter 6, the airborne data from different wavelengths acquired at different times are studied to analyze the spatial thermal characteristics of the coal fires. Spreading direction and different types of coal fires are studied. Chapter 7 presents, based on multi-sensor data fusion techniques, a hierarchical methodology for detection and monitoring of the coal fires. 120 refs

  17. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bradley [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davis, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Senior, Constance [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shim, Hong Shim [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Otten, Brydger Van [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fry, Andrew [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, Eric [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Paschedag, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaddix, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cox, William [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Tree, Dale [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4

  18. Evaluating the Thermal Pollution Caused by Wastewaters Discharged from a Chain of Coal-Fired Power Plants along a River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and safe operation of a coal-fired power plant is strongly linked to freshwater resources, and environmental problems related to water sources and wastewater discharge are challenges for power station operation. In this study, an evaluation on the basis of a wastewater thermal pollution vector is reported for the environmental impact of residual water generated and discharged in the Jiu River during the operation of thermoelectric units of the Rovinari, Turceni and Craiova coal-fired power plants in Romania. Wastewater thermal pollutant vector Plane Projection is applied for assessing the water temperature evolution in the water flow lane created downstream of each power plant wastewater outlet channel. Simulation on the basis of an Electricity of France model, and testing validation of the results for thermoelectric units of 330 MW of these power plants are presented.

  19. Waste generation comparison: Coal-fired versus nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste generation and disposal attract a great deal of attention whenever the nuclear industry is scrutinized by concerned parties, be it the media, the public, or political interests. It is therefore important to the nuclear industry that this issue be put into perspective relative to other current forms of energy production. Most of the country's fossil-fueled power comes from coal-fired plants, with oil and gas as other fuel sources. Most of the generated waste also comes from coal plants. This paper, therefore, compares waste quantities generated by a typical (1150-MW(electric)) pressurized water reactor (PWR) to that of a comparably sized coal-fired power plant

  20. Technologically enhanced natural radioactivity around the coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, J.; Marovic, G.

    1997-01-01

    In some situations the exposure to natural radiation sources is enhanced as a result to technological developments. Burning of coal is one source of enhanced radiation exposure to naturally occurring elements, particularly radium, thorium and uranium. Most of the radioactive substances are concentrated in the ash and slag, which are heavy and drop to the bottom of a furnace. Lighter fly ash is carried up the chimney and into the atmosphere. The bottom ash and slag are usually deposited in a waste pile, from where some activity may leach into aquifers or be dispersed by wind.The main pathways through which the populations living around coal fired power plants are exposed to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides are inhalation and ingestion of the activity discharged into the Exosphere. For this reason, extensive investigations have been under way for several years in the coal fired power plant in Croatia, which uses an anthracite coal with a higher than usual uranium content. (authors)

  1. A probe into informatisation management in coal-fired enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenghai

    2003-01-01

    Starting from an analysis of the current situation and the reason about the application of MIS in the power plant, this paper is intended to expound some new way to informatisation management and positioning of MIS in the power plant from the designer. In addition, it probes into the idea and requirement about how to update the management efficiency in the coal-fired enterprises with the informatisation technology. What is more, the ways to choose the core applied platform in the power plant according to different management methods are discussed, thus, some suggestions about how to implement the informatisation are made in and attempt to offer an informatisation management model for the coal-fired enterprises. (authors)

  2. Digital bus technology in new coal-fired plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaney, J.; Murray, J. [Emerson Process Management (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The main issues associated with including digital bus technology such as Foundation fieldbus, Profibus-DP or DeviceNet, in a coal-fired power plant are deciding which systems to install and determining how to implement it. Although still new, digital bus experiences to date have shown that the technology performs solidly and when wiring best practices are followed a significantly shorted commissioning cycle can be achieved. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to CO 2 and - under certain circumstances - to spontaneous combustion. Coal fires occur in many countries world wide - however, currently the Chinese coal mining industry faces the biggest problems with coal fires. Coal fires destroy the valuable resource coal and furthermore lead to many environmental degradation phenomena such as the deterioration of surrounding vegetation, land subsidence and the emission of toxic gasses (CO, N 2O). They additionally contribute to the emission of green house relevant gasses such as CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured in-situ during a field campaign to the Wuda coal fire area in south-central Inner Mongolia, China. Thermal characteristics include temperature anomaly measurements at the surface, spatial surface temperature profiles of fire areas and unaffected background areas, diurnal temperature profiles, and temperature measurements inside of coal fire induced cracks in the overlying bedrock. For all the measurements the effects of uneven solar heating through influences of slope and aspect are considered. Our findings show that coal fires result in strong or subtle thermal surface anomalies. Especially the latter can easily be influenced by heating of the surrounding background material through solar influences. Temperature variation of background rocks with different albedo, slope, aspect or vegetation cover can substantially influence the detectability of thermal anomalies. In the worst case coal fire related thermal anomalies can be completely masked by solar patterns during the daytime

  4. Energy economics of nuclear and coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kee Won; Cho, Joo Hyun; Kim, Sung Rae; Choi, Hae Yoon

    1995-01-01

    The upturn of Korean nuclear power program can be considered to have started in early 70's while future plants for the construction of new nuclear power plants virtually came to a halt in United States. It is projected that power plant systems from combination of nuclear and coal fired types might shift to all coal fired type, considering the current trend of construction on the new plants in the United States. However, with the depletion of natural resources, it is desirable to understand the utilization of two competitive utility technologies in terms of of invested energy. Presented in this paper is a comparison between two systems, nuclear power plant and coal fired steam power plant in terms of energy investment. The method of comparison is Net Energy Analysis (NEA). In doing so, Input-Output Analysis (IOA) among industries and commodities is done. Using these information, net energy ratios are calculated and compared. NEA is conducted for power plants in U.S. because the availability of necessary data are limited in Korea. Although NEA does not offer conclusive solution, this method can work as a screening process in decision making. When considering energy systems, results from such analysis can be used as a general guideline. 2 figs., 12 tabs., 5 refs. (Author)

  5. Biomass Cofiring in Coal-Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-06-01

    Cofiring biomass-for example, forestry residues such as wood chips-with coal in existing boilers is one of the easiest biomass technologies to implement in a federal facility. The current practice is to substitute biomass for up to 20% of the coal in the boiler. Cofiring has many benefits: it helps to reduce fuel costs as well as the use of landfills, and it curbs emissions of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide, and the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels. This Federal Technology Alert was prepared by the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program to give federal facility managers the information they need to decide whether they should pursue biomass cofiring at their facilities.

  6. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  7. Economic evaluation of a coal fired boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briem, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper provides basic information on boiler economics which will assist steam users in analyzing the feasibility of using coal to generate steam - in either new or existing facilities. The information presented covers boilers ranging in size from 10,000 to 100,000 pounds per hour steaming capacity

  8. Emission of CO2 Gas and Radioactive Pollutant from Coal Fired Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, N.Finahari; Djati-HS; Heni-Susiati

    2006-01-01

    Energy utilization for power plant in Indonesia is still depending on burning fossil fuel such as coal, oil and gaseous fuel. The direct burning of coal produces CO 2 gas that can cause air pollution, and radioactive pollutant that can increase natural radioactive dosage. Natural radionuclide contained in coal is in the form of kalium, uranium, thorium and their decay products. The amount of CO 2 gas emission produced by coal fired power plant can be reduced by equipping the plant with waste-gas treatment facility. At this facility, CO 2 gas is reacted with calcium hydroxide producing calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate then can be used as basic material in food, pharmaceutical and construction industries. The alternative method to reduce impact of air pollution is by replacing coal fuel with nuclear fuel or new and renewable fuel. (author)

  9. Political and technical issues of coal fire extinction in the Kyoto framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

    2009-04-01

    It is a highly desirable effort to extinguish as much coal fires as possible in short time to prevent large losses of energy resources and to minimise CO2 and other exhaust gas releases from such sources. Unfortunately, extinguishing coal fires needs massive financial investments, skilled man power, suited technology and a long time. Even mid to small scale coal fires need several months of extinguishing measures and of monitoring time after extinction resulting in expenditures of a minimum of several hundred thousand Euros. Large companies might be willing to spend money for coal fire extinction measures but smaller holdings or regional governments might not have the monetary resources for it. Since there is no law in China that demands coal fire extinction, measures under the Kyoto framework may be applied to sell CO2 certificates for prevented emissions from extinguished coal fires and thus used as a financial stimulus for coal fire extinction activities. The set-up for methodologies and project designs is especially complex for coal fire extinction measures and thus for necessary exploration, evaluation and monitoring using geophysical and remote sensing methods. A brief overview of most important formal and technical aspects is given to outline the conditions for a potentially successful CDM application on coal fires based on geophysical observations and numerical modelling.

  10. CFD analysis of temperature imbalance in superheater/reheater region of tangentially coal-fired boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, A. F.; Hasini, H.; Fadhil, S. S. A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a CFD analysis of the flow, velocity and temperature distribution in a 700 MW tangentially coal-fired boiler operating in Malaysia. The main objective of the analysis is to gain insights on the occurrences in the boiler so as to understand the inherent steam temperature imbalance problem. The results show that the root cause of the problem comes from the residual swirl in the horizontal pass. The deflection of the residual swirl due to the sudden reduction and expansion of the flow cross-sectional area causes velocity deviation between the left and right side of the boiler. This consequently results in flue gas temperature imbalance which has often caused tube leaks in the superheater/reheater region. Therefore, eliminating the residual swirl or restraining it from being diverted might help to alleviate the problem.

  11. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  12. Neural networks improve performance of coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radl, B.J. [Pegasus Technologies Ltd., Painesville, OH (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Work sponsored by the US Department of Energy through its NICE{sup 3} programme, and co-funded by industry partners First Energy Corp. (host organisation and co-funder) and Pegasus Technologies (inventor, developer and supplier), has resulted in the development of online, real-time neural networks which help coal-fired utility boilers to dynamically adjust combustion setpoints. The payoff is a system which helps reduce NOx emissions up to 60%, while improving heat rate up to 2% overall. The system has avoided or postponed large capacity expenditures while meeting environmental compliance requirements. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Economic aspects of advanced coal-fired gas turbine locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Houser, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Increases in the price of such conventional fuels as Diesel No. 2, as well as advancements in turbine technology, have prompted the present economic assessment of coal-fired gas turbine locomotive engines. A regenerative open cycle internal combustion gas turbine engine may be used, given the development of ceramic hot section components. Otherwise, an external combustion gas turbine engine appears attractive, since although its thermal efficiency is lower than that of a Diesel engine, its fuel is far less expensive. Attention is given to such a powerplant which will use a fluidized bed coal combustor. A life cycle cost analysis yields figures that are approximately half those typical of present locomotive engines.

  14. The coal fired power plant of Vado Ligure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, V.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of radiological impact from radioactive effluents released by the forecast new coal-fired power plant of Vado Ligure, is examinated. Using health physic metodologies of evaluation, the highest levels of dose equivalents to the population are computed. Taken into account the possible errors due to conservative models adopted, it is concluded that the induced radiological risks are to be considered negligible, both referring to the actual natural radiological levels in the environment, and considering the maximum permissible levels stated in international raccomandations

  15. Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, T.

    2006-11-15

    Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Natural radionuclides near a coal-fired power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L

    1984-06-15

    An experiment was carried out to measure the specific activity of Pb-210 and Po-210 in livers from cattle that had grazed in a field near Didcot coal-fired power station. Livers from cattle in the Cotswold region were measured for comparison. The specific activities of Pb-210 and Po-210 in soil and grass samples from both areas were also measured at 3-monthly intervals over a year. No statistically significant increases were observed in the Pb-210 and Po-210 levels in liver, soil or grass samples which could be attributed to the operation of the power station.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Emission Reduction for the Indonesian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handayani, Kamia; Krozer, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the result of research on the cost-effectiveness of emission reduction in the selected coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Indonesia. The background of this research is the trend of more stringent environmental regulation regarding air emission from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs)

  18. A Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Optimized for Oxyfuel Combustion Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Dlouhý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on modifying a pulverized coal-fired steam boiler in a 250 MWe power plant for oxygen combustion conditions. The entry point of the study is a boiler that was designed for standard air combustion. It has been proven that simply substituting air by oxygen as an oxidizer is not sufficient for maintaining a satisfactory operating mode, not even with flue gas recycling. Boiler design optimization aggregating modifications to the boiler’s dimensions, heating surfaces and recycled flue gas flow rate, and specification of a flue gas recycling extraction point is therefore necessary in order to achieve suitable conditions for oxygen combustion. Attention is given to reducing boiler leakage, to which external pre-combustion coal drying makes a major contribution. The optimization is carried out with regard to an overall power plant conception for which a decrease in efficiency due to CO2 separation is formulated.

  19. Emissions from coal-fired electric stations : environmental health effects and reduction options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, P.; Lourie, B.; Pengelly, D.; Labatt, S.; Ogilvie, K.; Kelly, B.

    1998-01-01

    Findings of a study on the environmental effects of current emissions from coal-fired electric stations were summarized. Current and projected emissions from coal-fired electric stations for five emission reduction scenarios were estimated for Ontario, Eastern Canada, Ohio Valley/Great Lakes, and the U.S. northeast regions. Coal-fired electric stations generate a wide range of environmentally significant air emissions. The five pollutants selected - sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter (less than 10 micrometres in size), mercury, and carbon dioxide - are considered to impact most on environmental health. This report focused on 312 coal-fired electric stations in the regions named above. They were selected based on the likelihood that long-range transport of the emissions from these coal-fired utilities would have an impact on human health and the environment. 55 refs., 10 tabs., 8 figs

  20. Bioremediation for coal-fired power stations using macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-15

    Macroalgae are a productive resource that can be cultured in metal-contaminated waste water for bioremediation but there have been no demonstrations of this biotechnology integrated with industry. Coal-fired power production is a water-limited industry that requires novel approaches to waste water treatment and recycling. In this study, a freshwater macroalga (genus Oedogonium) was cultivated in contaminated ash water amended with flue gas (containing 20% CO₂) at an Australian coal-fired power station. The continuous process of macroalgal growth and intracellular metal sequestration reduced the concentrations of all metals in the treated ash water. Predictive modelling shows that the power station could feasibly achieve zero discharge of most regulated metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in waste water by using the ash water dam for bioremediation with algal cultivation ponds rather than storage of ash water. Slow pyrolysis of the cultivated algae immobilised the accumulated metals in a recalcitrant C-rich biochar. While the algal biochar had higher total metal concentrations than the algae feedstock, the biochar had very low concentrations of leachable metals and therefore has potential for use as an ameliorant for low-fertility soils. This study demonstrates a bioremediation technology at a large scale for a water-limited industry that could be implemented at new or existing power stations, or during the decommissioning of older power stations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sens, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1986 Directorate-General XII 'Science, Research and Development' of the Commission of the European Communities has kept a watching brief on the development of coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric power generation from the 'solid fuels' section of its non-nuclear energy R and D programme. It established, in 1987, the Faraday Working Group (FWG) to assess the development status of coal-fired MHD and to evaluate its potential contribution to the future electricity production in the Community. The FWG expressed as its opinion, at the end of 1987, that in sufficient data were available to justify a final answer to the question about MHD's potential contribution to future electricity production and recommended that studies be undertaken in three areas; (i) the lifetime of the generator, (ii) cost and performance of direct air preheating, (iii) cost and efficiency of seed recovery/reprocessing. These studies were contracted and results were presented in the extended FWG meeting on 15 November 1990, for an audience of about 70 people. The present volume contains the proceedings of this meeting. The introduction describes the reasons for establishing the FWG, its activities and the content of its extended meeting followed by the summary of the discussions and the concluding remarks of this meeting. The main part of the volume consists of the text either of the oral presentations during the meeting or of the final reports resulting from the studies under contract

  2. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  3. ANN-GA based optimization of a high ash coal-fired supercritical power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, M.V.J.J.; Reddy, K.S.; Kolar, Ajit Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Neuro-genetic power plant optimization is found to be an efficient methodology. → Advantage of neuro-genetic algorithm is the possibility of on-line optimization. → Exergy loss in combustor indicates the effect of coal composition on efficiency. -- Abstract: The efficiency of coal-fired power plant depends on various operating parameters such as main steam/reheat steam pressures and temperatures, turbine extraction pressures, and excess air ratio for a given fuel. However, simultaneous optimization of all these operating parameters to achieve the maximum plant efficiency is a challenging task. This study deals with the coupled ANN and GA based (neuro-genetic) optimization of a high ash coal-fired supercritical power plant in Indian climatic condition to determine the maximum possible plant efficiency. The power plant simulation data obtained from a flow-sheet program, 'Cycle-Tempo' is used to train the artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the energy input through fuel (coal). The optimum set of various operating parameters that result in the minimum energy input to the power plant is then determined by coupling the trained ANN model as a fitness function with the genetic algorithm (GA). A unit size of 800 MWe currently under development in India is considered to carry out the thermodynamic analysis based on energy and exergy. Apart from optimizing the design parameters, the developed model can also be used for on-line optimization when quick response is required. Furthermore, the effect of various coals on the thermodynamic performance of the optimized power plant is also determined.

  4. Study Improving Performance of Centrifugal Compressor In Paiton Coal Fired Power Plant Unit 1 And 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Yuriadi; Permana, Dadang S.

    2018-03-01

    The compressed air system becomes part of a very important utility system in a Plant, including the Steam Power Plant. In PLN’S coal fired power plant, Paiton units 1 and 2, there are four Centrifugal air compressor types, which produce compressed air as much as 5.652 cfm and with electric power capacity of 1200 kW. Electricity consumption to operate centrifugal compressor is 7.104.117 kWh per year. This study aims to measure the performance of Centrifugal Compressors operating in Paiton’s coal fired power plant units 1 and 2. Performance Compressor is expressed by Specific Power Consumption (SPC) in kW/100 cfm. For this purpose, we measure the compressed air flow rate generated by each compressor and the power consumed by each compressor. The result is as follows Air Compressor SAC 2B : 15.1 kW/100 cfm, Air Compressor SAC 1B : 15.31 kW/100 cfm,Air Compressor SAC 1A : 16.3 kW/100 cfm and air Compressor SAC 2C : 18.19 kW/100 cfm. From the measurement result, air compressor SAC 2B has the best performance that is 15.1 kW / 100 cfm. In this study we analyze efforts to improve the performance of other compressors to at least match the performance of the SAC 2B air compressor. By increasing the Specific Power Consumption from others Compressor, it will get energy saving up to 284,165 kWh per year.

  5. Prediction method of unburnt carbon for coal fired utility boiler using image processing technique of combustion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, M.; Sugano, A.; Kimura, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Ishiyama, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a method predicting unburnt carbon in a coal fired utility boiler developed using an image processing technique. The method consists of an image processing unit and a furnace model unit. temperature distribution of combustion flames can be obtained through the former unit. The later calculates dynamics of the carbon reduction from the burner stages to the furnace outlet using coal feed rate, air flow rate, chemical and ash content of coal. An experimental study shows that the prediction error of the unburnt carbon can be reduced to 10%

  6. Natural radioactivity around the coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, J.; Bajlo, M.

    1996-01-01

    By far the greatest part of the radiation received by the worlds population comes from natural sources, in some situations the exposure to natural radiation sources is enhanced as a result of technological developments. Burning of coal is one source of enhanced radiation exposure to naturally occurring elements, particularly radium, thorium and uranium. Extensive investigations have been performed in the coal-fired power plant (CFPP) Plomin in Croatia, using an anthracite coal with a higher than usual uranium content and normal thorium content. A network of TL dosimeters (TLD), working levels (WL) measurements, air pollution monitoring and monitoring of waste pile were organized. Some of the measurements have been repeated, and the results have shown decreased contamination. (author)

  7. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  8. The coal-fired gas turbine locomotive - A new look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in turbomachine technology and novel methods of coal combustion may have made possible the development of a competitive coal fired gas turbine locomotive engine. Of the combustor, thermodynamic cycle, and turbine combinations presently assessed, an external combustion closed cycle regenerative gas turbine with a fluidized bed coal combustor is judged to be the best suited for locomotive requirements. Some merit is also discerned in external combustion open cycle regenerative systems and internal combustion open cycle regenerative gas turbine systems employing a coal gasifier. The choice of an open or closed cycle depends on the selection of a working fluid and the relative advantages of loop pressurization, with air being the most attractive closed cycle working fluid on the basis of cost.

  9. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanovskii, A. G.; Olkhovsky, G. G.

    2015-01-01

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed

  10. Natural desulfurization in coal-fired units using Greek lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konidaris, Dimitrios N

    2010-10-01

    This paper analyzes the natural desulfurization process taking place in coal-fired units using Greek lignite. The dry scrubbing capability of Greek lignite appears to be extremely high under special conditions, which can make it possible for the units to operate within the legislative limits of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. According to this study on several lignite-fired power stations in northern Greece, it was found that sulfur oxide emissions depend on coal rank, sulfur content, and calorific value. On the other hand, SO2 emission is inversely proportional to the parameter gammaCO2(max), which is equal to the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) content by volume of dry flue gas under stoichiometric combustion. The desulfurization efficiency is positively correlated to the molar ratio of decomposed calcium carbonate to sulfur and negatively correlated to the free calcium oxide content of fly ash.

  11. Major trends in nuclear and coal fired plants economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, P.H.; Frank, J.R.; Isacson, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    An in-depth analysis of nuclear plant performance in the United States and elsewhere raises basic questions as to the validity of the present pessimism as a guide for long-range policy. The sad story of the plants in trouble has obscured the good performance of the majority of nuclear power installations. Further, it appears that many of the root causes for the outstanding problems may be indigenous to the existing U.S. utility, regulatory, and financial structure, and not relevant to the long-range intrinsic values of nuclear power either in the United States or in other countries. On the other hand, many of the problems affecting coal fired plants, i.e., fuel supply, economics and pollution control appear to be more critical abroad rather than in the U.S. This paper will review these issues

  12. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumanovskii, A. G., E-mail: vti@vti.ru; Olkhovsky, G. G. [JSC “All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute,” (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed.

  13. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges

  14. Upgrading and efficiency improvement in coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Improving the efficiencies of the large number of older coal-fired power plants operating around the world would give major savings in CO2 emissions together with significant other benefits. This report begins with a summary of the ways efficiency can become degraded and of the means available to combat the decrease in performance. These include improvements to operating and maintenance practices and more major techniques that are available, including boiler and turbine retrofits. There is also an update on fuel drying developments as a route to higher efficiency in plants firing high moisture lignites. The largest chapter of the report contains a number of descriptions of case study improvement projects, to illustrate measures that have been applied, benefits that have been achieved and identify best practices, which are summarised. Major national and international upgrading programmes are described.

  15. Simulation of pulverized coal fired boiler: reaction chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, C.P.; Lansarin, M.A.; Secchi, A.R.; Mendes, T.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Modelagem, Simulacao, Controle e Otimizacao de Processos)]. E-mail: {cperdomo, marla, arge, talita}@enq.ufrgs.br

    2005-06-15

    This work is part of a joint project to built a computational tool for power plant simulation, dealing specifically with the reaction chamber (place of the boiler where the fuel is burned). In order to describe the conversion of chemical energy to thermal energy, an one dimensional pseudo-homogeneous mathematical model, with variable physical properties, and based on mass and energy balances, was developed. The equations were implemented in the gPROMS simulator and the model parameters were estimated using the module gEST of this software, with experimental data from a large-scale coal-fired utility boiler and kinetic data from the open literature. The results showed that the model predicts the composition of the outlet combustion gas satisfactorily. (author)

  16. Recent coal-fire and land-use status of Jharia Coalfield, India from satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha, T.R.; Guha, A.; Kumar, K.V.; Kamaraju, M.V.V.; Raju, E.V.R. [NRSC, Hyderabad (India). Geoscience Division

    2010-07-01

    The Jharia Coalfield (JCF) in India is known for its high grade coal and associated coal fires. Before it can be exploited, valuable coal reserves are destroyed in the sub-surface due to fire. The combined act of fire and subsidence has endangered the environmental safety of the JCF, although several methods have been adopted to control the coal fires. Coal fire is a dynamic phenomenon, hence, its location and extent changes with time. To control the coal fires effectively, the status of the fires and the landscape must be assessed periodically. In this study, the thermal band in Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data (daytime) of 29 March 2003 and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data (night-time) of 9 October 2006 are used to delineate the coal-fire areas. The kinetic temperature of the coal fire-affected areas is calculated from Landsat-7 ETM+ data using a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)-derived emissivity model, and from band 13 of ASTER data with a fixed emissivity value. The study showed that the eastern part of the JCF is more affected by coal fires than the western part. The affected collieries in the eastern part are Kusunda, Lodna, Bararee, Gonudih and Ena. Among all collieries, Kusunda is the most affected by coal fires (29% of the area) and showed a 0.56 km2 increase in fire area from the year 2003 to 2006. During this period, a total increase in coal-fire area of 0.51 km{sup 2} occurs in the JCF. The land-use map prepared from Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellite-P6 Linear Imaging Self-scanning Sensor (LISS)-III data showed that 6.9% of the area in the JCF is occupied by mining-related activities, which indicates its vulnerability to environmental degradation.

  17. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-01-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems

  18. Oxygen-Fired CO{sub 2} Recycle for Application to Direct CO{sub 2} Capture form Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Gale

    2010-09-26

    The Southern Research/Southern Company 1 MWth Pilot-Scale Coal-Fired Test Facility was successfully retrofit to fire in either the traditional air-fired mode or with 100% oxygen and recycled flue gas, with a fully integrated feedback and control system, including oxygen and recycled flue gas modulation during startup, transfer, and shutdown, safety and operational interlocks, and data acquisition. A MAXON Staged Oxygen Burner for Oxy-Coal Applications produced a stable flame over a significant range of firing turn-down, staging, and while firing five different U.S. coal types. The MAXON burner design produces lower flame temperatures than for air firing, which will enable (A) Safe operation, (B) Reduction of recycle flow without concern about furnace flame temperatures, and (C) May likely be affective at reducing slagging and fouling in the boiler and super heater at full-scale Power Plants. A CFD model of the Oxy-fired Combustion Research Facility (OCRF) was used to predict the flame geometry and temperatures in the OCRF and make a comparison with the air-fired case. The model predictions were consistent with the experimental data in showing that the MAXON burner fired with oxygen produced lower flame temperatures than the air-fired burner while firing with air.

  19. Coal-Fired Power Plants, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Approximate locations of active coal-fired power plants located in US EPA's Region 9. Emission counts from the 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) are included...

  20. MERCURY CONTROL IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS AND COAL-FIRED UTILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of mercury (Hg) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) and coal-fired utilities has attracted attention due to current and potential regulations. Among several techniques evaluated for Hg control, dry sorbent injection (primarily injection of activated carbon) h...

  1. Nuclear and coal-fired power plant capital costs 1978 -June 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, R.T.

    1981-07-01

    This bibliography covers 16 papers dealing with the economics of power generation - mainly comparisons between the capital costs of nuclear and coal fired plants. Some of the papers additionally discuss fuel, operating and maintenance costs, and performance. (U.K.)

  2. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

  3. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from coal fires using airborne and ground-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Radke, Lawrence F.; Heffern, Edward L.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M.K.; Smeltzer, Charles; Hower, James C.; Hower, Judith M.; Prakash, Anupma; Kolker, Allan; Eatwell, Robert J.; ter Schure, Arnout; Queen, Gerald; Aggen, Kerry L.; Stracher, Glenn B.; Henke, Kevin R.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Román-Colón, Yomayara

    2011-01-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal-bearing regions of the world and number, conservatively, in the thousands. These fires emit a variety of compounds including greenhouse gases. However, the magnitude of the contribution of combustion gases from coal fires to the environment is highly uncertain, because adequate data and methods for assessing emissions are lacking. This study demonstrates the ability to estimate CO2 and CH4 emissions for the Welch Ranch coal fire, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, using two independent methods: (a) heat flux calculated from aerial thermal infrared imaging (3.7–4.4 t d−1 of CO2 equivalent emissions) and (b) direct, ground-based measurements (7.3–9.5 t d−1 of CO2 equivalent emissions). Both approaches offer the potential for conducting inventories of coal fires to assess their gas emissions and to evaluate and prioritize fires for mitigation.

  4. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were

  5. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  6. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO(sub x) in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO(sub x) emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames-particularly under low NO(sub x) conditions. A CO/H(sub 2)/O(sub 2)/N(sub 2) flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state(sup 13)C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  7. Study of the Radiological Impact of the Coal Fired Power Plants on the Environment. The As Pontes coal-fired Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the Study carried out to determine the radiological impact of the four main Spanish coal-fired power plants, the Study on the As Pontes Coal-Fired Coal Power Plant was finalized. In the Report containing the study are included every measurement performed, as well as the modelling and evaluations carried out in order to assess the radiological impact. The general conclusion obtained is that under a radiological point of view, the impact of this installation on the public and the environment is very small. Also the radiological impact on the workers of the installation was assessed, obtaining too very small increases over the natural background. (Author) 61 refs.

  8. ESTIMATION OF NEAR SUBSURFACE COAL FIRE GAS EMISSIONS BASED ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Brauchler, D.; Meyer, U.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Gundelach, V.; Wuttke, M.; Fischer, C.; Rueter, H.

    2009-12-01

    Spontaneous and industrially caused subsurface coal fires are worldwide disasters that destroy coal resources, cause air pollution and emit a large amount of green house gases. Especially in developing countries, such as China, India and Malaysia, this problem has intensified over the last 15 years. In China alone, 10 to 20 million tons of coal are believed to be lost in uncontrolled coal fires. The cooperation of developing countries and industrialized countries is needed to enforce internationally concerted approaches and political attention towards the problem. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol may provide an international stage for financial investment needed to fight the disastrous situation. A Sino-German research project for coal fire exploration, monitoring and extinction applied several geophysical approaches in order to estimate the annual baseline especially of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. As a result of this project, we present verifiable methodologies that may be used in the CDM framework to estimate the amount of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. We developed three possibilities to approach the estimation based on (1) thermal energy release, (2) geological and geometrical determinations as well as (3) direct gas measurement. The studies involve the investigation of the physical property changes of the coal seam and bedrock during different burning stages of a underground coal fire. Various geophysical monitoring methods were applied from near surface to determine the coal volume, fire propagation, temperature anomalies, etc.

  9. Future CO2 emissions and electricity generation from proposed coal-fired power plants in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofrich, R.; Shearer, C.; Davis, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    India represents a critical unknown in global projections of future CO2 emissions due to its growing population, industrializing economy, and large coal reserves. In this study, we assess existing and proposed construction of coal-fired power plants in India and evaluate their implications for future energy production and emissions in the country. In 2016, India had 369 coal-fired power plants under development totaling 243 gigawatts (GW) of generating capacity. These coal-fired power plants would increase India's coal-fired generating capacity by 123% and would exceed India's projected electricity demand. Therefore, India's current proposals for new coal-fired power plants would be forced to retire early or operate at very low capacity factors and/or would prevent India from meeting its goal of producing at least 40% of its power from renewable sources by 2030. In addition, future emissions from proposed coal-fired power plants would exceed India's climate commitment to reduce its 2005 emissions intensity 33% - 35% by 2030.

  10. Coal-fired power plant: airborne routine discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.

    2005-01-01

    The radiological impact from non-nuclear industries is a growing matter of concern to stake holders and regulators. It has been demonstrated that atmospheric discharges from coal-fired power plants can lead to higher dose-impacts to critical groups of the population than nuclear power plants. In Belgium, in the frame of an agreement between electricity producers and national authorities, measures were taken in conventional power plants to restrict airborne discharges of SO 2 , NO x and suspended particles. In the 500 MWe coal-fired power plant of Langerlo, a flue gas purification system was installed, consisting of a denitrification unit and a desulphurization unit, next to the electrostatic dust filter units. These measures have also an important effect on the radioactive atmospheric discharges. The objective of this study was to assess the radiological impact of the airborne releases of the power plant under normal working conditions and in particular the influence of the installation of the flue gas purification system. As a first step, we measured the natural radioactivity content of the coal and the radium content of the fly ash . The quantities of the other radioelements discharged through the chimney, were estimated, assuming the same behaviour as radium, except for the more volatile lead and polonium, which will condense preferably on finer ash particles, against which the electro filters are less effective. (A concentration factor of 4 has been adopted). The radon, present in the coal, is assumed to be discharged completely through the chimney. The atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition of the discharged radionuclides were modelled, applying the bi-Gaussian plume model IFDM. For the calculations, we used hourly averages of the meteorological observations at Mol over the year 1991. The transfers of the radionuclides from air and soil to the biospheric media, exposing man, were calculated with our biosphere model and the radiological impact to the

  11. Nuclear energy cost data base: A reference data base for nuclear and coal-fired powerplant power generation cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    A reference data base and standard methodology are needed for performing comparative nuclear and fossil power generation cost analyses for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. This report contains such a methodology together with reference assumptions and data to be used with the methodology. It is intended to provide basic guidelines or a starting point for analyses and to serve as a focal point in establishing parameters and methods to be used in economic comparisons of nuclear systems with alternatives. The data base is applicable for economic comparisons of new base load light-water reactors on a once-through cycle, and high- and low-sulfur coal-fired plants, and oil- and natural gas-fired electric generating plants coming on line around the turn of the century. In addition to current generation light-water reactors and fossil fuel-fired plants, preliminary cost information is also presented on improved and advanced light-water reactors, liquid metal reactor plants and fuel cycle facilities. This report includes an updated data base containing proposed technical and economic assumptions to be used in analyses, discussions of a recommended methodology to be used in calculating power generation costs, a sample calculation for illustrative and benchmark purposes and projected power generation costs for fission and coal-fired alternatives. Effects of the 1986 Tax Reform Act are included. 126 refs., 17 figs., 47 tabs

  12. Coal fired steam generation for heavy oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, K.

    1992-01-01

    In Alberta, some 21,000 m 3 /d of heavy oil and bitumen are produced by in-situ recovery methods involving steam injection. The steam generation requirement is met by standardized natural-gas-fired steam generators. While gas is in plentiful supply in Alberta and therefore competitively priced, significant gas price increases could occur in the future. A 1985 study investigating the alternatives to natural gas as a fuel for steam generation concluded that coal was the most economic alternative, as reserves of subbituminous coal are not only abundant in Alberta but also located relatively close to heavy oil and bitumen production areas. The environmental performance of coal is critical to its acceptance as an alternate fuel to natural gas, and proposed steam generator designs which could burn Alberta coal and control emissions satisfactorily are assessed. Considerations for ash removal, sulfur dioxide sorption, nitrogen oxides control, and particulate emission capture are also presented. A multi-stage slagging type of coal-fired combustor has been developed which is suitable for application with oilfield steam generators and is being commissioned for a demonstration project at the Cold Lake deposit. An economic study showed that the use of coal for steam generation in heavy oil in-situ projects in the Peace River and Cold Lake areas would be economic, compared to natural gas, at fuel price projections and design/cost premises for a project timing in the mid-1990s. 7 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Slagging in a pulverised-coal-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devir, G.P.; Pohl, J.H.; Creelman, R.A. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a technique to evaluate the severity of slagging of a coal in a pulverised-coal-fired boiler. There are few data in the literature on the nature of in-situ boiler slags, their rate of growth and/or their strength properties relevant to sootblowing. The latter is thought to be of more concern to boiler operators and gives rise to the significance of selecting suitable strength tests. As well as standardised methods for characterising pulverised coal performance in a boiler, several novel and less popular techniques are discussed in detail. A suite of three sub-bituminous coals from the Callide Coalfields, Biloela (600 km north of Brisbane), has been selected for slagging tests in the 350 MW{sub e} units of Callide 'B' power station. Disposable air-cooled mild steel slagging probes have been constructed to simulate the conditions for deposit formation in the boiler region. To date, tests for one of these coals has been completed and preliminary results are presented. Once testing for the remaining coals has been completed, it is anticipated that the differences exhibited in deposit growth and strength may be correlated with typical variations in physical and chemical properties of the pulverised coal.

  14. Natural radionuclides near a coal-fired power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Briggs, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A previous assessment of the radiological consequences of the emission of natural radionuclides from coal-fired power stations had indicated that 210 Pb was the main contributor to the maximum individual dose. This dose arose from the consumption of foodstuffs particularly cattle liver contaminated by deposited fly ash. Uncertainty surrounded some of the factors used in the assessment, and a limited environmental monitoring programme was recommended to improve it. An experiment has been performed to measure the specific activities of 210 Pb and 210 Po in livers from cattle that had grazed in a field near Didcot power station. Livers from cattle in the Cotswold region have been measured for comparison. The specific activities of 210 Pb and 210 Po in soil and grass samples from both areas have also been measured at three-monthly intervals over a year. No statistically significant increases were observed in the 210 Pb and 210 Po levels in liver, soil or grass samples which could be attributed to the operation of the power station. Transfer coefficients for 210 Pb from forage to liver were about two orders of magnitude less than that used in the original assessment, and the transfer coefficients for 210 Po about a factor a two less. (orig.)

  15. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM THE COAL-FIRED POWER SECTOR IN GROWING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS IN RUSSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Russia and India together contribute over one-fourth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil-fuels. This paper focuses on the Russian coal-fired power sector, and identifies potential opportunities for reducing emissions. The Russian powe...

  16. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

    2009-06-30

    fouling mechanisms in coal-fired power plants to understand key issues influencing these deposition regimes and infer their behavior under oxy-fired conditions. Based on the results of this survey, an algorithm for integrating slagging predictions into CFD models was outlined. This method accounts for ash formation, particle impaction and sticking, deposit growth and physical properties and impact of the deposit on system flow and heat transfer. A model for fouling in the back pass has also been identified which includes vaporization of sodium, deposition of sodium sulfate on fly ash particles and tube surfaces, and deposit growth rate on tubes. In Year 1, REI has also performed a review of the literature describing corrosion in order to understand the behavior of oxidation, sulfidation, chloridation, and carburization mechanisms in air-fired and oxy-combustion systems. REI and Vattenfall have met and exchanged information concerning oxy-coal combustion mechanisms for CFD simulations currently used by Vattenfall. In preparation for Year 2 of this program, two coals (North Antelope PRB, Western bituminous) have been ordered, pulverized and delivered to the University of Utah and Sandia National Labs. Materials for the corrosion experiments have been identified, suppliers located, and a schedule for equipment fabrication and shakedown has been established. Finally, a flue gas recycle system has been designed and is being constructed for the OFC.

  17. Life cycle assessment of solar aided coal-fired power system with and without heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Rongrong; Li, Chao; Chen, Ying; Yang, Yongping; Patchigolla, Kumar; Oakey, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The comprehensive performances of three kinds of different systems were compared through LCA. • The comprehensive results of all systems were evaluated by grey relation theory. • The effects of life span, coal price, and solar collector field cost, among other factors, on the results were explored. - Abstract: Pollutant emissions from coal-fired power system have been receiving increasing attention over the past few years. Integration of solar thermal energy can greatly reduce pollutant emissions from these power stations. The performances of coal-fired power system (S1), solar aided coal-fired power system with thermal storage (S2), and solar aided coal-fired power system without thermal storage (S3) with three capacities of each kind of system (i.e., nine subsystems) were analyzed over the entire life span. The pollutant emissions and primary energy consumptions (PECs) of S1, S2, and S3 were estimated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The evaluation value of global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), respiratory effects potential (REP) and PEC were obtained based on the LCA results. Furthermore, the system investments were estimated, and grey relation theory was used to evaluate the performance of the three types of systems comprehensively. Finally, in order to find the effect of some main factors on the solar aided coal-fired power system (SACFPS), uncertainty analysis has been carried out. The LCA results show that the pollutant emissions and PEC mainly take place in the fuel processing and operation stages for all three system types, and S2 performs the best among the three systems based on the grey relation analysis results. And the uncertainty analysis shows that with longer life span, the power system have better performance; with higher coal price, the power system will have worse performance; with lower solar collector field cost, the solar aided coal-fired power system will be more profitable than the base

  18. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions representthe mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies.

  19. Computational fluid dynamic simulations of coal-fired utility boilers: An engineering tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efim Korytnyi; Roman Saveliev; Miron Perelman; Boris Chudnovsky; Ezra Bar-Ziv [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this study was to develop an engineering tool by which the combustion behavior of coals in coal-fired utility boilers can be predicted. We presented in this paper that computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes can successfully predict performance of - and emission from - full-scale pulverized-coal utility boilers of various types, provided that the model parameters required for the simulation are properly chosen and validated. For that purpose we developed a methodology combining measurements in a 50 kW pilot-scale test facility with CFD simulations using the same CFD code configured for both test and full-scale furnaces. In this method model parameters of the coal processes are extracted and validated. This paper presents the importance of the validation of the model parameters which are used in CFD codes. Our results show very good fit of CFD simulations with various parameters measured in a test furnace and several types of utility boilers. The results of this study demonstrate the viability of the present methodology as an effective tool for optimization coal burning in full-scale utility boilers. 41 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Radiological impact of airborne effluents of coal-fired and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, J.P.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Blanco, R.E.

    1977-06-01

    Radiological impact of naturally occurring radionuclides in airborne effluents of a model coal-fired steam plant is evaluated assuming a release to the atmosphere of 1 percent of the ash in the coal burned and compared with the impact of radioactive materials in the airborne effluents of model light-water reactors. The principal exposure pathway for radioactive materials released from both types of plants is ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. For nuclear plants immersion in the airborne effluents is also a significant factor in the dose commitment. Assuming that the coal burned contains 1 ppM uranium and 2 ppM thorium together with their decay products and using the same impact analysis methods used in evaluating nuclear facilities, the maximum individual dose commitments from the coal plant for the whole body and most organs (except the thyroid) are shown to be greater than those from a pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and, with the exception of the bone and kidney doses, less than those from a boiling-water reactor (BWR). With the exception of the bone dose, the maximum individual dose commitments from the coal plant are less than the numerical design guideline limits listed for light-water reactors (LWRs). Population dose commitments from the coal plant are higher than those from either nuclear plant

  1. Computerized information system on the impacts of coal-fired energy development in the Southwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    An important part of the process of assessing the environmental impacts of coal-fired energy development in the Southwest is the transfer of information between electric utilities, federal agencies, and the interested public. There are, however, several problems associated with the transfer of information among the different groups. The acquisition of factual material on power projects by the interested public, for example, is adversely affected by the sufficiency, convenience, and credibility of present sources. Efforts of electric utilities and federal agencies to effectively communicate impact information are hindered by the inability of existing sources to selectively transfer information and to rapidly transmit information on the cumulative impacts of many combinations of power plants. This research concerns the development and evaluation of a computerized information system designed to selectively transfer information on both the cumulative and individual impacts of several electric generating facilities located in the southwestern United States. The information system incorporates features of management information systems, environmental information systems, and an issue-oriented system developed at The University of Illinois, making it a hybrid system capable of communicating impact information derived from a variety of sources

  2. Use of continuous mercury monitors at coal-fired utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudal, Dennis L.; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Pavlish, John H. [Energy and Environmental Research Center, PO Box 9018, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9018 (United States); Brickett, Lynn A. [U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, PO Box 10940 MS 922-273C, Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 (United States); Chu, Paul [EPRI, 3412 Hillview Avenue, PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, CA 94303 (United States)

    2004-06-15

    In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a notice of its determination that regulation of coal-fired utilities for mercury is appropriate and necessary as part of the hazardous air pollutant emission regulation for electric utility steam-generating units. To aid in the determination of mercury emissions from these sources, on-line mercury semicontinuous emission monitors (Hg SCEMs) have been developed and tested in recent years. Although Hg SCEMs have shown promise during these previous tests, rigorous field or long-term testing has not been done. In the past year, commercially available and prototype Hg SCEMs have been used by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and others at several power plants. As part of the EERC work, Hg SCEMs were operated at a range of conditions and locations. In addition, the Hg SCEMs were operated for up to 1 month. The use of Hg SCEMs at these plants allowed for near-real-time data to be collected under changing plant conditions, as well as during normal ranges of operating conditions. Mercury emission data were obtained from different plants with different configurations. The plant configurations incorporated various pollution control technologies, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), selective noncatalytic reduction, ammonium sulfate injection for flue gas conditioning, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The particulate control devices included electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), a fabric filter (FF), and a venturi scrubber. The testing at these sites included the operation of Hg SCEMs before and after particulate control devices, in wet and dry stack conditions, and at high temperatures (343 C). The results from these field measurements have provided data that have been evaluated to determine the reliability, variability, biases, and overall capability of Hg SCEMs for monitoring mercury at coal-fired utilities. Even under the best conditions, operation of Hg SCEMs is by no

  3. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  4. Nighttime NOx Chemistry in Coal-Fired Power Plant Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Veres, P. R.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Green, J. R.; Fiddler, M. N.; Ebben, C. J.; Sparks, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Campos, T. L.; Cohen, R. C.; Bililign, S.; Holloway, J. S.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. During the day, they catalyze ozone (O3) production, while at night they can react to form nitric acid (HNO3) and nitryl chloride (ClNO2) and remove O3 from the atmosphere. These processes are well studied in the summer, but winter measurements are more limited. Coal-fired power plants are a major source of NOx to the atmosphere, making up approximately 30% of emissions in the US (epa.gov). NOx emissions can vary seasonally, as well as plant-to-plant, with important impacts on the details of the plume chemistry. In particular, due to inefficient plume dispersion, nighttime NOx emissions from power plants are held in concentrated plumes, where rates of mixing with ambient O3 have a strong influence on plume evolution. We will show results from the aircraft-based WINTER campaign over the northeastern United States, where several nighttime intercepts of power plant plumes were made. Several of these intercepts show complete O3 titration, which can have a large influence on NOx lifetime, and thus O3 production, in the plume. When power plant NO emissions exceed background O3 levels, O3 is completely consumed converting NO to NO2. In the presence of O3, NO2 will be oxidized to NO3, which will then react with NO2 to form N2O5, which can then form HNO3 and/or ClNO2 and, ultimately, remove NOx from the atmosphere or provide next-day oxidant sources. If there is no O3 present, however, no further chemistry can occur and NO and NO2 will be transported until mixing with sufficient O3 for higher oxidation products. Modeling results of plume development and mixing, which can tell us more about this transport, will also be presented.

  5. Radionuclide emissions from a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Y.M.; Uddin Khandaker, Mayeen; Shyen, A.K.S.; Mahat, R.H.; Nor, R.M.; Bradley, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Current study concerns measurement of radioactivity levels in areas surrounding a 2420 MW thermal power plant fueled predominantly by bituminous coal. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in onsite bottom-ash were found to be 139 Bq/kg, 108 Bq/kg and 291 Bq/kg, respectively, the levels for these radiolnuclides in soil decreasing with distance from the power plant. At the plant perimeter the respective radionuclide concentrations were 87 Bq/kg, 74 Bq/kg and 297 Bq/kg. In a nearby town, the corresponding concentrations were 104 Bq/kg, 52 Bq/kg and 358 Bq/kg, suggestive of use of TENORM affected soils. The mean radium equivalent activities (Ra eq ) in soil and ash sample in the town were 205 Bq/kg and 316 Bq/kg, respectively. The Kapar plant ash/slag appears to contain a higher level of TENORM than the world average. The degree of contamination is much higher inside the town where slag has been mixed with topsoil as landfill or as simple domestic waste. For the prevailing levels of exposure and a worst case senario, the predicted committed effective dose due to ingestion and inhalation for intake durations of 1- and 30 years would be 4.2 μSv and 220 μSv, respectively. - Highlights: • Detailed studies on naturally occuring radionuclide emissions due to a 2420 MW coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. • Assessment of radiation exposures to the public around the power plant due to an intake of the radionuclides. • The Kapar plant ash/slag appears to contain a higher level of TENORM than the world average. • The degree of contamination is much higher inside the town where slag has been mixed with topsoil as landfill or as simple domestic waste

  6. Coal-fired high performance power generating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  7. Evidence of Human Health Impacts from Uncontrolled Coal Fires in Jharia, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, U.; Balogun, A. H.; Finkelman, R.; Chakraborty, S.; Olanipekun, O.; Shaikh, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    Uncontrolled coal fires and burning coal waste piles have been reported from dozens of countries. These fires can be caused by spontaneous combustion, sparks from machinery, lightning strikes, grass or forest fires, or intentionally. Both underground and surface coal fires mobilize potentially toxic elements such as sulfur, arsenic, selenium, fluorine, lead, and mercury as well as dangerous organic compounds such as benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene and deadly gases such as CO2 and CO. Despite the serious health problems that can be caused by uncontrolled coal fires it is rather surprising that there has been so little research and documentation of their health impacts. Underground coal fires in the Jharia region of India where more than a million people reside, have been burning for 100 years. Numerous villages exist above the underground fires exposing the residents daily to dangerous emissions. Local residents near the fire affected areas do their daily chores without concern about the intensity of nearby fires. During winter children enjoy the heat of the coal fires oblivious to the potentially harmful emissions. To determine if these uncontrolled coal fires have caused health problems we developed a brief questionnaire on general health indices and administered it to residents of the Jharia region. Sixty responses were obtained from residents of two villages, one proximal to the coal fires and one about 5 miles away from the fires. The responses were statistically analyzed using SAS 9.4. It was observed that at a significance level of 5%, villagers who lived more than 5 miles away from the fires had a 98.3% decreased odds of having undesirable health outcomes. This brief survey indicates the risk posed by underground coal fires and how it contributes to the undesirable health impacts. What remains is to determine the specific health issues, what components of the emissions cause the health problems, and what can be done to minimize these problems

  8. Natural radioactivity level in coal and ash collected from Baoji coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xiaodan; Lu Xinwei

    2006-01-01

    Specific activities of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were assessed in coal (3 samples), fly ash (17 samples) and bottom ash (6 samples) collected from Baoji coal-fired power plant. This paper analyzed the characteristics of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K contents in bottom ash and fly ash, and studied the concentration factors of these radionuclides in ash in relation to those in coal. The level of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K of coal collected from Baoji coal-fired power plant are in the range of radionuclides contents of Chinese coal. The natural radioactivity level of fly ash collected from Baoji coal-fired power plant is close to Beijing and Shanghai coal-fired power plants. The paper farther assessed the possibility of fly ash of Baoji coal-fired power plant used as building materials according to the state standard. The results show that there are 29% samples exceeding the state limit when fly ash used as building materials. So the usage of fly ash in building material should be controlled. (authors)

  9. Geographic information technology monitoring and mapping of coal fires in Ukraine, according to the space survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivnyak, G.; Busygin, B.; Garkusha, I. [National Mining Univ., Dnipropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2010-07-01

    Coal fires are a significant problem around the world, particularly in China, India, and the United States. Coal fires burn thousands of tons of coal reserves and lead to serious problems for the environment, degradation and destruction of landscape, and harm public health. Technology, such as spectrology analysis of signatures with high temperature activity can be used to calculate vegetation algorithms and soil indexes, and multispectral survey data in the thermal channels of scanners. This paper presented the perspectives of technology development in coal fires and the approach to the detection, monitoring, and quantitative estimation of coal fires by the instruments using geographic information systems. Specifically, the paper considered the use of coal fire fragment monitoring technology from data of a diachronous survey obtained by Landsat satellites, to classify dangerous coal waste banks of the Donbass Mine located in Ukraine. The paper provided a description of the study area and discussed the detection technology of temperature-active waste banks. It was concluded that geoinformation technology provides an opportunity to effectively mark mining dumps, in particular, waste banks in multispectrum space images made by Landsat satellites. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Dust pollution of the atmosphere in the vicinity of coal-fired power plant (Omsk City, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talovskaya, Anna V.; Raputa, Vladimir F.; Litay, Victoriya V.; Yazikov, Egor G.; Yaroslavtseva, Tatyana V.; Mikhailova, Kseniya Y.; Parygina, Irina A.; Lonchakova, Anna D.; Tretykova, Mariya I.

    2015-11-01

    The article shows the results of dust pollution level of air in the vicinity of coal-fired power plant of Omsk city on the base of study snow cover pollution. The samples were collected west-, east- and northeastwards at a distance of 0,75-6 km from the chimney for range-finding of dust emission transfer. The research findings have shown the dust load changes from 53 till 343 mg•(m2·day)-1 in the vicinity of power plant. The ultimate dust load was detected at a distance of 3-3,5 km. On the basis of asymptotics of equation solution for impurity transfer, we have made numerical analysis of dust load rate. With the usage of ground-based facilities and satellites we have determined the wind shifts in the atmospheric boundary layer have a significant impact on the field forming of long-term dustfall.

  11. [Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

  12. Results of the desulfurization programme at coal-fired power plants operated by CEZ a.s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The Czech utility CEZ, which is the major power plant operator in the Czech Republic, is running an extensive coal-fired power plant desulfurization programme to improve the environmental situation in the region. Flue gas desulfurization is achieved in 2 ways: by augmenting the existing units with desulfurization equipment, and by replacing old boilers with new, fluidized-bed combustion facilities. Both wet limestone scrubbing and the dry limestone method are applied. A survey of the power plants, desulfurized power, desulfurization equipment suppliers, and contract prices is presented in a tabular form. Plots showing the contribution of CEZ's power plants to sulfur dioxide emissions in the Czech Republic are reproduced. (P.A.). 1 tab., 3 figs

  13. Recent advances in prediction of emission of hazardous air pollutants from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, C.L.; Helble, J.J.; Sarofim, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants are a primary source of mercury discharge into the atmosphere along with fine particulates containing arsenic, selenium, cadmium, and other hazardous air pollutants. Information regarding the speciation of these toxic metals is necessary to accurately predict their atmospheric transport and fate in the environment. New predictive tools have been developed to allow utilities to better estimate the emissions of toxic metals from coal-fired power plants. These prediction equations are based on fundamental physics and chemistry and can be applied to a wide variety of fuel types and combustion conditions. The models have significantly improved the ability to predict the emissions of air toxic metals in fine particulate and gas-phase mercury. In this study, the models were successfully tested using measured mercury speciation and mass balance information collected from coal-fired power plants

  14. Analysis of radionuclides in airborne effluents from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Chatterjee, B.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess the level of radioactivity emitted by coal-fired power plants in detail, specific activities of several radionuclides have been measured in samples from a coal-fired and a brown coal-fired plant in the Federal Republic of Germany. Samples measured included coal, brown coal, bottom ash, collected fly ash from the various electrostatic precipitator stages and sieve fractions of collected fly ash as well as samples of escaping fly ash taken from the exhaust stream, all taken simultaneously on three operating days. Nuclides measured were U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226, Pb-210, Po-210 and K-40. Methods applied included (i) direct gamma spectrometry, (ii) radiochemical separation with subsequent alpha spectrometry and (iii) direct alpha spectrometry. Methods are described and discussed. Finally, annual emission rates of airborne radionuclides are calculated for both plants.

  15. Analysis of radionuclides in airborne effluents from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Chatterjee, B.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess the level of radioactivity emitted by coal-fired power plants in detail, specific activities of several radionuclides have been measured in samples from a coal-fired and a brown coal-fired plant in the Federal Republic of Germany. Samples measured included coal, brown coal, bottom ash, collected fly ash from the various electrostatic precipitator stages and sieve fractions of collected fly ash as well as samples of escaping fly ash taken from the exhaust stream, all taken simultaneously on three operating days. Nuclides measured were U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226, Pb-210, Po-210 and K-40. Methods applied included (i) direct gamma spectrometry, (ii) radiochemical separation with subsequent alpha spectrometry and (iii) direct alpha spectrometry. Methods are described and discussed. Finally, annual emission rates of airborne radionuclides are calculated for both plants. (orig.)

  16. Techno-economic assessments of oxy-fuel technology for South African coal-fired power stations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available at the technical and economic viability of oxy-fuel technology for CO(sub2) capture for South African coal-fired power stations. This study presents a techno-economic analysis for six coal fired power stations in South Africa. Each of these power stations has a...

  17. Comparison of electricity production costs of nuclear and coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltzer, M.

    1980-01-01

    Electricity production costs of nuclear and coal-fired power plants their structure and future development are calculated and compared. Assumed beginning of operation is in the mid-1980. The technical and economical data are based on a nuclear power unit of 1 300 MW and on a coal-fired twin plant of 2 x 750 MW. The study describes and discusses the calculational method and the results. The costs for the electricity generation show an economic advantage for nuclear power. A sensitivity analysis shows that these results are valid also for changed input parameters. (orig.) [de

  18. Predicting the market penetration of the next generation of coal-fired technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, M.K.; McCall, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses what role clean coal-fired technology will have in future generating capacity based on availability and prices of coal and natural gas, the nuclear option, environmental regulations, limitations of current air pollution control technologies, and economics. The topics of the paper include the need for new electric generating capacity, why coal must remain a source of energy for generating electricity, technology effectiveness and market penetration analysis methodologies, coal-fired technology economic and technical assumptions, cost estimates, and high and low growth scenarios

  19. Analysis and study on the membrane method of CO2 removal of coal-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fangqin, Li; Henan, Li; Jianxing, Ren; Jiang, Wu; Zhongzhu, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is one kind of harmful substances from the burning process of fossil fuel. CO 2 emissions cause serious pollution on atmospheric environment, especially greenhouse effect. In this paper, CO 2 formation mechanism and control methods were researched. Membrane technology was studied to control CO 2 emissions from coal-fired boilers. The relationship between CO 2 removal efficiency and parameters of membrane contactor was analyzed. Through analysis and study, factors affecting on CO 2 removal efficiency were gotten. How to choose the best parameters was known. This would provide theoretical basis for coal-fired utility boilers choosing effective way of CO 2 removal. (author)

  20. Subsequent flue gas desulfurization of coal-fired power plant units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willibal, U.; Braun, Gy.

    1998-01-01

    The presently operating coal-fired power plant in Hungary do not satisfy the pollution criteria prescribed by the European Union norms. The main polluting agent is the sulfur dioxide emitted by some of the power plants in Hungary in quantities over the limit standards. The power plant units that are in good operating state could be made competitive by using subsequent desulfurization measures. Various flue gas desulfurization technologies are presented through examples that can be applied to existing coal-fired power plants. (R.P.)

  1. Multi-objective Optimization of Coal-fired Boiler Combustion Based on NSGA-II

    OpenAIRE

    Tingfang Yu; Hongzhen Zhu; Chunhua Peng

    2013-01-01

    NOx emission characteristics and overall heat loss model for a 300MW coal-fired boiler were established by Back Propagation (BP) neural network, by which the the functional relationship between outputs (NOx emissions & overall heat loss of the boiler) and inputs (operational parameters of the boiler) of a coal-fired boiler can be predicted. A number of field test data from a full-scale operating 300MWe boiler were used to train and verify the BP model. The NOx emissions & heat loss pr...

  2. A new integration model of the calcium looping technology into coal fired power plants for CO_2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, C.; Chacartegui, R.; Valverde, J.M.; Becerra, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A CaL-CFPP (coal fired power plant) integration model is proposed and efficiency penalty is estimated. • Carbonation in the diffusion stage is considered to predict the capture efficiency. • Low efficiency penalty may be achieved by operating with longer particles’ residence time. • Simulation results show that the energy penalty ranges between 4% and 7% points. - Abstract: The Ca-Looping (CaL) process is at the root of a promising 2nd generation technology for post-combustion CO_2 capture at coal fired power plants. The process is based on the reversible and quick carbonation/calcination reaction of CaO/CaCO_​_3 at high temperatures and allows using low cost, widely available and non toxic CaO precursors such as natural limestone. In this work, the efficiency penalty caused by the integration of the Ca-looping technology into a coal fired power plant is analyzed. The results of the simulations based on the proposed integration model show that efficiency penalty varies between 4% and 7% points, which yields lower energy costs than other more mature post-combustion CO_2 capture technologies such as the currently commercial amine scrubbing technology. A principal feature of the CaL process at CO_2 capture conditions is that it produces a large amount of energy and therefore an optimized integration of the systems energy flows is essential for the feasibility of the integration at the commercial level. As a main novel contribution, CO_2 capture efficiency is calculated in our work by considering the important role of the solid-state diffusion controlled carbonation phase, which becomes relevant when CaO regeneration is carried out under high CO_2 partial pressure as is the case with the CaL process for CO_2 capture. The results obtained based on the new model suggest that integration energy efficiency would be significantly improved as the solids residence time in the carbonator reactor is increased.

  3. Flow analysis of HANARO flow simulated test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong-Chul; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Wu, Jong-Sub; Jun, Byung-Jin

    2002-01-01

    The HANARO, a multi-purpose research reactor of 30 MWth open-tank-in-pool type, has been under normal operation since its initial critical in February, 1995. Many experiments should be safely performed to activate the utilization of the NANARO. A flow simulated test facility is being developed for the endurance test of reactivity control units for extended life times and the verification of structural integrity of those experimental facilities prior to loading in the HANARO. This test facility is composed of three major parts; a half-core structure assembly, flow circulation system and support system. The half-core structure assembly is composed of plenum, grid plate, core channel with flow tubes, chimney and dummy pool. The flow channels are to be filled with flow orifices to simulate core channels. This test facility must simulate similar flow characteristics to the HANARO. This paper, therefore, describes an analytical analysis to study the flow behavior of the test facility. The computational flow analysis has been performed for the verification of flow structure and similarity of this test facility assuming that flow rates and pressure differences of the core channel are constant. The shapes of flow orifices were determined by the trial and error method based on the design requirements of core channel. The computer analysis program with standard k - ε turbulence model was applied to three-dimensional analysis. The results of flow simulation showed a similar flow characteristic with that of the HANARO and satisfied the design requirements of this test facility. The shape of flow orifices used in this numerical simulation can be adapted for manufacturing requirements. The flow rate and the pressure difference through core channel proved by this simulation can be used as the design requirements of the flow system. The analysis results will be verified with the results of the flow test after construction of the flow system. (author)

  4. Comparing post-combustion CO2 capture operation at retrofitted coal-fired power plants in the Texas and Great Britain electric grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stuart M.; Chalmers, Hannah L.; Webber, Michael E.; King, Carey W.

    2011-04-01

    This work analyses the carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system operation within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and Great Britain (GB) electric grids using a previously developed first-order hourly electricity dispatch and pricing model. The grids are compared in their 2006 configuration with the addition of coal-based CO2 capture retrofits and emissions penalties from 0 to 100 US dollars per metric ton of CO2 (USD/tCO2). CO2 capture flexibility is investigated by comparing inflexible CO2 capture systems to flexible ones that can choose between full- and zero-load CO2 capture depending on which operating mode has lower costs or higher profits. Comparing these two grids is interesting because they have similar installed capacity and peak demand, and both are isolated electricity systems with competitive wholesale electricity markets. However, differences in capacity mix, demand patterns, and fuel markets produce diverging behaviours of CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Coal-fired facilities are primarily base load in ERCOT for a large range of CO2 prices but are comparably later in the dispatch order in GB and consequently often supply intermediate load. As a result, the ability to capture CO2 is more important for ensuring dispatch of coal-fired facilities in GB than in ERCOT when CO2 prices are high. In GB, higher overall coal prices mean that CO2 prices must be slightly higher than in ERCOT before the emissions savings of CO2 capture offset capture energy costs. However, once CO2 capture is economical, operating CO2 capture on half the coal fleet in each grid achieves greater emissions reductions in GB because the total coal-based capacity is 6 GW greater than in ERCOT. The market characteristics studied suggest greater opportunity for flexible CO2 capture to improve operating profits in ERCOT, but profit improvements can be offset by a flexibility cost penalty.

  5. Comparing post-combustion CO2 capture operation at retrofitted coal-fired power plants in the Texas and Great Britain electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Stuart M; Webber, Michael E; Chalmers, Hannah L; King, Carey W

    2011-01-01

    This work analyses the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture system operation within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and Great Britain (GB) electric grids using a previously developed first-order hourly electricity dispatch and pricing model. The grids are compared in their 2006 configuration with the addition of coal-based CO 2 capture retrofits and emissions penalties from 0 to 100 US dollars per metric ton of CO 2 (USD/tCO 2 ). CO 2 capture flexibility is investigated by comparing inflexible CO 2 capture systems to flexible ones that can choose between full- and zero-load CO 2 capture depending on which operating mode has lower costs or higher profits. Comparing these two grids is interesting because they have similar installed capacity and peak demand, and both are isolated electricity systems with competitive wholesale electricity markets. However, differences in capacity mix, demand patterns, and fuel markets produce diverging behaviours of CO 2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Coal-fired facilities are primarily base load in ERCOT for a large range of CO 2 prices but are comparably later in the dispatch order in GB and consequently often supply intermediate load. As a result, the ability to capture CO 2 is more important for ensuring dispatch of coal-fired facilities in GB than in ERCOT when CO 2 prices are high. In GB, higher overall coal prices mean that CO 2 prices must be slightly higher than in ERCOT before the emissions savings of CO 2 capture offset capture energy costs. However, once CO 2 capture is economical, operating CO 2 capture on half the coal fleet in each grid achieves greater emissions reductions in GB because the total coal-based capacity is 6 GW greater than in ERCOT. The market characteristics studied suggest greater opportunity for flexible CO 2 capture to improve operating profits in ERCOT, but profit improvements can be offset by a flexibility cost penalty.

  6. PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

  7. NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

  8. NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  9. Control of mercury emissions from coal fired electric uitlity boilers: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal-fired power plants in the U.S. are known to be the major anthropogenic source of domestic mercury emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently proposed to reduce emissions of mercury from these plants. In March 2005, EPA plans to promulgate final regulat...

  10. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  11. Dynamics of clean coal-fired power generation development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Li

    2012-01-01

    Coal-fired power technology will play an important role over a long period in China. Clean coal-fired power technology is essential for the global GHG emission reduction. Recently, advanced supercritical (SC)/ultra-supercritical (USC) technology has made remarkable progress in China and greatly contributed to energy saving and emission reduction. This study analyzes the dynamics of SC/USC development in China from an integrated perspective. The result indicates that, besides the internal demand, the effective implementation of domestic public policy and technology transfer contributed greatly to the development of SC/USC technology in China. In future low carbon scenario, SC/USC coal-fired power technology might still be the most important power generation technology in China until 2040, and will have a significant application prospect in other developing countries. The analysis makes a very useful introduction for other advanced energy technology development, including a renewable energy technology, in China and other developing countries. - Highlights: ► The US/USC technology is the key clean coal-fired power technology in current China. ► The domestic policy and technology transfer largely contributed to their development. ► This makes a useful introduction for the development of renewable energy in China.

  12. Proceedings of the advanced coal-fired power systems `95 review meeting, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Mollot, D.J.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains papers which were presented at the advanced coal-fired power sytems review meeting. This is volume II. Topics include: hot gas filter issues, hazardous air pollutants, sorbent development, and separation technologies. Individual papers were processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  13. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure by radioactive emissions of coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1981-03-01

    On the basis of measurements of the radioactive emissions of a 300 MW coal-fired power plant and of a 600 MW lignite-fired power plant the expected activity increase in air and soil in the environment of both plants is estimated and compared with the normal, natural activity level. Due to these emissions it results for the point of maximum immission a committed effective dose equivalent per GW x a of about 0.2 mrem = 0.002 mSv for the coal-fired plant and of about 0.04 mrem = 0.0004 mSv for the lignite-fired plant. This dose is caused to nearly equal parts by inhalation, ingestion and external γ-radiation. The normalized effective dose equivalent in the environment of the modern coal-fired power plant is in the same order of magnitude like that of a modern pressurized water reactor. The total, collective effective dose equivalent commitment by the annual radioactive emissions of coal-fired power plants in the F.R.Germany is estimated to 2000-6000 Man x rem = 20-60 Man x Sv. This corresponds to a mean per caput-dose in the population of the F.R.Germany of about 0.03-0.1 mrem = 0.0003-0.001 mSv; this is about 0.02-0.06% of the mean normal natural radiation exposure of the population. (orig.) [de

  14. Developing an international consortium to build an 800 MW coal fired power plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Hashima, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the cooperative construction of a fossil-fueled power plant in Indonesia. The topics discussed in the paper include energy use and the market for electric power, fuel resources, history of business activities, the role of joint resources and government business policy, and preparing for bidding an 800MW coal-fired power plant

  15. China's coal-fired power plants impose pressure on water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Liu, Junguo; Tang, Yu; Zhao, Xu; Yang, Hong; Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Coal is the dominant fuel for electricity generation around the world. This type of electricity generation uses large amounts of water, increasing pressure on water resources. This calls for an in-depth investigation in the water-energy nexus of coal-fired electricity generation. In China,

  16. Proceedings of the advanced coal-fired power systems `95 review meeting, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Mollot, D.J.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1995-06-01

    This document contains papers presented at The advanced Coal-Fired Power Systems 1995 Review Meeting. Research was described in the areas of: integrated gasification combined cycle technology; pressurized fluidized-bed combustion; externally fired combined cycles; a summary stauts of clean coal technologies; advanced turbine systems and hot gas cleanup. Individual projects were processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  17. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF MERCURY CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the existing knowledge base applicable to mercury (Hg) control in coal-fired boilers and outlines the gaps in knowledge that can be filled by experimentation and data gathering. Mercury can be controlled by existing air pollution control devices or by retrofit...

  18. Combined Heat and Power: Coal-Fired Air Turbine (CAT)-Cycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Recca

    1999-01-01

    By combining an integrated system with a gas turbine, coal-fired air turbine cycle technology can produce energy at an efficiency rate of over 40%, with capital and operating costs below those of competing conventional systems. Read this fact sheet to discover the additional benefits of this exciting new technology

  19. Transport of the radionuclides and doses for some coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D.; Telenta, B.; Sokcic-Kostic, M.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation exposure of the public in the vicinity of the selected coal fired power plants near from Belgrade has been studied. The contents of natural radionuclides according to experimental data have been used and dose rates from inhalation have been calculated using a two dimensional version of the cloud model. (author)

  20. Fast and safe gas detection from underground coal fire by drone fly over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnington, Lucila; Nakagawa, Masami

    2017-10-01

    Underground coal fires start naturally or as a result of human activities. Besides burning away the important non-renewable energy resource and causing financial losses, burning coal seams emit carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide and methane, and is a leading cause of smog, acid rain, global warming, and air toxins. In the U.S. alone, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects that have been completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Remediation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion. It is estimated that these fires generate as much as 3% of the world's annual carbon dioxide emissions and consume as much as 5% of its minable coal. Considering the magnitude of environmental impact and economic loss caused by burning underground coal seams, we have developed a new, safe, reliable surface measurement of coal fire gases to assess the nature of underground coal fires. We use a drone mounted with gas sensors. Drone collected gas concentration data provides a safe alternative for evaluating the rank of a burning coal seam. In this study, a new method of determining coal rank by gas ratios is developed. Coal rank is valuable for defining parameters of a coal seam such as burn temperature, burn rate, and volume of burning seam. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation methods of solar contribution in solar aided coal-fired power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yong; Zhai, Rongrong; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Yongping; Yan, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Five methods for evaluating solar contribution are analyzed. • Method based on the second law of thermodynamics and thermal economics is more suitable for SACPGS. • Providing reliable reference for the formulation of feed-in tariff policies in China. - Abstract: Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize solar thermal energy to couple with coal-fired power plants of various types by adopting characteristics of different thermal needs of plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will become unnecessary, meanwhile the intermittent and unsteady nature of power generation can be avoided. In addition, large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and energy saving can be achieved. With the ever-deepening analyses of solar aided coal-fired power plants, the contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power is worth further exploration. In this paper, five common evaluation methods of solar contribution are analyzed, and solar aided coal-fired power plants of 1000 MW, 600 MW and 330 MW are studied with these five methods in a comparative manner. Therefore, this study can serve as a theoretical reference for future research of evaluation methods and subsidies for new energy

  2. Advanced char burnout models for the simulation of pulverized coal fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Severin; S. Wirtz; V. Scherer [Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany). Institute of Energy Plant Technology (LEAT)

    2005-07-01

    The numerical simulation of coal combustion processes is widely used as an efficient means to predict burner or system behaviour. In this paper an approach to improve CFD simulations of pulverized coal fired boilers with advanced coal combustion models is presented. In simple coal combustion models, first order Arrhenius rate equations are used for devolatilization and char burnout. The accuracy of such simple models is sufficient for the basic aspects of heat release. The prediction of carbon-in-ash is one aspect of special interest in the simulation of pulverized coal fired boilers. To determine the carbon-in-ash levels in the fly ash of coal fired furnaces, the char burnout model has to be more detailed. It was tested, in how far changing operating conditions affect the carbon-in-ash prediction of the simulation. To run several test cases in a short time, a simplified cellnet model was applied. To use a cellnet model for simulations of pulverized coal fired boilers, it was coupled with a Lagrangian particle model, used in CFD simulations, too. 18 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. APPLICATION OF REBURNING TO COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS IN TAIWAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives an overview of the characteristics of coal-fired industrial boilers in Taiwan and projections of the cost and performance data for retrofitting several boilers with reburning. The impacts of reburning fuel type on the reburning system design and cost effectivenes...

  4. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  5. Gas emissions, minerals, and tars associated with three coal fires, Powder River Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A; Radke, Lawrence F; Heffern, Edward L; O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Hower, James C; Smeltzer, Charles D; Hower, Judith M; Olea, Ricardo A; Eatwell, Robert J; Blake, Donald R; Emsbo-Mattingly, Stephen D; Stout, Scott A; Queen, Gerald; Aggen, Kerry L; Kolker, Allan; Prakash, Anupma; Henke, Kevin R; Stracher, Glenn B; Schroeder, Paul A; Román-Colón, Yomayra; ter Schure, Arnout

    2012-03-15

    Ground-based surveys of three coal fires and airborne surveys of two of the fires were conducted near Sheridan, Wyoming. The fires occur in natural outcrops and in abandoned mines, all containing Paleocene-age subbituminous coals. Diffuse (carbon dioxide (CO(2)) only) and vent (CO(2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), and elemental mercury) emission estimates were made for each of the fires. Additionally, gas samples were collected for volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis and showed a large range in variation between vents. The fires produce locally dangerous levels of CO, CO(2), H(2)S, and benzene, among other gases. At one fire in an abandoned coal mine, trends in gas and tar composition followed a change in topography. Total CO(2) fluxes for the fires from airborne, ground-based, and rate of fire advancement estimates ranged from 0.9 to 780mg/s/m(2) and are comparable to other coal fires worldwide. Samples of tar and coal-fire minerals collected from the mouth of vents provided insight into the behavior and formation of the coal fires. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Combustor'. The details of the task 5 effort are contained in Appendix 'C'. It was implemented between 1994 and 1998 after the entire 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility was relocated to Philadelphia, PA in 1994. A new test facility was designed and installed. A substantially longer combustor was fabricated. Although not in the project plan or cost plan, an entire steam turbine-electric power generating plant was designed and the appropriate new and used equipment for continuous operation was specified. Insufficient funds and the lack of a customer for any electric power that the test facility could have generated prevented the installation of the power generating equipment needed for continuous operation. All other task 5 project measures were met and exceeded. 107 days of testing in task 5, which exceeded the 63 days (about 500 hours) in the test plan, were implemented. Compared to the first generation 20 MMBtu/hr combustor in Williamsport, the 2nd generation combustor has a much higher combustion efficiency, the retention of slag inside the combustor doubled to about 75% of the coal ash, and the ash carryover into the boiler, a major problem in the Williamsport combustor was essentially eliminated. In addition, the project goals for coal-fired emissions were exceeded in task 5. SO{sub 2} was reduced by 80% to 0.2 lb/MMBtu in a combination of reagent injection in the combustion and post-combustion zones. NO{sub x} was reduced by 93% to 0.07 lb/MMBtu in a combination of staged combustion in the combustor and post-combustion reagent injection. A baghouse was installed that was rated to 0.03 lb/MMBtu stack particle emissions. The initial particle emission test by EPA Method 5 indicated substantially higher emissions far beyond that indicated by the clear emission plume. These emissions were attributed to steel particles released by wall corrosion in the baghouse, correction of which had no effect of emissions.

  7. Evaporation and crystallization of a droplet of desulfurization wastewater from a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Zhengxing; Zhang, Li; Yang, Zhongqing; Qiang, Tang; Pu, Ge; Ran, Jingyu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaporation and crystallization characteristics of the droplets of desulfurization wastewater. • TGA and DSC methods were used to investigate the evaporation and crystallization processes. • Evaporation and crystallization rates increase with the increase of temperature increasing rate. • Increasing volume of the droplet increases the evaporation rate, but decreases the crystallization rate. • Structure of the crystals changes significantly when the temperature increasing rate and the volume of the droplet change. - Abstract: Relationship between evaporation and crystallization characteristics of a droplet of desulfurization wastewater from a coal-fired power plant and some operating conditions was studied experimentally using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) function and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results shows that, between 15 °C/min and 45 °C/min, a higher temperature increasing rate leads to higher evaporation and crystallization rates. The increment in the evaporation rate, caused by the same increment of temperature increasing rate, is larger, when the temperature increasing rate is lower. In addition, the final temperatures, ranging from 90 °C to 150 °C, have little impact on the evaporation and crystallization rates of the 0.5 μL droplet. Ultimately, for the droplets, ranging from 0.2 μL to 2.5 μL, evaporation rate increases with increasing volumes of the droplets, but the crystallization rate decreases. From the SEM results, it can be observed that the quantity of cracks on the surface of the crystals also declines with the increase in volumes. Furthermore, the Stefan flow becomes a significant and unneglectable factor in order to decrease the evaporation rate at the end of the evaporation period.

  8. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane.

  9. Fast and safe gas detection from underground coal fire by drone fly over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunnington, Lucila; Nakagawa, Masami

    2017-01-01

    Underground coal fires start naturally or as a result of human activities. Besides burning away the important non-renewable energy resource and causing financial losses, burning coal seams emit carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide and methane, and is a leading cause of smog, acid rain, global warming, and air toxins. In the U.S. alone, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects that have been completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Remediation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion. It is estimated that these fires generate as much as 3% of the world's annual carbon dioxide emissions and consume as much as 5% of its minable coal. Considering the magnitude of environmental impact and economic loss caused by burning underground coal seams, we have developed a new, safe, reliable surface measurement of coal fire gases to assess the nature of underground coal fires. We use a drone mounted with gas sensors. Drone collected gas concentration data provides a safe alternative for evaluating the rank of a burning coal seam. In this study, a new method of determining coal rank by gas ratios is developed. Coal rank is valuable for defining parameters of a coal seam such as burn temperature, burn rate, and volume of burning seam. - Graphical abstract: Concluding Figure for Gas Ratios: Plotted points and ranges of adjusted literature data. Stars represent bituminous and subbituminous coal types; Ovals represent lignite. - Highlights: • Recognize underground coal fire as a potential source of energy. • Developed a creative, safe, reliable and fast gas detection method. • Developed a concept of gas ratio measurement method that can provide more accurate description of underground burning coal resource.

  10. Technology Roadmap: High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Coal is the largest source of power globally and, given its wide availability and relatively low cost, it is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. The High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation Roadmap describes the steps necessary to adopt and further develop technologies to improve the efficiency of the global fleet of coal. To generate the same amount of electricity, a more efficient coal-fired unit will burn less fuel, emit less carbon, release less local air pollutants, consume less water and have a smaller footprint. High-efficiency, low emissions (HELE) technologies in operation already reach a thermal efficiency of 45%, and technologies in development promise even higher values. This compares with a global average efficiency for today’s fleet of coal-fired plants of 33%, where three-quarters of operating units use less efficient technologies and more than half is over 25 years old. A successful outcome to ongoing RD&D could see units with efficiencies approaching 50% or even higher demonstrated within the next decade. Generation from older, less efficient technology must gradually be phased out. Technologies exist to make coal-fired power generation much more effective and cleaner burning. Of course, while increased efficiency has a major role to play in reducing emissions, particularly over the next 10 years, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will be essential in the longer term to make the deep cuts in carbon emissions required for a low-carbon future. Combined with CCS, HELE technologies can cut CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation plants by as much as 90%, to less than 100 grams per kilowatt-hour. HELE technologies will be an influential factor in the deployment of CCS. For the same power output, a higher efficiency coal plant will require less CO2 to be captured; this means a smaller, less costly capture plant; lower operating costs; and less CO2 to be transported and stored.

  11. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO2 Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, Jr., Herbert E. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Chiu, John H. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Edberg, Carl D. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Thibeault, Paul R. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Turek, David G. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO2 from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO2 for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration

  12. A Study on Spreading Direction of Coal-fire Based with TIR Remote Sensing in Wuda Coalfield from 2000 to 2006, Northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, H-Y; Jiang, X-G; Song, X-F; Liu, L; Ni, Z-Y; Gao, C-X; Zhang, Y-Z

    2014-01-01

    Coal fires are a common and serious problem in most coal producing countries. Coal fires could not only lead to a huge loss of non-renewable energy resources, but it also can cause many environmental problems such as GHG emission, land subsidence and increment of surface temperature. So it is very important to monitor the dynamic changes of coal fires. As far as large scale coal field, remote sensing provided researchers with a new and useful technique for coal fire detection. This paper developed a research over coal fire spreading direction using a multi-temporal TIR remote sensing approach. The results successfully showed that the direction of coal fire spreading and predicted the coal fire direction of development on a regional scale or on a whole coal field scale, and a quantitative analysis of coal fires was made in the research. The results showed that the coal fires had an average annual increase of 0.5 million square meters from 1999 to 2006, and the TIR remote sensing proved to be an available tool for coal fire mapping and prediction of coal fire development

  13. Radiative heat transfer in coal-fired furnaces and oxycoal retrofit considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfurth, Jens

    2012-07-01

    Oxycoal combustion is the combustion of coal using a mixture of oxygen and cooled recycled flue gas in place of air. In the last years it has gained interest as a means of CO{sub 2} capture from stationary point sources. In particular, under emission mitigation regimes the retrofit of existing coal-fired power plants may help avoid ''stranded assets'' through lower emissions and thus costs if certain technical criteria can be met. Among these is the need to keep total heat transfer in the boiler constant while not raising the furnace exit temperature. The altered gas composition in oxycoal combustion leads to changes in both convective and radiative heat transfer, of which the latter, while of overwhelming importance in the furnace, poses a particular challenge to modellers. This work is thus primarily concerned with the simulation of radiative heat transfer. After a short introduction to oxycoal combustion, a general discussion of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models for coal combustion is given. Emphasis is placed on the physics of molecular gas band radiation, respective modelling approaches and their application within a CFD context. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that for the purposes of this work, a non-grey CFD implementation of the Exponential Wide Band Model is most suitable. Then the results of CFD simulations of the furnace of a state-of-the-art coal-fired USC boiler with a thermal power of 1,210 MW are presented, which were carried out using the commercial software FLUENT {sup registered} 6.3, combined with some User-Defined Functions. In addition to air combustion, the cases studied include variations of the burner oxygen concentration and the mode of flue gas recycling (wet and dry), the two additional parameters that present themselves in oxycoal combustion to meet the retrofit criteria. The same burner geometry optimised for oxycoal combustion was used in all cases, while the overall boiler geometry designed for air

  14. An Integrated Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model and AHP Weighting Uncertainty Analysis for Sustainability Assessment of Coal-Fired Power Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianfa Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the power generation industry from coal-based to more sustainable energy sources is an irreversible trend. In China, the coal-fired power plant, as the main electric power supply facility at present, needs to know its own sustainability level to face the future competition. A hybrid multi-criteria decision making (MCDM model is proposed in this paper to assess the sustainability levels of the existing Chinese coal-fired power units. The areal grey relational analysis (AGRA method is involved in the hybrid model, and a combined weighting method is used to determine the priorities of the criteria. The combining weight fuses the fuzzy rough set (FRS and entropy objective weighting method together with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP subjective weighting method by game theory. Moreover, an AHP weighting uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo (MC simulation is introduced to measure the uncertainty of the results, and a 95 percent confidence interval (CI is defined as the uncertainty measurement of the alternatives. A case study about eight coal-fired power units is carried out with a criteria system, which contains five aspects in an operational perspective, such as the flexibility, economic, environmental, reliability and technical criterion. The sustainability assessment is performed at the unit level, and the results give a priority rank of the eight alternatives; additionally, the uncertainty analysis supplies the extra information from a statistical perspective. This work expands a novel hybrid MCDM method to the sustainability assessment of the power generation systems, and it may be a benefit to the energy enterprises in assessing the sustainability at the unit level and enhance its ability in future sustainable development.

  15. Modes of Occurrence of Fluorine by Extraction and SEM Method in a Coal-Fired Power Plant from Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmeng Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an extraction method and environmental scanning electron microscopy (SEM are employed to reveal the changes in the occurrence mode of fluorine in a coal-fired power plant in Inner Mongolia, China. The different occurrence states of fluorine during coal combustion and emission show that fluorine in coal mainly assumes insoluble inorganic mineral forms. The results illustrate that the three typical occurrence modes in coal are CaF2, MgF2 and AlF3. The fluorine in fly ash can be captured by an electrostatic precipitator (EPS or a bag filter. In contrast, the gaseous fluorine content in flue gas is only in the range of several parts per million; thus, it cannot be used in this study. The occurrence mode of fluorine in bottom ash and slag is inorganic villiaumite (e.g., soluble NaF, KF and insoluble CaF2 which is difficult to break down even at high temperatures. The occurrence mode of fluorine with the highest content in fly ash is physically adsorbed fluorine along the direction of the flue gas flow. The insoluble inorganic mineral fluoride content in fly ash is also high, but the gradually increasing fluorine content in fly ash is mainly caused by physical adsorption. Fluorine in the coal-fired power plant discharges mostly as solid products; however, very little fluorine emitted into the environment as gas products (HF, SiF4 cannot be captured. The parameters used in this study may provide useful references in developing a monitoring and control system for fluorine in coal-fired power plants.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF THE FORMS OF MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2001-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) and the Utility Air Toxics Report to Congress (1). The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam-electric generating units. Given the current state of the art, these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required. However, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. In fact, in December 2000, the EPA issued an intent to regulate for mercury from coal-fired boilers. However, it is clear that additional research needs to be done in order to develop economical and effective mercury control strategies. To accomplish this objective, it is necessary to understand mercury behavior in coal-fired power plants. The markedly different chemical and physical properties of the different mercury forms generated during coal combustion appear to impact the effectiveness of various mercury control strategies. The original Characterization and Modeling of the Forms of Mercury from Coal-Fired Power Plants project had two tasks. The first was to collect enough data such that mercury speciation could be predicted based on relatively simple inputs such as coal analyses and plant configuration. The second was to field-validate the Ontario Hydro mercury speciation method (at the time, it had only been validated at the pilot-scale level). However, after sampling at two power plants (the Ontario Hydro method was validated at one of them), the EPA issued

  17. A development of multiphase flow facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Mustapha; Jaafar Abdullah

    2004-01-01

    Multiphase liquid flow facility shall be enabling to transport of oil/gas/water in pipelines. In horizontal pipelines, the different flow patterns that could be observed. The flow pattern will depend mainly on the gas and liquid velocities, and gas liquid ratio. For very high liquid velocities and low gas liquid ratios, the dispersed bubble flow is observed. For low flow rates of liquid and gas, a smooth or wavy stratified flow is expected. For intermediate liquid velocities, rolling waves of liquids are formed. The rolling waves increase to the point of forming a plug flow and a slug flow. For very high gas velocities, the annular flow is observed Also include a tillable test section allowing for testing at any angle between 0 0 degree from horizontal, lowering the measurement uncertainties and increased capabilities with respect to flow rates and gas fractions. (Author)

  18. Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. During this quarter, initial char combustion tests were performed at the CETF using a Foster Wheeler commercial burner. These preliminary tests were encouraging and will be used to support the development of an innovative char burner for the HIPPS

  19. The Research of Utilization Hours of Coal-Fired Power Generation Units Based on Electric Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhui; Yang, Jianlian; Wang, Jiangbo; Yang, Meng; Tian, Chunzheng; He, Xinhui

    2018-01-01

    With grid-connected scale of clean energy such as wind power and photovoltaic power expanding rapidly and cross-province transmission scale being bigger, utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units become lower and lower in the context of the current slowdown in electricity demand. This paper analyzes the influencing factors from the three aspects of demand, supply and supply and demand balance, and the mathematical model has been constructed based on the electric energy balance. The utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units have been solved considering the relationship among proportion of various types of power installed capacity, the output rate and utilization hours. By carrying out empirical research in Henan Province, the utilization hours of coal-fired units of Henan Province in 2020 has been achieved. The example validates the practicability and the rationality of the model, which can provide a basis for the decision-making for coal-fired power generation enterprises.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS OF SO2 AND NOX FROM EXISTING COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report reviews information and estimated costs on 15 emissioncontrol technology categories applicable to existing coal-fired electric utility boilers. he categories include passive controls such as least emission dispatching, conventional processes, and emerging technologies ...

  1. Relative population exposures from coal-fired and nuclear power plants in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, T.V.; Lalit, B.Y.; Mishra, U.C.

    1987-01-01

    Coal combustion for electric power generation results in dispersal of fly ash, and hence an additional radiation dose to the population living in the neighbourhood of the coal-fired power plants due to natural radioactivity present in coal. The radiation hazards of coal based and nuclear power plants operating in India are given. The dose commitments to the population living within an 88.5 km radius of the thermal and nuclear power plants in India have been computed using the method outlined in an ORNL report. The estimated dose rates for these two types of power plant were compared. The present study shows that the radiation dose from coal-fired and nuclear power plants are comparable.

  2. Do emission ceilings ruin coal-fired power plants?; Emissieplafonds nekken kolencentrales?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijmenga, J. [Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    The case of the new coal-fired power plants has already racked the brains of many. The advice offered to the court by the attorney-general constitutes the next step in this process. A temporary solution has been found for the coal-fired plants, but one question remains unanswered so far: how should an emission ceiling be used as a test instrument for permits? This article provides a direction in which a solution can be found. [Dutch] De zaak betreffende de nieuwe kolencentrales heeft al tot heel wat hoofdbrekens geleid. Het advies dat de advocaat-generaal heeft uitgebracht aan het hof is een volgende stap in dit proces. Voor de kolencentrales is een tijdelijke oplossing gevonden, maar de vraag is nog niet beantwoord hoe een emissieplafond moet worden gebruikt als toetsinstrument voor vergunningen. In dit artikel wordt aangegeven in welke richting een oplossing kan worden gezocht.

  3. UNEP Demonstrations of Mercury Emission Reduction at Two Coal-fired Power Plants in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozewicz W.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP partnership area “Mercury releases from coal combustion” (The UNEP Coal Partnership has initiated demonstrations of mercury air emission reduction at two coal-fired power plants in Russia. The first project has modified the wet particulate matter (PM scrubber installed in Toliatti thermal plant to allow for addition of chemical reagents (oxidants into the closedloop liquid spray system. The addition of oxidant resulted in significant improvement of mercury capture from 20% total mercury removal (without the additive up to 60% removal (with the additive. It demonstrates the effectiveness of sorbent injection technologies in conjunction with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP. ESPs are installed at 60%, while wet PM scrubbers are installed at 30% of total coal-fired capacity in Russia. Thus, the two UNEP Coal Partnership projects address the majority of PM emission control configurations occurring in Russia.

  4. Coal-fired power plants and the causes of high temperature corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakey, J E; Simms, N J [British Coal Corporation, Coal Technology Development Div., Cheltenham, Glos (United Kingdom); Tomkings, A B [ERA Technology Ltd., Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The heat exchangers in all types of coal-fired power plant operate in aggressive, high temperature environments where high temperature corrosion can severely limit their service lives. The extent of this corrosion is governed by the combined effects of the operating conditions of the heat exchanger and the presence of corrosive species released from the coal during operation. This paper reviews the coal-related factors, such as ash deposition, which influence the operating environments of heat exchangers in three types of coal-fired power plant - conventional pulverized coal boilers, fluidized bed boilers and coal gasification systems. The effects on the performance of the materials used for these heat exchangers are then compared. (au) 35 refs.

  5. Soil to plant transfer factor in the vicinity of coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, J.; Todorovic, D.; Jankovic, M.; Radenkovic, M.; Joksic, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the monitoring of working and living environment results in 5 coal fired powered plants, for the period from 2004. to 2009. are presented. Soil-plant transfer factor, suitable for estimation of possible contamination of food chain was chosen, as a measure of influence of power plants on the environment. The results gathered over the years of monitoring of working and living environment in the vicinity of the coal fired power plant were analyzed, and it was determined that no significant discrepancy exists comparing to the results reported in world literature. Also, the basic mathematical analysis was conducted, in order to assess the model of the behavior of the results in respect to the frequency count. (author) [sr

  6. Empirical prediction of ash deposition propensities in coal-fired utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.

    1997-01-01

    This report contain an outline of some of the ash chemistry indices utilized in the EPREDEPO (Empirical PREdiction of DEPOsition) PC-program, version 1.0 (DEPO10), developed by Flemming Frandsen, The CHEC Research Programme, at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. DEPO10 is a 1st generation FTN77 Fortran PC-programme designed to empirically predict ash deposition propensities in coal-fired utility boilers. Expectational data (empirical basis) from an EPRI-sponsored survey of ash deposition experiences at coal-fired utility boilers, performed by Battelle, have been tested for use on Danish coal chemistry - boiler operational conditions, in this study. (au) 31 refs.

  7. Economic evaluation of environmental externalities in China’s coal-fired power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Cai, Qiong; Ma, Chunbo; Hu, Yanan; Luo, Kaiyan; Li, William

    2017-01-01

    Serious environmental externalities exist in China’s power industry. Environmental economics theory suggests that the evaluation of environmental externality is the basis of designing an efficient regulation. The purposes of this study are: (1) to identify Chinese respondents’ preferences for green development of electric power industry and the socio-economic characteristics behind them; (2) to investigate the different attitudes of the respondents towards pollution and CO_2 reduction; (3) to quantitatively evaluate the environmental cost of China’s coal-fired power generation. Based on the method of choice experiments (CE) and the 411 questionnaires with 2466 data points, we found that Chinese respondents prefer PM2.5, SO_2 and NO_x reduction to CO_2 reduction and that the environment cost of coal-fired power plants in China is 0.30 yuan per kWh. In addition, we found that the socio-economic characteristics of income, education, gender, and environmental awareness have significant impacts on respondents’ choices. These findings indicate that the environmental cost of coal-fired power generation is a significant factor that requires great consideration in the formulation of electric power development policies. In addition, importance should also be attached to the implementation of green power price policy and enhancement of environmental protection awareness. - Highlights: • Chinese respondents have willingness to pay premium for green development. • The environment cost of coal-fired power plants in China is 0.30 yuan/kwh. • Chinese respondents prefer PM2.5, SO_2 and NO_x reduction to CO_2 reduction. • Environmental awareness has significant impacts on respondents’ preferences. • Income, education and gender affect the evaluation results.

  8. Assessment of 210Po deposition in moss species and soil around coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nita Salina Abu Bakar; Ahmad Saat

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the depositions of 210 Po were assessed in the surface soil and some mosses species found in the area around coal fired power plant using radiochemical deposition and alpha spectrometry counting system. The purposes of the study were to determine activity concentrations of 210 Po in mosses and surface soil collected around coal-fired power plant in relation to trace the potential source of 210 Po and to identify most suitable moss species as a bio-indicator for 210 Po deposition. In this study, different species of mosses, Orthodontium imfractum, Campylopus serratus and Leucobryum aduncum were collected in May 2011 at the area around 15 km radius from Tanjung Bin coal-fired power plant located in Pontian, Johor. The 210 Po activity concentrations in mosses and soil varied in the range 102 ± 4 to 174 ± 8 Bq/kg dry wt. and 37 ± 2 to 184 ± 8 Bq/kg dry wt., respectively. Corresponding highest activity concentration of 210 Po observed in L. aduncum, therefore, this finding can be concluded this species was the most suitable as a bio-indicator for 210 Po deposition. On the other hand, it is clear the accumulation of 210 Po in mosses might be supplied from various sources of atmospheric deposition such as coal-fired power plant operation, industrial, plantation, agriculture and fertilizer activities, burned fuel fossil and forest; and other potential sources. Meanwhile, the main source of 210 Po in surface soil is supplied from the in situ deposition of radon decay and its daughters in the soil itself. (author)

  9. Dry cooling for coal fired power plants: the new state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souvenir, C.; Nagel, P. [SPX Cooling Technologies (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    In the first part of this paper an update is provided regarding the use of dry cooling in power plants. The evolution of the reasons leading to this technical solution, the trends in the market place, and the growth over the last 15 years are described. In the second part, the use of current advanced dry cooling technologies for coal-fired plants in China is illustrated. 34 figs.

  10. Natural radionuclides in soil profiles surrounding the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanić Milan N.; Janković-Mandić Ljiljana J.; Gajić Boško A.; Daković Marko Z.; Dragović Snežana D.; Bačić Goran G.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of the largest Serbian coal-fired power plant on radionuclide concentrations in soil profiles up to 50 cm in depth. Thirty soil profiles were sampled from the plant surroundings (up to 10 km distance) and analyzed using standard methods for soil physicochemical properties and gamma ray spectrometry for specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th). Spatial and vertical distribution of radionuclides wa...

  11. The challenge for gas: get price-competitive with coal-fired electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, Len

    1999-01-01

    The challenge for the gas industry is to become price competitive with coal-fired electricity if it wants a larger share of the energy market. Returning to the issue of greater use of gas for electricity generation, the author points out that although electricity prices were rising they were still below the point where gas-fired electricity generation was viable. Copyright (1999) The Australian Gas Journal

  12. Study on the Concentration Measurement of the Pollution Gases from Coal-Fired Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L J; Li, W

    2006-01-01

    CO 2 is a main kind of pollution gases discharged from coal-fired power station. The relationship between gas concentration and pressure, temperature is deduced base on the law of Beer-Lambert and the theory of gas line-shape. The tunable diode laser spectral technology is used to analyze the changing regularity of the peak, half-peak width of the absorption curve with pressure and temperature

  13. Future CO2 emissions and electricity generation from proposed coal-fired power plants in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Christine; Fofrich, Robert; Davis, Steven J.

    2017-04-01

    With its growing population, industrializing economy, and large coal reserves, India represents a critical unknown in global projections of future CO2 emissions. Here, we assess proposed construction of coal-fired power plants in India and evaluate their implications for future emissions and energy production in the country. As of mid-2016, 243 gigawatts (GW) of coal-fired generating capacity are under development in India, including 65 GW under construction and an additional 178 GW proposed. These under-development plants would increase the coal capacity of India's power sector by 123% and, when combined with the country's goal to produce at least 40% of its power from non-fossil sources by 2030, exceed the country's projected future electricity demand. The current proposals for new coal-fired plants could therefore either "strand" fossil energy assets (i.e., force them to retire early or else operate at very low capacity factors) and/or ensure that the goal is not met by "locking-out" new, low-carbon energy infrastructure. Similarly, future emissions from the proposed coal plants would also exceed the country's climate commitment to reduce its 2005 emissions intensity 33% to 35% by 2030, which—when combined with the commitments of all other countries—is itself not yet ambitious enough to meet the international goal of holding warming well below 2°C relative to the pre-industrial era.

  14. Historical costs of coal-fired electricity and implications for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNerney, James; Doyne Farmer, J.; Trancik, Jessika E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the cost of coal-fired electricity in the United States between 1882 and 2006 by decomposing it in terms of the price of coal, transportation cost, energy density, thermal efficiency, plant construction cost, interest rate, capacity factor, and operations and maintenance cost. The dominant determinants of cost have been the price of coal and plant construction cost. The price of coal appears to fluctuate more or less randomly while the construction cost follows long-term trends, decreasing from 1902 to 1970, increasing from 1970 to 1990, and leveling off since then. Our analysis emphasizes the importance of using long time series and comparing electricity generation technologies using decomposed total costs, rather than costs of single components like capital. By taking this approach we find that the history of coal-fired electricity suggests there is a fluctuating floor to its future costs, which is determined by coal prices. Even if construction costs resumed a decreasing trend, the cost of coal-based electricity would drop for a while but eventually be determined by the price of coal, which fluctuates while showing no long-term trend. - Research highlights: → 125-year history highlights the dominant determinants of coal-fired electricity costs. → Results suggest a fluctuating floor to future costs, determined by coal prices. → Analysis emphasizes importance of comparing technologies using decomposed total costs.

  15. Radiation doses from coal-fired plants in Oxfordshire and Berkshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, S.L.; Wrixon, A.D.

    1988-12-01

    This report contains an assessment of the radiation doses to members of the public living in Oxfordshire and Berkshire from the releases to atmosphere of natural radioactivity from Didcot Power Station and the coal-fired boilers that operate at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston and the Harwell Laboratory of UKAEA. The calculated annual effective dose equivalents to adults from the emissions from Didcot Power Station and the coal-fired plants at AWE, Aldermaston, and UKAEA, Harwell, at 5 km from the sites are, respectively, 0.3, 0.06 and 0.01 μSv. The dose to red bone marrow are broadly comparable with these values. The doses to the other age groups considered (1-year-old and 10-year-old children) are similar to those to the adults. The conclusion is therefore drawn that the discharges from the coal-fired plants make a negligible contribution to the total radiation doses received by the population living around the sites. (author)

  16. Radioactivity level of soil around Baqiao coal-fired power plant in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xinwei; Zhao, Caifeng; Chen, Cancan; Liu, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Natural radioactivity level of soil around Baqiao coal-fired power plant in China was determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied soil samples range from 27.6 to 48.8, 44.4 to 61.4 and 640.2 to 992.2 Bq kg −1 with an average of 36.1, 51.1 and 733.9 Bq kg −1 , respectively, which are slightly higher than the average values of Shaanxi soil. The radium equivalent activity, the air absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose rate were calculated and compared with the internationally reported or reference values. The radium equivalent activities of the studied samples are below the internationally accepted values. The air absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose rate received by the local residents due to the natural radionuclides in soil are slightly higher than the mean value of Xi'an and worldwide. - Highlights: ► Natural radioactivity in soil around the coal-fired power plant was determined. ► Radiological parameters were used to assess radiation hazard. ► The coal-fired power plant has affected the local radioactivity level.

  17. Southeast Asia - air pollution control and coal-fired power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soud, H.N.

    1997-12-01

    Coal-fired power generation in Southeast Asia continues to grow in order to satisfy the increasing demand for electricity throughout the region. Emissions standards have been adopted in some Southeast Asian countries. Particulate matter, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions are the main air pollutants for which standards have been introduced. Coal cleaning, and upgrading are not used much currently. Blending is used in Thailand and is being investigated in Indonesia. Pulverised coal combustion continues to dominate the coal-fired generating capacity. FBC is used at smaller scale and in a few cases. PFBC and IGCC are considered only as options for the future. Control priority is given to particulate matter and ESPs are installed on most (existing and new) coal-fired plants. Although FGD has been installed at Mae Moh in Thailand and is planned for Paiton in Indonesia and Sual in the Philippines, the technology is still considered expensive and its application is likely to remain limited. Boiler optimisation is the main NO{sub x} abatement method currently used. It is expected that low NO{sub x} burners will be used in the future especially in new plant. 166 refs., 1 fig., 40 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of NOX emissions from TVA coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.W.; Stamey-Hall, S.

    1991-01-01

    The paper gives results of a preliminary evaluation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from 11 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) coal-fired power plants. Current EPA AP-42 emission factors for NOx from coal-fired utility boilers do not account for variations either in these emissions as a function of generating unit load, or in designs of boilers of the same general type, particularly wall-fired boilers. The TVA has compiled short-term NOx emissions data from 30 units at 11 TVA coal-fired plants. These units include cyclone, cell burner, single wall, opposed wall, single tangential, and twin tangential boiler firing designs. Tests were conducted on 29 of the 30 units at high load; 18 were also tested at reduced load. NOx emissions rates were calculated for each test and compared to the calculated rate for each boiler type using AP-42. Preliminary analysis indicates that: (1) TVA cyclone-fired units emit more NOx than estimated using AP-42; (2) TVA cell burner units emit considerably more NOx than estimated; (3) most TVA single-wall-fired units emit slightly more NOx than estimated; (4) most TVA single-furnace tangentially fired units emit less NOx than estimated at high load, but the same as (or more than) estimated at reduced load; and (5) most TVA twin-furnace tangentially fired units, at high load, emit slightly more NOx than estimated using AP-42

  19. Natural Radionuclides in Slag/Ash Pile from Coal-Fired Power Plant Plomin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.; Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The coal slag/ash pile contains about one million tons of different (bottom ash, filter ash, gypsum) waste material deposited in vicinity of Plomin coal-fired power plant. Activities of 40 K, 228 Ra, 226 Ra and 238 U in materials deposited on slag/ash pile as well as in used coals were occasionally measured during past more than two and half decades of Plomin coal-fired plant operation. The radionuclides content in deposited bottom and filter ash material are related with radionuclide activities and mineral matter fraction in coals used. Up to the middle of nineties, the majority of coal used was anthracite from Istrian local mines. In that period, deposited waste material was characterised with relatively high 226 Ra and 238 U activities while potassium and thorium content was very low. When Istrian coal has been completely substituted with imported coal, uranium series radionuclide concentrations in deposited waste materials decreased significantly. Meanwhile, potassium and thorium activities in slag/ash pile material increased. It seems that slag/ash pile material generated in the last several years of Plomin coal-fired power plant operation could be generally used in cement industry without any special restriction. (author)

  20. Environmental cost benefit analysis for a coal-fired power plant. An application of dispersion modelling coupled with GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguz, M.; Balta, T.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, local air quality impacts of a proposed conventional coal-fired power at Icel region has been investigated using numerical dispersion modeling studies coupled with a GIS application. Within the impact area of the facility, Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST2) dispersion model has been used to estimate ground level concentrations of air pollutants originating from the power plant. For the same impact area, GIS applications have been utilized to determine the agricultural yield distribution. For this purpose, relevant satellite images were digitized, classified and statistically analyzed. Based on the predicted ground level pollutant concentrations and sensitivity of the agricultural crops to those, agricultural yield loss was estimated for the impact area. The results have been quantified and validated in monetary terms for the purpose of performing an environmental cost benefit analysis. Comparison of the conventional cost benefit analysis with the environmental cost benefit analysis showed the significance of the external cost of the proposed facility, resulting from the environmental damages. 6 refs

  1. Proposition of primary methods for nitrogen oxides emissions reduction at coal-fired 200 MW power unit (Yugoslavia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repic, B.; Mladenovic, R.; Crnomarkovic, N.

    1997-01-01

    The combustion of coal is followed by increased pollution of the environment with toxic products. Together with the generation of other pollutants, the emission of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) represents, due to its high toxicity, a great environmental risk. Appropriate measures must be taken for lowering NO x emission, both on new facilities and those already in operation. Basic technologies (primary reduction methods) of several generations, developed until now and used in practice, are presented in the paper. The technologies applicable on domestic facilities and adjusted to domestic coals have been given particular consideration. Proposition of primary methods for NO x emission reduction at coal-fired 200 MW power unit at TPS 'Nikola Tesla' is analyzed. The following methods have been considered in detail: flue gases recirculation, multi-stage combustion, low-NO x burners, additional over-fire air, multi-stage air intake into the furnace, staged fuel injection, grinding fineness increase, etc. Considerations were performed according to existing constructive characteristics of the furnace and the burners, and characteristics of used fuels, i. e. lignites from Kolubara pit. (Author)

  2. The ADESORB Process for Economical Production of Sorbents for Mercury Removal from Coal Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Stewart

    2008-03-12

    The DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) currently manages the largest research program in the country for controlling coal-based mercury emissions. NETL has shown through various field test programs that the determination of cost-effective mercury control strategies is complex and highly coal- and plant-specific. However, one particular technology has the potential for widespread application: the injection of activated carbon upstream of either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter baghouse. This technology has potential application to the control of mercury emissions on all coal-fired power plants, even those with wet and dry scrubbers. This is a low capital cost technology in which the largest cost element is the cost of sorbents. Therefore, the obvious solutions for reducing the costs of mercury control must focus on either reducing the amount of sorbent needed or decreasing the cost of sorbent production. NETL has researched the economics and performance of novel sorbents and determined that there are alternatives to the commercial standard (NORIT DARCO{reg_sign} Hg) and that this is an area where significant technical improvements can still be made. In addition, a key barrier to the application of sorbent injection technology to the power industry is the availability of activated carbon production. Currently, about 450 million pounds ($250 million per year) of activated carbon is produced and used in the U.S. each year - primarily for purification of drinking water, food, and beverages. If activated carbon technology were to be applied to all 1,100 power plants, EPA and DOE estimate that it would require an additional $1-$2 billion per year, which would require increasing current capacity by a factor of two to eight. A new facility to produce activated carbon would cost approximately $250 million, would increase current U.S. production by nearly 25%, and could take four to five years to build. This means that there could be

  3. Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal fired, closed cycle, magnetohydrodynamic power generation are detailed. These accomplishments relate to all system aspects of a CCMHD power generation system including coal combustion, heat transfer to the MHD working fluid, MHD power generation, heat and cesium seed recovery and overall systems analysis. Direct coal firing of the combined cycle has been under laboratory development in the form of a high slag rejection, regeneratively air cooled cyclone coal combustor concept, originated within this program. A hot bottom ceramic regenerative heat exchanger system was assembled and test fired with coal for the purposes of evaluating the catalytic effect of alumina on NO/sub x/ emission reduction and operability of the refractory dome support system. Design, procurement, fabrication and partial installation of a heat and seed recovery flow apparatus was accomplished and was based on a stream tube model of the full scale system using full scale temperatures, tube sizes, rates of temperature change and tube geometry. Systems analysis capability was substantially upgraded by the incorporation of a revised systems code, with emphasis on ease of operator interaction as well as separability of component subroutines. The updated code was used in the development of a new plant configuration, the Feedwater Cooled (FCB) Brayton Cycle, which is superior to the CCMHD/Steam cycle both in performance and cost. (WHK)

  4. Compressed Air Quality, A Case Study In Paiton Coal Fired Power Plant Unit 1 And 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indah, Nur; Kusuma, Yuriadi; Mardani

    2018-03-01

    The compressed air system becomes part of a very important utility system in a Plant, including the Steam Power Plant. In PLN’S coal fired power plant, Paiton units 1 and 2, there are four Centrifugal air compressor types, which produce compressed air as much as 5.652 cfm and with electric power capacity of 1200 kW. Electricity consumption to operate centrifugal compressor is 7.104.117 kWh per year. Compressed air generation is not only sufficient in quantity (flow rate) but also meets the required air quality standards. compressed air at Steam Power Plant is used for; service air, Instrument air, and for fly Ash. This study aims to measure some important parameters related to air quality, followed by potential disturbance analysis, equipment breakdown or reduction of energy consumption from existing compressed air conditions. These measurements include counting the number of dust particles, moisture content, relative humidity, and also compressed air pressure. From the measurements, the compressed air pressure generated by the compressor is about 8.4 barg and decreased to 7.7 barg at the furthest point, so the pressure drop is 0.63 barg, this number satisfies the needs in the end user. The measurement of the number of particles contained in compressed air, for particle of 0.3 micron reaches 170,752 particles, while for the particle size 0.5 micron reaches 45,245 particles. Measurements of particles conducted at several points of measurement. For some point measurements the number of dust particle exceeds the standard set by ISO 8573.1-2010 and also NACE Code, so it needs to be improved on the air treatment process. To see the amount of moisture content in compressed air, it is done by measuring pressure dew point temperature (PDP). Measurements were made at several points with results ranging from -28.4 to 30.9 °C. The recommendation of improving compressed air quality in steam power plant, Paiton unit 1 and 2 has the potential to extend the life of

  5. Mercury emissions from South Africa’s coal-fired power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda L. Garnham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a persistent and toxic substance that can be bio-accumulated in the food chain. Natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the mercury emitted in the atmosphere. Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in South Africa contributed just under 93% of the total electricity produced in 2015 (Eskom 2016. Trace amounts of mercury can be found in coal, mostly combined with sulphur, and can be released into the atmosphere upon combustion. Coal-fired electricity generation plants are the highest contributors to mercury emissions in South Africa. A major factor affecting the amount of mercury emitted into the atmosphere is the type and efficiency of emission abatement equipment at a power station. Eskom employs particulate emission control technology at all its coal-fired power stations, and new power stations will also have sulphur dioxide abatement technology. A co-beneficial reduction of mercury emissions exists as a result of emission control technology. The amount of mercury emitted from each of Eskom’s coal-fired power stations is calculated, based on the amount of coal burnt and the mercury content in the coal. Emission Reduction Factors (ERF’s from two sources are taken into consideration to reflect the co-benefit received from the emission control technologies at the stations. Between 17 and 23 tons of mercury is calculated to have been emitted from Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in 2015. On completion of Eskom’s emission reduction plan, which includes fabric filter plant retrofits at two and a half stations and a flue gas desulphurisation retrofit at one power station, total mercury emissions from the fleet will potentially be reduced by 6-13% by 2026 relative to the baseline. Mercury emission reduction is perhaps currently not the most pressing air quality problem in South Africa. While the focus should then be on reducing emissions of other pollutants which have a greater impact on human health, mercury emission reduction

  6. Committed CO2 Emissions of China's Coal-fired Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suqin, J.

    2016-12-01

    The extent of global warming is determined by the cumulative effects of CO2 in the atmosphere. Coal-fired power plants, the largest anthropogenic source of CO2 emissions, produce large amount of CO2 emissions during their lifetimes of operation (committed emissions), which thus influence the future carbon emission space under specific targets on mitigating climate change (e.g., the 2 degree warming limit relative to pre-industrial levels). Comprehensive understanding of committed CO2 emissions for coal-fired power generators is urgently needed in mitigating global climate change, especially in China, the largest global CO2emitter. We calculated China's committed CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generators installed during 1993-2013 and evaluated their impact on future emission spaces at the provincial level, by using local specific data on the newly installed capacities. The committed CO2 emissions are calculated as the product of the annual coal consumption from newly installed capacities, emission factors (CO2emissions per unit crude coal consumption) and expected lifetimes. The sensitivities about generators lifetimes and the drivers on provincial committed emissions are also analyzed. Our results show that these relatively recently installed coal-fired power generators will lead to 106 Gt of CO2 emissions over the course of their lifetimes, which is more than three times the global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels in 2010. More than 80% (85 Gt) of their total committed CO2 will be emitted after 2013, which are referred to as the remaining emissions. Due to the uncertainties of generators lifetime, these remaining emissions would increase by 45 Gt if the lifetimes of China's coal-fired power generators were prolonged by 15 years. Furthermore, the remaining emissions are very different among various provinces owing to local developments and policy disparities. Provinces with large amounts of secondary industry and abundant coal reserves have higher committed

  7. Adapting sustainable low-carbon techologies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Peter Shyr-Jye

    1997-09-01

    The scientific community is deeply concerned about the effect of greenhouse-gases (GHGs) on global climate change. A major climate shift can result in tragic destruction to our world. Carbon dioxide (COsb2) emissions from coal-fired power plants are major anthropogenic sources that contribute to potential global warming. The People's Republic of China, with its rapidly growing economy and heavy dependence on coal-fired power plants for electricity, faces increasingly serious environmental challenges. This research project seeks to develop viable methodologies for reducing the potential global warming effects and serious air pollution arising from excessive coal burning. China serves as a case study for this research project. Major resolution strategies are developed through intensive literature reviews to identify sustainable technologies that can minimize adverse environmental impacts while meeting China's economic needs. The research thereby contributes technological knowledge to the field of Applied Sciences. The research also integrates modern power generation technologies with China's current and future energy requirements. With these objectives in mind, this project examines how China's environmental issues are related to China's power generation methods. This study then makes strategic recommendations that emphasize low-carbon technologies as sustainable energy generating options to be implemented in China. These low-carbon technologies consist of three options: (1) using cleaner fuels converted from China's plentiful domestic coal resources; (2) applying high-efficiency gas turbine systems for power generation; and (3) integrating coal gasification processes with energy saving combined cycle gas turbine systems. Each method can perform independently, but a combined strategy can achieve the greatest COsb2 reductions. To minimize economic impacts caused by technological changes, this study also addresses additional alternatives that can be implemented in

  8. Diagnostic instrumentation development program for the heat recovery/seed recovery system of the open-cycle, coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphree, D.L.; Cook, R.L.; Bauman, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    Highly efficient and environmentally acceptable, the coal-fired MHD power plant is an attractive facility for producing electricity. The design of its downstream system, however, presents technological risks which must be corrected if such a plant is to be commercially viable before the end of the century. The heat recovery/seed recovery system (HRSR) at its present stage is vulnerable to corrosion on the gas side of the radiant furnace, the secondary superheater, and the intermediate temperature air heater. Slagging and fouling of the heat transfer surface have yet to be eliminated. Gas chemistry, radiant heat transfer, and particulate removal are other problematic areas which are being researched in a DOE development program whose test activities at three facilities are contributing to an MHD/HRSR data base. In addition, a 20 MWt system to study HRSR design, is being now assembled in Tennessee

  9. Sultan - forced flow, high field test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, I.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1981-01-01

    Three European laboratories: CNEN (Frascati, I) ECN (Petten, NL) and SIN (Villigen, CH) decided to coordinate their development efforts and to install a common high field forced flow test facility at Villigen Switzerland. The test facility SULTAN (Supraleiter Testanlage) is presently under construction. As a first step, an 8T/1m bore solenoid with cryogenic periphery will be ready in 1981. The cryogenic system, data acquisition system and power supplies which are contributed by SIN are described. Experimental feasibilities, including cooling, and instrumentation are reviewed. Progress of components and facility construction is described. Planned extension of the background field up to 12T by insert coils is outlined. 5 refs

  10. Mathematical optimization techniques for managing selective catalytic reduction for a fleet of coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis Pena, Antonio Alejandro

    Major commercial electricity generation is done by burning fossil fuels out of which coal-fired power plants produce a substantial quantity of electricity worldwide. The United States has large reserves of coal, and it is cheaply available, making it a good choice for the generation of electricity on a large scale. However, one major problem associated with using coal for combustion is that it produces a group of pollutants known as nitrogen oxides (NO x). NOx are strong oxidizers and contribute to ozone formation and respiratory illness. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates the quantity of NOx emitted to the atmosphere in the United States. One technique coal-fired power plants use to reduce NOx emissions is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). SCR uses layers of catalyst that need to be added or changed to maintain the required performance. Power plants do add or change catalyst layers during temporary shutdowns, but it is expensive. However, many companies do not have only one power plant, but instead they can have a fleet of coal-fired power plants. A fleet of power plants can use EPA cap and trade programs to have an outlet NOx emission below the allowances for the fleet. For that reason, the main aim of this research is to develop an SCR management mathematical optimization methods that, with a given set of scheduled outages for a fleet of power plants, minimizes the total cost of the entire fleet of power plants and also maintain outlet NO x below the desired target for the entire fleet. We use a multi commodity network flow problem (MCFP) that creates edges that represent all the SCR catalyst layers for each plant. This MCFP is relaxed because it does not consider average daily NOx constraint, and it is solved by a binary integer program. After that, we add the average daily NOx constraint to the model with a schedule elimination constraint (MCFPwSEC). The MCFPwSEC eliminates, one by one, the solutions that do not satisfy the average daily

  11. Feedlot biomass co-firing: a renewable energy alternative for coal-fired utilities. Paper no. IGEC-1-128

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumugam, S.; Thien, B.; Annamalai, K.; Sweeten, J.

    2005-01-01

    The swiftly growing feedlot industry in the United States upshots in the production of manure from one or more animal species in excess of what can safely be applied to farmland in accordance with nutrient management plans. Disposal of the vast quantity of manure produced as a by-product of the cattle feeding industry is one of the major operating tasks of the industry. Aside from the traditional means of disposal as fertilizer, an alternative and attractive way of overcoming this threat is to develop processes that make use of manure as an energy resource. In the present study, the feasibility of using of manure as a fuel in existing coal fired power plants is considered and appropriately termed Feedlot Biomass (FB). The technology of co-firing coal: feedlot biomass facilitates an environment friendly utilization of animal waste for the production of valuable power/steam concurrently addressing the renewable energy, groundwater contamination, and greenhouse gas concerns. Co-firing tests were performed at the Texas AandM University 30 kW t (100,000 Btu/h) laboratory-scale facility. The trials revealed the enhanced combustion of the blends. The NO emissions were less for the blend even with higher nitrogen content of FB as compared to coal. (author)

  12. Comparative study of radiological impact of nuclear power plant and coal-fired power plant: estimation of radiation dose to public from nuclear power plant and coal-fired power plant generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbara, Heru; Yatim, Sofyan

    1998-01-01

    Radiation impact assessment of Nuclear Power Plant and Coal-Fired Power Plant in Muria Penninsula was carried out. The computation of radionuclide releases to the atmosphere subjects to gaussian plume model, on the other hand, the radionuclide transfer model between environmental compartment (pathway) follow concentration factor methods. Both models are compiled in GENII-The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System, which is used in the assessment. Most of all input data for GENII package are site specific, such as meteorological data, stack flow, stack height, population, local consumption except the transfer factor data are taken from the GENII package. The results show that during operation of NPP the maximal exposed individual received annual effective dose 150 nSv at 300 -700 m from the site toward east otherwise in operation of CPP the maximal exposed individual received annual effective dose 410 nSv in the same distance and direction. Both results of the maximal exposed individual received annual effective dose about 0,003 % and 0,008 % of whole body annual dose limit for members of public for NPP and CPP. (author)

  13. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007–2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM 10 , PM 2.5 , SO 2 , NO x , CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NO x and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers. - Highlights: • A unit-based emission inventory of coal-fired industrial boilers is developed. • Temporal trend of historical period 2007–2013 and the future till 2030 is

  14. Temperature prediction in a coal fired boiler with a fixed bed by fuzzy logic based on numerical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyikoglu, A.; Akcayol, M.A.; Oezdemir, V.; Sivrioglu, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, steady state combustion in boilers with a fixed bed has been investigated. Temperature distributions in the combustion chamber of a coal fired boiler with a fixed bed are predicted using fuzzy logic based on data obtained from the numerical solution method for various coal and air feeding rates. The numerical solution method and the discretization of the governing equations of two dimensional turbulent flow in the combustion chamber and one dimensional coal combustion in the fixed bed are explained. Control Volume and Finite Difference Methods are used in the discretization of the equations in the combustion chamber and in the fixed bed, respectively. Results are presented as contours within the solution domain and compared with numerical ones. Comparison of the results shows that the difference between the numerical solution and fuzzy logic prediction throughout the computational domain is less than 1.5%. The statistical coefficient of multiple determinations for the investigated cases is about 0.9993 to 0.9998. This accuracy degree is acceptable in predicting the temperature values. So, it can be concluded that fuzzy logic provides a feasible method for defining the system properties

  15. Environmental impacts of nuclear and coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horyna, J.; Horynova, H.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation in the development of nuclear power in the world and in Czechoslovakia is briefly outlined and the possibilities are discussed of alternative energy resources. The environmental impact is described of conventional power plants firing coal; sulphur and nitrogen oxides are mentioned and their environmental impacts shown. Their quantities and the quantities of other gaseous, liquid and soid wastes produced by coal power plants are given. Annual estimates are presented of radioactive material emissions; trace amount emissions of toxic metals and their ecological risks are shown. Concern over the increasing concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere is voiced. For nuclear power plants, the amount of radionuclides in stack emission and of those released into water flows is tabulated. Their effect on the aqueous ecosystem is characterized as is thermal pollution of water flows and the environmental impact of cooling towers. Other factors are also mentioned, such as the increased industrial land use, the effect of high voltage transmission lines and aesthetic effects. The conclusion is arrived at that the construction of nuclear power plants will eliminate the adverse environmental impact of emissions while the other impacts of the two types of power plants are comparable. (A.K.)

  16. Life cycle assessment of coal-fired power plants and sensitivity analysis of CO2 emissions from power generation side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Libao; Liao, Yanfen; Zhou, Lianjie; Wang, Zhao; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-05-01

    The life cycle assessment and environmental impacts of a 1000MW coal-fired power plant were carried out in this paper. The results showed that the operation energy consumption and pollutant emission of the power plant are the highest in all sub-process, which accounts for 93.93% of the total energy consumption and 92.20% of the total emission. Compared to other pollutant emissions from the coal-fired power plant, CO2 reached up to 99.28%. Therefore, the control of CO2 emission from the coal-fired power plants was very important. Based on the BP neural network, the amount of CO2 emission from the generation side of coal-fired power plants was calculated via carbon balance method. The results showed that unit capacity, coal quality and unit operation load had great influence on the CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants in Guangdong Province. The use of high volatile and high heat value of coal also can reduce the CO2 emissions. What’s more, under higher operation load condition, the CO2 emissions of 1 kWh electric energy was less.

  17. Exergetic and Parametric Study of a Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Hu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A solar-aided coal-fired power plant realizes the integration of a fossil fuel (coal or gas and clean energy (solar. In this paper, a conventional 600 MW coal-fired power plant and a 600 MW solar-aided coal-fired power plant have been taken as the study case to understand the merits of solar-aided power generation (SAPG technology. The plants in the case study have been analyzed by using the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics principles. The solar irradiation and load ratio have been considered in the analysis. We conclude that if the solar irradiation was 925 W/m2 and load ratio of the SAPG plant was 100%, the exergy efficiency would be 44.54% and the energy efficiency of the plant (46.35%. It was found that in the SAPG plant the largest exergy loss was from the boiler, which accounted for about 76.74% of the total loss. When the load ratio of the unit remains at 100%, and the solar irradiation varies from 500 W/m2 to 1,100 W/m2, the coal savings would be in the range of 8.6 g/kWh to 15.8 g/kWh. If the solar irradiation were kept at 925 W/m2 while the load ratio of the plant changed from 30% to 100%, the coal savings could be in the range of 11.99 g/kWh to 13.75 g/kWh.

  18. Performance analysis of US coal-fired power plants by measuring three DEA efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika; Ueno, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has been widely used for performance evaluation of many organizations in private and public sectors. This study proposes a new DEA approach to evaluate the operational, environmental and both-unified performance of coal-fired power plants that are currently operating under the US Clean Air Act (CAA). The economic activities of power plants examined by this study are characterized by four inputs, a desirable (good) output and three undesirable (bad) outputs. This study uses Range-Adjusted Measure (RAM) because it can easily incorporate both desirable and undesirable outputs in the unified analytical structure. The output unification proposed in this study has been never investigated in the previous DEA studies even though such a unified measure is essential in guiding policy makers and corporate leaders. Using the proposed DEA approach, this study finds three important policy implications. First, the CAA has been increasingly effective on their environmental protection. The increased environmental performance leads to the enhancement of the unified efficiency. Second, the market liberalization/deregulation was an important business trend in the electric power industry. Such a business trend was legally prepared by US Energy Policy Act (EPAct). According to the level of the market liberalization, the United States is classified into regulated and deregulated states. This study finds that the operational and unified performance of coal-fired power plants in the regulated states outperforms those of the deregulated states because the investment on coal-fired power plants in the regulated states can be utilized as a financial tool under the rate-of-return criterion of regulation. The power plants in the deregulated states do not have such a regulation premium. Finally, plant managers need to balance between their environmental performance and operational efficiency.

  19. Analysis of mercury in rock varnish samples in areas impacted by coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowinski, Piotr; Hodge, Vernon F.; Gerstenberger, Shawn; Cizdziel, James V.

    2013-01-01

    Rock varnish is a manganese–iron rich coating that forms on rocks, most often in arid climates. To assess its utility as an environmental monitor of mercury contamination, cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) was used for analysis. Samples were collected in the fallout patterns of two coal-fired power plants in southern Nevada: the defunct Mohave Power Plant (MPP) and the operating Reid Gardner Power Plant (RGPP). The resultant Hg concentrations in rock varnishes were plotted as a function of the distance from each power plant. The highest concentrations of Hg occurred at locations that suggest the power plants are the main source of pollutants. In addition, past tracer plume studies carried out at MPP show that the highest tracer concentrations coincide with the highest rock varnish Hg concentrations. However, additional samples are required to further demonstrate that power plants are indeed the sources of mercury in varnishes. -- Highlights: •We analyze desert varnish samples collected in the fallout patterns of two coal-fired and analyzed for Hg by CVAA. •The resultant Hg concentrations in the desert varnish samples were plotted as a function of the distance from each power plant. •The highest concentrations of Hg occurred at locations that suggest the power plants are the main source of pollutants. •Data indicate the utility of desert varnish as a passive environmental monitor for Hg atmospheric pollution. -- Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) was used for analysis of mercury in varnished rocks collected in the fallout zones of two coal-fired power plants

  20. Comparative study of computational intelligence approaches for NOx reduction of coal-fired boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Li, Xiaolu; Xu, Lijun; Cheng, Yanting

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on NO x emission prediction and operating parameters optimization for coal-fired boilers. Support Vector Regression (SVR) model based on CGA (Conventional Genetic Algorithm) was proposed to model the relationship between the operating parameters and the concentration of NO x emission. Then CGA and two modified algorithms, the Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and SAGA (Simulated Annealing Genetic Algorithm), were employed to optimize the operating parameters of the coal-fired boiler to reduce NO x emission. The results showed that the proposed SVR model was more accurate than the widely used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model when employed to predict the concentration of NO x emission. The mean relative error and correlation coefficient calculated by the proposed SVR model were 2.08% and 0.95, respectively. Among the three optimization algorithms implemented in this paper, the SAGA showed superiority to the other two algorithms considering the quality of solution within a given computing time. The SVR plus SAGA method was preferable to predict the concentration of NO x emission and further to optimize the operating parameters to achieve low NO x emission for coal-fired boilers. - Highlights: • The CGA based SVR model is proposed to predict the concentration of NO x emission. • The CGA based SVR model performs better than the widely used ANN model. • CGA and two modified algorithms are compared to optimize the parameters. • The SAGA is preferable for its high quality of solution and low computing time. • The SVR plus SAGA is successfully employed to optimize the operating parameters

  1. Refurbishment priorities at the Russian coal-fired power sector for cleaner energy production case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Grammelis; N. Koukouzas; G. Skodras; E. Kakaras; A. Tumanovsky; V. Kotler [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), Ptolemaida (Greece)

    2006-11-15

    The paper reviews the current status of the coal-fired power sector in Russia, the prospects for renovation activities based on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and presents two case studies on potential refurbishment projects. Data were collected for 180 thermoelectric units with capacity higher than 100 MWe and the renovation needs of the power sector, among the retrofitting, repowering and reconstruction options, were estimated through a multi-criteria analysis. The most attractive system to renovate a power plant between the Supercritical Combustion (SC) and the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technologies was evaluated. The application of each of the aforementioned technologies at the Kashirskaya and Shaturskaya power plants was studied and their replication potential in the Russian coal-fired power plant park was examined. Nowadays, the installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the Russian Federation is 29.3 GWe, while they account for about 19% of the total electricity generation in the area. The low efficiency and especially the advanced age are the determinant factors for renovation applications at the Russian units. Even in the more conservative modernization scenario, over 30% of the thermoelectric units have to be repowered or reconstructed. Concrete proposals about the profitable and reliable operation of two Russian thermoelectric units with minimized environmental effects were elaborated. A new unit of 315 MWe with supercritical steam parameters and reburning for NOx abatement is envisaged to upgrade Unit 1 of Kashirskaya power station, while new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers of the same steam generation is the most promising renovation option for the boilers of Unit 1 in Shaturskaya power station. 11 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Radiological consequences of atmospheric releases from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1985-06-01

    The report deals with the individual and collective doses resulting from radioactive materials contained in the stack releases of coal-fired power plants. A critical analysis of relevant calculations in literature is given. The different reports analyzed show a very wide range in calculated doses. To a great extent these differences may be explained by the wide range in the assumptions adopted. There is also disagreement on what exposure pathways are the most important, and what nuclides contribute most to calculated doses. A most probable value of 0.5 mrem/year for the maximum individual effective dose equivalent commitment, is indicated in the report

  3. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bradley R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fry, Andrew R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Senior, Constance L. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shim, Hong Shig [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Otten, Brydger Van [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shaddix, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tree, Dale [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes Year 2 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Year 2 focused extensively on obtaining experimental data from the bench-scale, lab-scale and pilot-scale reactors. These data will be used to refine and validate submodels to be implemented in CFD simulations of full-scale boiler retrofits. Program tasks are on schedule for Year 3 completion. Both Year 2 milestones were completed on schedule and within budget.

  4. Radiological impact from airborne routine discharges of Coal-Fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norasalwa Zakaria; Rohyiza Baan; Kathiravale, Sivapalan

    2010-01-01

    Radioactivity exists everywhere in nature. We are exposed to intense and continuous natural radiation coming from the sun, cosmic radiation, telluric radiation and even to the internal radiation of our own body. The fly ash emitted from burning coal for electricity by a power plant carries into the surrounding environment 100 times more radiation than a nuclear power plant producing the same amount of energy. This paper presents the information of studies on the radiological impact from airborne routine discharge of coal-fired power plants. (author)

  5. Environment protection by coupling of a municipal waste incinerator to an existing coal fire steam boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionel, I.; Stanescu, P.D.O.; Gruescu, C.; Savu, A.; Ungureanu, C. [University of Politehnic Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2006-12-15

    The paper offers an analysis of the potential coupling of a municipal waste incinerator in Romania, to an existing coal fired steam boiler. Considering the retention of heavy metals as well as HCl from the waste flue gases before entering the boiler, the simulation analysis of the boiler, under the situation that the gases from the scrubber are introduced, are presented As general conclusion one notes that it is possible to apply the concept even if the analysed case is of less importance, but more potential application are viewed for larger industrial application, for new concepts of modern power plants, to meet EU environmental regulations, especially for CO{sub 2} reduction.

  6. Conceptual designs of pressurized fluidized bed and pulverized coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doss, H.S.; Bezella, W.A.; Hamm, J.R.; Pietruszkiewicz, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the major technical and economic characteristics of steam and air-cooled pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) power plant concepts, along with the characteristics of a pulverized coal fired power plant equipped with an adipic acid enhanced wet-limestone flue gas desulfurization system. Conceptual designs for the three plants were prepared to satisfy a set of common groundrules developed for the study. Grassroots plants, located on a generic plant site were assumed. The designs incorporate technologies projected to be commercial in the 1990 time frame. Power outputs, heat rates, and costs are presented

  7. Preliminary project definition for long duration. Tests of coal fired MHD generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Laken, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    In its final report the Faraday Working Group recommended the CEC amongst others to explore the possibility of a long duration test of a 'state-of-the-art', MHD-generator in order to remove uncertainties concerning the lifetime and availability of such a generator design. The duration of the test should be several thousands of hours, considerably more than the duration tests carried out until now. The scope of the present study is to prepare a project definition document for a long duration test of a coal fired, state-of-the-art MHD-generator

  8. Income risk of EU coal-fired power plants after Kyoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Luis M.; Chamorro, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants enjoy a significant advantage relative to gas plants in terms of cheaper fuel cost. This advantage may erode (or turn into disadvantage) depending on CO 2 emission allowance price. Financial risks are further reinforced when the price of electricity is determined by natural gas-fired plants' marginal costs. We aim to empirically assess the risks in EU coal plants' margins up to the year 2020. Parameter values are derived from actual market data. Monte Carlo simulation allows compute the expected value and risk profile of coal plants' earnings. Future allowance prices may spell significant risks on utilities' balance sheets. (author)

  9. Control strategies of atmospheric mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hezhong; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Ke; Qu, Yiping; Hao, Jiming; Xue, Zhigang; Chai, Fahe

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) emission from coal is one of the primary sources of anthropogenic discharge and pollution. China is one of the few countries in the world whose coal consumption constitutes about 70% of total primary energy, and over half of coals are burned directly for electricity generation. Atmospheric emissions of Hg and its speciation from coal-fired power plants are of great concern owing to their negative impacts on regional human health and ecosystem risks, as well as long-distance transport. In this paper, recent trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and its species split from coal-fired power plants in China during the period of 2000-2007 are evaluated, by integrating each plant's coal consumption and emission factors, which are classified by different subcategories of boilers, particulate matter (PM) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) control devices. Our results show that the total Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants have begun to decrease from the peak value of 139.19 t in 2005 to 134.55 t in 2007, though coal consumption growing steadily from 1213.8 to 1532.4 Mt, which can be mainly attributed to the co-benefit Hg reduction by electrostatic precipitators/fabric filters (ESPs/FFs) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD), especially the sharp growth in installation of WFGD both in the new and existing power plants since 2005. In the coming 12th five-year-plan, more and more plants will be mandated to install De-NO(x) (nitrogen oxides) systems (mainly selective catalytic reduction [SCR] and selective noncatalytic reduction [SNCR]) for minimizing NO(x) emission, thus the specific Hg emission rate per ton of coal will decline further owing to the much higher co-benefit removal efficiency by the combination of SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD systems. Consequently, SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD configuration will be the main path to abate Hg discharge from coal-fired power plants in China in the near future. However advanced specific Hg removal technologies are necessary

  10. The world behind electricity from coal. The dubious origin of coal for Dutch coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Five energy companies in the Netherlands want to build additional coal-fired power plants: Essent and Nuon, the German company RWE and E.ON and the Belgian company Electrabel. Coal-fired power plants emit 70 percent more CO2 than gas-fired power plants. Especially because of the threat to the climate Greenpeace believes that no more coal-fired power plants should be built. In this publication Greenpeace explores the pollution, the working conditions and human rights with regard to the exploitation of coal. That has been elaborated for the three countries from which Dutch energy companies import coal: South Africa, Colombia and Indonesia. In addition to information about the origin of coal also insight is given into the coal market (stocks and use), the enormous coal transport and the world trade [nl

  11. Technico-economic evaluation of abatement systems applying to air pollution resulting from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mounier, Marc.

    1981-09-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the analysis of the health care policies which could be considered in coal-fired power plants, in the comparative framework of the radiation protection in nuclear power plants. After a recall of the typical parameters of the air pollution due to the normal operation of a coal-fired power plant, we develop a heuristic model which allows, after having quantified the releases, to determine the theoretical health effects associated to a one-year operation of the power plant. The comparison of the various protection policies has been done with the help of a cost-effectiveness analysis. An examination of the results shows that the policy presently implemented forms a part of the cost-effective options. Nevertheless, it can be seen that the marginal protection cost is higher in nuclear power plants than in coal-fired power plants [fr

  12. Techno-Economic Analysis of Integration of Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources for Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearden, Mark D.; Davidson, Casie L.; Horner, Jacob A.; Heldebrant, David J.; Freeman, Charles J.

    2016-05-11

    Presented here are the results of a techno-economic (TEA) study of the potential for coupling low-grade geothermal resources to boost the electrical output from coal-fired power plants. This study includes identification of candidate 500 MW subcritical coal-fired power plants in the continental United States, followed by down-selection and characterization of the North Valmy generating station, a Nevada coal-fired plant. Based on site and plant characteristics, ASPEN Plus models were designed to evaluate options to integrate geothermal resources directly into existing processes at North Valmy. Energy outputs and capital costing are presented for numerous hybrid strategies, including integration with Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs), which currently represent the primary technology for baseload geothermal power generation.

  13. A new proposed approach for future large-scale de-carbonization coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Gang; Liang, Feifei; Wu, Ying; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Wenyi

    2015-01-01

    The post-combustion CO 2 capture technology provides a feasible and promising method for large-scale CO 2 capture in coal-fired power plants. However, the large-scale CO 2 capture in conventionally designed coal-fired power plants is confronted with various problems, such as the selection of the steam extraction point and steam parameter mismatch. To resolve these problems, an improved design idea for the future coal-fired power plant with large-scale de-carbonization is proposed. A main characteristic of the proposed design is the adoption of a back-pressure steam turbine, which extracts the suitable steam for CO 2 capture and ensures the stability of the integrated system. A new let-down steam turbine generator is introduced to retrieve the surplus energy from the exhaust steam of the back-pressure steam turbine when CO 2 capture is cut off. Results show that the net plant efficiency of the improved design is 2.56% points higher than that of the conventional one when CO 2 capture ratio reaches 80%. Meanwhile, the net plant efficiency of the improved design maintains the same level to that of the conventional design when CO 2 capture is cut off. Finally, the match between the extracted steam and the heat demand of the reboiler is significantly increased, which solves the steam parameter mismatch problem. The techno-economic analysis indicates that the proposed design is a cost-effective approach for the large-scale CO 2 capture in coal-fired power plants. - Highlights: • Problems caused by CO 2 capture in the power plant are deeply analyzed. • An improved design idea for coal-fired power plants with CO 2 capture is proposed. • Thermodynamic, exergy and techno-economic analyses are quantitatively conducted. • Energy-saving effects are found in the proposed coal-fired power plant design idea

  14. Application of the decree 2910 for coal fired boilers; Application de l`arrete 2910 aux chaudieres a charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hing, K. [CDF Energie, Charbonnages de France, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1997-12-31

    The impacts of the new French decree 2910 concerning the classification of all combustion equipment with regards to their energy sources, energy efficiency and pollution control, on 2 to 20 MW coal-fired boilers, are discussed, with emphasis on their pollutant emissions (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and ashes). The compositions of several coals is presented and the various types of coal-fired boilers adapted to the new decree are presented: automatic boilers, dense fluidized bed boilers, vibrating and chain grids with fume tubes and water tubes

  15. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China.

  16. Radioactivity of coals and ash and slag wastes at coal-fired thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, D. A.; Sidorova, G. P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of published data on the content of radioactive nuclides in coals originating from various coal deposits, and in ash and slag wastes produced at coal-fired thermal power plants, as well as in fly ash emitted from thermal power plants into the atmosphere. Problems related to the use of coals with an elevated content of natural radionuclides (NRNs) and methods of their solution implemented at the Urtuyskoe coalfield are dealt with. Data on the analysis of Transbaikal coals for the NRN content, as well as weighted mean content of uranium and thorium in coals from the Siberian Region, are given. In order to reduce irradiation of plant personnel and the population of the areas where coal producers and coal-fired thermal power plants are located, it is necessary to organize very careful control of the NRN content in both coals and products of their combustion that are released into the environment. To solve the problem related to the control of radioactivity, the centralized approach and creation of a proper normative base are needed. Experience gained in developing the Urtuyskoe coalfield shows that it is possible to create an efficient system of coal quality control with respect to the radiation hygiene factor and provide protection of the environment and health of the population.

  17. Statistical modeling of an integrated boiler for coal fired thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreepradha Chandrasekharan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The coal fired thermal power plants plays major role in the power production in the world as they are available in abundance. Many of the existing power plants are based on the subcritical technology which can produce power with the efficiency of around 33%. But the newer plants are built on either supercritical or ultra-supercritical technology whose efficiency can be up to 50%. Main objective of the work is to enhance the efficiency of the existing subcritical power plants to compensate for the increasing demand. For achieving the objective, the statistical modeling of the boiler units such as economizer, drum and the superheater are initially carried out. The effectiveness of the developed models is tested using analysis methods like R2 analysis and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance. The dependability of the process variable (temperature on different manipulated variables is analyzed in the paper. Validations of the model are provided with their error analysis. Response surface methodology (RSM supported by DOE (design of experiments are implemented to optimize the operating parameters. Individual models along with the integrated model are used to study and design the predictive control of the coal-fired thermal power plant. Keywords: Chemical engineering, Applied mathematics

  18. Leaching characteristics of trace elements in desulfurization gypsum from a coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.K.; Zhuo, Y.Q.; Zhu, Z.W.; Chen, C.H. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Thermal Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The contents and leaching characteristics of Cr, Cd, As, Pb and Se in FGD gypsum from a 200 MW coal-fired power plant were investigated in this study. Experimental results revealed that: the leaching characteristics of As and Se were similar, both leaching rates were not obviously affected by pH but increased with increase of the liquid-solid ratio. Pb and Cr had similar leaching characteristics, their leaching rates were closely related with the pH of leaching solution and increased with the lowering of pH and both increased with the increasing of solid-liquid ratio. Along with the increase of the liquid-solid ratio, the leaching gradually achieved balance, and the balanced liquid-solid ratio was bigger when pH of leaching solution was lower. Cd content of leaching solution was below detect limit, and thus failed to get its leaching characteristics. The order of trace element content in leaching solution is Pb < Cr < As < Se, and the order of leaching rates is Cr < As < Pb < Se. BCR extraction procedure revealed that trace elements in FGD gypsum were mainly existed as available fraction and migration ability was stronger than that of trace elements in fly ash from coal-fired power plants.

  19. Mitsubishi latest coal fired USC boiler technology (CFE Pacifico 700 MW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T.; Sakamoto, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan). Power Systems; Fujitab, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Power Systems

    2013-07-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has successfully completed commissioning work for CFE (Comision Federal de Electricidad) Pacifico 700 MW coal-fired unit in March 2010 which is the first supercritical unit in Latin America. This supercritical boiler was designed with state of the art technologies such as low NOx burners, high fineness pulverizers, advanced vertical furnace wall technology and so on. Especially the advanced vertical furnace wall technology with some improvements is a key technology to realize swift load changes such as 5% load per minute ramping rate with assuring dynamic characteristics. Recently the requirement of the high efficiency and the swift load changes for the power boilers has been increased so that even a coal-fired unit needs flexible operation characteristics for balancing variety of power sources. One of the challenges for the swift load change is to keep the furnace wall metal temperature low during the load change, which the advanced vertical furnace wall could realize. The report describes the features of the unit and commissioning result including load swing test results in details.

  20. Enginnering development of coal-fired high performance power systems phase II and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) >47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; cost of electricity <90% of present plants. Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R ampersand D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase II, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update

  1. Strategic planning on carbon capture from coal fired plants in Malaysia and Indonesia: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, M.R.; Martunus; Zakaria, R.; Fernando, W.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Malaysia and Indonesia benefit in various ways by participating in CDM and from investments in the GHG emission reduction projects, inter alia, technology transfer such as carbon capture (CC) technology for the existing and future coal fired power plants. Among the fossil fuel resources for energy generation, coal is offering an attractive solution to the increasing fuel cost. The consumption of coal in Malaysia and Indonesia is growing at the fastest rate of 9.7% and 4.7%, respectively, per year since 2002. The total coal consumption for electricity generation in Malaysia is projected to increase from 12.4 million tons in 2005 to 36 million tons in 2020. In Indonesia, the coal consumption for the same cause is projected to increase from 29.4 million tons in 2005 to 75 million tons in 2020. CO 2 emission from coal fired power plants are forecasted to grow at 4.1% per year, reaching 98 million tons and 171 million tons in Malaysia and Indonesia, respectively.

  2. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  3. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  4. On the economics of nuclear and coal-fired electric generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouris, A.

    1987-01-01

    This article addresses the relative merit of nuclear versus coal-fired electricity generation for plants beginning base-load service in South Africa after the year 2000. Emphasis is placed on the economic merits of the two technologies, and environmental and social implications are taken into account only in so far as legislation, security, and other considerations affect the economics of the technologies. It is assumed that nuclear and coal-fired generating plants wil represent the most cost-effective and feasible options for base-load service in the foreseeable future. Socio-political consideration and lack of indigenous oil production forbid the use of oil for the production of electricity, independently of economic merits. Similarly, the absence of local research on alternative renewable technologies, their stage of development abroad and their current economics limit the possibility of their extensive use in the time horizon under examination. The measure of economic merit used in the study is the 'levelized busbar cost' over the lifetime of the station

  5. Industry perspectives on increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrens, I.M. [Shell Coal International, London (United Kingdom); Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    Independent power producers will build a substantial fraction of expected new coal-fired power generation in developing countries over the coming decades. To reduce perceived risk and obtain financing for their projects, they are currently building and plan to continue to build subcritical coal-fired plants with generating efficiency below 40%. Up-to-date engineering assessment leads to the conclusion that supercritical generating technology, capable of efficiencies of up to 45%, can produce electricity at a lower total cost than conventional plants. If such plants were built in Asia over the coming decades, the savings in carbon dioxide emissions over their lifetime would be measured in billions of tons. IPPs perceive supercritical technology as riskier and higher cost than conventional technology. The truth needs to be confirmed by discussions with additional experienced power engineering companies. Better communication among the interested parties could help to overcome the IPP perception issue. Governments working together with industry might be able to identify creative financing arrangements which can encourage the use of more efficient pulverized clean coal technologies, while awaiting the commercialization of advanced clean coal technologies like gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  6. Natural radionuclides in soil profiles surrounding the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanić Milan N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of the largest Serbian coal-fired power plant on radionuclide concentrations in soil profiles up to 50 cm in depth. Thirty soil profiles were sampled from the plant surroundings (up to 10 km distance and analyzed using standard methods for soil physicochemical properties and gamma ray spectrometry for specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th. Spatial and vertical distribution of radionuclides was determined and analyzed to show the relations between the specific activities in the soil and soil properties and the most influential factors of natural radionuclide variability were identified. The radiological indices for surface soil were calculated and radiological risk assessment was performed. The measured specific activities were similar to values of background levels for Serbia. The sampling depth did not show any significant influence on specific activities of natural radionuclides. The strongest predictor of specific activities of the investigated radionuclides was soil granulometry. All parameters of radiological risk assessment were below the recommended values and adopted limits. It appears that the coal-fired power plant does not have a significant impact on the spatial and vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in the area of interest, but technologically enhanced natural radioactivity as a consequence of the plant operations was identified within the first 1.5 km from the power plant. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije br. III43009 i br. III41005

  7. Statistical modeling of an integrated boiler for coal fired thermal power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Sreepradha; Panda, Rames Chandra; Swaminathan, Bhuvaneswari Natrajan

    2017-06-01

    The coal fired thermal power plants plays major role in the power production in the world as they are available in abundance. Many of the existing power plants are based on the subcritical technology which can produce power with the efficiency of around 33%. But the newer plants are built on either supercritical or ultra-supercritical technology whose efficiency can be up to 50%. Main objective of the work is to enhance the efficiency of the existing subcritical power plants to compensate for the increasing demand. For achieving the objective, the statistical modeling of the boiler units such as economizer, drum and the superheater are initially carried out. The effectiveness of the developed models is tested using analysis methods like R 2 analysis and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). The dependability of the process variable (temperature) on different manipulated variables is analyzed in the paper. Validations of the model are provided with their error analysis. Response surface methodology (RSM) supported by DOE (design of experiments) are implemented to optimize the operating parameters. Individual models along with the integrated model are used to study and design the predictive control of the coal-fired thermal power plant.

  8. Waterwall corrosion evaluation in coal-fired boilers using electrochemical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, K.; Lee, C.; Seeley, R.; Harding, S.; Heap, M.; Cox, W.

    2000-07-01

    Until recently, waterwall corrosion in North American coal-fired boilers was uncommon and relatively mild. However, the introduction of combustion modifications to reduce in-furnace NOx formation has led to notable increases in the frequency and severity of waterwall wastage. Reaction Engineering International (REI) has worked with the Department of Energy and EPRI to improve predictive capabilities and provide solutions for furnace wall wastage for a wide range of coal-fired furnaces. To date, this work has emphasized computational simulations. More recently, REI in partnership with Corrosion Management has begun complementary efforts to improve their services by evaluating technologies capable of determining the location/rate of high water wall wastage resulting from corrosion. After an evaluation of commercially available options, electrochemical noise (EN) technology has been chosen for continued development. This approach has been successfully applied to corrosion-related problems involving acid dewpoint corrosion in flue gas ductwork, FGD systems, cooling water systems, oil and gas production, and acid cleaning (Cox et al, 1999). This paper presents the results of preliminary testing of an EN probe in a high temperature environment typical of the lower furnace of a cyclone-fired boiler operating under staged conditions. The relationship between electrochemical responses and (1) stoichiometry and (2) local hydrogen sulfide concentration is investigated and the qualitative and quantitative usefulness of the approach for on-line risk management is considered.

  9. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garty, Jacob; Tomer, Sharon; Levin, Tal; Ehr, Haya

    2003-01-01

    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, ortheast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. We examined the following parameters of lichen vitality: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F v /F m , (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, nd Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with l, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F v /F m ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites

  10. Ash fouling monitoring and key variables analysis for coal fired power plant boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yuanhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash deposition on heat transfer surfaces is still a significant problem in coal-fired power plant utility boilers. The effective ways to deal with this problem are accurate on-line monitoring of ash fouling and soot-blowing. In this paper, an online ash fouling monitoring model based on dynamic mass and energy balance method is developed and key variables analysis technique is introduced to study the internal behavior of soot-blowing system. In this process, artificial neural networks (ANN are used to optimize the boiler soot-blowing model and mean impact values method is utilized to determine a set of key variables. The validity of the models has been illustrated in a real case-study boiler, a 300MW Chinese power station. The results on same real plant data show that both models have good prediction accuracy, while the ANN model II has less input parameters. This work will be the basis of a future development in order to control and optimize the soot-blowing of the coal-fired power plant utility boilers.

  11. Local deposition of mercury in topsoils around coal-fired power plants: is it always true?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Martin, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Grigoratos, Theodoros; Carbonell, Gregoria; Samara, Constantini

    2014-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere through human activities, mainly fossil fuel combustion. Hg accumulations in soil are associated with atmospheric deposition, while coal-burning power plants remain the most important source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. In this study, we analyzed the Hg concentration in the topsoil of the Kozani-Ptolemais basin where four coal-fired power plants (4,065 MW) run to provide 50 % of electricity in Greece. The study aimed to investigate the extent of soil contamination by Hg using geostatistical techniques to evaluate the presumed Hg enrichment around the four power plants. Hg variability in agricultural soils was evaluated using 276 soil samples from 92 locations covering an area of 1,000 km(2). We were surprised to find a low Hg content in soil (range 1-59 μg kg(-1)) and 50 % of samples with a concentration lower than 6 μg kg(-1). The influence of mercury emissions from the four coal-fired power plants on soil was poor or virtually nil. We associate this effect with low Hg contents in the coal (1.5-24.5 μg kg(-1)) used in the combustion of these power plants (one of the most Hg-poor in the world). Despite anthropic activity in the area, we conclude that Hg content in the agricultural soils of the Kozani-Ptolemais basin is present in low concentrations.

  12. Efficiency and environmental impacts of electricity restructuring on coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, H. Ron [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Economics; Fell, Harrison [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Division of Economics and Business; Lange, Ian [Stirling Univ. (United Kingdom). Division of Economics; Li, Shanjun [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management

    2013-03-15

    We investigate the impacts of electricity market restructuring on fuel efficiency, utilization and, new to this area, cost of coal purchases among coal-fired power plants using a panel data set from 1991 to 2005. Our study focuses exclusively on coal-fired power plants and uses panel data covering several years after implementation of restructuring. The estimation compares how investor-owned (IOs) plants in states with restructuring changed their behavior relative to IOs in states without. Our analysis finds that restructuring led to: (1) a two percent improvement in fuel efficiency for IOs, (2) a ten percent decrease in unit cost of heat input, and (3) a lower capacity factor even after adjusting for cross-plant generation re-allocation due to cost reductions. Based on these estimates, back-of-the-envelope calculations find that restructuring has led to about 6.5 million dollars in annual cost savings or nearly 12 percent of operating expenses and up to a 7.6 percent emissions reduction per plant.

  13. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which

  14. ECONOMICS AND FEASIBILITY OF RANKINE CYCLE IMPROVEMENTS FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard E. Waryasz; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2004-09-08

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), American Electric Company (AEP) and Parsons Energy and Chemical Group to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating coal fired steam power plants, known as Rankine Cycles, equipped with three different combustion systems: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}). Five steam cycles utilizing a wide range of steam conditions were used with these combustion systems. The motivation for this study was to establish through engineering analysis, the most cost-effective performance potential available through improvement in the Rankine Cycle steam conditions and combustion systems while at the same time ensuring that the most stringent emission performance based on CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) 2010 targets are met: > 98% sulfur removal; < 0.05 lbm/MM-Btu NO{sub x}; < 0.01 lbm/MM-Btu Particulate Matter; and > 90% Hg removal. The final report discusses the results of a coal fired steam power plant project, which is comprised of two parts. The main part of the study is the analysis of ten (10) Greenfield steam power plants employing three different coal combustion technologies: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}) integrated with five different steam cycles. The study explores the technical feasibility, thermal performance, environmental performance, and economic viability of ten power plants that could be deployed currently, in the near, intermediate, and long-term time frame. For the five steam cycles, main steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,292 F and pressures from 2,400 psi to 5,075 psi. Reheat steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,328 F. The number of feedwater heaters varies from 7 to 9 and the associated feedwater temperature varies from 500 F to 626 F. The main part of the

  15. Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

    2008-02-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study

  16. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-12-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  17. LOW CONCENTRATION MERCURY SORPTION MECHANISMS AND CONTROL BY CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS; APPLICATION IN COAL-FIRED PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) and mercuric chloride (HgCl2) by three types of calcium (Ca)-based sorbents was examined in this bench-scale study under conditions prevalent in coal fired utilities. Ca-based sorbent performances were compared to that of an activated carbon...

  18. Transport of the radionuclides and doses for some coal fired power plants; Transport radionuklida i doze u okolini nekih termoelektrana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antic, D [Institute of Nuclear Sciences VINCA, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Telenta, B [Savezni hidrometeoroloski zavod, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Sokcic-Kostic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences VINCA, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1994-07-01

    The radiation exposure of the public in the vicinity of the selected coal fired power plants near from Belgrade has been studied. The contents of natural radionuclides according to experimental data have been used and dose rates from inhalation have been calculated using a two dimensional version of the cloud model. (author)

  19. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public enquiry: proof of evidence on coal fired power station sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fothergill, S.; Witt, S.

    1988-11-01

    The Coalfield Communities Campaign (CCC) has argued that if a new base-load power station is required it should be coal-fired rather than nuclear, and that it should use UK coal. Proposals for new power stations at both Hinkley Point and at Fawley have encountered very considerable local and regional opposition, and this is increasingly likely to be the case at many other sites especially in Southern England. In contrast the CCC has sought to demonstrate that its member authorities would generally welcome the development of new coal-fired capacity on appropriate sites within their areas. In particular, this proof establishes that there is a prima facie case for considering three sites - Thorpe Marsh, Hams Hall and Uskmouth - as potential locations for a new large coal-fired power station as an alternative to Hinkley Point C. The relevant local authorities have expressed their willingness to co-operate in more detailed planning or technical investigations to secure a coal-fired power station on these sites. The CCC considers this to be a major and unprecedented offer to the CEGB and its successor bodies, which could greatly speed the development of new power staion capacity and be of considerable economic and social benefit to coalfield communities.

  20. Environmental risk assessment of airborne emission from chinese coal-fired power plants with public health detriment criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Huimin; Pan Ziqiang; Zhang Yongxing; Xia Yihua

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of investigation of types of dust removers and their efficiency in Chinese coal-fired power plants, human health detriment of airborne non-radioactive and radioactive emissions from the power plants is assessed with public health detriment assessment method. The results show that the risk is primarily from airborne non-radioactive emission

  1. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME I - INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  2. CO(2), CO, and Hg emissions from the Truman Shepherd and Ruth Mullins coal fires, eastern Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Henke, Kevin R; Hower, James C; Engle, Mark A; Stracher, Glenn B; Stucker, J D; Drew, Jordan W; Staggs, Wayne D; Murray, Tiffany M; Hammond, Maxwell L; Adkins, Kenneth D; Mullins, Bailey J; Lemley, Edward W

    2010-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) emissions were quantified for two eastern Kentucky coal-seam fires, the Truman Shepherd fire in Floyd County and the Ruth Mullins fire in Perry County. This study is one of the first to estimate gas emissions from coal fires using field measurements at gas vents. The Truman Shepherd fire emissions are nearly 1400t CO(2)/yr and 16kg Hg/yr resulting from a coal combustion rate of 450-550t/yr. The sum of CO(2) emissions from seven vents at the Ruth Mullins fire is 726+/-72t/yr, suggesting that the fire is consuming about 250-280t coal/yr. Total Ruth Mullins fire CO and Hg emissions are estimated at 21+/-1.8t/yr and >840+/-170g/yr, respectively. The CO(2) emissions are environmentally significant, but low compared to coal-fired power plants; for example, 3.9x10(6)t CO(2)/yr for a 514-MW boiler in Kentucky. Using simple calculations, CO(2) and Hg emissions from coal-fires in the U.S. are estimated at 1.4x10(7)-2.9x10(8)t/yr and 0.58-11.5t/yr, respectively. This initial work indicates that coal fires may be an important source of CO(2), CO, Hg and other atmospheric constituents.

  3. Influence of the gray gases number in the weighted sum of gray gases model on the radiative heat exchange calculation inside pulverized coal-fired furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnomarković Nenad Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the number of gray gases in the weighted sum in the gray gases model on the calculation of the radiative heat transfer is discussed in the paper. A computer code which solved the set of equations of the mathematical model describing the reactive two-phase turbulent flow with radiative heat exchange and with thermal equilibrium between phases inside the pulverized coal-fired furnace was used. Gas-phase radiative properties were determined by the simple gray gas model and two combinations of the weighted sum of the gray gases models: one gray gas plus a clear gas and two gray gases plus a clear gas. Investigation was carried out for two values of the total extinction coefficient of the dispersed phase, for the clean furnace walls and furnace walls covered by an ash layer deposit, and for three levels of the approximation accuracy of the weighting coefficients. The influence of the number of gray gases was analyzed through the relative differences of the wall fluxes, wall temperatures, medium temperatures, and heat transfer rate through all furnace walls. The investigation showed that there were conditions of the numerical investigations for which the relative differences of the variables describing the radiative heat exchange decrease with the increase in the number of gray gases. The results of this investigation show that if the weighted sum of the gray gases model is used, the complexity of the computer code and calculation time can be reduced by optimizing the number of gray gases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in-house developed software tools

  4. Non-greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Within the Twelth Five-Year Plan, the Chinese Government has made addressing air quality problems a key environmental priority, with an intention to accelerate the development of systems, institutions and a technical knowledge base for sustained improvement. A major focus is on the coal power sector for which standards have been introduced that require the installation of modern, very high efficiency SO2, NOx and particulates emissions control systems. Nine key regions, which are facing very significant air quality challenges, are the three major economic zones around the cities of Beijing, Shanghai (Yangtze River Delta) and Guangzhou (Pearl River Delta), together with six areas around the cities of Shenyang, Changsha, Wuhan, Chengdu Chongqing, the Shandong peninsula, and the coastal area west of the Taiwan strait. These regions comprise the population and economic centres of the country, accounting for 64% of national GDP, 43% of total energy use, and 39% of the population. In these locations, all existing and new coal-fired power plants will have to achieve particulate, SO2 and NOx emissions limits of 20, 50 and 100 mg/m3 respectively, with new plants expected to meet the standards from 1 January 2012 and existing plants by 1 July 2014. At the same time, there will be an increasing emphasis on limiting any new coal-fired power plants in these regions. For the rest of the country, the standards are not quite so strict and the SO2 limits for existing plants are less severe than for new plants. The new pollutant that will be regulated on coal-fired power plants is mercury and its compounds, for which the limit has been set at a level that represents a core control. This means that providing the power plant operator meets the new particulate, SO2 and NOx standards then the mercury standard should be met without the need to introduce an additional capture device, although the emissions level will have to be measured on a regular basis. From a global perspective, this

  5. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  6. Monetization of External Costs Using Lifecycle Analysis—A Comparative Case Study of Coal-Fired and Biomass Power Plants in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structures of external costs are built in line with coal-fired and biomass power plant life cycle activities in Northeast China. The external cost of coal-fired and biomass power plants was compared, using the lifecycle approach. In addition, the external costs of a biomass power plant are calculated for each stage for comparison with those of a coal-fired power plant. The results highlight that the external costs of a coal-fired plant are 0.072 US $/kWh, which are much higher than that of a biomass power plant, 0.00012 US$/kWh. The external cost of coal-fired power generation is as much as 90% of the current price of electricity generated by coal, while the external cost of a biomass power plant is 1/1000 of the current price of electricity generated by biomass. In addition, for a biomass power plant, the external cost associated with SO2, NOX, and PM2.5 are particularly lower than those of a coal-fired power plant. The prospect of establishing precise estimations for external cost mechanisms and sustainable energy policies is discussed to show a possible direction for future energy schemes in China. The paper has significant value for supporting the biomass power industry and taxing or regulating coal-fired power industry to optimize the energy structure in China.

  7. Scrubbing system design for CO{sub 2} capture in coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heischkamp, Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    Within the last decades a continuous tightening of environmental regulations has been observed in several countries around the world. These include restriction of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions, since they are considered responsible for intensifying global warming. Coal-fired power plants represent a good possibility for capturing CO{sub 2} before it is emitted in the atmosphere, thereby contributing to combat global warming. This work focuses on reducing the CO{sub 2} emissions of such a power plant by 90 %. For this purpose a hard coal power plant is retrofitted with a chemical absorption using different solutions of piperazine promoted potassium carbonate. The resulting power plant's efficiency losses have been accounted for. A comparison of different scenarios such as the variation of operating parameters offer an insight in detecting suitable operating conditions that will allow to minimize efficiency penalties. Simulation details are provided along with a technical and an economic analysis.

  8. Impact of a coal fired power plant on 226Ra activity level in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with radioactivity contamination originating from a coal fired power plant which, due to its location, may present a remarkable environmental problem. The plant is situated in a bay of the Adriatic close to the densely populated area with highly developed touristic activity. Its operation may cause significant damage to rich marine ecosystem characteristic for this part of the Croatian Adriatic as well as endanger urban and touristic developmental prospects of the area. Investigations of coal used in regular plant operation and of solid incombustible ash and slag showed increased natural radioactivity levels which may cause general environmental contamination of the bay as well as contamination of the marine environment of this part of the Croatian Adriatic

  9. Overview of environmental assessment for China nuclear power industry and coal-fired power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shaodong; Pan Ziqiang; Zhang Yongxing

    1994-01-01

    A quantitative environmental assessment method and the corresponding computer code are introduced. By the consideration of all fuel cycle steps, it given that the public health risk of China nuclear power industry is 5.2 x 10 -1 man/(GW·a) the public health risk is 2.5 man/(GW·a), and the total health risk is 3.0 man/(GW·a). After the health risk calculation for coal mining, transport, burning up and ash disposal, it gives that the public health risk of China coal-fired power industry is 3.6 man/(GW·a), the occupational health risk is 50 man/(GW·a), and the total is 54 man/(GW·). Accordingly, the conclusion that China nuclear power industry is one with high safety and cleanness is derived at the end

  10. [Hazard evaluation modeling of particulate matters emitted by coal-fired boilers and case analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Ting; Du, Qian; Gao, Jian-Min; Bian, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Pu; Dong, He-Ming; Han, Qiang; Cao, Yang

    2014-02-01

    In order to evaluate the hazard of PM2.5 emitted by various boilers, in this paper, segmentation of particulate matters with sizes of below 2. 5 microm was performed based on their formation mechanisms and hazard level to human beings and environment. Meanwhile, taking into account the mass concentration, number concentration, enrichment factor of Hg, and content of Hg element in different coal ashes, a comprehensive model aimed at evaluating hazard of PM2.5 emitted by coal-fired boilers was established in this paper. Finally, through utilizing filed experimental data of previous literatures, a case analysis of the evaluation model was conducted, and the concept of hazard reduction coefficient was proposed, which can be used to evaluate the performance of dust removers.

  11. Contamination of persons occupationally exposed to natural radioactivity in a coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, A.; Horvat, D.

    1980-01-01

    Contamination of occupationally exposed subjects with natural radioactivity in a coal fired power plant at levels of 500 mrem/year was detected. The level of 210 Pb in urine varied from 2.29-14.47 pCi/l. These values were arrived at after subtracting a blank value of 1.05 pCi 210 Pb obtained from a control group. Structural chromosomal aberrations, completely missing in the control group, were detected in the exposed subjects. Approximately 6-10% of the metaphases of occupationally exposed subjects were found to have aberrations which were probably radiation induced. These included symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges and numerical aberrations. In the control aroup aberrations were found in 1.4-4% of the metaphases, but these were only deletions. (H.K.)

  12. SO3 tinges stack gas from scrubbed coal-fired units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.; Ellison, W.

    1998-01-01

    The small amount of SO 3 in flue gas creates enough problems inside the plant. New US EPA regulations on so-called air toxics are making SO 3 discharge an emission problem as well - and a visible one at that. Units that have installed wet scrubbers to control SO 2 emissions may be most affected. The article explains that SO 3 levels in coal-fired power plants are mainly increased by catalytic oxidation of SO 2 by iron oxide on the fireside surfaces of the superheater tubes. Dependence on air-heater temperature is discussed. Wet FGD systems are responsible for the formation of 'blue eye' where SO 3 causes a blue hue in the plume. Ammonia injection has been effective in reducing SO 3 vapour, as has injecting water ahead of the electrostatic precipitator. Replacement of a wet ESP with a dry ESP is also a solution. 2 figs

  13. Novel Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Coatings for Metal Alloys in Coal-fired Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Zak Fang; H. Y. Sohn

    2009-08-31

    Intermetallic coatings (iron aluminide and nickel aluminide) were prepared by a novel reaction process. In the process, the aluminide coating is formed by an in-situ reaction between the aluminum powder fed through a plasma transferred arc (PTA) torch and the metal substrate (steel or Ni-base alloy). Subjected to the high temperature within an argon plasma zone, aluminum powder and the surface of the substrate melt and react to form the aluminide coatings. The prepared coatings were found to be aluminide phases that are porosity-free and metallurgically bonded to the substrate. The coatings also exhibit excellent high-temperature corrosion resistance under the conditions which simulate the steam-side and fire-side environments in coal-fired boilers. It is expected that the principle demonstrated in this process can be applied to the preparation of other intermetallic and alloy coatings.

  14. Heavy metals in Parmelia sulcata collected in the neighborhood of a coal-fired power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    The epiphytic lichen Parmelia sulcata was collected in the neighborhood of a Portuguese coal-fired power station (Sines coal power station) as monitor for heavy metal air pollution. A study of the metal contents variability along 1991 and 1992 was performed. The heavy metals Ag, As, Br, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Sb, Se, and Zn were determined by k0-based instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations found in 1991 and 1992 show an accumulating process of Co and Fe (approximately 5%/mo) and of Cr and Sb (approximately 7%/mo). Low accumulation is observed for Ag, Se, and Zn (approximately 2%/mo), and no concentration variation is observed for As, Br, and Hg. It is concluded that the metal accumulation observed is the result of the nearby ash and coal deposits

  15. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  16. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to conventional'' technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  17. Cofiring of rice straw and coal in a coal-fired utility boiler: thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia, Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Cofiring combustion of biomass and coal is a near-term, low cost alternative for reduction fossil greenhouse gas emissions in coal fired power plants. Recent reviews identified over 288 applications in over 16 countries with promising results for different coal and biomass combinations. In Brazil, there is no previous experience of cofiring biomass and coal, resulting in new challenges to fuel handling and boiler operation. A first experience is now proposed into an existing coal power plant, using rice straw as biomass fuel. A thermodynamic model was developed in order to predict operating and emissions data, which should be used in cofiring system design. For 10% of biomass input, the total CO{sub 2} emission is expected to slightly increase. However, considering only the coal CO{sub 2} emission, it is expected to decrease in about 10%. Also, the corresponding SO{sub 2} emission decreases in about 8%. (author)

  18. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.D.; Schmidt, C.E.; Radziwon, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has two current investigations, initiated before passage of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), that will determine the air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. DOE has contracted with Battelle Memorial Institute and Radian corporation to conduct studies focusing on the potential air toxics, both organic and inorganic, associated with different size fractions of fine particulate matter emitted from power plant stacks. Table 2 indicates the selected analytes to be investigated during these studies. PETC is also developing guidance on the monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS) to be incorporated in the Environmental Monitoring plans for the demonstration projects in its Clean Coal Technology Program

  19. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Behrens, G. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Toxic emissions were measured in the gaseous, solid and aqueous effluent streams in a coal-fired gasification plant. Several internal process streams were also characterized to assess pollution control device effectiveness. The program, consisted of three major phases. Phase I was the toxics emission characterization program described above. phase II included the design, construction and shakedown testing of a high-temperature, high-pressure probe for collecting representative trace composition analysis of hot (1200{degrees}F) syngas. Phase III consisted of the collection of hot syngas samples utilizing the high-temperature probe. Preliminary results are presented which show the emission factors and removal efficiencies for several metals that are on the list of compounds defined by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  20. The Comparison of Externalities between Coal-Fired and Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Tae Woon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2005-01-01

    Fuel cycle externalities are the costs imposed on society and the environment that are not accounted for by the producers and consumers of energy. Traditional economic assessment of fuel cycles has tended to ignore these effects. However, there is a growing interest in adopting a more sophisticated approach involving the quantification of these environmental and health impacts of energy use and their related external costs. The fuel cycle externalities can be used for the internalization of them into the electricity price via eco-taxes and on undertaking cost-benefit analysis of available options by the policy analysts. The advantage of using externalities as criteria in the energy planning process instead of the common indicators such as pollutant emissions is that the criteria are expressed in the same monetary terms. The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the externalities for the coal-fired and nuclear power plants in Korea. The results are also compared with the European results

  1. Natural radionuclides from the coal in atmospheric environment of the coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D.; Kostic-Soskic, M.; Milovanovic, S.; Telenta, B.

    1995-01-01

    The inhalation radiation exposure of the public in the vicinity of the selected coal fired power plants near from Belgrade (30-50 km) has been studied, using a set of data for natural radionuclides from the analysed power plants. A generalised model for analysis of radiological impact of an energy source, that includes the two-dimensional version of the cloud model, has been used for simulation of the transport of radionuclides released to the atmosphere. The inhalation dose rates for an adult are assessed and analysed during fast changeable meteorological conditions. A set of realistic meteorological conditions (wind, radiosonde sounding temperature, pressure, and humidity data) has been used for the numerical simulations. (author)

  2. Backstepping-based nonlinear adaptive control for coal-fired utility boiler-turbine units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Fang; Wei, Le

    2011-01-01

    The control system of boiler-turbine unit plays an important role in improving efficiency and reducing emissions of power generation unit. The nonlinear, coupling and uncertainty of the unit caused by varying working conditions should be fully considered during the control system design. This paper presents an efficient control scheme based on backstepping theory for improving load adaptability of boiler-turbines in wide operation range. The design process of the scheme includes model preprocessing, control Lyapunov functions selection, interlaced computation of adaptive control laws, etc. For simplification and accuracy, differential of steam pipe inlet pressure and integral terms of target errors are adopted. Also, to enhance practicality, implementation steps of the scheme are proposed. A practical nonlinear model of a 500 MW coal-fired boiler-turbine unit is used to test the efficiency of the proposed scheme in different conditions.

  3. Optimized CO2-flue gas separation model for a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Mohsin, Muhammad [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The detailed description of the CO2 removal process using mono-ethylamine (MEA) as a solvent for coal-fired power plant is present in this paper. The rate based Electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the Aspen Plus. The complete removal process with re-circulating solvent back to the absorber was implemented with the sequential modular method in Aspen Plus. The most significant cost related to CO2 capture is the energy requirement for re-generating solvent, i.e. re-boiler duty. Parameters’ effects on re-boiler duty were studied, resulting decreased re-boiler duty with the packing height and absorber packing diameter, absorber pressure, solvent temperature, stripper packing height and diameter. On the other hand, with the flue gas temperature, re-boiler duty is increased. The temperature profiles and CO2 loading profiles were used to check the model behavior.

  4. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Palo, Daniel; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment addressed air and particulate emissions as well as solid and liquid waste streams. The magnitude of the emissions and waste streams was estimated for evaluation purposes. EH&S characteristics of materials used in the system are also described. This document contains data based on the mass balances from both the 40 kJ/mol CO2 and 80 kJ/mol CO2 desorption energy cases evaluated in the Final Technical and Economic Feasibility study also conducted by Barr Engineering.

  5. Cause analysis and suggestion of urea consumption in denitrification system of coal-fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Dong, Ruifeng; Guo, Yang; Wang, Fangfang; Yang, Shuo

    2018-02-01

    In the daily operation of many power plants, the urea consumption of denitration system is much more than normal. Therefore, the process of site testing and laboratory analysis are carried out. Several suggestions are given out. (1) The position of sampling hole on the exit flue of denitrification system should be redesigned. (2) The denitrification optimization and adjustment should be carried out based on the technical specifications for the operation system. (3) The flue gas CEMS system for single point sampling should be transformed into two or three point sampling mode. (4) When the coal - fired unit is shutting down, examine the ammonia injection and nozzle branch, in order to improve the operation reliability of denitration system.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Wu, Yining; Deng, Shimin; Wei, Shirang

    2004-02-01

    The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC is carried out. The effects of coal gasifying rate, pre-heating air temperature, and coal gas temperature on the performances of the power system are studied. In order to repower the power plant rated 100 MW by using the PGACC, a conceptual design is suggested. The computational results show that the PGACC is feasible for modernizing the old steam power plants and building the new cleaning power plants.

  7. Scrubbing system design for CO2 capture in coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heischkamp, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Within the last decades a continuous tightening of environmental regulations has been observed in several countries around the world. These include restriction of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions, since they are considered responsible for intensifying global warming. Coal-fired power plants represent a good possibility for capturing CO 2 before it is emitted in the atmosphere, thereby contributing to combat global warming. This work focuses on reducing the CO 2 emissions of such a power plant by 90 %. For this purpose a hard coal power plant is retrofitted with a chemical absorption using different solutions of piperazine promoted potassium carbonate. The resulting power plant's efficiency losses have been accounted for. A comparison of different scenarios such as the variation of operating parameters offer an insight in detecting suitable operating conditions that will allow to minimize efficiency penalties. Simulation details are provided along with a technical and an economic analysis.

  8. Natural radionuclides in coal and waste material originating from coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, Gordana; Franic, Zdenko; Sencar, Jasminka; Petrinec, Branko; Bituh, Tomislav; Kovac, Jadranka

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents long-term investigations of natural radioactivity in coal, used for power production in the coal-fired power plant (CFPP) situated on the Adriatic coast, and resulting slag and ash. Activity concentrations of 40 K, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 238 U in used coal and resulting waste material have been measured for 25 years. As expected, it was demonstrated that the content of radionuclides in deposited bottom and filter ash material are closely related with radionuclide activity concentrations and mineral matter fraction in used coals. The external hazard index has been calculated and discussed for the slag and ash depository. During the first decade of operation of the CFPP has been used domestic coal produced in nearby area characterized by higher background radiation compared with the rest of Croatia. Therefore, the coal itself had relatively high 226 Ra and 238 U activity concentrations while potassium and thorium content was very low, 40 K activity concentrations being 2-9% and those of 232 Th 1-3% of total activity. As, in addition, the sulphur concentrations in coal were very high use of domestic coal was gradually abandoned till it was completely substituted by imported coal originated from various sources and of low natural radioactivity. Upon this, activity concentrations of uranium series radionuclides in deposited waste materials decreased significantly. Consequently, waste material i.e., slag and ash, generated in the last several years of coal fired power plant operation could be readily used in cement industry and as additive to other building materials, without any special restrictions according to the Croatian regulations dealing with building materials and European directives. (author)

  9. Multi-objective optimization of coal-fired power plants using differential evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ligang; Yang, Yongping; Dong, Changqing; Morosuk, Tatiana; Tsatsaronis, George

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-objective optimization of large-scale coal-fired power plants using differential evolution. • A newly-proposed algorithm for searching the fronts of decision space in a single run. • A reduction of cost of electricity by 2–4% with an optimal efficiency increase up to 2% points. • The uncertainty comes mainly from temperature- and reheat-related cost factors of steam generator. • An exergoeconomic analysis and comparison between optimal designs and one real industrial design. - Abstract: The design trade-offs between thermodynamics and economics for thermal systems can be studied with the aid of multi-objective optimization techniques. The investment costs usually increase with increasing thermodynamic performance of a system. In this paper, an enhanced differential evolution with diversity-preserving and density-adjusting mechanisms, and a newly-proposed algorithm for searching the decision space frontier in a single run were used, to conduct the multi-objective optimization of large-scale, supercritical coal-fired plants. The uncertainties associated with cost functions were discussed by analyzing the sensitivity of the decision space frontier to some significant parameters involved in cost functions. Comparisons made with the aid of an exergoeconomic analysis between the cost minimum designs and a real industrial design demonstrated how the plant improvement was achieved. It is concluded that the cost of electricity could be reduced by a 2–4%, whereas the efficiency could be increased by up to two percentage points. The largest uncertainty is introduced by the temperature-related and reheat-related cost coefficients of the steam generator. More reliable data on the price prediction of future advanced materials should be used to obtain more accurate fronts of the objective space

  10. Semi-quantitative characterisation of ambient ultrafine aerosols resulting from emissions of coal fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkley, J.T.; Bridgman, H.A.; Buhre, B.J.P.; Gupta, R.P.; Nelson, P.F.; Wall, T.F.

    2008-01-01

    Emissions from coal fired power stations are known to be a significant anthropogenic source of fine atmospheric particles, both through direct primary emissions and secondary formation of sulfate and nitrate from emissions of gaseous precursors. However, there is relatively little information available in the literature regarding the contribution emissions make to the ambient aerosol, particularly in the ultrafine size range. In this study, the contribution of emissions to particles smaller than 0.3 μm in the ambient aerosol was examined at a sampling site 7 km from two large Australian coal fired power stations equipped with fabric filters. A novel approach was employed using conditional sampling based on sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) as an indicator species, and a relatively new sampler, the TSI Nanometer Aerosol Sampler. Samples were collected on transmission electron microscope (TEM) grids and examined using a combination of TEM imaging and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis for qualitative chemical analysis. The ultrafine aerosol in low SO 2 conditions was dominated by diesel soot from vehicle emissions, while significant quantities of particles, which were unstable under the electron beam, were observed in the high SO 2 samples. The behaviour of these particles was consistent with literature accounts of sulfate and nitrate species, believed to have been derived from precursor emissions from the power stations. A significant carbon peak was noted in the residues from the evaporated particles, suggesting that some secondary organic aerosol formation may also have been catalysed by these acid seed particles. No primary particulate material was observed in the minus 0.3 μm fraction. The results of this study indicate the contribution of species more commonly associated with gas to particle conversion may be more significant than expected, even close to source

  11. Radiological investigation in the boiler's maintenance operations in a Coal-Fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Beatriz; Mora, Juan C.; Cancio, David; Baeza, Antonio; Corbacho, Jose A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a study being performed in the four biggest coal-fired power plants in Spain, the formation of scales of radioisotopes in parts of the heat recovery system was investigated. This effect should be more important in the case of 210 Po and 210 Pb. Thereby, it is likely in given specific chemical conditions that scales could be formed with a high concentration of 210 Pb, probably in secular equilibrium with 210 Po and 210 Bi. Those scales could reach activity concentrations of some hundreds of Bq g -1 . In order to study within the boiler this scale formation, an investigation during the maintenance operations programmed in the 'Compostilla' coal-fired power plant (Ponferrada-Spain) was carried out. Those operations are performed each 2-3 years and last for around 30 or 40 days. Measurements of ambient dose equivalent (H * (10)) in the boiler before and after the entrance of the operators, together with beta surface contamination on the bottom ashes attached in the walls and on the tubes, were performed. The last measurements were carried out for screening purposes in order to select those areas on the tubes which could present Po scales. Even if chemical conditions are in general oxidising within the boiler, since conditions are not homogeneous, some zones were localized in which surface contamination was measured. In these spots, samples were collected and then measured in the laboratory. Moreover, an analysis of maintenance tasks, used personal protection equipment, working times and other important parameters was also carried out. This analysis is important in order to perform radiological evaluations, as realistic as possible, of the effective doses that could be received by maintenance operators. In the present study, the values of the measurements performed and the results of the assessment of the effective doses for the workers are presented. (author)

  12. Measurement of slurry droplets in coal-fired flue gas after WFGD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Cheng; Zhao, Hua-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Xin; Zheng, Cheng-Hang; Gao, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    China owns the world's largest capacity of coal-fired power units. By the end of 2012, the capacity of installed national thermal power has been 819.68 million kilowatts. The latest standard requires that newly built power plants emit SO2 in no more than 100 mg/m(3) and the emission of old ones be lower than 200 mg/m(3) while in some key areas the emission should be controlled under 50 mg/m(3). So by the end of 2012, 90% of the active coal-fired units have been equipped with flue gas desulfurization devices. Among the desulfurization methods adopted, limestone-gypsum wet flue gas desulphurization accounts for 92%, causing the problem of fine droplets in the exhaust gas after defogger, which may even form "gypsum rain." At present, sampling methods are widely used at home and abroad, such as magnesium ion tracer method, modified magnesium ion tracer method and chemical analysis. In addition, some scholars use aerodynamic methods, such as ELPI, to measure the diameter distribution and concentration. The methods mentioned above all have their own demerits, such as the inability to on-line, continuous measurements and the need of prolonged measuring time. Thus, in this paper some potential optical on-line methods are presented, such as Fraunhofer diffraction pattern analysis and wavelength-multiplexed laser extinction. Also brought up are their measuring scope and merits. These methods have already been utilized to measure small liquid droplets and their demonstrations and evaluations are as well stated. Finally, a 3D imaging method based on digital holographic microscope is proposed for in-line measurement of size and concentration of slurry droplets. The feasibility of this method is demonstrated by preliminary experimental investigation.

  13. Effect of water side deposits on the energy performance of coal fired thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, M. Siddhartha

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of water side deposits in the 210 MW coal fired thermal power plant components (viz., boiler, turbine, feed water heaters, condensers and lube oil coolers) on the energy efficiency of these components and that of the overall system at 100% maximum continuous rating (MCR). The origin, composition and rate of build up of deposits on the water side are presented. A linear growth rate of deposits is assumed for simplicity. The effects of the reduction in heat transfer, increased pressure drop and increased pumping power/reduced power output in the components are quantified in the form of curve fits as functions of the deposit thickness (μm). The reduction in heat transfer in the boiler components is in the range of 0.2-2.0% under normal scaling. The increased pumping power is of the order of 0.6-7.6% in the boiler components, 29% in the BFP circuit, 26% in the LPH circuit, 21% in the HPH circuit and 18% in the lube oil cooler circuits. The effects on the overall coal fired plant is quantified through functional relations between the efficiencies and the notional deposit thickness. The sensitivity indices to the notional deposit thickness are: boiler efficiency: -0.0021% points/μm, turbine circuit efficiency: -0.0037% points/μm, auxiliary power efficiency: -0.00129% points/μm, gross overall efficiency: -0.0039% points/μm and net overall efficiency: -0.0040% points/μm. The overall effect of scale build up is either increased power input of ∼68 kW/μm (at a constant power output) or decreased power output ∼25 kW/μm (at a constant power input). Successful contaminant control techniques are highlighted. Capacity reduction effects due to water side deposits are negligible

  14. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Experimental investigation on a 0.35 MWth coal-fired horizontal circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Aihong; Li, Qinghai; Zhang, Yanguo; Wang, Zhaojun; Dang, Wenda [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The capacities of industrial coal-fired boilers are normally less than 20-30 MWe. And these coal-fired boilers of low capacity are facing the severe situation of low efficiency and heavy environmental pollution. Hence, an innovative horizontal circulating fluidized bed (HCFB) boiler was developed to enhance heat efficiency and reduce pollutant emission of industrial boilers in China. The chamber in the HCFB boiler consists of primary combustion chamber, secondary combustion chamber and burnout chamber, which were combined horizontally side by side. To verify the conception of horizontal fluidized circulation and to obtain the characteristic data, a 0.35 MWth coal-combustion HCFB boiler was designed and installed to perform some experiments of combustion and mass circulation. In the boiler there were two mass circulating paths, one is inner circulating through the inertia separator and another was external circulating through the cyclone separator. The connection bottom of the secondary chamber and the burnout chamber was designed as an inertia separator, in which separated and collected solid materials were returned to the primary combustion. In fact the secondary separator was a small cyclone separator connecting to the exit of the burnout chamber. Heat efficiency and separating efficiency of the experimental boiler were measured and analyzed. Furthermore, mass and temperature distribution along the chambers height were also investigated. The results showed that the heat efficiency of the bare boiler was 82%. The mass balance based on ash content was measured and analyzed. Separating efficiency of the inertia separator and cyclone separator was 60 and 99.9%, respectively. It showed that the two stage material separation and circulation enhanced coal combustion in the HCFB boiler and help to minimize the height of the furnace.

  16. Novel Functionally Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings in Coal-Fired Power Plant Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing [Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This project presents a detailed investigation of a novel functionally graded coating material, pyrochlore oxide, for thermal barrier coating (TBC) in gas turbines used in coal-fired power plants. Thermal barrier coatings are refractory materials deposited on gas turbine components, which provide thermal protection for metallic components at operating conditions. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop a manufacturing process to produce the novel low thermal conductivity and high thermal stability pyrochlore oxide based coatings with improved high-temperature durability. The current standard TBC, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), has service temperatures limited to <1200°C, due to sintering and phase transition at higher temperatures. In contrast, pyrochlore oxide, e.g., lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7, LZ), has demonstrated lower thermal conductivity and better thermal stability, which are crucial to high temperature applications, such as gas turbines used in coal-fired power plants. Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) has collaborated with Praxair Surface Technologies (PST), and Changwon National University in South Korea to perform the proposed research. The research findings are critical to the extension of current TBCs to a broader range of high-temperature materials and applications. Several tasks were originally proposed and accomplished, with additional new opportunities identified during the course of the project. In this report, a description of the project tasks, the main findings and conclusions are given. A list of publications and presentations resulted from this research is listed in the Appendix at the end of the report.

  17. Cofiring of biofuels in coal fired boilers: Results of case study analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, D.A. [Ebasco Environmental, Sacramento, CA (United States); Hughes, E. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Gold, B.A. [TVA, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Ebasco Environmental and Reaction Engineering, under contract to EPRI, performed a case study analysis of cofiring biomass in coal-fired boilers of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The study was also sponsored by DOE. This analysis included evaluating wood fuel receiving, preparation, and combustion in pulverized coal (PC) boilers and cyclone furnaces and an assessment of converting wood into pyrolysis oil or low Btu gas for use in a new combined cycle combustion turbine (CCCT) installation. Cofiring wood in existing coal-fired boilers has the most immediate potential for increasing the utilization of biofuels in electricity generation. Cofiring biofuels with coal can potentially generate significant benefits for utilities including: (1) reducing emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}; (2) reducing the net emissions of CO{sub 2}; (3) potentially reducing the fuel cost to the utility depending upon local conditions and considering biomass is potentially exempt from the proposed Btu tax and may get a 1.5 cent/kWh credit for energy generated by wood combustion; (4) supporting local industrial forest industry; and (5) providing a long term market for the development of a biofuel supply and delivery industry. Potential benefits are reviewed in the context of cofiring biofuel at a rate of 15% heat input to the boiler, and compares this cofiring strategy and others previously tested or developed by other utilities. Other issues discussed include: (1) wood fuel specifications as a function of firing method; (2) wood fuel receiving and preparation system requirements; (3) combustion system requirements for cofiring biofuels with coal; (4) combustion impacts of firing biofuels with coal; (5) system engineering issues; (6) the economics of cofiring biofuel with coal. The Allen, TN 330 MW(e) cyclone boiler and Kingston, TN 135 MW(e) Boiler {number_sign}1, a tangentially fired PC unit, case studies are then summarized in the paper, highlighting the cofiring opportunities.

  18. Effect of air ingress on the energy performance of coal fired thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddhartha Bhatt, M.

    2007-01-01

    Ingress of air in boilers leads to drops in energy efficiency. This paper presents the effects of air ingress in the combustion zone, post-combustion zone and air pre-heater (APH) on the energy efficiency and loading capacity of a coal fired thermal power plant operating on fuel with high ash (35-45%). The optimal O 2 in the flue gas for a pulverized coal fired system is 3.5% (corresponding to 20% excess air). The operating values are in the range of 4.2-6.0% in membrane type boilers and up to 10% in refractory type boilers (after sustained periods of operation). The leakage rate of boilers (up to the entrance of the APH) is designed at 0.2% while the average operating values are 7.25% for membrane type enclosures and 33.61% for refractory enclosures. The leakage rate of the APH is designed at 5.0% while the operating values range from 13.66% to 20.13% for rotary and tubular APHs. When the O 2 in the combustion zone varies from 3.5% to 8.0%, efficiency drops of 2.0% points are experienced in the boiler and turbine separately, and the gross overall efficiency drop is ∼3.0% points. The units do not experience any capacity drop up to an O 2 in the flue gas of 6.0% before the APH. At an O 2 in the flue gas (before APH) of 7.2%, a mild limitation on the unit capacity of around 2-3% is experienced. When O 2 in the flue gas (before APH) reaches a level of 9.0%, 20% capacity drop of the unit is experienced due to which the plant load cannot be raised higher than 80%. Beyond the level of 9.0% (rare occurrence), the unit is quite difficult to operate and has to be taken off for overhaul

  19. Mercury emissions and coal-fired power plants: Understanding the problems and identifying solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    Electric utility emissions contribute to an array of air quality concerns, most notably ground-level ozone, acid deposition, global warming, and fine particulate pollution. More recently, electric utility emissions of air toxics such as mercury have been linked to serious ecological health effects, especially in fish-eating birds. Another issue that is gaining attention is that of eutrophication in marine waters from nitrogen oxide emissions. Coal-fired power plants warrant special consideration, particularly in regards to mercury. Coal-fired power plants currently represent over 30% of controllable anthropogenic emissions in the US and are expected to emit nearly half of all anthropogenic emissions in the US by 2010. However, because the human health threshold for mercury is not known with certainty and mercury control technologies such as activated carbon injection are extremely expensive, mercury emissions from electric utilities have not been addressed in the US through either regulation or voluntary initiatives. The Center is beginning to evaluate the viability of no- or low-regrets measures that may be more consistent with the current state of the science on human and ecological health effects. The Center is also looking at options to reduce eutophication. Specifically, the Center has: hosted a workshop to assess the viability of low-cost mercury control options for electric utilities, developed a proposal to undertake a mercury banking initiative, worked to reduce compliance costs associated with multiple and conflicting regulations, and investigated the potential benefits and workability of NOx trading between air and water sources These activities are described in greater detail in the Center's paper

  20. The Net Climate Impact of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D.; Faluvegi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until 1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml) cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogeneities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by commonly used global metrics. The method we introduce here to estimate

  1. Small, modular, low-cost coal-fired power plants for the international market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauderer, B.; Frain, B.; Borck, B. [Coal Tech Corp., Merion Station, PA (United States); Baldwin, A.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents recent operating results of Coal Tech`s second generation, air cooled, slagging coal combustor, and its application to power plants in the 1 to 20 MW range. This 20 MMBtu/hour combustor was installed in a new demonstration plant in Philadelphia, PA in 1995. It contains the combustion components of a 1 MWe coal fired power plant, a 17,500 lb/hour steam boiler, coal storage and feed components, and stack gas cleanup components. The plant`s design incorporates improvements resulting from 2,000 hours of testing between 1987 and 1993 on a first generation, commercial scale, air cooled combustor of equal thermal rating. Since operations began in early 1996, a total of 51 days of testing have been successfully completed. Major results include durability of the combustor`s refractory wall, excellent combustion with high ash concentration in the fuel, removal of 95% to 100% of the slag in the combustor, very little ash deposition in the boiler, major reduction of in-plant parasitic power, and simplified power system control through the use of modular designs of sub-systems and computer control. Rapid fuel switching between oil, gas, and coal and turndown of up to a factor of three was accomplished. All these features have been incorporated in advanced coal fired plant designs in the 1 to 20 MWe range. Incremental capital costs are only $100 to $200/kW higher than comparable rated gas or oil fired steam generating systems. Most of its components and subsystems can be factory assembled for very rapid field installation. The low capital, low operating costs, fuel flexibility, and compatibility with very high ash fuels, make this power system very attractive in regions of the world having domestic supplies of these fuels.

  2. Forecast of advanced technology adoption for coal fired power generation towards the year of 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, Keiji [Japanese Center for Asia Pacific Coal Flow (JAPAC), Tokyo (Japan). Japan coal Energy Center (JCOAL)

    2013-07-01

    Needs for electricity is growing rapidly in many countries and it is expected the increase of electricity by 2030 is almost double. Fossil fuels, renewables, nuclear energy will play leading parts in the future, but fossil power generation will continue to play a major role. Especially, coal will be used continuously due to its stable supply and lower price. However, global warming countermeasures should be considered for large amount of coal use. High efficient systems and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) will be most applicable solution for the problems. USC, IGCC and A-USC have higher efficiencies, but costs are normally higher. So it is very important to evaluate the future trend of the plants, that is the cost, performance and the share of each plant. It is also essential to evaluate high efficient plants which will be constructed mainly and which system investment should be paid to. But no less important is to evaluate each system from the neutral position. So Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL) constructed its own program to expect the future trend of each plant. JCOAL made a basic concept and the programming was done by SRI International of the United States. The considered systems of coal fired power generation are Supercritical Unit, Ultra Supercritical Unit, Advanced- Supercritical Unit, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC). In order to compare with the natural gas case, Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) is included. Evaluation will be done for both without and with CCS cases. This program covers by the year of 2050. The results are trends of following items: capital cost, operational and maintenance cost, levelized cost of electricity, etc. We can also expect the future share of high efficient coal fired systems by 2050. Here the share will be decided by the levelized cost of electricity. The plant that has the lowest cost will get more share under the scenario of this program. This chapter summarizes

  3. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  4. Report on the survey in fiscal 1998. Survey on CO{sub 2} reduction at coal fired thermal power plants in Russia; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Roshia sekitan karyoku hatsudensho CO{sub 2} sakugen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Russia was selected as a candidate for the joint project implementation based on COP3, and coal fired thermal power plants in the country were surveyed. From among power plants having generation capacity of 200 GW, 600 thermal power plants account for 70%. Two-third of them are using natural gas as fuel, with the remaining plants using coal, which are noticeably overaged, having facility renewal as a pressing problem. Therefore, they can be the good targets for reducing carbon dioxide emission by modernizing the facilities. Promising projects with large cost effect of CO2 reduction were extracted in the Far Eastern and Siberian regions, where weight of coal fired thermal power plants is high. These projects include five plants including Amursk No. 1 and Kabarovsk No. 1 in the Far Eastern region, and five plants including Irkutsk Nos. 6, 10 and 11 in the Siberian region. From among 48 projects proposed to Japan by RAOEES 'ROSSII' in 1998, nine projects were surveyed individually as the objects of case study. Based on the survey and the consultation with the counterpart, draft proposals were prepared for each power plant, and CO2 reduction effect was evaluated. The Dogobuzh, Cherpet and Troitsk power plants were identified as having a promising potential. (NEDO)

  5. Detection of Coal Fires: A Case Study Conducted on Indian Coal Seams Using Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    India produces majority of its electricity from coal but a huge quantity of coal burns every day due to coal fires and also poses a threat to the environment as severe pollutants. In the present study we had demonstrated the usage of Neural Network based approach with an integrated Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) inversion technique. The Self Potential (SP) data set is used for the early detection of coal fires. The study was conducted over the East Basuria colliery, Jharia Coal Field, Jharkhand, India. The causative source was modelled as an inclined sheet like anomaly and the synthetic data was generated. Neural Network scheme consists of an input layer, hidden layers and an output layer. The input layer corresponds to the SP data and the output layer is the estimated depth of the coal fire. A synthetic dataset was modelled with some of the known parameters such as depth, conductivity, inclination angle, half width etc. associated with causative body and gives a very low misfit error of 0.0032%. Therefore, the method was found accurate in predicting the depth of the source body. The technique was applied to the real data set and the model was trained until a very good correlation of determination `R2' value of 0.98 is obtained. The depth of the source body was found to be 12.34m with a misfit error percentage of 0.242%. The inversion results were compared with the lithologs obtained from a nearby well which corresponds to the L3 coal seam. The depth of the coal fire had exactly matched with the half width of the anomaly which suggests that the fire is widely spread. The inclination angle of the anomaly was 135.510 which resembles the development of the geometrically complex fracture planes. These fractures may be developed due to anisotropic weakness of the ground which acts as passage for the air. As a result coal fires spreads along these fracture planes. The results obtained from the Neural Network was compared with PSO inversion results and were found in

  6. Integrating multi-objective optimization with computational fluid dynamics to optimize boiler combustion process of a coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xingrang; Bansal, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A coal fired power plant boiler combustion process model based on real data. • We propose multi-objective optimization with CFD to optimize boiler combustion. • The proposed method uses software CORBA C++ and ANSYS Fluent 14.5 with AI. • It optimizes heat flux transfers and maintains temperature to avoid ash melt. - Abstract: The dominant role of electricity generation and environment consideration have placed strong requirements on coal fired power plants, requiring them to improve boiler combustion efficiency and decrease carbon emission. Although neural network based optimization strategies are often applied to improve the coal fired power plant boiler efficiency, they are limited by some combustion related problems such as slagging. Slagging can seriously influence heat transfer rate and decrease the boiler efficiency. In addition, it is difficult to measure slag build-up. The lack of measurement for slagging can restrict conventional neural network based coal fired boiler optimization, because no data can be used to train the neural network. This paper proposes a novel method of integrating non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II) based multi-objective optimization with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to decrease or even avoid slagging inside a coal fired boiler furnace and improve boiler combustion efficiency. Compared with conventional neural network based boiler optimization methods, the method developed in the work can control and optimize the fields of flue gas properties such as temperature field inside a boiler by adjusting the temperature and velocity of primary and secondary air in coal fired power plant boiler control systems. The temperature in the vicinity of water wall tubes of a boiler can be maintained within the ash melting temperature limit. The incoming ash particles cannot melt and bond to surface of heat transfer equipment of a boiler. So the trend of slagging inside furnace is controlled. Furthermore, the

  7. RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOW TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilities...

  8. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  9. Biological carbon fixation: A study of Isochrysis sp. growth under actual coal-fired power plant's flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, Liyana; Chik, Muhammad Nazry; Pang, Mohd Asyraf Mohd Azmir

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary study on the growth of marine microalgae Isochrysis sp. was carried out using actual flue gas from a coal-fired power station. The species was cultured using a 2×10-L customized bubble column photobioreactor skid under specified culture conditions. With an initial culture density of 0.459 Abs (optical density at 560 nm wavelength), the species was found able to survive – observed by increases in optical densities, number of cells and weights – in the presence of actual coal-fired flue gas containing on average 4.08 % O 2 , 200.21 mg/m 3 SO 2 , 212.29 mg/m 3 NO x , 4.73 % CO 2 and 50.72 mg/m 3 CO. Results thus add value to the potential and capability of microalgae, especially for Isochrysis sp., to be the biological carbon fixer in neutralizing carbon emissions from power plants.

  10. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This report covers work carried out under Task 3, Preliminary Research and Development, and Task 4, Commercial Generating Plant Design, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, {open_quotes}Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System{close_quotes} between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of >47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates {le} 25% NSPS; cost {ge} 65% of heat input; and all solid wastes benign. The report discusses progress in cycle analysis, chemical reactor modeling, ash deposition rate calculations for HITAF (high temperature advanced furnace) convective air heater, air heater materials, and deposit initiation and growth on ceramic substrates.

  11. The modernization potential of gas turbines in the coal-fired power industry thermal and economic effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Bartnik, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    The opportunity of repowering the existing condensing power stations by means of  gas turbogenerators offers an important opportunity to considerably improvement of their energy efficiency. The Modernization Potential of Gas turbines in the Coal-Fired Power Industry presents the methodology, calculation procedures and tools used to support enterprise planning for adapting power stations to dual-fuel gas-steam combined-cycle technologies. Both the conceptual and practical aspects of the conversion of existing coal-fired power plants is covered. Discussions of the feasibility, advantages and disadvantages and possible methods are supported by chapters presenting equations of energy efficiency for the conditions of repowering a power unit by installing a gas turbogenerator in a parallel system and the results of technical calculations involving the selection heating structures of heat recovery steam generators. A methodology for analyzing thermodynamic and economic effectiveness for the selection of a structure...

  12. Analysis and study on the performance variation of SCR DeNOx catalyst of Coal-Fired Boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianxing, Ren; Fangqin, Li; Jiang, Wu; Qingrong, Liu; Yongwen, Yang; Zhongzhu, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are one kind of harmful substances from the burning process of fossil fuel and air at high temperature. NO x emissions cause serious pollution on atmospheric environment. In this paper, coal-fired utility boilers were chosen as the object, NO x formation mechanism and control were studied, and SCR deNO x technology was used to control NO x emissions from coal-fired boilers. Analyzed the relationship between deNO x efficiency and characteristics of SCR DeNO x catalyst. Through analysis, affecting SCR DeNO x catalyst failure factors, change law of catalytic properties and technical measures to extend the service life of the catalyst were gotten. (author)

  13. Optimized scheme in coal-fired boiler combustion based on information entropy and modified K-prototypes algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hui; Zhu, Hongxia; Cui, Yanfeng; Si, Fengqi; Xue, Rui; Xi, Han; Zhang, Jiayu

    2018-06-01

    An integrated combustion optimization scheme is proposed for the combined considering the restriction in coal-fired boiler combustion efficiency and outlet NOx emissions. Continuous attribute discretization and reduction techniques are handled as optimization preparation by E-Cluster and C_RED methods, in which the segmentation numbers don't need to be provided in advance and can be continuously adapted with data characters. In order to obtain results of multi-objections with clustering method for mixed data, a modified K-prototypes algorithm is then proposed. This algorithm can be divided into two stages as K-prototypes algorithm for clustering number self-adaptation and clustering for multi-objective optimization, respectively. Field tests were carried out at a 660 MW coal-fired boiler to provide real data as a case study for controllable attribute discretization and reduction in boiler system and obtaining optimization parameters considering [ maxηb, minyNOx ] multi-objective rule.

  14. A systematic approach to assessing measurement uncertainty for CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Claas; Esbensen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    An augmented measurement uncertainty approach for CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants with a focus on the often forgotten contributions from sampling errors occurring over the entire fuel-to-emission pathway is presented. Current methods for CO2 emission determination are evaluated in detail......, from which a general matrix scheme is developed that includes all factors and stages needed for total CO2 determination, which is applied to the monitoring plan of a representative medium-sized coal-fired power plant. In particular sampling involved significant potential errors, as identified...... of these three materials were also given full attention. A systematic error (bias) is present in the current sampling approach, which increases the present uncertainty estimate unnecessarily. For both primary sampling and analytical sample extraction steps, random variations, which hitherto only have been...

  15. Understanding the effects of sulfur on mercury capture from coal-fired utility flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.A.; Morita, K.; Jia, C.Q. [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Coal combustion continues to be a major source of energy throughout the world and is the leading contributor to anthropogenic mercury emissions. Effective control of these emissions requires a good understanding of how other flue gas constituents such as sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) may interfere in the removal process. Most of the current literature suggests that SO{sub 2} hinders elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation by scavenging oxidizing species such as chlorine (Cl2) and reduces the overall efficiency of mercury capture, while there is evidence to suggest that SO{sub 2} with oxygen (O{sub 2}) enhances Hg{sup 0} oxidation by promoting Cl2 formation below 100{sup o}C. However, studies in which SO{sub 2} was shown to have a positive correlation with Hg{sup 0} oxidation in full-scale utilities indicate that these interactions may be heavily dependent on operating conditions, particularly chlorine content of the coal and temperature. While bench-scale studies explicitly targeting SO{sub 3} are scarce, the general consensus among full-scale coal-fired utilities is that its presence in flue gas has a strong negative correlation with mercury capture efficiency. The exact reason behind this observed correlation is not completely clear, however. While SO{sub 3} is an inevitable product of SO{sub 2} oxidation by O{sub 2}, a reaction that hinders Hg{sup 0} oxidation, it readily reacts with water vapor, forms sulfuric acid (H{sub 2 }SO{sub 4}) at the surface of carbon, and physically blocks active sites of carbon. On the other hand, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on carbon surfaces may increase mercury capacity either through the creation of oxidation sites on the carbon surface or through a direct reaction of mercury with the acid. However, neither of these beneficial impacts is expected to be of practical significance for an activated carbon injection system in a real coal-fired utility flue gas.

  16. Electricity generation of Maritsa-Iztok coal-fired power plant in Bulgaria and its complex impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrikov, M.; Antonov, A.; Hristov, Hr.

    2001-01-01

    Soil, water and vegetable samples from the region of Maritsa-Iztok Coal-Fired Power Plants (CFPP) in Bulgaria have been studied using a large variety of methods for analysis: γ- and neutron activation analysis, γ-spectrometry, radiometry, mass- spectrometry, physicochemical analysis, soil sciences study. Detailed information about the concentration of ecologically important elements in the chain coal bottom ash, fly ashes environment (soil, water, air, vegetation) has been obtained, allowing to estimate the present ecological state of the region. (author)

  17. Techno-economic analysis of oxy-combustion coal-fired power plant with cryogenic oxygen storage

    OpenAIRE

    Hanak, Dawid Piotr; Manovic, Vasilije

    2017-01-01

    Around 43% of the cumulative CO2 emissions from the power sector between 2012 and 2050 could be mitigated through implementation of carbon capture and storage, and utilisation of renewable energy sources. Energy storage technologies can increase the efficiency of energy utilisation and thus should be widely deployed along with low-emission technologies. This study evaluates the techno-economic performance of cryogenic O2 storage implemented in an oxy-combustion coal-fired power plant as a mea...

  18. Comprehensive evaluation of coal-fired power plants based on grey relational analysis and analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Gang; Yang Yongping; Lu Shiyuan; Li Le; Song Xiaona

    2011-01-01

    In China, coal-fired power plants are the main supplier of electricity, as well as the largest consumer of coal and water resources and the biggest emitter of SO x , NO x , and greenhouse gases (GHGs). Therefore, it is important to establish a scientific, reasonable, and feasible comprehensive evaluation system for coal-fired power plants to guide them in achieving multi-optimisation of their thermal, environmental, and economic performance. This paper proposes a novel comprehensive evaluation method, which is based on a combination of the grey relational analysis (GRA) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), to assess the multi-objective performance of power plants. Unlike the traditional evaluation method that uses coal consumption as a basic indicator, the proposed evaluation method also takes water consumption and pollutant emissions as indicators. On the basis of the proposed evaluation method, a case study on typical 600 MW coal-fired power plants is carried out to determine the relevancy rules among factors including the coal consumption, water consumption, pollutant, and GHG emissions of power plants. This research offers new ideas and methods for the comprehensive performance evaluation of complex energy utilisation systems, and is beneficial to the synthesised consideration of resources, economy, and environment factors in system optimising and policy making. - Research highlights: → We proposed a comprehensive evaluation method for coal-fired power plants. → The method is based on the grey relational analysis (GRA). → The method also introduces the idea of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). → The method can assess thermal, economic and environmental performance. → The method can play an active role in guiding power plants' improvements.

  19. Assessment of direct radiological risk and indirect associated toxic risks originated by Coal-Fired Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dinis, M. L.; Fiúza, António; Góis, Joaquim; Carvalho, José Soeiro de; Meira Castro, A C

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few decades there has been some discussion concerning the increase of the natural background radiation originated by coal-fired power plants, due to the uranium and thorium content present in combustion ashes. The radioactive decay products of uranium and thorium, such as radium, radon, polonium, bismuth and lead, are also released in addition to a significant amount of 40K. Since the measurement of radioactive elements released by the gaseous emissions of coal power plants i...

  20. Comprehensive evaluation of coal-fired power plants based on grey relational analysis and analytic hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Gang, E-mail: xg2008@ncepu.edu.c [Key Lab of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment of Ministry of Education, School of Energy Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Yang Yongping, E-mail: yyp@ncepu.edu.c [Key Lab of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment of Ministry of Education, School of Energy Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Lu Shiyuan; Li Le [Key Lab of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment of Ministry of Education, School of Energy Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Song Xiaona [Electromechanical Practice Center, Beijing Information Science and Technology University, Beijing (China)

    2011-05-15

    In China, coal-fired power plants are the main supplier of electricity, as well as the largest consumer of coal and water resources and the biggest emitter of SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and greenhouse gases (GHGs). Therefore, it is important to establish a scientific, reasonable, and feasible comprehensive evaluation system for coal-fired power plants to guide them in achieving multi-optimisation of their thermal, environmental, and economic performance. This paper proposes a novel comprehensive evaluation method, which is based on a combination of the grey relational analysis (GRA) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), to assess the multi-objective performance of power plants. Unlike the traditional evaluation method that uses coal consumption as a basic indicator, the proposed evaluation method also takes water consumption and pollutant emissions as indicators. On the basis of the proposed evaluation method, a case study on typical 600 MW coal-fired power plants is carried out to determine the relevancy rules among factors including the coal consumption, water consumption, pollutant, and GHG emissions of power plants. This research offers new ideas and methods for the comprehensive performance evaluation of complex energy utilisation systems, and is beneficial to the synthesised consideration of resources, economy, and environment factors in system optimising and policy making. - Research highlights: {yields} We proposed a comprehensive evaluation method for coal-fired power plants. {yields} The method is based on the grey relational analysis (GRA). {yields} The method also introduces the idea of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). {yields} The method can assess thermal, economic and environmental performance. {yields} The method can play an active role in guiding power plants' improvements.

  1. Mercury and other trace elements in Ohio River fish collected near coal-fired power plants: Interspecific patterns and consideration of consumption risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reash, Robin J; Brown, Lauren; Merritt, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Many coal-fired electric generating facilities in the United States are discharging higher loads of Hg, Se, and other chemicals to receiving streams due to the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) air pollution control units. There are regulatory concerns about the potential increased uptake of these bioaccumulative trace elements into food webs. We evaluated the concentrations of As, total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in Ohio River fish collected proximal to coal-fired power plants, of which 75% operate FGD systems. Fillet samples (n = 50) from 6 fish species representing 3 trophic levels were analyzed. Geometric mean fillet concentrations of THg (wet wt), MeHg (wet wt), and Se (dry wt) in 3 species were 0.136, 0.1181, and 3.19 mg/kg (sauger); 0.123, 0.1013, and 1.56 mg/kg (channel catfish); and 0.127, 0.0914, and 3.30 mg/kg (hybrid striped bass). For all species analyzed, only 3 fillet samples (6% of total) had MeHg concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health criterion (0.3 mg/kg wet wt); all of these were freshwater drum aged ≥ 19 y. None of the samples analyzed exceeded the USEPA proposed muscle and whole body Se thresholds for protection against reproductive effects in freshwater fish. All but 8 fillet samples had a total As concentration less than 1.0 mg/kg dry wt. Mean Se health benefit values (HBVSe ) for all species were ≥ 4, indicating that potential Hg-related health risks associated with consumption of Ohio River fish are likely to be offset by adequate Se concentrations. Overall, we observed no measurable evidence of enhanced trace element bioaccumulation associated with proximity to power plant FGD facilities, however, some enhanced bioaccumulation could have occurred in the wastewater mixing zones. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that, due to hydraulic and physical factors, the main stem Ohio River appears to have low net Hg methylation potential. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility study on improvement of the thermal efficiency of existing coal- fired thermal power plants in China; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Chugoku kisetsu sekitan karyoku hatsudensho koritsu kojo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Feasibility study was made on the improvement project of the thermal efficiency of existing coal-fired thermal power plants in China to relate it to Japanese clean development mechanism. General study was made on the facility and operation of existing 300MW coal-fired thermal power plant units, and on-site study was also made on improvement of the thermal efficiency of some typical power plants. Based on these studies, effective improvement measures were identified, and general evaluation was carried out based on a cost effectiveness. The study result showed that the total efficiency improvement measures improve the plant efficiency of a standard 300MW unit by nearly 4%, and reduce CO{sub 2} emission by 184 ktons/y. The efficiency improvement measures for 10 300MW units by 2010 are estimated to reduce CO{sub 2} emission by 1.84 Mtons/y in 2010. This reduced emission is equivalent to annual emission of one 300MW unit. This project is reasonable enough if the cooperation range between Japan and the other country, and a source of funds are clarified. (NEDO)

  3. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO x emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O ampersand M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO x removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system

  4. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Opportunities for Decarbonizing Existing U.S. Coal-Fired Power Plants via CO2 Capture, Utilization and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Ou, Yang; Rubin, Edward S

    2015-07-07

    This study employs a power plant modeling tool to explore the feasibility of reducing unit-level emission rates of CO2 by 30% by retrofitting carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) to existing U.S. coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). Our goal is to identify feasible EGUs and their key attributes. The results indicate that for about 60 gigawatts of the existing coal-fired capacity, the implementation of partial CO2 capture appears feasible, though its cost is highly dependent on the unit characteristics and fuel prices. Auxiliary gas-fired boilers can be employed to power a carbon capture process without significant increases in the cost of electricity generation. A complementary CO2 emission trading program can provide additional economic incentives for the deployment of CCS with 90% CO2 capture. Selling and utilizing the captured CO2 product for enhanced oil recovery can further accelerate CCUS deployment and also help reinforce a CO2 emission trading market. These efforts would allow existing coal-fired EGUs to continue to provide a significant share of the U.S. electricity demand.

  7. Main characteristics of the radioactive enrichment in ashes produced in coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, Antonio; Corbacho, Jose A.; Cancio, David; Robles, Beatriz; Mora, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Under contract with the Spain's 'Nuclear Safety Council', a study is being conducted of the nation's largest nominal output coal-fired power stations. Its purpose is to assess the radiological impact on workers and local populations due to this source of NORM activity. One of the aspects of particular interest is the study of the radioactive enrichment in the combustion wastes relative to the different coals used as fuel (usually local bituminous coal or lignite, or imported coal). These wastes consist of fly ash (mostly fine particles collected in electrostatic precipitators), and bottom ash (larger in size, and collected wet or dry in hoppers below the boilers). In general terms, the enrichment factors measured were between 2 and 18 for the radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 210 Po. The magnitude of this enrichment factor depended mainly on the ash content of each coal, and hence on the type of coal used as fuel and the specific operation cycle in the different power stations. For the radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra, and 232 Th, the enrichment was relatively similar in value in the fly and bottom ashes produced by the different types of coal used in the power stations studied. For 210 Po, however, as was expected, the enrichment was much greater in the fly ash than in the bottom ash for each coal analyzed. (author)

  8. Environmental aspects of airbrone radioactive effluent from a coal-fired power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Miaofa; Fu Rongchu; Lu Zhizhao

    1987-01-01

    The authors determined the contents of natural uranium and thorium in coal and tunnel ash samples taken from a large coal-fired power station in the nearby area. The hourly climate data in 1980 are analysed and the atmospheric stability is cataloged by Pasquill-Turner method. Wind direction-atmospheric stability-wind velocity combined probabilities and rain-wind direction probabilities are calculated. The near ground air pollution concentrations, the ground depositions and the distributions of U and Th presented in airborne effluent (fly ash) within an area round the station with a radius of 60 km are also estimated. In the calculations, some factors such as wind velocity in the higher atmosphere, plume rise, still wind and decrease of air pollution concentration by the ground deposition (especially the wet deposition porduced by rain) have been considered. Some corrections necessary for the factors described above are also made. It is shown that the maximum annual average air pollution concentration (U max = 1.95 x 10 -7 mg.m -3 , Th max = 3.45 x 10 -7 mg.m -3 ) appears at the point 1 km away from the source in the fan SE. In the area round the station with a radius shorter than 10 km, the ground deposition is mainly by the wet deposition, but, where the radius longer than 10 km, the dry deposition must be taken into account

  9. Pain without gain? Reviewing the risks and rewards of investing in Russian coal-fired electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbacheva, Natalya V.; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This study explores the risks and rewards facing coal in Russia. • Rewards include low costs, investment, rural modernization, exports, and innovation. • Risks include development challenges, air pollution and climate change, and policy support. - Abstract: Coal use—and thus investment—is expected to grow considerably in the Russian Federation over the next few decades. Projections suggest that at least $200 billion of investment will be needed to modernize existing coal-fired power plants by 2030, but the bulk of this financing is to come from the private sector or foreign enterprises. This study asks: what are the possible investment risks and rewards of pursuing this expansion of coal in the Russian power sector? To provide an answer, the study uses a mixed methods approach consisting of elite semi-structured interviews and a review of English and Russian peer-reviewed literature. The study provides a brief overview of the Russian electricity sector before discussing five distinct rewards to investing in coal such as low production costs, competitive returns on investment, rural modernization, expansion of exports, and the acceleration of innovation. These benefits however are offset by five risks: inferior performance to investments in oil and gas, development challenges, air pollution and climate change, social degradation from mining, and a tradeoff with existing policies incentivizing renewable energy and energy efficiency. The study concludes by analyzing what these disparate risks and rewards mean for policymakers and energy analysts

  10. Evaluation of activated carbon for control of mercury from coal-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.; Laudal, D.; Dunham, G.

    1995-01-01

    The ability to remove mercury from power plant flue gas may become important because of the Clean Air Act amendments' requirement that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with these emissions. One approach for mercury removal, which may be relatively simple to retrofit, is the injection of sorbents, such as activated carbon, upstream of existing particulate control devices. Activated carbon has been reported to capture mercury when injected into flue gas upstream of a spray dryer baghouse system applied to waste incinerators or coal-fired boilers. However, the mercury capture ability of activated carbon injected upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse operated at temperatures between 200 degrees and 400 degrees F is not well known. A study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric power Research Institute is being conducted at the University of North Dakota Energy ampersand Environmental Research Center (EERC) to evaluate whether mercury control with sorbents can be a cost-effective approach for large power plants. Initial results from the study were reported last year. This paper presents some of the recent project results. Variables of interest include coal type, sorbent type, sorbent addition rate, collection media, and temperature

  11. Costs of producing electricity from nuclear, coal-fired and oil-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    The Board publishes generation costs per kW h incurred at recently commissioned power stations so that the costs and performance of nuclear and conventional stations of roughly the same date of construction can be compared. The term 'conventional power station' is used to describe coal-fired and oil-fired steam power stations. The Board has now decided: (A) to supplement the past method of calculating costs at main stations commissioned between 1965 and 1977 by giving the associated figures for interest during construction, for research, and for training; (B) to give similar figures for the contemporary stations Hinkley Point B and the first half of Drax, (C) to provide estimates of generating costs of stations under construction; (D) to set out explicitly the relationship of this method of calculation to that employed in taking investment decisions on future stations. In this way the figures for stations in commission and under construction are arrived at more in line with the general principles of evaluating investment proposals. The present document provides this information. (author)

  12. Health and environmental effects of coal-fired electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, S.C.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-05-01

    This paper describes health and environmental impacts of coal-fired electric power plants. Effects on man, agriculture, and natural ecosystems are considered. These effects may result from direct impacts or exposures via air, water, and food chains. The paper is organized by geographical extent of effect. Occupational health impacts and local environmental effects such as noise and solid waste leachate are treated first. Then, regional effects of air pollution, including acid rain, are analyzed. Finally, potential global impacts are examined. Occupational health concerns considered include exposure to noise, dust, asbestos, mercury, and combustion products, and resulting injury and disease. Local effects considered include noise; air and water emissions of coal storage piles, solid waste operations, and cooling systems. Air pollution, once an acute local problem, is now a regional concern. Acute and chronic direct health effects are considered. Special attention is given to potential effects of radionuclides in coal and of acid rain. Finally, potential global impacts associated with carbon dioxide emissions are considered. 88 references, 9 tables

  13. Dynamic behavior of tobacco waste in the coal-fired fluidized-bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Chang, Jian; Chen, Honggang; Yang, Yongping [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). National Eng Lab for Biomass Power Generation Equipment; Yu, Bangting [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Heavy Oil Processing

    2013-07-01

    Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology is an advanced method for utilizing coal and other solid fuels in an environmentally acceptable manner. During the processing procedure in the nicotiana tabacum plants, lots of tobacco stem wastes are produced, which are normally being dumped to the landfill field. If this kind of waste can be used as a part of the fuel to be added into the coal in a CFB combustor, it will reduce the use of coal and then cut the net carbon emissions. To understand the complicated fluid dynamics of nicotiana tabacum wastes in the coal-fired CFB boiler, the mixing and segregation behavior of tobacco stalk are preliminary measured in a cylindrical fluidized bed. Obvious segregation behavior is found due to distinct differences in density and shape between tobacco stem and coal, which results in poor fluidization quality and bad combustion efficiency. To overcome this disadvantage, a jet with high gas velocity is introduced through the air distributor and a detailed experimental study is conducted in a fluidized bed made up of stem-sand mixture with different solid components at various jet velocities, which greatly improve the mixing performance of stem in the fluidized bed. The above findings are helpful for the technological upgrading of small- or middle-sized CFB boiler with adding tobacco stem into coal.

  14. Infrared optical properties of a coal-fired power plant plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stearns, L.P.; Pueschel, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Infrared measurements in the 8--14-μm spectral region were made of two coal-fired power plant plumes and area haze in the Four Corners region of New Mexico from 1 to 7 Nov. 1980. The layer tranmittance, optical depth, and volume extinction coefficient derived from measurements on four nonconsecutive days show the effects of the plumes on the IR optical properties of the atmosphere. The average contribution of the plume alone to the IR extinction coefficient was 74% at the Four Corners plant; the background haze contributed 7--11%. More efficient particulate emission control at the San Juan power plant reduced the average contribution of its plume to 57% of the extinction coefficient. The haze contributed an average of 16%. The results show an increase with time of the haze bulk extinction coefficient during a persistent anticyclonic synoptic situation. Extinction coefficients of the haze showed a linearity with particulate loading, which led to estimates of IR volume extinctions of the free troposphre from aerosol measurements

  15. Wasteless combined aggregate-coal-fired steam-generator/melting-converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pioro, L.S.; Pioro, I.L.

    2003-01-01

    A method of reprocessing coal sludge and ash into granulate for the building industry in a combined wasteless aggregate-steam-generator/melting-converter was developed and tested. The method involves melting sludge and ash from coal-fired steam-generators of power plants in a melting-converter installed under the steam-generator, with direct sludge drain from the steam generator combustion chamber. The direct drain of sludge into converter allows burnup of coal with high ash levels in the steam-generator without an additional source of ignition (natural gas, heating oil, etc.). Specific to the melting process is the use of a gas-air mixture with direct combustion inside a melt. This feature provides melt bubbling and helps to achieve maximum heat transfer from combustion products to the melt, to improve mixing, to increase rate of chemical reactions and to improve the conditions for burning the carbon residue from the sludge and ash. The 'gross' thermal efficiency of the combined aggregate is about 93% and the converter capacity is about 18 t of melt in 100 min. The experimental data for different aspects of the proposed method are presented. The effective ash/charging materials feeding system is also discussed. The reprocessed coal ash and sludge in the form of granules can be used as fillers for concretes and as additives in the production of cement, bricks and other building materials

  16. Natural radionuclides in waste water discharged from coal-fired power plants in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Marija M; Todorović, Dragana J; Sarap, Nataša B; Krneta Nikolić, Jelena D; Rajačić, Milica M; Pantelić, Gordana K

    2016-12-01

    Investigation of the natural radioactivity levels in water around power plants, as well as in plants, coal, ash, slag and soil, and to assess the associated radiation hazard is becoming an emerging and interesting topic. This paper is focused on the results of the radioactivity analysis in waste water samples from five coal-fired power plants in Serbia (Nikola Tesla A, Nikola Tesla B, Kolubara, Morava and Kostolac), which were analyzed in the period 2003-2015. River water samples taken upstream and downstream from the power plants, drain water and overflow water were analyzed. In the water samples gamma spectrometry analysis was performed as well as determination of gross alpha and beta activity. Natural radionuclide 40 K was detected by gamma spectrometry, while the concentrations of other radionuclides, 226 Ra, 235 U and 238 U, usually were below the minimum detection activity (MDA). 232 Th and artificial radionuclide 137 Cs were not detected in these samples. Gross alpha and beta activities were determined by the α/β low level proportional counter Thermo Eberline FHT 770 T. In the analyzed samples, gross alpha activity ranged from MDA to 0.47 Bq L - 1 , while the gross beta activity ranged from MDA to 1.55 Bq L - 1 .

  17. RAM investigation of coal-fired thermal power plants: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bose

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuous generation of electricity of a power plant depends on the higher availability of its components/equipments. Higher availability of the components/equipments is inherently associated with their higher reliability and maintainability. This paper investigates the reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM characteristics of a 210 MW coal-fired thermal power plant (Unit-2 from a thermal power station in eastern region of India. Critical mechanical subsystems with respect to failure frequency, reliability and maintainability are identified for taking necessary measures for enhancing availability of the power plant and the results are compared with Unit-1 of the same Power Station. Reliability-based preventive maintenance intervals (PMIs at various reliability levels of the subsystems are estimated also for performing their preventive maintenance (PM. The present paper highlights that in the Unit-2, Economizer (ECO & Furnace Wall Tube (FWT exhibits lower reliability as compared to the other subsystems and Economizer (ECO & Baffle Wall Tube (BWT demands more improvement in maintainability. Further, it has been observed that FSH followed Decreasing Failure Rate (DFR and Economizer (ECO is the most critical subsystem for both the plants. RAM analysis is very much effective in finding critical subsystems and deciding their preventive maintenance program for improving availability of the power plant as well as the power supply.

  18. Pollution control technologies applied to coal-fired power plant operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Rozpondek

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Burning of fossil fuels is the major source of energy in today's global economy with over one-third of the world's powergeneration derived from coal combustion. Although coal has been a reliable, abundant, and relatively inexpensive fuel source for mostof the 20th century, its future in electric power generation is under increasing pressure as environmental regulations become morestringent worldwide. Current pollution control technologies for combustion exhaust gas generally treat the release of regulatedpollutants: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter as three separate problems instead of as parts of one problem. Newand improved technologies have greatly reduced the emissions produced per ton of burning coal. The term “Clean Coal CombustionTechnology” applies generically to a range of technologies designed to greatly reduce the emissions from coal-fired power plants.The wet methods of desulfurization at present are the widest applied technology in professional energetics. This method is economicand gives good final results but a future for clean technologies is the biomass. Power from biomass is a proven commercial optionof the electricity generation in the World. An increasing number of power marketers are starting to offer environmentally friendlyelectricity, including biomass power, in response to the consumer demand and regulatory requirements.

  19. Maximizing economic and environmental performance of existing coal-fired assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartley, Pat; Foucher, Jean-Claude; Hestermann, Rolf; Hilton, Bob; Keegan, Bill; Stephen, Don

    2007-07-01

    In recent years, Plant Owners and innovative suppliers such as ALSTOM have come to realize that existing coal-fired assets have in many cases hidden capacity. This largely results from the conservative nature of their original design, but also from the possibility of integrating the latest advances in technology without the need to buy complete power plant components. ALSTOM's Optimized Plant Retrofit (OPR) process is a proven method to identify the full potential of existing equipment, taking a systemic and holistic approach to achieve full optimisation. OPRs are supported by ALSTOM's comprehensive portfolio of available technologies and a proven capability to integrate retrofit opportunities encompassing innovative solutions for a variety of plant components such as coal mills, boiler, air pollution control equipment, turbogenerator, feedheating and condensing plant. By teaming utility representatives with ALSTOM's technical experts we can collectively identify solutions for enhancing both heat rate and net output, to maximise the value of existing assets. This often gives a return on investment significantly better than greenfield construction for supply margin improvement. This paper introduces the OPR concept in detail and presents case studies and insights into future developments, in particular retrofitting existing assets in an emissions constrained environment. (auth)

  20. Value of forestation in absorbing carbon dioxide surrounding a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1980-08-01

    The dispersion of carbon dioxide emitted from 1000 MW(e) coal fired power plant is investigated. Calculated ground level carbon dioxide concentrations as a function of distance from the power plant stack is validated by the results derived from sulfur dioxide dispersion measurements. Forestation is examined as a means for removal and control of atmospheric carbon dioxide at a distance of 5 to 10 km away from the power plant stack. An equilibrium and a dynamic approach are considered. For an average temperate zone forest growth rate (7.42 mg/dm/sup 2/ h), the overall reduction in forested land area required to remove the equivalent of all of the CO/sub 2/ from a 1000 MW(e) power plant would be less than 3.3% compared to removing the equivalent amount of CO/sub 2/ by planting forests remotely from the plant. If faster growing tropical plants or trees having up to 4 times the temperate plant growth rate were used, there would be a maximum savings of 15% in forested land area compared to a remote planting. This magnitude of reduction in cultivated forest area is insufficient to recommend planting forested areas adjacent to central power stations as a means of controlling CO/sub 2/ emission. Rather it is suggested to provide sufficient increased regional forested areas on a global scale for the purposes of absorbing the equivalent increase in CO/sub 2/ emission due to increased fossil fuel use.

  1. Increasing coal-fired power generation efficiency to reduce electric cost and environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.; Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    New generating capacity required globally between 1993 and 2010 is estimated to be around 1500 GW, of which some two-thirds will be outside the OECD, and some 40 % in the Asian non-OECD countries. Coal is likely to account for a substantial fraction of this new generation. Today's state-of-the-art supercritical coal-fired power plant has a conversion efficiency of some 42-45 %. The capital cost increase associated with the supercritical or ultra-supercritical pulverized coal power plant compared to a conventional subcritical plant is small to negligible. The increased efficiency associated with the supercritical plant leads to an actual reduction in the total cost of electricity generated in cents/kWh, relative to a conventional plant. Despite this, the power sector continues to build subcritical plants and has no near term plans to increase the efficiency of power plants in the projects it is developing. Advanced clean coal technologies such as integrated gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion will be selected for independent power projects only in very specific circumstances. Advanced clean coal plants can be operated reliably and with superior performance, and specifically that their present estimated capital costs can be reduced substantially to a point where they are competitive with state-of-the-art pulverized coal technologies. (R.P.)

  2. Heat recovery from flue gas of coal fired installations with reduced pollutant emission - the Zittau process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H; Strauss, R; Hofmann, K -D; Suder, M; Hultsch, T; Wetzel, W; Gabrysch, H; Jung, J [Technische Hochschule, Zittau (German Democratic Republic)

    1988-12-01

    Reviews the technology applied in the Zittau process for flue gas heat recovery and flue gas desulfurization in small brown coal fired power plants. Steam generators have a capacity of 6.5 or 10 t/h, low grade fuel with 8.2 MJ/kg calorific value is combusted. Technology has been developed on an experimental 10 t/h steam generator since 1986; an industrial 6.5 t/h prototype steam generator is now in operation achieving 95% SO{sub 2} removal from flue gas with 5600 to 7800 mg SO{sub 2} per m{sup 3} of dry flue gas. The Zittau technology is available in 3 variants: with maximum waste heat recovery, with partial waste heat recovery or without waste heat recovery and only wet flue gas scrubbing. Two flowsheets of flue gas and suspension circulation are provided. The first variant recovers 25.7% of nominal heat capacity (1.1 thermal MW from a 4.2 MW steam generator with 6.5 t/h steam capacity), the second variant recovers 6.5% of waste heat by reducing heat exchangers to 20% of the size of the first variant. Flue gas suspension scrubbing utilizes power plant ash, which is capable of absorbing 50 to 70% of SO{sub 2}, additional 25% SO{sub 2} removal is achieved by providing either 40% ash from another power plant or limestone for suspensions. Various technological details are included. 5 refs.

  3. Preparation and Stability of Inorganic Solidified Foam for Preventing Coal Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botao Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic solidified foam (ISF is a novel material for preventing coal fires. This paper presents the preparation process and working principle of main installations. Besides, aqueous foam with expansion ratio of 28 and 30 min drainage rate of 13% was prepared. Stability of foam fluid was studied in terms of stability coefficient, by varying water-slurry ratio, fly ash replacement ratio of cement, and aqueous foam volume alternatively. Light microscope was utilized to analyze the dynamic change of bubble wall of foam fluid and stability principle was proposed. In order to further enhance the stability of ISF, different dosage of calcium fluoroaluminate was added to ISF specimens whose stability coefficient was tested and change of hydration products was detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The outcomes indicated that calcium fluoroaluminate could enhance the stability coefficient of ISF and compact hydration products formed in cell wall of ISF; naturally, the stability principle of ISF was proved right. Based on above-mentioned experimental contents, ISF with stability coefficient of 95% and foam expansion ratio of 5 was prepared, which could sufficiently satisfy field process requirements on plugging air leakage and thermal insulation.

  4. Oxidation of mercury across selective catalytic reduction catalysts in coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constance L. Senior [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2006-01-15

    A kinetic model for predicting the amount of mercury (Hg) oxidation across selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems in coal-fired power plants was developed and tested. The model incorporated the effects of diffusion within the porous SCR catalyst and the competition between ammonia and Hg for active sites on the catalyst. Laboratory data on Hg oxidation in simulated flue gas and slipstream data on Hg oxidation in flue gas from power plants were modeled. The model provided good fits to the data for eight different catalysts, both plate and monolith, across a temperature range of 280-420{sup o}C, with space velocities varying from 1900 to 5000 hr{sup -1}. Space velocity, temperature, hydrochloric acid content of the flue gas, ratio of ammonia to nitric oxide, and catalyst design all affected Hg oxidation across the SCR catalyst. The model can be used to predict the impact of coal properties, catalyst design, and operating conditions on Hg oxidation across SCRs. 20 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Phase I, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of a program for the development of a coal-fired residential combustion system. This phase consisted of the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of an advanced pulse combustor sized for residential space heating requirements. The objective was to develop an advanced pulse coal combustor at the {approximately} 100,000 Btu/hr scale that can be integrated into a packaged space heating system for small residential applications. The strategy for the development effort included the scale down of the feasibility unit from 1-2 MMBtu/hr to 100,000 Btu/hr to establish a baseline for isolating the effect of scale-down and new chamber configurations separately. Initial focus at the residential scale was concentrated on methods of fuel injection and atomization in a bare metal unit. This was followed by incorporating changes to the advanced chamber designs and testing of refractory-lined units. Multi-fuel capability for firing oil or gas as a secondary fuel was also established. Upon completion of the configuration and component testing, an optimum configuration would be selected for integrated testing of the pulse combustor unit. The strategy also defined the use of Dry Ultrafine Coal (DUC) for Phases 1 and 2 of the development program with CWM firing to be a product improvement activity for a later phase of the program.

  6. Mathematical modelling of flue gas tempered flames produced from pulverised coal fired with oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breussin, A.; Weber, R.; Kamp, W.L. van de

    1997-10-01

    The combustion of pulverised coal in conventional utility boilers contributes significantly to global CO{sub 2} emissions. Because atmospheric air is used as the combustion medium, the exhaust gases of conventional pulverised coal fired utility boilers contain approximately 15 % CO{sub 2}. This relatively low concentration makes separating and recovering CO{sub 2} a very energy-intensive process. This process can be simplified if N{sub 2} is eliminated from the comburent before combustion by firing the pulverised coal with pure oxygen. However, this concept will result in very high flames temperatures. Flue gas recirculation can be used to moderate the flame temperature, whilst generating a flue gas with a CO{sub 2} concentration of 95 %. In this presentation, both experimental and modelling work will be described. The former deals with identifying the issues related to the combustion of pulverised coal in simulated turbine exhaust gas, particularly with respect to stability, burnout and pollutant emissions. The second part of this presentation describes mathematical modelling of type 2 as well as type 1 swirling pulverised coal flames. Future work will concentrate on high CO{sub 2} levels environments. (orig.)

  7. Natural radioactivity in soil around Baoji coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lingqing; Lu Xinwei; Jia Xiaodan; Wang Fengling

    2007-01-01

    Based on systematic sampling of soil around the Baoji coal-fired power plant, the activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were determined using γ-ray spectrometry. Each eight soil samples were collected within the range of 1 km of the plant, and at a distance of 1 and 3 km from the plant, respectively. Two layers of soil sample [0-25cm(layer A), 25cm-50cm(layer B)] were collected at each location. The concentrations of these radionuclides are different horizontally and vertically. The measured specific activity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were compared with the average activity of other cities in Shaanxi soil. The results show that 226 Ra concentrations in layer A were higher than those in layer B and concentrations of 232 Th and 40 K in layer B were greater than those in layer A in soil samples collected at 1 km. (authors)

  8. Isolation and selection of microalgae from coal fired thermoelectric power plant for biofixation of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Michele Greque de; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2007-01-01

    Global warming is thought to be caused mainly by the emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), with thermoelectric power plants being responsible for about 7% of global CO 2 emissions. Microalgae can reduce CO 2 emissions from thermoelectric power plants, but for this use, they must be resistant to the mixture of gases produced by the power plants. We isolated the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella kessleri from the waste treatment ponds of the Presidente Medici coal fired thermoelectric power plant in the Southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul and investigated their growth characteristics when exposed to different concentrations of CO 2 . When cultivated with 6% and 12% CO 2 , C. kessleri showed a high maximum specific growth rate (μ max ) of 0.267/day, with a maximum biomass productivity (P max ) of 0.087 g/L/day at 6% CO 2 . For S. obliquus, the highest maximum dry weight biomass value was 1.14 g/L with 12% CO 2 . We also found that these two microalgae also grew well when the culture medium contained up to 18% CO 2 , indicating that they have potential for biofixation of CO 2 in thermoelectric power plants

  9. Isolation and selection of microalgae from coal fired thermoelectric power plant for biofixation of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Morais, M.G.; Costa, J.A.V. [Federal University of Rio Grande, Rio Grande (Brazil)

    2007-07-15

    Global warming is thought to be caused mainly by the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), with thermoelectric power plants being responsible for about 7% of global CO{sub 2} emissions. Microalgae can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from thermoelectric power plants, but for this use, they must be resistant to the mixture of gases produced by the power plants. We isolated the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella kessleri from the waste treatment ponds of the Presidente Medici coal fired thermoelectric power plant in the Southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul and investigated their growth characteristics when exposed to different concentrations of CO{sub 2}. When cultivated with 6% and 12% CO{sub 2}, C. kessleri showed a high maximum specific growth rate ({lambda}{sub max}) of 0.267/day, with a maximum biomass productivity (P-max) of 0.087 g/L/day at 6% CO{sub 2}. For S. obliquus, the highest maximum dry weight biomass value was 1.14 g/L with 12% CO{sub 2}. We also found that these two microalgae also grew well when the culture medium contained up to 18% CO{sub 2}, indicating that they have potential for biofixation of CO{sub 2} in thermoelectric power plants.

  10. Isolation and selection of microalgae from coal fired thermoelectric power plant for biofixation of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Michele Greque de [Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Biochemistry Engineering, Federal University Foundation of Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira [Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Biochemistry Engineering, Federal University Foundation of Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: dqmjorge@furg.br

    2007-07-15

    Global warming is thought to be caused mainly by the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), with thermoelectric power plants being responsible for about 7% of global CO{sub 2} emissions. Microalgae can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from thermoelectric power plants, but for this use, they must be resistant to the mixture of gases produced by the power plants. We isolated the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella kessleri from the waste treatment ponds of the Presidente Medici coal fired thermoelectric power plant in the Southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul and investigated their growth characteristics when exposed to different concentrations of CO{sub 2}. When cultivated with 6% and 12% CO{sub 2}, C. kessleri showed a high maximum specific growth rate ({mu} {sub max}) of 0.267/day, with a maximum biomass productivity (P {sub max}) of 0.087 g/L/day at 6% CO{sub 2}. For S. obliquus, the highest maximum dry weight biomass value was 1.14 g/L with 12% CO{sub 2}. We also found that these two microalgae also grew well when the culture medium contained up to 18% CO{sub 2}, indicating that they have potential for biofixation of CO{sub 2} in thermoelectric power plants.

  11. Seed recovery and regeneration in coal-fired, open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, A.C.; Jackson, D.M.; Attig, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power systems not only have high cycle efficiency, but they also have an inherent sulfur removal capability. The potassium compound uses as ''seed'' plays a dual role. It 1) increases the electrical conductivity of the plasma needed to produce power in the MHD electrical topping cycle, and 2) reacts with sulfur dioxide to form potassium sulfate, thereby eliminating most of the sulfur oxides from the gaseous effluent. For economical reasons, the spent seed must be recovered, desulfurized and recycled to the MHD power plant. This paper reviews some of the available experimental results and literature relating to SO 2 removal and seed recovery, and will also discuss several potential seed regeneration processes. Three methods of potassium extraction are discussed, i.e., hot aqueous digestion with CA(OH) 2 /NaOH, acid washing, and aqueous extraction. The selected candidate regeneration systems are discussed from the viewpoint of energy and process water requirements and environmental considerations such as waste discharges and emissions of gaseous, particulate and trace element pollutants

  12. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  13. Conversion of coal-fired bottom ash to fuel and construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Huseyin; Aksoy, Derya Oz; Ucar, Reyhan; Koca, Sabiha

    2017-07-01

    In this study, solid wastes taken from Seyitomer coal-fired power plant bottom ashes were subjected to experimental research to obtain a carbon-rich fraction. The possible recycling opportunities of remaining inorganic fraction in the cement and concrete industry was also investigated. Flotation technique was used to separate unburned carbon from inorganic bottom ashes. Collector type, collector, dispersant and frother amounts, and pulp density are the most important variables in the flotation technique. A number of flotation collectors were tested in the experiments including new era flotation reactives. Optimum collector, dispersant and frother dosages as well as optimum pulp density were also determined. After experimental work, an inorganic fraction was obtained, which included 5.41% unburned carbon with 81.56% weight yield. These properties meets the industrial specifications for the cement and concrete industry. The carbon content of the concentrate fraction, obtained in the same experiment, was enhanced to 49.82%. This fraction accounts for 18.44% of the total amount and can be mixed to the power plant fuel. Therefore total amount of the solid waste can possibly be recycled according to experimental results.

  14. Expert assessments of retrofitting coal-fired power plants with carbon dioxide capture technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Timothy S.; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Johnson, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    A set of 13 US based experts in post-combustion and oxy-fuel combustion CO 2 capture systems responded to an extensive questionnaire asking their views on the present status and future expected performance and costs for amine-based, chilled ammonia, and oxy-combustion retrofits of coal-fired power plants. This paper presents the experts' responses for technology maturity, ideal plant characteristics for early adopters, and the extent to which R and D and deployment incentives will impact costs. It also presents the best estimates and 95% confidence limits of the energy penalties associated with amine-based systems. The results show a general consensus that amine-based systems are closer to commercial application, but potential for improving performance and lowering costs is limited; chilled ammonia and oxy-combustion offer greater potential for cost reductions, but not without greater uncertainty regarding scale and technical feasibility. - Highlights: → Study presents experts' views on CCS retrofit costs and performance. → Experts commented on amine-based systems, chilled ammonia, and oxy-fuel combustion. → Estimates of future energy penalty show uncertainty for the three technologies. → These estimates under an aggressive RD and D policy scenario narrow significantly. → The experts' judgments support the need for enhanced RD and D for post-combustion CCS.

  15. Should a coal-fired power plant be replaced or retrofitted?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalia Patino-Echeverri; Benoit Morel; Jay Apt; Chao Chen [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA)

    2007-12-15

    In a cap-and-trade system, a power plant operator can choose to operate while paying for the necessary emissions allowances, retrofit emissions controls to the plant, or replace the unit with a new plant. Allowance prices are uncertain, as are the timing and stringency of requirements for control of mercury and carbon emissions. We model the evolution of allowance prices for SO{sub 2}, NOx, Hg, and CO{sub 2} using geometric Brownian motion with drift, volatility, and jumps, and use an options-based analysis to find the value of the alternatives. In the absence of a carbon price, only if the owners have a planning horizon longer than 30 years would they replace a conventional coal-fired plant with a high-performance unit such as a supercritical plant; otherwise, they would install SO{sub 2} and NOx controls on the existing unit. An expectation that the CO{sub 2} price will reach $50/t in 2020 makes the installation of an IGCC with carbon capture and sequestration attractive today, even for planning horizons as short as 20 years. A carbon price below $40/t is unlikely to produce investments in carbon capture for electric power. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings for boiler tube protection in coal-fired low NOx boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings are currently being considered for enhanced sulfidation resistance in coal-fired low NO{sub x} boilers. The use of these materials is currently limited due to hydrogen cracking susceptibility, which generally increases with an increase in aluminum concentration of the deposit. The overall objective of this program is to attain an optimum aluminum content with good weldability and improved sulfidation resistance with respect to conventional materials presently in use. Research has been initiated using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) in order to achieve this end. Under different sets of GTAW parameters (wire feed speed, current), both single and multiple pass overlays were produced. Characterization of all weldments was conducted using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Resultant deposits exhibited a wide range of aluminum contents (5--43 wt%). It was found that the GTAW overlays with aluminum contents above {approximately}10 wt% resulted in cracked coatings. Preliminary corrosion experiments of 5 to 10 wt% Al cast alloys in relatively simple H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S gas mixtures exhibited corrosion rates lower than 304 stainless steel.

  17. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-01-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI - , F - , and SO 4 = . We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements

  18. Turbine-generators for 400 mw coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, W.; Bergmann, D.; Boer, J.; Termuehlen, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that presently, standard coal-fired power plant concepts including flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and DENO x systems are in the design stage to be built on relatively short delivery schedules. The rating in the 400 MW range has generally been selected, because such small power plant units with short delivery times cause a minimum financial burden during planning, delivery and installation. They also follow more closely the growth of electric energy demand at specific locations. However economical considerations could lead to larger unit ratings, since the planning and building process of higher capacity plants is not significantly different but specific plant costs are certainly smaller with increased unit size. Historically large tandem-compound steam turbine-generators have been built and have proven reliable operation with ratings in excess of 800 MW. Already in the late 1950's main steam pressures and temperatures as high as 4,500 psig and 1,200 degrees F respectively were successfully used for smaller steam turbines

  19. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  20. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-11-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI{sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup =}. We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements.

  1. Evaluation of activated carbon for control of mercury from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.; Laudal, D.; Dunham, G. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The ability to remove mercury from power plant flue gas may become important because of the Clean Air Act amendments` requirement that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with these emissions. One approach for mercury removal, which may be relatively simple to retrofit, is the injection of sorbents, such as activated carbon, upstream of existing particulate control devices. Activated carbon has been reported to capture mercury when injected into flue gas upstream of a spray dryer baghouse system applied to waste incinerators or coal-fired boilers. However, the mercury capture ability of activated carbon injected upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse operated at temperatures between 200{degrees} and 400{degrees}F is not well known. A study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric power Research Institute is being conducted at the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to evaluate whether mercury control with sorbents can be a cost-effective approach for large power plants. Initial results from the study were reported last year. This paper presents some of the recent project results. Variables of interest include coal type, sorbent type, sorbent addition rate, collection media, and temperature.

  2. Removal of Mn(II) from the acid mine wastewaters using coal fired bottom ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahidin, M.; Sulaiman, T. N.; Muslim, A.; Gani, A.

    2017-06-01

    Acid mine wastewater (AMW), the wastewater from mining activities which has low pH about 3-5 and contains hazardous heavy metals such as Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, etc. Those heavy metals pollution is of prime concern from the environmental view point. Among the heavy metals, Mn occupies the third position in the AMW from one the iron ore mining company in Aceh, Indonesia. In this study, the possibility use of bottom ash from coal fired boiler of steam power plants for the removal of Mn(II) in AMW has been investigated. Experimental has been conducted as follows. Activation of bottom ash was done both by physical and chemical treatments through heating at 270 °C and washing with NaOH activator 0.5 and 1 M. Adsorption test contains two parts observation; preliminary and primary experiments. Preliminary study is addressed to select the best condition of three independent variables i.e.: pH of AMW (3 & 7), bottom ash particle size (40, 60 & 100 mesh) and initial Mn(II) concentrations (100 & 600 mg/l). AMW used was synthetics wastewater. It was found that the best value for NaOH is 1 M, pH is 7, particle size is 100 meshes and initial Mn(II) concentration is 600 mg/l from the adsorption efficiency point of view. The maximum adsorption capacity (q e) is 63.7 mg/g with the efficiency of 85%.

  3. Assessing the Exergy Costs of a 332-MW Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. Rangel-Hernandez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the exergy costs of a real large industrial boiler with the aim of improving efficiency. Specifically, the 350-MW front-fired, natural circulation, single reheat and balanced draft coal-fired boiler forms part of a 1050-MW conventional power plant located in Spain. We start with a diagram of the power plant, followed by a formulation of the exergy cost allocation problem to determine the exergy cost of the product of the boiler as a whole and the expenses of the individual components and energy streams. We also define a productive structure of the system. Furthermore, a proposal for including the exergy of radiation is provided in this study. Our results show that the unit exergy cost of the product of the boiler goes from 2.352 to 2.5, and that the maximum values are located in the ancillary electrical devices, such as induced-draft fans and coil heaters. Finally, radiation does not have an effect on the electricity cost, but affects at least 30% of the unit exergy cost of the boiler’s product.

  4. Isotopic Tracing of Thallium Contamination in Soils Affected by Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaněk, Aleš; Grösslová, Zuzana; Mihaljevič, Martin; Trubač, Jakub; Ettler, Vojtěch; Teper, Leslaw; Cabala, Jerzy; Rohovec, Jan; Zádorová, Tereza; Penížek, Vít; Pavlů, Lenka; Holubík, Ondřej; Němeček, Karel; Houška, Jakub; Drábek, Ondřej; Ash, Christopher

    2016-09-20

    Here, for the first time, we report the thallium (Tl) isotope record in moderately contaminated soils with contrasting land management (forest and meadow soils), which have been affected by emissions from coal-fired power plants. Our findings clearly demonstrate that Tl of anthropogenic (high-temperature) origin with light isotope composition was deposited onto the studied soils, where heavier Tl (ε(205)Tl ∼ -1) naturally occurs. The results show a positive linear relationship (R(2) = 0.71) between 1/Tl and the isotope record, as determined for all the soils and bedrocks, also indicative of binary Tl mixing between two dominant reservoirs. We also identified significant Tl isotope variations within the products from coal combustion and thermo-desorption experiments with local Tl-rich coal pyrite. Bottom ash exhibited the heaviest Tl isotope composition (ε(205)Tl ∼ 0), followed by fly ash (ε(205)Tl between -2.5 and -2.8) and volatile Tl fractions (ε(205)Tl between -6.2 and -10.3), suggesting partial Tl isotope fractionations. Despite the evident role of soil processes in the isotope redistributions, we demonstrate that Tl contamination can be traced in soils and propose that the isotope data represent a possible tool to aid our understanding of postdepositional Tl dynamics in surface environments for the future.

  5. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskinazi, D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Tavoulareas, E.S. [Energy Technologies Enterprises Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  6. Analysis of the evaporative towers cooling system of a coal-fired power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laković Mirjana S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the cooling system of a 110 MW coal-fired power plant located in central Serbia, where eight evaporative towers cool down the plant. An updated research on the evaporative tower cooling system has been carried out to show the theoretical analysis of the tower heat and mass balance, taking into account the sensible and latent heat exchanged during the processes which occur inside these towers. Power plants which are using wet cooling towers for cooling condenser cooling water have higher design temperature of cooling water, thus the designed condensing pressure is higher compared to plants with a once-through cooling system. Daily and seasonal changes further deteriorate energy efficiency of these plants, so it can be concluded that these plants have up to 5% less efficiency compared to systems with once-through cooling. The whole analysis permitted to evaluate the optimal conditions, as far as the operation of the towers is concerned, and to suggest an improvement of the plant. Since plant energy efficiency improvement has become a quite common issue today, the evaluation of the cooling system operation was conducted under the hypothesis of an increase in the plant overall energy efficiency due to low cost improvement in cooling tower system.

  7. Radon concentrations in houses around the Plomin coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokobauer, N.; Franic, Z.; Sencar, J.; Bauman, A.; Sokolovic, E.

    1997-01-01

    Investigation of radon activity concentration in houses around the Plomin coal-fired power plant (Istrian Peninsula) started in the winter of 1990 upon the assumption that certain old houses in this region were built using mortar and plaster prepared from slag and ash. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation carried out in the winter of 1990 and spring of 1991, when the difference between radon levels in old and newly built houses was first noted, and the subsequent data obtained by radon measurements in 40 selected houses in the period from 1992 to 1994. The average annual radon activity concentrations in the old houses ranged from 55 Bqm -3 to 426 Bqm -3 (mean value 146 ± 91 Bqm -3 ) and in more recently built houses from 16 Bqm -3 to 67 Bqm -3 (mean value 36 ± 13 Bqm -3 ). The average annual effective doses from inhalation of radon progeny for the inhabitants living in the old and newly built houses were estimated to be 2.7 mSv and 0.7 mSv, respectively. (Author)

  8. Direct energy balance based active disturbance rejection control for coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Hua, Qingsong; Li, Donghai; Pan, Lei; Xue, Yali; Lee, Kwang Y

    2017-09-01

    The conventional direct energy balance (DEB) based PI control can fulfill the fundamental tracking requirements of the coal-fired power plant. However, it is challenging to deal with the cases when the coal quality variation is present. To this end, this paper introduces the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) to the DEB structure, where the coal quality variation is deemed as a kind of unknown disturbance that can be estimated and mitigated promptly. Firstly, the nonlinearity of a recent power plant model is analyzed based on the gap metric, which provides guidance on how to set the pressure set-point in line with the power demand. Secondly, the approximate decoupling effect of the DEB structure is analyzed based on the relative gain analysis in frequency domain. Finally, the synthesis of the DEB based ADRC control system is carried out based on multi-objective optimization. The optimized ADRC results show that the integrated absolute error (IAE) indices of the tracking performances in both loops can be simultaneously improved, in comparison with the DEB based PI control and H ∞ control system. The regulation performance in the presence of the coal quality variation is significantly improved under the ADRC control scheme. Moreover, the robustness of the proposed strategy is shown comparable with the H ∞ control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Computational intelligence approach for NOx emissions minimization in a coal-fired utility boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hao; Zheng Ligang; Cen Kefa

    2010-01-01

    The current work presented a computational intelligence approach used for minimizing NO x emissions in a 300 MW dual-furnaces coal-fired utility boiler. The fundamental idea behind this work included NO x emissions characteristics modeling and NO x emissions optimization. First, an objective function aiming at estimating NO x emissions characteristics from nineteen operating parameters of the studied boiler was represented by a support vector regression (SVR) model. Second, four levels of primary air velocities (PA) and six levels of secondary air velocities (SA) were regulated by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) so as to achieve low NO x emissions combustion. To reduce the time demanding, a more flexible stopping condition was used to improve the computational efficiency without the loss of the quality of the optimization results. The results showed that the proposed approach provided an effective way to reduce NO x emissions from 399.7 ppm to 269.3 ppm, which was much better than a genetic algorithm (GA) based method and was slightly better than an ant colony optimization (ACO) based approach reported in the earlier work. The main advantage of PSO was that the computational cost, typical of less than 25 s under a PC system, is much less than those required for ACO. This meant the proposed approach would be more applicable to online and real-time applications for NO x emissions minimization in actual power plant boilers.

  10. Heavy Metal Pollution and Ecological Assessment around the Jinsha Coal-Fired Power Plant (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianfei; Hu, Jiwei; Qin, Fanxin; Quan, Wenxuan; Cao, Rensheng; Fan, Mingyi; Wu, Xianliang

    2017-12-18

    Heavy metal pollution is a serious problem worldwide. In this study, 41 soil samples and 32 cabbage samples were collected from the area surrounding the Jinsha coal-fired power plant (JCFP Plant) in Guizhou Province, southwest China. Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cu and Cr concentrations in soil samples and cabbage samples were analysed to study the pollution sources and risks of heavy metals around the power plant. The results indicate that the JCFP Plant contributes to the Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Cu, and Cr pollution in nearby soils, particularly Hg pollution. Cu and Cr in soils from both croplands and forestlands in the study area derive mainly from crustal materials or natural processes. Pb, Cd and As in soils from croplands arise partly through anthropogenic activities, but these elements in soils from forestlands originate mainly from crustal materials or natural processes. Hg pollution in soils from both croplands and forestlands is caused mainly by fly ash from the JCFP Plant. The cabbages grown in the study area were severely contaminated with heavy metals, and more than 90% of the cabbages had Pb concentrations exceeding the permissible level established by the Ministry of Health and the Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China. Additionally, 30% of the cabbages had As concentrations exceeding the permissible level. Because forests can protect soils from heavy metal pollution caused by atmospheric deposition, close attention should be given to the Hg pollution in soils and to the concentrations of Pb, As, Hg and Cr in vegetables from the study area.

  11. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Narcea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. a.; Corbacho, J. a.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Narcea coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  12. Expert assessments of retrofitting coal-fired power plants with carbon dioxide capture technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Timothy S. [Eastern Research Group, Inc., 110 Hartwell Avenue 1, Lexington, MA 02421-3134l (United States); Patino-Echeverri, Dalia, E-mail: dalia.patino@duke.edu [Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90328, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 (United States); Johnson, Timothy L. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90328, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    A set of 13 US based experts in post-combustion and oxy-fuel combustion CO{sub 2} capture systems responded to an extensive questionnaire asking their views on the present status and future expected performance and costs for amine-based, chilled ammonia, and oxy-combustion retrofits of coal-fired power plants. This paper presents the experts' responses for technology maturity, ideal plant characteristics for early adopters, and the extent to which R and D and deployment incentives will impact costs. It also presents the best estimates and 95% confidence limits of the energy penalties associated with amine-based systems. The results show a general consensus that amine-based systems are closer to commercial application, but potential for improving performance and lowering costs is limited; chilled ammonia and oxy-combustion offer greater potential for cost reductions, but not without greater uncertainty regarding scale and technical feasibility. - Highlights: > Study presents experts' views on CCS retrofit costs and performance. > Experts commented on amine-based systems, chilled ammonia, and oxy-fuel combustion. > Estimates of future energy penalty show uncertainty for the three technologies. > These estimates under an aggressive RD and D policy scenario narrow significantly. > The experts' judgments support the need for enhanced RD and D for post-combustion CCS.

  13. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-04-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign, and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  14. Pulverized coal firing of aluminum melting furnaces. First annual technical progress report, May 1978-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.E.; Hines, J.E.; Stewart, D.L. Jr.; Yu, H.

    1979-10-01

    The ultimate objective of this program is the commercial demonstration of an efficient, environmentally acceptable coal firing process suitable for implementation on melting furnaces throughout the aluminum industry. To achieve this goal, the program has been divided into two phases. Phase I has begun with the design and construction of a 350 lb/h (coal) staged slagging cyclone combustor (SSCC) attached to a 7-ft dia aluminum melting ladle furnace. Process development will culminate with a 1000 pph prototype SSCC firing a 40,000 lb capacity open hearth melting furnace at the Alcoa Laboratories. Phase II implementation is currently planned for Alcoa's Lafayette, IN, Works, where two of the ingot plant's five open hearth melting furnaces will be converted to utilize coal. In addition to confirmation of data gathered in Phase I, the effect of extended production schedule operation on equipment and efficiencies will be determined. This work would begin in 1982 pursuant to technical and economic evaluation of the process development at that time. A major design subcontract for assistance in the design of the SSCC is 80% completed.

  15. Co-combustion of gasified contaminated waste wood in a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This project demonstrates the technical and economical feasibility of the producing and cofiring of product gas from demolition waste wood. For this purpose LCV product gas is generated in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification plant, cooled and cleaned and transported to the boiler of a 600 MWe pulverized coal fired power plant. Gas cooling and cleaning takes place in a waste heat boiler and a multi stage wet gas cleaning train. Steam raised in the waste heat boiler is exported to the power plant. On an annual basis 70,000 tons of steam coal are substituted by 150,000 tons of contaminated demolition waste wood (50,000 tons oil equivalent), resulting in a net CO2 emission reduction of 170,000 tons per year, while concurrently generating 205 GWh of electrical power. The wood gasification plant was built by NV EPZ (now incorporated in Essent Energi BV) for Amergas BV, now a 100% subsidiary of Essent Energie BV. The gasification plant is located at the Amer Power Station of NV EPZ Production (now Essent Generation) at Geertruidenberg, The Netherlands. Demonstrating several important design features in wood gasification, the plant started hot service in the Spring of 2000, with first gasification accomplished in the Summer of 2000 and is currently being optimized. (au)

  16. An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Saroff, L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) directed the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate the rate and effect of mercury emissions in the atmosphere and technologies to control the emissions. The US DOE sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate health risks of mercury emissions from coal combustion. Methylmercury (MeHg) is the compound predominantly responsible for human exposure to atmospheric mercury in the United States, through fish ingestion. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single large power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized are near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms (paresthesia) was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Saroff, L.

    1995-01-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) directed the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate the rate and effect of mercury emissions in the atmosphere and technologies to control the emissions. The US DOE sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate health risks of mercury emissions from coal combustion. Methylmercury (MeHg) is the compound predominantly responsible for human exposure to atmospheric mercury in the United States, through fish ingestion. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single large power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized are near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms (paresthesia) was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Slipstream pilot-scale demonstration of a novel amine-based post-combustion technology for carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plant flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthy, Krish R. [Linde LLC, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    2017-02-03

    Post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) technology offers flexibility to treat the flue gas from both existing and new coal-fired power plants and can be applied to treat all or a portion of the flue gas. Solvent-based technologies are today the leading option for PCC from commercial coal-fired power plants as they have been applied in large-scale in other applications. Linde and BASF have been working together to develop and further improve a PCC process incorporating BASF’s novel aqueous amine-based solvent technology. This technology offers significant benefits compared to other solvent-based processes as it aims to reduce the regeneration energy requirements using novel solvents that are very stable under the coal-fired power plant feed gas conditions. BASF has developed the desired solvent based on the evaluation of a large number of candidates. In addition, long-term small pilot-scale testing of the BASF solvent has been performed on a lignite-fired flue gas. In coordination with BASF, Linde has evaluated a number of options for capital cost reduction in large engineered systems for solvent-based PCC technology. This report provides a summary of the work performed and results from a project supported by the US DOE (DE-FE0007453) for the pilot-scale demonstration of a Linde-BASF PCC technology using coal-fired power plant flue gas at a 1-1.5 MWe scale in Wilsonville, AL at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). Following a project kick-off meeting in November 2011 and the conclusion of pilot plant design and engineering in February 2013, mechanical completion of the pilot plant was achieved in July 2014, and final commissioning activities were completed to enable start-up of operations in January 2015. Parametric tests were performed from January to December 2015 to determine optimal test conditions and evaluate process performance over a variety of operation parameters. A long-duration 1500-hour continuous test campaign was performed from May to

  19. Description of the operation and radiological impact of a spanish coastal coal-fired power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbacho, Jose A.; Baeza, Antonio; Robles, Beatriz; Mora, Juan C.; Cancio, David

    2008-01-01

    The 'Litoral' Coal-Fired Power Plant (LCFPP) is situated in the town of Carboneras (Almeria) in southern Spain. Its nominal output power is 1589 M We. The fuel used is imported sub-bituminous coal supplied by collier vessels, and unloaded in a port annexed to the plant. The climate of the area is semi-arid mediterranean, with particularly low rainfall. The plant's radiological impact was studied considering various exposure pathways for the workers and the general public. In particular, inhalation and external exposure contributions to the effective dose due to the different materials involved in the operation (coals, fly ash, and bottom ash) were evaluated. Alpha spectrometry was used to characterize radiologically the airborne particulates collected in aerosol filters at points within the installation, and to determine 210 Po levels in aerosols collected in filters placed around the power station. High resolution gamma spectrometry was used to characterize coal and ash samples from the plant, and soil samples collected outside the installation within a radius of 5 km. A dose rate monitor was used to measure the ambient dose equivalent at different points inside and outside the plant. Samples of the seawater used in the plant and of products for human consumption produced nearby were also collected and characterized radiologically. The effective dose was evaluated following a realistic approach based principally on experimental measurements and in situ observations, complemented with mathematical models when necessary. The resulting estimated effective doses for selected representative groups of workers and general public were all below the reference levels used in this work. (author)

  20. Mechanism and kinetics of uranium adsorption onto soil around coal-fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasim, Nurzulaifa Shaheera Erne Mohd; Ariffin, Nik Azlin Nik; Mohammed, Noradila; Ayob, Syafina

    2017-11-01

    Coal is the largest source of energy in Malaysia providing approximately 80 % of all entire power needs. The combustion of coal concentrates a high content of heavy metals and radioactive elements in the ashes and sludge. Hazardous emissions from coal combustion were deposited into the soil and most likely transported into the groundwater system. The presence of radioactive materials in the ground water system can cause a wide range of environmental impacts and adverse health effects like cancer, impairment of neurological function and cardiovascular disease. However, the soil has a natural capability in adsorption of radioactive materials. Thus, this study was evaluated the adsorption capacity of Uranium onto the soil samples collected nearby the coal-fired power plants. In the batch experiment, parameters that were set constant include pH, the amount of soil and contact time. Various initial concentrations of radionuclides elements in the range of 2 mg/L - 10 mg/L were used. The equilibrium adsorption data was analyzed by the Freundlich isotherm and Langmuir isotherms. Then, the influences of solution pH, contact time and temperature on the adsorption process were investigated. The kinetics of radioactive materials was discussed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order rate equation. Thus, the data from this study could provide information about the potentiality of soil in sorption of radioactive materials that can be leached into groundwater. Besides that, this study could also be used as baseline data for future reference in the development of adsorption modeling in the calculation of distribution coefficient.

  1. Future carbon regulations and current investments in alternative coal-fired power plant technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekar, Ram C.; Parsons, John E.; Herzog, Howard J.; Jacoby, Henry D.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze how uncertain future US carbon regulations shape the current choice of the type of power plant to build. Our focus is on two coal-fired technologies, pulverized coal (PC) and integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology (IGCC). The PC technology is cheapest-assuming there is no need to control carbon emissions. The IGCC technology may be cheaper if carbon must be captured. Since power plants last many years and future regulations are uncertain, a US electric utility faces a standard decision under uncertainty. A company will confront the range of possible outcomes, assigning its best estimate of the probability of each scenario, averaging the results and determining the power plant technology with the lowest possible cost inclusive of expected future carbon related costs, whether those costs be in the form of emissions charges paid or capital expenditures for retrofitting to capture carbon. If the company assigns high probability to no regulation or to less stringent regulation of carbon, then it makes sense for it to build the PC plant. But if it assigns sufficient probability to scenarios with more stringent regulation, then the IGCC technology is warranted. We provide some useful benchmarks for possible future regulation and show how these relate back to the relative costs of the two technologies and the optimal technology choice. Few of the policy proposals widely referenced in the public discussion warrant the choice of the IGCC technology. Instead, the PC technology remains the least costly. However, recent carbon prices in the European Emissions Trading System are higher than these benchmarks. If it is any guide to possible future penalties for emissions in the US, then current investment in the IGCC technology is warranted. Of course, other factors need to be factored into the decision as well

  2. Heat recovery from flue gas of coal fired installations with reduced pollutant emission - the Zittau process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H; Strauss, R; Hofmann, K -D; Suder, M; Hultsch, T; Wetzel, W; Gabrysch, H; Jung, J [Technische Hochschule, Zittau (German Democratic Republic)

    1989-01-01

    Explains the Zittau technology of combined flue gas heat recovery and flue gas desulfurization in small brown coal fired power plants. Steam generators to be equipped with this technology have 6.5 or 10 t/h steam capacity and are intended for combustion of low-grade brown coal (8.2 MJ/kg). An industrial 6.5 t/h prototype steam generator is in operation and it achieves 95% SO{sub 2} removal from flue gas with 5600 to 7800 mg SO{sub 2} per m{sup 3} of dry flue gas. The Zittau technology is available in 3 variants: with maximum waste heat recovery, with partial waste heat recovery or without waste heat recovery and only wet flue gas scrubbing. Two flowsheets of flue gas and suspension circulation are provided. The first variant recovers 25.7% of nominal heat capacity (1.1 thermal MW from a 4.2 MW steam generator with 6.5 t/h steam capacity), which amounts to economizing 2,400 t/a brown coal equivalent over 4,000 annual operating hours. The second variant recovers 6.5% of waste heat, requiring less investment by installing smaller heat exchangers than used in the first variant. All three variants have contact spray separators, suction units and suspension preparation equipment. Flue gas suspension scrubbing is carried out with fly ash produced by the steam generator. This ash is capable of absorbing 50 to 70% of flue gas SO{sub 2}. Supply of additional ash from other plants achieve a further 25% SO{sub 2} removal; a higher desulfurization degree is obtained by adding limestone to suspensions. 5 refs.

  3. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x} SO {sub x} and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R&D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO{sub x} production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  4. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Li, G. H.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J. M.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2010-02-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  5. Large-scale straw supplies to existing coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylling, M.; Parsby, M.; Thellesen, H.Z.; Keller, P.

    1992-08-01

    It is considered that large-scale supply of straw to power stations and decentral cogeneration plants could open up new economical systems and methods of organization of straw supply in Denmark. This thesis is elucidated and involved constraints are pointed out. The aim is to describe to what extent large-scale straw supply is interesting with regard to monetary savings and available resources. Analyses of models, systems and techniques described in a foregoing project are carried out. It is reckoned that the annual total amount of surplus straw in Denmark is 3.6 million tons. At present, use of straw which is not agricultural is limited to district heating plants with an annual consumption of 2-12 thousand tons. A prerequisite for a significant increase in the use of straw is an annual consumption by power and cogeneration plants of more than 100.000 tons. All aspects of straw management are examined in detail, also in relation to two actual Danish coal-fired plants. The reliability of straw supply is considered. It is concluded that very significant resources of straw are available in Denmark but there remain a number of constraints. Price competitiveness must be considered in relation to other fuels. It is suggested that the use of corn harvests, with whole stems attached (handled as large bales or in the same way as sliced straw alone) as fuel, would result in significant monetary savings in transport and storage especially. An equal status for whole-harvested corn with other forms of biomass fuels, with following changes in taxes and subsidies could possibly reduce constraints on large scale straw fuel supply. (AB) (13 refs.)

  6. Transfer-factors for radionuclides in the coal-fired power plants environments in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, Dragana; Jankovic, Marija; Joksic, Jasminka; Radenkovic, Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the coal combustion in power plants, radionuclides are distributed in solid and gaseous combustion products and discharged into environment. Radioactivity monitoring of coal-fired power-plants environments (PP Nikola Tesla, PP Kolubara, PP Morava and PP Kostolac) in Serbia was carried out during 2003-2006. Here are presented results concerning the soil-plant and ash-plant systems. Plant samples growing at the soil and ash disposals are analyzed by gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector, relative efficiency 23%) and corresponding transfer factors (TF) for natural isotopes 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were calculated and discussed. Obtained concentrations values of naturally occurring radionuclides are in following ranges: (0.4 - 29) Bq/kg 226 Ra, (0.16 - 23) Bq/kg 232 Th, (245 - 1274) Bq/kg 40 K, (1.7 - 30) Bq/kg 238 U, (0.08 - 4.7) Bq/kg 235 U, (5.6 - 95) Bq/kg 210 Pb; (28 - 288) Bq/kg 7 Be and man-made 137 Cs in range 0.06 - 2.8 Bq/kg. Ash-to-plant and soil-to-plant transfer factors for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are calculated for several sampling points. Values for both ash-to-plant and soil-to-plant transfer factors are much higher for 40 K than 226 Ra and 232 Th probably due to different assimilation mechanisms of these elements by plants. Analyzed radionuclides have higher concentrations in the ash disposal than soil, and corresponding transfer-factors values obtained for ash-plant systems (ranged from 0,007 to 0,179 for 226 Ra, from 0,015 to 0,174 for 232 Th and from 0,418 to 2,230 for 40 K) are higher, indicating that there is no limit value for absorption in plants. (author)

  7. A data envelopment analysis for energy efficiency of coal-fired power units in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chenxi; Li, Mingjia; Zhang, Fan; He, Ya-Ling; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two kinds of energy efficiency (EE) indices are analyzed and compared. • The influence degrees of different uncontrollable factors on EE are compared. • The influence of load factor on special EE is 82.6% larger than capacity factor. • The influence of cooling method on special EE is 90.32% larger than steam pressure. • The generalized EE indicator is more recommended by the authors. - Abstract: In this article, the non-parametric data envelopment analysis method (DEA) is employed to evaluate energy efficiency (EE) of 34 coal-fired power units in China. Input-oriented CCR (Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes) model is used for EE analysis. Two efficiency indices, generalized EE and special EE are defined and analyzed. The generalized EE is calculated based on four input parameters: coal consumption, oil consumption, water consumption and auxiliary power consumption by power units. The special EE is only based on two input parameters: coal consumption and auxiliary power consumption. Relations between these two EE indices and non-comparable factors including quality of coal, load factor, capacity factor, parameters of main steam and cooling method are studied. Comparison between EE evaluation results of the two indices is conducted. Results show that these two kinds of EE are more sensitive to the load factor than the capacity factor. The influence of the cooling method on EE is larger than that of main steam parameter. The influence of non-comparable factors on the special EE is stronger than that on the generalized EE

  8. Low level measurements of natural radionuclides in soil samples around a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Bunzl, K.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1984-01-01

    To detect a possible contribution of airborne radioactivity from stack effluents to the soil radioactivity, several radionuclides in the soil around a coal-fired power plant have been determined. A plant situated in a rural region of Bavaria was selected to minimize contributions from other civilisatory sources. The soil sampling network consisted of 5 concentric circles with diameters between 0.4 and 5.2 km around the plant, 16 sampling points being distributed regularly on each circle. Radiochemical analysis techniques for 210 Pb and 210 Po in soil samples of several grams has to be developed. They include a wet dissolution procedure, simultaneous precipitation of lead and polonium as the sulfides, purification via lead sulfate, counting of the lead as the chromate in a low-level beta counter and alpha spectrometric determination of the 210 Po in a gridded ionization chamber. The 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were counted by low level gamma spectrometry. Specific activities found were in the range of 0.7 to 2.0 pCi g -1 for 210 Pb and 0.3 to 1.6 pCi g -1 for 226 Ra. The distribution patterns of 210 Po and 210 Pb around the plant were found to be similar. They were different, however, from that of 226 Ra. The highest 210 Pb/ 226 Ra activity ratio was 3.9 at a distance of 0.76 km SSE from the plant. Nevertheless, the evidence is not considered to be sufficient to attribute these observations unambiguously to plant release. (orig.)

  9. Low level measurements of natural radionuclides in soil samples around a coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Bunzl, K.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H. Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz)

    1984-06-15

    To detect a possible contribution of airborne radioactivity from stack effluents to the soil radioactivity, several radionuclides in the soil around a coal-fired power plant have been determined. A plant situated in a rural region of Bavaria was selected to minimize contributions from other civilisatory sources. The soil sampling network consisted of 5 concentric circles with diameters between 0.4 and 5.2 km around the plant, 16 sampling points being distributed regularly on each circle. Radiochemical analysis techniques for /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po in soil samples of several grams has to be developed. They include a wet dissolution procedure, simultaneous precipitation of lead and polonium as the sulfides, purification via lead sulfate, counting of the lead as the chromate in a low-level beta counter and alpha spectrometric determination of the /sup 210/Po in a gridded ionization chamber. The /sup 238/U, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th and /sup 40/K were counted by low level gamma spectrometry. Specific activities found were in the range of 0.7 to 2.0 pCi g/sup -1/ for /sup 210/Pb and 0.3 to 1.6 pCi g/sup -1/ for /sup 226/Ra. The distribution patterns of /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb around the plant were found to be similar. They were different, however, from that of /sup 226/Ra. The highest /sup 210/Pb//sup 226/Ra activity ratio was 3.9 at a distance of 0.76 km SSE from the plant. Nevertheless, the evidence is not considered to be sufficient to attribute these observations unambiguously to plant release.

  10. Radionuclides in soil and vegetation from the environment of a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Chatterjee, B.; Hoetzl, H.; Lapointe, M.C.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1983-05-01

    Pb-210, Po-210, Ra-226, U-238, Th-232 and K-40 were determined in 95 soil samples around a black coal-fired power plant (254 MW). Besides, these radionuclides were also measured in the fly ash (last stage of the electrostatic precipitator) as well as Pb-210 and Po-210 in several samples of the vegetation. For the determination of Pb-210 and Po-210 methods for the dissolution of relatively large (10 g) soil samples and for the radiochemical separation were developed. The local distribution patterns of the specific activities of Pb-210, Po-210 and Ra-226 in the soils around the power plant as well as the ratios of these nuclides in the soil and in the fly ash do not reveal any noticable effects of the power plant emissions on the natural concentration of these radionuclides in these soils. The observed specific activities of the radionuclides in the fly ash are obviously too small to cause a perturbation of these nuclides in the soil which exceeds the natural variations. The specific activities of Pb-210 and Po-210 in the vegetation samples confirm this conclusion. As a result of the special distribution of the soil types in this area (significantly different concentrations of stable potassium in the soils of the valley and along the slopes of the hills) a nearly bimodal frequency distribution was observed for K-40 and Th-232 in the soils. Also a highly significant correlation was found between K-40 and Th-232 in the soil. (orig./HP) [de

  11. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

    2003-07-25

    This is the first Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Ceramics GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, analysis of the coal, ash and mercury speciation data from the first test series was completed. Good agreement was shown between different methods of measuring mercury in the flue gas: Ontario Hydro, semi-continuous emission monitor (SCEM) and coal composition. There was a loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts, but not across the blank monolith. The blank monolith showed no oxidation. The data from the first test series show the same trend in mercury oxidation as a function of space velocity that has been seen elsewhere. At space velocities in the range of 6,000-7,000 hr{sup -1} the blank monolith did not show any mercury oxidation, with or without ammonia present. Two of the commercial catalysts clearly showed an effect of ammonia. Two other commercial catalysts showed an effect of ammonia, although the error bars for the no-ammonia case are large. A test plan was written for the second test series and is being reviewed.

  12. Current and future emissions of primary pollutants from coal-fired power plants in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Hao, Hongke; Wang, Dexiang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2017-10-01

    A high-resolution inventory of primary atmospheric pollutants from coal-fired power plants in Shaanxi in 2012 was built based on a detailed database compiled at unit level involving unit capacity, boiler size and type, commission time, corresponding control technologies, and average coal quality of 72 power plants. The pollutants included SO 2 , NO x , fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), inhalable particulate matter (PM 10 ), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC). Emission factors for SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 and PM 10 were adopted from standardized official promulgation, supplemented by those from local studies. The estimated annual emissions of SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , EC, OC, CO and NMVOC were 152.4, 314.8, 16.6, 26.4, 0.07, 0.27, 64.9 and 2.5kt, respectively. Small units (emission rates compared to medium (≥100MW and emissions were decontamination efficiency, sulfur content and ash content of coal. Weinan and Xianyang were the two cities with the highest emissions, and Guanzhong Plain had the largest emission density. Despite the projected growth of coal consumption, emissions would decrease in 2030 due to improvement in emission control technologies and combustion efficiencies. SO 2 and NO x emissions would experience significant reduction by ~81% and ~84%, respectively. PM 2.5 , PM 10 , EC and OC would be decreased by ~43% and CO and NMVOC would be reduced by ~16%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. X. Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR, electrostatic precipitators (ESP, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM. The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92–27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66–94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  14. Radiological impact of atmospheric releases from a coal-fired power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigueperse, J.; Chalabreysse, J.; Coulon, R.; Grauby, A.; Uzzan, G.

    1982-01-01

    As the first stage of a study carried out under contract with the Commission of the European Communities for the comparative assessment of the risks to which the individuals of a regional population are exposed, the paper seeks to evaluate atmospheric releases from a coal-fired thermal power station. The station is of traditional design with an installed capacity of 415MW(e) and uses only lignite-type coal produced from a coal basin situated nearby. Gaseous effluents are released from four stacks. The area close to the station is rural in nature: there are a number of small farms, fairly abundant natural vegetation and some fairly well-populated zones with various industries. The main feature of the weather conditions is the strong prevailing winds in the optimum direction. A radiation measurement campaign involving the main 238 U and 232 Th daughter products was carried out focussing on: (1) the coal burnt in the power station; (2) the solid residues resulting from combustion (fly ash, wet ash); (3) gaseous effluents by means of direct sampling from the two release stacks. The information obtained on the releases has made it possible, with the help of dispersion and transfer models, to evaluate the atmospheric concentration of the different radionuclide released as well as their deposition and presence in the biotope in the plant vicinity. The effective dose equivalents received by persons living in the zone of maximum exposure and consuming food produced in that zone were assessed at approximately 7x10 -5 Sv.a -1 at the end of the plant's operating period. Finally, the main radionuclides were measured at a number of points near the plant with the aim of verifying the model evaluations for a particular situation. (author)

  15. Radiological impact of atmospheric releases from a coal-fired power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigueperse, J; Chalabreysse, J; Coulon, R; Grauby, A [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection; Uzzan, G [Association EURATOM-CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection

    1982-01-01

    As the first stage of a study carried out under contract with the Commission of the European Communities for the comparative assessment of the risks to which the individuals of a regional population are exposed, the paper seeks to evaluate atmospheric releases from a coal-fired thermal power station. The station is of traditional design with an installed capacity of 415MW(e) and uses only lignite-type coal produced from a coal basin situated nearby. Gaseous effluents are released from four stacks. The area close to the station is rural in nature: there are a number of small farms, fairly abundant natural vegetation and some fairly well-populated zones with various industries. The main feature of the weather conditions is the strong prevailing winds in the optimum direction. A radiation measurement campaign involving the main /sup 238/U and /sup 232/Th daughter products was carried out focussing on: (1) the coal burnt in the power station; (2) the solid residues resulting from combustion (fly ash, wet ash); (3) gaseous effluents by means of direct sampling from the two release stacks. The information obtained on the releases has made it possible, with the help of dispersion and transfer models, to evaluate the atmospheric concentration of the different radionuclide released as well as their deposition and presence in the biotope in the plant vicinity. The effective dose equivalents received by persons living in the zone of maximum exposure and consuming food produced in that zone were assessed at approximately 7x10/sup -5/Sv.a/sup -1/ at the end of the plant's operating period. Finally, the main radionuclides were measured at a number of points near the plant with the aim of verifying the model evaluations for a particular situation.

  16. Soil as an archive of coal-fired power plant mercury deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos

    2016-05-05

    Mercury pollution is a global environmental problem that has serious implications for human health. One of the most important sources of anthropogenic mercury emissions are coal-burning power plants. Hg accumulations in soil are associated with their atmospheric deposition. Our study provides the first assessment of soil Hg on the entire Spanish surface obtained from one sampling protocol. Hg spatial distribution was analysed with topsoil samples taken from 4000 locations in a regular sampling grid. The other aim was to use geostatistical techniques to verify the extent of soil contamination by Hg and to evaluate presumed Hg enrichment near the seven Spanish power plants with installed capacity above 1000 MW. The Hg concentration in Spanish soil fell within the range of 1-7564 μg kg(-1) (mean 67.2) and 50% of the samples had a concentration below 37 μg kg(-1). Evidence for human activity was found near all the coal-fired power plants, which reflects that metals have accumulated in the basin over many years. Values over 1000 μg kg(-1) have been found in soils in the vicinity of the Aboño, Soto de Ribera and Castellon power plants. However, soil Hg enrichment was detectable only close to the emission source, within an approximate range of only 15 km from the power plants. We associated this effect with airborne emissions and subsequent depositions as the potential distance through fly ash deposition. Hg associated with particles of ash tends to be deposited near coal combustion sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Atmospheric Aerosol Source-Receptor Relationships: The Role of Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2005-12-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2005 through August 2005. Significant progress was made this project period on the source characterization, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. This report highlights new data on road dust, vegetative detritus and motor vehicle emissions. For example, the results show significant differences in the composition in urban and rural road dust. A comparison of the organic of the fine particulate matter in the tunnel with the ambient provides clear evidence of the significant contribution of vehicle emissions to ambient PM. The source profiles developed from this work are being used by the source-receptor modeling activities. The report presents results on the spatial distribution of PMF-factors. The results can be grouped into three different categories: regional sources, local sources, or potentially both regional and local sources. Examples of the regional sources are the sulfate and selenium PMF-factors which most likely-represent coal fired power plants. Examples of local sources are the specialty steel and lead factors. There is reasonable correspondence between these apportionments and data from the EPA TRI and AIRS emission inventories. Detailed comparisons between PMCAMx predictions and measurements by the STN and IMPROVE measurements in the Eastern US are presented. Comparisons were made for the major aerosol components and PM{sub 2.5} mass in July 2001, October 2001, January 2002, and April 2002. The results are encouraging with average fraction biases for most species less than 0.25. The improvement of the model performance during the last two years was mainly due to the comparison of the model predictions with the continuous measurements in the Pittsburgh Supersite. Major improvements have included the descriptions: of ammonia emissions (CMU inventory), night time nitrate chemistry, EC emissions and their diurnal

  18. The nuclear safeguards data flow for the item facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongjun; Chen Desheng

    1994-04-01

    The constitution of nuclear safeguards data flow for the item facilities is introduced and the main contents are the data flow of nuclear safeguards. If the data flow moves positively, i.e. from source data →supporting documents→accounting records→accounting reports, the systems of records and reports will be constituted. If the data flow moves negatively, the way to trace inspection of nuclear material accounting quality will be constituted

  19. The level of air pollution in the impact zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using the data of geochemical snow survey (Republic of Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil'bayeva, T. E.; Talovskaya, A. V.; Yazikov, Ye G.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Coal-fired power plants emissions impact the air quality and human health. Of great significance is assessment of solid airborne particles emissions from those plants and distance of their transportation. The article presents the results of air pollution assessment in the zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using snow survey. Based on the mass of solid airborne particles deposited in snow, time of their deposition on snow at the distance from 0.5 to 4.5 km a value of dust load has been determined. It is stated that very high level of pollution is observed at the distance from 0.5 to 1 km. there is a trend in decrease of dust burden value with the distance from the stacks of coal-fired power plant that may be conditioned by the particle size and washing out smaller ash particles by ice pellets forming at freezing water vapour in stacks of the coal-fired power plant. Study in composition of solid airborne particles deposited in snow has shown that they mainly contain particulates of underburnt coal, Al-Si- rich spheres, Fe-rich spheres, and coal dust. The content of the particles in samples decreases with the distance from the stacks of the coal-fired power plant.

  20. Spatial Distribution and Trend of CH4, NO2, CO and Ozone during 2003-2015 over Coal Fired Power Plants in US

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, S. C.; Reyes, C.; Singh, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    Coal fired power plants are the sources of atmospheric pollution and poor air quality in many parts of the world especially in India and China. The greenhouse emissions from the coal fired power plants are considered as threat to the climate and human health. About 572 coal fired power plants (up to 2012) are operational, especially in the mid and eastern parts of US. We have analyzed satellite measured carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3) and meteorological parameters for the period 2003-2015. In this study, we have considered 30 power plants, covering 10 x10surrounding area and over 11 regions of US in a grid of about 50 x50 to 60 x60. In general, most of the coal fired power plants show a decreasing trend of CO, whereas NO2 follow a similar trend over the power plants located in the eastern parts. Our analysis shows that the clean air act is strictly followed by the coal fired power plants in the eastern US compared to power plants located in the mid and western parts. The CH4 concentrations over the eastern parts show higher concentrations compared to mid and western regions in the period 2003-2015. Higher concentrations and seasonal variability of greenhouse gases is dependent on the prevailing meteorological conditions.

  1. Benefit-cost framework for analysis of trace element emissions from coal-fired power plants. [103 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    The major conclusions of this report may be summarized in the following four points: (1) It is probable that atmospheric emissions of trace elements from Southwestern coal-fired power plants will not cause major problems over the next 20 years. But monitoring for trace element build-up (especially mercury, selenium, and arsenic) in the mountains of southern Colorado, Navajo Reservoir, and other local hot spots would be an important and desirable step. (2) It appears that damage from trace elements in disposed ash is more likely than damage from atmospheric trace element emissions. But whether damage from disposed ash will actually occur is highly uncertain. We recommend that additional research be conducted on the entire range of issues surrounding ash disposal. (3) In the area of legislation and regulation, there may be some need for review of regulations concerning trace element atmospheric emissions. Present regulation of ash disposal is very likely to need revision and extension. (4) Future research on the environmental problems of coal-fired power plants should place emphasis on atmospheric emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides; consequent problems of acid precipitation also need exploration. Environmental research on coal-fired power plants does not need to exclude other problems. But issues surrounding sulfur emissions, nitrogen emissions, sulfate transformations, and acid precipitation appear to merit major emphasis. Perhaps the most important aspect of the preceding list of conclusions is that more questions are raised than are answered. As work on the subject proceeded, it became apparent that an important task was to point future research in the right direction.

  2. Projected costs of generating electricity from nuclear and coal-fired power stations for commissioning in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report updates and extends the previous NEA study, ''The Costs of Generating Electricity in Nuclear and Coal-fired Power Stations'', published by the OECD in late 1983. Despite the changed expectations concerning coal prices and the considerable movements in exchange rates since the first study was completed, the conclusions remain essentially the same. Nuclear Power is projected to be economically superior by a significant margin to coal-fired plants for base load electricity production in Europe, Japan and some regions of North America. In areas of North America in close proximity to supplies of cheap coal, this would be the more economic fuel, unless future nuclear investment costs can be reduced to match the best US and Canadian experience. In all regions considered, the economic advantage of both coal and nuclear over oil and gas-fired plants for commissioning in the mid-1990s is expected to be substantial. These conclusions are based on an analysis of cost projections for 900 MWe to 1400 MWe Light Water Reactors to be commissioned in 1995, operating at a levelised load factor of about 72 per cent over an assumed 25 years economic life and calculated with a 5 per cent (real) discount rate. This parallels the reference reactor selected for the NEA report ''The Economics of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle'', which was published by the OECD in June 1985, though it deviates somewhat from the reference conditions of the previous generation cost study. Contemporary coal-fired stations ranging in capacity from 330 MWe to 700 MWe with the same assumed economic life and load factor provide the basis for comparison. Some data are included on CANDU Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors, and a brief comment is annexed on the relevance of the comparisons for the smaller plants that may be of interest to countries with smaller electricity networks or where special circumstances apply

  3. Refurbishment priorities at the Russian coal-fired power sector for cleaner energy production-Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grammelis, P.; Koukouzas, N.; Skodras, G.; Kakaras, E.; Tumanovsky, A.; Kotler, V.

    2006-01-01

    The paper aims to present the current status of the coal-fired power sector in Russia, the prospects for renovation activities based on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and two case studies on potential refurbishment projects. Data were collected for 180 thermoelectric units with capacity higher than 100 MWe and the renovation needs of the power sector, among the retrofitting, repowering and reconstruction options, were estimated through a multi-criteria analysis. The most attractive system to renovate a power plant between the Supercritical Combustion (SC) and the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technologies was evaluated. The application of each of the aforementioned technologies at the Kashirskaya and Shaturskaya power plants was studied and their replication potential in the Russian coal-fired power plant park was examined. Nowadays, the installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the Russian Federation is 29.3 GWe, while they account for about 19% of the total electricity generation in the area. The low efficiency and especially the advanced age are the determinant factors for renovation applications at the Russian units. Even in the more conservative modernization scenario, over 30% of the thermoelectric units have to be repowered or reconstructed. Concrete proposals about the profitable and reliable operation of two Russian thermoelectric units with minimized environmental effects were elaborated. A new unit of 315 MWe with supercritical steam parameters and reburning for NO x abatement is envisaged to upgrade Unit 1 of Kashirskaya power station, while new Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers of the same steam generation is the most promising renovation option for the boilers of Unit 1 in Shaturskaya power station

  4. Refurbishment priorities at the Russian coal-fired power sector for cleaner energy production-Case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grammelis, P. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece) and Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: pgra@central.ntua.gr; Koukouzas, N. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece); Skodras, G. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece); Kakaras, E. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece); Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Tumanovsky, A. [VTI All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (Russian Federation); Kotler, V. [VTI All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)

    2006-11-15

    The paper aims to present the current status of the coal-fired power sector in Russia, the prospects for renovation activities based on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and two case studies on potential refurbishment projects. Data were collected for 180 thermoelectric units with capacity higher than 100 MWe and the renovation needs of the power sector, among the retrofitting, repowering and reconstruction options, were estimated through a multi-criteria analysis. The most attractive system to renovate a power plant between the Supercritical Combustion (SC) and the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technologies was evaluated. The application of each of the aforementioned technologies at the Kashirskaya and Shaturskaya power plants was studied and their replication potential in the Russian coal-fired power plant park was examined. Nowadays, the installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the Russian Federation is 29.3 GWe, while they account for about 19% of the total electricity generation in the area. The low efficiency and especially the advanced age are the determinant factors for renovation applications at the Russian units. Even in the more conservative modernization scenario, over 30% of the thermoelectric units have to be repowered or reconstructed. Concrete proposals about the profitable and reliable operation of two Russian thermoelectric units with minimized environmental effects were elaborated. A new unit of 315 MWe with supercritical steam parameters and reburning for NO {sub x} abatement is envisaged to upgrade Unit 1 of Kashirskaya power station, while new Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers of the same steam generation is the most promising renovation option for the boilers of Unit 1 in Shaturskaya power station.

  5. Influencing factors of public support for modern coal-fired power plant projects: An empirical study from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Feng; Lyu, Tao; Pan, Li; Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    With the development of clean coal technology, modern coal-fired power plants have achieved the similar emission standards as gas power plants. However, due to the impressions of high pollution and high emission in traditional coal-fired power plants, such projects are often opposed by local residents, which hinder the promotion of this technology. This manuscript aims to investigate public attitudes toward these projects and to analyze the influencing mechanisms of the factors of public support. The conceptual model was built with sense of place, trust and environmental attitude as the independent variables, benefit and cost perceptions as the mediating variables and public support as the dependent variable. The model was tested and modified by structural equation modelling. The results revealed that sense of place had a slight indirect impact (−0.043) on public support through benefit perception, whereas trust had a direct impact (0.332) on public support and indirect impacts (0.298) through benefit and cost perceptions. Environmental attitude had indirect impacts on public support through benefit perception (0.180) and cost perception (−0.115). In addition, policy suggestions on decision-making, project publicity and compensation strategy are proposed to enhance public support for similar projects. - Highlights: • This manuscript aims at eliminating the NIMBY effects on modern coal-fired power plant project. • A SEM model is proposed to explore how potential factors affect public support. • Trust is the dominant influencing factor to improve public support with both direct and indirect impacts. • Environmental attitude can also have positive effect on public support through rational compensation plans.

  6. Understanding China’s electricity market reform from the perspective of the coal-fired power disparity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou, Dunguo

    2014-01-01

    In China, electricity consumption has grown quickly, supply is highly dependent on coal-fired power, and the prices of electricity are determined by the government, which increases the need for reform to enhance efficiency. In response to disputes about China’s electricity market reform, this paper analyses the efficiency of China’s coal-fired power plants using the Data Envelopment Analysis—Slack Based Measure (DEA-SBM) method on three levels: groups, provinces, and plants. The results indicate that there are both coal-electricity efficiency disparities and generation-hour arrangement unfairness across groups; the disparity across provinces is obvious and long-lasting, as indicated by capacity surpluses and coal-electricity efficiencies; and the disparities are displayed in detail by the estimation at the plant level. The disparities are primarily caused by the generator combination and generation hour arrangement. Competition may be able to solve the disparities, but a further comparison indicates that competition at the national level will enhance the efficiency to a greater degree than competition at the regional level. These results demonstrate that both competition and a united electricity market are necessary for further electricity market reform. - Highlights: • This paper analyses the coal-fired electricity efficiency from three levels. • There are efficiency disparities and hour arrangement unfairness at group level. • The disparities and unfairness are long-lasting across provinces. • The disparities and unfairness are detailed by analysis at plant level. • Competition at national market can improve the efficiency better than at regional market

  7. Expanding exports, increasing smog : Ontario Power Generation's and Hydro One's strategies to continue coal-fired electricity generation in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.

    2002-06-01

    The production of coal-fired electricity increased by approximately 150 per cent in Ontario between 1995 and 2000. As a result, the smog-causing emissions generated by the five coal-fired power plants operated by Ontario Power Generation caused an increase in smog and worsened air quality in the province as well as affecting air quality as far afield as the Atlantic provinces. Between 2002 and 2005, it is expected that the Pickering and Bruce nuclear plants will be returned to service, making the electricity generated by the coal plants surplus to Ontario's needs. Increasing this surplus are the planned natural gas generating stations. Ontario Power Generation is planning on using this surplus to export it to the United States rather than phasing out its reliance on coal. The increase in exports to the United States Northeast and Midwest is planned with Hydro One, already busy increasing its transmission capacity to the United States by 1,000 megawatt (MW). This plan involves laying 975 MW submarine cable from the Nanticoke Generating Station (operated by Ontario Power Generation) under Lake Erie to Pennsylvania, Ohio, or both states. At the moment, the exports are constrained by the government emissions limits imposed by the Ontario government on sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. This constraint could be removed if Ontario Power Generation decides to pay further for pollution controls for sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides at its coal stations. Unfortunately, increasing the exports would also result in emissions increases for 28 other uncapped pollutants such as lead, mercury and arsenic. The author recommended that the Ontario government ban non-emergency coal-fired electricity exports to improve air quality in the province. refs., 8 figs

  8. Does vertical integration have an effect on load factor? - A test on coal-fired plants in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Jose A.; Salies, Evens

    2006-02-01

    Today in the British electricity industry, most electricity suppliers hedge a large proportion of their residential customer base requirements by owning their own plant. The non-storability of electricity and the corresponding need for an instantaneous matching of generation and consumption creates a business need for integration. From a sample of half-hour data on load factor for coal-fired power plants in England and Wales, this paper tests the hypothesis that vertical integration with retail businesses affects the extent to which producers utilize their capacity. We also pay attention to this potential effect during periods of peak demand. (authors)

  9. Adding a much needed 300 MWe at South Africa's Arnot coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, G. [Alstom, Rugby (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    As power stations built in the last thirty years approach the end of their design life, and the cost of new capacity continues to increase, along with demands for improved efficiency and lower emissions, an integrated approach to retrofit looks increasingly compelling. The ambitious upgrade project currently underway at the Arnot coal fired plant in South Africa, which will result in an update from 6 x 350 MWe to 6 x 400 MWe and a life extension of 20 years, illustrates the benefits. 2 figs.

  10. Nuclear techniques for the on-line bulk analysis of carbon in coal-fired power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowerby, B D

    2009-09-01

    Carbon trading schemes usually require large emitters of CO(2), such as coal-fired power stations, to monitor, report and be audited on their CO(2) emissions. The emission price provides a significant additional incentive for power stations to improve efficiency. In the present paper, previous work on the bulk determination of carbon in coal is reviewed and assessed. The most favourable method is that based on neutron inelastic scattering. The potential role of on-line carbon analysers in improving boiler efficiency and in carbon accounting is discussed.

  11. Natural radionuclides near a coal-fired power station. [/sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb levels in cattle livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L; Crick, M J [National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK)

    1982-11-01

    Previous measurements have shown enhanced levels of /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb from fly ash deposited in the environment around old coal-fired power stations. Preliminary results are presented for levels of /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb in liver samples from cattle which had grazed for two to three years in a field adjacent to a modern power station. No significant difference in the levels of these natural radionuclides was found compared to liver samples obtained from cattle in a control area.

  12. Oxidation and carbonisation of coals: a case study of coal fire affected coals from the Wuda coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Jolanta; Meyer, Uwe; Ma, Jianwei; Chen-Brauchler, Dai

    2010-05-01

    At the coalfield of Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China) extensive underground coal fires cause widespread thermal and oxidative effects in coal seams. Within phase B of the Coal Fire Research Project of the Sino-German Initiative, methods for innovative fire-extinguishing technologies were investigated in multifaceted research approaches. Extensive investigations of oxidative and thermally affected coal seams in coal fire zone 18 were conducted in 2008 prior to application of new fire-extinguishing methods. We present results from the outcrop of coal seam No. 4 in the fire zone 18. The coal of seam No. 4 is of Early Permian age and belongs stratigraphically to the Shanxi Formation. The unaffected coal displays a high volatile bituminous A rank with a background value of random vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.90 to 0.96 % Rr. Coal channel samples were coallected at actively extracted coal faces along multiple profiles with surface temperatures ranging from about 50° to 600°C. Microscopic examinations revealed a variety of products of coal exposure to the fire. Within coal samples, a marked rise in vitrinite reflectance from background values to 5.55% Rr (6.00 % Rmax) is encountered. In addition, a number of coal samples showed suppressed vitrinite reflectances ranging between 0.82 to 0.88% Rr. Further, seemingly heat unaffected coal samples display intensive development of oxidations rims at coal grain edges and cracks as well as shrinkage cracks and formation of iron oxides/hydroxides. Instead, thermally affected coal samples with higher coalification grade are further characterised by development of macropores (devolatilisation pores) in vitrinitic streaks, transformation of liptinite to meta-liptinite and micrinite as well as by natural coke particles of mostly porous nature and fine to coarse grained anisotropic mosaic. Coal petrographic investigations confirmed a hypothesis that both, oxidations as well as low temperature carbonisation govern the thermal

  13. Manual for operation of the multipurpose thermalhydraulic test facility TOPFLOW (Transient Two Phase Flow Test Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Schuetz, H.; Pietruske, H.; Lenk, S.

    2004-07-01

    The Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (FZR) e. V. is constructing a new large-scale test facility, TOPFLOW, for thermalhydraulic single effect tests. The acronym stands for transient two phase flow test facility. It will mainly be used for the investigation of generic and applied steady state and transient two phase flow phenomena and the development and validation of models of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes. The manual of the test facility must always be available for the staff in the control room and is restricted condition during operation of personnel and also reconstruction of the facility. (orig./GL)

  14. The application of an isotopic ratio technique to a study of the atmospheric oxidation of sulfur dioxide in the plume from a coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, L.; Forrest, J.; Manowitz, B.

    1975-01-01

    The extent of oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfate in the plume of a coal fired plant has been studied by using sampling with a single engine aircraft. A technique employing isotopic ratio measurements was utilized in conjunction with simultaneous concentration measurements of sulfur dioxide and sulfate. The use of sulfur hexafluroide as a conservative tracer was explored. The heterogeneous mechanism postulated in an oil fired plume study appears to pertain to the coal fired plume. However, the extent of oxidation seldom exceeded 5% and is limited by the relatively low particulate content of the coal fired plume. Evidence is presented for the apparent dropping out of sulfate from the plume. Implications pertaining to the ambient oxidation of sulfur dioxide are presented. (author)

  15. A comparative study of health hazards and environmental impacts for electricity generation through nuclear energy hidroelectricity and coal fired thermoeletrical generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Environmental impacts and health hazards were comparatively assessed in regard to electricity generation via nuclear energy, hidraulic dams and coal firing. The main aspects covered the nuclear reactor and its associated nuclear fuel cycle, coal fired thermoelectrical power plant its associated coal industry, and hidroelectrical power plant and its dam. Besides specific comparisons of impacts in the air, water, soil and health hazards an evaluation for the Brazilian case was made based on a forecast of electricity demand up to the year 2020. For the nuclear option the consequences were analysed based on American data since no data is yet available for Brazil. Coal firing option was also analised for based heavily on American data due to small Brazilian experience in this sector of energy generation. For hydroelectrical option Brazilian data were used mostly from CESP for comparative purposes. These alternatives for generation of electricity considered in this study are the most relevant for the next four decades for Brazil. (Author) [pt

  16. Review of the coal-fired, over-supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanovskii, A. G.; Shvarts, A. L.; Somova, E. V.; Verbovetskii, E. Kh.; Avrutskii, G. D.; Ermakova, S. V.; Kalugin, R. N.; Lazarev, M. V.

    2017-02-01

    The article presents a review of developments of modern high-capacity coal-fired over-supercritical (OSC) and ultra-supercritical (USC) steam power plants and their implementation. The basic engineering solutions are reported that ensure the reliability, economic performance, and low atmospheric pollution levels. The net efficiency of the power plants is increased by optimizing the heat balance, improving the primary and auxiliary equipment, and, which is the main thing, by increasing the throttle conditions. As a result of the enhanced efficiency, emissions of hazardous substances into the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide, the "greenhouse" gas, are reduced. To date, the exhaust steam conditions in the world power industry are p 0 ≈ 30 MPa and t 0 = 610/620°C. The efficiency of such power plants reaches 47%. The OSC plants are being operated in Germany, Denmark, Japan, China, and Korea; pilot plants are being developed in Russia. Currently, a project of a power plant for the ultra-supercritical steam conditions p 0 ≈ 35 MPa and t 0 = 700/720°C with efficiency of approximately 50% is being studied in the EU within the framework of the Thermie AD700 program, project AD 700PF. Investigations in this field have also been launched in the United States, Japan, and China. Engineering solutions are also being sought in Russia by the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Research Institute (VTI) and the Moscow Power Engineering Institute. The stated steam parameter level necessitates application of new materials, namely, nickel-base alloys. Taking into consideration high costs of nickel-base alloys and the absence in Russia of technologies for their production and manufacture of products from these materials for steam-turbine power plants, the development of power plants for steam parameters of 32 MPa and 650/650°C should be considered to be the first stage in creating the USC plants as, to achieve the above parameters, no expensive alloys are require. To develop and

  17. Efficient air pollution regulation of coal-fired power in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Therese

    This dissertation evaluates monetary external costs of electricity generation in the People's Republic of China and implications for efficient pollution control policy. It presents an integrated assessment of environmental damages of air emissions of a representative new coal-fired plant in urban areas of north and south China. The simulation evaluates the nature and magnitude of damages in China, transboundary effects in Japan and Korea, and global greenhouse gas warming impacts. The valuation is used to identify efficient abatement policy for Chinese plants over time; evaluate benefits of differentiated policies; and consider the importance of dynamic policy. Potential annual damages of operating a 600-MW power plant without controls in China today would be 43-45 million (U.S. 1995). Annual local damages of 37-40 million far exceed transboundary or greenhouse gas damages (1.4 million and $4.6 million respectively). The largest component of damages is the risk of human mortality and chronic morbidity from long-term exposure to fine particles. Efficient pollution control minimizes the sum of abatement costs and residual unabated damages. Because monetary damages reflect sufferers' willingness to pay to avoid environmental risks, the choice of efficient controls is fundamentally tied to societal values and preferences. The optimal path for Chinese abatement moves from modest dispersion measures at present to combined dispersion and emission controls approaching those of current-day United States, by 2050. The inclusion of transboundary and greenhouse damages does not substantively alter local policies. Welfare benefits are gained by differentiating abatement policy by pollutant, meteorological parameters, and by population density. An analysis of optimal one-time investment in abatement for a plant in a growing economy suggests that some investment is optimal at all incomes but no single level of abatement is suitable for all economies. Forward-looking policy

  18. Assessment of geothermal assisted coal-fired power generation using an Australian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Cheng [Priority Research Centre for Energy, Discipline of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Doroodchi, Elham [Priority Research Centre for Advanced Particle Processing and Transport, Discipline of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Moghtaderi, Behdad [Priority Research Centre for Energy, Discipline of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Systematic techno-economic analyses of GAPG system completed for Australian conditions. • Greater utilisation efficiency of both geothermal and fossil fuel resources was achieved. • Reference maps developed to predict conditions when hybrid plant outperforms two stand-alone plants. • Carbon tax and RECs rates of 40 $/tonne and 60 cents/kW h are adequate. • HDR resources should be located no further than 20 km from the plant. - Abstract: A systematic techno-economic analysis of geothermal assisted power generation (GAPG) was performed for a 500 MW unit of a typical coal-fired power plant located at the upper Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Specifically, the GAPG viability and performance was examined by investigating the impacts of reservoir temperature, resource distance, hybridisation scheme, and economic conditions including carbon tax and Renewable Energy Certificates (REC). The process simulation package, Aspen HYSYS, was employed for all simulation purposes. Thermodynamically, GAPG system was found to increase the power output of the plant by up to 19% under the booster mode whilst in fuel saving mode the coal consumption reduced by up to 0.3 million tonne/year decreasing the Green House Gas (GHG) emission by up to 15% (0.6 million tonne/year). Economic analyses showed that for a typical HDR resource with a reservoir temperature about 150 °C located within a 5 km radius from the power plant, the GAPG system becomes economically competitive to the stand-alone fossil fuel based plant when minimum carbon tax and RECs rates of 40 $/tonne and 60 cents/kW h are introduced. The figure of merit analyses comparing GAPG system with both stand-alone fossil fuel and stand-alone geothermal plants showed that an economically feasible GAPG system requires the use of HDR resources located no further than 20 km from the plants. Reference maps were also developed to predict suitable conditions for which the hybrid plant outperforms the

  19. Assessment of geothermal assisted coal-fired power generation using an Australian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Cheng; Doroodchi, Elham; Moghtaderi, Behdad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic techno-economic analyses of GAPG system completed for Australian conditions. • Greater utilisation efficiency of both geothermal and fossil fuel resources was achieved. • Reference maps developed to predict conditions when hybrid plant outperforms two stand-alone plants. • Carbon tax and RECs rates of 40 $/tonne and 60 cents/kW h are adequate. • HDR resources should be located no further than 20 km from the plant. - Abstract: A systematic techno-economic analysis of geothermal assisted power generation (GAPG) was performed for a 500 MW unit of a typical coal-fired power plant located at the upper Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Specifically, the GAPG viability and performance was examined by investigating the impacts of reservoir temperature, resource distance, hybridisation scheme, and economic conditions including carbon tax and Renewable Energy Certificates (REC). The process simulation package, Aspen HYSYS, was employed for all simulation purposes. Thermodynamically, GAPG system was found to increase the power output of the plant by up to 19% under the booster mode whilst in fuel saving mode the coal consumption reduced by up to 0.3 million tonne/year decreasing the Green House Gas (GHG) emission by up to 15% (0.6 million tonne/year). Economic analyses showed that for a typical HDR resource with a reservoir temperature about 150 °C located within a 5 km radius from the power plant, the GAPG system becomes economically competitive to the stand-alone fossil fuel based plant when minimum carbon tax and RECs rates of 40 $/tonne and 60 cents/kW h are introduced. The figure of merit analyses comparing GAPG system with both stand-alone fossil fuel and stand-alone geothermal plants showed that an economically feasible GAPG system requires the use of HDR resources located no further than 20 km from the plants. Reference maps were also developed to predict suitable conditions for which the hybrid plant outperforms the

  20. The level of air pollution in the impact zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using the data of geochemical snow survey (Republic of Kazakhstan)

    OpenAIRE

    Adil'bayeva, Т. E.; Talovskaya, Anna Valerievna; Yazikov, Yegor (Egor) Grigoryevich; Matveenko, Irina Alekseevna

    2016-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants emissions impact the air quality and human health. Of great significance is assessment of solid airborne particles emissions from those plants and distance of their transportation. The article presents the results of air pollution assessment in the zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using snow survey. Based on the mass of solid airborne particles deposited in snow, time of their deposition on snow at the distance from 0.5 to 4.5 km a value of dust load has...

  1. Energetic and exergetic efficiencies of coal-fired CHP (combined heat and power) plants used in district heating systems of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Chunhui; Ertesvåg, Ivar S.; Zhao, Jianing

    2013-01-01

    The efficiencies of coal-fired CHP (combined heat and power) plants used in the district heating systems of China were analyzed with a thermodynamic model in the Hysys program. The influences of four parameters were evaluated by the Taguchi method. The results indicated that the extraction steam flow rate and extraction steam pressure are the most important parameters for energetic and exergetic efficiencies, respectively. The relations between extraction steam flow rate, extraction steam pressure and the energetic and exergetic efficiencies were investigated. The energetic and exergetic efficiencies were compared to the RPES (relative primary energy savings) and the RAI (relative avoided irreversibility). Compared to SHP (separate heat and power) generation, the CHP systems save fuel energy when extraction ratio is larger than 0.15. In the analysis of RAI, the minimum extraction ratio at which CHP system has advantages compared with SHP varies between 0.25 and 0.6. The higher extraction pressure corresponds to a higher value. Two of the examined plants had design conditions giving RPES close to zero and negative RAI. The third had both positive RPES and RAI at design conditions. The minimum extraction ratio can be used as an indicator to design or choose CHP plant for a given district heating system. - Highlights: • Extraction flow rate and extraction pressure are the most important parameters. • The exergetic efficiency depends on the energy to exergy ratio and system boundary. • The minimum extraction ratio is a key indicator for CHP plants. • Program Hysys and Taguchi method are used in this research

  2. Hot helium flow test facility summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study conducted to assess the feasibility and cost of modifying an existing circulator test facility (CTF) at General Atomic Company (GA). The CTF originally was built to test the Delmarva Power and Light Co. steam-driven circulator. This circulator, as modified, could provide a source of hot, pressurized helium for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) component testing. To achieve this purpose, a high-temperature impeller would be installed on the existing machine. The projected range of tests which could be conducted for the project is also presented, along with corresponding cost considerations

  3. Near-term implications of a ban on new coal-fired power plants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Adam; Apt, Jay

    2009-06-01

    Large numbers of proposed new coal power generators in the United States have been canceled, and some states have prohibited new coal power generators. We examine the effects on the U.S. electric power system of banning the construction of coal-fired electricity generators, which has been proposed as a means to reduce U.S. CO2 emissions. The model simulates load growth, resource planning, and economic dispatch of the Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator (ISO), Inc., Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and PJM under a ban on new coal generation and uses an economic dispatch model to calculate the resulting changes in dispatch order, CO2 emissions, and fuel use under three near-term (until 2030) future electric power sector scenarios. A national ban on new coal-fired power plants does not lead to CO2 reductions of the scale required under proposed federal legislation such as Lieberman-Warner but would greatly increase the fraction of time when natural gas sets the price of electricity, even with aggressive wind and demand response policies.

  4. ‘As snug as a bug in a rug’: post-war housing, homes and coal fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Nead

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the layers of meaning and value attached to the image of the open coal fireside in the years immediately following the end of the Second World War. Although the open fire has a much longer economic, social and cultural history, it is argued here that after 1945 it took on new, emergent meanings that tapped into pressing contemporary debates concerning the nature of the modern British nation, the home and the family. Whilst writers often evoked the experience of the open fire as a timeless comfort, addressing basic human needs, the fireside of post-war British journalism and illustration was a very modern thing indeed, able to express specific debates arising from the requirements of reconstruction and modernisation. The almost folkloric associations of the open fire made it harder in the 1950s to legislate against domestic smoke than it was to regulate industrial pollution. Vested interests drew on the powerful rhetoric of the coal fire to combat the smoke pollution reports of the early 1950s and the growing inevitability of legislation. The coal fire was part of a post-war chain of being that started with the domestic hearth and progressed to the nuclear family, the self-contained home, the nation, and ultimately to the Commonwealth.

  5. Environmental assessment of heavy metal and natural radioactivity in soil around a coal-fired power plant in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinwei Lu; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an; Wen Liu; Caifeng Zhao; Cancan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and natural radionuclides in soil around a major coal-fired power plant of Xi'an, China were determined by using XRF and gamma ray spectrometry, respectively. The measured results of heavy metals show that the mean concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Co and Cr in the studied soil samples are higher than their corresponding background values in Shaanxi soil, while the mean concentrations of Mn, Ni and V are close to the corresponding background values. The calculated results of pollution load index of heavy metals indicate that the studied soils presented heavy metal contamination. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied soil samples range from 27.6 to 48.8, 44.4 to 61.4 and 640.2 to 992.2 Bq kg -1 with an average of 36.1, 51.1 and 733.9 Bq kg -1 , respectively, which are slightly higher than the average of Shaanxi soil. The air absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose equivalent received by the local residents due to the natural radionuclides in soil are slightly higher than the mean values of Shaanxi. Coal combustion for energy production has affected the natural radioactivity level and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Co and Cr) concentrations of soil around the coal-fired power plant. (author)

  6. Acidity of vapor plume from cooling tower mixed with flue gases emitted from coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlawiczka, Stanislaw; Korszun, Katarzyna; Fudala, Janina

    2016-06-01

    Acidity of products resulting from the reaction of flue gas components emitted from a coal-fired power plant with water contained in a vapor plume from a wet cooling tower was analyzed in a close vicinity of a power plant (710 m from the stack and 315 m from the cooling tower). Samples of this mixture were collected using a precipitation funnel where components of the mixed plumes were discharged from the atmosphere with the rainfall. To identify situations when the precipitation occurred at the same time as the wind directed the mixed vapor and flue gas plumes above the precipitation funnel, an ultrasound anemometer designed for 3D measurements of the wind field located near the funnel was used. Precipitation samples of extremely high acidity were identified - about 5% of samples collected during 12 months showed the acidity below pH=3 and the lowest recorded pH was 1.4. During the measurement period the value of pH characterizing the background acidity of the precipitation was about 6. The main outcome of this study was to demonstrate a very high, and so far completely underestimated, potential of occurrence of episodes of extremely acid depositions in the immediate vicinity of a coal-fired power plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Economic assessment of coal-fired and nuclear power generation in the year 2000 -Equal health hazard risk basis-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Ki Bong; Lee, Byong Whi

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of equal health hazard risk, economic assessment of nuclear was compared with that of coal for the expansion planning of electric power generation in the year 2000. In comparing health risks, the risk of coal was roughly ten times higher than that of nuclear according to various previous risk assessments of energy system. The zero risk condition can never be achievable. Therefore, only excess relative health risk of coal over nuclear was considered as social cost. The social cost of health risk was estimated by calculation of mortality and morbidity costs. Mortality cost was $250,000 and morbidity cost was $90,000 in the year 2000.(1986US$) Through Cost/Benefit Analysis, the optimal emission standards of coal-fired power generation were predicted. These were obtained at the point of least social cost for power generation. In the year 2000, the optimal emission standard of SO x was analyzed as 165ppm for coal-fired power plants in Korea. From this assessment, economic comparison of nuclear and coal in the year 2000 showed that nuclear would be more economical than coal, whereas uncertainty of future power generation cost of nuclear would be larger than that of coal. (Author)

  8. Enhancing mercury removal across air pollution control devices for coal-fired power plants by desulfurization wastewater evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Hu; Yang, Yi; Cai, Liang; Yang, Linjun; Roszak, Szczepan

    2017-10-09

    Desulfurization wastewater evaporation technology is used to enhance the removal of gaseous mercury (Hg) in conventional air pollution control devices (APCDs) for coal-fired power plants. Studies have affirmed that gaseous Hg is oxidized and removed by selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) in a coal-fired thermal experiment platform with WFGD wastewater evaporation. Effects of desulfurization wastewater evaporation position, evaporation temperature and chlorine ion concentration on Hg oxidation were studied as well. The Hg 0 oxidation efficiency was increased ranging from 30% to 60%, and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 62.16% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before SCR. However, the Hg 0 oxidation efficiency was 18.99% and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 40.19% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before ESP. The results show that WFGD wastewater evaporation before SCR is beneficial to improve the efficiency of Hg oxidized and removed in APCDs. Because Hg 2+ can be easily removed in ACPDs and WFGD wastewater in power plants is enriched with chlorine ions, this method realizes WFGD wastewater zero discharge and simultaneously enhances Hg removal in APCDs.

  9. Hanford Site Treated Effluent Disposal Facility process flow sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents a novel method of using precipitation, destruction and recycle factors to prepare a process flow sheet. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, located near Richland, Washington, and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. When completed and operating, the TEDF effluent water flow will meet or exceed water quality standards for the 300 Area process sewer effluents. A preliminary safety analysis document (PSAD), a preconstruction requirement, needed a process flow sheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics and organics throughout the process, including the effluents, and providing estimates of stream flow quantities, activities, composition, and properties (i.e. temperature, pressure, specific gravity, pH and heat transfer rates). As the facility begins to operate, data from process samples can be used to provide better estimates of the factors, the factors can be entered into the flow sheet and the flow sheet will estimate more accurate steady state concentrations for the components. This report shows how the factors were developed and how they were used in developing a flow sheet to estimate component concentrations for the process flows. The report concludes with how TEDF sample data can improve the ability of the flow sheet to accurately predict concentrations of components in the process

  10. Characterization of open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators. Quarterly technical summary report No. 6, October 1--December 31, 1977. [PACKAGE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, C.E.; Yousefian, V.; Wormhoudt, J.; Haimes, R.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Kerrebrock, J.L.

    1978-01-30

    Research has included theoretical modeling of important plasma chemical effects such as: conductivity reductions due to condensed slag/electron interactions; conductivity and generator efficiency reductions due to the formation of slag-related negative ion species; and the loss of alkali seed due to chemical combination with condensed slag. A summary of the major conclusions in each of these areas is presented. A major output of the modeling effort has been the development of an MHD plasma chemistry core flow model. This model has been formulated into a computer program designated the PACKAGE code (Plasma Analysis, Chemical Kinetics, And Generator Efficiency). The PACKAGE code is designed to calculate the effect of coal rank, ash percentage, ash composition, air preheat temperatures, equivalence ratio, and various generator channel parameters on the overall efficiency of open-cycle, coal-fired MHD generators. A complete description of the PACKAGE code and a preliminary version of the PACKAGE user's manual are included. A laboratory measurements program involving direct, mass spectrometric sampling of the positive and negative ions formed in a one atmosphere coal combustion plasma was also completed during the contract's initial phase. The relative ion concentrations formed in a plasma due to the methane augmented combustion of pulverized Montana Rosebud coal with potassium carbonate seed and preheated air are summarized. Positive ions measured include K/sup +/, KO/sup +/, Na/sup +/, Rb/sup +/, Cs/sup +/, and CsO/sup +/, while negative ions identified include PO/sub 3//sup -/, PO/sub 2//sup -/, BO/sub 2//sup -/, OH/sup -/, SH/sup -/, and probably HCrO/sub 3/, HMoO/sub 4//sup -/, and HWO/sub 3//sup -/. Comparison of the measurements with PACKAGE code predictions are presented. Preliminary design considerations for a mass spectrometric sampling probe capable of characterizing coal combustion plasmas from full scale combustors and flow trains are presented

  11. Construction of the two-phase critical flow test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C. H.; Chang, S. K.; Park, H. S.; Min, K. H.; Choi, N. H.; Kim, C. H.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, H. C.; Chang, M. H.

    2002-03-01

    The two-phase critical test loop facility has been constructed in the KAERI engineering laboratory for the simulation of small break loss of coolant accident entrained with non-condensible gas of SMART. The test facility can operate at 12 MPa of pressure and 0 to 60 C of sub-cooling with 0.5 kg/s of non- condensible gas injection into break flow, and simulate up to 20 mm of pipe break. Main components of the test facility were arranged such that the pressure vessel containing coolant, a test section simulating break and a suppression tank inter-connected with pipings were installed vertically. As quick opening valve opens, high pressure/temperature coolant flows through the test section forming critical two-phase flow into the suppression tank. The pressure vessel was connected to two high pressure N2 gas tanks through a control valve to control pressure in the pressure vessel. Another N2 gas tank was also connected to the test section for the non-condensible gas injection. The test facility operation was performed on computers supported with PLC systems installed in the control room, and test data such as temperature, break flow rate, pressure drop across test section, gas injection flow rate were all together gathered in the data acquisition system for further data analysis. This test facility was classified as a safety related high pressure gas facility in law. Thus the loop design documentation was reviewed, and inspected during construction of the test loop by the regulatory body. And the regulatory body issued permission for the operation of the test facility

  12. The NOKO/TOPFLOW facility for natural convection flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicken, E.F.; Jaegers, H.; Schaffrath, A.; Weiss, F.-P.

    2002-01-01

    For the study of the effectiveness of passive safety systems a high pressure (up to 7 MPa) and high power (up to 4 MW) test facility - named NOKO - has been constructed and operated at the Forschungszentrum Juelich. From 1996-1998 this facility was used for a project within the 4th FP of the EU 'European BWR R and D Cluster for Innovative Passive Safety Systems'. An overview and selected results are given for the tests with two bundles of the emergency condenser, with the building and plate condenser, with 4 different passive initiators, with a passive flooding system and with decay heat removal tests during shutdown. It has been decided to decrease substantially the safety research at the Forschungszentrum Juelich; to maintain the experimental competence for two-phase flow the NOKO facility will be transferred to the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf by the end of the year 2000 up to the beginning of the year 2001. The facility will be named TOPFLOW; the main objectives of future tests will be oriented towards more generic research: investigation of steady state and transient two-phase flow phenomena especially transient two-phase flow patterns, the development of two-phase flow instrumentation, the generation of a data basis for Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD)-Code validation and testing of heat exchangers and safety systems. An overview will be given about the modifications and improvements related to the test facility and the planned tests. (author)

  13. A collaborative project on the effects of coal quality on NO{sub x} emissions and carbon burnout in pulverised coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, H.A.; O`Connor, M.; Stephenson, P.L.; Whitehouse, M.; Richards, D.G.; Hesselmann, G.; MacPhail, J.; Lockwood, F.C.; Williamson, J.; Williams, A.; Pourkashanian, M. [ETSU, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a UK Department of Trade and Industry-supported collaborative project entitled `The Effects of Coal Quality on Emission of Oxides of Nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and Carbon Burnout in Pulverised Coal-fired Utility Boilers`. The project involved extensive collaboration between the UK power generators, boiler and burner manufacturers and research groups in both industry and academia, together with several of the world`s leading computational fluid dynamics (CFD) `software houses`. The prime objectives of the project were to assess the relationship between NO{sub x} emissions and carbon burnout and to develop and validate predictive tools for assessing coals. Experimental work was carried out on various laboratory-scale apparatus and on single burner test facilities ranging from 160 kW{sub th} to 40 MW{sub th} in size and measurements were obtained from full-scale 500 MW{sub e} utility boiler trials. This data and basic coal data were then used to develop mathematical models to predict full-scale boiler performance with respect to NO{sub x} emissions and carbon-in-ash. Results showed good correlations for NO{sub x} and carbon burnout when comparing data from full-scale and large-scale rig trials. Laboratory-scale tests were found to be useful but the influence of burner aerodynamics was more difficult to quantify. Modelling showed that predicted NO{sub x} emissions were encouragingly close to measured emissions but predicting carbon burnout was less successful. 24 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  15. Sustainability Assessment of Coal-Fired Power Plants with Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Butner, R. Scott; Elliott, Michael L.; Freeman, Charles J.

    2011-11-30

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has the ability to dramatically reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power production. Most studies find the potential for 70 to 80 percent reductions in CO2 emissions on a life-cycle basis, depending on the technology. Because of this potential, utilities and policymakers are considering the wide-spread implementation of CCS technology on new and existing coal plants to dramatically curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the power generation sector. However, the implementation of CCS systems will have many other social, economic, and environmental impacts beyond curbing GHG emissions that must be considered to achieve sustainable energy generation. For example, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and particulate matter (PM) are also important environmental concerns for coal-fired power plants. For example, several studies have shown that eutrophication is expected to double and acidification would increase due to increases in NOx emissions for a coal plant with CCS provided by monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbing. Potential for human health risks is also expected to increase due to increased heavy metals in water from increased coal mining and MEA hazardous waste, although there is currently not enough information to relate this potential to actual realized health impacts. In addition to environmental and human health impacts, supply chain impacts and other social, economic, or strategic impacts will be important to consider. A thorough review of the literature for life-cycle analyses of power generation processes using CCS technology via the MEA absorption process, and other energy generation technologies as applicable, yielded large variability in methods and core metrics. Nonetheless, a few key areas of impact for CCS were developed from the studies that we reviewed. These are: the impact of MEA generation on increased eutrophication and acidification from ammonia emissions and increased toxicity

  16. Behavior of Mercury Emissions from a Commercial Coal-Fired Utility Boiler: TheRelationship Between Stack Speciation and Near-Field Plume Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reduction of divalent gaseous mercury (HgII) to elemental gaseous mercury (Hg0) in a commercial coal-fired power plant (CFPP)exhaust plume was investigated by simultaneous measurement in-stack and in-plume as part of a collaborative study among the U.S....

  17. Benefits of coal-fired power generation with flexible CCS in a future northwest European power system with large scale wind power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wijk, Pieter Cornelis; Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; Van den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Slot, Thijs; Stienstra, Gerard; Van der Veen, Wim; Faaij, André P C

    Coal-fired power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is projected as a cost-effective technology to decarbonize the power sector. Intermittent renewables could reduce its load factor and revenues, so flexible capture unit operation strategies (flexible CCS) have been suggested to

  18. Assessment of the economics of basic natural gas cofiring in coal-fired stoker boilers. Topical report, June 1991-June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluestein, J.

    1992-06-01

    The report analyzes the possible benefits of basic gas cofiring in coal-fired stoker boilers. It presents data on the population of stoker boilers, the potential benefits of basic cofiring in stoker boilers and their value to the boiler operator. In particular, it quantifies the economic value of environmental and operational benefits known or thought to arise from cofiring

  19. Proceedings of the joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiling, D.W. [ed.

    1993-08-01

    The joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FEE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference; was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy and held at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880, August 3--5, 1993. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  20. Ozone Monitoring Instrument Observations of Interannual Increases in SO2 Emissions from Indian Coal-fired Power Plants During 2005-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David D.; de Foy, Benjamin; Krotkov, Nickolay A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rapid growth of electricity demand and the absence of regulations, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in India have increased notably in the past decade. In this study, we present the first interannual comparison of SO2 emissions and the satellite SO2 observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for Indian coal-fired power plants during the OMI era of 2005-2012. A detailed unit-based inventory is developed for the Indian coal-fired power sector, and results show that its SO2 emissions increased dramatically by 71 percent during 2005-2012. Using the oversampling technique, yearly high-resolution OMI maps for the whole domain of India are created, and they reveal a continuous increase in SO2 columns over India. Power plant regions with annual SO2 emissions greater than 50 Gg year-1 produce statistically significant OMI signals, and a high correlation (R equals 0.93) is found between SO2 emissions and OMI-observed SO2 burdens. Contrary to the decreasing trend of national mean SO2 concentrations reported by the Indian Government, both the total OMI-observed SO2 and average SO2 concentrations in coal-fired power plant regions increased by greater than 60 percent during 2005-2012, implying the air quality monitoring network needs to be optimized to reflect the true SO2 situation in India.

  1. Pilot plant development of a new catalytic process for improved electrostatic separation of fly-ash in coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares del Valle, J.; Salvador Martinez, L.; Muniz Baum, B.; Cortes Galeano, V. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1996-12-31

    A new catalytic process for flue gas conditioning in pulverized coal fired power plants is outlined. Vanadium and platinum catalysts specifically prepared on ceramic honeycomb monoliths to oxidize SO{sub 2} into SO{sub 3} have been tested and evaluated at pilot scale. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Application of the 2910 by-law to coal-fired heating plants; Application de l`arrete 2910 aux chaudieres a charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hing, K. [CDF Energie (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the impact of the new French regulation about medium power thermal equipments on small coal-fired combustion installations (2 - 20 MW) in particular concerning the limit values of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and dust emissions. (J.S.)

  3. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME III - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR IN, KY, MA, MD, MI, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  4. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME V - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR PA, SC, TN, VA, WI, WV

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  5. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME II - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR AL, DE. FL, GA, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  6. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME IV - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  7. Renew, reduce or become more efficient? The climate contribution of biomass co-combustion in a coal-fired power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Jan H.; Benders, Rene M. J.; Moll, Henri C.; Pierie, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Within this paper, biomass supply chains, with different shares of biomass co-combustion in coal fired power plants, are analysed on energy efficiency, energy consumption, renewable energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and compared with the performance of a 100% coal supply chain

  8. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  9. Spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric mercury concentrations emitted from a coal-fired power plant in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gilberto Fuentes; Álvarez, Humberto Bravo; Echeverría, Rodolfo Sosa; de Alba, Sergio Rosas; Rueda, Víctor Magaña; Dosantos, Ernesto Caetano; Cruz, Gustavo Vázquez

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric mercury in the environment as a result of the consumption of fossil fuels, such as coal used in electricity generation, has gained increased attention worldwide because of its toxicity, atmospheric persistence, and bioaccumulation. Determining or predicting the concentration of this pollutant in ambient air is essential for determining sensitive areas requiring health protection. This study investigated the spatiotemporal variability of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations and its dry deposition surrounding the Presidente Plutarco Elías Calles (CETEPEC) coal-fired power plant, located on Mexico's Pacific coast. The CALPUFF dispersion model was applied on the basis of the daily consumption of coal during 2013 for each generating unit in the power plant and considering the local scale. The established 300-ng/m 3 annual average risk factor considered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (U.S. DHHS) and Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) must not be exceeded to meet satisfactory air quality levels. An area of 65 × 60 km was evaluated, and the results show that the risk level for mercury vapor was not exceeded because the annual average concentration was 2.8 ng/m 3 . Although the predicted risk level was not exceeded, continuous monitoring studies of GEM and of particulates in the atmosphere, soil, and water may be necessary to identify the concentration of this pollutant, specifically that resulting from coal-fired power plants operated in environmental areas of interest in Mexico. The dry mercury deposition was low in the study area; according to the CALPUFF model, the annual average was 1.40E-2 ng/m 2 /sec. These results represent a starting point for Mexico's government to implement the Minamata Convention on Mercury, which Mexico signed in 2013. The obtained concentrations of mercury from a bigger coal-fired plant in Mexico, through the application of the CALPUFF dispersion model by the mercury emissions, are below the

  10. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

    2012-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and

  11. The Tiptop coal-mine fire, Kentucky: Preliminary investigation of the measurement of mercury and other hazardous gases from coal-fire gas vents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hower, James C.; Henke, Kevin [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Engle, Mark A. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Blake, Donald R. [Department of Chemistry, University of California - Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Stracher, Glenn B. [East Georgia College, Swainsboro, GA 30401 (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The Tiptop underground coal-mine fire in the Skyline coalbed of the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation was investigated in rural northern Breathitt County, Kentucky, in May 2008 and January 2009, for the purpose of determining the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) in the vent and for measuring gas-vent temperatures. At the time of our visits, concentrations of CO{sub 2} peaked at 2.0% and > 6.0% (v/v) and CO at 600 ppm and > 700 ppm during field analysis in May 2008 and January 2009, respectively. For comparison, these concentrations exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) eight-hour safe exposure limits (0.5% CO{sub 2} and 50 ppm CO), although the site is not currently mined. Mercury, as Hg{sup 0}, in excess of 500 and 2100 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, in May and January, respectively, in the field, also exceeded the OSHA eight-hour exposure limit (50 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). Carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and a suite of organic compounds were determined at two vents for the first sampling event. All gases are diluted by air as they exit and migrate away from a gas vent, but temperature inversions and other meteorological conditions could lead to unhealthy concentrations in the nearby towns. Variation in gas temperatures, nearly 300 C during the January visit to the fire versus < 50 C in May, demonstrates the large temporal variability in fire intensity at the Tiptop mine. These preliminary results suggest that emissions from coal fires may be important, but additional data are required that address the reasons for significant variations in the composition, flow, and temperature of vent gases. (author)

  12. Development of the flow control irradiation facility for JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroi, Masatoshi; Miyakawa, Shun-ichi

    1998-05-01

    This report describes the present situation and problems with the development of the flow control irradiation facility (FLORA). The purpose of FLORA is to run the cladding breach (RTCB) irradiation test under loss of flow conditions in the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO'. FLORA is a facility like FPTF (Fuel Performance Test Facility) plus BFTF (Breached Fuel Test Facility) in EBR-II, USA. The technical feature of FLORA is its annular linear induction pump (A-LIP), which was developed in response to a need identified through the experiences in the mechanical flow control of FPTF. We have already designed the basic system facility of FLORA for the JOYO MK-II core. However, to put FLORA to practical use in the future, we have to confirm the stability of the JOYO MK-III core condition, solve problems and improve the design. We are going to freeze and review the FLORA project, taking into consideration the fuel development situation and the research project of JOYO MK-III core. (J.P.N.)

  13. Activity Levels of 210Po in the Coastal Area of Kapar, Malaysia, Close to a Coal-Fired Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asnor Azrin Sabuti; Che Abd Rahim Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The activity concentration of 210 Po from six different samples consisting of raw charcoal, surface sediment, rainwater (suspended solids (SSrw) and dissolved phase (Drw) and estuarine water (suspended solids (SSew) and dissolved phase (Dew)), were analyzed. The activity concentration of 210 Po in solid samples was between 7.63 ± 0.67 and 744.28 ± 21.12 Bqkg -1 and in dissolved samples varied between 0.34 ± 0.03 and 86.33 ± 6.51 mBqL -1 . On average, 210 Po activity in SSrw sample was the highest, at nearly three times its original form (charcoal). SSew and surface sediment samples were similarly distributed between 15 th March and 1 st August samplings, but were relatively lower than charcoal and SSrw samples. The natural meteorological variability also enhanced 210 Po distribution and dispersion to a few kilometers from the coal-fired power plant. (author)

  14. Least Square Fast Learning Network for modeling the combustion efficiency of a 300WM coal-fired boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Niu, Peifeng; Wang, Huaibao; Liu, Yongchao

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a novel artificial neural network with a very fast learning speed, all of whose weights and biases are determined by the twice Least Square method, so it is called Least Square Fast Learning Network (LSFLN). In addition, there is another difference from conventional neural networks, which is that the output neurons of LSFLN not only receive the information from the hidden layer neurons, but also receive the external information itself directly from the input neurons. In order to test the validity of LSFLN, it is applied to 6 classical regression applications, and also employed to build the functional relation between the combustion efficiency and operating parameters of a 300WM coal-fired boiler. Experimental results show that, compared with other methods, LSFLN with very less hidden neurons could achieve much better regression precision and generalization ability at a much faster learning speed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High Temperature Behavior of Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings in the Actual Coal-Fired Boiler Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Sidhu, Hazoor Singh; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2015-03-01

    Erosion-corrosion is a serious problem observed in steam-powered electricity generation plants, and industrial waste incinerators. In the present study, four compositions of Cr3C2-(Ni-20Cr) alloy coating powder were deposited by high-velocity oxy-fuel spray technique on T-91 boiler tube steel. The cyclic studies were performed in a coal-fired boiler at 1123 K ± 10 K (850 °C ± 10 °C). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis and elemental mapping analysis techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. All the coatings deposited on T-91 boiler tube steel imparted hot corrosion resistance. The 65 pctCr3C2 -35 pct (Ni-20Cr)-coated T-91 steel sample performed better than all other coated samples in the given environment.

  16. Assessment of 210Po and 210Pb in lichen, moss and soil around Can coal-fired power plant, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murat Belivermis; Onder Kilic; Akin Caayir; Munevver Coskun; Mahmut Coskun

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with determination of 210 Po and 210 Pb activity concentrations using epigeic moss (Hypnum cupressiforme), bushy soil (fruticose) lichen (Cladonia rangiformis) and surface soil samples in the area around Can coal-fired power plant, northwest Turkey. Mean activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb were found to be 303.9 and 425.8 Bq kg -1 for moss, 161.6 and 259.1 Bq kg -1 for lichen, and 79.9 and 91.5 Bq kg -1 for soil samples at dry weight, respectively. We propose that distance and altitude of sampling site may be of significant parameters of distribution of both radionuclides. (author)

  17. Determination of radioactive trace elements in ashes and fly-ashes from Brazilian coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido, L.F.; de Castro Arezzo, B.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this work was to apply a epithermal neutron activation technique to determine the uranium and thorium content in coal ashes and fly ashes from Brazilian coal-fired thermoelectric plants and to evaluate the contribution of these elements and their descendents to the environmental radioactivity. Brazil has adopted as short term policy the use of alcohol and coal as alternative sources of energy. With regard to coal, large deposits of this mineral are found in southern states but the serious problem of its utilization is the risk of environmental contamination which can reach dangerous levels because the industrial plants burn several million tons per year. Uranium and thorium contents, determined experimentally, are extrapolated for annual coal consumption and their amounts and the activity of the radium isotopes descendents released to the atmosphere are calculated. The significance of these values and problems in environmental pollution are discussed

  18. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of primary pollutants from electric power plants: Application to a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlvaine, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The normal operation of a power plant generally releases pollutants to the atmosphere. The objective of this paper is to describe a modeling method to estimate the changes in air pollutant concentrations that result from these emissions. This modeling approach is applicable to coal, biomass, oil, and natural gas technologies. As an example, this paper uses a hypothetical 500 megawatt (MW) coal-fired power plant, located at a Southeast Reference site in the U.S. and at a Southwest Reference Site. The pollutants resulting from the operation of the power plant may be classified as primary (emitted directly from the plant) or secondary (formed in the atmosphere from primary pollutants). The primary pollutants of interest in this paper are nitrogen oxides (NO x , sulfur dioxide SO 2 , particulate matter and metals

  19. The application of RANS CFD for design of SNCR technology for a pulverized coal-fired boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruszak Monika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the technology of NOx emission abatement by SNCR method. The scope of research included CDF simulations as well as design and construction of the pilot plant and tests of NOx reduction by urea in the plant located in industrial pulverized-coal fired boiler. The key step of research was to determine the appropriate temperature window for the SNCR process. The proposed solution of the location of injection lances in the combustion chamber enabled to achieve over a 30% reduction of NOx. It is possible to achieve higher effectiveness of the proposed SNCR technology and meet the required emission standards via providing prior reduction of NOx to the level of 350 mg/um3 using the primary methods.

  20. Research on structural integration of thermodynamic system for double reheat coal-fired unit with CO2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanjing; Shao, Wenjing; Wang, Zhiyue; Fu, Wenfeng; Zhao, Wensheng

    2018-02-01

    Taking the MEA chemical absorption carbon capture system with 85% of the carbon capture rate of a 660MW ultra-super critical unit as an example,this paper puts forward a new type of turbine which dedicated to supply steam to carbon capture system. The comparison of the thermal systems of the power plant under different steam supply schemes by using the EBSILON indicated optimal extraction scheme for Steam Extraction System in Carbon Capture System. The results show that the cycle heat efficiency of the unit introduced carbon capture turbine system is higher than that of the usual scheme without it. With the introduction of the carbon capture turbine, the scheme which extracted steam from high pressure cylinder’ s steam input point shows the highest cycle thermal efficiency. Its indexes are superior to other scheme, and more suitable for existing coal-fired power plant integrated post combustion carbon dioxide capture system.

  1. Large scale carbon dioxide production from coal-fired power stations for enhanced oil recovery: a new economic feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Chan, C. W.; Kritpiphat, W.; Demontigny, D.; Skoropad, D.; Gelowitz, D.; Aroonwilas, A.; Mourits, F.; Wilson, M.; Ward, L.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of capturing carbon dioxide from fossil-fuelled electric power generating plants and utilizing it as a flooding agent in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, was explored. In this context, this paper describes how cogeneration concepts, together with process optimization strategies, help to reduce the carbon dioxide production cost by utilizing low-pressure steam and waste heat from various sections of the power generation process. Based on these optimization strategies, the recovery cost of carbon dioxide from coal-fired power stations is estimated to be in the range of $ 0.50 to $ 2.00/mscf. Assuming an average cost of $ 1.25/mscf, the production cost of incremental oil would be about $ 18.00. This means that even with today's modest oil prices, there is room for profit to be made operating a carbon dioxide flood with flue gas extracted carbon dioxide

  2. Large scale carbon dioxide production from coal-fired power stations for enhanced oil recovery : a new economic feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Chan, C.W.; Kritpiphat, W.; DeMontigny, D.; Skoropad, D.; Gelowitz, D.; Aroonwilas, A.; Mourits, F.; Wilson, M.; Ward, L.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the economics of capturing carbon dioxide from coal-fired power plants to be subsequently used as a flooding agent for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technologies. It was shown that the production of CO 2 for EOR projects can be technically and economically feasible, particularly when the concepts of cogeneration and optimization are used to reduce steam and electricity expenditures. This is done by using low-pressure steam and waste heat from various sections of the power generation process. It was shown that recovery costs could range between $0.50 to $2.00 per mscf. This translates to a recovered oil price of in the range of $17.39 to $19.95 per bbl., suggesting that even at today's low oil prices there is room for CO 2 flooding with flue gas extracted CO 2 . Practical implications for Saskatchewan were examined. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  3. A novel least squares support vector machine ensemble model for NOx emission prediction of a coal-fired boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, You; Liu, Jizhen; Yang, Tingting; Zeng, Deliang

    2013-01-01

    Real operation data of power plants are inclined to be concentrated in some local areas because of the operators’ habits and control system design. In this paper, a novel least squares support vector machine (LSSVM)-based ensemble learning paradigm is proposed to predict NO x emission of a coal-fired boiler using real operation data. In view of the plant data characteristics, a soft fuzzy c-means cluster algorithm is proposed to decompose the original data and guarantee the diversity of individual learners. Subsequently the base LSSVM is trained in each individual subset to solve the subtask. Finally, partial least squares (PLS) is applied as the combination strategy to eliminate the collinear and redundant information of the base learners. Considering that the fuzzy membership also has an effect on the ensemble output, the membership degree is added as one of the variables of the combiner. The single LSSVM and other ensemble models using different decomposition and combination strategies are also established to make a comparison. The result shows that the new soft FCM-LSSVM-PLS ensemble method can predict NO x emission accurately. Besides, because of the divide and conquer frame, the total time consumed in the searching the parameters and training also decreases evidently. - Highlights: • A novel LSSVM ensemble model to predict NO x emissions is presented. • LSSVM is used as the base learner and PLS is employed as the combiner. • The model is applied to process data from a 660 MW coal-fired boiler. • The generalization ability of the model is enhanced. • The time consuming in training and searching the parameters decreases sharply

  4. Integrated strategy for N-methylformanilide production from carbon dioxide of flue gas in coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeehoon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A ‘green’ N-methylformanilide production process based new carbon dioxide conversion technologies is developed. • Monoethanolamine-based system for capturing carbon dioxide from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is deployed. • Gamma-valerolactone is used a solvent and catalyst for converting carbon dioxide to N-methylformanilide. • New separations for recovery of N-methylformanilide and gamma-valerolactone are developed. • Economic evaluation of the proposed process is performed. - Abstract: In this work, an integrated strategy is developed for producing N-methylformanilide from the carbon dioxide of flue gas in a coal-fired power plant. Based on lab-scale experimental studies presenting maximum yields (96%) with low reaction concentrations (below 25 wt% reactants) using large volumes of gamma-valerolactone as a solvent and catalyst, the integrated strategy focuses on the development of commercial-scale processes that consist of a monoethanolamine-based carbon dioxide separation subsystem and a catalytic conversion subsystem of N-Methylaniline with carbon dioxide to N-methylformanilide. Moreover, a heat exchanger network is designed to minimize the total energy requirements by transferring the heat between subsystems. In the proposed integrated strategy, the energy efficiency after heat integration (77.5%) is higher than that before heat integration (74.5%). Economic analysis results show that the minimum selling price of N-methylformanilide ($1592.1 Mt"−"1 using the best possible parameters) for use in this integrated strategy is cost-competitive with the current market price ($2984 Mt"−"1).

  5. Growth responses of selected freshwater algae to trace elements and scrubber ash slurry generated by coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vocke, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The development and implementation of standard toxicity tests is a necessity if consistent and reliable data are to be obtained for water quality criteria. The adapted EPA AAPBT is an ideal static algal toxicity test system. The algal test medium has a chemical composition similar to natural unpolluted waters of low ionic strength. It is appropriate to use MATC water quality criteria when assessing the potential impact of pollutants generated by coal-fired power stations because these energy-generated pollutants typically enter aquatic systems in small quantities over long periods. The MATC water quality criteria are estimates of trace element and SASE levels, based on the most sensitive alga investigated, that will not cause significant changes in naturally-functioning algal populations. These levels are 0.016f mg L/sup -1/ As(V), 0.001 mg L/sup -1/ Cd(II), 0.004 mg L/sup -1/ Hg(II), 0.006 mg L/sup -1/ Se(VI), and 0.344% SASE. To provide viable working water quality criteria, an extrapolation from the laboratory to the natural environment must be made. Therefore, those oxidation states of the trace elements were selected which are the dominant states occurring in natural, unpolluted, slightly alkaline freshwaters. It must be pointed out that these MATC values are based on algal responses to single toxicants and no allowance is made for synergistic, additive, or antagonistic relationships which could occur in natural aquatic systems. Additionally, natural chelation may influence toxicity. The highly toxic nature of potential pollutants from coal-fired generating plants emphasizes the need for minimizing stack effluent pollutants and retaining scrubber ash slurry for proper disposal in an effort to maintain trace elements in concentration ranges compatible with naturally-functioning ecosystems.

  6. Stopping coal-fired electricity imports on smog days : a review of the OPA's proposed 250 MW demand response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposed an alternative to importing coal-fired electricity from the Ohio Valley on smog alert days in Ontario. It was suggested that the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) should pay large electricity consumers to shift some of their consumption from peak to off-peak hours. It was observed that demand response programs which pay consumers to shift demands to off-peak hours can provide multiple benefits to Ontario, including reduced air pollution on smog-alert days, a reduction in the spot price of electricity and reduced price volatility. In addition, demand response programs reduce the risk of blackouts and brownouts, as well as the need for new electricity generation and transmission infrastructure. It was noted that the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) and the OPA are planning to introduce demand response programs for the summer of 2006. However, the IESO's emergency load reduction program will be operated only during emergency situations to avoid the need for voltage reductions, while the OPA proposes to introduce a non-emergency demand response program which will be activated during most smog-alert days. Various amendments to the proposed program were suggested in this paper, including the establishment of price parity with coal-fired electricity imports; the provision of notification by 3 PM of the need for demand reductions the following day; no capping on the quantity of demand reductions that the OPA will purchase at a lower cost than electricity imports; and that the OPA's proposed Capacity Building Demand Response Program should proceed as quickly as possible without a pre-determined MW cap. 4 refs., 6 figs

  7. Low cost combustion tuning and fuel nozzles modification to reduce NOx emission in large coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Chudnovsky; L. Levin; A. Talanker; E. Bar-Ziv; A. Vikhansky; A.F. Sarofim [Israel Electric Corporation (IEC), Haifa (Israel)

    2003-07-01

    This work focuses on low-cost combustion tuning to reduce NOx emission in coal-fired tangential boilers, testing the furnace in various operation modes. We have also experimented different coal nozzle types. The measurements were accompanied by computer simulations of the combustion process. We also used an on-line supervision system. The data obtained from 575 MW boilers show that with tuning and modified nozzles NOx was considerably reduced. The emission of NOx was reduced from 1200 to 570 mg/dNm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2} for South African coal at full load. At partial load NOx emission dropped from 1400 to 750-850 mg/dNm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2}. High volatile coal firing led to additional NOx reduction. A series of tests were performed with Colombian and Indonesian coals as well, dropping NOx emission to 400-450 mg/dNm{sup 3} at6% O{sub 2} at full load. Sootblowing optimization using the supervision system enabled us to further reduce NOx emission by approximately 10%. The boiler and unit performance was not influenced by any of the techniques used for NOx reduction. In such a manner, the results presented in this work clearly show that technological methods for reduction NOx are available and capable of obtaining the required NOx emission. We believe that the conclusions of the present study are general and may be applied to other utility boilers as well. 13 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Economic analysis of a supercritical coal-fired CHP plant integrated with an absorption carbon capture installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartela, Łukasz; Skorek-Osikowska, Anna; Kotowicz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Energy investments in Poland are currently focused on supercritical coal-fired unit technology. It is likely, that in the future, these units are to be integrated with carbon capture and storage (CCS) installations, which enable a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. A significant share of the energy market in Poland is constituted by coal-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The integration of these units with CCS installation can be economically inefficient. However, the lack of such integration enhances the investment risk due to the possibility of appearing on the market in the near future high prices of emission allowances. The aforementioned factors and additional favorable conditions for the development of cogeneration can cause one to consider investing in large supercritical CHP plants. This paper presents the results of an economic analysis aimed at comparing three cases of CHP plants, one without an integrated CCS installation and two with such installations. The same steam cycle structure for all variants was adopted. The cases of integrated CHP plants differ from each other in the manner in which they recover heat. For the evaluation of the respective solutions, the break-even price of electricity and avoided emission cost were used. - Highlights: • The simulations of operation of CHP plants under changing load have been realized. • For analyzed cases sensitivity analyses of economic indices have been conducted. • Conditions of competitiveness for integration with CCS units have been identified. • Integration can be profitable if prices of allowance will reach high values, exceeding 50 €/MgCO 2 . • Others important factors are the investment costs and operation and maintenance costs

  9. Nucleation and growth of sulfate aerosol in coal-fired power plant plumes: sensitivity to background aerosol and meteorology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Stevens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New-particle formation in the plumes of coal-fired power plants and other anthropogenic sulfur sources may be an important source of particles in the atmosphere. It remains unclear, however, how best to reproduce this formation in global and regional aerosol models with grid-box lengths that are 10s of kilometers and larger. The predictive power of these models is thus limited by the resultant uncertainties in aerosol size distributions. In this paper, we focus on sub-grid sulfate aerosol processes within coal-fired power plant plumes: the sub-grid oxidation of SO2 with condensation of H2SO4 onto newly-formed and pre-existing particles. We have developed a modeling framework with aerosol microphysics in the System for Atmospheric Modelling (SAM, a Large-Eddy Simulation/Cloud-Resolving Model (LES/CRM. The model is evaluated against aircraft observations of new-particle formation in two different power-plant plumes and reproduces the major features of the observations. We show how the downwind plume aerosols can be greatly modified by both meteorological and background aerosol conditions. In general, new-particle formation and growth is greatly reduced during polluted conditions due to the large pre-existing aerosol surface area for H2SO4 condensation and particle coagulation. The new-particle formation and growth rates are also a strong function of the amount of sunlight and NOx since both control OH concentrations. The results of this study highlight the importance for improved sub-grid particle formation schemes in regional and global aerosol models.

  10. Nucleation and growth of sulfate aerosol in coal-fired power plant plumes: sensitivity to background aerosol and meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, R. G.; Pierce, J. R.; Brock, C. A.; Reed, M. K.; Crawford, J. H.; Holloway, J. S.; Ryerson, T. B.; Huey, L. G.; Nowak, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    New-particle formation in the plumes of coal-fired power plants and other anthropogenic sulfur sources may be an important source of particles in the atmosphere. It remains unclear, however, how best to reproduce this formation in global and regional aerosol models with grid-box lengths that are 10s of kilometers and larger. The predictive power of these models is thus limited by the resultant uncertainties in aerosol size distributions. In this paper, we focus on sub-grid sulfate aerosol processes within coal-fired power plant plumes: the sub-grid oxidation of SO2 with condensation of H2SO4 onto newly-formed and pre-existing particles. We have developed a modeling framework with aerosol microphysics in the System for Atmospheric Modelling (SAM), a Large-Eddy Simulation/Cloud-Resolving Model (LES/CRM). The model is evaluated against aircraft observations of new-particle formation in two different power-plant plumes and reproduces the major features of the observations. We show how the downwind plume aerosols can be greatly modified by both meteorological and background aerosol conditions. In general, new-particle formation and growth is greatly reduced during polluted conditions due to the large pre-existing aerosol surface area for H2SO4 condensation and particle coagulation. The new-particle formation and growth rates are also a strong function of the amount of sunlight and NOx since both control OH concentrations. The results of this study highlight the importance for improved sub-grid particle formation schemes in regional and global aerosol models.

  11. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim; Meira Castro, Ana Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  12. Performance of double source boiler with coal-fired and solar power tower heat for supercritical power generating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Maolong; Du, Xiaoze; Pang, Liping; Xu, Chao; Yang, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    An approach of high-efficiency utilization of solar energy was proposed, by which the high concentrated heat received by the solar tower was integrated to the supercritical coal-fired boiler. Two schemes that solar energy was used to heat superheat steam or subcooled feed water were presented. The thermodynamic and heat transfer models were established. For a practical 660 MW supercritical power generating unit, the standard coal consumption of power generation could be decreased by more than 17 g/kWh by such double source boiler. The drawbacks of both schemes were found and then were amended by adding a flue gas bypass to the boiler. It also can be concluded that the maximum solar contribution of two schemes for the gross power generation are 6.11% and 4.90%, respectively. The solar power efficiency of the re-modified designs were demonstrated be superior to that of PS10. In terms of turbine efficiency, the comparisons with Solar Two plant having similar initial temperature found that the efficiency of Scheme I was 5.25% higher than that of Solar Two while the advantage of Scheme II was existing either. Additionally, in two schemes with flue bypass when the medium was extracted, the thermal efficiency of boiler could be improved as well. - Highlights: • High concentrated solar tower heat is integrated to the supercritical coal-fired boiler. • The double source boiler can use solar energy to heat superheat steam or subcooled feed water. • Power generating coal consumption can be reduced by more than 17 g/kWh by the double source boiler. • The solar contribution of double source boiler for the gross power generation can be as high as 6.11%.

  13. Integrating geothermal into coal-fired power plant with carbon capture: A comparative study with solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fu; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Zhao, Jiapei; Yang, Guohua; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Post-combustion carbon capture integrating geothermal energy was proposed. • A 300 MWe subcritical coal-fired plant was selected as the baseline. • The geothermal assisted carbon capture system was compared with solar assisted carbon capture plant. • Two different locations were chosen for the technical and economical comparison. • Using medium temperature geothermal thermal energy to replace steam extraction performs better performance. - Abstract: A new system integrating geothermal energy into post-combustion carbon capture is proposed in this paper. Geothermal energy at medium temperatures is used to provide the required thermal heat for solvent regeneration. The performance of this system is compared with solar assisted carbon capture plant via technical and economic evaluation. A 300 MWe coal-fired power plant is selected as the reference case, and two different locations based on the local climatic conditions and geothermal resources are chosen for the comparison. The results show that the geothermal assisted post-combustion carbon capture plant has better performances than the solar assisted one in term of the net power output and annual electricity generation. The net plant average efficiency based on lower heating value can be increased by 2.75% with a thermal load fraction of about 41%. Results of economic assessment show that the proposed geothermal assisted post-combustion carbon capture system has lower levelized costs of electricity and cost of carbon dioxide avoidance compared to the solar assisted post-combustion carbon capture plant. In order to achieve comparative advantages over the reference post-combustion carbon capture plant in both locations, the price of solar collector has to be lower than 70 USD/m 2 , and the drilling depth of the geothermal well shall be less than 2.1 km.

  14. Diagnostics for a coal-fired MHD retrofit of an existing power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R L; Shepard, W S [Mississippi State Univ. (USA). Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Lab.

    1990-01-01

    MHD flows represent one of the most severe environments encountered by gasdynamic diagnostics. Special state-of-the-art techniques and instrumentation systems are required to monitor and collect data for the MHD components, and these diagnostic systems must operate under very severe environmental and magnetic field conditions. The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University has developed, and is continuing to develop, advanced optical diagnostic techniques and instrumentation systems to provide nonintrusive, remote real-time measurements and to operate successfully in the industrial-like environment of a large-scale MHD retrofit power station. Such diagnostic instrumentation can provide the information to completely evaluate the performance of individual components, as well as, the entire power plant. It is essential to determine as much detail as possible about the various component operations in an MHD retrofit system so that a commercial plant design can be optimized quickly. This paper discusses the instrumentation systems which DIAL proposed for an MHD retrofit of an existing power station. Instruments which have been making measurements on the U.S. MHD test facilities for several years are presented, along with instruments which will be available within two years. Parameters to be measured along with location and frequency are discussed in detail. These parameters include electron density, electrical conductivity, K-atom density, gas temperature, gas velocity, temperature and velocity profiles, gas composition, and particle size, number, density and distrib00000

  15. Introduction to flow visualization system in SPARC test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wooyoung; Song, Simon; Na, Young Su; Hong, Seong Wan

    2016-01-01

    The released hydrogen can be accumulated and mixed by steam and air depending on containment conditions under severe accident, which generates flammable mixture. Hydrogen explosion induced by ignition source cause severe damage to a structure or facility. Hydrogen risk regarding mixing, distribution, and combustion has been identified by several expert groups and studied actively since TMI accident. A large-scale thermal-hydraulic experimental facility is required to simulate the complex severe accident phenomena in the containment building. We have prepared the test facility, called the SPARC (Spray, Aerosol, Recombiner, Combustion), to resolve the international open issues regarding hydrogen risk. Gas mixing and stratification test using helium instead of hydrogen and estimation of a stratification surface erosion of helium owing to the vertical jet flow will be performed in SPARC. The measurement system is need to observe the gas flow in the large scale test facility such as SPARC. The PIV (particle image velocimetry) system have been installed to visualize gas flow. We are preparing the test facility, called the SPARC, for estimation the thermal-hydraulic process of hydrogen in a closed containment building and the PIV system for quantitative assessment of gas flow. In particular, we will perform gas mixing and erosion of stratification surface test using helium which is the replacement of hydrogen. It will be evaluated by measuring 2D velocity field using the PIV system. The PIV system mainly consists of camera, laser and tracer particle. Expected maximum size of FOV is 750 x 750 mm 2 limited by focal length of lens and high power laser corresponding to 425mJ/pulse at 532 wavelength is required due to large FOV

  16. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture From Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Srinivasachar, Srivats [Envergex LLC, Sturbridge, MA (United States); Laudal, Daniel [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Browers, Bruce [Barr Engineering, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-31

    A novel hybrid solid sorbent technology for CO₂ capture and separation from coal combustion-derived flue gas was evaluated. The technology – Capture of CO₂ by Hybrid Sorption (CACHYS™) – is a solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: 1) reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, 2) utilization of novel process chemistry, 3) contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO₂ heat of reaction and promote fast CO₂ capture, and 4) low-cost method of heat management. This report provides key information developed during the course of the project that includes sorbent performance, energy for sorbent regeneration, physical properties of the sorbent, the integration of process components, sizing of equipment, and overall capital and operational cost of the integrated CACHYS™ system. Seven sorbent formulations were prepared and evaluated at the lab-scale for energy requirements and CO₂ capture performance. Sorbent heat of regeneration ranged from 30-80 kJ/mol CO₂ and was found to be dependent on process conditions. Two sorbent formulations (designated HCK-4 & HCK-7) were down-selected for additional fixed-bed testing. Additional testing involved subjecting the sorbents to 100 continuous cycles in the fixed-bed reactor to determine performance as a function of time. The working capacity achieved for HCK-4 sorbent ranged from 5.5-8.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent, while the HCK-7 typically ranged from 8.0-10.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent. Overall, there was no deterioration in capacity with continuous cycling for either sorbent. The CACHYS™ bench-scale testing system designed and fabricated under this award consists of a dual circulating fluidized-bed adsorber and a moving-bed regenerator. The system takes a flue gas slipstream from the University of North Dakota’s coal-fired steam plant. Prior to being sent to the adsorber, the flue gas is scrubbed to remove SO₂ and particulate. During parametric testing of the adsorber, CO₂ capture achieved using

  17. Ultra-supercritical (USC) technology. The best practical and economic way to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jianxiong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering

    2013-07-01

    China is the largest coal producer and consumer with largest coal power capacity in the world. By the end of 2010, the total installed power capacity in China was 962,190 MWe, in which coal fired power capacity was 706,630 MWe, accounting for over 73.4%. China has been the largest CO{sub 2} emission country as well and its huge coal power capacity is the largest CO{sub 2} emission source. How does China reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired power plants is an austere challenge now we are facing. How does China reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired power plants? There are three ways to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired power plants: (1) carbon capture and storage (CCS); (2) co-firing biomass with coal; (3) much improvement of efficiency. For the first option of CCS, the technology is still under development and there are still several uncertainties today to be widely used for coal fired power plants in the short term. For the second option of biomass co-firing, it can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in a way, but it is difficult to implement it in China without strong support of incentive policy. Therefore, the third option of improvement of efficiency is the only but also the best and feasible economic option for China to much reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired power plants. This paper will discuss how China to take a active policy to strongly promote the application of supercritical (SC)/Ultra supercritical (USC) technology. Only in 4 years from 2007 to 2010, ordered capacity of coal fired SC/USC units was 482 units with installed capacity of 230,060 MWe, in which, 1,000 MWe USC with 600 C steam parameters was almost 100 units with 100,000 MWe in which 33 units have been in operation. Today, China has been a country with the largest SC/USC units and capacity. The fast application of SC/USC units for coal fired power plants has resulted in energy saving and reduction of emissions. The average coal consumption in China reduced from 366

  18. Characterization of groundwater flow for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    The main objective of this report is to provide a description of the site investigation techniques and modelling approaches that can be used to characterise the flow of subsurface water at near surface disposal facilities in relation to the various development stages of the repositories. As one of the main goals of defining groundwater flow is to establish the possible contaminant migration, certain aspects related to groundwater transport are also described. Secondary objectives are to discuss the implications of various groundwater conditions with regard to the performance of the isolation systems

  19. Research and development of leading, fundamental energy-saving techniques. Report on the R and D of coal-fired magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) electrical power generation (Prompt report by Electrotechnical Laboratory); Sekitan nensho MHD hatsuden no kenkyu ni kansuru seika hokoku. Densoken kenkyu sokuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-30

    Summarized herein are the reports on the R and D of coal-fired magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) electrical power generation, received by March 30, 1990. For the coal combustor, the air flow tests have been conducted using a 5MW-scale plastic model since 1984, and the model has been later scaled-up to 15MW. The actual combustion tests have been conducted using a 1MW-scale combustor, designed based on the results of air flow tests using the 15MW-scale model, mainly for the cyclone combustor in the first stage. For a coal-fired generation channel, the studies on the cathodes and insulation walls have been conducted since 1986, the research themes including causes for and measures against inter-cathode shorting, and insulating walls of SiC. The anode walls have been studied since 1986, deepening understanding of, e.g., the anode arc phenomenon and anode discharge phenomenon which relates to the causes for exhaustion of the inter-anode insulators and anode materials. For the high temperature regenerative heat exchanger, the existing materials have been screened since 1985, and the basic data related to, e.g., slag viscosity and its effects on material corrosion have been collected since 1986. (NEDO)

  20. Portable Fluorescence Imaging System for Hypersonic Flow Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, J. A.; Alderfer, D. W.; Jones, S. B.; Danehy, P. M.

    2003-01-01

    A portable fluorescence imaging system has been developed for use in NASA Langley s hypersonic wind tunnels. The system has been applied to a small-scale free jet flow. Two-dimensional images were taken of the flow out of a nozzle into a low-pressure test section using the portable planar laser-induced fluorescence system. Images were taken from the center of the jet at various test section pressures, showing the formation of a barrel shock at low pressures, transitioning to a turbulent jet at high pressures. A spanwise scan through the jet at constant pressure reveals the three-dimensional structure of the flow. Future capabilities of the system for making measurements in large-scale hypersonic wind tunnel facilities are discussed.

  1. Survey of radionuclide emissions from coal-fired power plants and examination of impacts from a proposed circulating fluidized bed boiler power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, C.P.; Militana, L.M.; Harvey, K.A.; Kinsey, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature survey that examined radionuclide emissions from coal-fired power plants. Literature references from both the US and foreign countries are presented. Emphasis is placed on references from the US because the radionuclide emissions from coal-fired power plants are related to radionuclide concentrations in the coal, which vary widely throughout the world. The radionuclides were identified and quantified for various existing power plants reported in the literature. Applicable radionuclide emissions criteria discovered in the literature search were then applied to a proposed circulating fluidized bed boiler power plant. Based upon the derived radionuclide emission rates applied to the proposed power plant, an air quality modeling analysis was performed. The estimated ambient concentrations were compared to the most relevant existing regulatory ambient levels for radionuclides

  2. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination

  3. Analysis of radioactivity concentration in naturally occurring radioactive materials used in coal-fired plants in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Geom; Kim, Si Young; Ji, Seung Woo; Park, Il; Kim, Min Jun; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Coals and coal ashes, raw materials and by-products, in coal-fired power plants contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). They may give rise to internal exposure to workers due to inhalation of airborne particulates containing radioactive materials. It is necessary to characterize radioactivity concentrations of the materials for assessment of radiation dose to the workers. The objective of the present study was to analyze radioactivity concentrations of coals and by-products at four coal-fired plants in Korea. High purity germanium detector was employed for analysis of uranium series, thorium series, and potassium 40 in the materials. Radioactivity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 40}K were 2⁓53 Bq kg{sup -1}, 3⁓64 Bq kg{sup -1}, and 14⁓431 Bq kg{sup -1} respectively in coal samples. For coal ashes, the radioactivity concentrations were 77⁓133 Bq kg{sup -1}, 77⁓105 Bq kg{sup -1}, and 252⁓372 Bq kg{sup -1} in fly ash samples and 54⁓91 Bq kg{sup -1}, 46⁓83 Bq kg{sup -1}, and 205⁓462 Bq kg{sup -1} in bottom ash samples. For flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, the radioactivity concentrations were 3⁓5 Bq kg{sup -1}, 2⁓3 Bq kg{sup -1}, and 22⁓47 Bq kg{sup -1}. Radioactivity was enhanced in coal ash compared with coal due to combustion of organic matters in the coal. Radioactivity enhancement factors for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 40}K were 2.1⁓11.3, 2.0⁓13.1, and 1.4⁓7.4 for fly ash and 2.0⁓9.2, 2.0⁓10.0, 1.9⁓7.7 for bottom ash. The database established in this study can be used as basic data for internal dose assessment of workers at coal-fred power plants. In addition, the findings can be used as a basic data for development of safety standard and guide of Natural Radiation Safety Management Act.

  4. High-resolution inventory of technologies, activities, and emissions of coal-fired power plants in China from 1990 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, F.; Zheng, B.; He, K.B. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control; Zhang, Q. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling; Tong, D.; Li, M. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling; Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control; Huo, H. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Energy, Environment and Economy

    2015-07-01

    This paper, which focuses on emissions from China's coal-fired power plants during 1990-2010, is the second in a series of papers that aims to develop a high-resolution emission inventory for China. This is the first time that emissions from China's coal-fired power plants were estimated at unit level for a 20-year period. This inventory is constructed from a unit-based database compiled in this study, named the China coal-fired Power plant Emissions Database (CPED), which includes detailed information on the technologies, activity data, operation situation, emission factors, and locations of individual units and supplements with aggregated data where unit-based information is not available. Between 1990 and 2010, compared to a 479 % growth in coal consumption, emissions from China's coal-fired power plants increased by 56, 335, and 442 % for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and CO{sub 2}, respectively, and decreased by 23 and 27 % for PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} respectively. Driven by the accelerated economic growth, large power plants were constructed throughout the country after 2000, resulting in a dramatic growth in emissions. The growth trend of emissions has been effectively curbed since 2005 due to strengthened emission control measures including the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems and the optimization of the generation fleet mix by promoting large units and decommissioning small ones. Compared to previous emission inventories, CPED significantly improved the spatial resolution and temporal profile of the power plant emission inventory in China by extensive use of underlying data at unit level. The new inventory developed in this study will enable a close examination of temporal and spatial variations of power plant emissions in China and will help to improve the performances of chemical transport models by providing more accurate emission data.

  5. Natural radioactivity of ground waters and soil in the vicinity of the ash repository of the coal-fired power plant. Nikola Tesla A in Obrenovac, Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, Z.; Madic, M.; Vukovic, D. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-11-01

    Radioactivity of U, Th and {sup 40}K has been investigated in the vicinity of the ash repository of coal-fired Nikola Tesla A power plant in Obrenovac (Yugoslavia). Using alpha and gamma spectrometry, luminescence spectrophotometry, it was found that the ash repository is a source of radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series; and these radionuclides were found in the ground water up to a distance of several hundred metres. The influence of the repository on the soil radioactivity was minimal.

  6. Inventory of on-line efficiency control software for coal-fired power plants; Inventarisatie on-line rendementsbewakingspakketten voor kolengestookte centrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulshof, H; Tim, R [KEMA Fossiele Opwekking, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1994-12-31

    Based on the results of a literature study and the assessment of currently applied and operational systems an overview is given of existing, commercially available, efficiency control computer programs for coal-fired electric power plants. The programs Siemens, Kaye Plant Monitoring Analyses, Plant Monitoring Workstations (EPRI), and the Langerlo Method are specified and compared for speed, flexibility, accuracy, the required own efforts to apply the program, and the estimated costs for acquisition

  7. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 15, April 15 1996--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-19

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering; Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quote} Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis and Phases II and III on a cost-share basis.

  8. Case study of the effects of public safety regulation on the construction costs of coal-fired and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    Regulations intended to reduce the number of accidents at nuclear plants and the discharge of sulfur and particulate wastes at coal-fired power plants have become an important cause of construction cost escalation. Measuring the costs of these regulatory interventions is a difficult research task. The three-unit Bruce Mansfield coal-fired plant and the two-unit Beaver Valley nuclear power station located in Shippingport, Pennsylvania, provide a unique opportunity for a case study of the costs of regulation in the construction of both kinds of plants. The units of each plant were built sequentially over a period of intensifying