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Sample records for coal wettability evaluation

  1. Study on coal dust wettability measurement using cold briquetting technique

    Li, M.; Xu, H.; Shu, X. [North China Institute of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Department of Resource and Environmental Engineering

    2008-12-15

    Quantitative measuring of coal dust wettability is essential for the research and development of chemical coal dust suppressants in the field of dust control with wetting-agent-added water. The causes of low repeat rate and poor consistency in present lab testing of coal dust wettability are discussed. The influence of different briquetting pressure (from 0 to 6.5108 Pa) on the wet behavior of coal dust is investigated as a new way to quantitatively evaluate coal dust wettability. The study shows that there is a fairly high coincidence between the coal dust wettability data measured by the briquetting technique and the results gained from the lab dust suppression tests using an MCYZ apparatus designed by the authors. 9 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Impacts of Natural Surfactant Soybean Phospholipid on Wettability of High-rank Coal Reservoir

    Lyu, S.; Xiao, Y.; Yuan, M.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    It is significant to change the surface wettability of coal rock with the surfactant in coal mining and coalbed methane exploitation. Soybean phospholipid (SP) is a kind of natural zwitterionic surfactant which is non-toxic and degradable. In order to study the effects of soybean phospholipid on wettability of high-rank coal in Qinshui Basin, some experiments including surface tension test, contact angle measurement on the coal surface, coal fines imbibition, observation of dispersion effect and gas permeability test were carried out, and water locking mechanism of fracturing fluid in micro fractures of coal reservoir was analyzed. The results show that the surface of high-rank coal was negatively charged in solution and of weak hydrophilicity. The soybean phospholipid with the mass fraction of 0.1% reduced the surface tension of water by 69%, and increased the wettability of coal. Meanwhile, the soybean phospholipid helped coal fines to disperse by observation of the filter cake with the scanning electron microscope. The rising rate of soybean phospholipid solution in the pipe filled with coal fines was lower than that of anionic and cationic surfactant, higher than that of clean water and non-ionic surfactant. Composite surfactant made up of soybean phospholipid and OP-10 at the ratio of 1:3 having a low surface tension and large contact angle, reduced the capillary force effectively, which could be conducive to discharge of fracturing fluid from coal reservoir micro fracture and improve the migration channels of gas. Therefore it has a broad application prospect.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Coal Dust Wettability Based on Surface Contact Angle

    Gang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wettability is one of the key chemical properties of coal dust, which is very important to dedusting. In this paper, the theory of liquid wetting solid was presented firstly; then, taking the gas coal of Xinglongzhuang coal mine in China as an example, by determination of critical surface tension of coal piece, it can be concluded that only when the surface tension of surfactant solution is less than 45 mN/m can the coal sample be fully wetted. Due to the effect of particle dispersity, compared with the contact angle of milled coal particle, not all the contact angles of screened coal powder with different sizes have a tendency to increase. Furthermore, by the experiments of coal samples’ specific surface areas and porosities, it can be achieved that the volume of single-point total pore decreases with the gradual decreasing of coal’s porosity, while the ultramicropores’ dispersities and multipoint BET specific surface areas increase. Besides, by a series of contact angle experiments with different surfactants, it can be found that with the increasing of porosity and the decreasing of volume percentage of ultramicropore, the contact angle tends to reduce gradually and the coal dust is much easier to get wetted.

  4. Evaluation of wettability of binders used in moulding sands

    Hutera B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Binders used in moulding sand have the differential properties. One of the main parameters influencing on moulding sand properties is wettability of the sand grain by binding material. In the article some problems concerned with wettability evaluation have been presented and the importance of this parameter for quantity description of process occurring in system: binder- sand grain has been mentioned. The procedure of wetting angle measurement and operation of prototype apparatus for wettability investigation of different binders used in moulding sand have been described, as well as the results of wetting angle measurement for different binders at different conditions. The addition of little amount of proper diluent to binder results in the state of equilibrium reached almost immediately. Such addition can also reduce the value of equilibrium contact angle. The uniform distribution of binder on the surface of the sand grains and reducing of the required mixing time can be obtained. It has also a positive effect on the moulding sand strength.

  5. Evaluation of the wettability of a resin-based sealer in contact with some herbal irrigants

    Mohammadreza Nabavizade

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Under the experimental condition of this study, CC was able to increase dentin wettability and therefore may be regarded as a promising irrigant after careful evaluation of other properties of this irrigant.

  6. Basic evaluation of typical nanoporous silica nanoparticles in being drug carrier: Structure, wettability and hemolysis.

    Li, Jing; Guo, Yingyu

    2017-04-01

    Herein, the present work devoted to study the basic capacity of nanoporous silica nanoparticles in being drug carrier that covered structure, wettability and hemolysis so as to provide crucial evaluation. Typical nanoporous silica nanoparticles that consist of nanoporous silica nanoparticles (NSN), amino modified nanoporous silica nanoparticles (amino-NSN), carboxyl modified nanoporous silica nanoparticles (carboxyl-NSN) and hierachical nanoporous silica nanoparticles (hierachical-NSN) were studied. The results showed that their wettability and hemolysis were closely related to structure and surface modification. Basically, wettability became stronger as the amount of OH on the surface of NSN was higher. Both large nanopores and surface modification can reduce the wettability of NSN. Furthermore, NSN series were safe to be used when they circulated into the blood in low concentration, while if high concentration can not be avoided during administration, high porosity or amino modification of NSN were safer to be considered. It is believed that the basic evaluation of NSN can make contribution in providing scientific instruction for designing drug loaded NSN systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  8. Wettability determination by contact angle measurements: hvbB coal-water system with injection of synthetic flue gas and CO2.

    Shojai Kaveh, Narjes; Rudolph, E Susanne J; Wolf, Karl-Heinz A A; Ashrafizadeh, Seyed Nezameddin

    2011-12-01

    Geological sequestration of pure carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in coal is one of the methods to sequester CO(2). In addition, injection of CO(2) or flue gas into coal enhances coal bed methane production (ECBM). The success of this combined process depends strongly on the wetting behavior of the coal, which is function of coal rank, ash content, heterogeneity of the coal surface, pressure, temperature and composition of the gas. The wetting behavior can be evaluated from the contact angle of a gas bubble, CO(2) or flue gas, on a coal surface. In this study, contact angles of a synthetic flue gas, i.e. a 80/20 (mol%) N(2)/CO(2) mixture, and pure CO(2) on a Warndt Luisenthal (WL) coal have been determined using a modified pendant drop cell in a pressure range from atmospheric to 16 MPa and a constant temperature of 318 K. It was found that the contact angles of flue gas on WL coal were generally smaller than those of CO(2). The contact angle of CO(2) changes from water-wet to gas-wet by increasing pressure above 8.5 MPa while the one for the flue gas changes from water-wet to intermediate-wet by increasing pressure above 10 MPa. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. In Vitro Comparison of the Bond Strength between Ceramic Repair Systems and Ceramic Materials and Evaluation of the Wettability.

    Kocaağaoğlu, Hasan; Manav, Taha; Albayrak, Haydar

    2017-04-01

    When fracture of an all-ceramic restoration occurs, it can be necessary to repair without removing the restoration. Although there are many studies about the repair of metal-ceramic restorations, there are few about all-ceramic restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between ceramic repair systems and esthetic core materials and to evaluate the wettability of all-ceramic core materials. Disk-like specimens (N = 90) made of three dental ceramic infrastructure materials (zirconia ceramic, alumina ceramic, glass ceramic) were polished with silicon carbide paper, prepared for bonding (abrasion with 30 μm diamond rotary cutting instrument). Thirty specimens of each infrastructure were obtained. Each infrastructure group was divided into three subgroups; they were bonded using 3 repair systems: Bisco Intraoral Repair Kit, Cimara & Cimara Zircon Repair System, and Clearfil Repair System. After 1200 thermocycles, shear bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. In addition, the contact angle values of the infrastructures after surface treatments were examined for wettability. Data were analyzed by using ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. Although there were no significant differences among the repair systems (p > 0.05) in the glass ceramic and zirconia groups, a significant difference was found among the repair systems in alumina infrastructure (p 0.05); however, a statistically significant difference was found among the repair systems (p < 0.05). No difference was found among the infrastructures and repair systems in terms of contact angle values. Cimara & Cimara Zircon Repair System had higher bond strength values than the other repair systems. Although no difference was found among the infrastructures and repair systems, contact wettability angle was decreased by surface treatments compared with polished surfaces. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  10. Evaluating the Influence of Pore Architecture and Initial Saturation on Wettability and Relative Permeability in Heterogeneous, Shallow-Shelf Carbonates

    Byrnes, Alan P.; Bhattacharya, Saibal; Victorine, John; Stalder, Ken

    2007-09-30

    carbonate reservoirs of widely varying moldic pore systems that represent the major of reservoirs in Kansas and are important nationally and worldwide. A goal of the project is to measure wettability, using representative oils from Kansas fields, on a wide range of moldic-porosity lithofacies that are representative of Kansas and midcontinent shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs. This investigation will discern the relative influence of wetting and pore architecture. In the midcontinent, reservoir water saturations are frequently greater than 'irreducible' because many reservoirs are largely in the capillary transition zone. This can change the imbibition oil-water relative permeability relations. Ignoring wettability and transition-zone relative permeabilities in reservoir modeling can lead to over- and under-prediction of oil recovery and recovery rates, and less effective improved recovery management. A goal of this project is to measure drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeabilities for a large representative range of lithofacies at differ ent initial water saturations to obtain relations that can be applied everywhere in the reservoir. The practical importance of these relative permeability and wettability models will be demonstrated by using reservoir simulation studies on theoretical/generic and actual reservoir architectures. The project further seeks to evaluate how input of these new models affects reservoir simulation results at varying scales. A principal goal is to obtain data that will allow us to create models that will show how to accurately simulate flow in the shallow-structure, complex carbonate reservoirs that lie in the transition zone. Tasks involved to meet the project objectives include collection and consolidation of available data into a publicly accessible relational digital database and collection of oil and rock samples from carbonate fields around the state (Task 1). Basic properties of these rocks and oils will be measured

  11. Evaluation of final irrigation regimens with maleic acid for smear layer removal and wettability of root canal sealer.

    Ballal, Nidambur Vasudev; Ferrer-Luque, Carmen Maria; Sona, Mrunali; Prabhu, K Narayan; Arias-Moliz, Teresa; Baca, Pilar

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the smear layer removal and wettability of AH Plus sealer on root canal dentin treated with MA (maleic acid), MA + CTR (cetrimide) and MA + CTR + CHX (chlorhexidine) as final irrigating regimens. For smear layer removal, 40 teeth were instrumented to size F4 and divided into four groups: (1) 7% MA, (2) 7% MA + 0.2% CTR, (3) 7% MA + 0.2% CTR + 2% CHX, (4) distilled water (control). After irrigation, teeth were subjected to SEM analysis. For contact angle analysis, 20 teeth were split longitudinally and divided into four groups similar to smear layer analysis. AH plus sealer was placed on each specimen and contact angle was analysed. In both smear layer (p = .393) and contact angle analysis (p = .961), there was no significant difference between the groups MA and MA + CTR. However, MA + CTR + CHX removed smear layer less effectively (p = .023) and increased the contact angle of the sealer (p = .005). In smear layer analysis, specimens in negative control group were heavily smeared. In case of contact angle analysis, samples in the control group had least contact angle. MA alone or in combination with CTR removed smear layer effectively and increased the wettability of AH plus sealer to root canal dentin.

  12. Interfacial Interactions and Wettability Evaluation of Rock Surfaces for CO2 Storage

    Shojai Kaveh, N.

    2014-01-01

    To reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, different scenarios are proposed to capture and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in geological formations (CCS). Storage strategies include CO2 injection into deep saline aquifers, depleted gas and oil reservoirs, and unmineable coal seams. To identify a secure

  13. Evaluation of the ignition behaviour of coals and blends

    J. Faundez; F. Rubiera; X. Garcia; A. Arenillas; A.L. Gordon; J.J. Pis [CSIC, Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain). Department of Energy and Environment

    2003-07-01

    An experimental study about ignition of coals and blends was carried out by using an entrained flow reactor (EFR) with continuous feed. Seven coals of varying rank, from subbituminous to semianthracite, were tested and evolving gases (O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO) were measured. The ignition temperature was evaluated from the evolution profiles of these gases, and correlated inversely to the reactivity of coals, as reflected by increasing values of ignition temperatures in the sequence subbituminous, high volatile bituminous, low volatile bituminous and semianthracite coals. Mechanism of ignition varied from an heterogeneous mechanism (for subbituminous, low volatile bituminous and semianthracite coals) to an homogeneous mechanism (for high volatile bituminous coal). Experiments with coal blends showed that if a low volatile bituminous coal is blended with a high volatile bituminous coal, the latter determines the value of the ignition temperature and ignition mechanism of the blend, when its percentage in the blend is 50% or higher. For blends of subbituminous and high volatile bituminous coals, the ignition mechanism of the blend is determined by the ignition mechanism of the coal with a higher content in the blend. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Wettability contrasts between fresh and weathered diesel fuels.

    Drake, Stephanie S; O'Carroll, Denis M; Gerhard, Jason I

    2013-01-01

    The remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminated sites is impeded due to subsurface complexities, including wettability. Wettability quantifies which of two immiscible fluids preferentially coats a solid. At most contaminated sites water-wetting conditions are typically assumed despite mounting evidence that this is not always the case. In this study, wettability was examined for two NAPL samples of contrasting origin: a fresh and a field sample. Wettability was assessed through (i) cyclical, 'cumulative elapsed contact time' intrinsic contact angle measurements, (ii) interface jar tests, and (iii) cyclical, pseudo-static capillary pressure-saturation curves. The work as a whole demonstrated that while the fresh diesel sample was consistently water-wet, the field diesel sample exhibited repeatable cycles of wettability reversal between water drainage and imbibition. And while wettability hysteresis increased with contact time for the field diesel, the occurrence of wettability reversal at each change of saturation direction was independent of contact time. Such behavior is not easily assessed by standard wettability indices. Moreover, it contrasts with the permanent wettability alteration observed for complex organics (e.g., coal tar) observed in most studies. It is hypothesized that the cyclical wettability reversal is related to cyclical changes in intermediate pore wettability due to sorption of surface active compounds (causing NAPL-wetting imbibition) and rupturing of the soil grain water film (causing water-wet drainage). The wettability differences between the two NAPLs may be due to additives (i.e., a surfactant) in the original formulation and/or byproducts from subsurface weathering. These results support better characterization of site-specific wettability, improved model development and more realistic site conceptual models for improved remediation efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Methodology for Evaluating Encapsulated Beneficial Uses of Coal Combustion Residuals

    The primary purpose of this document is to present an evaluation methodology developed by the EPA for making determinations about environmental releases from encapsulated products containing coal combustion residuals.

  16. Economic evaluation of a coal fired boiler

    Briem, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper provides basic information on boiler economics which will assist steam users in analyzing the feasibility of using coal to generate steam - in either new or existing facilities. The information presented covers boilers ranging in size from 10,000 to 100,000 pounds per hour steaming capacity

  17. Coal

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  18. Economic evaluation of coal deposits. Ekonomicheskaya otsenka ugolinykh mestorozhdenii

    Raikhel' , B L

    1979-01-01

    A presentation is made of theoretical problems, methods, and criteria for the economic evaluation of coal deposits. An examination is made of factors which influence the formation of magnitudes that are utilized in economic evaluations as well as problems whose solution requires the consideration of the economic evaluation of coal deposits (evaluation of useful mineral losses, substantiation for the extraction of reserves under various conditions, sectioning off reserves to an operating mine, the completeness of reserve extraction, and technico-economic substantiation for quality). Extensive experience in planning is summarized and data are illustrated by examples. The book is intended for engineering-technical personnel of enterprises, organizations, planning, and scientific-research institutes of the coal industry as well as geological organizations. 29 references, 27 tables.

  19. Risk Evaluation of Railway Coal Transportation Network Based on Multi Level Grey Evaluation Model

    Niu, Wei; Wang, Xifu

    2018-01-01

    The railway transport mode is currently the most important way of coal transportation, and now China’s railway coal transportation network has become increasingly perfect, but there is still insufficient capacity, some lines close to saturation and other issues. In this paper, the theory and method of risk assessment, analytic hierarchy process and multi-level gray evaluation model are applied to the risk evaluation of coal railway transportation network in China. Based on the example analysis of Shanxi railway coal transportation network, to improve the internal structure and the competitiveness of the market.

  20. Evaluation about wettability, water absorption or swelling of excipients through various methods and the correlation between these parameters and tablet disintegration.

    Yang, Baixue; Wei, Chen; Yang, Yang; Wang, Qifang; Li, Sanming

    2018-04-06

    To evaluate parameters about wettability, water absorption or swelling of excipients in forms of powders or dosage through various methods systematically and explore its correlation with tablet disintegration. The water penetration and swelling of powders with different proportions of excipients including microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), mannitol, low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC), crospolyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPP), carboxymethyl starch sodium (CMS-Na), croscarmellose sodium (CCMC-Na) and magnesium stearate (MgSt) were determined by Washburn capillary rise. Both contact angle of water on the excipient compacts and surface swelling volume were measured by sessile drop technique. Moreover, the test about water absorption and swelling of compacts was fulfilled by a modified method. Eventually, the disintegration of tablets with or without loratadine was performed according to the method described in USP. These parameters were successfully identified by the methods above, which proved that excipient wettability or swelling properties varied with the structure of excipients. For example, MgSt could improve the water uptake, while impeded tablet swelling. Furthermore, in the present study it is verified that tablet disintegration was closely related to these parameters, especially wetting rate and initial water absorption rate. The higher wetting rate of water on tablet or initial water absorption rate, the faster swelling it be, resulting in the shorter tablet disintegration time. The methods utilized in the present study were feasible and effective. The disintegration of tablets did relate to these parameters, especially wetting rate and initial water absorption rate.

  1. Applying Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach to Evaluate and Classify the Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential in Eastern Alborz Coal Mines

    Amir Saffari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Subject analysis of the potential of spontaneous combustion in coal layers with analytical and numerical methods has been always considered as a difficult task because of the complexity of the coal behavior and the number of factors influencing it. Empirical methods, due to accounting for certain and specific factors, have not accuracy and efficiency for all positions. The Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach as a systematic method for analyzing and classifying is proposed in engineering projects. The present study is concerned with employing the RES approach to categorize coal spontaneous combustion in coal regions. Using this approach, the interaction of parameters affecting each other in an equal scale on the coal spontaneous combustion was evaluated. The Intrinsic, geological and mining characteristics of coal seams were studied in order to identifying important parameters. Then, the main stages of implementation of the RES method i.e. interaction matrix formation, coding matrix and forming a list category were performed. Later, an index of Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential (CSCPi was determined to format the mathematical equation. Then, the obtained data related to the intrinsic, geological and mining, and special index were calculated for each layer in the case study (Pashkalat coal region, Iran. So, the study offers a perfect and comprehensive classification of the layers. Finally, by using the event of spontaneous combustion occurred in Pashkalat coal region, an initial validation for this systematic approach in the study area was conducted, which suggested relatively good concordance in Pashkalat coal region.

  2. SPIROMETRIC EVALUATION OF LUNG FUNCTION OF COAL WORKERS WORKING AT MACH (BOLAN DISTRICT)

    Ghulam Sarwar, Muhammad Younis, Shafi Muhammad, Tanzeel Ahmed*, Muhammad Siddique, Bashir Ahmed, Munir Ahmed, Jahanzaib

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the coal dust effect on lung function among coal workers and non-coal workers. This was case-control study. The 144 male coal workers and non-coal workers, 20-50 years more than one year of working skill were selected. Study was carried out in the Mach, Bolan district in Balochistan, Pakistan. The Spirometer and selfdesigned survey form were used. The interview was accompanied and information was documented in the survey form and Spirometry was done for coal workers and non-coal w...

  3. Mice housed on coal dust-contaminated sand: A model to evaluate the impacts of coal mining on health.

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2016-03-01

    Coal dust is the most important air pollutant in coal mining in regards to producing deleterious health effects. It permeates the surrounding environment threatening public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects associated with exposure to sand contaminated with coal dust particles below 38 μm in diameter, obtained from a mineral sample collected in the largest coal mine in South America, La Loma, Cesar, Colombia. Sterilized sand was spiked with coal dust to obtain concentrations ranging from zero to 4% coal dust. To model natural exposure, mice were housed for eight weeks in boxes containing this mixture as bedding after which, they were euthanized and blood and tissue samples were collected. Real time PCR analysis revealed an increase in Cyp1A1 mRNA for living on sand with coal dust concentrations greater than 2% compared to mice living on sand without coal dust. Unexpectedly, for mice on coal dust-polluted sand, Sod1, Scd1 and Nqo1 hepatic mRNA were downregulated. The Comet assay in peripheral blood cells and the micronucleus test in blood smears, showed a significant potential genotoxic effect only at the highest coal dust concentration. Histopathological analysis revealed vascular congestion and peribronchial inflammation in the lungs. A dose-response relationship for the presence of hepatic steatosis, vacuolization and nuclei enlargements was observed in the exposed animals. The data suggest living on a soil polluted with coal dust induces molecular, cellular and histopathological changes in mice. Accordingly, the proposed model can be used to identify deleterious effects of exposure to coal dust deposited in soils that may pose health risks for surrounding wildlife populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Coal sector model: Source data on coal for the energy and power evaluation program (ENPEP)

    Suwala, W [Mineral and Energy Economy Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland)

    1997-09-01

    Coal is the major primary energy source in Poland and this circumstances requires that the data on coal supply for use in energy planning models should be prepared properly. Economic sectors` development depends on many factors which are usually considered in energy planning models. Thus, data on the development of such sectors as coal mining should be consistent with the economic assumptions made in the energy planning model. Otherwise, coal data could bias the results of the energy planning model. The coal mining and coal distribution models which have been developed at the Polish Academy of Sciences could provide proper coal data of use in ENPEP and other energy planning models. The coal mining model optimizes the most important decisions related to coal productions, such as coal mines development, retirement of non-profitable mines, and construction of new mines. The model uses basic data forecasts of coal mine costs and coal production. Other factors such as demand for coal, world coal prices, etc., are parameters which constitute constraints and requirements for the coal mining development. The output of the model is the amount of coal produced and supply curves for different coal types. Such data are necessary for the coal distribution model and could also be used by ENPEP. This paper describes the model, its structure and how the results of the model could serve as coal-related data for ENPEP. Improvement of some input data forms of the BALANCE module of ENPEP are also suggested in order to facilitate data preparation. (author). 7 figs.

  5. Coal sector model: Source data on coal for the energy and power evaluation program (ENPEP)

    Suwala, W.

    1997-01-01

    Coal is the major primary energy source in Poland and this circumstances requires that the data on coal supply for use in energy planning models should be prepared properly. Economic sectors' development depends on many factors which are usually considered in energy planning models. Thus, data on the development of such sectors as coal mining should be consistent with the economic assumptions made in the energy planning model. Otherwise, coal data could bias the results of the energy planning model. The coal mining and coal distribution models which have been developed at the Polish Academy of Sciences could provide proper coal data of use in ENPEP and other energy planning models. The coal mining model optimizes the most important decisions related to coal productions, such as coal mines development, retirement of non-profitable mines, and construction of new mines. The model uses basic data forecasts of coal mine costs and coal production. Other factors such as demand for coal, world coal prices, etc., are parameters which constitute constraints and requirements for the coal mining development. The output of the model is the amount of coal produced and supply curves for different coal types. Such data are necessary for the coal distribution model and could also be used by ENPEP. This paper describes the model, its structure and how the results of the model could serve as coal-related data for ENPEP. Improvement of some input data forms of the BALANCE module of ENPEP are also suggested in order to facilitate data preparation. (author). 7 figs

  6. Mice housed on coal dust-contaminated sand: A model to evaluate the impacts of coal mining on health

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina, E-mail: kcaballerog@unicartagena.edu.co; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus, E-mail: joliverov@unicartagena.edu.co

    2016-03-01

    Coal dust is the most important air pollutant in coal mining in regards to producing deleterious health effects. It permeates the surrounding environment threatening public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects associated with exposure to sand contaminated with coal dust particles below 38 μm in diameter, obtained from a mineral sample collected in the largest coal mine in South America, La Loma, Cesar, Colombia. Sterilized sand was spiked with coal dust to obtain concentrations ranging from zero to 4% coal dust. To model natural exposure, mice were housed for eight weeks in boxes containing this mixture as bedding after which, they were euthanized and blood and tissue samples were collected. Real time PCR analysis revealed an increase in Cyp1A1 mRNA for living on sand with coal dust concentrations greater than 2% compared to mice living on sand without coal dust. Unexpectedly, for mice on coal dust-polluted sand, Sod1, Scd1 and Nqo1 hepatic mRNA were downregulated. The Comet assay in peripheral blood cells and the micronucleus test in blood smears, showed a significant potential genotoxic effect only at the highest coal dust concentration. Histopathological analysis revealed vascular congestion and peribronchial inflammation in the lungs. A dose–response relationship for the presence of hepatic steatosis, vacuolization and nuclei enlargements was observed in the exposed animals. The data suggest living on a soil polluted with coal dust induces molecular, cellular and histopathological changes in mice. Accordingly, the proposed model can be used to identify deleterious effects of exposure to coal dust deposited in soils that may pose health risks for surrounding wildlife populations. - Highlights: • Mice were exposed to coal dust-contaminated sand. • mRNA Markers for PAH exposure, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress increased. • ALT activity in plasma increased at the highest exposure to coal dust. • Liver tissues of exposed

  7. Evaluation of coal bed methane potential of coal seams of Sawang ...

    This analysis shows that the maximum methane gas adsorbed in the coal sample CG-81 is 17 m3/t (Std. daf), at maximum pressure of 5.92 MPa ... vast coal reserves are ideal reservoirs for the gen- eration and accumulation of CBM. ... of gases in coal seams, such as, compression as free gas in the pore spaces, condensed ...

  8. Use of infrared thermography for the evaluation of heat losses during coal storage

    Fierro, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Romero, C.; Andrés, J.M.; Pierrot, A.; Gómez-Landesa, E.; Arriaga, A.; Schmal, D.

    1999-01-01

    The exothermic processes during coal storage reduce the calorific value of the coal which in turn results in financial losses. An accurate and easy calculation of the losses may be an efficient tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the measures taken to reduce the spontaneous heating of coal and to

  9. An evaluation of fracture toughness of bituminous coal

    Pathan, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The role of fracture mechanics in the design of rock structures is vitally important. However, because of the complexities of rock structures and lack of understanding of the fundamentals of the failure mechanism, it has become customary to use the engineering properties approach in the design of stable rock structures. Recently considerable attention has been given and attempts are being made to apply the fracture mechanics approach to the design of safe mining structures. In mining engineering the fracture mechanics may be applied to calculate the formation of fracture zones around mine opening, thus estimating support requirements and formulating guide lines for the selection of mine roadway support system. The research work presented here is concerned with the evaluation of fracture toughness of coal under laboratory conditions. Diametral compression test method is used to determine the fracture toughness parameter of coal in the opening model failure. The effect of crack length and dimensionless crack length on the fracture toughness was studied also. A laboratory investigation of fracture toughness of coal in tensile mode failure has led to the conclusion that fracture toughness could be treated as a material property. (author)

  10. Comprehensive evaluation on low-carbon development of coal enterprise groups.

    Wang, Bang-Jun; Wu, Yan-Fang; Zhao, Jia-Lu

    2017-12-19

    Scientifically evaluating the level of low-carbon development in terms of theoretical and practical significance is extremely important to coal enterprise groups for implementing national energy-related systems. This assessment can assist in building institutional mechanisms that are conducive for the economic development of coal business cycle and energy conservation as well as promoting the healthy development of coal enterprises to realize coal scientific development and resource utilization. First, by adopting systematic analysis method, this study builds low-carbon development evaluation index system for coal enterprise groups. Second, to determine the weight serving as guideline and criteria of the index, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is applied using integrated linear weighted sum method to evaluate the level of low-carbon development of coal enterprise groups. Evaluation is also performed by coal enterprise groups, and the process comprises field analysis and evaluation. Finally, industrial policies are proposed regarding the development of low-carbon coal conglomerate strategies and measures. This study aims mainly to guide the low-carbon development of coal enterprise groups, solve the problem of coal mining and the destruction of ecological environment, support the conservation of raw materials and various resources, and achieve the sustainable development of the coal industry.

  11. Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace

    Maria de Lourdes Ilha Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

  12. Evaluation study on rationalization of coal handling in snowy area

    Suesada, Yasuhiko; Yamagata, Keisuke; Kuwahara, Mitsuhiro

    1987-09-25

    The adhesion of coal to the coal handling facilities in large cool-fired power plants in the snowy area was investigated for siting them in the future. The amount of water derived from melted snow in addition to that from the rain fall were measured and the statistical amounts of rain and snow falls for the past ten years were examined. Then the amount of water derived from melted snow was calculated by regression. The result indicates that the amount of rain fall in summer is larger than that from melted snow. The moisture content of coal in a coal yard reaches the moisture content at which the coal readily adheres to the facilities after snow fall and it penetrates the pile of coal to the bottom with the lapse of time. The penetrating rate of it largely depends upon the particle distribution of coal as well as the ranks of coal. The adhesion of coal to the coal handling facilities is caused mainly by the amount of dust coal and the moisture content of coal. The amount of adhered coal estimated from the shear properties qualitatively agrees with the experimental result using a model of chute. Adding the dusting inhibitor exceeding the normal value increases the amount of of adhesion of coal. (13 figs, 3 tabs)

  13. Evaluation of ecological consequences of coal mine closure in Kuzbass coal region

    Schastlivcev, E.L.; Barannic, L.P.; Ovdenko, B.I.; Bykov, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Kemerovo region (otherwise called Kuzbass) is the most industrially developed and urbanized region of Siberia, Russia. The main industrial branch of Kuzbass is coal output. Open pits and underground mines of Kuzbass produce about 40% of total amount of coal in Russia and more than 70% of coking coal. In the current process of the coal industry's restructuring, the closing of many unprofitable coal enterprises is associated with radical changes in their influence on the environment. The task to provide a probable forecast of ecological consequence of mine closure is both practically significant and complicated. In order to find some scientific approach to solve named problem the authors made in the paper the first attempts to analyze of accessible closed mines data in Kuzbass, to classify coal mines (working and closed) with respect to there negative influence on soil, water and atmosphere and to obtain some numerical estimates of possible bounds of this influence. 7 refs

  14. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix G: Commercial design and technology evaluation

    1980-01-01

    A technology evaluation of five coal gasifier systems (Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Babcock and Wilcox, Lurgi and BGC/Lurgi) and procedures and criteria for evaluating competitive commercial coal gasification designs is presented. The technology evaluation is based upon the plant designs and cost estimates developed by the BDM-Mittelhauser team.

  15. Environmental evaluation for sustainable development of coal mining in Qijiang, Western China

    Si, Hu; Bi, Haipu [College of Resource and Environment Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Key Lab for the Exploitation of Southwestern Resource and the Environment Disaster Control Engineering, the Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Chunhe [Key Lab for the Exploitation of Southwestern Resource and the Environment Disaster Control Engineering, the Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2010-03-01

    Environmental degradation associated with mining activities may seriously threaten the health of local people and the sustainable development of coal mining, which may need to be addressed by improved environmental evaluation system. Based on analyzing environmental pollution from coal mining and the increasing need for raw coal, this paper establishes an environmental evaluation system, covering environmental situation, resource protection and economic benefit, for sustainable development in coal mining. This paper proposes methods for calculating the weight of each index and the environmental sustainable capability taking into account the method of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Finally, the index system is used to evaluate the environmental sustainability of coal mining in the Qijiang area, Western China, which has demonstrated the validity of the index system. It may also be useful as a tool to assess the environmental impact of mining areas, as well as a measure to promote sustainable development in coal mining. (author)

  16. Geological evaluation on productibility of coal seam gas; Coal seam gas no chishitsugakuteki shigen hyoka ni tsuite

    Fujii, K [University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1996-09-01

    Coal seam gas is also called coal bed methane gas, indicating the gas existing in coal beds. The gas is distinguished from the oil field based gas, and also called non-conventional type gas. Its confirmed reserve is estimated to be 24 trillion m {sup 3}, with the trend of its development seen worldwide as utilization of unused resource. For the necessity of cultivating relevant technologies in Japan, this paper considers processes of production, movement, stockpiling, and accumulation of the gas. Its productibility is controlled by thickness of a coal bed, degree of coalification, gas content, permeability, groundwater flow, and deposition structure. Gas generation potential is evaluated by existing conditions of coal and degree of coalification, and methane production by biological origin and thermal origin. Economically viable methane gas is mainly of the latter origin. Evaluating gas reserve potential requires identification of the whole mechanism of adsorption, accumulation and movement of methane gas. The gas is expected of effect on environmental aspects in addition to availability as utilization of unused energy. 5 figs.

  17. Evaluation of a Compact Coaxial Underground Coal Gasification System Inside an Artificial Coal Seam

    Fa-qiang Su

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Underground Coal Gasification (UCG system is a clean technology for obtaining energy from coal. The coaxial UCG system is supposed to be compact and flexible in order to adapt to complicated geological conditions caused by the existence of faults and folds in the ground. In this study, the application of a coaxial UCG system with a horizontal well is discussed, by means of an ex situ model UCG experiment in a large-scale simulated coal seam with dimensions of 550 × 600 × 2740 mm. A horizontal well with a 45-mm diameter and a 2600-mm length was used as an injection/production well. During the experiment, changes in temperature field and product gas compositions were observed when changing the outlet position of the injection pipe. It was found that the UCG reactor is unstable and expands continuously due to fracturing activity caused by coal crack initiation and extension under the influence of thermal stress. Therefore, acoustic emission (AE is considered an effective tool to monitor fracturing activities and visualize the gasification zone of coal. The results gathered from monitoring of AEs agree with the measured data of temperatures; the source location of AE was detected around the region where temperature increased. The average calorific value of the produced gas was 6.85 MJ/Nm3, and the gasification efficiency, defined as the conversion efficiency of the gasified coal to syngas, was 65.43%, in the whole experimental process. The study results suggest that the recovered coal energy from a coaxial UCG system is comparable to that of a conventional UCG system. Therefore, a coaxial UCG system may be a feasible option to utilize abandoned underground coal resources without mining.

  18. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  19. Coal Combustion Residual Beneficial Use Evaluation: Fly Ash Concrete and FGD Gypsum Wallboard

    This page contains documents related to the evaluation of coal combustion residual beneficial use of fly ash concrete and FGD gypsum wallboard including the evaluation itself and the accompanying appendices

  20. Investigation of the wettability of ammonium nitrate prills

    Kwok, Q.S.M.; Jones, D.E.G.; Kruus, P.

    2003-03-01

    The wetting characteristics of a variety of powders or porous materials can be determined through capillary penetration methods. Wettability of ammonium nitrate (AN) prills determines, in large part, the physical stability and detonation behaviour of ANFO (admixtures of AN prills with fuel oil). This study compared the wettabilities of a variety of AN prills with alkanes and fuel oil. Complementary characterization studies using scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry were also performed to justify the differences in wettability. Several factors affected wettability, including surface tension, viscosity, density, purity, polarity and polarizability of the liquid used. Surface composition, porosity, bulk density, particle size and moisture content of the AN samples were also contributing factors to wettability. The explosive-grade (porous) AN prill demonstrated a better wettability due the combined effects of these factors. Thermodesorption of octane from various AN prills was examined using high-resolution thermogravimetry. The adsorption capacity, porosity and specific surface area of 3 different AN prills were evaluated from the mass-loss curves to reflect the evaporation of the excess liquid and the thermodesorption of octane from the pores and the surface of the AN prills. The amount of octane desorbed in these steps was correlated with the volume in the pores and the quantity adsorbed on the surface. The porosity and surface area adsorption capacity of an AN prill was then estimated. 15 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  1. Log evaluation of sub-bituminous coals in Magallanes, Chile

    Weltz, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    In coal exploration a drilling program is normally used for coal inquest through core analysis, with a high cost and operating time. However, in many cases, there is poor cores recovery due to operating procedures and/or formation conditions which leads to the determination of parameters non-representative of the coal seam. The cost and operating time can be minimized through the use of logs which also represent a continuous and in situ sampling. In the case of sub-bituminous coals, the analysis through logs is more complex due to the high content of clay, which masks the presence of water. This paper describes the analysis of sub-bituminous coals in Magallanes-Chile. The main coal seam components are: coal, clay, secondary quartz and water. An interpretation system using the density log, gamma ray, sonic and microlog, based on rho/sub B/-GR and rho/sub B/--Δ/sub T/ cross plots, permits to know the weight percentages of the following elements: total carbon, ash, moisture, which form the main local coal parameters. Empirical relationships permit us to obtain also the heating value and an estimate strength index to elastic-dynamic forces. The results obtained agree within 3 percent with the Laboratory cores analysis. The method is processed through a sequence of simple computer programs for IBM-360

  2. Evaluation criteria for enhanced solar–coal hybrid power plant performance

    Zhao, Yawen; Hong, Hui; Jin, Hongguang

    2014-01-01

    Attention has been directed toward hybridizing solar energy with fossil power plants since the 1990s to improve reliability and efficiency. Appropriate evaluation criteria were important in the design and optimization of solar–fossil hybrid systems. Two new criteria to evaluate the improved thermodynamic performances in a solar hybrid power plant were developed in this study. Correlations determined the main factors influencing the improved thermodynamic performances. The proposed criteria can be used to effectively integrate solar–coal hybridization systems. Typical 100 MW–1000 MW coal-fired power plants hybridized with solar heat at approximately 300 °C, which was used to preheat the feed water before entering the boiler, were evaluated using the criteria. The integration principle of solar–coal hybrid systems was also determined. The proposed evaluation criteria may be simple and reasonable for solar–coal hybrid systems with multi-energy input, thus directing system performance enhancement. - Highlights: • New criteria to evaluate the solar hybrid power plant were developed. • Typical solar–coal hybrid power plants were evaluated using the criteria. • The integration principle of solar–coal hybrid systems was determined. • The benefits of the solar–coal hybrid system are enhanced at lower solar radiation

  3. Evaluation of Ecological Environmental Quality in a Coal Mining Area by Modelling Approach

    Chaodong Yan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the effective method of the comprehensive evaluation of ecological environmental quality in a coal mining area. Firstly, we analyzed the ecological environmental effect of the coal mining area according to Pigovian Tax theory and, according to the results of the analysis and the demand for the selection of evaluation indices by the comprehensive evaluation, built the corresponding comprehensive evaluation index system. We then used the correlation function method to determine the relative weights of each index. We determined the basic standards of a comprehensive evaluation of ecological environmental quality in a coal mining area according to the actual situation of ecological environmental quality assessments in coal mining areas in our country and the relevant provisions of the government. On this basis, we built the two-level extension comprehensive evaluation model for the evaluation of ecological environmental quality in mining areas. Finally, we chose a certain coal mining area of Yanzhou Coal Mining Company Limited as the specific case. We used the relevant statistic data, technical and economic indices and the extension evaluation model to do the applied research of the comprehensive evaluation and tested the effectiveness of the comprehensive evaluation model.

  4. Measurements of capillary pressure and electric permittivity of gas-water systems in porous media at elevated pressures : Application to geological storage of CO2 in aquifers and wetting behavior in coal

    Plug, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in aquifers and coal layers is a promising technique to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Considering the reservoir properties, e.g. wettability, heterogeneity and the caprocks sealing capacity, the capillary pressure is an important measure to evaluate the efficiency, the

  5. Demonstration of the Viability and Evaluation of Production Costs for Biomass-Infused Coal Briquettes

    Kamshad, Kourosh [Coaltek Incorporated, Tucker, GA (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This project was split into four main areas, first to identify the best combination of coal and biomass, second, create and test lab quantity of preferred combinations, Third, create a sizeable quantity for larger scale handling and consuming analysis and fourth, to provide analysis for a commercial scale production capacity. Samples of coal and biomass were collected. Five coals, representing the three major coal ranks, were collected including one bituminous, two sub-bituminous, and two lignite samples. In addition, three square bales (~50 lbs/bale) each of corn Stover and switch grass were collected with one bale of each sample processed through a hammer mill to approximately -5 mesh. A third sample of sawdust was collected once experimentation began at the University of Kentucky. Multiple combinations of coal and biomass; coal, biomass, with biomass binder, were tested until a formulation was identified that could meet the requirement criteria. Based on the results of the binderless briquetting evaluations, the CS/Sub-bit combinations was selected for extended evaluation at a 10% biomass addition rate while the WS/Bitum combination was selected for extended evaluation at a 30% biomass-addition rate. With the final results of the selection process complete, the CoalTek continuous production pilot plant in Tucker GA was outfitted with the specialized blending equipment and two 1/4 ton production runs of biomass and binder subbituminous coal briquettes were completed. These briquettes were later used for a calorific test burn at the University of North Dakota. The first formulation included subbituminous coal, corn stover and a corn starch binder the second formulation included subbituminous coal, wheat stover and corn starch binder.

  6. Briquetting of coal fines and sawdust. Part 1: binder and briquetting-parameters evaluations

    D. Taulbee; D.P. Patil; Rick Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2009-01-15

    Various technical and economic aspects relating to the briquetting of fine coal with sawdust have been evaluated with the results for two segments of that study presented here: binder and briquetting-parameter evaluations. Approximately 50 potential binder formulations were subjected to a series of screening evaluations to identify three formulations that were the most cost effective for briquetting fine coal with sawdust. Two of the binders, guar gum and wheat starch, were selected as most suitable for the pulverized coal market while the third formulation, lignosulfonate/lime, was targeted for the stoker market. Following binder selection, a number of briquetting parameters including binder and sawdust concentration, sawdust type, briquetting pressure and dwell time, coal and sawdust particle size, clay content, moisture content, and cure temperature and cure time were evaluated. Briquetting pressure and dwell time have the least impact while binder and sawdust concentrations, sawdust type, and curing conditions exerted the greatest influence on briquette quality. 7 refs.

  7. Experimental evaluation of main emissions during coal processing waste combustion.

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Legros, Jean C; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2018-02-01

    The total volume of the coal processing wastes (filter cakes) produced by Russia, China, and India is as high as dozens of millions of tons per year. The concentrations of CO and CO 2 in the emissions from the combustion of filter cakes have been measured directly for the first time. They are the biggest volume of coal processing wastes. There have been many discussions about using these wastes as primary or secondary components of coal-water slurries (CWS) and coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Boilers have already been operationally tested in Russia for the combustion of CWSP based on filter cakes. In this work, the concentrations of hazardous emissions have been measured at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1000°С. The produced CO and CO 2 concentrations are shown to be practically constant at high temperatures (over 900°С) for all the coal processing wastes under study. Experiments have shown the feasibility to lowering the combustion temperatures of coal processing wastes down to 750-850°С. This provides sustainable combustion and reduces the CO and CO 2 emissions 1.2-1.7 times. These relatively low temperatures ensure satisfactory environmental and energy performance of combustion. Using CWS and CWSP instead of conventional solid fuels significantly reduces NO x and SO x emissions but leaves CO and CO 2 emissions practically at the same level as coal powder combustion. Therefore, the environmentally friendly future (in terms of all the main atmospheric emissions: CO, CO 2 , NO x , and SO x ) of both CWS and CWSP technologies relies on low-temperature combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of paranasal sinus mucosa in coal worker's pneumoconiosis - A computed tomographic study

    Ozdemir, H.; Altin, R.; Mahmutyazicioglu, K.; Kart, L.; Uzun, L.; Savranlar, A.; Davcanci, H.; Gundogdu, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2004-09-01

    Objective: To evaluate by computed tomographic scanning the paranasal mucosal changes of coal workers with and without pneumoconiosis. Methods: Examination of images and scores from paranasal computed tomographic scans. The study participants were 26 coal workers with pneumoconiosis, 29 coal workers without pneumoconiosis, and 20 controls. All were men. The extent and patterns of inflamatory paranasal sinus disease were evaluated on computed, tomographic scans by 2 radiologists using the terminology and definitions of Newman and associates. Results: Interobserver agreement for the presence of abnormalities was from good to excellent (K, 0.63-0.89). The mucosal scores of individuals and groups were higher for coal workers than for control subjects. Both scores were significantly higher in the pneumoconiosis group than in the 2 other groups. Conclusions: This study shows that paranasal sinuses were affected more severely in coal workers than in control subjects. In coal workers with pneumoconiosis, the affection was most severe. The relationship between coal dust exposure and paranasal mucosal changes needs further study.

  9. Evaluation of Suitability of Selected Set of Coal Plant Sites for Repowering with Small Modular Reactors

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Copinger, Donald A [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2013-03-01

    This report summarizes the approach that ORNL developed for screening a sample set of small coal stations for possible repowering with SMRs; the methodology employed, including spatial modeling; and initial results for these sample plants. The objective in conducting this type of siting evaluation is to demonstrate the capability to characterize specific sample coal plant sites to identify any particular issues associated with repowering existing coal stations with SMRs using OR-SAGE; it is not intended to be a definitive assessment per se as to the absolute suitability of any particular site.

  10. Evaluation of alternative Plutella xylostella control by two Isaria fumosorosea conidial formulations - oil-based formulation and wettable powder - combined with Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Nian, Xiao-Ge; He, Yu-Rong; Lu, Li-Hua; Zhao, Rui

    2015-12-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for controlling the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The control efficacy of two Isaria fumosorosea conidial formulations - wettable powder and oil-based formulation - combined with Bacillus thuringiensis against P. xylostella was tested. In the laboratory, the combined application of two pathogens increased larval mortality either in an additive or a synergistic way. P. xylostella larvae treated with oil-based formulation died sooner than larvae infected with wettable powder. For pot and field experiments, each formulation was applied alone or combined with B. thuringiensis 668 µg mL(-1) , and then larval mortality, pupation rate, adult emergence rate, female longevity and fecundity were recorded. In pot experiments there was no evidence of any antagonistic effects between the two pathogens. Combined application of B. thuringiensis and a high concentration of the two I. fumosorosea formulations resulted in higher mortality (84.4 and 86.2%) with minimum pupation (15.6 and 11.9%) and adult emergence rates (8.7 and 7.0%). Female longevity and fecundity were significantly reduced by the two formulations at high concentration compared with the control. Similar results were also observed in field experiments. The combined application of I. fumosorosea and B. thuringiensis is a promising alternative strategy for P. xylostella control. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Evaluation of remediation of coal mining wastewater by chitosan microspheres using biomarkers

    Benassi, J.C.; Laus, R.; Geremias, R.; Lima, P.L.; Menezes, C.T.B.; Laranjeira, M.C.M.; Wilhelm, D.; Favere, V.T.; Pedrosa, R.C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the remediation of mining wastewater effluents by chitosan microspheres using biomarkers of exposure and effect. DNA damage (Comet assay) and several biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as lipoperoxidation levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), were measured in blood and liver of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed for 7, 15, and 30 days to dechlorinated tap water, 10% coal mining wastewater (CMW), and coal mining wastewater treated with chitosan microspheres (RCM). The results obtained indicated that the use of oxidative stress biomarkers were useful tools for the toxicity evaluation of coal mining effluents and also suggest that chitosan microspheres may be used as an alternative approach for remediation of coal mining wastewaters.

  12. The evaluation of properties of coal mass from the viewpoint of environment

    Foniok, R.; Lukes, M. [Research Mining Inst., Ostrava-Radvanice (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This paper deals with the evaluation of several various coal kinds from the Czech coalfields from the viewpoint of the development of thermal processes in coal mass due to their tendency towards self- ignition during storing. In such a case that no self-ignition during storing occurs, gaseous products are liberated into air, the quantity and composition of which depend upon fuel type and its temperature as well. From the environmental viewpoint, substances washed from stored coal are of a certain interest, too. In accordance with this fact, the importance of measures against self-heating of stored coal mass and the importance of a detailed observation of coal quality are concluded. The tables, which compare various coal kinds from the viewpoint of their behavior at self-ignition processes, are the integral part of this presented paper. Our greatest attention is paid to both the quantity and composition of gases being liberated in dependence upon the temperature of coal mass, and at its crushing with regard to selected methods and means of milling circuits before and explosion. Oxygen sorption by means of coal mass is also observed, being of a great importance for self-inertization of closed tanks. All the above-mentioned processes are demonstrated in form of graphic plots. Qualitative signs of coal mass are the basic means for its assessment from the viewpoint of emissions at burning/combustion, and the evaluation of explosive properties. A great attention is paid to explosion-proof means being produced in the Czech Republic. These means can be used for protection of milling circuits of power plants and heating plants or for safety systems of combustion chamber by means of insulation to secondary air main. Explosion-proof quci-acting valves, a special type of safety membrane and device for explosion suppression nip in the bud do represent the latest explosion-proof means.

  13. Evaluation of thermal degradation of coal with residual salts

    Plevová, Eva; Kaloč, M.; Šugárková, Věra; Vaculíková, Lenka; Vallová, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2010), s. 15-19 ISSN 0976-6294 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/08/1398; GA ČR GP105/07/P416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : chlorides * impregnation * coal Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  14. Theoretical-probability evaluation of the fire hazard of coal accumulations

    Sikora, F F

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation is suggested for the fire hazard of coal accumulations, based on determining the probability of an endogenic fire. This probability is computed by using the statistical characteristics of the temperature distribution of spontaneous heating in large accumulations, and the criteria of Gluzberg's fire hazard that is determined by the coal's physico-chemical properties, oxygen concentration, and the size of the accumulations. 4 references.

  15. Restoration of abandoned mine lands through cooperative coal resource evaluations

    Hoskins, D.M.; Smith, M.

    1996-01-01

    The public reclamation cost of reclaiming all of Pennsylvania's abandoned mine lands is estimated at $15 billion. Drainage from abandoned mines poses another $5 billion water pollution clean-up problem. Although it is unlikely that public reclamation alone could ever tackle these problems, much can be done to alleviate the nuisances through the remining of previously mined areas to recover remaining reserves, restore the land and improve water quality in the same process. Remining of priority areas is encouraged through a new Pennsylvania policy which provides incentives to mining companies. One incentive, initiated under Pennsylvania's comprehensive mine reclamation strategy, is to identify and geologically map reminable coal resources in selected watersheds, and then to expedite mine permitting in these watersheds. At present, two such priority watersheds, Little Toby Creek in Elk County and Tangascootak Creek in Clinton County, are the focus of geologic map compilation based on recent quadrangle mapping, or new, directed, geologic mapping, including new research core drilling to establish the geologic stratigraphic framework. In order to maximize environmental benefits the comprehensive mine reclamation strategy identifies watersheds which are affected by acid mine drainage (AMD), but that are reasonably capable of restoration, if sufficient coal reserves remain. Pennsylvania's geochemical quality database of rock overburden, in combination with detailed coal resource mapping by the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, and the cooperation of coal companies and leaseholders, is being used by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to identify and design remining projects which will not only allow the recovery of coal resources, but will also improve the water quality through a variety of innovative mining techniques

  16. Evaluation of environment benefits based on new-type mining of coal resources

    Xu, Futong; Ren, Zaixiang

    2017-08-01

    According to the energy structure characteristics in China, this paper analyzed the current situation of liquefaction and gasification exploitation of coal as an emerging mining method. Simultaneously, setting the UCG (UCG) as an example, this paper analyzed the factors impacting the new-type mining method of coal resources and the mining damages, obtaining that the main damages of UCG include surface subsidence, groundwater pollution and other pollution. This paper, which proposed to evaluate the environmental benefits of the new-type mining method, established a evaluation system of environmental benefits of UCG and adopted fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, obtaining four-class comprehensive evaluation indexes of the new-type mining method.

  17. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    1980-11-01

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  18. Preparation and evaluation of coal extracts as precursors for carbon and graphite products

    Zondlo, J.W.; Stiller, A.W.; Stansberry, P.G. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    A coal extraction process coupled with coal hydrotreatment has been shown capable of producing suitable precursors for a variety of commercially important carbon and graphite products. The N-methylpyrolidone (NMP) extracts of hydrotreated coals have been analytically and chemically characterized and shown to have properties acceptable for use as binder and impregnation pitch. Mesophase formation studies have demonstrated their capability for producing both needle and anode grade coke as well as precursors for mesophase pitch fibers. A graphite artifact has been produced using a coal extract as a binder and coke derived from the extract as a filler. Further evaluation of the extract materials is being carried out by industrial members of the Carbon Products Consortium.

  19. EVALUATION OF BIOMASS AND COAL CO-GASIFICATION OF BRAZILIAN FEEDSTOCK USING A CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM MODEL

    R. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Coal and biomass are energy sources with great potential for use in Brazil. Coal-biomass co-gasification enables the combination of the positive characteristics of each fuel, besides leading to a cleaner use of coal. The present study evaluates the potential of co-gasification of binary coal-biomass blends using sources widely available in Brazil. This analysis employs computational simulations using a reliable thermodynamic equilibrium model. Favorable operational conditions at high temperatures are determined in order to obtain gaseous products suitable for energy cogeneration and chemical synthesis. This study shows that blends with biomass ratios of 5% and equivalence ratios ≤ 0.3 lead to high cold gas efficiencies. Suitable gaseous products for chemical synthesis were identified at biomass ratios ≤ 35% and moisture contents ≥ 40%. Formation of undesirable nitrogen and sulfur compounds was also analyzed.

  20. Evaluation of the coal properties of Norte de Santander

    1987-07-01

    The Project Characterization of Coal of Norte de Santander, concluded in the second semester of 1986 with the presentation of the 4 final reports of the participant entities: Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Bogota, Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, Instituto de Investigaciones Technologicas (I.I.T.), and Instituto de Investigaciones geologico Mineras - INGEOMINAS. In each Institution some common aspects were worked - analytic part and other specific topics, that which believes the necessity to develop a study that unified the parts worked jointly with the elaboration of a new chart of data, and it allowed this way to assemble the analytic base with the studies of some technological properties and of benefit. Initially it is made a summary of the most excellent aspects in the Geology, mining and Commercialization of the Coal of the department and later on with reference to all the available analytic information, new data were obtained with base in averages among Institutions, checkups of differing results, correlate and discard of rusty samples. For the chemical and physicochemical analyses, the plastic properties, the petrographic results, the chemical analysis of the ashes, they were made statistical and correlative new treatment discriminating against the different sectors and formations inside the area (the Formation Catatumbo was excepted). For the analyses more used as range indicators and others of quality were carried out three-dimensional graphic that summarize in a visual form the variation of the parameter through the study area and the sectors inside this being obtained the iso-values curves equally. The study of some properties of the coal related with technological processes like coking, liquefaction and of benefit they supplement the analytic characterization being able to obtain several practical conclusions as for the use of these coal and remarking some concrete problems to solve with the objective of improving the quality of the

  1. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    An updated assessment of the physico-chemical analytical methodology applicable to coal-liquefaction product streams and a review of the literature dealing with the modeling of fossil-fuel resid conversion to product oils are presented in this document. In addition, a summary is provided for the University of Delaware program conducted under this contract to develop an empirical test to determine relative resid reactivity and to construct a computer model to describe resid structure and predict reactivity.

  2. Smart Polymers with Special Wettability.

    Chang, Baisong; Zhang, Bei; Sun, Taolei

    2017-01-01

    Surface wettability plays a key role in addressing issues ranging from basic life activities to our daily life, and thus being able to control it is an attractive goal. Learning from nature, both of its structure and function, brings us much inspiration in designing smart polymers to tackle this major challenge. Life functions particularly depend on biomolecular recognition-induced interfacial properties from the aqueous phase onto either "soft" cell and tissue or "hard" inorganic bone and tooth surfaces. The driving force is noncovalent weak interactions rather than strong covalent combinations. An overview is provided of the weak interactions that perform vital actions in mediating biological processes, which serve as a basis for elaborating multi-component polymers with special wettabilities. The role of smart polymers from molecular recognitions to macroscopic properties are highlighted. The rationale is that highly selective weak interactions are capable of creating a dynamic synergetic communication in the building components of polymers. Biomolecules could selectively induce conformational transitions of polymer chains, and then drive a switching of physicochemical properties, e.g., roughness, stiffness and compositions, which are an integrated embodiment of macroscopic surface wettabilities. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. An evaluation of Substitute natural gas production from different coal gasification processes based on modeling

    Karellas, S.; Panopoulos, K.D.; Panousis, G.; Rigas, A.; Karl, J.; Kakaras, E.

    2012-01-01

    Coal and lignite will play a significant role in the future energy production. However, the technical options for the reduction of CO 2 emissions will define the extent of their share in the future energy mix. The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG) from solid fossil fuels seems to be a very attractive process: coal and lignite can be upgraded into a methane rich gas which can be transported and further used in high efficient power systems coupled with CO 2 sequestration technologies. The aim of this paper is to present a modeling analysis comparison between substitute natural gas production from coal by means of allothermal steam gasification and autothermal oxygen gasification. In order to produce SNG from syngas several unit operations are required such as syngas cooling, cleaning, potential compression and, of course, methanation reactors. Finally the gas which is produced has to be conditioned i.e. removal of unwanted species, such as CO 2 etc. The heat recovered from the overall process is utilized by a steam cycle, producing power. These processes were modeled with the computer software IPSEpro™. An energetic and exergetic analysis of the coal to SNG processes have been realized and compared. -- Highlights: ► The production of SNG from coal is examined. ► The components of the process were simulated for integrated autothermal or allothermal coal gasification to SNG. ► The energetic and exergetic evaluation of the two processes is presented.

  4. Evaluation of catalytic combustion of actual coal-derived gas

    Blanton, J. C.; Shisler, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of a Pt-Pl catalytic reactor burning coal-derived, low-Btu gas were investigated. A large matrix of test conditions was explored involving variations in fuel/air inlet temperature and velocity, reactor pressure, and combustor exit temperature. Other data recorded included fuel gas composition, reactor temperatures, and exhaust emissions. Operating experience with the reactor was satisfactory. Combustion efficiencies were quite high (over 95 percent) over most of the operating range. Emissions of NOx were quite high (up to 500 ppm V and greater), owing to the high ammonia content of the fuel gas.

  5. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    G.A. Robbins; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes

    1999-01-01

    This is the first Annual Technical Report of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. Activities from the first three quarters of the fiscal 1998 year were reported previously as Quarterly Technical Progress Reports (DOE/PC93054-57, DOE/PC93054-61, and DOE/PC93054-66). Activities for the period July 1 through September 30, 1998, are reported here. This report describes CONSOL's characterization of process-derived samples obtained from HTI Run PB-08. These samples were derived from operations with Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal, simulated mixed waste plastics, and pyrolysis oils derived from waste plastics and waste tires. Comparison of characteristics among the PB-08 samples was made to ascertain the effects of feed composition changes. A comparison also was made to samples from a previous test (Run PB-06) made in the same processing unit, with Black Thunder Mine coal, and in one run condition with co-fed mixed plastics

  6. Application of House of Quality in evaluation of low rank coal pyrolysis polygeneration technologies

    Yang, Qingchun; Yang, Siyu; Qian, Yu; Kraslawski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • House of Quality method was used for assessment of coal pyrolysis polygeneration technologies. • Low rank coal pyrolysis polygeneration processes based on solid heat carrier, moving bed and fluidized bed were evaluated. • Technical and environmental criteria for the assessment of technologies were used. • Low rank coal pyrolysis polygeneration process based on a fluidized bed is the best option. - Abstract: Increasing interest in low rank coal pyrolysis (LRCP) polygeneration has resulted in the development of a number of different technologies and approaches. Evaluation of LRCP processes should include not only conventional efficiency, economic and environmental assessments, but also take into consideration sustainability aspects. As a result of the many complex variables involved, selection of the most suitable LRCP technology becomes a challenging task. This paper applies a House of Quality method in comprehensive evaluation of LRCP. A multi-level evaluation model addressing 19 customer needs and analyzing 10 technical characteristics is developed. Using the evaluation model, the paper evaluates three LRCP technologies, which are based on solid heat carrier, moving bed and fluidized bed concepts, respectively. The results show that the three most important customer needs are level of technical maturity, wastewater emissions, and internal rate of return. The three most important technical characteristics are production costs, investment costs and waste emissions. On the basis of the conducted analysis, it is concluded that the LRCP process utilizing a fluidized bed approach is the optimal alternative studied

  7. Wettability changes in polyether impression materials subjected to immersion disinfection.

    Shetty, Shweta; Kamat, Giridhar; Shetty, Rajesh

    2013-07-01

    Disinfection of impression materials prevents cross-contamination; however, the disinfectants may alter the wettability property. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the wettability changes of polyether impression material after immersing in four different chemical disinfectant solutions for a period of 10 min and 30 min, respectively. A total of 45 samples of polyether dental impression material (Impregum soft, 3MESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) were randomly divided into nine groups with five specimens each. Each specimen was disc shaped, flat of 32 mm diameter and 3 mm thickness. The samples were immersed in four disinfectant solutions: 2% Glutaraldehyde, 5% sodium hypochlorite, 0.05% iodophor, and 5.25% phenol for 10 min and 30 min, respectively. The control was without disinfection. Wettability of the samples was assessed by measuring the contact angle by using the Telescopic Goniometer. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (Fisher's test) and Tukey's post hoc test for multiple comparisons at 5% level of significance. The contact angle of 20.21° ± 0.22° were recorded in the control samples. After 10 min, the samples that were immersed in 5% sodium hypochlorite and 5.25% phenol showed significant statistical increase in the contact angle as compared to the control (P polyether material. Within the limitations of the study, 2% glutaraldehyde proved safe for 10 min of immersion disinfection while 0.05% iodophor holds promise as an effective disinfectant without affecting the wettability of the material.

  8. Coal/Biomass-to-Liquids Demonstration Testing for DLA Energy: Report on Project Tests, Evaluations, and Recommendations

    2015-08-20

    Report January 2010-August 2015 Coal/ Biomass -to-Liquids Demonstration Testing for DLA Energy Report on Project Tests, Evaluations, and...produced commercially from coal and biomass mixtures while meeting the requirements of Section 526, which requires that GHG emissions from...gasification equipment, coals, and biomass used, and reports and analyzes the test results. Additionally, the team worked with DOE NETL to conduct

  9. Evaluation methods of solar contribution in solar aided coal-fired power generation system

    Zhu, Yong; Zhai, Rongrong; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Yongping; Yan, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Five methods for evaluating solar contribution are analyzed. • Method based on the second law of thermodynamics and thermal economics is more suitable for SACPGS. • Providing reliable reference for the formulation of feed-in tariff policies in China. - Abstract: Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize solar thermal energy to couple with coal-fired power plants of various types by adopting characteristics of different thermal needs of plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will become unnecessary, meanwhile the intermittent and unsteady nature of power generation can be avoided. In addition, large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and energy saving can be achieved. With the ever-deepening analyses of solar aided coal-fired power plants, the contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power is worth further exploration. In this paper, five common evaluation methods of solar contribution are analyzed, and solar aided coal-fired power plants of 1000 MW, 600 MW and 330 MW are studied with these five methods in a comparative manner. Therefore, this study can serve as a theoretical reference for future research of evaluation methods and subsidies for new energy

  10. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Heunisch, G.W.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    Described in this report are the following activities: CONSOL characterized process stream samples from HTI Run ALC-2, in which Black Thunder Mine coal was liquefied using four combinations of dispersed catalyst precursors. Oil assays were completed on the HTI Run PB-05 product blend. Fractional distillation of the net product oil of HTI Run POC-1 was completed. CONSOL completed an evaluation of the potential for producing alkylphenyl ethers from coal liquefaction phenols. At the request of DOE, various coal liquid samples and relevant characterization data were supplied to the University of West Virginia and the Federal Energy Technology Center. The University of Delaware is conducting resid reactivity tests and is completing the resid reaction computer model. The University of Delaware was instructed on the form in which the computer model is to be delivered to CONSOL.

  11. An attempt to evaluate some regression models used for radiometric ash determination in the brown coal

    Karamuz, S.; Urbanski, P.; Antoniak, W.; Wagner, D.

    1984-01-01

    Five different regression models for determination of the ash as well as iron and calcium contents in brown coal using fluorescence and scattering of X-rays have been evaluated. Calculations were done using experimental results obtained from the natural brown coal samples to which appropriate quantities of iron, calcium and silicon oxides were added. The secondary radiation was excited by Pu-238 source and detected by X-ray argone filled proportional counter. The investigation has shown the superiority of the multiparametric models over the radiometric ash determination in the pit-coal applying aluminium filter for the correction of the influence of iron content on the intensity of scattered radiation. Standard error of estimation for the best algorithm is about three time smaler than that for algorithm simulating application of the aluminium filter. Statistical parameters of the considered algorithm were reviewed and discussed. (author)

  12. Lattice-Boltzmann Modeling of Community Challenge MicrofluidicExperiments to Evaluate the Effects of Wettability on Two-Fluid Flowin Porous Media

    Miller, C. T.; McClure, J. E.; Bruning, K.

    2017-12-01

    Variations in the wettability of a solid material are well known to affect the flow of two fluids in a porous media. However, thesemechanisms have not been modeled with high fidelity at the microscale and such mechanisms are typically not included in macroscalemodels. Recent experimental work by Zhao, MacMinn, and Juanes published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences(2016) has investigated two-fluid displacement in microfluidic cells. Displacement patterns were investigated as a function of thecontact angle and the capillary number for both drainage and imbibition. These results yielded new mechanistic understanding ofprocesses such as pore filling and post bridging, which were imaged at high resolution. In a challenge to the pore-scale modeling community,the authors of this work released their experimental data and encouraged an international set of modeling research groups tosimulate the conditions that were experimentally observed. The intent is to compare the results that materialize to shed new light on thestate-of-science in pore-scale simulation of these challenging and interesting flow systems. In this work, we summarize the experimentalfindings and report on initial efforts to simulate these community challenge experiments using a high-resolution lattice-Boltzmann method(LBM). A three-dimensional, multiple-relaxation-time color model based on a 19-site lattice is advanced in this work to matchexperimental conditions in a novel manner. A computational approach is implemented for the LBM method on hybrid CPU-GPU nodes and shown toscale near optimally. A new algorithm is described to match experimental boundary conditions. A grid-resolution study is performedto determine the resolution needed to determine grid-independent numerical approximations. Finally, the LBM simulation results arecompared to the highly resolved microfluidic experiments, displacement mechanisms are investigated, and observations and analysis of thetopological state

  13. Classification of coal seam outburst hazards and evaluation of the importance of influencing factors

    Shi Xianzhi; Song Dazhao; Qian Ziwei

    2017-01-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are the result of several geological factors related to coal seam gas (coal seam gas pressure P, coal seam sturdiness coefficient f and coal seam gas content W), and these parameters can be used to classify the outburst hazard level of a coal seam.

  14. Wettability of Oil-Producing Reservoir Rocks as Determined from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Toledo; Araujo; Leon

    1996-11-10

    Wettability has a dominant effect in oil recovery by waterflooding and in many other processes of industrial and environmental interest. Recently, the suggestion has been made that surface science analytical techniques (SSAT) could be used to rapidly determine the wettability of reservoir materials. Here, we bring the capability of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to bear on the wettability evaluation of producing reservoir rocks. For a suite of freshly exposed fracture surfaces of rocks we investigate the relationship between wettability and surface composition as determined from XPS. The classical wettability index as measured with the Amott-Harvey test is used here as an indicator of the wettability of natural sandstones. The XPS spectra of oil-wet surfaces of rocks reveal the existence of organic carbon and also of an "organic" silicon species, of the kind Si-CH relevant to silanes, having a well-defined binding energy which differs from that of the Si-O species of mineral grains. We provide quantifiable evidence that chemisorbed organic material on the pore surfaces defines the oil-wetting character of various reservoir sandstones studied here which on a mineralogic basis are expected to be water-wet. This view is supported by a strong correlation between C content of pore surfaces and rock wettability. The results also suggest a correlation between organic silicon content on the pore surfaces and rock hydrophobicity.

  15. Evaluation and Treatment of Coal Fly Ash for Adsorption Application

    Samson Oluwaseyi BADA

    Full Text Available Many researchers had investigated fly ash as an adsorbent for the uptake of organic compounds from petrochemical waste effluents. The availability, inexpensive and its adsorption characteristic had made it an alternative media for the removal of organic compounds from aqueous solution. The physical property of South African Coal Fly Ash (SACFA was investigated to determine its adsorption capability and how it can be improved. Chemical treatment using 1M HCl solution in the ratio of (1 g fly ash to (2 ml of acid was used and compared with untreated heat-treated samples. The chemically treated fly ash has a higher specific surface area of 5.4116 m2/g than the heat-treated fly ash with 2.9969 m2/g. More attention had to be given to the utilization of SACFA for the treatment of wastewaters containing organic compounds through the application of Liquid phase adsorption process that was considered as an inexpensive and environmentally friendly technology.

  16. [Hazard evaluation modeling of particulate matters emitted by coal-fired boilers and case analysis].

    Shi, Yan-Ting; Du, Qian; Gao, Jian-Min; Bian, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Pu; Dong, He-Ming; Han, Qiang; Cao, Yang

    2014-02-01

    In order to evaluate the hazard of PM2.5 emitted by various boilers, in this paper, segmentation of particulate matters with sizes of below 2. 5 microm was performed based on their formation mechanisms and hazard level to human beings and environment. Meanwhile, taking into account the mass concentration, number concentration, enrichment factor of Hg, and content of Hg element in different coal ashes, a comprehensive model aimed at evaluating hazard of PM2.5 emitted by coal-fired boilers was established in this paper. Finally, through utilizing filed experimental data of previous literatures, a case analysis of the evaluation model was conducted, and the concept of hazard reduction coefficient was proposed, which can be used to evaluate the performance of dust removers.

  17. Evaluating the gas content of coals and isolated maceral concentrates from the Paleocene Guasare Coalfield, Venezuela

    Berbesi, L.A.; Marquez, G.; Martinez, M.; Requena, A.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the results from evaluating the gases sorbed by coal samples extracted from the Paleocene Guasare Coalfield (Marcelina Formation, northwestern Venezuela), as well as by their distinct maceral concentrates. The aim of this work has been to obtain an initial experimental main value of the gas content per unit weight of high volatile bituminous A coal samples from the open-pit Paso Diablo mine. An additional goal was to study differences in the CH 4 storage ability of the distinct maceral groups forming part of the coal matrix. Both the coal samples and the maceral concentrates were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in order to determine the temperature to be used in subsequent experiments. On-line analyses of hydrocarbons (C 1 , C 2 , C 3 ) and CO 2 yielded gas concentrations, plus δ 13 C values. Thermogenic gas is prevalent in the Guasare coals with vitrinite reflectance (%R o ) values from 0.65% to 0.88%. The amount of gas retained in the coals and maceral concentrates was measured with a special device that allows determination of the volume of gas sorbed by a solid sample subjected to controlled thermal treatment. The average coalbed gas concentration obtained was 0.51 cm 3 /g. The following list of maceral concentrates shows the relative capacity for the volume of sorbed gas per unit weight: inertinite > low-density vitrinite > liptinite ∼ high-density vitrinite. It is concluded that the gas volumes retained in the distinct maceral concentrates are not controlled by porosity but rather by their microscopic morphology.

  18. Thermodynamic evaluation of chemical looping combustion for combined cooling heating and power production driven by coal

    Fan, Junming; Hong, Hui; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Zefeng; Jin, Hongguang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An ex-situ coal gasification chemical looping combustion integrated with CCHP process has been presented. • This novel process maintains a maximum energy efficiency of 60.34%. • The fossil energy saving ratio of this process is optimize to be 27.20%. - Abstract: This study carries out an investigation concerning on the benefits of ex-situ coal gasification chemical looping combustion integrated with combined cooling, heating and power generation (CCHP-CLC) by means of thermodynamic evaluation. The coal gasification syngas is introduced into chemical looping combustion for inherent separation of CO_2 without extra energy consumed. The combustion flue gases from both air reactor and fuel reactor are sequentially fed into gas turbines for electricity production, a heat recovery vapor generator unit for further electricity generation with driving a LiBr-H_2O absorption chiller for cooling production in summer and finally a heat exchanger for daily heat water production. A preliminary parameter analysis helps to obtain the optimum operating condition, as steam-to-coal ratio (S/C) of 0.05, oxygen-to-coal ratio (O/C) of 0.75, and operating pressure of chemical looping combustion process of 5 bar. The overall energy efficiency of the CCHP-CLC process is calculated equal to 58.20% in summer compared with that of 60.34% in winter. Importantly, by utilization of such process, the reduction potential of fossil fuel (coal) consumption has been demonstrated to be 23.36% in summer and 27.20% in winter.

  19. The evaluation and quantification of respirable coal and silica dust concentrations: a task-based approach.

    Grové, T; Van Dyk, T; Franken, A; Du Plessis, J

    2014-01-01

    Silicosis and coal worker's pneumoconiosis are serious occupational respiratory diseases associated with the coal mining industry and the inhalation of respirable dusts containing crystalline silica. The purpose of this study (funded by the Mine Health and Safety Council of South Africa) was to evaluate the individual contributions of underground coal mining tasks to the respirable dust and respirable silica dust concentrations in an underground section by sampling the respirable dust concentrations at the intake and return of each task. The identified tasks were continuous miner (CM) cutting, construction, transfer of coal, tipping, and roof bolting. The respirable dust-generating hierarchy of the tasks from highest to lowest was: transfer of coal > CM right cutting > CM left cutting > CM face cutting > construction > roof bolting > tipping; and for respirable silica dust: CM left cutting > construction > transfer of coal > CM right cutting. Personal exposure levels were determined by sampling the exposures of workers performing tasks in the section. Respirable dust concentrations and low concentrations of respirable silica dust were found at the intake air side of the section, indicating that air entering the section is already contaminated. The hierarchy for personal respirable dust exposures was as follows, from highest to lowest: CM operator > cable handler > miner > roof bolt operator > shuttle car operator, and for respirable silica dust: shuttle car operator > CM operator > cable handler > roof bolt operator > miner. Dust control methods to lower exposures should include revision of the position of workers with regard to the task performed, positioning of the tasks with regard to the CM cutting, and proper use of the line curtains to direct ventilation appropriately. The correct use of respiratory protection should also be encouraged.

  20. Clean coal technologies---An international seminar: Seminar evaluation and identification of potential CCT markets

    Guziel, K.A.; Poch, L.A.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

    1991-07-01

    The need for environmentally responsible electricity generation is a worldwide concern. Because coal is available throughout the world at a reasonable cost, current research is focusing on technologies that use coal with minimal environmental effects. The United States government is supporting research on clean coal technologies (CCTs) to be used for new capacity additions and for retrofits to existing capacity. To promote the worldwide adoption of US CCTs, the US Department of Energy, the US Agency for International Development, and the US Trade and Development Program sponsored a two-week seminar titled Clean Coal Technologies -- An International Seminar. Nineteen participants from seven countries were invited to this seminar, which was held at Argonne National Laboratory in June 1991. During the seminar, 11 US CCT vendors made presentations on their state-of-the-art and commercially available technologies. The presentations included technical, environmental, operational, and economic characteristics of CCTs. Information on financing and evaluating CCTs also was presented, and participants visited two CCT operating sites. The closing evaluation indicated that the seminar was a worthwhile experience for all participants and that it should be repeated. The participants said CCT could play a role in their existing and future electric capacity, but they agreed that more CCT demonstration projects were needed to confirm the reliability and performance of the technologies

  1. Studies for the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures. Final report, August 1978-May 1981

    Botsaris, G.D.; Glazman, Y.M.; Adams-Viola, M.

    1981-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures (COM) was developed. Aggregation of the coal particles was determined to control both the sedimentation and rheological properties of the COM. Sedimentation stability of COM prepared with coal, 80% < 200 mesh, is achieved by particle aggregation, which leads to the formation of a network of particles throughout the oil. The wettability of coal powders was evaluated by the Pickering emulsion test and a spherical agglomeration test to assess its effect on the stability of various COM formulations. Sedimentation stability of hydrophilic coal-oil-water mixtures (COWM) involves the formation of water bridges between the coal particles, while less stabilization of oleophilic COWM is achieved by the formation of an emulsion. Anionic SAA were least sensitive to the coal type and enhanced the aggregation stability of the suspension. The effect of cationic SAA, nonionic SAA and polymer additives depended upon the specific chemical structure of the SAA, the water content of the COM and the type of coal. The sedimentation stability of ultrafine COM was not directly due to the fineness of the powder but due to the formation of a network of flocculated particles.

  2. Preparation and evaluation of coal-derived activated carbons for removal of mercury vapor from simulated coal combustion flue fases

    Hsi, H.-C.; Chen, S.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Richardson, C.F.; Carey, T.R.; Chang, R.

    1998-01-01

    Coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) were tested for their suitability in removing trace amounts of vapor-phase mercury from simulated flue gases generated by coal combustion. CDACs were prepared in bench-scale and pilot-scale fluidized-bed reactors with a three-step process, including coal preoxidation, carbonization, and then steam activation. CDACs from high-organicsulfur Illinois coals had a greater equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity than activated carbons prepared from a low-organic-sulfur Illinois coal. When a low-organic-sulfur CDAC was impregnated with elemental sulfur at 600 ??C, its equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity was comparable to the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon prepared from the high-organicsulfur coal. X-ray diffraction and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure examinations showed that the sulfur in the CDACs was mainly in organic forms. These results suggested that a portion of the inherent organic sulfur in the starting coal, which remained in the CDACs, played an important role in adsorption of Hg0. Besides organic sulfur, the BET surface area and micropore area of the CDACs also influenced Hg0 adsorption capacity. The HgCl2 adsorption capacity was not as dependent on the surface area and concentration of sulfur in the CDACs as was adsorption of Hg0. The properties and mercury adsorption capacities of the CDACs were compared with those obtained for commercial Darco FGD carbon.

  3. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation.

    Clack, Herek L

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions representthe mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies.

  4. The Evaluation of Metals and Other Substances Released into Coal Mine Accrual Waters on the Wasatch Plateau Coal Field, Utah

    Seierstad, Alberta J.; Adams, V. Dean; Lamarra, Vincent A.; Hoefs, Nancy J.; Hinchee, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Six sites on the Wasatch Plateau were chosen representing subsurface coal mines which were discharging or collecting accrual water on this coal field. Water samples were collected monthly at these sites for a period of 1 year (May 1981 to April 1982). Samples were taken before and after each mine's treatment system. Water sampels were analyzed for major anions and cations, trace metals, physical properaties, nutri...

  5. Improved Oil Recovery in Chalk. Spontaneous Imbibition affected by Wettability, Rock Framework and Interfacial Tension

    Milter, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author of this doctoral thesis aims to improve the oil recovery from fractured chalk reservoirs, i.e., maximize the area of swept zones and their displacement efficiencies. In order to identify an improved oil recovery method in chalk, it is necessary to study wettability of calcium carbonate and spontaneous imbibition potential. The thesis contains an investigation of thin films and wettability of single calcite surfaces. The results of thin film experiments are used to evaluate spontaneous imbibition experiments in different chalk types. The chalk types were described detailed enough to permit considering the influence of texture, pore size and pore throat size distributions, pore geometry, and surface roughness on wettability and spontaneous imbibition. Finally, impacts of interfacial tension by adding anionic and cationic surfactants to the imbibing water phase are studied at different wettabilities of a well known chalk material. 232 refs., 97 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. The Method of Validity Evaluation of Hard Coal Excavation in Residual Seam Parts

    Wodarski, Krzysztof; Bijańska, Jolanta; Gumiński, Adam

    2017-12-01

    The excavation of residual seam parts should be justified by positive assessment of the purposefulness, technical feasibility and economic effectiveness. The results of the profitability evaluation are crucial in a decision making process. The excavation of residual seam parts, even if it is possible from a technical point of view, should not be implemented if it is economically inefficient or when accompanied by a very high risk of non-recovery of invested capital resources. The article presents the evaluation method of possibilities of excavating hard coal from residual seam parts, and the example of its use in one of collieries in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Working in line with the developed method, allows to indicate the variant of residual seam part exploitation, which is feasible to implement from a technical point of view, and which is characterized by the highest economic effectiveness and lowest risk.

  7. Evaluation of the effect of macerals on coal permeability in Tazareh and Parvadeh mines

    Farhang Sereshki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the subject of gas emission in underground coal mines in many countries is an important subject. Many factors affect in gas emissions in coal seams. Geological and physical structures of coal are affecting on gas emissions'. Also, composition and mineralization of coal, affect in coal permeability for different gases. In this study, the relationship between maceral composition and coal permeability in Tazareh and Parvadeh mines has been studied. Accordingly, a laboratory studies to investigate the relationship between coal composition and coal permeability was done. In coal samples, with MFORR equipment the permeability test was done. With microscopic analysis, the maceral contents of coal such as Inertinite and Vitrinite have been measured. Accordingly, many coal samples of Parvadeh and Tazareh coal mines have the pyrite as the dominant mineral matter. Parvadeh coal samples has the average percentage of Vitrinite equal 81.34% and 10.52% Inertinite. Also, in the Tazareh coal samples in Eastern Alborz coal mines, the average percentage of Vitrinite is 69.31% and inertinite is 22.47%. The average percentage of Pyrite content in Parvadeh coal samples in Tabas coal mines is 2.38% and in the Tazareh coal samples in Eastern Alborz coal mines is 2.62%.  The permeability test results have been shown, which, with increase of Inertinite contents, the permeability of coal is increasing. Also, test results have been shown, there was a reduction in the coal permeability with increasing of mineral contents and carbonate contents of the coal. So, the coal permeability in Tabas coal samples is more than Eastern Alborz coal samples.

  8. Evaluation of risk and prognosis of development of pneumoconiosis in coal miners

    Sukhanov, V V; Bolonova, L N; Donets, I K; Petul' ko, S N; Yulish, N R; Teplova, T E

    1987-07-01

    A regressional analysis study of 105 indices of the state of body and mine environment in 177 coal mines of Donbass revealed multiple quantitative dependences between working conditions, indices of functional state of the body, pathomorphological and roentgenological changes in the lungs and on this basis a diagnostic procedure was established permitting the evaluation of the risk of development of pneumoconiosis and diagnosis of this disease at the preroentgenological stage.

  9. Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals: Fifty selected seams from various coal fields: Final technical report, September 30, 1976-February 28, 1986. [50 coal seams

    Rao, P.D.

    1986-09-01

    This final report is the result of a study initiated in 1976 to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifty coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay coal fields. The raw coal was crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch, 14 mesh and 65 mesh top sizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.60 specific gravities. A limited number of samples were also crushed to 200 and 325 mesh sizes prior to float-sink testing. Samples crushed to 65 mesh top size were also separated at 1.60 specific gravity and the float and sink products were characterized for proximate and ultimate analyses, ash composition and ash fusibility. 72 refs., 79 figs., 57 tabs.

  10. Economic evaluation of environmental externalities in China’s coal-fired power generation

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Cai, Qiong; Ma, Chunbo; Hu, Yanan; Luo, Kaiyan; Li, William

    2017-01-01

    Serious environmental externalities exist in China’s power industry. Environmental economics theory suggests that the evaluation of environmental externality is the basis of designing an efficient regulation. The purposes of this study are: (1) to identify Chinese respondents’ preferences for green development of electric power industry and the socio-economic characteristics behind them; (2) to investigate the different attitudes of the respondents towards pollution and CO_2 reduction; (3) to quantitatively evaluate the environmental cost of China’s coal-fired power generation. Based on the method of choice experiments (CE) and the 411 questionnaires with 2466 data points, we found that Chinese respondents prefer PM2.5, SO_2 and NO_x reduction to CO_2 reduction and that the environment cost of coal-fired power plants in China is 0.30 yuan per kWh. In addition, we found that the socio-economic characteristics of income, education, gender, and environmental awareness have significant impacts on respondents’ choices. These findings indicate that the environmental cost of coal-fired power generation is a significant factor that requires great consideration in the formulation of electric power development policies. In addition, importance should also be attached to the implementation of green power price policy and enhancement of environmental protection awareness. - Highlights: • Chinese respondents have willingness to pay premium for green development. • The environment cost of coal-fired power plants in China is 0.30 yuan/kwh. • Chinese respondents prefer PM2.5, SO_2 and NO_x reduction to CO_2 reduction. • Environmental awareness has significant impacts on respondents’ preferences. • Income, education and gender affect the evaluation results.

  11. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. Some of the contract activities for this quarter are: We completed many of the analyses on the 81 samples received from HTI bench-scale run CMSL-9, in which coal, coal/mixed plastics, and coal/high density polyethylene were fed; Liquid chromatographic separations of the 15 samples in the University of Delaware sample set were completed; and WRI completed CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR analyses on the Delaware sample set.

  12. Evaluation of Structural Changes in the Coal Specimen Heating Process and UCG Model Experiments for Developing Efficient UCG Systems

    Gota Deguchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the underground coal gasification (UCG process, cavity growth with crack extension inside the coal seam is an important phenomenon that directly influences gasification efficiency. An efficient and environmentally friendly UCG system also relies upon the precise control and evaluation of the gasification zone. This paper presents details of laboratory studies undertaken to evaluate structural changes that occur inside the coal under thermal stress and to evaluate underground coal-oxygen gasification simulated in an ex-situ reactor. The effects of feed temperature, the direction of the stratified plane, and the inherent microcracks on the coal fracture and crack extension were investigated using some heating experiments performed using plate-shaped and cylindrical coal specimens. To monitor the failure process and to measure the microcrack distribution inside the coal specimen before and after heating, acoustic emission (AE analysis and X-ray CT were applied. We also introduce a laboratory-scale UCG model experiment conducted with set design and operating parameters. The temperature profiles, AE activities, product gas concentration as well as the gasifier weight lossess were measured successively during gasification. The product gas mainly comprised combustible components such as CO, CH4, and H2 (27.5, 5.5, and 17.2 vol% respectively, which produced a high average calorific value (9.1 MJ/m3.

  13. Study of geological and technologic evaluation for steeply inclined coal seams

    Zhang Xiao-bing; Wang Zhong-qiang; Zhang Wei (and others) [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). School of Resources and Safety Engineering

    2007-07-01

    In order to predict the mining effect and choice of the technical decision comprehensive evaluation on steep coal seams was taken. Based on technical test, mining practice and analysis of statistic data, the hierarchical structure of evaluation about steeply inclined coal seam was obtained. In the structure, there are 8 multiple factors, which can divide 13 fundamental factors. Using the method of comprehensive evaluation with multi-index and fuzzy mathematics, the evaluation functions of the influencing factors are structured, and the model of fuzzy evaluation is proposed. 289 mining faces in Datai mine were evaluated using this model and the single outputs of these faces were predicted. The result shows that the number of mining faces in the first class is 27, covering 9.43% of the total, the number of the second class is 87, covering 30.1% of the total, the number of the third class is 112, covering 38.75%, and the number of the fourth class is 63, covering 21.8%.The evaluation and the reality are largely uniform. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of Rare Earth Element Extraction from North Dakota Coal-Related Feed Stocks

    Laudal, Daniel A.

    The rare earth elements consist of the lanthanide series of elements with atomic numbers from 57-71 and also include yttrium and scandium. Due to their unique properties, rare earth elements are crucial materials in an incredible array of consumer goods, energy system components and military defense applications. However, the global production and entire value chain for rare earth elements is dominated by China, with the U.S. currently 100% import reliant for these critical materials. Traditional mineral ores including previously mined deposits in the U.S., however, have several challenges. Chief among these is that the content of the most critical and valuable of the rare earths are deficient, making mining uneconomical. Further, the supply of these most critical rare earths is nearly 100% produced in China from a single resource that is only projected to last another 10 to 20 years. The U.S. currently considers the rare earths market an issue of national security. It is imperative that alternative domestic sources of rare earths be identified and methods developed to produce them. Recently, coal and coal byproducts have been identified as one of these promising alternative resources. This dissertation details a study on evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of rare earth element recovery from North Dakota lignite coal and lignite-related feedstocks. There were four major goals of this study: i) identify lignite or lignite-related feedstocks with total rare earth element content above 300 parts per million, a threshold dictated by the agency who funded this research as the minimum for economic viability, ii) determine the geochemistry of the feedstocks and understand the forms and modes of occurrence of the rare earth elements, information necessary to inform the development of extraction and concentration methods, iii) identify processing methods to concentrate the rare earth elements from the feedstocks to a target of two weight percent, a value

  15. Study on the evaluation system for the coal safety management based on risk pre-control

    LI Xin-chun; XU Hai-xia; WANG Pei; SONG Xue-feng

    2009-01-01

    The new type of risk management is process management.First,the hazard sources are identified before coal mine accidents occur,and then the pre-control measure and information monitoring method based on classifying the hidden hazard sources are given.Lastly,the risk pre-alarm and risk control method are confirmed,the management standard and management measure are used to eliminate the hidden hazard sources.In this study,an evaluation system is built to evaluate the result of risk management.

  16. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  17. Coal yearbook 1993

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

  18. Experimental evaluation of sorbents for sulfur control in a coal-fueled gas turbine slagging combustor

    Cowell, L.H.; Wen, C.S.; LeCren, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a slagging combustor that has been used to evaluate three calcium-based sorbents for sulfur capture efficiency in order to assess their applicability for use in a oil-fueled gas turbine. Testing is competed in a bench-scale combustor with one-tenth the heat input needed for the full-scale gas turbine. The bench-scale rig is a two-stage combustor featuring a fuel-rich primary zone an a fuel-lean secondary zone. The combustor is operated at 6.5 bars with inlet air preheated to 600 K. Gas temperatures of 1840 K are generated in the primary zone and 1280 K in the secondary zone. Sorbents are either fed into the secondary zone or mixed with the coal-water mixture and fed into the primary zone. Dry powered sorbents are fed into the secondary zone by an auger into one of six secondary air inlet ports. The three sorbents tested in the secondary zone include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and hydrated lime. Sorbents have been tested while burning coal-water mixtures with coal sulfur loadings of 0.56 to 3.13 weight percent sulfur. Sorbents are injected into the secondary zone at varying flow rates such that the calcium/sulfur ratio varies from 0.5 to 10.0

  19. Evaluation of the ecological risks to terrestrial wildlife associated with a coal ash disposal site

    Sample, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    Between 1955 and 1989, coal ash was deposited within an impounded watershed on the Oak Ridge Reservation, creating the 3.6 ha-Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP). The site has subsequently become vegetated, providing habitat for wildlife. To evaluate the risks that metals in the ash may pose to wildlife, ash, surface water, small mammal, and vegetation samples were collected and metal residues were determined. Metal concentrations, As and Se in particular, were elevated in ash, surface water, plant foliage, and small mammals relative to reference materials. Estimates of metal exposures received from food, water, and ash consumption were calculated for short-tailed shrews, white-footed mice, white-tailed deer, red fox, and red-tailed hawks. While shrews and mice were assumed to reside exclusively at and receive 100% exposure from the site, exposure experienced by deer, fox, and hawks was assumed to be proportional to the size of the site relative to their home range. Because deer had been observed to consume ash presumably for it's high sodium content, exposure experienced by deer consuming ash to meet sodium requirements was also estimated. To assess the risk of coal ash to wildlife, exposure estimates were compared to body-size adjusted toxicity data for each metal. These comparisons suggest that metals at the site may be detrimental to reproduction and survivorship of mice, shrews, deer and fox; hawks do not appear to be at risk

  20. Evaluation of NOX emissions from TVA coal-fired power plants

    Jones, J.W.; Stamey-Hall, S.

    1991-01-01

    The paper gives results of a preliminary evaluation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from 11 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) coal-fired power plants. Current EPA AP-42 emission factors for NOx from coal-fired utility boilers do not account for variations either in these emissions as a function of generating unit load, or in designs of boilers of the same general type, particularly wall-fired boilers. The TVA has compiled short-term NOx emissions data from 30 units at 11 TVA coal-fired plants. These units include cyclone, cell burner, single wall, opposed wall, single tangential, and twin tangential boiler firing designs. Tests were conducted on 29 of the 30 units at high load; 18 were also tested at reduced load. NOx emissions rates were calculated for each test and compared to the calculated rate for each boiler type using AP-42. Preliminary analysis indicates that: (1) TVA cyclone-fired units emit more NOx than estimated using AP-42; (2) TVA cell burner units emit considerably more NOx than estimated; (3) most TVA single-wall-fired units emit slightly more NOx than estimated; (4) most TVA single-furnace tangentially fired units emit less NOx than estimated at high load, but the same as (or more than) estimated at reduced load; and (5) most TVA twin-furnace tangentially fired units, at high load, emit slightly more NOx than estimated using AP-42

  1. Evaluation of radionuclide contamination of soil, coal ash and zeolitic materials from Figueira thermoelectric power plant

    Fungaro, Denise Alves; Silva, Paulo Sergio Cardoso da; Campello, Felipe Arrelaro; Miranda, Caio da Silva; Izidoro, Juliana de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis and gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb, 232 Th and 40 K contents in feed pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash from cyclone and baghouse filters, zeolites synthesized from the ashes and two different soil samples. All the samples used in the study was collected at Figueira thermoelectric power plant, located in the city of Figueira, Paraná State, which coal presents a significant amount of uranium concentration. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverized coal were 4216 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 180 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 27 Bq kg -1 for 228 Ra, 28 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and 192 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. The ashes fraction presented concentrations ranging from 683.5 to 1479 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, from 484 to 1086 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 291 to 1891 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb, from 67 to 111 Bq kg -1 for 228 Ra, from 80 to 87 Bq -1 for 232 Th and from 489 to 718 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. Similar ranges were observed for zeolites. The activity concentration of 238 U was higher than worldwide average concentration for all samples. The concentration of the uranium series found in the ashes were lower than the values observed in similar studies carried out 10 years ago and under the limit adopted by the Brazilian guideline (CNEN-NN-4.01). Nevertheless, the concentrations of this specific area are higher than others coal mines and thermoelectric power plants in and out of Brazil, so it is advisable to evaluate the environmental impact of the installation. (author).

  2. Evaluation of radionuclide contamination of soil, coal ash and zeolitic materials from Figueira thermoelectric power plant

    Fungaro, Denise Alves; Silva, Paulo Sergio Cardoso da; Campello, Felipe Arrelaro; Miranda, Caio da Silva; Izidoro, Juliana de Carvalho, E-mail: dfungaro@ipen.br, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Neutron activation analysis and gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K contents in feed pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash from cyclone and baghouse filters, zeolites synthesized from the ashes and two different soil samples. All the samples used in the study was collected at Figueira thermoelectric power plant, located in the city of Figueira, Paraná State, which coal presents a significant amount of uranium concentration. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverized coal were 4216 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, 180 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 27 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, 28 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 192 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. The ashes fraction presented concentrations ranging from 683.5 to 1479 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, from 484 to 1086 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, from 291 to 1891 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb, from 67 to 111 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, from 80 to 87 Bq{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and from 489 to 718 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. Similar ranges were observed for zeolites. The activity concentration of {sup 238}U was higher than worldwide average concentration for all samples. The concentration of the uranium series found in the ashes were lower than the values observed in similar studies carried out 10 years ago and under the limit adopted by the Brazilian guideline (CNEN-NN-4.01). Nevertheless, the concentrations of this specific area are higher than others coal mines and thermoelectric power plants in and out of Brazil, so it is advisable to evaluate the environmental impact of the installation. (author).

  3. Comprehensive evaluation of coal-fired power plants based on grey relational analysis and analytic hierarchy process

    Xu Gang; Yang Yongping; Lu Shiyuan; Li Le; Song Xiaona

    2011-01-01

    In China, coal-fired power plants are the main supplier of electricity, as well as the largest consumer of coal and water resources and the biggest emitter of SO x , NO x , and greenhouse gases (GHGs). Therefore, it is important to establish a scientific, reasonable, and feasible comprehensive evaluation system for coal-fired power plants to guide them in achieving multi-optimisation of their thermal, environmental, and economic performance. This paper proposes a novel comprehensive evaluation method, which is based on a combination of the grey relational analysis (GRA) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), to assess the multi-objective performance of power plants. Unlike the traditional evaluation method that uses coal consumption as a basic indicator, the proposed evaluation method also takes water consumption and pollutant emissions as indicators. On the basis of the proposed evaluation method, a case study on typical 600 MW coal-fired power plants is carried out to determine the relevancy rules among factors including the coal consumption, water consumption, pollutant, and GHG emissions of power plants. This research offers new ideas and methods for the comprehensive performance evaluation of complex energy utilisation systems, and is beneficial to the synthesised consideration of resources, economy, and environment factors in system optimising and policy making. - Research highlights: → We proposed a comprehensive evaluation method for coal-fired power plants. → The method is based on the grey relational analysis (GRA). → The method also introduces the idea of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). → The method can assess thermal, economic and environmental performance. → The method can play an active role in guiding power plants' improvements.

  4. Comprehensive evaluation of coal-fired power plants based on grey relational analysis and analytic hierarchy process

    Xu Gang, E-mail: xg2008@ncepu.edu.c [Key Lab of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment of Ministry of Education, School of Energy Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Yang Yongping, E-mail: yyp@ncepu.edu.c [Key Lab of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment of Ministry of Education, School of Energy Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Lu Shiyuan; Li Le [Key Lab of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment of Ministry of Education, School of Energy Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Song Xiaona [Electromechanical Practice Center, Beijing Information Science and Technology University, Beijing (China)

    2011-05-15

    In China, coal-fired power plants are the main supplier of electricity, as well as the largest consumer of coal and water resources and the biggest emitter of SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and greenhouse gases (GHGs). Therefore, it is important to establish a scientific, reasonable, and feasible comprehensive evaluation system for coal-fired power plants to guide them in achieving multi-optimisation of their thermal, environmental, and economic performance. This paper proposes a novel comprehensive evaluation method, which is based on a combination of the grey relational analysis (GRA) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), to assess the multi-objective performance of power plants. Unlike the traditional evaluation method that uses coal consumption as a basic indicator, the proposed evaluation method also takes water consumption and pollutant emissions as indicators. On the basis of the proposed evaluation method, a case study on typical 600 MW coal-fired power plants is carried out to determine the relevancy rules among factors including the coal consumption, water consumption, pollutant, and GHG emissions of power plants. This research offers new ideas and methods for the comprehensive performance evaluation of complex energy utilisation systems, and is beneficial to the synthesised consideration of resources, economy, and environment factors in system optimising and policy making. - Research highlights: {yields} We proposed a comprehensive evaluation method for coal-fired power plants. {yields} The method is based on the grey relational analysis (GRA). {yields} The method also introduces the idea of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). {yields} The method can assess thermal, economic and environmental performance. {yields} The method can play an active role in guiding power plants' improvements.

  5. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  6. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Benson, Steven; Palo, Daniel; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment addressed air and particulate emissions as well as solid and liquid waste streams. The magnitude of the emissions and waste streams was estimated for evaluation purposes. EH&S characteristics of materials used in the system are also described. This document contains data based on the mass balances from both the 40 kJ/mol CO2 and 80 kJ/mol CO2 desorption energy cases evaluated in the Final Technical and Economic Feasibility study also conducted by Barr Engineering.

  7. Waterwall corrosion evaluation in coal-fired boilers using electrochemical measurements

    Davis, K.; Lee, C.; Seeley, R.; Harding, S.; Heap, M.; Cox, W.

    2000-07-01

    Until recently, waterwall corrosion in North American coal-fired boilers was uncommon and relatively mild. However, the introduction of combustion modifications to reduce in-furnace NOx formation has led to notable increases in the frequency and severity of waterwall wastage. Reaction Engineering International (REI) has worked with the Department of Energy and EPRI to improve predictive capabilities and provide solutions for furnace wall wastage for a wide range of coal-fired furnaces. To date, this work has emphasized computational simulations. More recently, REI in partnership with Corrosion Management has begun complementary efforts to improve their services by evaluating technologies capable of determining the location/rate of high water wall wastage resulting from corrosion. After an evaluation of commercially available options, electrochemical noise (EN) technology has been chosen for continued development. This approach has been successfully applied to corrosion-related problems involving acid dewpoint corrosion in flue gas ductwork, FGD systems, cooling water systems, oil and gas production, and acid cleaning (Cox et al, 1999). This paper presents the results of preliminary testing of an EN probe in a high temperature environment typical of the lower furnace of a cyclone-fired boiler operating under staged conditions. The relationship between electrochemical responses and (1) stoichiometry and (2) local hydrogen sulfide concentration is investigated and the qualitative and quantitative usefulness of the approach for on-line risk management is considered.

  8. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  9. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  10. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  11. A Review of Wettability Effect on Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement

    Seo, Gwang Hyeok; Jeun, Gyoo Dong; Kim, Sung Joong

    2012-01-01

    Critical heat flux (CHF) and nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient (NBHTC) are the key parameters characterizing pool boiling heat transfer. These variables are complicatedly related to thermal-hydraulic parameters of surface wettability, nucleation site density, bubble departure diameter and frequency, to mention a few. In essence, wettability effect on pool boiling heat transfer has been a major fuel to enhance the CHF. Often, however, the improved wettability effect hinders the nucleate boiling. Thus a comprehensive review of such wettability effect may enlighten a further study in this boiling heat transfer area. Phan et al. described surface wettability effects on boiling heat transfer

  12. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    J.A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J.E. Locke

    2005-11-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the seventh in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 1,300 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing three percent sulfur. The unit was equipped with an ESP and a limestone-based wet FGD to control particulate and SO2 emissions, respectively. At the time of sampling an SCR was not installed on this unit. Four sampling tests were performed in September 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the FGD inlet flue gas oxidized:elemental mercury ratio was roughly 2:1, with 66% oxidized mercury and 34% elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal

  13. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2006-01-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that these data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the ninth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on Unit 1 at Plant 7, a 566 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 3.6% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO

  14. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    J. A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2004-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. This document, the second in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 330 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 1.0% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR system for NOx control and a spray dryer absorber for SO{sub 2} control followed by a baghouse unit for particulate emissions control. Four sampling tests were performed in March 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. Due to mechanical problems with the boiler feed water pumps, the actual gross output was between 195 and 221 MW during the tests. The results showed that the SCR/air heater combination oxidized nearly 95% of the elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a

  15. Evaluating operational efficiency of drainage holes in the Belchatow coal mine

    Marek, A.; Paluch, W.

    1979-03-01

    This paper characterizes drainage holes used for lowering water level in the Belchatow brown coal surface mine in central Poland. Machines and installations used for drilling holes, and filter construction are described. Two types of filters are evaluated, one based an a steel construction, the other an a concrete- asbestos construction. The problem of evaluating operational efficiency of drainage holes is discussed. Yield of the well is presented as the factor characterizing operational efficiency of the hole. Factors influencing yield of the well are described. The proposed analysis of drainage hole efficiency makes it possible to compare efficiency of work of the filters with steel construction and asbestos-concrete construction. Under conditions of the Belchatow mine the asbestos-concrete filters are more efficient than steel filters. All drainage holes at the mine are characterized by declining efficiency. This can be caused prematurely by silting up. (2 refs.) (In Polish)

  16. Evaluation of activated carbon for control of mercury from coal-fired boilers

    Miller, S.; Laudal, D.; Dunham, G.

    1995-01-01

    The ability to remove mercury from power plant flue gas may become important because of the Clean Air Act amendments' requirement that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with these emissions. One approach for mercury removal, which may be relatively simple to retrofit, is the injection of sorbents, such as activated carbon, upstream of existing particulate control devices. Activated carbon has been reported to capture mercury when injected into flue gas upstream of a spray dryer baghouse system applied to waste incinerators or coal-fired boilers. However, the mercury capture ability of activated carbon injected upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse operated at temperatures between 200 degrees and 400 degrees F is not well known. A study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric power Research Institute is being conducted at the University of North Dakota Energy ampersand Environmental Research Center (EERC) to evaluate whether mercury control with sorbents can be a cost-effective approach for large power plants. Initial results from the study were reported last year. This paper presents some of the recent project results. Variables of interest include coal type, sorbent type, sorbent addition rate, collection media, and temperature

  17. Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals

    Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

    1980-10-01

    The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

  18. Evaluation of activated carbon for control of mercury from coal-fired boilers

    Miller, S.; Laudal, D.; Dunham, G. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The ability to remove mercury from power plant flue gas may become important because of the Clean Air Act amendments` requirement that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with these emissions. One approach for mercury removal, which may be relatively simple to retrofit, is the injection of sorbents, such as activated carbon, upstream of existing particulate control devices. Activated carbon has been reported to capture mercury when injected into flue gas upstream of a spray dryer baghouse system applied to waste incinerators or coal-fired boilers. However, the mercury capture ability of activated carbon injected upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse operated at temperatures between 200{degrees} and 400{degrees}F is not well known. A study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric power Research Institute is being conducted at the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to evaluate whether mercury control with sorbents can be a cost-effective approach for large power plants. Initial results from the study were reported last year. This paper presents some of the recent project results. Variables of interest include coal type, sorbent type, sorbent addition rate, collection media, and temperature.

  19. Wettability control of micropore-array films by altering the surface nanostructures.

    Chang, Chi-Jung; Hung, Shao-Tsu

    2010-07-01

    By controlling the surface nanostructure, the wettability of films with similar pore-array microstructure can be tuned from hydrophilic to nearly superhydrophobic without variation of the chemical composition. PA1 pore-array film consisting of the horizontal ZnO nanosheets was nearly superhydrophobic. PA2 pore-array film consisting of growth-hindered vertically-aligned ZnO nanorods was hydrophilic. The influences of the nanostructure shape, orientation and the micropore size on the contact angle of the PA1 films were studied. This study provides a new approach to control the wettability of films with similar pore-array structure at the micro-scale by changing their surface nanostructure. PA1 films exhibited irradiation induced reversible wettability transition. The feasibility of creating a wetted radial pattern by selective UV irradiation of PA1 film through a mask with radial pattern and water vapor condensation was also evaluated.

  20. The effect of rinsing time periods on wettability of elastomeric impression materials: in vitro study

    Özlem Acar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether different rinsing time periods affected the wettability of polymerized elastomeric impression materials. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Panasil Contact Plus (PCP, Panasil Contact Non-Surfactant (PCNS, Panasil Initial Contact (PIC, Express (EXP and Impregum (IMP impression materials were tested. Standardized samples were rinsed with water for 10 s, 15 s or 20 s, and the wettability was determined by contact angle measurement through an evaluation period of 60 seconds (n=7. Non-rinsed groups were used as control. Measurements were made at 5 time points (at 0, 6, 15, 30 and 60 seconds. Kruskal Wallis test and Conover’s multiple comparison tests were used for all multiple comparisons. Bonferroni adjustment was applied for controlling Type I error (p0.002. CONCLUSION: Rinsing the surfactant-containing polyvinylsiloxane impression materials decreased their wettability, whereas no such effect was seen for the surfactant free polyvinylsiloxane and polyether impression materials.

  1. Improvement of Surface Wettability and Hydrophilization of Poly-paraphenylene benzobisoxazole Fiber with Fibrillation Combined Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Xiwen Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new surface modification method fibrillation combined with oxygen plasma treatment to improve the wettability and hydrophily of PBO fiber was studied in this paper. The surface chemical structure and morphology of PBO fiber were characterized by the methods of FTIR, XPS and SEM. The wettability and hydrophlic characters changes on the surface were evaluated by the dynamic contact angle system and image analysis. The results show that the increase surface roughness by fibrillation could improve the wettability. Fibrillation combined oxygen plasma treatment has a better effect than oxygen plasma treatment to improve the wettability and hdyrophlization of PBO fiber. The specific area of PBO fiber increased to 10.7 m2/g from 0.7 m2/g, contact angle decreased to 43.2° from 84.4° and WRV increased to 208.4% from 13.7%. The modified fibers have a good dispersion in water for hydrophilization improvement.

  2. Coal geopolitics

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  3. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

    2006-02-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions

  4. Preliminary evaluation of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota

    Hult, Marc F.; Schoenberg, Michael E.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving plant from 1918 to 1972 in St. Louis Park, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minn., resulted in ground-water contamination. This preliminary evaluation presents an overview of the problem based on the results of the first year (1979) of an ongoing study.

  5. Wettability Studies Using Zeta Potential Measurements

    Ghada Bassioni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wettability studies have been carried out on reservoir rocks using different techniques such as the Amott-Harvey method, the USBM method, and the contact angle method, all with limitations. In this study, the wettability is studied by discussing the surface charge using zeta potential measurements. The study relies on the finding that carbonated reservoir rocks, consisting of CaCO3 mainly, are positively charged and their surface has the potential to adsorb significant quantities of anions. Moreover, heavy fractions such as asphaltenes are reported to remain afloat depending on dispersive forces present in the oil and its various fractions. Experiments are carried out on aqueous limestone suspension with the addition of crude oil. The experiment is repeated with the use of polymeric inhibitors, A and B. The zeta potential is found to alter depending on the sequence of polymeric inhibitor in oil/water addition. The inhibitor is found to adsorb on the limestone surface, with a net negative charge, causing repulsion between crude oil and the inhibitor and, hence, preventing the deposition of heavy fractions and particularly asphaltenes. This study gives a comprehensive insight on the mechanism of polymeric inhibitor interaction with the surface and the effect of wettability on its performance.

  6. Evaluation of radioactivity levels of coal, slag and fly ash samples used in Giresun province of Turkey

    Kara, A.; Chevik, U.; Damla, N.; Yeshilbag, Y.O.

    2010-01-01

    In present work natural radionuclides activities (236Ra, 232Th and 40K) of the different types of coal, slag and fly ash samples used in Giresun province (Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey) were measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry. These samples were collected as homogeneously and separately around Giresun province. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K radionuclides in coal, slag and fly ash samples were found as 107, 67 and 440 Bg.Kg - 1 for coal; 59, 25 and 268 Bg.kg - 1 for slag and 136, 60 and 417 Bg.kg - 1 for fly ash samples, respectively. To estimate health effect due to the aforementioned radionuclides, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses have been calculated. These values were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended values

  7. Environmental Geochemistry and Acid Mine Drainage Evaluation of an Abandoned Coal Waste Pile at the Alborz-Sharghi Coal Washing Plant, NE Iran

    Jodeiri Shokri, Behshad, E-mail: b.jodeiri@hut.ac.ir [Hamedan University of Technology (HUT), Department of Mining Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz [University of Tehran, School of Mining, College of Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramazi, Hamidreza [Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In this paper, an abandoned waste coal pile, which is resulted from Alborz-Sharghi coal washing plant, NE of Iran was mineralogically and geochemically characterized to evaluate pyrite oxidation, acid mine drainage (AMD) generation, and trace element mobility. After digging ten trenches and vertical sampling, a quantitative method including the atomic absorption test, and the quality-based methods including optical study were carried out for determination of pyrite fractions in the waste pile. The geochemical results revealed that the fraction of remaining pyrite increased with depth, indicating that pyrite oxidation is limited to the shallower depths of the pile which were confirmed by variations of sulfate, pH, EC, and carbonate with depth of the pile. To evaluate the trend of trace elements and mineralogical constituents of the waste particles, the samples were analyzed by using XRD, ICP-MS, and ICP-OES methods. The results showed the secondary and neutralizing minerals comprising gypsum have been formed below the oxidation zone. Besides, positive values of net neutralization potential indicated that AMD generation has not taken in the waste pile. In addition, variations of trace elements with depth reveal that Pb and Zn exhibited increasing trends from pile surface toward the bottom sampling trenches while another of them such as Cu and Ni had decreasing trends with increasing depth of the waste pile.

  8. Electrokinetic mechanism of wettability alternation at oil-water-rock interface

    Tian, Huanhuan; Wang, Moran

    2017-12-01

    Design of ions for injection water may change the wettability of oil-brine-rock (OBR) system, which has very important applications in enhanced oil recovery. Though ion-tuned wettability has been verified by various experiments, the mechanism is still not clear. In this review paper, we first present a comprehensive summarization of possible wettability alteration mechanisms, including fines migration or dissolution, multicomponent ion-exchange (MIE), electrical double layer (EDL) interaction between rock and oil, and repulsive hydration force. To clarify the key mechanism, we introduce a complete frame of theories to calculate attribution of EDL repulsion to wettability alteration by assuming constant binding forces (no MIE) and rigid smooth surface (no fines migration or dissolution). The frame consists of three parts: the classical Gouy-Chapman model coupled with interface charging mechanisms to describe EDL in oil-brine-rock systems, three methods with different boundary assumptions to evaluate EDL interaction energy, and the modified Young-Dupré equation to link EDL interaction energy with contact angle. The quantitative analysis for two typical oil-brine-rock systems provides two physical maps that show how the EDL interaction influences contact angle at different ionic composition. The result indicates that the contribution of EDL interaction to ion-tuned wettability for the studied system is not quite significant. The classical and advanced experimental work using microfabrication is reviewed briefly on the contribution of EDL repulsion to wettability alteration and compared with the theoretical results. It is indicated that the roughness of real rock surface may enhance EDL interaction. Finally we discuss some pending questions, perspectives and promising applications based on the mechanism.

  9. Human action quality evaluation based on fuzzy logic with application in underground coal mining.

    Ionica, Andreea; Leba, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The work system is defined by its components, their roles and the relationships between them. Any work system gravitates around the human resource and the interdependencies between human factor and the other components of it. Researches in this field agreed that the human factor and its actions are difficult to quantify and predict. The objective of this paper is to apply a method of human actions evaluation in order to estimate possible risks and prevent possible system faults, both at human factor level and at equipment level. In order to point out the importance of the human factor influence on all the elements of the working systems we propose a fuzzy logic based methodology for quality evaluation of human actions. This methodology has a multidisciplinary character, as it gathers ideas and methods from: quality management, ergonomics, work safety and artificial intelligence. The results presented refer to a work system with a high degree of specificity, namely, underground coal mining and are valuable for human resources risk evaluation pattern. The fuzzy logic evaluation of the human actions leads to early detection of possible dangerous evolutions of the work system and alarm the persons in charge.

  10. Initial biocompatibility of plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane films with different wettability

    Krasteva, N. A.; Toromanov, G.; Hristova, K. T.; Radeva, E. I.; Pecheva, E. V.; Dimitrova, R. P.; Altankov, G. P.; Pramatarova, L. D.

    2010-11-01

    Understanding the relationships between material surface properties, behaviour of adsorbed proteins and cellular responses is essential to design optimal material surfaces for tissue engineering. In this study we modify thin layers of plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDS) by ammonia treatment in order to increase surface wettability and the corresponding biological response. The physico-chemical properties of the polymer films were characterized by contact angle (CA) measurements and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis.Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used as model system for the initial biocompatibility studies following their behavior upon preadsorption of polymer films with three adhesive proteins: fibronectin (FN), fibrinogen (FG) and vitronectin (VN). Adhesive interaction of HUVEC was evaluated after 2 hours by analyzing the overall cell morphology, and the organization of focal adhesion contacts and actin cytoskeleton. We have found similar good cellular response on FN and FG coated polymer films, with better pronounced vinculin expression on FN samples while. Conversely, on VN coated surfaces the wettability influenced significantly initial celular interaction spreading. The results obtained suggested that ammonia plasma treatment can modulate the biological activity of the adsorbed protein s on PPHMDS surfaces and thus to influence the interaction with endothelial cells.

  11. Performance evaluation of high-sulphur coal-fired USC plant integrated with SNOX and CO2 capture sections

    Cau, Giorgio; Tola, Vittorio; Bassano, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    share on the coal mix and the main operating parameters of gas conditioning and purification sections. In particular a performance analysis was carried out to assess the influence of SNOX parameters on gas purification, CO 2 removal process and USC performance. An in-depth analysis of energy penalization due to the CO 2 capture systems was also performed, evaluating influence of CO 2 removal efficiency. Results shows that SNOX technology influences USC performances differently according to high-sulphur coal share in the coal mix. A great high-sulphur coal share sensibly increases sulphur content in the exhaust gas, reducing the methane requirements of the SNOX burner for reaching operational temperature and thus reducing penalties on USC performance. It is important to point up that an increase of the high-sulphur coal share can lead to exceed emissions limit for sulphur oxides, requiring to optimize the SNOX design. Integration with the CO 2 removal section leads to a noteworthy USC plant efficiency reduction of about 10.5 percentage points. The CO 2 specific emissions, which for the reference plant were about 760 g/kWh, are marginally influenced by the SNOX system, but are greatly reduced by the introduction of the CO 2 removal system, decreasing to about 100 g/kWh. - Highlights: • Performance assessment of a USC integrated with a CO 2 removal section is proposed. • USC plant is coupled with an SNOX section, with integrated DeNO x and DeSO x processes. • A USC performance assessment was carried out varying the high-sulphur coal share. • SNOX influences USC performances differently according to high-sulphur coal share. • Integration with the CCS section leads to a USC plant efficiency reduction (10.5 pp)

  12. Increasing the dust separation efficiency by water spray during the operation of coal combines

    Feskov, M I; Kurdyukov, A N

    1974-08-01

    Possibilities of efficient wet dust separation around coal combines and their working members are described. The water consumption for dust separation around working members ranges from 0.3 to 1 l/cu m dust-laden air. The working member can be isolated from his surroundings by plastic walls or shields, while water or air curtains are rather unreliable. Such isolation requires a considerable increase in the water expenditure to improve the wettability of the coal particles by humidifying the air. Laboratory experiments revealed improved wettability and sedimentability of coal particles in humid air.

  13. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO x emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O ampersand M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO x removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system

  14. Evaluation of heavy metal leaching from coal ash-versus conventional concrete monoliths and debris.

    Gwenzi, Willis; Mupatsi, Nyarai M

    2016-03-01

    Application of coal ash in construction materials is constrained by the potential risk of heavy metal leaching. Limited information is available on the comparative heavy metal leaching from coal ash-versus conventional concrete. The current study compared total and leached heavy metal concentrations in unbound coal ash, cement and sand; and investigated the effect of initial leachant pH on heavy metal leaching from coal-ash versus conventional concrete monoliths and their debris. Total Pb, Mn and Zn in coal ash were lower than or similar to that of other materials, while Cu and Fe showed the opposite trend. Leached concentrations of Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu and Fe in unbound coal ash, its concrete and debris were comparable and in some cases even lower than that for conventional concrete. In all cases, leached concentrations accounted for just leaching data showed that leaching was dominated by diffusion. Overall, the risk of Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu and Fe leaching from coal ash and its concrete was minimal and comparable to that of conventional concrete, a finding in contrast to widely held public perceptions and earlier results reported in other regions such as India. In the current study the coal ash, and its concrete and debris had highly alkaline pH indicative of high acid neutralizing and pH buffering capacity, which account for the stabilization of Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu and Fe. Based on the low risk of Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu and Fe leaching from the coal ash imply that such coal ash can be incorporated in construction materials such as concrete without adverse impacts on public and environmental health from these constituents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of water resources around Barapukuria coal mine industrial area, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    Howladar, M. Farhad; Deb, Pulok Kanti; Muzemder, A. T. M. Shahidul Huqe; Ahmed, Mushfique

    2014-09-01

    Water is a very important natural resource which can be utilized in renewable or non-renewable forms but before utilizing, the evaluation of the quality of this resource is crucial for a particular use. However, the problems of water quality are more severe in areas where the mining and mineral processes' industries are present. In mining processes, several classes of wastes are produced which may turn into ultimately the sources of water quality and environmental degradation. In consequences, the evaluations of water quality for livestock, drinking, irrigation purposes and environmental implications have been carried out around the Barapukuria Coal Mining Industry under different methods and techniques such as primarily the field investigation; secondly the laboratory chemical analysis and thirdly justified the suitability of the laboratory analysis with statistical representation and correlation matrix, Schoeller plot, Piper's Trilinear diagram, Expanded Durov diagram, Wilcox diagram, US salinity diagram, Doneen's chart and others. The results of all surface and ground water samples analysis show that the characteristics and concentrations of all the major physical and chemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fetotal, Cl-, HCO3 -, CO3 2- and SO4 2- are varied from one sample to other but well analogous with the WHO and EQS standard limit for all purposes in the area where the abundance of the major ions is as follows: Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Fetotal = HCO3 - > SO4 2- > Cl- > CO3 2-. The graphical exposition of analytical data demonstrates two major hydrochemical facies for example: calcium-bicarbonate (Ca2+- HCO3 -) and magnesium-bicarbonate (Mg2+- HCO3 -) type facies which directly support the shallow recently recharged alkaline water around the industry. The calculated values for the evaluation classification of water based on TDS, Na%, EC, SAR, PI, RSC, MH, and TH replicate good to excellent use of water for livestock, drinking and

  16. Evaluation of 450-MWe BGL GCC power plants fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal

    Pechtl, P.A.; Chen, T.P.; Thompson, B.H.; Greil, C.F.; Niermann, S.E.; Jandrisevits, M.

    1992-11-01

    In this study, a conceptual design and cost estimate were developed for a nominal 450 MW integrated gasification combined cycle plant using the British Gas/Lurgi slagging gasification process. The present study is a design update of a previous study (EPRI Report AP-6011). The major design improvements incorporated include use of the latest GE 7F gas turbine rating, integrating the air separation plant with gas turbine, use of fuel gas saturation for NO x control, use of treated gasifier waste water as makeup water for the fuel gas saturation, and several process changes in the acid gas removal and sulfur recovery areas. Alternate design options for feeding the excess coal fines to the gasifier, treating the gasifier waste water, and the use of conventional air separation without integration with gas turbine were evaluated. The design improvements incorporated were found to increase significantly the overall plant efficiency and reduce the cost reported in the previous study. The various design options evaluated were found to have significant impacts on the plant efficiency but negligible impacts on the cost of electricity

  17. Grey relation projection model for evaluating permafrost environment in the Muli coal mining area, China

    Wei Cao; Yu Sheng; Yinghong Qin; Jing Li; Jichun Wu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering

    2010-12-15

    This study attempts to estimate the current stage of the permafrost environment in the Muli coal mining area, an opencast mining site in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China. The estimation is done by regarding this site's permafrost environment as a system which was divided into three subsystems consisting of permafrost freeze-thaw erosion sensibility, permafrost thermal stability, and permafrost ecological fragility. The subsystems were characterized with their influencing indicators, each of which was assigned with a weight according to analytic hierarchy process. The relationship between these indictors is established using an environmental evaluation model based on grey system theory. The evaluated results show that currently the normalised grey relation projection values (GRPV) of permafrost freezing-thawing erosion sensibility, permafrost thermal stability, permafrost ecological fragility and permafrost environment are 0.58 (general situation), 0.47 (bad situation), 0.63 (general situation) and 0.56 (general situation), respectively. These values imply that the permafrost environment has been deteriorated to a certain degree by human activities and potentially could be further degraded. However, at this degree, a new equilibrium could be achieved if the current environmental degradation ratio is held and if effective treatments are constructed against further damages.

  18. Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids

    Lott, S.E.; Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    To develop a database relating hydrotreating parameters to feed and product quality by experimentally evaluating options for hydrotreating whole coal liquids, distillate cuts of coal liquids, petroleum, and blends of coal liquids with petroleum.

  19. Topography printing to locally control wettability.

    Zheng, Zijian; Azzaroni, Omar; Zhou, Feng; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2006-06-21

    This paper reports a new patterning method, which utilizes NaOH to facilitate the irreversible binding between the PDMS stamp and substrates and subsequent cohesive mechanical failure to transfer the PDMS patterns. Our method shows high substrate tolerance and can be used to "print" various PDMS geometries on a wide range of surfaces, including Si100, glass, gold, polymers, and patterned SU8 photoresist. Using this technique, we are able to locally change the wettability of substrate surfaces by printing well-defined PDMS architectures on the patterned SU8 photoresist. It is possible to generate differential wetting and dewetting properties in microchannels and in the PDMS printed area, respectively.

  20. Thermal expansion of coking coals

    Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-12-01

    Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.

  1. Evaluating the costs and achievable benefits of extending technologies for uneconomical coal resources in South Africa: the case of underground coal gasification

    Zieleniewski, M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available -3433. Shoko, E., McLellan, B., Dicks, A.L., Diniz da Costa, J.C., 2006. Hydrogen from coal: Production and utilisation technologies. International Journal of Coal Geology, 65(3-4): 213-222. Simeons, C., 1978. Coal: Its role in tomorrow’s technol- ogy... the consideration of other, alternative solutions to the energy shortage problem. Underground coal gasifi- cation (UCG) is among the most promising tech- nologies and, to an acceptable degree, the proven feasible one (Walker et al., 2001; Ergo Exergy, 2005...

  2. Evaluation of risk strategy and market efficiency in the International coal market: A case study of the Japanese coking coal market

    Wang, T.

    1992-01-01

    Market efficiency and buyers' risk strategy in the Japanese coking import market are examined. The Japanese coal market is found to be inefficient. Japanese buyers traditionally have purchased coals from the United States at a high price and, since the second half of the 1980's, have paid the highest average price to Canadian producers. Given the abundant low cost Australian coals, this purchasing pattern does not meet the cost minimization criteria for efficiency. This is explained mainly by the buyers' risk management strategy. To more accurately examine price differentiation, the complexity of coal quality is considered first. A statistical method is used to estimate comparison of supply regions and a detailed investigation on market conduct is based on quality-adjusted prices, which are assumed to represent the prices of homogeneous coals. Although various reasons are used by researchers to explain Japanese buyers power, this study finds vertical integration of the Japanese companies to be the most important factor creating that power. A detailed survey of vertical integration is made. Finally, a monetary value of the risk premium is estimated by using the partial elasticity of substitution. Total payments by Japanese coking coal buyers for risk premiums are estimated. These represent the extra dollars paid by the Japanese to US and Canadian coal producers for purchasing their coals instead of Australian coals

  3. EVALUATION AND MITIGATION OF VISIBLE ACIDIC AEROSOL PLUMES FROM COAL FIRED POWER BOILERS

    The formation of sulfur trioxide during the combustion of coal can increase significantly following the installation and operation of selective catalytic reduction systems for reduction of nitrogen oxides. This can in turn lead to adverse environmental impacts, including visible...

  4. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  5. Coal-based oxy-fuel system evaluation and combustor development

    MacAdam, S.; Biebuyck, C.; Anderson, R.; Pronske, K. [Clean Energy Systems Inc., Rancho Cordova, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The core of the Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) process is an oxy-combustor adapted from rocket engine technology. This combustor burns gaseous or liquid fuels with gaseous oxygen in the presence of water. Fuels include syngas from coal, refinery residues, or biomass; natural gas; landfill gas; glycoal solutions and oil/water emulsions. The combustion is performed at near-stoichiometric conditions in the presence of recycled water to produce a steam/CO{sub 2} mixture at high temperature and pressure. These combustion products power conventional or advanced steam turbines and may use modified gas turbines operating at high-temperatures for expansion at intermediate pressures. The gas exiting the turbines enter a condenser/separator where it is cooled, separating into its components, water and CO{sub 2}. The recovered CO{sub 2} is conditioned and purified as appropriate and sold or sequestered. Most of the water is recycled to the gas generator but excess high-purity water is produced and available for export. The development, evaluation and demonstration of the CES combustor are described. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. An evaluation of a coal mining company's return to work program

    Allen, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This study consolidates and evaluates information and data obtained from a coal mining company's return to work program called the Work Therapy Program. Organizational information and economic and statistical data were available for the study based on the company's records. Analysis of the data included descriptive statistics such as total injuries, the frequency rate of injuries, total days away from work due to injury, average days away per employee, and severity rates. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted to determine if the Program was economically beneficial to the company. Data from an opinion survey of the management at the mine where the Program was first instituted was used to determine the perceptions of mine management with respect to the Work Therapy Program. Conclusions were that the Work Therapy Program was economically beneficial to the Company and that the Program resulted in a significant reduction in compensable injuries. The Program did not significantly reduce days away from work due to mine injury. Perceptions of mine management were mostly positive

  7. Determine Appropriate Post Mining Land Use in Indonesia Coal Mining Using Land Suitability Evaluation

    Maryati, Sri; Shimada, Hideki; Hamanaka, Akihiro; Sasaoka, Takashi; Matsui, Kikuo

    2012-01-01

    Coal mining industry gives many benefits for Indonesia including contribution in total Indonesian GDP. Most of coal mines in Indonesia are open pit mining method which disturbs large area of land. One of open pit mining impact is damage land and related to soil erosion occurrences it will degrade land by top soil loses. Indonesia Government has issued mine closure regulation to encourage mining industry provide post mining land use. Determination of post mining land use should be considering ...

  8. Wettability and friction coefficient of micro-magnet arrayed surface

    Huang, Wei; Liao, Sijie; Wang, Xiaolei

    2012-01-01

    Surface coating is an important part of surface engineering and it has been successfully used in many applications to improve the performance of surfaces. In this paper, magnetic arrayed films with different thicknesses were fabricated on the surface of 316 stainless steel disks. Controllable colloid - ferrofluids (FF) was chosen as lubricant, which can be adsorbed on the magnetic surface. The wettability of the micro-magnet arrayed surface was evaluated by measuring the contract angle of FF drops on surface. Tribological experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of magnetic film thickness on frictional properties when lubricated by FF under plane contact condition. It was found that the magnetic arrayed surface with thicker magnetic films presented larger contract angle. The frictional test results showed that samples with thicker magnetic films could reduce friction and wear more efficiently at higher sliding velocity under the lubrication of FF.

  9. Using Statistical Analysis Software to Advance Nitro Plasticizer Wettability

    Shear, Trevor Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-29

    Statistical analysis in science is an extremely powerful tool that is often underutilized. Additionally, it is frequently the case that data is misinterpreted or not used to its fullest extent. Utilizing the advanced software JMP®, many aspects of experimental design and data analysis can be evaluated and improved. This overview will detail the features of JMP® and how they were used to advance a project, resulting in time and cost savings, as well as the collection of scientifically sound data. The project analyzed in this report addresses the inability of a nitro plasticizer to coat a gold coated quartz crystal sensor used in a quartz crystal microbalance. Through the use of the JMP® software, the wettability of the nitro plasticizer was increased by over 200% using an atmospheric plasma pen, ensuring good sample preparation and reliable results.

  10. Influence of surface wettability on cathode electroluminescence of porous silicon

    Goryachev, D.N.; Sreseli, O.M.; Belyakov, L.V.

    1997-01-01

    Influence of porous silicon wettability on efficiency of its cathode electroluminescence in electrolytes was investigated. It was revealed that increase of porous silicon wettability by electrolyte improved contact with a sublayer and provided generation of sufficient quantity of charge carriers. Diffusion - ionic, not electronic mechanism of charge transfer to the centers of micro crystallite electroluminescence is observed in porous silicon - electrolyte systems

  11. Wettability control of polystyrene by ion implantation

    Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Masahiro; Iwaki, Masaya

    1994-01-01

    The permanent effects of ion implantation on the improvement of wettability of polystyrene is investigated in relation to ion species and fluences. The He + , Ne + , Na + , N 2 + , O 2 + , Ar + , K + and Kr + ion implantations were performed at energies of 50 and 150 keV at room temperature. The fluences ranged from 1x10 15 to 1x10 17 ions/cm 2 . The results showed that the contact angle of water for Na + and K + implanted polystyrene decreased from 87 to 0 , as the fluences increased to 1x10 17 ions/cm 2 at an energy of 50 keV. The contact angle for Na + and K + implanted polystyrene did not change under ambient room conditions, even when time elapsed. However, the contact an gle for He + , C + , O + , Ne + , N 2 + , O 2 + , Ar + , and Kr + ion implanted specimens decreased slightly immediately after ion implantation. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the increase in the Na content in the surface of Na + implanted specimens were observed with increasing fluence. It is concluded that permanent improvement in wettability was caused by doping effects rather than by radiation effects from Na + and K + ion implantation. ((orig.))

  12. Wettability control by DLC coated nanowire topography

    Li, Zihui; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong

    2011-04-01

    Here we have developed a convenient method to fabricate wettability controllable surfaces that can be applied to various nanostructured surfaces with complex shapes for different industrial needs. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were synthesized on titanium substrate with a nanowire structured surface using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D). The nanostructure of the DLC films was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and found to grow in a rippling layer-by-layer manner. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the different bonding presented in the DLC films. To determine the wettability of the samples, water contact angles were measured and found to vary in the range of 50°-141°. The results indicated that it was critical to construct a proper surface topography for high hydrophobicity, while suitable ID/IG and sp2/sp3 ratios of the DLC films had a minor contribution. Superhydrophobicity could be achieved by further CF4 implantation on suitably structured DLC films and was attributed to the existence of fluorine. In order to maintain the nanostructure during CF4 implantation, it was favorable to pre-deposit an appropriate carbon content on the nanostructure, as a nanostructure with low carbon content would be deformed during CF4 implantation due to local accumulation of surface charge and the following discharge resulting from the low conductivity.

  13. Analysis on evaluation ability of nonlinear safety assessment model of coal mines based on artificial neural network

    SHI Shi-liang; LIU Hai-bo; LIU Ai-hua

    2004-01-01

    Based on the integration analysis of goods and shortcomings of various methods used in safety assessment of coal mines, combining nonlinear feature of mine safety sub-system, this paper establishes the neural network assessment model of mine safety, analyzes the ability of artificial neural network to evaluate mine safety state, and lays the theoretical foundation of artificial neural network using in the systematic optimization of mine safety assessment and getting reasonable accurate safety assessment result.

  14. Pool boiling of nanoparticle-modified surface with interlaced wettability

    Hsu, Chin-Chi; Su, Tsung-Wen; Chen, Ping-Hei

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the pool boiling heat transfer under heating surfaces with various interlaced wettability. Nano-silica particles were used as the coating element to vary the interlaced wettability of the surface. The experimental results revealed that when the wettability of a surface is uniform, the critical heat flux increases with the more wettable surface; however, when the wettability of a surface is modified interlacedly, regardless of whether the modified region becomes more hydrophilic or hydrophobic, the critical heat flux is consistently higher than that of the isotropic surface. In addition, this study observed that critical heat flux was higher when the contact angle difference between the plain surface and the modified region was smaller. © 2012 Hsu et al.

  15. CO2-Water-Rock Wettability: Variability, Influencing Factors, and Implications for CO2 Geostorage.

    Iglauer, Stefan

    2017-05-16

    Carbon geosequestration (CGS) has been identified as a key technology to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and thus significantly mitigate climate change. In CGS, CO 2 is captured from large point-source emitters (e.g., coal fired power stations), purified, and injected deep underground into geological formations for disposal. However, the CO 2 has a lower density than the resident formation brine and thus migrates upward due to buoyancy forces. To prevent the CO 2 from leaking back to the surface, four trapping mechanisms are used: (1) structural trapping (where a tight caprock acts as a seal barrier through which the CO 2 cannot percolate), (2) residual trapping (where the CO 2 plume is split into many micrometer-sized bubbles, which are immobilized by capillary forces in the pore network of the rock), (3) dissolution trapping (where CO 2 dissolves in the formation brine and sinks deep into the reservoir due to a slight increase in brine density), and (4) mineral trapping (where the CO 2 introduced into the subsurface chemically reacts with the formation brine or reservoir rock or both to form solid precipitates). The efficiency of these trapping mechanisms and the movement of CO 2 through the rock are strongly influenced by the CO 2 -brine-rock wettability (mainly due to the small capillary-like pores in the rock which form a complex network), and it is thus of key importance to rigorously understand CO 2 -wettability. In this context, a substantial number of experiments have been conducted from which several conclusions can be drawn: of prime importance is the rock surface chemistry, and hydrophilic surfaces are water-wet while hydrophobic surfaces are CO 2 -wet. Note that CO 2 -wet surfaces dramatically reduce CO 2 storage capacities. Furthermore, increasing pressure, salinity, or dissolved ion valency increases CO 2 -wettability, while the effect of temperature is not well understood. Indeed theoretical understanding of CO 2 -wettability and the

  16. Microbiological desulfurization and conversion of coal

    Quigley, D.R.; Stoner, D.L.; Dugan, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Bio processing of coal is a young and emerging technology. Until the early 1980's it consisted primarily of coal depyritization using Thiobacillus ferro oxidans to either oxidize pyritic sulfur or to alter particle wettability or floatation properties by binding to exposed pyrite inclusions. Since then, other major avenues of research have been pursued. One of these is the microbiologically mediated liquefaction of coal. Initial work indicated that microorganisms were able to transform low rank coal into a black liquid that was later identified as water solubilized by alkaline substances produced by the microbes and could be enhanced by the removal of multi valent cations from coal. Current work at the INEL involves of the identification and characterization of microorganisms that are able to alter the structure of polymeric desulfurization of coal. This work initially focused on the ability of microorganisms to oxidatively remove organic sulfur from model compounds that were representative of those sulfur containing moieties identified as being in coals (e.g., dibenzo thiophene). The work also focused on those organisms that were could remove the organic sulfur without degrading the carbon structure. While some organisms that are able to perform such these reactions will effectively remove organo sulfur from coal. These concerns stem from steric hindrance considerations and the thermodynamically unfavourable nature of reaction. Current work at the INEL involves the isolation and biochemical characterization of microorganisms that are able to desulfurize and solubilized coals that have high organic sulfur contents. (author)

  17. Marketing Canada's coal

    1985-11-01

    The topics are presented which were discussed at the 36th Canadian Coal Conference, held in Vancouver, BC in September 1985. The theme was Challenges, today and tomorrow and the conference sought to examine the primary problems confronting the world coal industry today: overcapacity, soft demand, depressed prices and intense global competition. Coal production in Canada was presented and its role in the steelmaking and electric power industries evaluated. A general mood of optimism prevailed.

  18. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery and Wettability Research Program. Annual report, FY 1991

    Bala, G.A.; Barrett, K.B.; Eastman, S.L.; Herd, M.D.; Jackson, J.D.; Robertson, E.P.; Thomas, C.P.

    1993-09-01

    This report covers research results for fiscal year 1991 for the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) and Wettability Research Program conducted by EG&G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory ONEL) for the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID). The program is funded by the Assistant Secretary of Fossil Energy, and managed by DOE-ID and the Bartlesville Project Office (BPO). The objectives of this multi-year program are to develop MEOR systems for application to reservoirs containing medium to heavy crude oils and to design and implement an industry cost-shared field demonstration project of the developed technology. An understanding of the controlling mechanisms will first be developed through the use of laboratory scale testing to determine the ability of microbially mediated processes to recover oil under reservoir conditions and to develop the design criteria for scale-up to the field. Concurrently with this work, the isolation and characterization of microbial species collected from various locations including target oil field environments is underway to develop more effective oil recovery systems for specific applications. Research focus includes the study of biogenic product and formation souring processes including mitigation and prevention. Souring research performed in FY 1991 also included the development of microsensor probe technology for the detection of total sulfide in collaboration with the Montana State University Center for Interfacial Microbial Process Engineering (CIMPE). Wettability research is a multi-year collaborative effort with the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center (NMPRRC) at the New Mexico institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. Results from the wettability research will be applied to determine if alteration of wettability is a significant contributing mechanism for MEOR systems.

  19. The Effect of Hydrofluoric Acid Etching Duration on the Surface Micromorphology, Roughness, and Wettability of Dental Ceramics

    Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Alkheraif, Abdulaziz A.; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Matinlinna, Jukka P.; Vallittu, Pekka K.

    2016-01-01

    The current laboratory study is evaluating the effect of hydrofluoric acid etching duration on the surface characteristics of five silica-based glass ceramics. Changes in the pore pattern, crystal structure, roughness, and wettability were compared and evaluated. Seventy-five rectangularly shaped specimens were cut from each material (IPS e-max™, Dentsply Celtra™, Vita Suprinity™, Vita mark II™, and Vita Suprinity FC™); the sectioned samples were finished, polished, and ultrasonically cleaned. Specimens were randomly assigned into study groups: control (no etching) and four experimental groups (20, 40, 80 and 160 s of etching). The etched surfaces’ microstructure including crystal structure, pore pattern, pore depth, and pore width was studied under a scanning electron microscope, and the surface roughness and wettability were analyzed using a non-contact surface profilometer and a contact angle measuring device, respectively. The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post hoc Tukey’s test. The results showed a significant change in the pore number, pore pattern, crystal structure, surface roughness, and wettability with increased etching duration. Etching for a short time resulted in small pores, and etching for longer times resulted in wider, irregular grooves. A significant increase in the surface roughness and wettability was observed with an increase in the etching duration. The findings also suggested a strong association between the surface roughness and wettability. PMID:27240353

  20. Evaluation of ash deposits during experimental investigation of co-firing of Bosnian coal with wooden biomass

    Smajevic, Izet; Kazagic, Anes [JP Elektroprivreda BiH d.d., Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Sarajevo Univ. (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The paper is addressed to the development and use different criteria for evaluation of ash deposits collected during experimental co-firing of Bosnian coals with wooden biomass. Spruce saw dust was used for the co-firing tests with the Kakanj brown coal and with a lignite blend consisted of the Dubrave lignite and the Sikulje lignite. The coal/biomass mixtures at 93:7 %w and at 80:20 %w were tested. Experimental lab-scale facility PF entrained flow reactor is used for the co-firing tests. The reactor allows examination of fouling/slagging behaviors and emissions at various and infinitely variable process temperature which can be set at will in the range from ambient to 1560 C. Ash deposits are collected on two non-cooled ceramic probes and one water-cooled metal surface. Six different criteria are developed and used to evaluate behavior of the ash deposits on the probes: ash deposit shape, state and structure, which are analyzed visually - photographically and optically by a microscope, rate of adhesion and ash deposit strength, analyzed by physic acting to the ash deposits, and finally deposition rate, determined as a mass of the deposit divided by the collecting area and the time of collecting. Furthermore, chemical composition analysis and AFT of the ash deposits were also done to provide additional information on the deposits. (orig.)

  1. Evaluating the Thermal Pollution Caused by Wastewaters Discharged from a Chain of Coal-Fired Power Plants along a River

    Marc A. Rosen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and safe operation of a coal-fired power plant is strongly linked to freshwater resources, and environmental problems related to water sources and wastewater discharge are challenges for power station operation. In this study, an evaluation on the basis of a wastewater thermal pollution vector is reported for the environmental impact of residual water generated and discharged in the Jiu River during the operation of thermoelectric units of the Rovinari, Turceni and Craiova coal-fired power plants in Romania. Wastewater thermal pollutant vector Plane Projection is applied for assessing the water temperature evolution in the water flow lane created downstream of each power plant wastewater outlet channel. Simulation on the basis of an Electricity of France model, and testing validation of the results for thermoelectric units of 330 MW of these power plants are presented.

  2. Wettability of graphene-laminated micropillar structures

    Bong, Jihye; Seo, Keumyoung; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Ji-Hoon; Ahn, Joung Real

    2014-01-01

    The wetting control of graphene is of great interest for electronic, mechanical, architectural, and bionic applications. In this study, the wettability of graphene-laminated micropillar structures was manipulated by changing the height of graphene-laminated structures and employing the trichlorosilane (HDF-S)-based self-assembly monolayer. Graphene-laminated micropillar structures with HDF-S exhibited higher hydrophobicity (contact angle of 129.5°) than pristine graphene thin film (78.8°), pristine graphene-laminated micropillar structures (97.5°), and HDF-S self-assembled graphene thin film (98.5°). Wetting states of the graphene-laminated micropillar structure with HDF-S was also examined by using a urea solution, which flowed across the surface without leaving any residues

  3. Prospects and technical and economic evaluation of methods for obtaining synthetic liquid from coal

    Shlikhter, E B; Khor' kov, A V; Zhorov, Y M

    1980-11-01

    Rising oil prices and the exhaustion of cheap organic fuels point to the need for chemical processing of coal to obtain synthetic liquid fuels. Added importance for such development in the USSR is dictated by the remote location of many coal deposits, such as the Kansko-Achinsk basin. Methods for synthesizing described include thermal dissolution in a hydrogen donor solvent, hydrogenation, and gasification with subsequent synthesis and pyrolysis. The need for improved technology is stressed. Cost factors are related to the chemical process involved, rather than to losses in fuel quantities, and the methanol produced is readily transported by pipeline. It can be used for both gasoline and diesel fuels.

  4. Evaluation of environmental stress imposed by a coal-ash effluent: Wisconsin power plant impact study

    Webster, K.E.; Forbes, A.M.; Magnuson, J.L.

    1985-06-01

    Effluent discharged from the coal-ash settling basin of the Columbia Generating Station (Wisconsin) modified water chemistry (increased trace metal concentrations, suspended solids and dissolved materials) and substrate quality (precipitation of chemical floc) in the receiving stream, the ash pit drain. To test the hypothesis that habitat avoidance could account for declines in macroinvertebrate density observed after discharge began, drift rates of two species were measured in laboratory streams containing combinations of reference and coal-ash-modified substrate and water. Contrary to the hypothesis, drift was uniformly lower in laboratory streams containing modified substrate and/or water compared to the reference condition for Gammarus pseudolimnaeus and Asellus racovitzai.

  5. New coal

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  6. Coal upgrading

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of the mortality standard of a miners cohort exposed to radon in an underground coal mining, Parana, Brazil

    Veiga, Lene H.S.; Amaral, Eliana C.S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to to evaluate the possible health effects on workers in a underground coal mining that were exposed to radon and its decay products without the knowledge of the exposure risk. We established a historical cohort of workers in this mining which included 2856 workers, 1946 underground workers and 910 surface workers, and was carried out a retrospective tracking of mortality in this cohort between 1979 and 2002. Through multiple strategies for monitoring, involving several national institutions, was possible to trace the vital status of 92% of the cohort and 100% of the causes of deaths. The results showed that employees of underground coal mining in Parana had a risk of mortality from lung cancer higher than might be expected to the male population of the state of Parana, observing an increase in risk with the time of underground service. However, this increase in mortality from lung cancer was not observed for surface workers. Among several carcinogenic agents present in the mine environment, radon gas and its decay products can be identified as the major cause for this increase in risk of lung cancer for these workers, once other epidemiological studies in coal mining, which have no risk of exposure to radon, do not present an increased of mortality risk from lung cancer

  8. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  9. Application of Moessbauer spectroscopy for: (1) characterization of Egyptian Maghara coal; (2) evaluating the efficiency of different methods for coal desulphurization

    Eissa, N.A.; Sheta, N.H.; Ahmed, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Coal has been recently discovered in Maghara mine at Northern Sinai, Egypt. Coal samples have been collected from different depths and were measured by XRD, XRF, and MS, in order to characterize this type of coal. It has been found that the iron bearing minerals are mainly pyrite and different sulphates depending on the depth of the sample. The second part contains the application of desulphurization techniques to Egyptian coal which are: floatation (one step and two steps), chemical [(HCl+HNO 3 ), and Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ] and bacterial methods (Chromatium and Chlorobium species). The efficiency of each technique was calculated. A comparative discussion is given of each desulphurization method, from which the bacterial method has proved to be the most efficient one. (orig.)

  10. System principles and evaluation criteria of reliability for optimization of technological parameters of coal deposits

    A.О. Khorolskiy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with solving the scientific problem of select mining equipment for selection longwall faces of mining venture. The main goal of the paper is to study technology of coal extraction of mining venture. The paper proposes a new approach to solve a problem of mining equipment selection for longwall faces of mining venture. The article describes new method for selection of mining equipment based on theory graph. Special attention is given to technological aspects; they are lenght of longwall faces, depth of coal stratum. Predictions obtained for daily production of mining equipment are compared with design outputs. Conclusions regarding the main reason of instability of longwall faces workings are made. It is found that to be able to use standard algorithms find the shortest path between vertices, you must perform matrix description of the constructed graphs that illustrate the structure of the interaction of different types of control equipment. Using classical optimization of method of discrete mathematics and algorithms for finding the shortest path between two vertices of network models obtained from the formalization of graphs with maximum results of specific types of equipment production chains, solved the problem of rational choice cleaning equipment for the new site with the cost parameters of the mining equipment and cost of mining coal. The authors developed effective and appropriate variants for the mine development for different coal deposits of mining venture.

  11. Presentation of the health impact evaluation study of atmospheric emissions of a major coal combustion installation

    Bonnard, R.

    2004-12-01

    In the framework of a working group on the major installations, a study has been realized on a today coal combustion installation. The direct risk by inhalation and the risks bond to indirect exposure of atmospheric releases were analyzed. The calculation method is explained and the uncertainties are discussed to present the results. (A.L.B.)

  12. Evaluation of environmental effect of coal stockpile in Muara Telang, Banyuasin, Indonesia

    Rusdianasari; Arita, Susila; Ibrahim, Eddy; Ngudiantoro

    2013-04-01

    Stockpile commonly serves as a temporary dump before the coal is transported through the waterways. This study investigated the effects of coal stockpiles on the surrounding environment: air, water, and soil. The location of the study is in the estuary of Telang, South-Sumatra, Indonesia, which is located at the edge of the river of Telang and close to the residential community. The monitoring of the environmental impact from the stockpile is intended to conduct an environmental assessment owing the existence and operations of coal accumulation. Enviromental impact analysis was conducted based on the value of the effluent, air pollution (dust), soil and water by determining the parameters of the coal wastewater pH, total suspended solid, ferrous dan ferrous metals contents. The results indicate that the total suspended particulate, total suspended solids, noise level, ferrous metal and manganese metal were 10-14 μg/Nm3 249-355 mg/L, 41.3 to 50.3 dBA, 6.074 to7.579 mg/L, and 1.987 to 2.678 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile the pH of water and soil were 3 to 4 and 2.83 to 4.02 respectively. It is concluded that the pH value are beyond the threshold standard.

  13. Evaluation of environmental effect of coal stockpile in Muara Telang, Banyuasin, Indonesia

    Rusdianasari; Arita, Susila; Ibrahim, Eddy; Ngudiantoro

    2013-01-01

    Stockpile commonly serves as a temporary dump before the coal is transported through the waterways. This study investigated the effects of coal stockpiles on the surrounding environment: air, water, and soil. The location of the study is in the estuary of Telang, South-Sumatra, Indonesia, which is located at the edge of the river of Telang and close to the residential community. The monitoring of the environmental impact from the stockpile is intended to conduct an environmental assessment owing the existence and operations of coal accumulation. Enviromental impact analysis was conducted based on the value of the effluent, air pollution (dust), soil and water by determining the parameters of the coal wastewater pH, total suspended solid, ferrous dan ferrous metals contents. The results indicate that the total suspended particulate, total suspended solids, noise level, ferrous metal and manganese metal were 10-14 μg/Nm 3 249-355 mg/L, 41.3 to 50.3 dBA, 6.074 to7.579 mg/L, and 1.987 to 2.678 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile the pH of water and soil were 3 to 4 and 2.83 to 4.02 respectively. It is concluded that the pH value are beyond the threshold standard.

  14. Causes of coal degradation at working faces

    Sikora, W

    1985-01-01

    Coal comminution by shearer loaders at working faces and factors influencing it are analyzed. Three groups of factors are evaluated: coal mechanical properties, design and specifications of shearer loaders and mining schemes. On the basis of analyses, recommendations for increasing proportion of coarse coal and reducing coal comminution in underground coal mines in Poland are made. Increasing output of coarse coal in coal seams with a high proportion of dull coal is most economic. Increasing power of drive systems for shearer loaders to 500 kW or more decisively influences grain size distribution of coal and increases proportion of coarse coal, especially in seams of dull coal. Gradually increasing cutting depth of a shearer loader negatively influences haulage speed and coarse coal output. Replacing gradual cutting depth increase by attack at the full cutting depth increases proportion of coarse coal. When medium or thick coal seams are mined a coal bench from 0.3 to 0.5 m thick should be left in the roof or between 2 benches cut by 2 cutting drums. The coal bench left in the face disintegrates under the influence of gravity and the proportion of coarse coal increases. Optimizing yield strength of powered supports at a working face is a further method for improving grain size distribution of coal and increasing proportion of coarse coal. 2 references.

  15. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mikania laevigata Extract on DNA Damage Caused by Acute Coal Dust Exposure

    Freitas, T.P.; Heuser, V.D.; Tavares, P.; Leffa, D.D.; da Silva, G.A.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.R.T.; Pinho, R.A.; Streck, E.L.; Andrade,V.M. [University of Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma, SC (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    We report data on the possible antigenotoxic activity of Mikania laevigata extract (MLE) after acute intratracheal instillation of coal dust using the comet assay in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and liver cells and the micronucleus test in peripheral blood of Wistar rats. The animals were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution (groups 1 and 2) or MLE (100 mg/kg) (groups 3 and 4). On day 15, the animals were anesthetized with ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (20 mg/kg), and gross mineral coal dust (3 mg/0.3 mL saline) (groups 2 and 4) or saline solution (0.3 mL) (groups 1 and 3) was administered directly in the lung by intratracheal administration. Fifteen days after coal dust or saline instillation, the animals were sacrificed, and the femur, liver, and peripheral blood were removed. The results showed a general increase in the DNA damage values at 8 hours for all treatment groups, probably related to surgical procedures that had stressed the animals. Also, liver cells from rats treated with coal dust, pretreated or not with MLE, showed statistically higher comet assay values compared to the control group at 14 days after exposure. These results could be expected because the liver metabolizes a variety of organic compounds to more polar by-products. On the other hand, the micronucleus assay results did not show significant differences among groups. Therefore, our data do not support the antimutagenic activity of M. laevigata as a modulator of DNA damage after acute coal dust instillation.

  16. Coal-92

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  17. Effect of surface wettability on microfluidic EDGE emulsification

    Maan, A.A.; Sahin, S.; Mujawar, L.H.; Boom, R.M.; Schroen, C.G.P.H.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of wettability on microfluidic EDGE emulsification was investigated at dispersed phase contact angles between 90 and 160. The highest contact angle (160) produced monodispersed emulsions with droplet size 5.0 lm and coefficient of variation

  18. Thermodynamic analysis and economic evaluation of a 1000 MW bituminous coal fired power plant incorporating low-temperature pre-drying (LTPD)

    Xu, Cheng; Xu, Gang; Zhu, Mingming; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An improved design of coal pre-drying using flue gas waste heat was proposed. • 0.4% energy efficiency increase was achieved with the proposed system. • The additional net economic benefit of the proposed system is $1.91 M per year. • Proposed concept can be widely applied to improve coal-fired power plant efficiency. - Abstract: Low-temperature pre-drying (LTPD) of lignite has been identified as an effective approach to improve the efficiency of lignite fired power plants. In this study, an improved concept for the pre-drying of medium moisture bituminous coals using flue gas waste heat was proposed and its feasibility was assessed. In the proposed configuration, the boiler exhaust flue gas is drawn to dryers to heat and pre-dry the raw coal, removing a large proportion of the coal moisture and leading to an improvement in the energy efficiency of the power plant. Thermodynamic analysis and economic evaluation were performed based on a typical 1000 MW bituminous coal fired power plant incorporating the proposed LTPD concept. The results showed that the net power plant efficiency gain is as much as 0.4 percentage point with additional net power output of 9.3 MW as compared to the reference plant without coal pre-drying. This was attributed to the reduction in the moisture content from 10.3 to 2.7 wt%. The additional net economic benefit attained due to the coal pre-drying was estimated to reach $1.91 M per year. This work provides a broadly applicable and economically feasible approach to further improve the energy efficiency of power plants firing coals with medium moisture contents.

  19. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture From Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents

    Benson, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Srinivasachar, Srivats [Envergex LLC, Sturbridge, MA (United States); Laudal, Daniel [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Browers, Bruce [Barr Engineering, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-31

    A novel hybrid solid sorbent technology for CO₂ capture and separation from coal combustion-derived flue gas was evaluated. The technology – Capture of CO₂ by Hybrid Sorption (CACHYS™) – is a solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: 1) reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, 2) utilization of novel process chemistry, 3) contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO₂ heat of reaction and promote fast CO₂ capture, and 4) low-cost method of heat management. This report provides key information developed during the course of the project that includes sorbent performance, energy for sorbent regeneration, physical properties of the sorbent, the integration of process components, sizing of equipment, and overall capital and operational cost of the integrated CACHYS™ system. Seven sorbent formulations were prepared and evaluated at the lab-scale for energy requirements and CO₂ capture performance. Sorbent heat of regeneration ranged from 30-80 kJ/mol CO₂ and was found to be dependent on process conditions. Two sorbent formulations (designated HCK-4 & HCK-7) were down-selected for additional fixed-bed testing. Additional testing involved subjecting the sorbents to 100 continuous cycles in the fixed-bed reactor to determine performance as a function of time. The working capacity achieved for HCK-4 sorbent ranged from 5.5-8.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent, while the HCK-7 typically ranged from 8.0-10.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent. Overall, there was no deterioration in capacity with continuous cycling for either sorbent. The CACHYS™ bench-scale testing system designed and fabricated under this award consists of a dual circulating fluidized-bed adsorber and a moving-bed regenerator. The system takes a flue gas slipstream from the University of North Dakota’s coal-fired steam plant. Prior to being sent to the adsorber, the flue gas is scrubbed to remove SO₂ and particulate. During parametric testing of the adsorber, CO₂ capture achieved using

  20. Fabrication and anisotropic wettability of titanium-coated microgrooves

    Gui, N.; Xu, W.; Tian, J.; Rosengarten, G.; Brandt, M.; Qian, M.

    2018-03-01

    Surface wettability plays a critical role in a variety of key areas including orthopaedic implants and chemical engineering. Anisotropy in wettability can arise from surface grooves, which are of particular relevance to orthopaedic implants because they can mimic collagen fibrils that are the basic components of the extracellular matrix. Titanium (Ti) and its alloys have been widely used for orthopaedic and dental implant applications. This study is concerned with the fabrication of Ti-coated microgrooves with different groove widths and the characterisation of the anisotropy in wettability through measuring water contact angles, compared with both the Wenzel and Cassie models. Experimental results revealed that there existed significant anisotropy in the wettability of Ti-coated microgrooves, and the degree of anisotropy (Δθ) increased with an increasing groove width from 5 μm to 20 μm. On average, the contact angle measured parallel to the groove direction (θ//) was about 50°-60° smaller than that measured perpendicular to the groove direction (θ⊥). In general, the Wenzel model predicted the contact angles along the surface groove direction reasonably, and so did the Cassie model for the contact angles perpendicular to the groove direction. Osteoblast spreading was affected by the anisotropy in wettability, which occurred preferably along, rather than perpendicular to, the groove direction. These findings are informative for the design of Ti implant surfaces when anisotropy in wettability matters.

  1. Evaluation of pitches and cokes from solvent-extracted coal materials

    McHenry, E.R.

    1996-12-01

    Three initial coal-extracted (C-E) samples were received from the West Virginia University (WVU) Chemical Engineering Department. Two samples had been hydrogenated to obtain pitches that satisfy Theological requirements. One of the hydrogenated (HC-E) samples had been extracted by toluene to remove ash and higher molecular weight aromatic compounds. We were unable to measure the softening point and viscosity of the non-hydro treated solid extract sample, Positive characteristics in the HC-E materials were softening points of 113-119{degrees}C, low sulfur and ash. The oxygen and nitrogen content of the HC-E samples may limit future usage in premium carbon and graphite products. Coking values were similar to petroleum pitches. Laboratory anode testing indicates that in combination with standard coal-tar pitch, the HC-E material can be used as a binder pitch.

  2. EDS Coal Liquefaction Process Development. Phase V. Laboratory evaluation of the characteristics of EDS Illinois bottoms

    Lao, T C; Levasseur, A A

    1984-02-01

    This interim report documents work carried out by Combustion Engineering, Inc. under a contract to Exxon Research and Engineering Company to develop a conceptual Hybrid Boiler design fueled by the vacuum distillation residue (vacuum bottoms) derived from Illinois No. 6 coal in the EDS Coal Liquefaction Process. This report was prepared by Combustion Engineering, Inc., and is the first of two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler program. This report covers the results of a laboratory investigation to assess the fuel and ash properties of EDS vacuum bottoms. The results of the laboratory testing reported here were used in conjunction with Combustion Engineering's design experience to predict fuel performance and to develop appropriate boiler design parameters. These boiler design parameters were used to prepare the engineering design study reported in EDS Interim Report FE-2893-113, the second of the two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler Program. 46 figures, 29 tables.

  3. Critical evaluation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors applicable to coal conversion

    Spiewak, I.; Jones, J.E. Jr.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; DeStefano, J.R.; Delene, J.G.

    1975-12-01

    A critical review is presented of the technology and costs of very high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTRs) applicable to nuclear coal conversion. Coal conversion processes suitable for coupling to reactors are described. Vendor concepts of the VHTR are summarized. The materials requirements as a function of process temperature in the range 1400 to 2000 0 F are analyzed. Components, environmental and safety factors, economics and nuclear fuel cycles are reviewed. It is concluded that process heat supply in the range 1400 to 1500 0 F could be developed with a high degree of assurance. Process heat at 1600 0 F would require considerably more materials development. While temperatures up to 2000 0 F appear to be attainable, considerably more research and risk were involved. A demonstration plant would be required as a step in the commercialization of the VHTR

  4. Nuclear techniques for in situ evaluation of coal and mineral deposits

    Borsaru, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in in situ analysis of minerals and coal by nuclear borehole logging. Developments in the oil, gas and uranium industries are not discussed in the present paper unless they have direct applications in the mineral industry (e.g. multi-element analysis and development of spectral litho-density tools). The review covers techniques developed mostly in the last decade and is based on work published in North America, Europe and Australia. (author)

  5. Evaluation of AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this program is to expand the use of coal by utilizing CFB (circulating fluidized bed) technology to provide an environmentally safe method for disposing of waste materials. Hospitals are currently experiencing a waste management crisis. In many instances, they are no longer permitted to burn pathological and infectious wastes in incinerators. Older hospital incinerators are not capable of maintaining the stable temperatures and residence times necessary in order to completely destroy toxic substances before release into the atmosphere. In addition, the number of available landfills which can safely handle these substances is decreasing each year. The purpose of this project is to conduct necessary research investigating whether the combustion of the hospital wastes in a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler will effectively destroy dioxins and other hazardous substances before release into the atmosphere. If this is proven feasible, in light of the quantity of hospital wastes generated each year, it would create a new market for coal -- possibly 50 million tons/year.

  6. The effects of non-controllable factors in efficiency evaluation of Turkish Coal Enterprises

    Kasap, Y.; Konuk, A.; Gasimov, R.N.; Kilic, A.M.

    2007-12-15

    In this study, which aims to examine the effects of non-controllable factors as well as input parameters on the efficiency performances of Turkish Coal Mine Enterprises, eight enterprises within Turkish Coal Enterprises (TCE) were examined. In order to keep the study as up-to-date as possible, data from the latest year (2005) was examined. For each enterprise, the outputs consisted of the amount of the production sold and the total income gained in the corresponding year; the controllable inputs consisted of investment expenditure, overburden stripping and number of staff; and non-controllable inputs consisted of total reserve and low heat values. In order to measure the effects of non-controllable inputs on enterprise efficiency, three-stage modified data envelopment analysis (DEA) model was employed. In the first stage, information concerning the efficiency of the enterprises was gained by using only the controllable inputs and outputs. In the second stage, the effects of non-controllable inputs on controllable inputs in inefficient enterprises were examined. Lastly in the third stage, the new efficiency values were calculated by means of DEA where controllable inputs and outputs modified according to non-controllable inputs were used. Considering the non-controllable inputs as a result of the analyses conducted with three-stage DEA model, it was determined that the average efficiency value of Turkish Coal Enterprises increased from 87.5% to 92.3%.

  7. Preparation and Evaluation of Adsorbents from Coal and Irvingia gabonensis Seed Shell

    Ezeokonkwo, Mercy A.; Ofor, Okechukwu F.; Ani, Julius U.

    2017-12-01

    The adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions on adsorbents prepared from sub-bituminous coal, lignite and a blend of coal and Irvingia gabonensis seed shells was investigated. Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope and X-ray fluorescence analyses implicated hydroxyl, carbonyl, Al2O3 and SiO2 as being responsible for binding the metal ions on the porous adsorbents. The optimum adsorption of carbonized lignite for the removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous media were 80.93% and 87.85%, respectively. Batch adsorption was done by effect of adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, temperature, particle size, and initial concentration. Equilibrium for the removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) was established within 100 and 120 min respectively. Blending the lignite-derived adsorbent with Irvingia gabonensis seed shell improved the performance significantly. More improvement was observed on modification of the blend using NaOH and H3PO4. Pb(II) was preferentially adsorbed than Cd(II) in all cases. Adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions followed Langmuir isotherm. The kinetics of adsorption was best described by pseudo-second order model. The potential for using a blend of coal and agricultural byproduct (Irvingia gabonensis seed shell) was found to be a viable alternative for removal of toxic heavy metals from aqueous solutions.

  8. Coal 1992

    1992-01-01

    ACR's Coal 1992, the successor to the ACR Coal Marketing Manual, contains a comprehensive set of data on many aspects of the Australian coal industry for several years leading up to 1992. Tables and text give details of coal production and consumption in New South Wales, Queensland and other states. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, China, Colombia, Poland and ex-USSR. Also listed are prices of Australian coking and non-coking coal, Australian coal stocks (and those of other major countries), loading port capacities, freight rates and coal quality requirements (analysis of coals by brand and supplier). A listing of Australian coal exporting companies is provided. A description of the spot Coal Screen Dealing System is given. World hard coal imports are listed by country and coal imports by major Asian countries tabulated. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is included.

  9. Preliminary hydrologic evaluation of the North Horn Mountain coal-resource area, Utah

    Graham, M.J.; Tooley, John E.; Price, Don

    1981-01-01

    North Horn Mountain is part of a deeply dissected plateau in central Utah which is characterized by deep, narrow, steep-walled canyons with local relief of more than 1,000 feet. Geologic units exposed in the North Horn Mountain area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene and contain two mineable seams of Cretaceous coal. The area is in the drainage basin of the San Rafael River, in the Colorado River Basin. Runoff from the mountain is ephemeral. This runoff to the San Rafael River is by way of Cottonwood and Perron Creeks and represents less than 10 percent of their average annual runoff. Probable peak discharges (100-year flood) for the ephemeral streams draining North Horn Mountain are estimated to range from 200 to 380 cubic feet per second.The chemical quality of surface water in the area is good. The water is generally of a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type with average dissolved solids less than 500 milligrams per liter. Annual sediment yield in most of the area ranges from 0.1 to 0.2 acre-foot per square mile but locally is as high as 1.0 acre-foot per square mile. Most of the sediment is eroded during cloudbursts.Most of the ground water above the coal on North Horn Mountain probably is in perched aquifers. These aquifers support the flow of small seeps and springs. In some areas, the regional water table appears to extend upward into the coal. The principal source of recharge is precipitation that probably moves to aquifers along faults, joints, or fractures. This movement is apparently quite rapid. The dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water in the North Horn Mountain area range from less than 500 to about 1,000 milligrams per liter.Coal mining on North Horn Mountain should have minor "effects on the quantity and quality of surface water. The maximum predicted decrease in the annual flow of Ferron and Cottonwood Creeks is less than U percent. The sediment loads of affected streams could be significantly increased if construction were to

  10. Coal pump

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  11. The Evaluation of a Risk Degree for the Process of a Brown Coal Spontaneous Ignition on Dumps with Using of Modern Numeric Methods

    Klouda, Petr; Moni, Vlastimil; Řehoř, Michal; Blata, Jan; Helebrant, František

    2018-06-01

    The article is a summary of information about evaluation of a risk degree for a brown coal spontaneous ignition which is realized on the base of a database analysis of information about the development of stative quantities and desorbated gases in the stored bodies of the brown coal. The data were gained from the long term complex measurements which were realized at chosen companies during the coal mining in the previous parts of the project. In the last part of the project, we examined results of temperature models from thermographs with results of gasses and coal samples from the mines. Then, the influence of atmospheric conditions (insolation, water downfall, changes of barometric pressure etc.), the influence of coal mass degradation, the influence of physical and chemical factors, and the influence of other defective factors on the process of the coal spontaneous ignition. The gasmetry was assess with gas in-situ samples and laboratory gas models of indicative gasses for the spontaneous ignition, which were taken from the method of the thermic oxidation with the aim of the correlation finding for an epicentre of temperature within the spontaneous ignition.

  12. Wettability, structural and optical properties investigation of TiO{sub 2} nanotubular arrays

    Zalnezhad, E., E-mail: erfan@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Maleki, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Banihashemian, S.M. [Low Dimensional Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, Science Faculty, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Park, J.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.B. [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Sarraf, M.; Sarhan, A.A.D.M.; Ramesh, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-06-15

    Graphical abstract: FESEM images of the TiO 2 nanotube layers formed at 0.5 wt% NH4F/ glycerol. - Highlights: • Structural property investigation of TiO{sub 2} nanotube. • Evaluation of wettability of TiO{sub 2} nanotube. • Study on optical properties of TiO{sub 2} nanotube. • The effect of anatase phase on optical and wettability properties of TiO{sub 2.} - Abstract: In this study, the effect of microstructural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanotubular arrays on wettability and optical properties was investigated. Pure titanium was deposited on silica glass by PVD magnetron sputtering technique. The Ti coated substrates were anodized in an electrolyte containing NH{sub 4}F/glycerol. The structures of the ordered anodic TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (ATNs) as long as 175 nm were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The result shows a sharp peak in the optical absorbance spectra around the band gap energy, 3.49–3.42 eV for annealed and non-annealed respectively. The thermal process induced growth of the grain size, which influence on the density of particles and the index of refraction. Furthermore, the wettability tests' result displays that the contact angle of intact substrate (θ = 74.7°) was decreased to 31.4° and 17.4° after anodization for amorphous and heat treated (450 °C) ANTs coated substrate, respectively.

  13. Coal structure construction system with construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation; Kochiku chishiki to bubunteki energy hyoka ni yoru sekitan bunshi kozo kochiku system

    Okawa, T.; Sasai, T.; Komoda, N. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The computer aided coal structure construction system is proposed, and a computational construction example is presented. The coal structure construction engine of this system fabricates molecular structure by connecting fragments sequentially inputted through a user interface. The best structure candidate is determined using construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation every addition of one fragment, and this process is subsequently repeated. The structure evaluation engine analyzes the 3-D conformation candidate by molecular dynamics, and evaluates the conformation by determining the energy value of an optimum structure. As an example, this system was applied to construction of coal molecular structure based on the actual data of partial structure composed of 26 structures from 2l kinds of aromatic cluster structures, 27 bonds from 2 kinds of bridged bonds, and 16 groups from 2 kinds of terminal substitutional groups. As a result, this system could construct a superior structure according to expert knowledge from the viewpoint of energy. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Thermodynamic evaluation of CHP (combined heat and power) plants integrated with installations of coal gasification

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Malik, Tomasz; Liszka, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Integration of a CHP steam plant with an installation of coal gasification and gas turbine leads to an IGCC-CHP (integrated gasification combined cycle-combined heat and power). Two installations of coal gasification have been analyzed, i.e. pressurized entrained flow gasifier – case 1 and pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with CO_2 recirculation – case 2. Basing on the results of mathematical modelling of an IGCC-CHP plant, the algorithms of calculating typical energy indices have been derived. The following energy indices are considered, i.e. coefficient of heat performance and relative savings of chemical energy of fuels. The results of coefficients of heat performance are contained between 1.87 and 2.37. Values exceeding 1 are thermodynamically justified because the idea of cogeneration of heat and electricity based on combining cycles of the heat engine and heat pump the efficiency of which exceeds 1. Higher values concerning waste heat replace more thermodynamically effective sources of heat in CHP plants. Relative savings of the chemical energy of fuels are similar in both cases of IGCC-CHP plants and are contained between the lower value of the CHP (combined heat and power) plants fuelled with coal and higher value of CHP plants fired with natural gas. - Highlights: • Energy savings of fuel is an adequate measure of cogeneration. • Relative energy savings of IGCC-CHP is near the result of a gas and steam CHP. • COHP (coefficient of heat performance) can help to divide fuel between heat fluxes. • Higher values of COHP in the case of waste heat recovery result from the lower thermal parameters.

  15. Investigation of the evaluation of the sustainable development of the coal industry in China; Untersuchung zur Bewertung der nachhaltigen Entwicklung der Kohlenindustrie Chinas

    Bai, Fuchen [Guangdong Ocean Univ., Zhanjiang (China). School of Economics and Management; Niemann-Delius, Christian [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Rohstoffgewinnung ueber Tage und Bohrtechnik

    2012-07-01

    The challenge of sustainable development in the coal mining industry consists of continuous guarantee of the aims of economic viability, security of supply, compatibility with the environment and social interests. Sustainable development of the coal industry is thus a complex large system, which consists of four partial systems, viz. economy, society, environment and resources of the coal fields. It is based on the coordinated development of these four partial systems. To investigate quantitatively the state of the coal industry in China and the future trends for its sustainable development, an evaluation indicator system consisting of target, criterion and indicator level was formulated in this contribution. According to the structure of the indicator system two evaluation models were developed, viz. fuzzy model based on the AHP method (AHP = Analytical Hierarchy Process) and a model with the aid of main component analysis. With regard to the historical data of the indicators the sustainable development of the coal industry in China was evaluated with the aid of the development models. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of treated black liquor used as dispersant of concentrated coal-water slurry

    Mingsong Zhou; Qian Kong; Bing Pan; Xueqing Qiu; Dongjie Yang; Hongming Lou [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering

    2010-03-15

    The paper making waste liquor is a great water pollution source and much work has been done over the years to overcome this challenge. We present here a solution of black liquor used as dispersant of coal-water slurry (abbreviated as CWS) following chemical treatment. The treated black liquor (abbreviated as TBL) is used to prepare CWS for three bituminous coals, and the factors influencing its dispersing ability and the properties of CWS are investigated. The results show that the increasing sulfonating agent and formaldehyde dosage increase the sulfonic group content while reducing the molecular weight of TBL. The comparison with a naphthalene dispersant shows that TBL has a similar or better dispersing ability, and the large quantity of sulfonic groups engrafted in lignin molecules and the markedly increase of molecular weight are considered the key reason for the excellent performance of TBL. Moreover, the change of the molecular configuration from globular to flocculent in solution observed by TEM is also considered as an important reason for the excellent dispersing effect of TBL for CWS. 25 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Characterization and environmental evaluation of Atikokan coal fly ash for environmental applications

    Yeheyis, M.B.; Shang, J.Q.; Yanful, E.K. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-09-15

    Coal fly ash from thermal power generating stations has become a valuable byproduct in various commercial and environmental applications due to its cementitious, alkaline, and pozzolanic properties. It is used as a raw material in cement production, and also as a replacement for cement in concrete production. This study provided physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterizations of fresh and landfilled coal fly ash from a thermal generation station in Ontario. Fly ash behaviour under various environmental conditions was examined. Tests were conducted to characterize fly ash acid neutralization capacity and heavy metal sorption capacity. The study showed that fresh and landfilled fly ash samples showed significant variations in morphology, mineralogy, and chemical composition. X-ray diffraction studies demonstrated that weathering of the fly ash caused the formation of secondary minerals. The study also showed that the heavy metals from both fresh and landfilled fly ash samples were below leachate criteria set by the provincial government. It was concluded that both fresh and landfilled fly ash are suitable for various environmental and engineering applications. 55 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs.

  18. Hygienic evaluation of new technology for control of methane and dust in coal mines

    Gadzhiev, G P; Deynega, V G; Sukhanov, V V; Levshina, I M; Yarym, N T; Petrenko, G A

    1977-07-01

    Exploitation of available new technology for mining is hindered by the dangers of gas evolution, and the need for maintenance of hygienic standards. The Moscow Mining Institute has developed, and proposed for industrial introduction, a new process for control of methane and dust in mine shafts; the method will help to raise significantly the productivity of excavating machines in high gas factor shafts. The process to combat methane and dust consists essentially in drilling boreholes from the side of the gallery, or from the outer surface, into the coal-bearing stratum. These boreholes are injected with a 24% solution of urea-formaldehyde resin (binder M/sub 2/), with 1% solution of ammonium chloride hardener. After several months this plastic is removed. The new technology involves the escape of toxic substances into the air, hence the need for hygienic testing. Additional study must estimate the danger of accidents, e.g., shaft fires, toxicity of combustion products of coal or binder. Study is also needed on pathologies which might occur to miners engaged in removal of the plastic with the new technology.

  19. Wettability transition of laser textured brass surfaces inside different mediums

    Yan, Huangping; Abdul Rashid, Mohamed Raiz B.; Khew, Si Ying; Li, Fengping; Hong, Minghui

    2018-01-01

    Hydrophobic surface on brass has attracted intensive attention owing to its importance in scientific research and practical applications. Laser texturing provides a simple and promising method to achieve it. Reducing wettability transition time from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity or superhydrophobicity remains a challenge. Herein, wettability transition of brass surfaces with hybrid micro/nano-structures fabricated by laser texturing was investigated by immersing the samples inside different mediums. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface contact angle measurement were employed to characterize surface morphology, chemical composition and wettability of the fabricated surfaces of brass samples. Wettability transition time from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity was shortened by immersion into isopropyl alcohol for a period of 3 h as a result of the absorption and accumulation of organic substances on the textured brass surface. When the textured brass sample was immersed into sodium bicarbonate solution, flower-like structures on the sample surface played a key role in slowing down wettability transition. Moreover, it had the smallest steady state contact angle as compared to the others. This study provides a facile method to construct textured surfaces with tunable wetting behaviors and effectively extend the industrial applications of brass.

  20. Effects of Engineered Wettability on the Efficiency of Dew Collection.

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Luedeman, William L; Ölçeroglu, Emre; McCarthy, Matthew; Benkoski, Jason J

    2018-01-31

    Surface wettability plays an important role in dew collection. Nucleation is faster on hydrophilic surfaces, while droplets slide more readily on hydrophobic surfaces. Plants and animals in coastal desert environments appear to overcome this trade-off through biphilic surfaces with patterned wettability. In this study, we investigate the effects of millimeter-scale wettability patterns, mimicking those of the Stenocara beetle, on the rate of water collection from humid air. The rate of water collection per unit area is measured as a function of subcooling (ΔT = 1, 7, and 27 °C) and angle of inclination (from 10° to 90°). It is then compared for superbiphilic, hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and surperhydrophobic surfaces. For large subcooling, neither wettability nor tilt angle has a significant effect because the rate of condensation is so great. For 1 °C subcooling and large angles, hydrophilic surfaces perform best because condensation is the rate-limiting step. For low angles of inclination, superhydrophobic samples are best because droplet sliding is the rate-limiting step. Superbiphilic surfaces, in contrast to their superior fog collecting capabilities, generally collected dew at the slowest rate due to their inherent contact angle hysteresis. Theoretical considerations suggest that this finding may apply more generally to surfaces with patterned wettability.

  1. Evaluation of plant species composition after thirteen years post coal mining rehabilitation in East Kutai District of East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Komara, L. L.; Murtinah, V.; Arbain

    2018-04-01

    Coal mining leaving large overburden which needs to be rehabilitated by conducting reclamation and re-vegetation. This study objective was to evaluate plant species composition after thirteen years of re-vegetation activities in a coal mining rehabilitation site in KutaiTimur District, East Kalimantan, with coordinate 00º33’23”-00º38’17” NL and 117º23’55”-117º23’20” EL. This study compared rehabilitation site with the natural forest conditions sites. There were found 28 plant species in the rehabilitation site, consisting of 19 wood species (Cassia siamea and Ficus uncinata) and 9 non-wood species (Nephrolepis biserata and Miscanthus javanica).In comparison, 36 species were found in the natural forest condition, consisting of 25 woody species (Nephelium eriopetalum and Macaranga hypoleuca)and 11 non-wood species (Fordia splendidisima and Saurauia umbellata). Woody species diversity indices in the rehabilitation site after 13 years post mining (i.e., 2,21) was lower than in the natural forest sites (3,01); while the diversity indices for non-wood species were relatively similar (1,48 and 1,96 in the rehabilitation and natural forest sites respectively). Species richness of non-wood species was low, but it has a high coverage per species in this site.To restore rehabilitation site woody species to its assumed natural conditions, 22woody species should be planted.

  2. Exploring evaluation to influence the quality of pulverized coal fly ash. Co-firing of biomass in a pulverized coal plant or mixing of biomass ashes with pulverized coal fly ash; Verkennende evaluatie kwaliteitsbeinvloeding poederkoolvliegas. Bijstoken van biomassa in een poederkoolcentrale of bijmenging van biomassa-assen met poederkoolvliegas

    Van der Sloot, H.A.; Cnubben, P.A.J.P [ECN Schoon Fossiel, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-08-01

    In this literature survey the consequences of co-firing of biomass and mixing of biomass ash with coal fly ash on the coal fly ash quality is evaluated. Biomass ash considered in this context is produced by gasification, pyrolysis or combustion in a fluidized bed. The irregular shape of biomass ash obtained from gasification, pyrolysis or combustion has a negative influence on the water demand in concrete applications of the coal fly ash resulting from mixing biomass ash and coal fly ash. In case of co-firing, high concentrations of elements capable of lowering the ash melting point (e.g., Ca and Mg) may lead to more ash agglomeration. This leads to a less favourable particle size distribution of the coal fly ash, which has a negative impact on the water demand in cement bound applications. Gasification, pyrolysis and combustion may lead to significant unburnt carbon levels (>10%). The unburnt carbon generally absorbs water and thus has a negative influence on the water demand in cement-bound applications. The contribution of biomass ash to the composition of coal fly ash will not be significantly different, whether the biomass is co-fired or whether the biomass ash is mixed off-line with coal fly ash. The limit values for Cl, SO4 and soluble salts can form a limitation for the use of coal fly ash containing biomass for cement-bound applications. As side effects of biomass co-firing, the level of constituents such as Na, K, Ca and Mg may lead to slagging and fouling of the boiler. In addition, a higher emission of flue gas contaminants As, Hg, F, Cl and Br may be anticipated in case more contaminated biomass streams are applied. This may also lead to a higher contamination level of gypsum produced from flue gas cleaning residues. Relatively clean biomass streams (clean wood, cacao shells, etc.) will hardly lead to critical levels of elements from a leaching point of view. More contaminated streams, such as sewage sludge, used and preserved wood, petcoke and RDF

  3. Residual coal exploitation and its impact on sustainable development of the coal industry in China

    Zhang, Yujiang; Feng, Guorui; Zhang, Min; Ren, Hongrui; Bai, Jinwen; Guo, Yuxia; Jiang, Haina; Kang, Lixun

    2016-01-01

    Although China owns large coal reserves, it now faces the problem of depletion of its coal resources in advance. The coal-based energy mix in China will not change in the short term, and a means of delaying the coal resources depletion is therefore urgently required. The residual coal was exploited first with a lower recovery percentage and was evaluated as commercially valuable damaged coal. This approach is in comparison to past evaluations when the residual coal was allocated as exploitation losses. Coal recovery rates, the calculation method of residual coal reserves and statistics of its mines in China were given. On this basis, a discussion concerning the impacts on the delay of China's coal depletion, development of coal exploitation and sustainable developments, as well as technologies and relevant policies, were presented. It is considered that the exploitation of residual coal can effectively delay China's coal depletion, inhibit the construction of new mines, redress the imbalance between supply and demand of coal in eastern China, improve the mining area environment and guarantee social stability. The Chinese government supports the exploitation technologies of residual coal. Hence, exploiting residual coal is of considerable importance in sustainable development of the coal industry in China. - Highlights: •Pay attention to residual coal under changing energy-mix environment in China. •Estimate residual coal reserves and investigate its exploitation mines. •Discuss impacts of residual coal exploitation on delay of coal depletion in China. •Discuss impacts on coal mining industry and residual coal exploitation technology. •Give corresponding policy prescriptions.

  4. Evaluation of frother performance in coal flotation: A critical review of existing methodologies

    Bhattacharya, S.; Dey, S. [Indian School for Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. for Fuel & Mineral Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Separation efficiency in flotation depends, to a considerable extent, on the efficiency of the frother used. A successful frother must achieve a delicate balance between froth stability and non-persistency. Ideally, the frother is not supposed to influence the state of the surface of the coal and minerals. In practice, however, interaction does occur between the frother, other reagents, and solid surfaces. Various commercially available frothers can differ slightly or significantly in their influence on the flotation results. Therefore, a plant operator is in a dilemma when it comes to selecting a frother to be used in his plant. This article attempts to critically review the different methodologies, which are available to compare the performance of two or more frothers in order to decide which would best serve the purpose of the plant operator.

  5. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  6. Surface wettability effects on critical heat flux of boiling heat transfer using nanoparticle coatings

    Hsu, Chin-Chi; Chen, Ping-Hei

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of surface wettability on pool boiling heat transfer. Nano-silica particle coatings were used to vary the wettability of the copper surface from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic by modifying surface topography

  7. Electrospinning onto Insulating Substrates by Controlling Surface Wettability and Humidity

    Choi, WooSeok; Kim, Geon Hwee; Shin, Jung Hwal; Lim, Geunbae; An, Taechang

    2017-11-01

    We report a simple method for electrospinning polymers onto flexible, insulating substrates by controlling the wettability of the substrate surface. Water molecules were adsorbed onto the surface of a hydrophilic polymer substrate by increasing the local humidity around the substrate. The adsorbed water was used as the ground electrode for electrospinning. The electrospun fibers were deposited only onto hydrophilic areas of the substrate, allowing for patterning through wettability control. Direct writing of polymer fiber was also possible through near-field electrospinning onto a hydrophilic surface.

  8. Fabrication of superhydrophobic polyaniline films with rapidly switchable wettability

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Men, Xuehu; Yang, Jin; Xu, Xianghui; Zhu, Xiaotao; Xue, Qunji

    2011-10-01

    A superhydrophobic polyaniline (PANI) film has been fabricated by using a facile one-step spraying method. The PANI was synthesized via in situ doping polymerization in the presence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as the dopant. The water contact angle of this superhydrophobic surface reaches to 156°. Both the surface chemical compositions and morphological structures were analyzed. A granular morphology of PANI with a moderate amount of nanofibers was obtained. Moreover, a rapid surface wettability transition between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity can be observed when it is doped with PFOA and de-doped with base. The mechanism for this tunable wettability has been discussed in detail.

  9. Australian coal

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  10. Using X-ray methods to evaluate the combustion sulfur minerals and graphitic carbon in coals and ashes

    Wertz, D.L.; Collins, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    Coals are complex mixtures of vastly different materials whose combustion kinetics may well exhibit symbiotic effects. Although the sulfur oxide gases produced during the combustion of coals may have a variety of sources, they are frequently caused by the thermal degradation of inorganic minerals to produce ''acid rain''. Since many of the minerals involved either as reactants or products in coal combustion produce well defined x-ray power diffraction (XRPD) patterns, the fate of these minerals may be followed by measuring the XRPD patterns of combustion products. Coal 1368P, a coal with an unusually high pyrite (FeS/sub 2/) fraction, has been the subject materials in our investigations of the fate of the inorganic minerals during combustion. These studies include measuring the fate of pyrite and of graphitic carbon in coal 1368P under varying combustion conditions. The results discussed in this paper were obtained by standard XRPD methods

  11. Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task 1

    1981-11-01

    Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal fired, closed cycle, magnetohydrodynamic power generation are detailed. These accomplishments relate to all system aspects of a CCMHD power generation system including coal combustion, heat transfer to the MHD working fluid, MHD power generation, heat and cesium seed recovery and overall systems analysis. Direct coal firing of the combined cycle has been under laboratory development in the form of a high slag rejection, regeneratively air cooled cyclone coal combustor concept, originated within this program. A hot bottom ceramic regenerative heat exchanger system was assembled and test fired with coal for the purposes of evaluating the catalytic effect of alumina on NO/sub x/ emission reduction and operability of the refractory dome support system. Design, procurement, fabrication and partial installation of a heat and seed recovery flow apparatus was accomplished and was based on a stream tube model of the full scale system using full scale temperatures, tube sizes, rates of temperature change and tube geometry. Systems analysis capability was substantially upgraded by the incorporation of a revised systems code, with emphasis on ease of operator interaction as well as separability of component subroutines. The updated code was used in the development of a new plant configuration, the Feedwater Cooled (FCB) Brayton Cycle, which is superior to the CCMHD/Steam cycle both in performance and cost. (WHK)

  12. Coal - 96

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  13. Venezuelan coal

    Vazquez, L.U.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

  14. Coal summit II

    1983-01-01

    Various papers were presented on world coal trade. Papers include: Poland as a producer and exporter of coal; the dynamics of world coal trade; Cerrejon coal production perspectives; present state of the Australian coal industry; present state of the EC coal market and future prospects; prospects of US coal exports to Europe; forecast of Italian coal supply and demand through 1990; statistics from coal transportation outlook; status of world coal ports.

  15. Ozone exposure affects leaf wettability and tree water balance

    Schreuder, M.D.J.; Hove, van L.W.A.; Brewer, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the influences of growing-season background ozone (O3) concentrations on leaf cuticles and foliar water loss. Using fumigation chambers, leaf wettability and foliar water loss were studied in two poplar species, Populus nigra and P. euramericana, and a conifer,

  16. Wettability Modification of Nanomaterials by Low-Energy Electron Flux

    Torchinsky I

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Controllable modification of surface free energy and related properties (wettability, hygroscopicity, agglomeration, etc. of powders allows both understanding of fine physical mechanism acting on nanoparticle surfaces and improvement of their key characteristics in a number of nanotechnology applications. In this work, we report on the method we developed for electron-induced surface energy and modification of basic, related properties of powders of quite different physical origins such as diamond and ZnO. The applied technique has afforded gradual tuning of the surface free energy, resulting in a wide range of wettability modulation. In ZnO nanomaterial, the wettability has been strongly modified, while for the diamond particles identical electron treatment leads to a weak variation of the same property. Detailed investigation into electron-modified wettability properties has been performed by the use of capillary rise method using a few probing liquids. Basic thermodynamic approaches have been applied to calculations of components of solid–liquid interaction energy. We show that defect-free, low-energy electron treatment technique strongly varies elementary interface interactions and may be used for the development of new technology in the field of nanomaterials.

  17. Comparative Microstructural and Wettability Studies of 63sn-37pb ...

    The respective wettability values (in percentage) of the total area of the copper grid covered by the molten solder are: 8.3%, and 8.6% The alloy also have the following Vicker's Hardness Values of 18.58VHN and 16.32VHN. The microstructures of the developed alloys were studied and analyzed. The alloy's microstructures ...

  18. Effect of Calendering on Electrode Wettability in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Yangping eSheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the wettability between the porous electrode and the electrolyte in lithium ion batteries can improve both the manufacturing process and the electrochemical performance of the cell. The wetting rate, which is the electrolyte transport rate in the porous electrode, can be quantified using the wetting balance. The effect of the calendering process on the wettability of anode electrodes was investigated. A graphite anode film with an as-coated thickness of 59 μm was used as baseline electrode film and was calendered to produce films with thickness ranging from 55 to 41 µm. Results show that wettability is improved by light calendering from an initial thickness of 59 μm to a calendered thickness of 53 μm where the wetting rate increased from 0.375 to 0.589 mm/s0.5. Further calendering below 53 µm resulted in a decrease in wetting rates to a minimum observed value of 0.206 mm/s0.5 at a calendered thickness of 41 μm. Under the same electrolyte, wettability of the electrode is controlled to a great extent by the pore structure in the electrode film which includes parameters such as porosity, pore size distribution, pore geometry and topology. Relations between the wetting behavior and the pore structure as characterized by mercury intrusion and electron microscopy exist and can be used to manipulate the wetting behavior of electrodes.

  19. An investigation of factors affecting wettability of some southern hardwoods

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Wan H. Wang

    1999-01-01

    >Wettability of sanded and nonsanded transverse and tangential sections of 22 southern hardwood species were[was] judged by measurement of contact angles using phenol-formaldehyde resins. As ex­pected, contact angle values on transverse sec­tions were higher than on tangential sections for both sanded and...

  20. An investigation of selected factors that influence hardwood wettability

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse; Wan H. Wang

    2001-01-01

    Wettability of sanded and non-sanded transverse and tangential sections of 22 southern hardwoods species was judged by measurement of contact angles using phenol formaldehyde resins. As expected, contact angle values on transverse sections were higher than those on tangential sections for both sanded and non-sanded surfaces. On sanded surfaces, hackberry had the...

  1. Wettability and Contact Time on a Biomimetic Superhydrophobic Surface

    Liang, Yunhong; Peng, Jian; Li, Xiujuan; Huang, Jubin; Qiu, Rongxian; Zhang, Zhihui; Ren, Luquan

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by the array microstructure of natural superhydrophobic surfaces (lotus leaf and cicada wing), an array microstructure was successfully constructed by high speed wire electrical discharge machining (HS-WEDM) on the surfaces of a 7075 aluminum alloy without any chemical treatment. The artificial surfaces had a high apparent contact angle of 153° ± 1° with a contact angle hysteresis less than 5° and showed a good superhydrophobic property. Wettability, contact time, and the corresponding superhydrophobic mechanism of artificial superhydrophobic surface were investigated. The results indicated that the micro-scale array microstructure was an important factor for the superhydrophobic surface, while different array microstructures exhibited different effects on the wettability and contact time of the artificial superhydrophobic surface. The length (L), interval (S), and height (H) of the array microstructure are the main influential factors on the wettability and contact time. The order of importance of these factors is H > S > L for increasing the apparent contact angle and reducing the contact time. The method, using HS-WEDM to fabricate superhydrophobic surface, is simple, low-cost, and environmentally friendly and can easily control the wettability and contact time on the artificial surfaces by changing the array microstructure. PMID:28772613

  2. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Application of liquid chromatographic separation methods to THF-soluble portions of integrated two-stage coal liquefaction resids

    Green, J.B.; Pearson, C.D.; Young, L.L.; Green, J.A. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using non-aqueous ion exchange liquid chromatography (NIELC) for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resids and THF-soluble whole oils derived from direct coal liquefaction. The technique can be used to separate the material into a number of acid, base, and neutral fractions. Each of the fractions obtained by NIELC was analyzed and then further fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation and analysis schemes are given in the accompanying report. With this approach, differences can be distinguished among samples obtained from different process streams in the liquefaction plant and among samples obtained at the same sampling location, but produced from different feed coals. HPLC was directly applied to one THF-soluble whole process oil without the NIELC preparation, with limited success. The direct HPLC technique used was directed toward the elution of the acid species into defined classes. The non-retained neutral and basic components of the oil were not analyzable by the direct HPLC method because of solubility limitations. Sample solubility is a major concern in the application of these techniques.

  3. Report on evaluation for SRC-2 coal liquefaction project; SRC-II sekitan ekika project hyoka sagyo hokokusho

    NONE

    1979-10-01

    Among the EDS, H-Coal and SRC-2 lined up in the coal liquefaction project of the U.S., the SRC is aimed at producing 6,000 t/day as a module for a 30,000 t/day commercial plant. They expect Ash contents (iron, sulfur, etc.) in coal without basically using catalysts. The products are applicable to fuels for electricity and gas for the moment. In the element technology, there are some problems in manufacturing hydrogen by gasification of residuals as well as in slurry systems, reaction towers, etc.. In the 30,000 ton commercial plant, the coal-liquefied oil costs $19.89/bbl (price as of 1978) assuming coal costs $29.47; therefore, the feasibility is strong as a substitute for petroleum. Japan's share for the required funds will be 86.8 billion yen (if 250 yen per dollar). Since the kinds of coal are conceivably increased in number through the improvement of the process, the Pacific rim countries and these which lie on the Indian Ocean are assumed to be the major coal producing countries for Japan. The stability in storage of coal-liquefied oil is experimentally excellent, as is the compatibility with petroleum products for example. Great results can be expected in the technical know-how and the spread of element technology for Japan. (NEDO)

  4. Report on evaluation for SRC-2 coal liquefaction project; SRC-II sekitan ekika project hyoka sagyo hokokusho

    NONE

    1979-10-01

    Among the EDS, H-Coal and SRC-2 lined up in the coal liquefaction project of the U.S., the SRC is aimed at producing 6,000 t/day as a module for a 30,000 t/day commercial plant. They expect Ash contents (iron, sulfur, etc.) in coal without basically using catalysts. The products are applicable to fuels for electricity and gas for the moment. In the element technology, there are some problems in manufacturing hydrogen by gasification of residuals as well as in slurry systems, reaction towers, etc.. In the 30,000 ton commercial plant, the coal-liquefied oil costs $19.89/bbl (price as of 1978) assuming coal costs $29.47; therefore, the feasibility is strong as a substitute for petroleum. Japan's share for the required funds will be 86.8 billion yen (if 250 yen per dollar). Since the kinds of coal are conceivably increased in number through the improvement of the process, the Pacific rim countries and these which lie on the Indian Ocean are assumed to be the major coal producing countries for Japan. The stability in storage of coal-liquefied oil is experimentally excellent, as is the compatibility with petroleum products for example. Great results can be expected in the technical know-how and the spread of element technology for Japan. (NEDO)

  5. Report on evaluation/selection surveys on coal species, processes and others; Tanshu process nado hyoka sentei chosa hokokusho

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This program analyzes the applicable coal species centered by Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal, which are promising alternative fuel sources for Japan for their reserves, prices, availability, suitability for liquefaction, etc, in order to clarify the possible problems, and commercialize the liquefaction techniques in the early stage. This report consists of 6 chapters. Chapter 1 describes development situations of brown coal, specifically for Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal. Chapter 2 describes characteristics of the reactions involved in the brown coal liquefaction. Chapter 3 describes current status of various liquefaction processes (solvolysis, solvent extraction, direct hydrogenation and C-SRC) under development in Japan, and problems involved in their future developments. Chapter 4 describes current status of the elementary techniques, e.g., those for slurry pretreatment (e.g., dehydration and crushing), solid/liquid separation, secondary hydrogenation, product upgrading and gasification. Chapter 5 describes the related techniques, and Chapter 6 discusses the demonstration survey results of de-ashing, primary/secondary hydrogenation, and dehydration of brown coal. (NEDO)

  6. Report on evaluation/selection surveys on coal species, processes and others; Tanshu process nado hyoka sentei chosa hokokusho

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This program analyzes the applicable coal species centered by Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal, which are promising alternative fuel sources for Japan for their reserves, prices, availability, suitability for liquefaction, etc, in order to clarify the possible problems, and commercialize the liquefaction techniques in the early stage. This report consists of 6 chapters. Chapter 1 describes development situations of brown coal, specifically for Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal. Chapter 2 describes characteristics of the reactions involved in the brown coal liquefaction. Chapter 3 describes current status of various liquefaction processes (solvolysis, solvent extraction, direct hydrogenation and C-SRC) under development in Japan, and problems involved in their future developments. Chapter 4 describes current status of the elementary techniques, e.g., those for slurry pretreatment (e.g., dehydration and crushing), solid/liquid separation, secondary hydrogenation, product upgrading and gasification. Chapter 5 describes the related techniques, and Chapter 6 discusses the demonstration survey results of de-ashing, primary/secondary hydrogenation, and dehydration of brown coal. (NEDO)

  7. Preliminary evaluation of lithology and quality of coal and embedding rock on the basis of borehole logging data

    Nguyen Dinh Chau; Chrusciel, E.

    1990-01-01

    A simple computer method of interpretation of classic borehole logging made on coal deposits is presented. This interpretation enables fast determination of calorific value, ash content and moisture content of coal as well as shale content, porosity and sandstone matrix content of embedding rocks. A method of graphic representation of results is also shown. 5 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs. (author)

  8. Ash wettability conditions splash erosion in the postfire

    Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; de Celis, Reyes; García-Moreno, Jorge; Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth; Alanís, Nancy; Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    à and Doerr, 2008; Woods and Balfour, 2008; Zavala et al., 2009). The presence of an ash layer may be ephemeral, as it often is quickly removed or redistributed by water and wind erosion, animals or traffic (Zavala et al., 2009a). Many authors have observed that the capacity of ash to protect soil depends on properties as the topography, the meteorological conditions and the thickness of ash coverage (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Pereira et al., 2013; Woods and Balfour, 2010; Zavala et al., 2009). Taking this into account, in this study we hypothesized that the wettability / hydrophobicity of the ash layer may have a significant effect on the soil response to splash erosion. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the dispersion of sediments produced by the impact of raindrops in function of ash wettability after a prescribed fire at plot scale. 2. MATERIAL AND METHODS In 20 November 2012, a prescribed fire was carried out in an area located in the public mount "Las Navas", near Almaden de la Plata, Sevilla (approx. 37° 50' 44.44'' N / 6° 3' 7.44''W and 428 masl). Soils are acidic and shallow, developed from acidic metamorphic rocks (schists, slates and pyrophyllites). Vegetation is dominated by shrub legumes (Calicotome villosa and several species of Ulex and Genista). The experimental area was framed and plowed to eliminate the risk of fire spreading during the experiment. Previously to burn, level staffs were installed for determination of flame height. The temperature reached in the soil was monitored during the fire by a set of six thermocouples which were buried in soil (2 cm depth) and connected to a data-logger for monitoring the topsoil temperature every 60 s. The environmental conditions were also monitored during the experiment by a mobile weather station. At the moment of the ignition, the temperature was around 20 °C and the wind speed was near 0.0 m/s. After ignition, the experimental area was allowed to burn during 2.5 h. During burning, flames

  9. Local wettability reversal during steady-state two-phase flow in porous media.

    Sinha, Santanu; Grøva, Morten; Ødegården, Torgeir Bryge; Skjetne, Erik; Hansen, Alex

    2011-09-01

    We study the effect of local wettability reversal on remobilizing immobile fluid clusters in steady-state two-phase flow in porous media. We consider a two-dimensional network model for a porous medium and introduce a wettability alteration mechanism. A qualitative change in the steady-state flow patterns, destabilizing the percolating and trapped clusters, is observed as the system wettability is varied. When capillary forces are strong, a finite wettability alteration is necessary to move the system from a single-phase to a two-phase flow regime. When both phases are mobile, we find a linear relationship between fractional flow and wettability alteration.

  10. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  11. Methane emissions from coal mining

    Boyer, C.M.; Kelafant, J.R.; Kuuskraa, V.A.; Manger, K.C.; Kruger, D.

    1990-09-01

    The report estimates global methane emissions from coal mining on a country specific basis, evaluates the technologies available to degasify coal seams and assesses the economics of recovering methane liberated during mining. 33 to 64 million tonnes were liberated in 1987 from coal mining, 75 per cent of which came from China, the USSR, Poland and the USA. Methane emissions from coal mining are likely to increase. Emission levels vary between surface and underground mines. The methane currently removed from underground mines for safety reasons could be used in a number of ways, which may be economically attractive. 55 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs

  12. Gaseous emissions from coal stockpiles

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    Stockpiled coal undergoes atmospheric oxidation and desorption processes during open air storage. These processes release gases to the environment which may effect health and safety by their toxicity and flammability. In extreme cases, this could lead to a fire. This report discusses gaseous emissions from coal stockpiles. It covers gas emission mechanisms, and gas sampling and testing methods, before examining in more detail the principal gases that have been emitted. It concludes that there is limited research in this area and more data are needed to evaluate the risks of gaseous emissions. Some methods used to prevent coal self-heating and spontaneous combustion can be applied to reduce emissions from coal stockpiles.

  13. Third symposium on coal preparation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    None

    1977-01-01

    The third Symposium on Coal preparation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Fourteen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five additional papers had been entered previously from other sources. Topics covered involved chemical comminution and chemical desulfurization of coal (aimed at reducing sulfur sufficiently with some coals to meet air quality standards without flue gas desulfurization), coal cleaning concepts, removing coal fines and recycling wash water, comparative evaluation of coal preparation methods, coal refuse disposal without polluting the environment, spoil bank reprocessing, noise control in coal preparation plants, etc. (LTN)

  14. Development of the ultra-clean dry cleanup process for coal-based syngases: pilot-scale evaluation

    R.B. Slimane; P.V. Bush; J.L. Aderhold, Jr.; B.G. Bryan; R.A. Newby; D. A. Horazak; S.C. Jain [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports on a recent successful pilot-scale evaluation of the Ultra-Clean Process performance at a 10-ton/day coal gasifier facility. In these tests, carbonaceous feedstocks were gasified, using GTI's fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasification technology, to generate syngas. The raw syngas was then conditioned and fed to the UCP test section for deep cleaning to meet very stringent cleaning requirements for chemical feedstocks or liquid-fuel synthesis applications, or for fuel-cell power generation. Fine particle sorbents for sulfur, halide, and mercury removal were injected into the syngas upstream of two stages of particulate controlled devices, 'barrier filter-reactors', coupling efficient particle capture with an effective entrained and filter cake reaction environment for very effective multiple contaminant removal. The goal of the test program was to confirm sorbent selection, filter-reactor operating parameters and sorbent-to-contaminant ratios, which were previously determined in the laboratory to have potential to reduce contaminant concentrations to very low levels. The pilot-scale data developed are being used to update conceptual evaluations, which have shown the technical feasibility, cost effectiveness and commercial merit for the Ultra-Clean Process compared to conventional, Rectisol-based syngas cleaning. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Converting coal

    Avigliano, A. [Bedeschi (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    In September 2005, Bedeschi was commissioned to design and supply a coal unloading, conveying and storage facility for a new raw coal line system within Hatien II Cement Co. The new plant is composed of a grab unloader, a conveyor system, a storage shed with stacking and reclaiming facilities, a complete dedusting system and civil and steel structure engineering. The scope of supply includes a local fabrication portion; however, main components will be imported. The project will be completed in 21 months. The paper looks into the mechanics of loading and unloading coal. 4 figs., 4 photos.

  16. Seasonal variability of interception and water wettability of common oak leaves

    Anna Klamerus-Iwan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wettability of leaves and the resulting amount of interception loss of tree crowns is an important component of the atmosphere-tree stand-soil system balance. In the study, we hypothesized that changes occurring in leaves during the vegetation period can significantly affect the amount of rainwater retained by plants and wettability of leaves which is expressed by the contact angle between drops and leaves. We evaluated the hypothesis based on measurement series, which combined direct spraying of leaves with water at different stages of development at a constant temperature with observations made with an electron scanner which was used to determine changes occurring within a leaf, while the photographic method was used to analyze the contact angle of drops. The study involved common oak (Quercus robur. Samples of twigs derived from this species were collected in the area of Przedbórz (Poland forest district, in particular from the trees with well-developed crowns. Twigs were collected from 10 trees of similar age (35–40 years. The resulting database contained experimental data on changes of raindrop adhesion on oak leaves throughout the growing season. The internal contact angle of drops was within the range of 150° on the upper side of the leaf and 160° on the underside in May, up to 15° and 35° in November on the upper and underside of the leaves. Loss of interception was established at 6% at the beginning of the growing season up to 22% in autumn. It was concluded that the wettability and the level of interception increases in line with the age of a leaf.

  17. Wettability alteration properties of fluorinated silica nanoparticles in liquid-loaded pores: An atomistic simulation

    Sepehrinia, Kazem; Mohammadi, Aliasghar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Properties of fluorinated silica nanoparticles were investigated in water or decane-loaded pores of mineral silica using molecular dynamics simulation. • The water or decane-loaded pores represent liquid bridging. • Addition of nanoparticles to liquid-loaded pores results in weakening of the liquid bridge. • The hydrophobicity of the pore wall increases in the presence of adsorbed fluorinated silica nanoparticles. - Abstract: Control over the wettability of reservoir rocks is of crucial importance for enhancing oil and gas recovery. In order to develop chemicals for controlling the wettability of reservoir rocks, we present a study of functionalized silica nanoparticles as candidates for wettability alteration and improved gas recovery applications. In this paper, properties of fluorinated silica nanoparticles were investigated in water or decane-loaded pores of mineral silica using molecular dynamics simulation. Trifluoromethyl groups as water and oil repellents were placed on the nanoparticles. Simulating a pore in the presence of trapped water or decane molecules leads to liquid bridging for both of the liquids. Adsorption of nanoparticles on the pore wall reduces the density of liquid molecules adjacent to the wall. The density of liquid molecules around the nanoparticles decreases significantly with increasing the number of trifluoromethyl groups on the nanoparticles’ surfaces. An increased hydrophobicity of the pore wall was observed in the presence of adsorbed fluorinated silica nanoparticles. Also, it is observed that increasing the number of the trifluoromethyl groups results in weakening of liquid bridges. Moreover, the free energy of adsorption on mineral surface was evaluated to be more favorable than that of aggregation of nanoparticles, which suggests nanoparticles adsorb preferably on mineral surface.

  18. Wettability alteration properties of fluorinated silica nanoparticles in liquid-loaded pores: An atomistic simulation

    Sepehrinia, Kazem; Mohammadi, Aliasghar, E-mail: amohammadi@sharif.edu

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Properties of fluorinated silica nanoparticles were investigated in water or decane-loaded pores of mineral silica using molecular dynamics simulation. • The water or decane-loaded pores represent liquid bridging. • Addition of nanoparticles to liquid-loaded pores results in weakening of the liquid bridge. • The hydrophobicity of the pore wall increases in the presence of adsorbed fluorinated silica nanoparticles. - Abstract: Control over the wettability of reservoir rocks is of crucial importance for enhancing oil and gas recovery. In order to develop chemicals for controlling the wettability of reservoir rocks, we present a study of functionalized silica nanoparticles as candidates for wettability alteration and improved gas recovery applications. In this paper, properties of fluorinated silica nanoparticles were investigated in water or decane-loaded pores of mineral silica using molecular dynamics simulation. Trifluoromethyl groups as water and oil repellents were placed on the nanoparticles. Simulating a pore in the presence of trapped water or decane molecules leads to liquid bridging for both of the liquids. Adsorption of nanoparticles on the pore wall reduces the density of liquid molecules adjacent to the wall. The density of liquid molecules around the nanoparticles decreases significantly with increasing the number of trifluoromethyl groups on the nanoparticles’ surfaces. An increased hydrophobicity of the pore wall was observed in the presence of adsorbed fluorinated silica nanoparticles. Also, it is observed that increasing the number of the trifluoromethyl groups results in weakening of liquid bridges. Moreover, the free energy of adsorption on mineral surface was evaluated to be more favorable than that of aggregation of nanoparticles, which suggests nanoparticles adsorb preferably on mineral surface.

  19. Evaluating the long-term consequences of air pollution in early life: geographical correlations between coal consumption in 1951/1952 and current mortality in England and Wales.

    Phillips, David I W; Osmond, Clive; Southall, Humphrey; Aucott, Paula; Jones, Alexander; Holgate, Stephen T

    2018-04-27

    To evaluate associations between early life air pollution and subsequent mortality. Geographical study. Local government districts within England and Wales. Routinely collected geographical data on the use of coal and related solid fuels in 1951-1952 were used as an index of air pollution. We evaluated the relationship between these data and both all-cause and disease-specific mortality among men and women aged 35-74 years in local government districts between 1993 and 2012. Domestic (household) coal consumption had the most powerful associations with mortality. There were strong correlations between domestic coal use and all-cause mortality (relative risk per SD increase in fuel use 1.124, 95% CI 1.123 to 1.126), and respiratory (1.238, 95% CI 1.234 to 1.242), cardiovascular (1.138, 95% CI 1.136 to 1.140) and cancer mortality (1.073, 95% CI 1.071 to 1.075). These effects persisted after adjustment for socioeconomic indicators in 1951, current socioeconomic indicators and current pollution levels. Coal was the major cause of pollution in the UK until the Clean Air Act of 1956 led to a rapid decline in consumption. These data suggest that coal-based pollution, experienced over 60 years ago in early life, affects human health now by increasing mortality from a wide variety of diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Evaluation of geological conditions for coalbed methane occurrence based on 3D seismic information: a case study in Fowa region, Xinjing coal mine, China

    Li, Juanjuan; Li, Fanjia; Hu, Mingshun; Zhang, Wei; Pan, Dongming

    2017-04-01

    The research on geological conditions of coalbed methane (CBM) occurrence is of great significance for predicting the high abundance CBM rich region and gas outburst risk area pre-warning. The No. 3 coal seam, in Yangquan coalfield of Qinshui basin, is the research target studied by 3D seismic exploration technique. The geological factors which affect CBM occurrence are interpreted based on the 3D seismic information. First, the geological structure (faults, folds, and collapse columns) is found out by the 3D seismic structural interpretation and the information of buried depth and thickness of the coal seam is calculated by the seismic horizons. Second, 3D elastic impedance (EI) and natural gamma attribute volumes are generated by prestack EI inversion and multi-attribute probabilistic neural network (PNN) inversion techniques which reflect the information of coal structure types and lithology of the roof and floor. Then, the information of metamorphic degree of seam and hydrogeology conditions can be obtained by the geological data. Consequently, geological conditions of CBM occurrence in No. 3 coal seam are evaluated which will provide scientific reference for high abundance CBM rich region prediction and gas outburst risk area pre-warning.

  1. Coal competitiveness?

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  2. Coal - 97

    Sparre, C.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards

  3. Biotype assessment and evaluation as a method to quantify the external costs related to surface brown coal mining

    Kabrna, M.; Peleska, O.

    2009-01-01

    Externalities express the uncompensated effects of human individuals on each other and on nature. Externalities include costs and benefits which impact human individuals and environment and are not included in the costs and benefits of their creators and are often defined as the differences between social costs or revenues from economic activity and private costs or revenues. Surface brown coal mining can be characterized by a large range of adverse environmental effects. In order to compensate for the environmental damage caused by mining activities in the Czech Republic, various environmental fees paid by mining companies were introduced to the Czech legislation. The Hessian method of quantifying impacts on the environment is an expert methods that is appropriate for the evaluating environmental damage caused by large-scale impacts on landscape. This paper described the methodology of the Hessian method and its application to a selected opencast mine in north-western Bohemia called the Vrsany-Sverma mine. The paper also discussed current environmental charges in the Czech Republic. It was concluded that the calculated amount of environmental damage caused by surface mining balances the amount of environmental fees currently paid by mining companies. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Evaluating the effects of moving to a low maintenance ARD control strategy at the Victoria Junction coal tailings site

    Ziemkiewicz, P.F. [Morgantown, WV (United States); Peckham, D.; Kehoe, A. [Enterprise Cape Breton Corp., Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Victoria Junction Coal Preparation site located near Sydney, Nova Scotia has been a major source of acid rock drainage (ARD) to waterways and surrounding wetlands. A polymer cap placed on the pile in 2005 resulted in a rapid improvement in waterway and wetland health. An earlier water treatment system (WTS) remained in operation until an evaluation was conducted to determine if the WTS was needed to maintain water quality in the region. This paper described the acid base loading model used to develop a close-out plan for the WTS. A mass balance model was used to isolate and compare the effects of the WTS and the capping system. The effect of shutting down the WTS was monitored for 8 moths. The model used flow and net acidity rates to calculate loadings. Net acidity represented the mass of pure base expressed as a calcium carbonate equivalent needed to neutralize acid loads. Acidity was calculated base on pH and metal concentrations. Alkalinity was determined by titration. A comparison with analytical studies of collected water samples showed that the mass balance model underestimated the alkalinity produced at the site. Results of the study showed that the site is now a net alkalinity generator. 5 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  5. Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment

    Burgess, R.M.; Perron, M.M.; Friedman, C.L.; Suuberg, E.M.; Pennell, K.G.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Ryba, S.A. [US EPA, Narragansett, RI (USA). Office for Research and Development

    2009-01-15

    Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of postoxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash before use, and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. No evidence was seen of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel, or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28-d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high-carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, no evidence was seen of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content or of accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon content could represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments.

  6. Evaluation of the effect of coal cleaning of fugitive elements. Part II. Analytical methods. Final report, Phase II

    Bosshart, R.E.; Price, A.A.; Ford, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    This report contains the analytical and test methods which were used routinely at Bituminous Coal Research, Inc. during the project. The procedures contained herein should aid coal industry laboratories and others, including commercial laboratories, who might be required to determine trace elements in coal. Some of the procedures have been presented in previous BCR reports; however, this report includes additional procedures which are described in greater detail. Also presented are many as the more basic coal methods which have been in use at BCR for many years, or which have been adapted or refined from other standard reference sources for coal and water. The basis for choosing specific analytical procedures for trace elements in coal is somewhat complex. At BCR, atomic absorption was selected as the basic method in the development of these procedures. The choice was based on sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, practicability, and economy. Whenever possible, the methods developed had to be both adequate and amenable for use by coal industry laboratories by virtue of relative simplicity and cost. This is not to imply that the methods described are simple or inexpensive; however, atomic abosrption techniques do meet these criteria in relation to more complex and costly methods such as neutron activation, mass spectrometry, and x-ray fluorescence, some of which require highly specialized personnel as well as access to sophisticated nuclear and computational facilities. Many of the analytical procedures for trace elements in coal have been developed or adapted specifically for the BCR studies. Their presentation is the principal purpose of this report.

  7. Conductive Polymer Porous Film with Tunable Wettability and Adhesion

    Yuqi Teng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A conductive polymer porous film with tunable wettability and adhesion was fabricated by the chloroform solution of poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyricacid-methyl-ester (PCBM via the freeze drying method. The porous film could be obtained from the solution of 0.8 wt%, whose pore diameters ranged from 50 nm to 500 nm. The hydrophobic porous surface with a water contact angle (CA of 144.7° could be transferred into a hydrophilic surface with CA of 25° by applying a voltage. The water adhesive force on the porous film increased with the increase of the external voltage. The electro-controllable wettability and adhesion of the porous film have potential application in manipulating liquid collection and transportation.

  8. Wettability of TiAlN films by molten aluminum

    Shen Ping [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan) and Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, No. 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun, 130025 (China)]. E-mail: shenping@jlu.edu.cn; Nose, Masateru [Department of Industrial Art and Craft, Takaoka National College, 180 Futagami-machi, Takaoka City, Toyama 933-8588 (Japan); Fujii, Hidetoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan); Nogi, Kiyoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan)

    2006-12-05

    In this study, we made an attempt to measure the wettability of the TiAlN films by molten Al at temperatures between 1073 K and 1273 K using an improved sessile drop method. The true contact angles cannot be obtained for the films deposited on the stainless steel and tungsten substrates due to considerable interdiffusion or reaction between molten Al and the substrate constituents. For the films deposited on the stable alumina single crystals and in contact with clean Al, the true contact angles are possible in the range of 80-100 deg. at 1173-1273 K and the work of adhesion is 0.77-1.08 J m{sup -2}. In the case of oxidized Al, typically at T < 1173 K, however, the wettability and the adhesion are significantly decreased.

  9. Fog collecting biomimetic surfaces: Influence of microstructure and wettability.

    Azad, M A K; Ellerbrok, D; Barthlott, W; Koch, K

    2015-01-19

    We analyzed the fog collection efficiency of three different sets of samples: replica (with and without microstructures), copper wire (smooth and microgrooved) and polyolefin mesh (hydrophilic, superhydrophilic and hydrophobic). The collection efficiency of the samples was compared in each set separately to investigate the influence of microstructures and/or the wettability of the surfaces on fog collection. Based on the controlled experimental conditions chosen here large differences in the efficiency were found. We found that microstructured plant replica samples collected 2-3 times higher amounts of water than that of unstructured (smooth) samples. Copper wire samples showed similar results. Moreover, microgrooved wires had a faster dripping of water droplets than that of smooth wires. The superhydrophilic mesh tested here was proved more efficient than any other mesh samples with different wettability. The amount of collected fog by superhydrophilic mesh was about 5 times higher than that of hydrophilic (untreated) mesh and was about 2 times higher than that of hydrophobic mesh.

  10. Evaluation of paramagnetic species in coals with iodine doping technique; Yoso tenkaho wo mochiita sekitanchu no jojiseishu no hyoka

    Aizawa, S.; Kumagai, H.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of coals was considered by using iodine doping technique. Sub-bituminous coal (WA) and bituminous coal (UF) were used to observe EPR spectra using microwaves. With the UF coal, strength of the narrow component of the spectra was found constant regardless of amount of the doped iodine, wherein radicals without interaction with iodine were detected. Strength of the broad component increased with the iodine doping amount, where in deviation of {pi} electrons was detected, which have been generated as a result of interaction between aromatic rings and iodine in the coals. Spin concentration of the WA coal with low coalification degree is constant regardless of the iodine doping amount, and the interaction of the iodine with the aromatic rings was found small. The higher the coalification degree, the more the aromatic ring structure grows, and electron donor capability for the iodine increases. In a system with the entire spin being uniform, the spectrum height shows a saturation phenomenon against increase in microwave output. A non-uniform system, in which the oriented spin forms small groups and is in local thermal equilibrium, does not show saturation, but increases monotonously. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    Rahimi, Maral; Fojan, Peter; Gurevich, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    -life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition...... of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types...

  12. Variation on wettability of anodic zirconium oxide nanotube surface

    Wang, Lu-Ning; Shen, Chen; Shinbine, Alyssa; Luo, Jing-Li

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of fabrication conditions and environmental conditions, such as anodization voltage and aging period, on the wetting of zirconium dioxide nanotube (ZrNT) surfaces. Comparing with intact zirconium foil, which was inherently less hydrophilic, possessing an approximate contact angle of 60–70°, the as-formed ZrNT surfaces were much hydrophilic with an approximate contact angle of 18°. However, the hydrophilicity of the surfaces exhibited a decrease when the nanotubular opening diameters decreased while maintaining the nanotubular layer thickness. This phenomenon was attributed to the balance of capillary force and force generated by compressed air in the ZrNTs. The annealing treatment further increased the hydrophilic property of the ZrNTs. In addition, it was found that the wettability of ZrNTs, when aged in air over a period of 105 days, demonstrated a decrease in hydrophilic characteristics and exhibited, to some extent, an increase in hydrophobic characteristics. It was believed that the surface wettability was able to be changed due to the decreasing content of hydroxyl groups in ambient atmosphere. This work can provide guidelines for improving the structural and environmental conditions responsible for changing surface wettability of ZrNT surfaces for biomedical application. - Highlights: ► Wettability of zirconium oxide nanotubes (ZrNTs) was observed and characterized. ► Increasing of nanotubular diameter decreased the hydrophilicity of ZrNTs. ► Annealing processes enhanced the hydrophilicity of ZrNTs. ► Long term aging resulted in the hydrophobicity of ZrNTs

  13. Coal -98

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  14. Evaluation of advanced coal gasification combined-cycle systems under uncertainty

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems have not been commercially demonstrated, and uncertainties remain regarding their commercial-scale performance and cost. Therefore, a probabilistic evaluation method has been developed and applied to explicitly consider these uncertainties. The insights afforded by this method are illustrated for an IGCC design featuring a fixed-bed gasifier and a hot gas cleanup system. Detailed case studies are conducted to characterize uncertainties in key measures of process performance and cost, evaluate design trade-offs under uncertainty, identify research priorities, evaluate the potential benefits of additional research, compare results for different uncertainty assumptions, and compare the advanced IGCC system to a conventional system under uncertainty. The implications of probabilistic results for research planning and technology selection are discussed in this paper

  15. Evaluation of the CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity for coal fly ash using a flow-through column reactor under ambient conditions

    Jo, Ho Young, E-mail: hyjo@korea.ac.kr [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Joon-Hoon; Jo, Hwanju [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A conceptual in-situ mineral carbonation method using a coal ash pond is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} uptake occurred by carbonation reaction of CO{sub 2} with Ca{sup 2+} ions from coal fly ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity was affected by the solid dosage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seawater can be used as a solvent for mineral carbonation of coal fly ash. - Abstract: An in-situ CO{sub 2} sequestration method using coal ash ponds located in coastal regions is proposed. The CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of coal fly ash (CFA) by mineral carbonation was evaluated in a flow-through column reactor under various conditions (solid dosage: 100-330 g/L, CO{sub 2} flow rate: 20-80 mL/min, solvent type: deionized (DI) water, 1 M NH{sub 4}Cl solution, and seawater). The CO{sub 2} sequestration tests were conducted on CFA slurries using flow-through column reactors to simulate more realistic flow-through conditions. The CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity increased when the solid dosage was increased, whereas it was affected insignificantly by the CO{sub 2} flow rate. A 1 M NH{sub 4}Cl solution was the most effective solvent, but it was not significantly different from DI water or seawater. The CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of CFA under the flow-through conditions was approximately 0.019 g CO{sub 2}/g CFA under the test conditions (solid dosage: 333 g/L, CO{sub 2} flow rate: 40 mL/min, and solvent: seawater).

  16. Evaluation of the CO2 sequestration capacity for coal fly ash using a flow-through column reactor under ambient conditions

    Jo, Ho Young; Ahn, Joon-Hoon; Jo, Hwanju

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A conceptual in-situ mineral carbonation method using a coal ash pond is proposed. ► CO 2 uptake occurred by carbonation reaction of CO 2 with Ca 2+ ions from coal fly ash. ► The CO 2 sequestration capacity was affected by the solid dosage. ► Seawater can be used as a solvent for mineral carbonation of coal fly ash. - Abstract: An in-situ CO 2 sequestration method using coal ash ponds located in coastal regions is proposed. The CO 2 sequestration capacity of coal fly ash (CFA) by mineral carbonation was evaluated in a flow-through column reactor under various conditions (solid dosage: 100–330 g/L, CO 2 flow rate: 20–80 mL/min, solvent type: deionized (DI) water, 1 M NH 4 Cl solution, and seawater). The CO 2 sequestration tests were conducted on CFA slurries using flow-through column reactors to simulate more realistic flow-through conditions. The CO 2 sequestration capacity increased when the solid dosage was increased, whereas it was affected insignificantly by the CO 2 flow rate. A 1 M NH 4 Cl solution was the most effective solvent, but it was not significantly different from DI water or seawater. The CO 2 sequestration capacity of CFA under the flow-through conditions was approximately 0.019 g CO 2 /g CFA under the test conditions (solid dosage: 333 g/L, CO 2 flow rate: 40 mL/min, and solvent: seawater).

  17. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Estimation of total phenol concentrations in coal liquefaction resids by {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy

    Mohan, J.T.; Verkade, J.G. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    In this study, Iowa State University researchers used {sub 31}P-tagged reagents to derivatize the labile hydrogen functional groups in the THF-soluble portion of 850{degrees}F{sup +} distillation resid materials and the THF-soluble portion of process oils derived from direct coal liquefaction.{sup 31}P-NMR was used to analyze the derivatized samples. NMR peak assignments can be made by comparison to model compounds similarly derivatized. Species can be quantified by integration of the NMR signals. Different {sup 31}P-NMR tagged reagents can be used to produce different degrees of peak resolution in the NMR spectrum. This, in turn, partially dictates the degree of speciation and/or quantification of species, or classes of compounds, that can be accomplished. Iowa State chose a {sup 31}P-tagged reagent (ClPOCMe{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}O) which was shown previously to be particularly useful in the derivatization of phenols. The derivatized samples all exhibited a small group of peaks attributed to amines and a broad group of peaks in the phenol region. The presence of paramagnetic species in the samples caused the NMR signals to broaden. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra confirmed the presence of paramagnetic organic free radicals in selected samples. Various methods were employed to process the NMR data. The complexity and broadness of the phenol peak, however, made speciation of the phenols impractical.

  18. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Estimation of total phenol concentrations in coal liquefaction resids by [sup 31]P NMR spectroscopy

    Mohan, J.T.; Verkade, J.G. (Ames Lab., IA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    In this study, Iowa State University researchers used [sub 31]P-tagged reagents to derivatize the labile hydrogen functional groups in the THF-soluble portion of 850[degrees]F[sup +] distillation resid materials and the THF-soluble portion of process oils derived from direct coal liquefaction.[sup 31]P-NMR was used to analyze the derivatized samples. NMR peak assignments can be made by comparison to model compounds similarly derivatized. Species can be quantified by integration of the NMR signals. Different [sup 31]P-NMR tagged reagents can be used to produce different degrees of peak resolution in the NMR spectrum. This, in turn, partially dictates the degree of speciation and/or quantification of species, or classes of compounds, that can be accomplished. Iowa State chose a [sup 31]P-tagged reagent (ClPOCMe[sub 2]CMe[sub 2]O) which was shown previously to be particularly useful in the derivatization of phenols. The derivatized samples all exhibited a small group of peaks attributed to amines and a broad group of peaks in the phenol region. The presence of paramagnetic species in the samples caused the NMR signals to broaden. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra confirmed the presence of paramagnetic organic free radicals in selected samples. Various methods were employed to process the NMR data. The complexity and broadness of the phenol peak, however, made speciation of the phenols impractical.

  19. Seal evaluation and confinement screening criteria for beneficial carbon dioxide storage with enhanced coal bed methane recovery in the Pocahontas Basin, Virginia

    Grimm, R.P.; Eriksson, K.A.; Ripepi, N.; Eble, C.; Greb, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    The geological storage of carbon dioxide in Appalachian basin coal seams is one possible sink for sequestration of greenhouse gases, with the added benefit of enhanced-coal bed methane (ECBM) recovery. The Pocahontas Basin (part of the central Appalachian Basin) of southwestern Virginia is a major coal bed methane (CBM) province with production mostly from coal beds in the Lower Pennsylvanian Pocahontas and New River formations. As part of the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's Phase II research program, a CO 2-injection demonstration well was installed into Lower Pennsylvanian coal bed-methane producing strata in southwest Virginia. Samples of siliciclastic lithologies above coal beds in this Oakwood Field well, and from several other cores in the Nora Field were taken to establish a baseline of the basic confinement properties of overlying strata to test seal competency at local and regional scales.Strata above CBM-producing coal beds in the Pocahontas and New River formations consist of dark-gray shales; silty gray shales; heterolithic siltstones, sandstones, and shales; lithic sandstones, and quartzose sandstones. Standard measurements of porosity, permeability and petrography were used to evaluate potential leakage hazards and any possible secondary storage potential for typical lithologies. Both lithic- and quartz-rich sandstones exhibit only minor porosity, with generally low permeability (Member. Analyses of 1500 geophysical logs in southwest Virginia indicate that this unit is moderately thick (>50ft, 15m), laterally continuous (>3000km 2), and a homogenous shale, which coarsens upward into siltstone and sandstone, or is truncated by sandstone. Calculations from two mercury injection capillary porosimetry tests of the shale indicate that a displacement entry pressure of 207psi (1427kPa) would generate an estimated seal capacity of 1365ft (416m) of CO 2 before buoyant leakage. Scanning electron microscopy indicates a microfabric of narrow

  20. Impact of Pore-Scale Wettability on Rhizosphere Rewetting

    Pascal Benard

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vast amounts of water flow through a thin layer of soil around the roots, the rhizosphere, where high microbial activity takes place—an important hydrological and biological hotspot. The rhizosphere was shown to turn water repellent upon drying, which has been interpreted as the effect of mucilage secreted by roots. The effects of such rhizosphere water dynamics on plant and microbial activity are unclear. Furthermore, our understanding of the biophysical mechanisms controlling the rhizosphere water repellency remains largely speculative. Our hypothesis is that the key to describe the emergence of water repellency lies within the microscopic distribution of wettability on the pore-scale. At a critical mucilage content, a sufficient fraction of pores is blocked and the rhizosphere turns water repellent. Here we tested whether a percolation approach is capable to predict the flow behavior near the critical mucilage content. The wettability of glass beads and sand mixed with chia seed mucilage was quantified by measuring the infiltration rate of water drops. Drop infiltration was simulated using a simple pore-network model in which mucilage was distributed heterogeneously throughout the pore space with a preference for small pores. The model approach proved capable to capture the percolation nature of the process, the sudden transition from wettable to water repellent and the high variability in infiltration rates near the percolation threshold. Our study highlights the importance of pore-scale distribution of mucilage in the emergent flow behavior across the rhizosphere.

  1. Drop splashing: the role of surface wettability and liquid viscosity

    Almohammadi, Hamed; Amirfazli, Alidad; -Team

    2017-11-01

    There are seemingly contradictory results in the literature about the role of surface wettability and drop viscosity for the splashing behavior of a drop impacting onto a surface. Motivated by such issues, we conducted a systematic experimental study where splashing behavior for a wide range of the liquid viscosity (1-100 cSt) and surface wettability (hydrophilic to hydrophobic) are examined. The experiments were performed for the liquids with both low and high surface tensions ( 20 and 72 mN/m). We found that the wettability affects the splashing threshold at high or low contact angle values. At the same drop velocity, an increase of the viscosity (up to 4 cSt) promotes the splashing; while, beyond such value, any increase in viscosity shows the opposite effect. It is also found that at a particular combination of liquid surface tension and viscosity (e.g. silicone oil, 10 cSt), an increase in the drop velocity changes the splashing to spreading. We relate such behaviors to the thickness, shape, and the velocity of the drop's lamella. Finally, to predict the splashing, we developed an empirical correlation which covers all of the previous reported data, hence clarifying the ostensible existing contradictions.

  2. Modeling Wettability Variation during Long-Term Water Flooding

    Renyi Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface property of rock affects oil recovery during water flooding. Oil-wet polar substances adsorbed on the surface of the rock will gradually be desorbed during water flooding, and original reservoir wettability will change towards water-wet, and the change will reduce the residual oil saturation and improve the oil displacement efficiency. However there is a lack of an accurate description of wettability alternation model during long-term water flooding and it will lead to difficulties in history match and unreliable forecasts using reservoir simulators. This paper summarizes the mechanism of wettability variation and characterizes the adsorption of polar substance during long-term water flooding from injecting water or aquifer and relates the residual oil saturation and relative permeability to the polar substance adsorbed on clay and pore volumes of flooding water. A mathematical model is presented to simulate the long-term water flooding and the model is validated with experimental results. The simulation results of long-term water flooding are also discussed.

  3. Wettability of nano-epoxies to UHMWPE fibers.

    Neema, S; Salehi-Khojin, A; Zhamu, A; Zhong, W H; Jana, S; Gan, Y X

    2006-07-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers have a unique combination of outstanding mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. However, as reinforcements for manufacturing high performance composite materials, UHMWPE fibers have poor wettability with most polymers. As a result, the interfacial bonding strength between the fibers and polymer matrices is very low. Recently, developing so-called nano-matrices containing reactive graphitic nanofibers (r-GNFs) has been proposed to promote the wetting of such matrices to certain types of fiber reinforcements. In this work, the wettability of UHMWPE fibers with different epoxy matrices including a nano-epoxy, and a pure epoxy was investigated. Systematic experimental work was conducted to determine the viscosity of the epoxies, the contact angle between the epoxies and the fibers. Also obtained are the surface energy of the fibers and the epoxies. The experimental results show that the wettability of the UHMWPE fibers with the nano-epoxy is much better than that of the UHMWPE fibers with the pure epoxy.

  4. Wettability modification of porous PET by atmospheric femtosecond PLD

    Assaf, Youssef; Forstmann, Guillaume; Kietzig, Anne-Marie

    2018-04-01

    In this study, porous structures were created on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) by femtosecond (fs) laser micromachining. While such structures offer a texture that is desirable for several applications, their wettability does not always match the application in question. The aim of this investigation is to tune the wettability of such surfaces by incorporating a controlled amount of nanoparticles into the structure. The machined PET samples were thus used as substrates for fs pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of titanium under ambient conditions. The nanoparticles were deposited as nanochain clusters due to the formation of an oxide layer between individual nanoparticles. The stability of nanoparticle incorporation was tested by placing the samples in an ultrasonic ethanol bath. Results indicated that nanoparticles were still successfully incorporated into the microstructure after sonication. Nanoparticle surface coverage was observed to be controllable through the operating fluence. The dynamic contact angles of the resulting composite surface were observed to decrease with increasing titanium incorporation. Therefore, this work highlights atmospheric fs PLD as a method for wettability modification of high surface area microstructures without undermining their topology. In addition, this technique uses almost the same equipment as the machining process by which the microstructures are initially created, further highlighting its practicality.

  5. Slagging behavior of upgraded brown coal and bituminous coal in 145 MW practical coal combustion boiler

    Akiyama, Katsuya; Pak, Haeyang; Takubo, Yoji [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Kobe (Japan). Mechanical Engineering Research Lab.; Tada, Toshiya [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Takasago (Japan). Coal and Energy Technology Dept.; Ueki, Yasuaki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Energy Science Div.; Yoshiie, Ryo; Naruse, Ichiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Science and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate behaviors of ash deposition during combustion of Upgraded Brown Coal (UBC) and bituminous coal in a 145 MW practical coal combustion boiler. A blended coal consisting 20 wt% of the UBC and 80 wt% of the bituminous coal was burned for the combustion tests. Before the actual ash deposition tests, the molten slag fractions of ash calculated by chemical equilibrium calculations under the combustion condition was adopted as one of the indices to estimate the tendency of ash deposition. The calculation results showed that the molten slag fraction for UBC ash reached approximately 90% at 1,523 K. However, that for the blended coal ash became about 50%. These calculation results mean that blending the UBC with a bituminous coal played a role in decreasing the molten slag fraction. Next, the ash deposition tests were conducted, using a practical pulverized coal combustion boiler. A water-cooled stainless-steel tube was inserted in locations at 1,523 K in the boiler to measure the amount of ash deposits. The results showed that the mass of deposited ash for the blended coal increased and shape of the deposited ash particles on the tube became large and spherical. This is because the molten slag fraction in ash for the blended coal at 1,523 K increased and the surface of deposited ash became sticky. However, the mass of the deposited ash for the blended coal did not greatly increase and no slagging problems occurred for 8 days of boiler operation under the present blending conditions. Therefore, appropriate blending of the UBC with a bituminous coal enables the UBC to be used with a low ash melting point without any ash deposition problems in a practical boiler.

  6. Coal 95

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  7. Biofilm formation on a TiO2 nanotube with controlled pore diameter and surface wettability

    Anitha, V C; Narayan Banerjee, Arghya; Woo Joo, Sang; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jintae; Ki Min, Bong

    2015-01-01

    Titania (TiO 2 ) nanotube arrays (TNAs) with different pore diameters (140 − 20 nm) are fabricated via anodization using hydrofluoric acid (HF) containing ethylene glycol (EG) by changing the HF-to-EG volume ratio and the anodization voltage. To evaluate the effects of different pore diameters of TiO 2 nanotubes on bacterial biofilm formation, Shewanella oneidensis (S. oneidensis) MR-1 cells and a crystal-violet biofilm assay are used. The surface roughness and wettability of the TNA surfaces as a function of pore diameter, measured via the contact angle and AFM techniques, are correlated with the controlled biofilm formation. Biofilm formation increases with the decreasing nanotube pore diameter, and a 20 nm TiO 2 nanotube shows the maximum biofilm formation. The measurements revealed that 20 nm surfaces have the least hydrophilicity with the highest surface roughness of ∼17 nm and that they show almost a 90% increase in the effective surface area relative to the 140 nm TNAs, which stimulate the cells more effectively to produce the pili to attach to the surface for more biofilm formation. The results demonstrate that bacterial cell adhesion (and hence, biofilm formation) can effectively be controlled by tuning the roughness and wettability of TNAs via controlling the pore diameters of TNA surfaces. This biofilm formation as a function of the surface properties of TNAs can be a potential candidate for both medical applications and as electrodes in microbial fuel cells. (paper)

  8. Experimental Study of gas-liquid two-phase flow affected by wall surface wettability

    Takamasa, T.; Hazuku, T.; Hibiki, T.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of wall surface wettability on the characteristics of upward gas-liquid two-phase flow in a vertical pipe, an experimental study was performed using three test pipes: an acrylic pipe, a hydrophilic pipe and a hydrophobic pipe. Basic flow characteristics such as flow patterns, pressure drop and void fraction were measured in these three pipes. In the hydrophilic pipe, a slug to churn flow transition boundary was shifted to a higher gas velocity at a given liquid velocity, whereas a churn to annular flow transition boundary was shifted to a lower gas velocity at a given liquid velocity. In the hydrophobic pipe, an inverted-churn flow regime was observed in the region where the churn flow regime was observed in the acrylic pipe, while a droplet flow regime was observed in the region where an annular flow regime was observed in the acrylic pipe. At a high gas flow rate, the mean void fraction in the hydrophobic pipe was higher than in the acrylic pipe. The effect of surface wettability on frictional pressure loss was confirmed to be insignificant under the present experimental conditions

  9. Enhanced adhesion of osteoblastic cells on polystyrene films by independent control of surface topography and wettability

    Yang, Seung Yun [National Creative Research Center for Block Copolymer Self-Assembly, Departments of Environmental Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eung-Sam [School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Gumhye [National Creative Research Center for Block Copolymer Self-Assembly, Departments of Environmental Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Yong, E-mail: kchoi@postech.ac.kr [School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Life Science, Division of Molecular and Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Kon, E-mail: jkkim@postech.ac.kr [National Creative Research Center for Block Copolymer Self-Assembly, Departments of Environmental Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    We independently controlled surface topography and wettability of polystyrene (PS) films by CF{sub 4} and oxygen plasma treatments, respectively, to evaluate the adhesion and proliferation of human fetal osteoblastic (hFOB) cells on the films. Among the CF{sub 4} plasma-treated PS films with the average surface roughness ranging from 0.9 to 70 nm, the highest adhesion of hFOB cells was observed on a PS film with roughness of ∼ 11 nm. When this film was additionally treated by oxygen plasma to provide a hydrophilic surface with a contact angle less than 10°, the proliferation of bone-forming cell was further enhanced. Thus, the plasma-based independent modification of PS film into an optimum nanotexture for human osteoblast cells could be appplied to materials used in bone tissue engineering. Highlights: ► New approach based on plasma treatment to independently control the surface topography and wettability ► The adhesion of human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) was enhanced on a surface with an average roughness of ∼ 11 nm. ► The adhesion and proliferation of hFOB was maximized when nanotextured surface became highly hydrophilic.

  10. Controlling the stainless steel surface wettability by nanosecond direct laser texturing at high fluences

    Gregorčič, P.; Šetina-Batič, B.; Hočevar, M.

    2017-12-01

    This work investigates the influence of the direct laser texturing at high fluences (DLT-HF) on surface morphology, chemistry, and wettability. We use a Nd:YAG laser ( λ = 1064 nm) with pulse duration of 95 ns to process stainless steel surface. The surface morphology and chemistry after the texturing is examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), while the surface wettability is evaluated by measuring the static contact angle. Immediately after the texturing, the surface is superhydrophilic in a saturated Wenzel regime. However, this state is not stable and the superhydrophilic-to-superhydrophobic transition happens if the sample is kept in atmospheric air for 30 days. After this period, the laser-textured stainless steel surface expresses lotus-leaf-like behavior. By using a high-speed camera at 10,000 fps, we measured that the water droplet completely rebound from this superhydrophobic surface after the contact time of 12 ms.

  11. Enhanced adhesion of osteoblastic cells on polystyrene films by independent control of surface topography and wettability

    Yang, Seung Yun; Kim, Eung-Sam; Jeon, Gumhye; Choi, Kwan Yong; Kim, Jin Kon

    2013-01-01

    We independently controlled surface topography and wettability of polystyrene (PS) films by CF 4 and oxygen plasma treatments, respectively, to evaluate the adhesion and proliferation of human fetal osteoblastic (hFOB) cells on the films. Among the CF 4 plasma-treated PS films with the average surface roughness ranging from 0.9 to 70 nm, the highest adhesion of hFOB cells was observed on a PS film with roughness of ∼ 11 nm. When this film was additionally treated by oxygen plasma to provide a hydrophilic surface with a contact angle less than 10°, the proliferation of bone-forming cell was further enhanced. Thus, the plasma-based independent modification of PS film into an optimum nanotexture for human osteoblast cells could be appplied to materials used in bone tissue engineering. Highlights: ► New approach based on plasma treatment to independently control the surface topography and wettability ► The adhesion of human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) was enhanced on a surface with an average roughness of ∼ 11 nm. ► The adhesion and proliferation of hFOB was maximized when nanotextured surface became highly hydrophilic

  12. Improving surface wettability and lubrication of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) by combining with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel.

    Zhao, Xiaoduo; Xiong, Dangsheng; Liu, Yuntong

    2018-06-01

    Poor surface wettability and relative high friction coefficients of pristine polyetheretherketone (PEEK) have limited its application in orthopedic implants. In this study, inspired by the structure of natural articular cartilage, we presented a novel method to fabricate a "soft-on-hard" structure on the surface of pristine PEEK specimens, which combined a soft polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel layer and a three-dimensional porous layer with PEEK substrates. A variety of analytical methods were used to evaluate their properties, our results demonstrated that the hydrogel layer could be seamlessly connected with substrate, and the hydrogel-covered PEEK owned a highly hydrophilic surface, a very low water contact angle of 7° could be obtained. The friction coefficients of untreated and hydrogel-covered PEEK surfaces were measured using a tribometer under water lubrication, due to the presence of the top hydrogel layer and the hard substrate could provide excellent aqueous lubrication and bearing capacity, respectively, the friction coefficient could be reduced from 0.292 to 0.021. In addition, the porous layer under PVA hydrogel layer could work as gel reservoirs, the reserved hydrogel would be released after the surface layer was sheared off, and a regenerable lubrication status was obtained. This work provides a new route for the design of improving the surface wettability and tribological properties of PEEK. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reducing coal miner absenteeism

    Peters, R.H.; Clingan, M.R. (Bureau of Mines, PA (USA). Pittsburgh Research Center)

    1989-09-01

    High absenteeism at coal mines can seriously affect safety and hamper productivity. Several effective strategies for achieving high attendance which mine operators may not have considered are presented and a method is proposed for implementing programs for minimizing absenteeism among coal miners. The best strategies for improving attendance will vary according to the needs and circumstances of the particular mine, however, the process for establishing such a program is relatively invariant. A four-stage process is recommended; evaluate data from prior attendance records, communicate attendance goals and policy, develop and implement an attendance promotion program, and recycle. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Coal preparation

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  15. Wettability transition of plasma-treated polystyrene micro/nano pillars-aligned patterns

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the wettability transition of plasma-treated polystyrene (PS micro/nano pillars-aligned patterns. The micro/nano pillars were prepared using hot embossing on silicon microporous template and alumina nanoporous template, which were fabricated by ultraviolet (UV lithography and inductive coupled plasma (ICP etching, and two-step anodic oxidation, respectively. The results indicate that the combination of micro/nano patterning and plasma irradiation can easily regulate wettabilities of PS surfaces, i.e. from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity, or from hydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity. During the wettability transition from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity there is only mild hydrophilicity loss. After plasma irradiation, moreover, the wettability of PS micro/nano pillars-aligned patterns is more stable than that of flat PS surfaces. The observed wettability transition and wettability stability of PS micro/nano pillars-aligned patterns are new phenomena, which may have potential in creating programmable functional polymer surfaces.

  16. Determination of metals by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and evaluation of toxicity of a river impacted by coal mining in the south of Brazil.

    Lattuada, R M; Menezes, C T B; Pavei, P T; Peralba, M C R; Dos Santos, J H Z

    2009-04-30

    Metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Pb) concentrations in the region of Criciuma (Brazil), a region impacted by coal mining, were determined in water and sediments using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy. Samples were collected from the Mãe Luzia River (south Brazil) at five different stations, from the source down to the river mouth (Ararangua estuary). Water and sediment toxicity were also evaluated using bioassays with Daphnia magna as the bioindicator. The metal present in the highest concentrations both in water (1.3-11 mg L(-1)) and in sediments (34-142 mg L(-1)) was iron. Results suggest an influence of coal mining on the aquatic receptors, showing a clear relationship between metal content (mostly Fe) and ecotoxicity.

  17. CoalVal-A coal resource valuation program

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; McIntosh, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    CoalVal is a menu-driven Windows program that produces cost-of-mining analyses of mine-modeled coal resources. Geological modeling of the coal beds and some degree of mine planning, from basic prefeasibility to advanced, must already have been performed before this program can be used. United States Geological Survey mine planning is done from a very basic, prefeasibility standpoint, but the accuracy of CoalVal's output is a reflection of the accuracy of the data entered, both for mine costs and mine planning. The mining cost analysis is done by using mine cost models designed for the commonly employed, surface and underground mining methods utilized in the United States. CoalVal requires a Microsoft Windows? 98 or Windows? XP operating system and a minimum of 1 gigabyte of random access memory to perform operations. It will not operate on Microsoft Vista?, Windows? 7, or Macintosh? operating systems. The program will summarize the evaluation of an unlimited number of coal seams, haulage zones, tax entities, or other area delineations for a given coal property, coalfield, or basin. When the reader opens the CoalVal publication from the USGS website, options are provided to download the CoalVal publication manual and the CoalVal Program. The CoalVal report is divided into five specific areas relevant to the development and use of the CoalVal program: 1. Introduction to CoalVal Assumptions and Concepts. 2. Mine Model Assumption Details (appendix A). 3. CoalVal Project Tutorial (appendix B). 4. Program Description (appendix C). 5. Mine Model and Discounted Cash Flow Formulas (appendix D). The tutorial explains how to enter coal resource and quality data by mining method; program default values for production, operating, and cost variables; and ones own operating and cost variables into the program. Generated summary reports list the volume of resource in short tons available for mining, recoverable short tons by mining method; the seam or property being mined

  18. Biomedical devices engineered based on the control of the surface wettability

    Oliveira, Nuno Miguel Ribeiro de

    2017-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia de Tecidos, Medicina Regenerativa e Células Estaminais The wettability control has been showed as an important parameter for several systems and applications on the biomedical field. Once the surface wettability has crucial influence in protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Here, the focus was on the technology development based on the advanced control of wettability in surfaces, tuning directly the surface characteristics or modifying surface...

  19. Distilling coal

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  20. An evaluation of greenhouse gas mitigation options for coal-fired power plants in the US Great Lakes States

    Froese, Robert E.; Shonnard, David R.; Miller, Chris A.; Koers, Ken P.; Johnson, Dana M.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed options for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation in the US Great Lakes States, a region heavily dependent on coal-fired power plants. A proposed 600 MW power plant in northern Lower Michigan, USA provided context for our evaluation. Options to offset fossil CO 2 emissions by 20% included biomass fuel substitution from (1) forest residuals, (2) short-rotation woody crops, or (3) switchgrass; (4) biologic sequestration in forest plantations; and (5) geologic sequestration using CO 2 capture. Review of timber product output data, land cover data, and expected energy crop productivity on idle agriculture land within 120 km of the plant revealed that biomass from forestry residuals has the potential to offset 6% and from energy crops 27% of the annual fossil fuel requirement. Furthermore, annual forest harvest in the region is only 26% of growth and the surplus represents a large opportunity for forest products and bioenergy applications. We used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to compare mitigation options, using fossil energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions per unit electricity generation as criteria. LCA results revealed that co-firing with forestry residuals is the most attractive option and geologic sequestration is the least attractive option, based on the two criteria. Biologic sequestration is intermediate but likely infeasible because of very large land area requirements. Our study revealed that biomass feedstock potentials from land and forest resources are not limiting mitigation activities, but the most practical approach is likely a combination of options that optimize additional social, environmental and economic criteria.

  1. Evaluation of coal combustion byproducts as soil liming materials - their influence on soil pH and enzyme activities

    McCarty, G W; Siddaramappa, R; Wright, R J; Codling, E E; Gao, G

    1994-03-01

    To evaluate coal combustion byproducts as liming materials and address issues related to soil quality, the authors compared the influence of different amounts of four combustion byproducts (fly ash and bed ash from a fluidized bed combustion furnace, lime-injected multistage burner residue, and spray dryer residue) and CaCO[sub 3] on soil pH and activities of urease, phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and dehydrogenase in an acidic soil. Studies comparing the influence of the combustion byproducts and CaCO[sub 3] on soil pH showed that on weight basis of application, substantial differences were observed in the ability of these materials to influence soil pH but that such differences decreased markedly after the data were transformed to a CaCO[sub 3] equivalent basis of application. Analysis of covariance for these transformed data indicated that whereas the liming abilities of fly ash and CaCO[sub 3] were not significantly different when compared on the CaCO[sub 3] equivalent basis, those of bed ash, multistage burner residue, and spray dryer residue were less than that of CaCO[sub 3]. Studies comparing the influence of the byproducts and CaCO[sub 3] on soil enzyme activities showed that the effect of these liming materials on the enzyme activities studied was largely due to their influence on soil pH. These studies showed that the combustion byproducts tested functioned as soil liming materials in a manner similar to that of CaCO[sub 3] and seemed to have little adverse effect on soil quality.

  2. Technico-economic evaluation of abatement systems applying to air pollution resulting from coal-fired power plants

    Mounier, Marc.

    1981-09-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the analysis of the health care policies which could be considered in coal-fired power plants, in the comparative framework of the radiation protection in nuclear power plants. After a recall of the typical parameters of the air pollution due to the normal operation of a coal-fired power plant, we develop a heuristic model which allows, after having quantified the releases, to determine the theoretical health effects associated to a one-year operation of the power plant. The comparison of the various protection policies has been done with the help of a cost-effectiveness analysis. An examination of the results shows that the policy presently implemented forms a part of the cost-effective options. Nevertheless, it can be seen that the marginal protection cost is higher in nuclear power plants than in coal-fired power plants [fr

  3. Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery

    Buckley, Jill S.

    2002-01-29

    The objectives of this five-year project were: (1) to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces, (2) to apply the results of surface studies to improve predictions of oil production from laboratory measurements, and (3) to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding.

  4. Characterization of Mixed Wettability at Different Scales and its Impact on Oil Recovery Efficiency

    Sharma, Mukul M.; Hirasaki, George J.

    2002-01-28

    The objectives of this project was to: (1) quantify the pore scale mechanisms that determine the wettability state of a reservoir, (2) study the effect of crude oil, brine and mineral compositions in the establishment of mixed wet states, (3) clarify the effect of mixed - wettability on oil displacement efficiency in waterfloods, (4) develop a new tracer technique to measure wettability, fluid distributions, residual saturation's and relative permeabilities, and (5) develop methods for properly incorporating wettability in up-scaling from pore to core to reservoir scales.

  5. Exergy evaluation of a typical 330 MW solar-hybrid coal-fired power plant in China

    Peng, Shuo; Wang, Zhaoguo; Hong, Hui; Xu, Da; Jin, Hongguang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy analysis of solar-hybrid coal-fired power plant has been processed. • EUD method is utilized to obtain detailed information on the exergy destruction in each process. • Off-design thermodynamic performances are discussed to identify the advantages. • Exergy destruction of several parts under varying solar radiation is examined. - Abstract: This study discusses the thermodynamic performance of a solar-hybrid coal-fired power plant that uses solar heat with temperature lower than 300 °C to replace the extracted steam from a steam turbine to heat the feed water. Through this process, the steam that was to be extracted can efficiently expand in the steam turbine to generate electricity. The flow rate of steam returning to the turbine retains only a small part of the main stream, allowing the steam turbine to run close to design conditions for all DNI. A solar-only thermal power plant without storage is also discussed to illustrate the advantages of a solar-hybrid coal-fired power plant. The off-design performances of both plants are compared based on the energy-utilization diagram method. The exergy destruction of the solar-hybrid coal-fired power plant is found to be lower than that of the solar-only thermal power plant. The comparison of two plants, which may provide detailed information on internal phenomena, highlights several advantages of the solar-hybrid coal-fired power plant in terms of off-design operation: lower exergy destruction in the solar feed water heater and steam turbine and higher exergy and solar-to-electricity efficiency. Preliminary technological economic performances of both plants are compared. The results obtained in this study indicate that a solar-hybrid coal-fired power plant could achieve better off-design performance and economic performance than a solar-only thermal power plant

  6. Bugs and coal: processing fuels with biotechnology

    Shepard, M

    1987-06-01

    Bioprocessing of coal is developing along several fronts, each of potential significance to utilities. Researchers have found a fungus, polyporous versicolor, which can liquefy certain kinds of coal and scientists have genetically engineered bacteria that remove sulfur and ash-forming metal impurities from coal. Research programs are being undertaken to find organisms that will convert lignite into gaseous methane to produce gaseous fuel more economically than the current coal gasification methods. Researchers looking for ways to remove sulfur from coal before it is burned are evaluating the use of a bacterium called thiobacillus ferroxidans to enhance the physical removal of pyrite. 2 refs.

  7. Assessment of Research Needs for Coal Utilization

    Penner, S.S.

    1983-08-01

    The Coal Combustion and Applications Working Group (CCAWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on coal combustion and utilization. The important topical areas of coal gasification and coal liquefaction have been deliberately excluded because R and D needs for these technologies were reviewed previously by the DOE Fossil Energy Research Working Group. The CCAWG studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect prospects for augmented coal utilization. In this report, we summarize the findings and research recommendations of CCAWG.

  8. Management present situation and countermeasures of coal mines safety in production

    ZHANG Shu-dong; YU Chang-wu

    2008-01-01

    Analyzed of the present situation of Chinese coal mines safety in production and the reasons for coal mining accident, and realized the coal mines safety in production,which should increase the legal safeguards of coal mine safety in production, and safety input, established the comprehensive coal mine safety evaluation system, comprehensively enhance quality of coal mine workers, established and improved early warning mechanism of safety production of coal mine.

  9. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  10. FY 1980 Report on results of research and development project, commissioned by Sunshine Project. Analysis and evaluation of coal liquefied oil, and development of its applications; 1980 nendo sekitan ekikayu no bunseki hyoka to yoto kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first year of the 5-year survey/research project for analysis/evaluation of coal-liquefied oil, structural analysis and development of its applications. The program for analysis/evaluation of coal-liquefied oil includes surveys on the analytical methods for liquefied coal, which are compared with those for oil products, elementary analysis of the ashes in SRC, binder performance tests, and extraction of the problems to be solved for proposal of the analytical methods for coal-liquefied oil. The program for structural analysis includes that of coal-liquefied oil fractionated into middle distillate, fuel oil asphalt and pitches, configurations of a large-size liquefaction process, and characteristics of the oil produced thereby, and some examples of structural analysis are reported. The molecular species and compositions are determined for the middle distillate fraction.. The fuel oil shows average structures of diversified mixtures. The program for developing applications of coal-liquefied oil includes extraction of the problems anticipated when it is used as fuel, technical/economic evaluation of the upgrading techniques, and results and evaluation of conversion of the oil into stocks for chemicals. (NEDO)

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Phase 1 Results from the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). [coal utilization for electric power plants feasibility analysis

    1976-01-01

    Ten advanced energy conversion systems for central-station, based-load electric power generation using coal and coal-derived fuels which were studied by NASA are presented. Various contractors were selected by competitive bidding to study these systems. A comparative evaluation is provided of the contractor results on both a system-by-system and an overall basis. Ground rules specified by NASA, such as coal specifications, fuel costs, labor costs, method of cost comparison, escalation and interest during construction, fixed charges, emission standards, and environmental conditions, are presented. Each system discussion includes the potential advantages of the system, the scope of each contractor's analysis, typical schematics of systems, comparison of cost of electricity and efficiency for each contractor, identification and reconciliation of differences, identification of future improvements, and discussion of outside comments. Considerations common to all systems, such as materials and furnaces, are also discussed. Results of selected in-house analyses are presented, in addition to contractor data. The results for all systems are then compared.

  12. Push-pull test: a method of evaluating formation adsorption parameters for predicting the environmental effects on in situ coal gasification and uranium recovery

    Drever, J.I.; McKee, C.R.

    1980-11-01

    The push-pull test, which is a simple injection and pumping sequence of groundwater spiked with solutes of interest, is presented as a method of determining the adsorption characteristics of a formation. Adsorption properties are necessary to predict restoration from both in situ coal gasification and in situ uranium extraction. The major problems in applying laboratory measurements to the field concern scaling the effect of particle size and obtaining representative samples. Laboratory measurements are conducted on gram to kilogram scale samples, whereas the push-pull test evaluates a sample weighing approximately 130 to 1000 metric tons, depending on volume injected and porosity. The problem in translating laboratory results to the field appear to be less severe for sedimentary uranium bodies than for coal. Laboratory measurements are useful in delineating ranges in adsorption properties and in planning the field experiment. Two field push-pull tests were conducted on uranium formations in Wyoming. Adsorption properties estimated from these tests on the basis of a simple cell model were compared to the laboratory values. In the first case, excellent agreement was observed between the values estimated from the field test and the values measured in the laboratory. In the second case, the value for K/sub d/ determined in the laboratory was five times higher than the field value. It is recommended that push-pull tests be conducted on coal formations being considered for in situ gasification in view of the great uncertainty in extrapolating laboratory adsorption properties to the field

  13. Evaluation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for measurement of silica on filter samples of coal dust.

    Stipe, Christopher B; Miller, Arthur L; Brown, Jonathan; Guevara, Edward; Cauda, Emanuele

    2012-11-01

    Airborne silica dust (quartz) is common in coal mines and represents a respiratory hazard that can lead to silicosis, a potentially fatal lung disease. With an eye toward developing a portable monitoring device for rapid analysis of silica dust, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to quantify quartz in coal dust samples collected on filter media. Pure silica (Min-U-Sil™ 5), Georgia kaolin, and Pittsburgh-4 and Illinois-6 coal dusts were deposited separately and at multiple mass loadings onto 37-mm polyvinylchloride (PVC) filters. LIBS-generated silicon emission was monitored at 288.16 nm, and non-silica contributions to that signal from kaolinite were removed by simultaneously detecting aluminum. Measurements of the four samples were used to calculate limits of detection (LOD) for silicon and aluminum of approximately 0.08 μg/cm(2) and 0.05 μg/cm(2), respectively (corresponding to 0.16 μg/cm(2) and 0.20 μg/cm(2) for silica and kaolinite, respectively). Relative errors of prediction are around 10%. Results demonstrate that LIBS can dependably quantify silica on filter samples of coal dust and confirm that accurate quantification can be achieved for very lightly loaded samples, which supports the potential application of LIBS for rapid, in-field monitoring.

  14. Numerical Validation of Chemical Compositional Model for Wettability Alteration Processes

    Bekbauov, Bakhbergen; Berdyshev, Abdumauvlen; Baishemirov, Zharasbek; Bau, Domenico

    2017-12-01

    Chemical compositional simulation of enhanced oil recovery and surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation processes is a complex task that involves solving dozens of equations for all grid blocks representing a reservoir. In the present work, we perform a numerical validation of the newly developed mathematical formulation which satisfies the conservation laws of mass and energy and allows applying a sequential solution approach to solve the governing equations separately and implicitly. Through its application to the numerical experiment using a wettability alteration model and comparisons with existing chemical compositional model's numerical results, the new model has proven to be practical, reliable and stable.

  15. Tailoring the wettability of nanocrystalline TiO 2 films

    Liang, Qiyu; Chen, Yan; Fan, Yuzun; Hu, Yong; Wu, Yuedong; Zhao, Ziqiang; Meng, Qingbo

    2012-01-01

    The water contact angle (WCA) of nanocrystalline TiO2 films was adjusted by fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) modification and photocatalytic lithography. FAS modification made the surface hydrophobic with the WCA up to ∼156°, while ultraviolet (UV) irradiation changed surface to hydrophilic with the WCA down to ∼0°. Both the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity were enhanced by surface roughness. The wettability can be tailored by varying the concentration of FAS solution and soaking time, as well as the UV light intensity and irradiation time. Additionally, with the help of photomasks, hydrophobic-hydrophilic micropatterns can be fabricated and manifested via area-selective deposition of polystyrene particles.

  16. Wettability and surface free energy of polarised ceramic biomaterials

    Nakamura, Miho; Hori, Naoko; Namba, Saki; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Toyama, Takeshi; Nishimiya, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The surface modification of ceramic biomaterials used for medical devices is expected to improve osteoconductivity through control of the interfaces between the materials and living tissues. Polarisation treatment induced surface charges on hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate, carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite and yttria-stabilized zirconia regardless of the differences in the carrier ions participating in the polarisation. Characterization of the surfaces revealed that the wettability of the polarised ceramic biomaterials was improved through the increase in the surface free energies compared with conventional ceramic surfaces. (note)

  17. Coal Mines Security System

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  18. Coal at the crossroads

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  19. GIS-BASED EVALUATION AND PREDICTION OF ECOLOGICAL SITUATION IN THE COAL MINING AREAS WITH A CRITICAL TECHNOGENIC IMPACT

    S. V. Pyankov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the features of the creation of the basin GIS, developed to support the environmental monitoring, assessment and forecasting of negative consequences in the areas of technogenic disaster (on the example of abandoned Kizel coal basin, located in Perm Region, Russia. The world experience of applying GIS-technologies for solving environmental problems of coal-mining regions is also being discussed. The information basis and structure of the cartographic and attributive database of the Kizel coal basin GIS are presented. The main tasks of creating the GIS, including inventory of man-made impact sources, identification of the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of pollutants, quantification and mapping of the territory ecological status, forecasting of the environmental situation and planning of environmental measures have been identified. A system of spatial criteria for the integrated assessment of the territory ecological status within coal basins is proposed, which will allow monitoring of environmental changes and identifying areas with the critical environmental situation. These criteria include the pH value and the sulfates concentration in the streams, the complex of heavy metals, the species composition of microorganisms in surface waters, the area of degraded land and dead forest stands. The degree of negative impact of the abandoned coal mines on streams and groundwater is described, and the priority pollutants are identified.The estimates of the extent of contaminated streams, as well as areas of potential contamination of floodplain lands have been obtained using LANDSAT satellite imagery data. The significance of the creation of the algorithms for the integration of heterogeneous spatial information (ground-based and remote sensing observations for compiling synthetic maps that objectively estimate the ecological situation has been noted. 

  20. EVALUATION OF SOLID SORBENTS AS A RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY FOR CO2 CAPTURE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Holly Krutka; Sharon Sjostrom

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process/equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines; 31 carbon based materials; 6 zeolites; 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding); and 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  1. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

    1997-07-01

    This project addresses DOE's interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals

  2. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

    1997-07-01

    This project addresses DOE`s interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals.

  3. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1987. Surveys on coal selection and coal types (Surveys on coal resources for liquefaction); 1987 nendo tanshu sentei chosa tanshu chosa seika hokokusho. Ekikayo sekitan shigen chosa

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    The survey purpose is to identify availability of coal resources for liquefaction in major coal producing countries in the Pacific basin area. Therefore, collection is carried out on such data as coal existing conditions, coal qualities, production quantities, and infrastructures on coal mines being operated and projects under development or investigation. Coal samples are collected in wide range and exhaustively unbiased to particular coal fields and mines to acquire data to perform selection and evaluation of coals that can be fed to coal liquefying plants. The present survey was intended to acquire fundamental data for the liquefying coal selection, such as coal existing conditions, natures, and infrastructures for the coal resources, taking up as the survey object countries the State of Alaska, U.S.A. and Indonesia. The coal types as the object of the survey are mainly sub-bituminous coal, and additionally brown coal and partly bituminous coal. The amount of coal deposit as the subject of the investigation is 100 million tons or more as the verified reserve. The subject areas cover coal mines in the State of Alaska, U.S.A. (Northern Alaska, Nenana, Beluga, and Matanuska coal fields), and Indonesia (the Sumatra and Kalimantan islands). The survey items are made up of 14 items (see the coal mine survey tables in JN0040851). (NEDO)

  4. Coal industry annual 1997

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  5. Coal industry annual 1997

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  6. Coal marketing manual 1987

    1987-01-01

    This manual provides information on the international coal market in tabulated format. Statistics are presented for the Australian coal industry, exports, currency movements, world coal production, coal and coke imports and exports. Detailed information is provided on the Australian coal industry including mine specific summaries. Pricing summaries for thermal and coking coal in 1987, coal quality standards and specifications, trends in coal prices and stocks. Imports and exports for World coal and coke, details of shipping, international ports and iron and steel production. An exporters index of Australian and overseas companies with industry and government contacts is included. 15 figs., 67 tabs.

  7. Coal industry annual 1996

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  8. Coal industry annual 1996

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  9. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  10. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  11. Induced wettability and surface-volume correlation of composition for bovine bone derived hydroxyapatite particles

    Maidaniuc, Andreea; Miculescu, Florin; Voicu, Stefan Ioan; Andronescu, Corina; Miculescu, Marian; Matei, Ecaterina; Mocanu, Aura Catalina; Pencea, Ion; Csaki, Ioana; Machedon-Pisu, Teodor; Ciocan, Lucian Toma

    2018-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite powders characteristics need to be determined both for quality control purposes and for a proper control of microstructural features of bone reconstruction products. This study combines bulk morphological and compositional analysis methods (XRF, SEM-EDS, FT-IR) with surface-related methods (XPS, contact angle measurements) in order to correlate the characteristics of hydroxyapatite powders derived from bovine bone for its use in medical applications. An experimental approach for correlating the surface and volume composition was designed based on the analysis depth of each spectral method involved in the study. Next, the influences of powder particle size and forming method on the contact angle between water drops and ceramic surface were evaluated for identifying suitable strategies of tuning hydroxyapatite's wettability. The results revealed a preferential arrangement of chemical elements at the surface of hydroxyapatite particles which could induce a favourable material behaviour in terms of sinterability and biological performance.

  12. Enhanced adhesion of osteoblastic cells on polystyrene films by independent control of surface topography and wettability.

    Yang, Seung Yun; Kim, Eung-Sam; Jeon, Gumhye; Choi, Kwan Yong; Kim, Jin Kon

    2013-04-01

    We independently controlled surface topography and wettability of polystyrene (PS) films by CF4 and oxygen plasma treatments, respectively, to evaluate the adhesion and proliferation of human fetal osteoblastic (hFOB) cells on the films. Among the CF4 plasma-treated PS films with the average surface roughness ranging from 0.9 to 70 nm, the highest adhesion of hFOB cells was observed on a PS film with roughness of ~11 nm. When this film was additionally treated by oxygen plasma to provide a hydrophilic surface with a contact angle less than 10°, the proliferation of bone-forming cell was further enhanced. Thus, the plasma-based independent modification of PS film into an optimum nanotexture for human osteoblast cells could be appplied to materials used in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of micro nano multi-scale structures on the surface wettability

    Lee, Sang Min; Jung, Im Deok; Ko, Jong Soo

    2008-01-01

    Surface wettability in terms of the size of the micro nano structures has been examined. To evaluate the influence of the nano structures on the contact angles, we fabricated two different kinds of structures: square-pillar-type microstructure with nano-protrusions and without nano-protrusions. Microstructure and nanostructure arrays were fabricated by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) and Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) processes, respectively. And Plasma Polymerized FluoroCarbon (PPFC) was finally deposited onto the fabricated structures. Average value of the measured contact angles from microstructures with nano-protrusions was 6.37 .deg. higher than that from microstructures without nano-protrusions. This result indicates that the nano-protrusions give a crucial effect to increase the contact angle

  14. Evaluating the impact of three incentive programs on the economics of cofiring willow biomass with coal in New York State

    Tharakan, P.J.; Volk, T.A.; Lindsey, C.A.; Abrahamson, L.P.; White, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Plantations of fast-growing willow shrubs are being promoted as a source quality biomass feedstock for bioenergy and bioproducts in New York State (NY). In the near-term, cofiring of the feedstock--in combination with other woody biomass--with coal in existing utility power boilers is considered to be the most promising conversion method for energy generation. Despite the clear technological viability and associated environmental benefits, cofiring of willow has not been widely adopted. The relatively high production cost of the willow feedstock, which is over twice that of coal, is the primary reason for this lack of interest. Taxes that account for some of the social costs of using coal and/or incentives that appropriate value for some of the social benefits of using willow are essential for eliminating most or the entire current price differential. This paper presents an integrated analysis of the economics of power generation from cofiring willow biomass feedstock with coal, from the perspective of the grower, aggregator and the power plant. Emphasis is placed on analyzing the relative impact of a green premium price, a closed-loop biomass tax credit, and payments to growers under the proposed Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) harvesting exemption policy. The CRP payments reduced the delivered cost of willow by 36-35%, to $1.90 GJ -1 and $1.70 GJ -1 , under current and increased yield conditions, respectively. These prices are still high, relative to coal. Other incentives are required to ensure commercial viability. The required levels of green premium price (0.4-1.0 cents kWh -1 ) and biomass tax credit (0.75-2.4 cents kWh -1 ) vary depending on whether the incentives were being applied by themselves or in combination, and whether current yield or potential increased yields were being considered. In the near term, cofiring willow biomass and coal can be an economically viable option for power generation in NY if the expected overall beneficial effects

  15. Influence of Bulk PDMS Network Properties on Water Wettability

    Melillo, Matthew; Walker, Edwin; Klein, Zoe; Efimenko, Kirill; Genzer, Jan

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is one of the most common elastomers, with applications ranging from sealants and marine antifouling coatings to absorbents for water treatment. Fundamental understanding of how liquids spread on the surface of and absorb into PDMS networks is of critical importance for the design and use of another application - medical devices. We have systematically studied the effects of polymer molecular weight, loading of tetra-functional crosslinker, and end-group chemical functionality on the mechanical and surface properties of end-linked PDMS networks. Wettability was investigated through the sessile drop technique, wherein a DI water droplet was placed on the bulk network surface and droplet volume, shape, surface area, and contact angle were monitored as a function of time. Various silicone substrates ranging from incredibly soft and flexible materials (E' 50 kPa) to highly rigid networks (E' 5 MPa) were tested. The dynamic behavior of the droplet on the surfaces demonstrated equilibration times between the droplet and surface on the order of 5 minutes. Similar trends were observed for the commercial PDMS material, Sylgard-184. Our results have provided new evidence for the strong influence that substrate modulus and molecular network structure have on the wettability of PDMS elastomers. These findings will aid in the design and implementation of efficient, accurate, and safe PDMS-based medical devices and microfluidic materials that involve aqueous media.

  16. Morphology modulating the wettability of a diamond film.

    Tian, Shibing; Sun, Weijie; Hu, Zhaosheng; Quan, Baogang; Xia, Xiaoxiang; Li, Yunlong; Han, Dong; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi

    2014-10-28

    Control of the wetting property of diamond surface has been a challenge because of its maximal hardness and good chemical inertness. In this work, the micro/nanoarray structures etched into diamond film surfaces by a maskless plasma method are shown to fix a surface's wettability characteristics, and this means that the change in morphology is able to modulate the wettability of a diamond film from weakly hydrophilic to either superhydrophilic or superhydrophobic. It can be seen that the etched diamond surface with a mushroom-shaped array is superhydrophobic following the Cassie mode, whereas the etched surface with nanocone arrays is superhydrophilic in accordance with the hemiwicking mechnism. In addition, the difference in cone densities of superhydrophilic nanocone surfaces has a significant effect on water spreading, which is mainly derived from different driving forces. This low-cost and convenient means of altering the wetting properties of diamond surfaces can be further applied to underlying wetting phenomena and expand the applications of diamond in various fields.

  17. Wettability and Impact Performance of Wood Veneer/Polyester Composites

    Shayesteh Haghdan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites have been of interest since the 1940s due to their ease of use in processing, fast curing times, and high specific stiffness and strength. While the use of plant fibers in a polyester matrix has been thoroughly studied, only limited information is available regarding using wood as reinforcement. In this study, composites of thin wood veneer and a polyester matrix were made and the difficulties in the lamination and curing processes were investigated. Sheets of Douglas fir, maple, and oak veneers using a catalyzed polyester resin were assembled as unidirectional, balanced, and unbalanced cross-ply laminates. These were compared to control specimens using glass fiber as reinforcement. The impact properties of the samples, with respect to the laminate thicknesses, were characterized using a drop-weight impact tester. The wettability and surface roughness of unsanded and sanded wood veneers were also investigated. Results showed that Douglas fir cross-ply laminates had an impact energy equivalent to glass fiber laminates, making them an interesting alternative to synthetic fiber composites. Wood/polyester laminates absorbed a considerable amount of energy through a higher number of fracture modes. The balanced lay-up limited twisting of the wood/polyester composites. The lowest contact angle and highest wettability were observed in unsanded Douglas fir veneers.

  18. Retracted: Study of the wettability of ZnO nanofilms

    Ujjwal M Joshi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Al-doped and un-doped ZnO thin films deposited on quartz substrates by the nebulized spray pyrolysis method were studied to investigate the wettability of the surface. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the wettability of ZnO thin film by changing the concentration of Al doping. Microstructure and water contact angles of the films were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and using a contact angle goniometer. SEM studies revealed that the grain size within the film increases with the doping concentration. The contact angles were studied to see the effect of aluminum doping on the hydrophilicity of the film. ZnO films were found to be hydrophobic in nature. A good correlation was observed between the SEM micrographs and contact angle results. The nature of the film was found to change from being hydrophobic to hydrophilic after the treatment in low-pressure DC glow discharge plasma, which, however, was reversible with the storage time.

  19. Improving the wettability of aluminum on carbon nanotubes

    So, Kang Pyo; Lee, Il Ha; Duong, Dinh Loc; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lim, Seong Chu; An, Kay Hyeok; Lee, Young Hee

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The wettability of CNT in Al metal was improved by electroplating method. → This involves two steps: (i) Al electroplating and (ii) additional Al wetting. → The large surface tension difference was overcome by forming Al-C covalent bonds. → Al-C covalent bond was verified by Raman spectroscopy and XPS. → Density functional calculations confirmed structural model of CNT-vacancy-O-Al. - Abstract: The wetting of a metal on carbon nanotubes is fundamentally difficult due to the unusually large difference between their surface tensions and is a bottleneck for making metal-carbon nanotube (CNT) composites. Here, we report a simple method to enhance the wettability of metal particles on the CNT surface by applying aluminum, which is the material with the largest surface tension. This method involves two steps: (i) Al nanoparticles are decorated on multiwalled carbon nanotubes by electroplating and (ii) Al powder is further spread on Al-electroplated CNTs, followed by high-temperature annealing to accommodate complete wetting of the aluminum. The large surface tension difference is overcome by forming strong Al-C covalent bonds initiated by defects of the CNTs. The decrease in the D-band intensity, the G-band shift in the Raman spectroscopy and the formation of Al-C covalent bonds, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, were in agreement with our structural model of CNT-vacancy-O-Al determined by density functional calculations.

  20. Femtosecond laser-induced surface wettability modification of polystyrene surface

    Wang, Bing; Wang, XinCai; Zheng, HongYu; Lam, YeeCheong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated a simple method to create either a hydrophilic or hydrophobic surface. With femtosecond laser irradiation at different laser parameters, the water contact angle (WCA) on polystyrene's surface can be modified to either 12.7° or 156.2° from its original WCA of 88.2°. With properly spaced micro-pits created, the surface became hydrophilic probably due to the spread of the water droplets into the micro-pits. While with properly spaced micro-grooves created, the surface became rough and more hydrophobic. We investigated the effect of laser parameters on WCAs and analyzed the laser-treated surface roughness, profiles and chemical bonds by surface profilometer, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the laser-treated surface with low roughness, the polar (such as C—O, C=O, and O—C=O bonds) and non-polar (such as C—C or C—H bonds) groups were found to be responsible for the wettability changes. While for a rough surface, the surface roughness or the surface topography structure played a more significant role in the changes of the surface WCA. The mechanisms involved in the laser surface wettability modification process were discussed.

  1. A drop penetration method to measure powder blend wettability.

    Wang, Yifan; Liu, Zhanjie; Muzzio, Fernando; Drazer, German; Callegari, Gerardo

    2018-03-01

    Water wettability of pharmaceutical blends affects important quality attributes of final products. We investigate the wetting properties of a pharmaceutical blend lubricated with Magnesium Stearate (MgSt) as a function of the mechanical shear strain applied to the blend. We measure the penetration dynamics of sessile drops deposited on slightly compressed powder beds. We consider a blend composed of 9% Acetaminophen 90% Lactose and 1% MgSt by weight. Comparing the penetration time of water and a reference liquid Polydimethylsiloxane (silicon oil) we obtain an effective cosine of the contact angle with water, based on a recently developed drop penetration method. We repeat the experiments for blends exposed to increasing levels of shear strain and demonstrate a significant decrease in water wettability (decrease in the cosine of the contact angle). The results are consistent with the development of a hydrophobic film coating the powder particles as a result of the increased shear strain. Finally, we show that, as expected dissolution times increase with the level of shear strain. Therefore, the proposed drop penetration method could be used to directly assess the state of lubrication of a pharmaceutical blend and act as a quality control on powder blend attributes before the blend is tableted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  3. Coal and Energy.

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  4. Evaluation of Solid Sorbents As A Retrofit Technology for CO{sub 2} Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process / equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines, 31 carbon based materials, 6 zeolites, 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding), 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  5. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  6. Designer-Wet Micromodels for Studying Potential Changes in Wettability during Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Armstrong, R. T.; Wildenschild, D.

    2010-12-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a process where microorganisms are used for tertiary recovery of oil. Some bacteria can facilitate the mobilization of oil through the production of amphiphilic compounds called biosurfactants that reduce the interfacial tension (IFT) between immiscible phases. Additionally, most bacteria have an inclination to colonize surfaces and form biofilm, which can change a reservoir's wetting properties or clog preferential flow paths. Herein, we aim to understand changes in wettability during MEOR under mixed wettability conditions within silicon etched micromodels and to identify the type of oil field (i.e. based on wettability) in which MEOR is likely to be most profitable. To quantify porous media wettability, macro-scale indexes (obtained with techniques such as the Carter or Amott methods) are used regularly. However, these measurements lack the capability for characterization of changes in wettability during MEOR treatment, and only provide macro-scale information. In an effort to understand micro-scale temporal and spatial changes in wettability we measure interfacial curvature from stereo microscope images using level set methods. Curvature, from the perspective of the oil phase, is positive for a concave interface (i.e. water-wet surface) and negative for a convex interface (i.e. oil-wet surface). Thus, shifts in the radius of curvature distribution (i.e. from positive to negative or conversely) are indicative of wettability changes. Both curvature distributions using level-set methods and the Carter method are used to characterize wettability before and after microbial treatment. In preliminary studies aimed at understanding wettability changes due to microbial surface interactions by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, oil droplets were placed on glass slides suspended in growth media and the resulting contact angle was measured over time. Results showed that a water-wet surface will become more water wet as JF-2 accumulated in

  7. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  8. Study of wettability and cell viability of H implanted stainless steel

    Shafique, Muhammad Ahsan; Ahmad, Riaz; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, the effect of hydrogen ion implantation on surface wettability and biocompatibility of stainless steel is investigated. Hydrogen ions are implanted in the near-surface of stainless steel to facilitate hydrogen bonding at different doses with constant energy of 500 KeV, which consequently improve the surface wettability. Treated and untreated sample are characterized for surface wettability, incubation of hydroxyapatite and cell viability. Contact angle (CA) study reveals that surface wettability increases with increasing H-ion dose. Raman spectroscopy shows that precipitation of hydroxyapatite over the surface increase with increasing dose of H-ions. Cell viability study using MTT assay describes improved cell viability in treated samples as compared to the untreated sample. It is found that low dose of H-ions is more effective for cell proliferation and the cell count decreases with increasing ion dose. Our study demonstrates that H ion implantation improves the surface wettability and biocompatibility of stainless steel.

  9. Parametric Study of Effects of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment on the Wettability of Cotton Fabric

    Chi-Wai Kan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In textiles processing, wettability of fabric plays a very important role in enhancing processes such as dyeing and printing. Although well-prepared cotton fabric has very good wettability, further enhancement of its wettability can effectively improve the subsequent dyeing and printing processes. Plasma treatment, especially atmospheric pressure plasma treatment (APPT, a continuous process, is now drawing attention of the industry. In this study, we investigated the effect of APPT under four operational parameters: (1 discharge power; (2 flow rate of oxygen; (3 jet travelling speed; and (4 jet-to-substrate distance on wettability (in terms of wickability and wetting area of cotton fabric. Experimental results revealed that the four parameters interact with each other in affecting the wettability of the cotton fabric. The results are discussed comprehensively.

  10. Tasks in development of the USSR coal industry

    Bratchenko, B F

    1981-08-01

    Minister of the Soviet coal industry evaluates social and economic development plan of the Soviet coal industry from 1981 to 1985. Planned coal production should increase to 770-800 Mt, exceeding coal production in 1980 by 53 to 83 Mt. Proportion of coal mined by surface methods will further increase. Investment program concentrates on: construction of the Kansk-Achinsk fuel and energy basin, construction of the South Yakut coal basin and further development of surface mines in the Ehkibastuz basin. Proportion of coal mined in the Kuzbass will increase to 45% of the total coal output. Construction of the Kansk-Achinsk basin has the highest priority among the investment projects. Investment projects (construction of new coal mines and modernization of existing mines) in major coal basins in 1981 are analyzed. Mining machines and equipment for underground and surface black and brown coal mining are evaluated. Plans for developing new mining systems are described (e.g. narrow web coal cutter with chainless haulage system for thin and medium coal seams with drive system with power ranging from 110 to 315 kW). The following types of machines are discussed: coal cutters, shearer loaders, heading machines, belt conveyors, loaders. Selected social problems associated with manpower shortages for underground mining and for coal mines operating under extreme climatic conditions are also discussed.

  11. Evaluation of the coal properties of Norte de Santander; Evaluacion de las propiedades de los carbones de Norte de Santander

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    The Project Characterization of Coal of Norte de Santander, concluded in the second semester of 1986 with the presentation of the 4 final reports of the participant entities: Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Bogota, Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, Instituto de Investigaciones Technologicas (I.I.T.), and Instituto de Investigaciones geologico Mineras - INGEOMINAS. In each Institution some common aspects were worked - analytic part and other specific topics, that which believes the necessity to develop a study that unified the parts worked jointly with the elaboration of a new chart of data, and it allowed this way to assemble the analytic base with the studies of some technological properties and of benefit. Initially it is made a summary of the most excellent aspects in the Geology, mining and Commercialization of the Coal of the department and later on with reference to all the available analytic information, new data were obtained with base in averages among Institutions, checkups of differing results, correlate and discard of rusty samples. For the chemical and physicochemical analyses, the plastic properties, the petrographic results, the chemical analysis of the ashes, they were made statistical and correlative new treatment discriminating against the different sectors and formations inside the area (the Formation Catatumbo was excepted). For the analyses more used as range indicators and others of quality were carried out three-dimensional graphic that summarize in a visual form the variation of the parameter through the study area and the sectors inside this being obtained the iso-values curves equally. The study of some properties of the coal related with technological processes like coking, liquefaction and of benefit they supplement the analytic characterization being able to obtain several practical conclusions as for the use of these coal and remarking some concrete problems to solve with the objective of improving the quality of the

  12. Comparison of carbon monoxide poisonings originated from coal stove and natural gas and the evaluation of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio

    Yahya Kemal Günaydın

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to present the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory and prognosis differences between the coal stove origin poisoning and natural gas leakages. We also aimed to investigate relationship between the severity of clinical picture, prognosis, complications develop in CO poisoning with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR at the initial admission. Methods: All the acute carbon monoxide cases who applied to Ankara Training and Research Hospital Emergency Medicine Clinic between October 2009 and April 2010 were included to this prospective study. CO poisoning diagnosis was made by the history of CO poisoning with carboxyl hemoglobin (COHb concentration is over 10%. 100 patients were included to our study. Results: Of the patients, 55(55% were poisoned from the coal-stove and 45(45% from natural gas leakage. The mean COHb level of the natural gas group was significantly high (p=0.01. The mean value of GCS of the natural gas group was significantly lower (p=0.018. The number of patients with indication for HBO therapy were 17 and 6 in the natural gas group and coal-stove group, respectively, being significantly higher in the natural gas group(p=0.001. There was no statistically significant relationship between the value of NLR and values of COHb, troponin, and GCS (p=0.872, p=0.470, and p=0.896, respectively. Conclusions: Carbon monoxide poisoning from natural gas leakage is more toxic than that from the coal-stove. There is no relationship between NLR at the time of presentation and the severity of clinical findings, prognosis and complications.

  13. Evaluation of a Cubature Kalman Filtering-Based Phase Unwrapping Method for Differential Interferograms with High Noise in Coal Mining Areas

    Wanli Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar has been shown to be effective for monitoring subsidence in coal mining areas. Phase unwrapping can have a dramatic influence on the monitoring result. In this paper, a filtering-based phase unwrapping algorithm in combination with path-following is introduced to unwrap differential interferograms with high noise in mining areas. It can perform simultaneous noise filtering and phase unwrapping so that the pre-filtering steps can be omitted, thus usually retaining more details and improving the detectable deformation. For the method, the nonlinear measurement model of phase unwrapping is processed using a simplified Cubature Kalman filtering, which is an effective and efficient tool used in many nonlinear fields. Three case studies are designed to evaluate the performance of the method. In Case 1, two tests are designed to evaluate the performance of the method under different factors including the number of multi-looks and path-guiding indexes. The result demonstrates that the unwrapped results are sensitive to the number of multi-looks and that the Fisher Distance is the most suitable path-guiding index for our study. Two case studies are then designed to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed phase unwrapping method based on Cubature Kalman filtering. The results indicate that, compared with the popular Minimum Cost Flow method, the Cubature Kalman filtering-based phase unwrapping can achieve promising results without pre-filtering and is an appropriate method for coal mining areas with high noise.

  14. Evaluation of AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes. Technical report, January 1989--August 1990

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this program is to expand the use of coal by utilizing CFB (circulating fluidized bed) technology to provide an environmentally safe method for disposing of waste materials. Hospitals are currently experiencing a waste management crisis. In many instances, they are no longer permitted to burn pathological and infectious wastes in incinerators. Older hospital incinerators are not capable of maintaining the stable temperatures and residence times necessary in order to completely destroy toxic substances before release into the atmosphere. In addition, the number of available landfills which can safely handle these substances is decreasing each year. The purpose of this project is to conduct necessary research investigating whether the combustion of the hospital wastes in a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler will effectively destroy dioxins and other hazardous substances before release into the atmosphere. If this is proven feasible, in light of the quantity of hospital wastes generated each year, it would create a new market for coal -- possibly 50 million tons/year.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Evaporation and Drainage in Wettable and Water-Repellent Sands

    Dae Hyun Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental results on evaporation and drainage in both wettable and water-repellent sands whose surface wettability was artificially modified by silanization. The 2D optical and 3D X-ray computed tomographic imaging was performed during evaporation and the water retention during cyclic drainage and infiltration was measured to assess effects of wettability and initial wetting conditions. The evaporation gradually induces its front at the early stage advance regardless of the wettability and sand types, while its rate becomes higher in water-repellent Ottawa sand than the wettable one. Jumunjin sand which has a smaller particle size and irregular particle shape than Ottawa sand exhibits a similar evaporation rate independent of wettability. Water-repellent sand can facilitate the evaporation when both wettable and water-repellent sands are naturally in contact with each other. The 3D X-ray imaging reveals that the hydraulically connected water films in wettable sands facilitate the propagation of the evaporation front into the soil such that the drying front deeply advances into the soil. For cyclic drainage-infiltration testing, the evolution of water retention is similar in both wettable and water-repellent sands when both are initially wet. However, when conditions are initially dry, water-repellent sands exhibit low residual saturation values. The experimental observations made from this study propose that the surface wettability may not be a sole factor while the degree of water-repellency, type of sands, and initial wetting condition are predominant when assessing evaporation and drainage behaviors.

  16. Coal -94

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  17. Coal statistics 1977

    Statistical Office of the European Communities

    1978-01-01

    Presents tables of data relating to the coal market in the European Community in 1977. The tables cover hard coal production, supply and trade; briquettes; cokes; lignite, brown coal briquettes and peat; and mines and coke ovens.

  18. Australian coal yearbook 1989

    Aylward, A [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This yearbook contains a mine directory; details of coal export facilities and ports; annual coal statistics; a buyers' guide; names and addresses of industry organisations and an index of coal mine owners.

  19. Coal industry annual 1993

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  20. Coal industry annual 1993

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  1. Australian black coal statistics 1990

    1991-01-01

    This second edition of Australian black coal statistics replaces the Joint Coal Board's publication 'Black coal in Australia'. It includes an expanded international coal trade supplement. Sections cover resources of black coal, coal supply and demand, coal production, employment and productivity of mines, export data, coal consumption and a directory of producers.

  2. Motion of Drops on Surfaces with Wettability Gradients

    Subramanian, R. Shankar; McLaughlin, John B.; Moumen, Nadjoua; Qian, Dongying

    2002-11-01

    A liquid drop present on a solid surface can move because of a gradient in wettability along the surface, as manifested by a gradient in the contact angle. The contact angle at a given point on the contact line between a solid and a liquid in a gaseous medium is the angle between the tangent planes to the liquid and the solid surfaces at that point and is measured within the liquid side, by convention. The motion of the drop occurs in the direction of increasing wettability. The cause of the motion is the net force exerted on the drop by the solid surface because of the variation of the contact angle around the periphery. This force causes acceleration of an initially stationary drop, and leads to its motion in the direction of decreasing contact angle. The nature of the motion is determined by the balance between the motivating force and the resisting hydrodynamic force from the solid surface and the surrounding gaseous medium. A wettability gradient can be chemically induced as shown by Chaudhury and Whitesides who provided unambiguous experimental evidence that drops can move in such gradients. The phenomenon can be important in heat transfer applications in low gravity, such as when condensation occurs on a surface. Daniel et al have demonstrated that the velocity of a drop on a surface due to a wettability gradient in the presence of condensation can be more than two orders of magnitude larger than that observed in the absence of condensation. In the present research program, we have begun to study the motion of a drop in a wettability gradient systematically using a model system. Our initial efforts will be restricted to a system in which no condensation occurs. The experiments are performed as follows. First, a rectangular strip of approximate dimensions 10 x 20 mm is cut out of a silicon wafer. The strip is cleaned thoroughly and its surface is exposed to the vapor from an alkylchlorosilane for a period lasting between one and two minutes inside a

  3. Reactivity of North Bohemian coals in coprocessing of coal/oil mixtures

    Sebor, G.; Cerny, J.; Maxa, D.; Blazek, J. [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Sykorova, I. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Autoclave experiments with North Bohemian coal were done in order to evaluate their reactivity in coprocessing with petroleum vacuum residue, Selected coals were comprehensively characterized by using a number of analytical methods. While the coals were of similar geological origin, some of their characteristics differed largely from one coal to another. Despite the differences in physical and chemical structure, the coals provided very similar yields of desired reaction products. The yields of a heavy non- distillable fraction and/or an insoluble solid residue were, under experimental conditions, largely affected by retrogressive reactions (coking). The insoluble solid fractions were examined microscopically under polarized light.

  4. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1986. Surveys on coal type selection (coal type survey); 1986 nendo tanshu sentei chosa seika hokokusho. Tanshu chosa

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to elucidate coal quality features of different types of coals and identify the relationship between the coal quality features and the liquefaction characteristics by performing liquefaction characteristic evaluation tests. Based on the result therefrom, a method is established for coal field assessment that can estimate yield of liquefaction in coal fields and coal mines to serve for selection of coal types suitable for liquefaction. Coal quality feature surveys and liquefaction characteristics evaluation tests under the standard conditions have been completed on 48 coal types including Canadian, Australian and American coals. Elucidating the coal quality features of different coals can specify parameters for the coal quality features related to the liquefaction characteristics. Coal ranks elucidate the vitrinite reflectance, structure constituent factors the vitrinite content, composite factors the volatile matter content, quantity of heat generation, and number of H/C and O/C atoms. Investigating the relationship between the coal quality features and the liquefaction characteristics can provide fundamental data for primary screening of raw material coals for liquefaction. The result of the liquefaction characteristics evaluation test under the standard conditions can be the detailed comparative data relative to data derived from the simplified liquefaction characteristics test that is performed to estimate liquefaction yield of specific coal field and coal mine. (NEDO)

  5. Coal Quality Expert: Status and software specifications

    Harrison, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    Under the Clean Coal Technology Program (Clean Coal Round 1), the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) are funding the development and demonstration of a computer program called the Coal Quality Expert (CQE trademark). When finished, the CQE will be a comprehensive PC-based program which can be used to evaluate several potential coal cleaning, blending, and switching options to reduce power plant emissions while minimizing generation costs. The CQE will be flxible in nature and capable of evaluating various qualities of coal, available transportation options, performance issues, and alternative emissions control strategies. This allows the CQE to determine the most cost-effective coal and the least expensive emissions control strategy for a given plant. To accomplish this, the CQE will be composed of technical models to evaluate performance issues; environmental models to evaluate environmental and regulatory issues; and cost estimating models to predict costs for installations of new and retrofit coal cleaning processes, power production equipment, and emissions control systems as well as other production costs such as consumables (fuel, scrubber additive, etc.), waste disposal, operating and maintenance, and replacement energy costs. These technical, environmental, and economic models as well as a graphical user interface will be developed for the CQE. And, in addition, to take advantage of already existing capability, the CQE will rely on seamless integration of already proven and extensively used computer programs such as the EPRI Coal Quality Information Systems, Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM trademark), and NO x Pert. 2 figs

  6. Controllable wettability and morphology of electrodeposited surfaces on zinc substrates

    Zhang, Binyan; Lu, Shixiang, E-mail: shixianglu@bit.edu.cn; Xu, Wenguo, E-mail: wenguoxu60@bit.edu.cn; Cheng, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and annealing. Such superhydrophobic surfaces offer possibilities for chemical, biological, electronic and microfluidic applications. - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface was fabricated via electrodeposition of ZnO and annealing. • The ZnO hierarchical micro/nanostructures contribute to the surface superhydrophobicity. • Surface wettability and morphology can be controlled by varying process conditions. • The anti-icing properties and reversible wetting behaviors of the ZnO coatings were studied. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching in hydrochloric acid solution, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and subsequent thermal annealing. The optimal coatings were electrodeposited at −1.25 V for 900 s on the etched zinc substrates and then annealed at 200 °C for 60 min, which could achieve a maximum water contact angle of 170 ± 2° and an ultra-low sliding angle of approximately 0°. By conducting SEM and water CA analysis, we found that the morphology and wettability of prepared samples were controllable by the fabrication process. Interestingly, even without any additional modification, the samples prepared under different electrodeposition conditions (including Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} concentration from 5 mM to 40 mM and deposition time from 300 s to 1500 s) exhibited superhydrophobic character. The influences of the Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} concentration, deposition time, annealing temperature and annealing time on the wetting behaviors were also discussed in detail. Such superhydrophobic surfaces possess long-term stability, and good corrosion resistance as well as self-cleaning ability. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the ZnO films were investigated. These surfaces could be rapidly and

  7. Controllable wettability and morphology of electrodeposited surfaces on zinc substrates

    Zhang, Binyan; Lu, Shixiang; Xu, Wenguo; Cheng, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and annealing. Such superhydrophobic surfaces offer possibilities for chemical, biological, electronic and microfluidic applications. - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface was fabricated via electrodeposition of ZnO and annealing. • The ZnO hierarchical micro/nanostructures contribute to the surface superhydrophobicity. • Surface wettability and morphology can be controlled by varying process conditions. • The anti-icing properties and reversible wetting behaviors of the ZnO coatings were studied. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching in hydrochloric acid solution, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and subsequent thermal annealing. The optimal coatings were electrodeposited at −1.25 V for 900 s on the etched zinc substrates and then annealed at 200 °C for 60 min, which could achieve a maximum water contact angle of 170 ± 2° and an ultra-low sliding angle of approximately 0°. By conducting SEM and water CA analysis, we found that the morphology and wettability of prepared samples were controllable by the fabrication process. Interestingly, even without any additional modification, the samples prepared under different electrodeposition conditions (including Zn(CH_3COO)_2 concentration from 5 mM to 40 mM and deposition time from 300 s to 1500 s) exhibited superhydrophobic character. The influences of the Zn(CH_3COO)_2 concentration, deposition time, annealing temperature and annealing time on the wetting behaviors were also discussed in detail. Such superhydrophobic surfaces possess long-term stability, and good corrosion resistance as well as self-cleaning ability. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the ZnO films were investigated. These surfaces could be rapidly and reversibly switched

  8. Microstructure and wettability of root canal dentine and root canal filling materials after different chemical irrigation

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Milovanovic, Petar [Laboratory for Anthropology, Institute for Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Brajkovic, Denis [Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac (Serbia); Ilic, Dragan [Department of Restorative Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael [Department of Osteology and Biomechanics (IOBM), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Lottestr. 55A, 22529 Hamburg (Germany); Rakocevic, Zlatko [Laboratory for Atomic Physics, Institute for Nuclear Science “Vinca”, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Djuric, Marija [Laboratory for Anthropology, Institute for Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Busse, Björn, E-mail: b.busse@uke.uni-hamburg.de [Department of Osteology and Biomechanics (IOBM), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Lottestr. 55A, 22529 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Different irrigation solutions and disinfectants were used for treatment of root canal dentine and gutta-percha points. • Materials surface characteristics were assessed using quantitative backscattered electron imaging, reference point indentation, and contact angle analyzer. • The most significant differences in mineralization, indentation, and adhesive outcomes were observed after ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid treatment. • Irrigation solutions confer to superior sealing ability of endodontic filling materials. • Micromechanical characteristics of dentine after irrigation are considerable reduced. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various irrigation solutions on root canal dentine and gutta-percha surface properties. In addition, the effects of disinfectant chemicals on the wettability and surface morphological properties of the filling materials were evaluated. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and ozone were employed as irrigation solutions for dentine and gutta-percha treatment. Thereafter, the samples’ microstructure, degree of mineralization, and mechanical properties were assessed by means of quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and reference point indentation (RPI). A contact angle analyzer was used to measure adhesion on the tested materials. Here, EDTA had the most significant affect on both the mechanical properties and the adhesive behavior of dentine. Citric acid did not affect dentine wettability, whereas the indentation properties and the mineralization were reduced. Similar effects were observed when ozone was used. The dentinal tubules were significantly widened in citric acid compared to the ozone group. EDTA causes considerable micromechanical surface alteration of dentine and gutta-percha, but represents the best option in clinical cases where a high adhesiveness of the filling materials is desired.

  9. Investigation of antibacterial and wettability behaviours of plasma-modified PMMA films for application in ophthalmology

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Abbasi-Firouzjah, Marzieh; Shokri, Babak

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research is the experimental investigation of the surface properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) such as wettability and the roughness effect on Escherichia coli (gram negative) cell adhesion. Radio frequency (RF; 13.56 MHz) oxygen plasma was used to enhance the antibacterial and wettability properties of this polymer for biomedical applications, especially ophthalmology. The surface was activated by O 2 plasma to produce hydrophilic functional groups. Samples were treated with various RF powers from 10 to 80 W and different gas flow rates from 20 to 120 sccm. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to monitor the plasma process. The modified surface hydrophilicity, morphology and transparency characteristics were studied by water contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy, respectively. Based on the contact angle measurements of three liquids, surface free energy variations were investigated. Moreover, the antibacterial properties were evaluated utilizing the method of plate counting of Escherichia coli. Also, in order to investigate stability of the plasma treatment, an ageing study was carried out by water contact angle measurements repeated in the days after the treatment. For biomedical applications, especially eye lenses, highly efficient antibacterial surfaces with appropriate hydrophilicity and transparency are of great importance. In this study, it is shown that the plasma process is a reliable and convenient method to achieve these purposes. A significant alteration in the hydrophilicity of a pristine PMMA surface was observed after treatment. Also, our results indicated that the plasma-modified PMMAs exhibit appropriate antibacterial performance. Moreover, surface hydrophilicity and surface charge have more influence on bacterial adhesion rate than surface roughness. UV–vis analysis results do not show a considerable difference for transparency of samples after plasma treatment

  10. Microstructure and wettability of root canal dentine and root canal filling materials after different chemical irrigation

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Milovanovic, Petar; Brajkovic, Denis; Ilic, Dragan; Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael; Rakocevic, Zlatko; Djuric, Marija; Busse, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Different irrigation solutions and disinfectants were used for treatment of root canal dentine and gutta-percha points. • Materials surface characteristics were assessed using quantitative backscattered electron imaging, reference point indentation, and contact angle analyzer. • The most significant differences in mineralization, indentation, and adhesive outcomes were observed after ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid treatment. • Irrigation solutions confer to superior sealing ability of endodontic filling materials. • Micromechanical characteristics of dentine after irrigation are considerable reduced. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various irrigation solutions on root canal dentine and gutta-percha surface properties. In addition, the effects of disinfectant chemicals on the wettability and surface morphological properties of the filling materials were evaluated. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and ozone were employed as irrigation solutions for dentine and gutta-percha treatment. Thereafter, the samples’ microstructure, degree of mineralization, and mechanical properties were assessed by means of quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and reference point indentation (RPI). A contact angle analyzer was used to measure adhesion on the tested materials. Here, EDTA had the most significant affect on both the mechanical properties and the adhesive behavior of dentine. Citric acid did not affect dentine wettability, whereas the indentation properties and the mineralization were reduced. Similar effects were observed when ozone was used. The dentinal tubules were significantly widened in citric acid compared to the ozone group. EDTA causes considerable micromechanical surface alteration of dentine and gutta-percha, but represents the best option in clinical cases where a high adhesiveness of the filling materials is desired.

  11. A statistical model for the wettability of surfaces with heterogeneous pore geometries

    Brockway, Lance; Taylor, Hayden

    2016-10-01

    We describe a new approach to modeling the wetting behavior of micro- and nano-textured surfaces with varying degrees of geometrical heterogeneity. Surfaces are modeled as pore arrays with a Gaussian distribution of sidewall reentrant angles and a characteristic wall roughness. Unlike conventional wettability models, our model considers the fraction of a surface’s pores that are filled at any time, allowing us to capture more subtle dependences of a liquid’s apparent contact angle on its surface tension. The model has four fitting parameters and is calibrated for a particular surface by measuring the apparent contact angles between the surface and at least four probe liquids. We have calibrated the model for three heterogeneous nanoporous surfaces that we have fabricated: a hydrothermally grown zinc oxide, a film of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microspheres formed by spinodal decomposition, and a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film with pores defined by sacrificial polystyrene microspheres. These three surfaces show markedly different dependences of a liquid’s apparent contact angle on the liquid’s surface tension, and the results can be explained by considering geometric variability. The highly variable PTFE pores yield the most gradual variation of apparent contact angle with probe liquid surface tension. The PVDF microspheres are more regular in diameter and, although connected in an irregular manner, result in a much sharper transition from non-wetting to wetting behavior as surface tension reduces. We also demonstrate, by terminating porous zinc oxide with three alternative hydrophobic molecules, that a single geometrical model can capture a structure’s wetting behavior for multiple surface chemistries and liquids. Finally, we contrast our results with those from a highly regular, lithographically-produced structure which shows an extremely sharp dependence of wettability on surface tension. This new model could be valuable in designing and

  12. NMR investigation of coal extracts

    Lang, I; Sebor, G [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Hornicky Ustav; Sebor, G Jr; Hajek, M; Mostecky, J [Vysoka Skola Chemicko-Technologicka, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-07-01

    Proton NMR spectroscopy was used for the evaluation of 10% coal extract solutions in deuterated pyridine. Four types of Czechoslovak coal were analyzed. Agreement was found between the aromaticity of coal extracts calculated from /sup 1/H NMR data using Brown's method and Ladner's and Williams' method and the characterization of an average molecule of the coal extract by the number of non-bridge carbon atoms of aromatic rings, by the overall number of aromatic ring carbon atoms and the number of aromatic rings, determined by the Williams and Ferris methods. The methods for calculating carbon distribution from /sup 1/H NMR data, however, contain some constants theoretically estimated or experimentally found using the method which still remain to be verified.

  13. 1982 Australian coal conference papers

    1982-01-01

    This third Australian coal conference included papers discussing the market for coal, finance and investment, use of computers, mining, coal research, coal preparation and waste disposal, marketing and trade, and the transport of coal. All papers have been individually abstracted.

  14. [Dust concentration analysis in non-coal mining. Exposure evaluation based on measurements performed by occupational hygiene laboratories in the years 2001-2005 in Poland].

    Bujak-Pietrek, Stella; Mikołajczyk, Urszula; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Non-coal mining includes the extraction of materials for construction (stone, gravel, sand and clay), chemical industry (salt and sulfur), metallurgy (metal ores, uranium and thorium) and other mining and quarrying. Regardless of the type of mining company one of the most common health hazards in this sector is exposure to high concentrations of dust occurring during the extraction of materials. Such activities as drilling, use of blasting agents, processing of raw material, its transportation and loading are the source of large amounts of dust containing crystalline silica. Data on exposure to dust, collected by industrial hygiene laboratories on the basis of dust concentration measurements in the work environment, were obtained from the sanitary inspection service. The analysis of dust concentrations at workplaces in non-coal mining covered the years 2001-2005. The average concentration of inhalable and respirable dust and the degree of results dispersion at workposts in different branches of non-coal mining (according to NACE rev1.1) were evaluated. Also there was estimated the percentage of surveys indicating dust concentrations above hygiene standards. Almost 5000 measurements of dust concentrations were performed in the years under study. The highest concentration of inhalable dust was noted for the production of salt (5.51 mg/m3), other mining and quarrying (4.30 mg/m3) and quarrying of slate (3.77 mg/m3). For respirable dust the highest concentrations were noted in other mining and quarrying (1.10 mg/m3), quarrying of slate (1.09 mg/m3) and quarrying of stone (0.81 mg/m3). Exposure to high concentrations of dust during the extraction of non-carbon is still an important hazard to human health. Almost for all workposts under study the excess of hygiene standards were observed.

  15. Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR

    Tom Campbell

    2008-12-31

    This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

  16. Surface wettability and subcooling on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer

    Suroto, Bambang Joko; Kohno, Masamichi; Takata, Yasuyuki

    2018-02-01

    The effect of varying surface wettabilities and subcooling on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer at intermediate heat flux has been examined and investigated. The experiments were performed using pure water as the working fluid and subcooling ranging from 0, 5 and 10 K, respectively. The three types of heat transfer block were used that are bare surface/hydrophilic (polished copper), superhydrophilic/TiO2-coated on copper and hydrophobic/PTFE surface. The experimental results will be examined by the existing model. The results show that the heat transfer performance of surfaces with PTFE coating is better at low heat flux. While for an intermediate heat flux, superhydrophilic surface (TiO2) is superior compared to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. It is observed that the heat transfer performance is decreasing when the sub cooling degree is increased.

  17. Adjustable wettability of paperboard by liquid flame spray nanoparticle deposition

    Stepien, Milena; Saarinen, Jarkko J.; Teisala, Hannu; Tuominen, Mikko; Aromaa, Mikko; Kuusipalo, Jurkka; Mäkelä, Jyrki M.; Toivakka, Martti

    2011-01-01

    Liquid flame spray process (LFS) was used for depositing TiO x and SiO x nanoparticles on paperboard to control wetting properties of the surface. By the LFS process it is possible to create either superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic surfaces. Changes in the wettability are related to structural properties of the surface, which were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The surface properties can be ascribed as a correlation between wetting properties of the paperboard and the surface texture created by nanoparticles. Surfaces can be produced inline in a one step roll-to-roll process without need for additional modifications. Furthermore, functional surfaces with adjustable hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity can be fabricated simply by choosing appropriate liquid precursors.

  18. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    Rahimi, M., E-mail: mar@sbi.aau.dk [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark); Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4, DK-9220 Aalborg East (Denmark); Afshari, A. [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Successful surface modification procedures on aluminium samples were performed involving formation of the layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol (PEG) via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. • The groups of surfaces with hydrophobic behavior were found to follow the Wenzel model. • A transition from Cassie–Baxter's to Wenzel's regime was observed due to changing of the surface roughness upon mechanical polishing in aluminium samples. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie–Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface

  19. Water and oil wettability of anodized 6016 aluminum alloy surface

    Rodrigues, S. P.; Alves, C. F. Almeida; Cavaleiro, A.; Carvalho, S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on the control of wettability behaviour of a 6000 series aluminum (Al) alloy surface (Al6016-T4), which is widely used in the automotive and aerospace industries. In order to induce the surface micro-nanostructuring of the surface, a combination of prior mechanical polishing steps followed by anodization process with different conditions was used. The surface polishing with sandpaper grit size 1000 promoted aligned grooves on the surface leading to static water contact angle (WCA) of 91° and oil (α-bromonaphthalene) contact angle (OCA) of 32°, indicating a slightly hydrophobic and oleophilic character. H2SO4 and H3PO4 acid electrolytes were used to grow aluminum oxide layers (Al2O3) by anodization, working at 15 V/18° C and 100 V/0 °C, respectively, in one or two-steps configuration. Overall, the anodization results showed that the structured Al surfaces were hydrophilic and oleophilic-like with both WCA and OCA below 90°. The one-step configuration led to a dimple-shaped Al alloy surface with small diameter of around 31 nm, in case of H2SO4, and with larger diameters of around 223 nm in case of H3PO4. The larger dimples achieved with H3PO4 electrolyte allowed to reach a slight hydrophobic surface. The thicker porous Al oxide layers, produced by anodization in two-step configuration, revealed that the liquids can penetrate easily inside the non-ordered porous structures and, thus, the surface wettability tended to superhydrophilic and superoleophilic character (CA OCA. This inversion in favour of the hydrophilic-oleophobic surface behaviour is of great interest either for lubrication of mechanical components or in water-oil separation process.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation of continuous nanoflow transport through the uneven wettability channel

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Feng-hui; Lu, Yong-jun

    2018-01-01

    It is necessary to understand and predict the behavior of continuous nanoflow, especially inside the nanochannel with uneven wettability. Because the properties of fluid confined in the nanochannel are different from the macroscopic fluid, molecular level understanding is critical for future applications. In this work, a series of molecular dynamics simulations were executed to investigate the effect of the wettability gradient on the continuous nanofluid. In the simulations, different osmotic pressures were applied to make the water transport through different nanochannels. Simulation data was analyzed to obtain water flow rate, shear viscosity, capillary force, density distributions along the height directions of channel and apparent friction factor. Results show that the uneven wettability has a significant effect on the transportation of confined water only under the proper applied osmotic pressure and the height of channel. Under the appropriate conditions, the uneven wettability has a promotion on the transportation of water when it is at the exit of channel. When the uneven wettability locates in the entrance and middle of the channel, the uneven wettability will hinder the transportation of water. Especially, it is worth mentioning that there is a special phenomenon when the height of the nanochannel becomes 0.8 nm. Depending on the applied osmotic pressure, the uneven wettability has a double-sided effect on the confined fluid inside the channel with H = 0.8 nm. Our work may contribute to the design of nanochannels.

  1. Numerical investigation of the droplet condensation on the horizontal surface with patterned wettability

    Cho, Jaeyong; Lee, Joonsang

    2017-11-01

    The condensation is the one of the efficient heat transfer phenomenon that transfers the heat along an interface between two phases. This condensation is affected by the wettability of surface. Heat transfer rate can be improved by controlling the wettability of surface. Recently, the researches with patterned wettability, which is composed by a combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface, have been performed to improve the heat transfer rate of condensation. In this study, we performed numerical simulation for condensation of droplet on the patterned wettability, and we analyze condensation phenomenon on the wettability pattered surface through the kinetic energy, heat flux curve, and droplet shape in the vicinity of the droplet. When we performed numerical simulations and analyzing the condensation with patterned wettability, we used the lattice Boltzmann method for the base model, and phase change was solved by Peng-Robinson equation of sate. We can find that the droplet is generated at the bottom surface and high condensation rate can be maintained on the patterned wettability. This work was also supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korean Government (MSIP) (No. 2015R1A5A1037668) and BrainKorea21plus.

  2. Ultravitrinite coals from Chukotka

    Lapo, A.V.; Letushova, I.A.

    1979-03-01

    Chemical and petrographic analysis was conducted on coals from the Anadyrya and Bukhti Ugol'noi deposits. Characteristics of the most prevalent type of vitrinite coals in both regions are presented here. Anadyrya coals belong to a transitional phase between brown coal and long flame. Ultravitrinite coals predominate. Gas coals from Bukti Ugol'noi have a higher carbon content than Anadyrya coals. They also have a higher hydrogen content and yield of initial resin. In several cases there was also a higher yield of volatile substances. Chukotka coals are characterized by a 10 percent higher initial resin yield than equally coalified Donetsk coals, other indicators were equal to those of Donetsk coals. Because of this, Chukotka coals are suitable for fuel in power plants and as raw materials in the chemical industry. (15 refs.) (In Russian)

  3. Coal refuse reclamation project

    Zellmer, S.D.

    1979-04-06

    A 13.8 ha abandoned coal refuse site in southwestern Illinois was reclaimed by recontouring the refuse material and covering it with a minimum 30 cm of soil. The reclamation procedure included determination of the site's final land use, collection of preconstruction environmental data, and development and implementation of engineering plans. The project is demonstrating methods that can be used to reclaim abandoned coal refuse sites, and a multidisciplinary approach is being used to evaluate postconstruction environmental and economic effects of the reclamation effort. Surface water quality has shown significant improvement and plant cover is becoming established on the site. Soil microbial populations are developing and wildlife habitats are forming. The economic value of the site and adjacent properties has increased substantially and the area's aesthetic value has been enhanced. This project is providing valuable design data for future reclamation efforts of this type.

  4. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  5. Computer application in coal preparation industry in China

    Lu, M.; Wu, L.; Ni, Q. (China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China))

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several packages of microcomputer programs developed for designing and managing the coal preparation plants. Three parts are included: Coal Cleaning Package (CCP), Coal Preparation Optimization Program (CPO) and Coal Preparation Computer Aided Design System (CPCAD). The function of CCP is: evaluating and predicting coal cleaning result. Coal presentation process modelling and optimization; coal preparation flowsheet design and optimization. The CPO is a nonlinear optimization program. It can simulate and optimize the profit for different flowsheet to get the best combination of the final products. The CPCAD was developed based upon AutoCAD and makes full use of AutoLISP, digitizer menus and AutoCAD commands, combining the functions provided by AutoCAD and the principle used in conventional coal preparation plant design, forming a designer-oriented CPCAD system. These packages have proved to be reliable, flexible and easy to learn and use. They are a powerful tool for coal preparation plant design and management. (orig.).

  6. Effect of the grinding behaviour of coal blends on coal utilisation for combustion

    Rubiera, F.; Arenillas, A.; Fuente, E.; Pis, J.J. [Inst. Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain); Miles, N. [School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering, Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    Grinding of a high volatile bituminous coal was performed in three comminution devices: Raymond Mill (RM), Rolls Crusher (RC) and Ball Mill (BM). The pulverised samples were sieved to obtain four particle size fractions, and temperature-programmed combustion (TPC) was used for the evaluation of their combustion behaviour. In addition, three coals of different hardness and rank were mixed in various proportions in order to compare the combustibility characteristics of the binary coal blends with those of the individual coals. The effect of coal blending on grindability was also studied. It was found that grindability was non-additive especially when coals of very different hardgrove grindability index (HGI) were blended. The combustion studies also suggested that there exists an interaction between individual coals when they are burnt as a blend. (orig.)

  7. Surface wettability effects on critical heat flux of boiling heat transfer using nanoparticle coatings

    Hsu, Chin-Chi

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of surface wettability on pool boiling heat transfer. Nano-silica particle coatings were used to vary the wettability of the copper surface from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic by modifying surface topography and chemistry. Experimental results show that critical heat flux (CHF) values are higher in the hydrophilic region. Conversely, CHF values are lower in the hydrophobic region. The experimental CHF data of the modified surface do not fit the classical models. Therefore, this study proposes a simple model to build the nexus between the surface wettability and the growth of bubbles on the heating surface. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the health risk resulting from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal-tar shampoo

    Mennes, W.C.; Van Veen, M.P.; Kroese, E.D.; Speijers, G.J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Shampoos may contain as much as 56 mg benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)/kg product. Based on a human dermal uptake study, it is plausible that BaP and other PAHs become systemically available after a single use of coal-tar shampoos. Because several PAHs, among which BaP are considered to be carcinogenic substances, the safety of these products has been questioned. Dermal exposure results in skin tumours, but after inhalatory or oral exposure besides to local tumour formation, systemic tumours are found as well. In this report, an estimate of external dermal exposure to BaP has been generated by application of a mathematical model. This estimate was the starting point in an assessment of the additional risk on local skin tumours after contact with a coal-tar shampoo containing 56 mg BaP/kg product. In this assessment it was assumed that this shampoo was used three times weekly. Four different risk estimates were derived, namely for contact times of 1 or 5 minutes per event and for life-time or 40 years of use. 4 tabs., 3 appendices, 15 refs.

  9. Report on evaluation/selection surveys on coal species, processes and others. Appendix; Tanshu process nado hyoka sentei chosa hokokusho. Furoku

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This report, consisting of 7 chapters, summarizes literature related to liquefaction of coal. Chapter 1 describes the results of the (Project Lignite), i.e., development of the concept of two-stage liquefaction of lignite. Chapter 2 describes the COSTEAM process, which uses synthesis gas (CO-H{sub 2}) as the reducing agent and coal moisture as the hydrogen source for liquefaction of coal of low degree of carbonization, e.g., brown coal. Chapter 3 describes solubilization of coal with alcohol, where coal is reacted with ethanol and NaOH at 300 to 420 degrees C. Chapter 4 describes liquefaction of coal and production of lighter products with tetrahydroquinoline as the hydrogen donor. Chapter 5 describes low-temperature carbonization as the process for liquefying coal, in particular brown coal. Chapter 6 describes possibility of development of new liquefaction techniques for brown coal, including solvolysis for liquefaction, role, recovery and reuse of catalysts, short contact time processes, and coal pretreatment. Chapter 7 describes economic viability of the secondary hydrogenation. (NEDO)

  10. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  11. Processes for the evaluation of a potential of scaling behaviour of power plant coals and guarantee of a plant protective fire management; Verfahren zur Beurteilung des Ansatzbildungspotenzials von Kraftwerkskohlen und Gewaehrleistung einer anlagenschonenden Feuerfuehrung

    Altmann, Ulrich-Steffen; Grusla, Steffen; Mueller, Frank [Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz (DE). Inst. fuer Prozesstechnik, Prozessautomatisierung und Messtechnik (IPM); Marschner, Carsten [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG und Co. KG, Peitz (Germany). Kraftwerk Jaenschwalde; Bischoff, Helmut [Vattenfall Europe PowerConsult GmbH, Vetschau (Germany); Sturm, Andreas [CombTech GmbH, Zittau (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    An environmental friendly, economic and resource-protective energetic use of power station coals requires comprehensive information on the operational behaviour of future fuels as well as a suitable process control and process diagnosis. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on procedures for the evaluation of potentials of the scaling behaviour of power station coals and for the guarantee of a plant preventing fire control. The following main points of work are regarded as urgent: (a) Further development of the empirical firing control for the statement of a realistic optimization potential of the management and support of the operator by recommendations for action; (b) Completion of a controller (project FireControl) for the computer-aided trimming of the distributor; (c) Development of technologies in line with standard usage for fuel evaluation, supply of a power station specific data base for the behaviour of feed coals.

  12. Record coking coal settlements

    Macdonald, C.

    2005-02-01

    The US$100/tonne psychological barrier in coking coal prices has been well and truly smashed. The article examines developments in coal pricing. It includes quotes from many senior executives in the coal industry as collected at McCloskey's Australian Coal.04 conference held in Sydney, 18-19 November 2004. 2 photos.

  13. COAL Conference Poster

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  14. The effect of amorphous silicon surface hydrogenation on morphology, wettability and its implication on the adsorption of proteins

    Filali, Larbi, E-mail: larbifilali5@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique des Couches Minces et Matériaux pour l' Electronique, Université d' Oran 1, Ahmed Ben Bella, BP 1524, El M' naouar 31100 Oran (Algeria); Brahmi, Yamina; Sib, Jamal Dine [Laboratoire de Physique des Couches Minces et Matériaux pour l' Electronique, Université d' Oran 1, Ahmed Ben Bella, BP 1524, El M' naouar 31100 Oran (Algeria); Bouhekka, Ahmed [Laboratoire de Physique des Couches Minces et Matériaux pour l' Electronique, Université d' Oran 1, Ahmed Ben Bella, BP 1524, El M' naouar 31100 Oran (Algeria); Département de Physique, Université Hassiba Ben Bouali, 02000 Chlef (Algeria); Benlakehal, Djamel; Bouizem, Yahya; Kebab, Aissa; Chahed, Larbi [Laboratoire de Physique des Couches Minces et Matériaux pour l' Electronique, Université d' Oran 1, Ahmed Ben Bella, BP 1524, El M' naouar 31100 Oran (Algeria)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Hydrogenation of the surfaces had the effect of reducing the roughness by way of shadow etching. • Roughness was the driving factor affecting the wettability of the hydrogenated surfaces. • Bovine Serum Albumin proteins favored the surfaces with highest hydrogen content. • Surface modification induced secondary structure change of adsorbed proteins. - Abstract: We study the effect of amorphous silicon (a-Si) surface hydrogenation on Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) adsorption. A set of (a-Si) films was prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS) and after deposition; they were treated in molecular hydrogen ambient at different pressures (1–3 Pa). Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) were used to study the hydrogenation effect and BSA adsorption. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate morphological changes caused by hydrogenation. The wettability of the films was measured using contact angle measurement, and in the case of the hydrogenated surfaces, it was found to be driven by surface roughness. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and SE measurements show that proteins had the strongest affinity toward the surfaces with the highest hydrogen content and their secondary structure was affected by a significant decrease of the α-helix component (-27%) compared with the proteins adsorbed on the un-treated surface, which had a predominantly α-helix (45%) structure. The adsorbed protein layer was found to be densely packed with a large thickness (30.9 nm) on the hydrogen-rich surfaces. The most important result is that the surface hydrogen content was the dominant factor, compared to wettability and morphology, for protein adsorption.

  15. Coal option. [Shell Co

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  16. Concerning coal: an anthology

    Mayer, M.; Hawse, M.L.; Maloney, P.J. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The anthology takes a humanistic look at coal mining in Illinois. One of its goals is to increase public awareness of coal in American society; it also seeks to enhance understanding of the historical aspects of coal and to study the impact of coal on mining families. Many of the 25 selections in the anthology come from Coal Research Center publications, `Concerning coal` and `Mineral matters`. Articles are arranged in three parts entitled: life in the mining community; mining in folklore, story telling, literature, art and music; and technology as it affected the people of the coal fields. 117 refs., 25 photos. 1 map.

  17. Coal information 1995

    1996-01-01

    This volume is a comprehensive reference book on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects to 2010. It contains an in-depth analysis of the 1995 international coal market covering prices, demand, trade, supply and production capacity as well as over 450 pages of country specific statistics on OECD and key non-OECD coal producing and consuming countries. The book also includes a summary of environmental policies on climate change and on coal-related air quality issues as well as essential facts on coal-fired power stations in coal-importing regions, on coal ports world-wide and on emission standards for coal-fired boilers in OECD countries. Coal Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Oil and Gas Information and Electricity Information. Coal Information 1995 is published in July 1996. (author)

  18. ACR coal 1992

    1992-01-01

    This publication is a comprehensive reference document on production, exports, prices and demand of coal in world markets. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is provided. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, Canada, Indonesia, China, C.I.S. and Colombia. A very comprehensive coal quality specification for nearly all the coal brands exported from Australia, as well as leading non-Australian coal brands, is included.

  19. Assessing coal burnout

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  20. Lung disease and coal mining: what pulmonologists need to know.

    Go, Leonard H T; Krefft, Silpa D; Cohen, Robert A; Rose, Cecile S

    2016-03-01

    Coal mine workers are at risk for a range of chronic respiratory diseases including coal workers' pneumoconiosis, diffuse dust-related fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The purpose of this review is to describe coal mining processes and associated exposures to inform the diagnostic evaluation of miners with respiratory symptoms. Although rates of coal workers' pneumoconiosis declined after regulations were enacted in the 1970s, more recent data shows a reversal in this downward trend. Rapidly progressive pneumoconiosis with progressive massive fibrosis (complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis) is being observed with increased frequency in United States coal miners, with histologic findings of silicosis and mixed-dust pneumoconiosis. There is increasing evidence of decline in lung function in individuals with pneumoconiosis. Multiple recent cohort studies suggest increased risk of lung cancer in coal miners. A detailed understanding of coal mining methods and processes allows clinicians to better evaluate and confirm chronic lung diseases caused by inhalational hazards in the mine atmosphere.

  1. Development, testing, and evaluation of MHD materials and component designs, Volume 3: Electrical properties of coal combustion product

    Young, W. E.; Lempert, J.

    1980-11-01

    Laboratory apparatus was assembled to produce a plasma identical in composition and properties to that resulting in an MHD system when coal and air are burned. This was accomplished with a combustion chamber in which benzene, char, sulfur, and seed mixtures were burned with electrically preheated air. The plasma entered a measuring section where temperatures were measured with iridium versus iridium-rhodium thermocouples, with pyrometers, and by means of line reversal. Measurements of electrical conductivity were made with current and voltage probes. Many difficulties were experienced in the operation and calibration of the equipment, however, some readings were obtained in the 19000 C to 20000 C range, averaging 10 to 20 mhos/meter - much higher than predicted theoretically, probably due to electrical leakage. Electrical measurements were made on the Waltz Mill passage during operation. Readings less than 1.0 mhos/meter were obtained which was not unexpected because the plasma temperature approximated 21000 C.

  2. Atomic force microscopy characterization of the surface wettability of natural fibres

    Pietak, Alexis; Korte, Sandra; Tan, Emelyn; Downard, Alison; Staiger, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    Natural fibres represent a readily available source of ecologically friendly and inexpensive reinforcement in composites with degradable thermoplastics, however chemical treatments of fibres are required to prepare feasible composites. It is desirable to characterize the surface wettability of fibres after chemical treatment as the polarity of cellulose-based fibres influences compatibility with a polymer matrix. Assessment of the surface wettability of natural fibres using conventional methods presents a challenge as the surfaces are morphologically and chemically heterogeneous, rough, and can be strongly wicking. In this work it is shown that under atmospheric conditions the adhesion force between an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip and the fibre surface can estimate the water contact angle and surface wettability of the fibre. AFM adhesion force measurements are suitable for the more difficult surfaces of natural fibres and in addition allow for correlations between microstructural features and surface wettability characteristics

  3. Soft liquid phase adsorption for fabrication of organic semiconductor films on wettability patterned surfaces.

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Akiyoshi, Yuri; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We report a soft liquid-phase adsorption (SLPA) technique for the fabrication of organic semiconductor films on wettability-patterned substrates using toluene/water emulsions. Wettability-patterned substrates were obtained by the UV-ozone treatment of self-assembled monolayers of silane coupling agents on glass plates using a metal mask. Organic semiconductor polymer films were formed selectively on the hydrophobic part of the wettability-patterned substrates. The thickness of the films fabricated by the SLPA technique is significantly larger than that of the films fabricated by dip-coating and spin-coating techniques. The film thickness can be controlled by adjusting the volume ratio of toluene to water, immersion angle, immersion temperature, and immersion time. The SLPA technique allows for the direct production of organic semiconductor films on wettability-patterned substrates with minimized material consumption and reduced number of fabrication steps.

  4. Evaluation of consumer satisfaction with the quality of training of young professionals by the universities for enterprises of coal-mining complex

    Mikhalchenko Vadim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the study results of evaluation of customer satisfaction (a big coal mining company with the quality of training of young specialists with higher education. Research is based on the model of Kano, one of the most effective tools for assessing the quality of products within the framework of modern management model - Total Quality Management. Based on the results, “quality profile” of training of young specialists with higher education is built and the factors that determine its level and characteristics are identified. The findings show universities the need to include such transformations and changes into the system and the processes of creation and positioning of their “product”. It will give a higher added value to the “product” and, therefore, provide the manufacturer and the consumer with the higher competitive advantage in the current economic conditions.

  5. Potential markets for thermal coal in Canada 1978-2000

    1979-01-01

    This paper evaluates thermal coal demand by industrial consumers such as cement plants and pulp and paper plants and, on a provincial basis, by thermal electric generating plants. Transportation costs to the identified market locations from four representative coal supply areas in Canada are estimated and used to calculate net-back figures attainable at coal mine sites. Transportation methods considered are rail, ship, truck, intermodal terminals, coal slurry pipeline, and electric transmission from mine-mouth.

  6. Effects of Oxidation and fractal surface roughness on the wettability and critical heat flux of glass-peened zirconium alloy tubes

    Fong, R.W.L.; Nitheanandan, T.; Bullock, C.D.; Slater, L.F.; McRae, G.A.

    2003-05-01

    Glass-bead peening the outside surfaces of zirconium alloy tubes has been shown to increase the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of water. The CHF is found to correlate with the fractal roughness of the metal tube surfaces. In this study on the effect of oxidation on glass-peened surfaces, test measurements for CHF, surface wettability and roughness have been evaluated using various glass-peened and oxidized zirconium alloy tubes. The results show that oxidation changes the solid-liquid contact angle (i.e., decreases wettability of the metal-oxide surface), but does not change the fractal surface roughness, appreciably. Thus, oxidation of the glass-peened surfaces of zirconium alloy tubes is not expected to degrade the CHF enhancement obtained by glass-bead peening. (author)

  7. Analytical support for coal technologies

    Valášek Václav

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of success in the selection negotiation The Brown Coal Research Institute j.s.c. Most was authorized to process the project Phare D5/93 with the title "Analytical support to clean coal technologies". The elaboration of the task run in 1997 in a close cooperation with the Mining University - TU Ostrava; DBI - AUA GmbH, Freiberg, Germany; DMT mbH, Essen, Germany and Cerchar, Mazingarbe, France. In the work the available reserves of brown and hard coal and from them following possible levels of annual minings in relation to prognosed needs of the electro-energetics and heating-industry were evaluated. The knowledge about the contents of selected trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, V, Zn in Czech (CZ coal were also evaluated it was investigated. Further, the distribution of trace elements during the burning process in four types of boilers in CZ. was investigated. The CZ and EU legislation related to trace elements in coal and combustion products was finally comparred. It was stated that the CZ legal standards are not at variant with EU the standards.

  8. Effects of Cu interlayer on the wettability of aluminum on carbon

    Ko, Young Jin [School of Advanced Material Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Juil [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Hansung University, Seoul 136-792 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joonho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jun Hyun, E-mail: jhhan@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Nano Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •The enhancement of wettability of Al on the Cu-coated graphite was restricted by the dewetting of the Cu layer. •The pre-sputtering of Cu could enhanced the wettability of Al more than the Cu single layer coating using electroless plating. •A thick Cu coating layer is needed to enhance the wettability of Al on graphite with time without dewetting of the Al droplet. -- Abstract: Wettability of Al on Cu coated graphites and the interfacial reactions between Al and the Cu coating were analyzed to examine in depth the effect of the Cu coating layer used to enhance the wettability of Al on carbon. The wetting behaviors of Al according to Cu coating method and Cu thickness were also investigated. The Cu/Cu double layer coated by sputtering the Cu single layer coated by electroless plating because it improved the stability of the Cu layer coated on graphite at high temperature. In order to suppress the dewetting of Al on graphite and improve the wettability of Al on graphite, a thick Cu coating layer to supply sufficient Cu atoms for saturation in an Al droplet is needed.

  9. Effects of Cu interlayer on the wettability of aluminum on carbon

    Ko, Young Jin; Yoon, Juil; Lee, Joonho; Han, Jun Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The enhancement of wettability of Al on the Cu-coated graphite was restricted by the dewetting of the Cu layer. •The pre-sputtering of Cu could enhanced the wettability of Al more than the Cu single layer coating using electroless plating. •A thick Cu coating layer is needed to enhance the wettability of Al on graphite with time without dewetting of the Al droplet. -- Abstract: Wettability of Al on Cu coated graphites and the interfacial reactions between Al and the Cu coating were analyzed to examine in depth the effect of the Cu coating layer used to enhance the wettability of Al on carbon. The wetting behaviors of Al according to Cu coating method and Cu thickness were also investigated. The Cu/Cu double layer coated by sputtering the Cu single layer coated by electroless plating because it improved the stability of the Cu layer coated on graphite at high temperature. In order to suppress the dewetting of Al on graphite and improve the wettability of Al on graphite, a thick Cu coating layer to supply sufficient Cu atoms for saturation in an Al droplet is needed

  10. Effects of Lignosulfonate Structure on the Surface Activity and Wettability to a Hydrophobic Powder

    Yuanyuan Ge

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The wettability of a solid material is very important in many applications, such as food, agrochemical formulations, and cosmetics. Wettability can be improved by adding surface active agents, especially biocompatible surfactants derived from biomass. In this work, the surface activity (ability to lower the surface tension of an aqueous solution and wettability toward a hydrophobic powder by a series of sodium lignosulfonates (NaLS synthesized with different degree of sulfonation (QS and weight-average molecular weights (Mw were investigated by measuring the surface tension and contact angle. The results demonstrated NaLS with a larger Mw or lower QS had higher surface activity. Conversely, the wettability of the NaLS aqueous solution toward difenoconazole powder showed a reverse trend, i.e., NaLS with a smaller Mw or higher Qs improved the wettability to difenoconazole. The surface activity and wettability was controlled by the varying densities of the NaLS molecules at the water to air interface or the solid/liquid interface, which was dependent on the molecular structure of NaLS.

  11. Temperature-tunable wettability on a bioinspired structured graphene surface for fog collection and unidirectional transport.

    Song, Yun-Yun; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Hao-Bo; Li, Shu-Yi; Kaya, Cigdem; Stegmaier, Thomas; Han, Zhi-Wu; Ren, Lu-Quan

    2018-02-22

    We designed a type of smart bioinspired wettable surface with tip-shaped patterns by combining polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and graphene (PDMS/G). The laser etched porous graphene surface can produce an obvious wettability change between 200 °C and 0 °C due to a change in aperture size and chemical components. We demonstrate that the cooperation of the geometrical structure and the controllable wettability play an important role in water gathering, and surfaces with tip-shaped wettability patterns can quickly drive tiny water droplets toward more wettable regions, so making a great contribution to the improvement of water collection efficiency. In addition, due to the effective cooperation between super hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions of the special tip-shaped pattern, unidirectional water transport on the 200 °C heated PDMS/G surface can be realized. This study offers a novel insight into the design of temperature-tunable materials with interphase wettability that may enhance fog collection efficiency in engineering liquid harvesting equipment, and realize unidirectional liquid transport, which could potentially be applied to the realms of microfluidics, medical devices and condenser design.

  12. Wettability transition induced transformation and entrapment of polymer nanostructures in cylindrical nanopores.

    Feng, Xunda; Mei, Shilin; Jin, Zhaoxia

    2011-12-06

    We apply the concept of wettability transition to manipulate the morphology and entrapment of polymer nanostructures inside cylindrical nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. When AAO/polystyrene (PS) hybrids, i.e., AAO/PS nanorods or AAO/PS nanotubes, are immersed into a polyethylene glycol (PEG) reservoir above the glass transition temperature of PS, a wettability transition from wetting to nonwetting of PS can be triggered due to the invasion of the more wettable PEG melt. The wettability transition enables us to develop a nondestructive method to entrap hemispherically capped nanorods inside nanopores. Moreover, we can obtain single nanorods with the desired aspect ratio by further dissolving the AAO template, in contrast to the drawbacks of nonuniformity or destructiveness from the conventional ultrasonication method. In the case of AAO/PS nanotubes, the wettability transition induced dewetting of PS nanotube walls results in the disconnection and entrapment of nonwetting PS domains (i.e., nanospheres, nanocapsules, or capped nanorods). Moreover, PEG is then washed to recover the pristine wettability of PS on the alumina surface; further annealing of the PS nanospheres inside AAO nanopores under vacuum can generate some unique nanostructures, particularly semicylindrical nanorods. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. Experimental investigation of wettability alteration on residual oil saturation using nonionic surfactants: Capillary pressure measurement

    Masoud Amirpour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducing the novel technique for enhancing oil recovery from available petroleum reservoirs is one of the important issues in future energy demands. Among of all operative factors, wettability may be the foremost parameter affecting residual oil saturation in all stage of oil recovery. Although wettability alteration is one of the methods which enhance oil recovery from the petroleum reservoir. Recently, the studies which focused on this subject were more than the past and many contributions have been made on this area. The main objective of the current study is experimentally investigation of the two nonionic surfactants effects on altering wettability of reservoir rocks. Purpose of this work is to change the wettability to preferentially the water-wet condition. Also reducing the residual oil saturation (Sor is the other purpose of this work. The wettability alteration of reservoir rock is measured by two main quantitative methods namely contact angle and the USBM methods. Results of this study showed that surfactant flooding is more effective in oil-wet rocks to change their wettability and consequently reducing Sor to a low value. Cedar (Zizyphus Spina Christi is low priced, absolutely natural, and abundantly accessible in the Middle East and Central Asia. Based on the results, this material can be used as a chemical surfactant in field for enhancing oil recovery.

  14. Laser processing of metallic biomaterials: An approach for surface patterning and wettability control

    Razi, Sepehr; Mollabashi, Mahmoud; Madanipour, Khosro

    2015-12-01

    Q -switched Nd:YAG laser is used to manipulate the surface morphology and wettability characteristic of 316L stainless steel (SS) and titanium biomaterials. Water and glycerol are selected as wettability testing liquids and the sessile drop method is used for the contact angle measurements. Results indicate that on both of the metals, wettability toward water improves significantly after the laser treatment. Different analyses including the study of the surface morphology, free energy and oxidation are assessed in correlation with wettability. Beside the important role of the laser-induced surface patterns, the increase in the surface roughness, oxygen content and the polar component of the surface energy, are detected as the most important physical and chemical phenomena controlling the improvement in the wettability. However, all the processed hydrophilic surfaces that are exposed to air become hydrophobic over time. The time dependency of the surface wettability is related to the chemical activities on the treated surfaces and the reduction of oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratio on them. The behavior is further studied with investigating the effect of the keeping environment and changes of the components of the surface tension. Results show that the pulsed laser treatment is a versatile approach to create either hydrophobic or super hydrophilic surfaces for industrial and medical applications.

  15. Chinese coal supply and future production outlooks

    Wang, Jianliang; Feng, Lianyong; Davidsson, Simon; Höök, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    China's energy supply is dominated by coal, making projections of future coal production in China important. Recent forecasts suggest that Chinese coal production may reach a peak in 2010–2039 but with widely differing peak production levels. The estimated URR (ultimately recoverable resources) influence these projections significantly, however, widely different URR-values were used due to poor understanding of the various Chinese coal classification schemes. To mitigate these shortcomings, a comprehensive investigation of this system and an analysis of the historical evaluation of resources and reporting issues are performed. A more plausible URR is derived, which indicates that many analysts underestimate volumes available for exploitation. Projections based on the updated URR using a modified curve-fitting model indicate that Chinese coal production could peak as early as 2024 at a maximum annual production of 4.1 Gt. By considering other potential constraints, it can be concluded that peak coal in China appears inevitable and immediate. This event can be expected to have significant impact on the Chinese economy, energy strategies and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions reduction strategies. - Highlights: • Review of Chinese coal geology and resources/reserves. • Presentation of the Chinese coal classification system. • Forecasting future Chinese coal production using Hubbert curves. • Critical comparison with other forecasts. • Discussions transportation, environmental impact, water consumption, etc

  16. Test and evaluate the tri-gas low-Btu coal-gasification process. Final report, October 21, 1977-October 31, 1980

    Zabetakis, M.G.

    1980-12-01

    This report describes the continuation of work done to develop the BCR TRI-GAS multiple fluidized-bed gasification process. The objective is the gasification of all ranks of coals with the only product being a clean, low-Btu fuel gas. Design and construction of a 100 lb/h process and equipment development unit (PEDU) was completed on the previous contract. The process consists of three fluid-bed reactors in series, each having a specific function: Stage 1 - pretreatment; Stage 2- - gasification; Stage 3 - maximization of carbon utilization. Under the present contract, 59 PEDU tests have been conducted. A number of these were single-stage tests, mostly in Stage 1; however, integrated PEDU tests were conducted with a western coal (Rosebud) and two eastern coals (Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam). Both Rosebud and Pittsburgh seam coals were gasified with the PEDU operating in the design mode. Operation with Illinois No. 6 seam coal was also very promising; however, time limitations precluded further testing with this coal. One of the crucial tasks was to operate the Stage 1 reactor to pretreat and devolatilize caking coals. By adding a small amount of air to the fluidizing gas, the caking properties of the coal can be eliminated. However, it was also desirable to release a high percentage of the volatile matter from the coal in this vessel. To accomplish this, the reactor had to be operated above the agglomerating temperature of caking coals. By maintaining a low ratio of fresh to treated coal, this objective was achieved. Both Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam coals were treated at temperatures of 800 to 900 F without agglomerating in the vessel.

  17. Nuclear assay of coal. Volume 7. Coal rheology and its impact on nuclear assay. Final report

    Hogg, R.; Luckie, P.; Gozani, T.

    1979-01-01

    A number of possible techniques for introducing coal to a continuous on-line nuclear analysis of coal (CONAC) system have been evaluated, including flow methods and nonflow methods. A modified flat-belt feeder system was recommended. The success of such a coal-presentation technique would rely on proper entry to the feed hopper, shape of the withdrawal opening from the feed hopper, and a slow belt speed to minimize demixing

  18. Continuous online nuclear analyzer of coal

    Rogers, R.S.C.; Bozorgmanesh, H.; Gozani, T.; Brown, T.

    1980-01-01

    Since CONAC is a relatively new concept in coal quality measurement, the present paper concentrates primarily on instrument development. The basic principles of elemental composition, moisture content and Btu measurements are described and typical measurement results presented. Then, since CONAC is under development specifically for quality control purposes, its advantages and potential applications in the coal circuit are discussed. The CONAC development work showed principles of CONAC operation (PNAA, moisture and Btu determinations) to be powerful and versatile tools for the analysis of coal; CONAC-type instrumentation is being developed for batch, laboratory usage. Such a device will enable a user to perform rapid coal sample analyses in a nondestructive fashion, leaving samples intact for further evaluation. It is felt that a batch laboratory, CONAC-type device will be of great use in the mining industry where the analysis of borehole samples are important in the evaluation of coal reserves and in the planning of mining operations

  19. Atmospheric Water Harvesting: Role of Surface Wettability and Edge Effect

    Jin, Yong

    2017-06-23

    Atmospheric water is emerging as an important potable water source. The present work experimentally and theoretically investigates water condensation and collection on flat surfaces with contrasting contact angles and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) to elucidate their roles on water mass collection efficiency. The experimental results indicate that a hydrophilic surface promotes nucleation and individual droplets growth, and a surface with a low CAH tends to let a smaller droplet to slide down, but the overall water mass collection efficiency is independent of both surface contact angle and CAH. The experimental results agree well with our theoretical calculations. During water condensation, a balance has to be struck between single droplet growth and droplet density on a surface so as to maintain a constant water droplet surface coverage ratio, which renders the role of both surface wettability and hysteresis insignificant to the ultimate water mass collection. Moreover, water droplets on the edges of a surface grow much faster than those on the non-edge areas and thus dominate the contribution to the water mass collection by the entire surface, directly pointing out the very important role of edge effect on water condensation and collection.

  20. Leaf wettability as a measure of air pollution effects

    Jagels, R.

    1994-01-01

    Droplet contact angle (DCA) is a technique that can be used to measure wettability and, in turn, provide an assessment of the physical and chemical characteristics of a surface. As adapted to plant bioligy, DCA measurements have been useful in characterizing changes in the type or condition of leaf epicuticular waxes. Environmental as well as temporal factors can modify the biophysical features of epicuticular wax surfaces and thereby affect DCA measurements. An understanding of the role of these non-pollutant factors is necessary before pollution damage can be accurately assessed. Controlled chamber experiments and field pollutant gradient studies have shown that DCA is generally reduced when plants are exposed to air pollutants such as ozone, So 2 , and acidic fog. In some cases, environmental influences, such as temperature, have been separated from the pollutant effect. However, mixtures of anthropogenic pollutants or anthropogenic and natural compounds (sea salts, dust particles) which are often present in field studies can confound the interpretation of DCA measurements. A few studies that attempt to separate these factors have been conducted, but more are needed before the potential for using DCA measurements in long-term bioindicator studies can be fully realized. Some studies have demonstrated that pollutants do not necessarily affect leaf surfaces in a uniform pattern, but rather are specific for certain structures such as stomates or trichomes; deposition levels can also be different on ad-and abaxial surfaces. The degree to which these inhomogeneities of action can affect DCA measurements needs further study. (orig.)

  1. Wettability dynamics of liquid filaments on horizontal substrates

    Diez, Javier; Ravazzoli, Pablo; Cuellar, Ingrith; Gonzalez, Alejandro

    2017-11-01

    We study the hydrodynamic mechanisms involved in the motion of the contact line formed at the end region of a liquid filament laying on a planar and horizontal substrate. Since the flow develops under partially wetting conditions, the tip of the filament recedes and forms a bulged region (head) that subsequently develops a neck region behind it. Later the neck breaks up leading to a separated drop, while the rest of the filament restarts the sequence. One main feature of this flow is that the whole dynamics and final drop shapes are strongly influenced by the hysteresis of the contact angle typical in most of the liquid-substrate systems. The time evolution till breakup is studied experimentally and pictured in terms of a hybrid wettability theory which involves the Cox-Voinov hydrodynamic approach combined with the molecular kinetic theory developed by Blake. The parameters of this theory are determined for our liquid-substrate system (silicone oil ``coated glass). The experimental results of the retracting filament are described in terms of a simple heuristic model and compared with numerical simulations of the full Navier-Stokes equations. This study is of special interest in the context of pulsed laser-induced dewetting. The authors acknowledge support from Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientficas y Tcnicas (CONICET, Argentina) with Grant PIP 844/2012 and Agencia Nacional de Promocin Cientfica y Tecnolgica (ANPCyT, Argentina) with Grant PICT 931/2012.

  2. Biphilicity and Superbiphilicity for Wettability Control of Multiphase Heat Transfer

    Attinger, Daniel; Betz, Amy Rachel; Schutzius, T. M.; Jenkins, J.; Kim, C.-J.; Megaridis, C. M.

    2012-11-01

    Multiphase energy transport, such as in boiling, suggests contradictory requirements on the wettability of the solid surfaces coming into contact with the working fluid. On the one hand, a hydrophobic wall promotes nucleation. On the other hand, a hydrophilic wall promotes water contact and enhances the critical heat flux. An analogous situation appears in the opposite thermodynamic process, i.e. condensation. These apparently contradictory requirements can be accommodated with biphilic surfaces, which juxtapose hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Biphilic surfaces were first manufactured in 1964 by Young and Hummel, who sprayed Teflon drops onto a smooth steel surface: they showed enhanced heat transfer coefficient during boiling of water. Our recent work has revisited the manufacturing of biphilic surfaces using micro- and nanofabrication processes (Betz et al. 2010, Schutzius et al. 2012); for instance, we fabricated the first superbiphilic surfaces, which juxtapose superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic areas. Using these surfaces, we measured significant enhancement during pool boiling of both the heat transfer coefficient and the critical heat flux. This enhanced performance can be explained by the inherent ability of the surfaces to control multiphase flow, decreasing nucleation energies and shaping drops, bubbles and jets, to maximize transport and prevent instabilities.

  3. Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant

    Pavlish, John; Thompson, Jeffrey; Dunham, Grant

    2014-09-30

    Owners of fossil fuel-fired power plants face the challenge of measuring stack emissions of trace metals and acid gases at much lower levels than in the past as a result of increasingly stringent regulations. In the United States, the current reference methods for trace metals and halogens are wet-chemistry methods, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Methods 29 and 26 or 26A, respectively. As a possible alternative to the EPA methods, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a novel multielement sorbent trap (MEST) method to be used to sample for trace elements and/or halogens. Sorbent traps offer a potentially advantageous alternative to the existing sampling methods, as they are simpler to use and do not require expensive, breakable glassware or handling and shipping of hazardous reagents. Field tests comparing two sorbent trap applications (MEST-H for hydrochloric acid and MEST-M for trace metals) with the reference methods were conducted at two power plant units fueled by Illinois Basin bituminous coal. For hydrochloric acid, MEST measured concentrations comparable to EPA Method 26A at two power plant units, one with and one without a wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber. MEST-H provided lower detection limits for hydrochloric acid than the reference method. Results from a dry stack unit had better comparability between methods than results from a wet stack unit. This result was attributed to the very low emissions in the latter unit, as well as the difficulty of sampling in a saturated flue gas. Based on these results, the MEST-H sorbent traps appear to be a good candidate to serve as an alternative to Method 26A (or 26). For metals, the MEST trap gave lower detection limits compared to EPA Method 29 and produced comparable data for antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cobalt, manganese, selenium, and mercury for most test runs. However, the sorbent material produced elevated blanks for cadmium, nickel, lead, and chromium at levels

  4. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  5. Effective Wettability Measurements of CO2-Brine-Sandstone System at Different Reservoir Conditions

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Krevor, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    The wetting properties of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of CO2 injection processes. The wettability of a system controls the flow and trapping efficiency during the storage of CO2 in geological formations as well as the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery operations. Despite its utility in EOR and the continued development of CCS, little is currently known about the wetting properties of the CO2-brine system on reservoir rocks, and no investigations have been performed assessing the impact of these properties on CO2 flooding for CO2 storage or EOR. The wetting properties of multiphase fluid systems in porous media have major impacts on the multiphase flow properties such as the capillary pressure and relative permeability. While recent studies have shown CO2 to generally act as a non-wetting phase in siliciclastic rocks, some observations report that the contact angle varies with pressure, temperature and water salinity. Additionally, there is a wide range of reported contact angles for this system, from strongly to weakly water-wet. In the case of some minerals, intermediate wet contact angles have been observed. Uncertainty with regard to the wetting properties of CO2-brine systems is currently one of the remaining major unresolved issues with regards to reservoir management of CO2 storage. In this study, we make semi-dynamic capillary pressure measurements of supercritical CO2 and brine at reservoir conditions to observe shifts in the wetting properties. We utilize a novel core analysis technique recently developed by Pini et al in 2012 to evaluate a core-scale effective contact angle. Carbon dioxide is injected at constant flow rate into a core that is initially fully saturated with water, while maintaining a constant outlet pressure. In this scenario, the pressure drop across the core corresponds to the capillary pressure at the inlet face of the core. When compared with mercury intrusion capillary pressure measurements

  6. Coal information 1996

    1997-01-01

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  7. Diagenetic and compositional controls of wettability in siliceous sedimentary rocks, Monterey Formation, California

    Hill, Kristina M.

    Modified imbibition tests were performed on 69 subsurface samples from Monterey Formation reservoirs in the San Joaquin Valley to measure wettability variation as a result of composition and silica phase change. Contact angle tests were also performed on 6 chert samples from outcrop and 3 nearly pure mineral samples. Understanding wettability is important because it is a key factor in reservoir fluid distribution and movement, and its significance rises as porosity and permeability decrease and fluid interactions with reservoir grain surface area increase. Although the low permeability siliceous reservoirs of the Monterey Formation are economically important and prolific, a greater understanding of factors that alter their wettability will help better develop them. Imbibition results revealed a strong trend of decreased wettability to oil with increased detrital content in opal-CT phase samples. Opal-A phase samples exhibited less wettability to oil than both opal-CT and quartz phase samples of similar detrital content. Subsurface reservoir samples from 3 oil fields were crushed to eliminate the effect of capillary pressure and cleansed of hydrocarbons to eliminate wettability alterations by asphaltene, then pressed into discs of controlled density. Powder discs were tested for wettability by dispensing a controlled volume of water and motor oil onto the surface and measuring the time required for each fluid to imbibe into the sample. The syringe and software of a CAM101 tensiometer were used to control the amount of fluid dispensed onto each sample, and imbibition completion times were determined by high-speed photography for water drops; oil drop imbibition was significantly slower and imbibition was timed and determined visually. Contact angle of water and oil drops on polished chert and mineral sample surfaces was determined by image analysis and the Young-Laplace equation. Oil imbibition was significantly slower with increased detrital composition and faster

  8. Chemical and physical aspects of refining coal liquids

    Shah, Y. T.; Stiegel, G. J.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    1981-02-01

    Increasing costs and declining reserves of petroleum are forcing oil importing countries to develop alternate energy sources. The direct liquefaction of coal is currently being investigated as a viable means of producing substitute liquid fuels. The coal liquids derived from such processes are typically high in nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur besides having a high aromatic and metals content. It is therefore envisaged that modifications to existing petroleum refining technology will be necessary in order to economically upgrade coal liquids. In this review, compositional data for various coal liquids are presented and compared with those for petroleum fuels. Studies reported on the stability of coal liquids are discussed. The feasibility of processing blends of coal liquids with petroleum feedstocks in existing refineries is evaluated. The chemistry of hydroprocessing is discussed through kinetic and mechanistic studies using compounds which are commonly detected in coal liquids. The pros and cons of using conventional petroleum refining catalysts for upgrading coal liquids are discussed.

  9. Evaluation of alumina-aluminium phosphate catalyst supports for hydrodenitrogenation of pyridine and coal-derived liquids

    Menon, R.; Joo, H.S.; Guin, J.A.; Reucroft, P.J.; Kim, J.Y. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Several alumina-aluminum phosphate (AAP) catalyst supports were prepared by a coprecipitation method. Effect of variations in Al/P atomic ratios on support textural properties were examined. Finished NiMo/AAP catalysts containing nominally 3 wt% Ni and 13 wt% Mo were prepared by incipient wetness and characterized by several methods including elemental, BET, and XPS surface analysis. Initial hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) activities of the catalysts were examined in both pyridine model compound and coal liquid reactions. The AAP supports showed the opportunity to tailor the catalyst pore size by variation of the Al/P ratio. On a per unit surface areas basis, the AAP-supported catalysts had initial HDN activities comparable to those of a commercial P-promoted NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Because of their unique textural properties, i.e. variable pore sizes, the AAP catalysts may offer advantages when dealing with macromolecular feedstocks where hindered diffusion may slow reaction rates. 37 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. An evaluation of measurement uncertainties in the on-line measurement of coal ash content by gamma-ray transmission

    Wenzhong, Liu; Li, Kong; Tan, Qu; Jingjing, Cheng

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a significant effect producing systematic errors in the on-line measurement using gamma-ray transmission is revealed. Ash content fluctuations or thickness changes lead to a permanent negative systematic error in the results of the measurements. To study uncertainties in the measurements applicable to time-independent ash content indicators and to investigate the characteristics of the radiation attenuation process, the behavior of the quantity in question is modeled with a stationary Gaussian distribution. A systematic error-producing effect has been found, and a quantitative correction is given to compensate for it. For some other quantities in question that vary in time, a linear model is used to discuss the systematic errors in the case of automated coal gangue separator. Results of experiments that demonstrate different systematic errors for different sampling intervals are presented. The reason for these errors is the nonlinearity of the relationship between the radiation intensity, on the one hand, and the sample thickness and mass attention, on the other

  11. Evaluation of the relationship between radiological abnormalities and both pulmonary function and pulmonary hypertension in coal workers' pneumoconiosis

    Yildiz, O.A.; Gulbay, B.E.; Saryal, S.; Karabiylkoglu, G. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2007-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the radiological evidence of emphysema, and the extent of interstitial involvement, on lung function and pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) in patients with coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). All patients showed a mild decrease in FEV1/FVC and a mild increase in FRC. Forty-four per cent of patients developed mild to moderate pulmonary hypertension. Emphysema scores correlated significantly with airflow rates, including FEV1%, FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75%, and with carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO)% predicted as well as FRC% predicted and the ratio RV/TLC, which are indices of air trapping. Additionally, profusion and global profusion scores showed significant correlation with FEV1/FVC, DLCO% predicted, specific airway conductance and smoking. Mean PAP showed a significant negative correlation with FEF50% predicted, DLCO% predicted and profusion score. The impairment of pulmonary function (mainly disturbance in airflow rates and air trapping) and pulmonary hypertension may be present, even in a simple form of CWP. The pulmonary function impairment in patients with CWP is likely to be attributable to the occurrence of emphysema. However, pulmonary hypertension was directly related to the profusion of pneumoconiotic nodules, which may result in obliteration of the vascular bed.

  12. 煤层底板阻渗性试验研究及评价%Experimental study and evaluation of anti-permeability test of coal seam floor

    高家平; 黄建飞; 冯杰

    2017-01-01

    针对构造因素对二水平安全带压开采的关键制约作用及断层扰动底板带压开采阻水性影响的复杂性,对城郊煤矿底板断层带和完整地段阻渗强度进行现场实测,获取了底板断层带的渗透性及其抗渗透破坏强度,研究得到了天然水动力条件下底板断层带的渗透性及断层带的抗渗透破坏强度,为深部断层带和完整地段阻渗性评价提供量化依据,为矿井底板水害防治提供技术保障,对永夏矿区后续深部煤炭开采也具有较重要的示范意义.%In view of the effect of structural factor on the second level of mining and the complexity of the influence of the water-tightness to compensated mining on the faulted floor,a field test of the anti-permeability strength of the fault zones and the intact section of suburban coal floor was carried out,to obtain the permeability and the anti-permeability strength of the fault zones.Under the conditions of natural water power,the permeability and the anti-permeability strength of the fault zones were obtained,which provided quantitative basis for evaluating the anti-permeability of the deep fault zones and intact section.Further more,the technological guarantee for coal mine flood damage control was offered and an important demonstration for the follow-up deep mining of Yongxia mining district was also supported.

  13. Trends in Japanese coal trade

    Nakajima, S

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses 1) the latest forecast for coal demand in Japan; 2) trends in Japanese steam coal demand, with breakdown by industry; 3) the organization of steam coal supply, with details of the distribution network and of the new coal cartridge system; 4) the demand for metallurgical coal. Other topics outlined include the current status of Japanese coal production, Japanese coal trade, and the development of overseas coal resources. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  14. Mouillabilité et réservoirs pétroliers Wettability and Oil Reservoirs

    Cuiec L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans la première partie de cet article, des considérations générales relatives à la mouillabilité sont exposées, en particulier sur les points suivants : - définition; - importance sur le comportement d'un système milieu poreux/fluide 1/fluide 2; - méthodes d'évaluation. Puis, différents aspects des problèmes posés par ce paramètre lors de l'étude des gisements sont abordés. Tout d'abord, le problème de l'obtention d'échantillons de roche-réservoir ayant des propriétés de surface représentatives est examiné; en effet, une telle obtention est indispensable pour réaliser des expériences de laboratoire significatives. Les causes de modification des propriétés de surface entre le réservoir et le laboratoire sont passées en revue. L'impossibilité d'empêcher à coup sûr de telles modifications justifie l'utilisation d'une procédure de restauration des propriétés originelles qui est ensuite décrite. L'existence de réservoirs non mouillables à l'eau n'est pas aussi rare que d'aucuns le pensaient il y a seulement une dizaine d'années. De nombreux travaux extraits de la littérature ou réalisés à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP illustrent ce point. Enfin, l'état des connaissances concernant l'origine de la non-mouillabilité à l'eau est présenté. In the first part of this paper, general considerations about wettability are given, including:(a definition;(b importance of this parameter on the behavior of a porous-medium/fluid 1/fluid 2 system;(c methods of evaluation. Then we will examine various aspects of problems that arise for petroleum engineers because of this parameter. First of all, we will take up the problem of obtaining representative samples from the standpoint of surface properties. Obtaining such samples is indispensable for performing meaningful laboratory experiments. The causes of changes, in the surface properties of reservoir rock samples between the field and the laboratory will be

  15. Material balance in coal. 2. Oxygen determination and stoichiometry of 33 coals

    Volborth, A.; Miller, G.E.; Garner, C.K.; Jerabek, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    The chemical analysis of coal can be supplemented by the determination of oxygen in high and low temperature ash, in coal as received and in coal dried at 105 0 C. The rapid method utilizes fast-neutron activation. The reaction 16 O(n,p) 16 N and counting of the 6.1 and 7.1 MeV gammas of 7.3 second half-life are used. A specially designed dual transfer and simultaneous counting system gives very accurate results. Oxygen in 33 coals ranging from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal is determined and compared with ''oxygen by difference.'' Considerable discrepancies are observed. Better stoichiometric results are obtained if oxygen in coal ash, in wet coal and in the dried coal is determined. This permits the estimation of the true material balances using data of the ultimate and the proximate coal analysis. The oxygen determination provides the coal chemist with an accurate basis and can be used to rank coal. The summation of the percent of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, sulfur, and oxygen becomes more meaningful and some errors can be detected and the state of completeness of coal analysis thus evaluated. Total sulfur can be estimated and oxidation effects during drying can be detected. These affect the moisture determination. It appears that after more data are collected, the interpretation of solid fuel analyses may be facilitated and will be stoichiometrically more meaningful. It is shown that it may be possible to simplify the present time-consuming methods of coal analysis

  16. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning...... itself, it is demonstrated that for a wide range of cleaning procedures and types of coal, chemical cleaning generally performs worse than combustion of the raw coals and physical cleaning using dense medium separation. These findings apply for many relevant impact categories, including climate change...

  17. Adsorption of reactive Remazol Red RB dye of aqueous solution using zeolite of the coal ash and evaluation of acute toxicity with Daphnia similis

    Magdalena, Carina Pitwak

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the capacity of zeolite synthesized from coal ash in the removal of Remazol Red dye aqueous solution was investigated by batch mode operation. The equilibrium was attained after 360 min of contact time. The adsorption rate followed the kinetic model of pseudo-second-order. The equilibrium data obtained fitted to Langmuir adsorption isotherm showing the adsorption capacity of up to 1.20mg g-1. The efficiency of adsorption was between 75 to 91% in the equilibrium time. In order to obtain the best conditions for removal of this dye, the influence of the following parameters was: initial concentration of the dye, pH of the aqueous solution, dose of adsorbent and temperature. The thermodynamic parameters were evaluated showing that the adsorption of Remazol red on the zeolite is of a spontaneous nature. Experiments by adding NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 were carried out to simulate the real conditions of the effluents from the dyeing bath and to evaluate the influence of these chemical compounds in the phenomenon of adsorption. The equilibrium data of adsorption of Remazol red on the zeolite was achieved in a shorter time in the presence of increasing concentrations of salts in solution and an increase in adsorption capacity. The efficiency of the study was evaluated as a treatment for acute toxicity using Daphnia similis microcrustacean. (author)

  18. Evaluation of hazardous metal pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems in the vicinity of a coal mine area of northwestern Bangladesh.

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad A H; Islam, M A; Dampare, Samuel B; Parvez, Lutfar; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2010-07-15

    An integrated approach of pollution evaluation indices, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) was employed to evaluate the intensity and sources of pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems of northwestern Bangladesh. Temperature, BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD), Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Pb levels in most of the water samples exceed the Bangladesh and international standards. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and degree of contamination (C(d)) yield different results despite significant correlations between them. The heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) shows strong correlations with HPI and C(d), and gives a better assessment of pollution levels. Modifications to the existing HPI and C(d) schemes show comparable results with HEI, and indicate that about 55% of the mine drainage/irrigation waters and 50% of the groundwaters are moderately to highly contaminated. The CA, PCA and pollution indices suggest that the mine drainage water (DW) is contaminated by anthropogenic (mining operation and agrogenic) sources, and the proximal parts are more contaminated than the distal part. The groundwater system in the vicinity of the coal mine site is also heavily polluted by anthropogenic sources. The pollution status of irrigation and drinking water systems in the study area are of great environmental and health concerns. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating the thermal stability of mercury and other metals in coal combustion residues used in the production of cement clinker, asphalt, and wallboard

    Research is underway by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to document any changes that may occur to coal combustion residues (CCRs) as a result of implementation of mercury and multiipollutant control technology at coal-fired power plants. This work was cited as a pr...

  20. Exploring the Role of Habitat on the Wettability of Cicada Wings.

    Oh, Junho; Dana, Catherine E; Hong, Sungmin; Román, Jessica K; Jo, Kyoo Dong; Hong, Je Won; Nguyen, Jonah; Cropek, Donald M; Alleyne, Marianne; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2017-08-16

    Evolutionary pressure has pushed many extant species to develop micro/nanostructures that can significantly affect wettability and enable functionalities such as droplet jumping, self-cleaning, antifogging, antimicrobial, and antireflectivity. In particular, significant effort is underway to understand the insect wing surface structure to establish rational design tools for the development of novel engineered materials. Most studies, however, have focused on superhydrophobic wings obtained from a single insect species, in particular, the Psaltoda claripennis cicada. Here, we investigate the relationship between the spatially dependent wing wettability, topology, and droplet jumping behavior of multiple cicada species and their habitat, lifecycle, and interspecies relatedness. We focus on cicada wings of four different species: Neotibicen pruinosus, N. tibicen, Megatibicen dorsatus, and Magicicada septendecim and take a comparative approach. Using spatially resolved microgoniometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and high speed optical microscopy, we show that within cicada species, the wettability of wings is spatially homogeneous across wing cells. All four species were shown to have truncated conical pillars with widely varying length scales ranging from 50 to 400 nm in height. Comparison of the wettability revealed three cicada species with wings that are superhydrophobic (>150°) with low contact angle hysteresis (<5°), resulting in stable droplet jumping behavior. The fourth, more distantly related species (Ma. septendecim) showed only moderate hydrophobic behavior, eliminating some of the beneficial surface functional aspects for this cicada. Correlation between cicada habitat and wing wettability yielded little connection as wetter, swampy environments do not necessarily equate to higher measured wing hydrophobicity. The results, however, do point to species relatedness and reproductive strategy as a closer proxy for predicting

  1. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. Coal marketing manual 1986

    1986-01-01

    This manual presents information for the use of marketers, consumers, analysts and investors. The information is presented in a series of tables and figures. Statistics are given for: Australian export tonnages and average export values for 1978-1985; international pig iron production 1976 to 1985; and international crude steel production 1979 to 1985. Trends in Australian export tonnages and prices of coal are reviewed. Details of international loading and discharge ports are given, together with a historical summary of shipping freight-rates since 1982. Long term contract prices for thermal and coking coal to Japan are tabulated. A review of coal and standards is given, together with Australian standards for coal and coke. A section on coal quality is included containing information on consumer coal quality preferences and Australian and Overseas coal brands and qualities. Finally an index is given of contact details of Australian and Overseas exporting companies, government departments, and the Australian Coal Association.

  3. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  4. National-economic aspects of reducing coal production in the Czech Republic

    Klimek, M. (Otbor Statni Spravy pro Uhelny Prumysl MHPR CR, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-10-01

    Analyzes the planned decrease in coal output of Czechoslovakia by the year 2000 and its effects. The following aspects are evaluated: decreasing coal output of Czechoslovakia in comparison to coal output decline in the United Kingdom and FRG in 1980-1990, output of brown and black coal of Czechoslovakia in the period from 1970 to 1991, planned decrease in coal output of Czechoslovakia (influenced by resource depletion, negative effects of coal combustion on the environment, declining demand for energy of the national economy caused by transformation of a command economy into a market one, discontinuation of state subsidies of the coal industry), the situation in individual coal basins of Czechoslovakia, closing coal mines (names of coal mines and closure date), economic aspects of mine closure (social cost, cost of alternative energy sources, cost of technical mine closure), effects of decreasing coal combustion on environmental pollution in Czechoslovakia.

  5. Coking coal of Checua Lenguazaque area

    Arboleda Otalora, Carlos Ariel

    1987-06-01

    In this report a summary of the main characteristics of the coal of the area of Checua-Samaca is presented. Using the main works carried out on this area, the most important geologic, physical-chemical, technological and petrographic aspects are compiled that are considered essential to carry out a technical evaluation of these coal and all the analyses they take to conclude that in this area, bituminous coal are presented with very good coking properties, on the other hand, it is demonstrated by the use that is given to the coal extracted by the small existent mining. However, keeping in mind the demands of the international market of the coking coal, it becomes necessary to improve the existent geologic information to be able to make reliable stratigraphic correlations

  6. Thermal behaviour and microanalysis of coal subbituminus

    Heriyanti; Prendika, W.; Ashyar, R.; Sutrisno

    2018-04-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is used to study the thermal behaviour of sub-bituminous coal. The DSC experiment was performed in air atmosphere up to 125 °C at a heating rate of 25 °C min1. The DSC curve showed that the distinct transitional stages in the coal samples studied. Thermal heating temperature intervals, peak and dissociation energy of the coal samples were also determined. The XRD analysis was used to evaluate the diffraction pattern and crystal structure of the compounds in the coal sample at various temperatures (25-350 °C). The XRD analysis of various temperatures obtained compounds from the coal sample, dominated by quartz (SiO2) and corundum (Al2O3). The increase in temperature of the thermal treatment showed a better crystal formation.

  7. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    Kevin Crist

    2004-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  8. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Kevin Crist

    2006-04-02

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0

  9. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  10. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Kevin Crist

    2005-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  11. Fording Canadian Coal Trust

    Popowich, J.; Millos, R. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This is the first of five slide/overhead presentations presented at the Fording Canadian Coal Trust and Tech Cominco Ltd. investor day and mine tour. The Fording Canadian Coal Trust is described. The Trust's assets comprise six Elk Valley metallurgical coal mines and six wollastonite operations (in the NYCO Group). Trust structure, corporate responsibility, organizational structure, reserves and resources, management philosophy, operating strategies, steel market dynamics, coal market, production expansion, sales and distribution are outlined. 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Coal. [1987 and 1989

    1988-06-01

    Despite increases in recently negotiated coal prices in US dollar terms, unit export returns for Australian coal are expected to rise only marginally in 1988-89 due to the anticipated appreciation of the Australian dollar. Australian coal production is expected to recover in 1988-89, after falling in 1987-88. A table summarising coal statistics in 1985-87 is presented. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Review biodepyritisation of coal

    Acharya, C.; Sukla, L.B.; Misra, V.N. [Regional Research Lab., Orissa (India)

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a detailed summary of the recent and past research activities in the area of biodesulfurisation of coal. It provides information about microorganisms important for biodesulfurisation of coal, with the emphasis on Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The review presents an insight into various methods of desulfurisation of coal combining physical and biological methods. Also, there are discussions on coal structure, distribution, mechanism and kinetics of pyrite oxidation and jarosite precipitation. Finally, areas requiring further research are identified.

  14. Coal dust symposium

    1981-03-01

    This paper gives a report of the paper presented at the symposium held in Hanover on 9 and 10 February 1981. The topics include: the behaviour of dust and coal dust on combustion and explosion; a report on the accidents which occurred at the Laegerdorf cement works' coal crushing and drying plant; current safety requirements at coal crushing and drying plant; and coal crushing and drying. Four papers are individually abstracted. (In German)

  15. Coal world market

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A brief analysis of major tendencies in the world market of coal is presented. It is pointed out that recent years, by and large, were favourable for the development of the world coal industry. Prices for coal (both for power-grade and coking one) in 1995 after many years of depressive state increased by nearly 20 % and reached a maximum of the last decade. International coal trading continues to grow and the tendency may persist in the mext two years

  16. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  17. Enrichment of trace elements in bottom ash from coal oxy-combustion: Effect of coal types

    Oboirien, BO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the enrichment of trace elements in two coals under air and oxy-combustion conditions was studied. Twenty-one trace elements were evaluated. The two coal samples had a different concentration for the 21 trace elements, which was due...

  18. Effect of wall wettability on flow characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow

    Uematsu, Junichi; Abe, Kazuya; Hazuku, Tatsuya; Takamasa, Tomoji; Hibiki, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of surface wettability in pipe wall on flow characteristics in a vertical upward gas-liquid to-phase flow, visualization study was performed using three test pipes, namely an acrylic pipe, a hydrophilic pipe, a hydrophobic pipe. Such basic flow characteristics as flow patterns and void fraction were investigated in these three pipes. In the hydrophilic pipe, the slug flow-to-churn flow transition boundary was shifted to higher gas velocity condition at a given liquid velocity, whereas the churn flow-to-annular flow transition boundary was shifted to lower gas velocity condition at a given liquid velocity. In the hydrophobic pipe, the inverted-churn flow regime was observed in the region where the churn flow regime was observed in the acrylic pipe, whereas the droplet flow regime was observed in the region where the annular flow regime was observed in the acrylic pipe. At high-gas flow rate condition, the mean void fraction in the hydrophobic pipe took relatively higher value to that in the acrylic pipe. (author)

  19. Solvent composition of one-step self-etch adhesives and dentine wettability.

    Grégoire, Geneviève; Dabsie, Firas; Dieng-Sarr, Farimata; Akon, Bernadette; Sharrock, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the wettability of dentine by four commercial self-etch adhesives and evaluate their spreading rate on the dentine surface. Any correlation with chemical composition was sought, particularly with the amount of solvent or HEMA present in the adhesive. The adhesives used were AdheSE One, Optibond All.In.One, Adper Easy Bond and XenoV. Chemical compositions were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the adhesives dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide. Apparent contact angles for sessile drops of adhesives were measured on dentine slices as a function of time for up to 180s. The water contact angles were determined for fully polymerised adhesives. All adhesives were water-based with total solvent contents ranging from 27% to 73% for HEMA-free adhesives, and averaging 45% for HEMA containing adhesives. The contents in hydrophobic groups decreased as water contents increased. No differences were found in the adhesive contact angles after 180s even though the spreading rates were different for the products tested. Water contact angles differed significantly but were not correlated with HEMA or solvent presence. Manufacturers use different approaches to stabilise acid co-monomer ingredients in self-etch adhesives. Co-solvents, HEMA, or acrylamides without co-solvents are used to simultaneously etch and infiltrate dentine. A large proportion of water is necessary for decalcification action. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Hydrofluoric Acid Etching Time on Titanium Topography, Chemistry, Wettability, and Cell Adhesion.

    R Zahran

    Full Text Available Titanium implant surface etching has proven an effective method to enhance cell attachment. Despite the frequent use of hydrofluoric (HF acid, many questions remain unresolved, including the optimal etching time and its effect on surface and biological properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of HF acid etching time on Ti topography, surface chemistry, wettability, and cell adhesion. These data are useful to design improved acid treatment and obtain an improved cell response. The surface topography, chemistry, dynamic wetting, and cell adhesiveness of polished Ti surfaces were evaluated after treatment with HF acid solution for 0, 2; 3, 5, 7, or 10 min, revealing a time-dependent effect of HF acid on their topography, chemistry, and wetting. Roughness and wetting increased with longer etching time except at 10 min, when roughness increased but wetness decreased. Skewness became negative after etching and kurtosis tended to 3 with longer etching time. Highest cell adhesion was achieved after 5-7 min of etching time. Wetting and cell adhesion were reduced on the highly rough surfaces obtained after 10-min etching time.

  1. Study of Wettability of Clayey Ceramic and Fluorescent Lamp Glass Waste Powders

    Morais, Alline Sardinha Cordeiro; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Ribeiro, Sebastião; Sardinha, Leonardo Carneiro; Vieira, Carlos Maurício Fontes

    The glass tube of spent fluorescent lamps is contaminated with mercury, which might be a serious hazard in the case of conventional recycling by melting with other glasses. A possible solution could be its incorporation into a clay body to fabricate common fired ceramics such as bricks and tiles. The objective of this work is to characterize a type of fluorescent lamp glass waste to be incorporated into a clayey ceramic. The characterization was performed in terms of wettability tests to evaluate the interaction between the surface of the clayey ceramic and glass waste as a function of the firing temperature. The results showed that the contact angle decreased with increasing temperature, reaching a value of 79°, at a temperature of 1100°C, but not sufficient to completely wet the ceramic. However, compatible chemical composition and reduction of porosity by the flow of soft glass waste between the clay particles favor the consolidation of the ceramics structure above 900°C.

  2. Aging effects on the microstructure, surface characteristics and wettability of Cu pretinned with Sn-Pb solders

    Linch, Heidi Sue [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This study investigates effects of aging in air and argon at 170 C on Cu coupons which were pretinned with 75Sn-25Pb, 8Sn-92Pb, and 5Sn-95Pb solders. Coatings were applied using electroplating or hot dipping techniques. The coating thickness was controlled between 3 to 3μm and the specimens were aged for 0 hours, 2 hours, 24 hours and 2 weeks. Wetting balance tests were used to evaluate the wettability of the test specimens. Microstructural development was evaluated using X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray and Auger spectroscopy, as well as optical and scanning electron microscopy. The wetting behavior of the test specimens is interpreted with respect to observed microstructural changes and as a function of aging time, solder composition, and processing conditions.

  3. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  4. Coal economics and taxation

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain opening remarks, the luncheon and dinner addresses, list of delegates and the papers presented at the four sessions on Coal Mines cost money - for what.; Coal mines cost money - Where the money comes from; taxation and royalty policies; and the coal industry view on operating costs. Sixteen papers are abstracted separately.

  5. Prospect of coal liquefaction in Indonesia

    Hartiniati; Dasuki, A.S.; Artanto, Yu.; Sulaksono, D.; Gunanjar

    1997-01-01

    With the current known oil reserves of about 11 billion barrel and annual production of approximately 500 million barrel, the country's oil reserves will be depleted by 2010, and Indonesia would have become net oil importer if no major oil fields be found somewhere in the archipelago. Under such circumstances the development of new sources of liquid fuel becomes a must, and coal liquefaction can be one possible solution for the future energy problem in Indonesia, particularly in the transportation sector due to the availability of coal in huge amount. This paper present the prospect of coal liquefaction in Indonesia and look at the possibility of integrating the process with HTR as a heat supplier. Evaluation of liquidability of several low grade Indonesian coals will also be presented. Coal from South Banko-Tanjung Enim is found to be one of the most suitable coal for liquefaction. Several studies show that an advanced coal liquefaction technology recently developed has the potential to reduce not only the environmental impact but also the production cost. The price of oil produced in the year 2000 is expected to reach US $ 17.5 ∼ 19.2/barrel and this will compete with the current oil price. Not much conclusion can be drawn from the idea of integrating HTR with coal liquefaction plant due to limited information available. (author). 7 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Time dependent wettability of graphite upon ambient exposure: The role of water adsorption

    Amadei, Carlo A.; Lai, Chia-Yun; Heskes, Daan; Chiesa, Matteo

    2014-08-01

    We report the temporal evolution of the wettability of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) exposed to environmental conditions. Macroscopic wettability is investigated by static and dynamic contact angles (SCA and DCA) obtaining values comparable to the ones presented in the literature. SCA increases from ˜68° to ˜90° during the first hour of exposure after cleaving, whereas DCA is characterized by longer-scale (24 h) time evolution. We interpret these results in light of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicates that the evolution of the HOPG wettability is due to adsorption of molecules from the surrounding atmosphere. This hypothesis is further confirmed by nanoscopic observations obtained by atomic force microscope (AFM)-based force spectroscopy, which monitor the evolution of surface properties with a spatial resolution superior to macroscopic experiments. Moreover, we observe that the results of macro- and nanoscale measurements evolve in similar fashion with time and we propose a quantitative correlation between SCA and AFM measurements. Our results suggest that the cause of the transition in the wettability of HOPG is due to the adsorption of hydrocarbon contaminations and water molecules from the environment. This is corroborated by annealing the HOPG is vacuum conditions at 150°, allowing the desorption of molecules on the surface, and thus re-establishing the initial macro and nano surface properties. Our findings can be used in the interpretation of the wettability of more complicated systems derived from HOPG (i.e., graphene).

  7. Time dependent wettability of graphite upon ambient exposure: The role of water adsorption

    Amadei, Carlo A.; Lai, Chia-Yun; Heskes, Daan; Chiesa, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    We report the temporal evolution of the wettability of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) exposed to environmental conditions. Macroscopic wettability is investigated by static and dynamic contact angles (SCA and DCA) obtaining values comparable to the ones presented in the literature. SCA increases from ∼68° to ∼90° during the first hour of exposure after cleaving, whereas DCA is characterized by longer-scale (24 h) time evolution. We interpret these results in light of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicates that the evolution of the HOPG wettability is due to adsorption of molecules from the surrounding atmosphere. This hypothesis is further confirmed by nanoscopic observations obtained by atomic force microscope (AFM)-based force spectroscopy, which monitor the evolution of surface properties with a spatial resolution superior to macroscopic experiments. Moreover, we observe that the results of macro- and nanoscale measurements evolve in similar fashion with time and we propose a quantitative correlation between SCA and AFM measurements. Our results suggest that the cause of the transition in the wettability of HOPG is due to the adsorption of hydrocarbon contaminations and water molecules from the environment. This is corroborated by annealing the HOPG is vacuum conditions at 150°, allowing the desorption of molecules on the surface, and thus re-establishing the initial macro and nano surface properties. Our findings can be used in the interpretation of the wettability of more complicated systems derived from HOPG (i.e., graphene)

  8. Neutron-induced modifications on Hostaphan and Makrofol wettability and etching behaviors

    El-Sayed, D.; El-Saftawy, A.A.; Abd El Aal, S.A.; Fayez-Hassan, M.; Al-Abyad, M.; Mansour, N.A.; Seddik, U.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the nature of polymers used as nuclear detectors is crucial to enhance their behaviors. In this work, the induced modifications in wettability and etching properties of Hostaphan and Makrofol polymers irradiated by different fluences of thermal neutrons are investigated. The wetting properties are studied by contact angle technique which showed the spread out of various liquids over the irradiated polymers surfaces (wettability enhanced). This wetting behavior is attributed to the induced changes in surface free energy (SFE), morphology, roughness, structure, hardness, and chemistry. SFE values are calculated by three different models and found to increase after neutrons irradiation associated with differences depending on the used model. These differences result from the intermolecular interactions in the liquid/polymer system. Surface morphology and roughness of both polymers showed drastic changes after irradiation. Additionally, surface structure and hardness of pristine and irradiated polymers were discussed and correlated to the surface wettability improvements. The changes in surface chemistry are examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which indicate an increase in surface polarity due to the formation of polar groups. The irradiated polymers etching characteristics and activation energies are discussed as well. Lastly, it is evident that thermal neutrons show efficiency in improving surface wettability and etching properties of Hostaphan and Makrofol in a controlled way. - Highlights: • Neutrons radiation used to modify Hostaphan and Makrofol polymer wetting behavior. • Tailoring surface structure, topography and chemistry control its wettability. • Bulk etching rate and activation energy improved after neutrons irradiation.

  9. Effect of Extreme Wettability on Platelet Adhesion on Metallic Implants: From Superhydrophilicity to Superhydrophobicity.

    Moradi, Sona; Hadjesfandiari, Narges; Toosi, Salma Fallah; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G

    2016-07-13

    In order to design antithrombotic implants, the effect of extreme wettability (superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity) on the biocompatibility of the metallic substrates (stainless steel and titanium) was investigated. The wettability of the surface was altered by chemical treatments and laser ablation methods. The chemical treatments generated different functionality groups and chemical composition as evident from XPS analysis. The micro/nanopatterning by laser ablation resulted in three different pattern geometry and different surface roughness and consequently wettability. The patterned surface were further modified with chemical treatments to generate a wide range of surface wettability. The influence of chemical functional groups, pattern geometry, and surface wettability on protein adsorption and platelet adhesion was studied. On chemically treated flat surfaces, the type of hydrophilic treatment was shown to be a contributing factor that determines the platelet adhesion, since the hydrophilic oxidized substrates exhibit less platelet adhesion in comparison to the control untreated or acid treated surfaces. Also, the surface morphology, surface roughness, and superhydrophobic character of the surfaces are contributing factors to platelet adhesion on the surface. Our results show that superhydrophobic cauliflower-like patterns are highly resistant to platelet adhesion possibly due to the stability of Cassie-Baxter state for this pattern compared to others. Our results also show that simple surface treatments on metals offer a novel way to improve the hemocompatibility of metallic substrates.

  10. Influence of Aggregate Wettability with Different Lithology Aggregates on Concrete Drying Shrinkage

    Yuanchen Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlation of the wettability of different lithology aggregates and the drying shrinkage of concrete materials is studied, and some influential factors such as wettability and wetting angle are analyzed. A mercury porosimeter is used to measure the porosities of different lithology aggregates accurately, and the pore size ranges that significantly affect the drying shrinkage of different lithology aggregate concretes are confirmed. The pore distribution curve of the different coarse aggregates is also measured through a statistical method, and the contact angle of different coarse aggregates and concrete is calculated according to the linear fitting relationship. Research shows that concrete strength is determined by aggregate strength. Aggregate wettability is not directly correlated with concrete strength, but wettability significantly affects concrete drying shrinkage. In all types’ pores, the greatest impacts on wettability are capillary pores and gel pores, especially for the pores of the size locating 2.5–50 nm and 50–100 nm two ranges.

  11. Time dependent wettability of graphite upon ambient exposure: The role of water adsorption

    Amadei, Carlo A.; Lai, Chia-Yun; Heskes, Daan; Chiesa, Matteo, E-mail: mchiesa@masdar.ac.ae [Laboratory for Energy and NanoScience (LENS), Institute Center for Future Energy (iFES), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2014-08-28

    We report the temporal evolution of the wettability of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) exposed to environmental conditions. Macroscopic wettability is investigated by static and dynamic contact angles (SCA and DCA) obtaining values comparable to the ones presented in the literature. SCA increases from ∼68° to ∼90° during the first hour of exposure after cleaving, whereas DCA is characterized by longer-scale (24 h) time evolution. We interpret these results in light of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicates that the evolution of the HOPG wettability is due to adsorption of molecules from the surrounding atmosphere. This hypothesis is further confirmed by nanoscopic observations obtained by atomic force microscope (AFM)-based force spectroscopy, which monitor the evolution of surface properties with a spatial resolution superior to macroscopic experiments. Moreover, we observe that the results of macro- and nanoscale measurements evolve in similar fashion with time and we propose a quantitative correlation between SCA and AFM measurements. Our results suggest that the cause of the transition in the wettability of HOPG is due to the adsorption of hydrocarbon contaminations and water molecules from the environment. This is corroborated by annealing the HOPG is vacuum conditions at 150°, allowing the desorption of molecules on the surface, and thus re-establishing the initial macro and nano surface properties. Our findings can be used in the interpretation of the wettability of more complicated systems derived from HOPG (i.e., graphene)

  12. [A case of carbon monoxide poisoning by explosion of coal mine presenting as visual agnosia: re-evaluation after 40 years].

    Takaiwa, Akiko; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Nomura, Takuo; Shida, Kenshiro; Taniwaki, Takayuki

    2005-11-01

    We re-evaluated a case of carbon monoxide poisoning presenting as visual agnosia who had been injured by explosion of Miike-Mikawa coal mine 40 years ago. In an early stage, his main neuropsychological symptoms were visual agnosia, severe anterograde amnesia, alexia, agraphia, constructional apraxia, left hemispatial neglect and psychic paralysis of gaze, in addition to pyramidal and extra pyramidal signs. At the time of re-evaluation after 40 years, he still showed visual agnosia associated with agraphia and constructional apraxia. Concerning visual agnosia, recognition of the real object was preserved, while recognition of object photographs and picture was impaired. Thus, this case was considered to have picture agnosia as he could not recognize the object by pictorial cues on the second dimensional space. MRI examination revealed low signal intensity lesions and cortical atrophy in the bilateral parieto-occipital lobes on T1-weighted images. Therefore, the bilateral parieto-occipital lesions are likely to be responsible for his picture agnosia.

  13. A case of carbon monoxide poisoning by explosion of coal mine presenting as visual agnosia: re-evaluation after 40 years

    Takaiwa, A.; Yamashita, K.; Nomura, T.; Shida, K.; Taniwaki, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Science

    2005-11-15

    We re-evaluated a case of carbon monoxide poisoning presenting as visual agnosia who had been injured by explosion of Miike-Mikawa coal mine 40 years ago. In an early stage, his main neuropsychological symptoms were visual agnosia, severe anterograde amnesia, alexia, agraphia, constructional apraxia, left hemispatial neglect and psychic paralysis of gaze, in addition to pyramidal and extra pyramidal signs. At the time of re-evaluation after 40 years, he still showed visual agnosia associated with agraphia and constructional apraxia. Concerning visual agnosia, recognition of the real object was preserved, while recognition of object photographs and picture was impaired. Thus, this case was considered to have picture agnosia as he could not recognize the object by pictorial cues on the second dimensional space. MRI examination revealed low signal intensity lesions and cortical atrophy in the bilateral parieto-occipital lobes on T1-weighted images. Therefore, the bilateral parieto-occipital lesions are likely to be responsible for his picture agnosia.

  14. Control and evaluation methodology of reclaimed surfaces in coal mines; Metodologia para el Seguimiento y Evaluacion de Superficies Restauradas en Minas de Carbon

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the project has been to establish a control and evaluation methodology of reclaimed surfaces in coal mines, ash dumps,... etc. to be applied especially in locations with limited availability of ton soil, and to be used by mining companies to establish an internal quality control of the reclamation carried out. This methodology has been developed based on the evaluation of the results obtained from the reclamation that Endesa carries out at the Puentes mine. An operating and simplified method which may be adopted by smaller sites has been developed. This project has been carried out during the period 1994-1996 and includes a study about the physicochemical conditions of reclaimed surfaces, soil organisms study and about vegetation productivity associated to micorrizae. The conclusions and recommendations obtained include reclamation techniques (study and management of the deposit dumped, top soil management, addition of basic correctors, fertilization, top soil and maintenance works) and reclaimed surface control techniques (physicochemical soil conditions, soil organisms and vegetation). (Author)

  15. Self-scrubbing coal

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  16. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ronald A. Ratti

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  17. Liquid fuels from Canadian coals

    Taylor, G. W.

    1979-06-15

    In Canadian energy planning, the central issue of security of supply must be addressed by developing flexible energy systems that make the best possible use of available resources. For liquid fuel production, oil sands and heavy oil currently appear more attractive than coal or biomass as alternatives to conventional crude oil, but the magnitude of their economic advantage is uncertain. The existence of large resources of oil sands, heavy oils, natural gas and low-sulfur coals in Western Canada creates a unique opportunity for Canadians to optimize the yield from these resources and develop new technology. Many variations on the three basic liquefaction routes - hydroliquefaction, pyrolysis and synthesis - are under investigation around the world, and the technology is advancing rapidly. Each process has merit under certain circumstances. Surface-mineable subbituminous and lignite coals of Alberta and Saskatchewan appear to offer the best combination of favorable properties, deposit size and mining cost, but other deposits in Alberta, Nova Scotia and British Columbia should not be ruled out. The research effort in Canada is small by world standards, but it is unlikely that technology could be imported that is ideally suited to Canadian conditions. Importing technology is undesirable: innovation or process modification to suit Canadian coals and markets is preferred; coprocessing of coal liquids with bitumen or heavy oils would be a uniquely Canadian, exportable technology. The cost of synthetic crude from coal in Canada is uncertain, estimates ranging from $113 to $220/m/sup 3/ ($18 to $35/bbl). Existing economic evaluations vary widely depending on assumptions, and can be misleading. Product quality is an important consideration.

  18. Coal Data: A reference

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  19. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of

  20. Coal and public perceptions

    Porter, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  1. Indonesian coal export potential

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  2. Coal; Le charbon

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  3. Washability of Australian coals

    Whitmore, R L

    1979-06-01

    Australian coals tend to be young in geological age and high in ash by world standards; preparation of the coal before marketing is almost universal. On the basis of float and sink data from 39 locations in the eastern Australian coalfields, the coals are place in four categories representing increasing difficulty in their washability characteristics. These seem to be related neither to the geological age nor the geographical position of the deposit and Hunter Valley coals, for example, span all categories. The influence of crushing on the washability of Australian coals is briefly considered and from limited data it is concluded to be appreciably smaller than for British or North American coals. A strategy for the float and sink analysis of Australian coals is proposed and the influence of washability characteristics on current trends in the selection of separating processes for coking and steaming products is discussed.

  4. Surface free energy predominates in cell adhesion to hydroxyapatite through wettability.

    Nakamura, Miho; Hori, Naoko; Ando, Hiroshi; Namba, Saki; Toyama, Takeshi; Nishimiya, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2016-05-01

    The initial adhesion of cells to biomaterials is critical in the regulation of subsequent cell behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate a mechanism through which the surface wettability of biomaterials can be improved and determine the effects of biomaterial surface characteristics on cellular behaviors. We investigated the surface characteristics of various types of hydroxyapatite after sintering in different atmospheres and examined the effects of various surface characteristics on cell adhesion to study cell-biomaterial interactions. Sintering atmosphere affects the polarization capacity of hydroxyapatite by changing hydroxide ion content and grain size. Compared with hydroxyapatite sintered in air, hydroxyapatite sintered in saturated water vapor had a higher polarization capacity that increased surface free energy and improved wettability, which in turn accelerated cell adhesion. We determined the optimal conditions of hydroxyapatite polarization for the improvement of surface wettability and acceleration of cell adhesion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A terahertz transmission imaging based approach for liquid alcohol wettability investigation

    Huang, Hui; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhang, Bo; Su, Yunyun; Jiang, Weixiang; Cai, Bin; You, Guanjun; Ma, Yan

    2018-03-01

    By using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), the transmission spectral images of a series of aliphatic monohydric liquid alcohols were investigated in this work. The image gray value indicated the non-uniform distribution of the liquid. After noise reduction, the depth distribution was computed from the image content, which depended on the wettability of the container surface by the liquid. Then the volume of the liquid crept up to the container surface was compared quantitatively. Our result showed that the surface wettability of the PS container surface by the liquids increased with the alcohol alkyl chain increasing, which was verified by the contact angle of the liquid and the surface. The study indicated that the THz image might offer a potential technique for detecting the wettability of liquid directly without an additional contact angle experiment.

  6. Fabrication of a wettability-gradient surface on copper by screen-printing techniques

    Huang, Ding-Jun; Leu, Tzong-Shyng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a screen-printing technique is utilized to fabricate a wettability-gradient surface on a copper substrate. The pattern definitions on the copper surface were freely fabricated to define the regions with different wettabilities, for which the printing definition technique was developed as an alternative to the existing costly photolithography techniques. This fabrication process using screen printing in tandem with chemical modification methods can easily realize an excellent wettability-gradient surface with superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity. Surface analyses were performed to characterize conditions in some fabrication steps. A water droplet movement sequence is provided to clearly demonstrate the droplet-driving effectiveness of the fabricated gradient surface. The droplet-driving efficiency offers a promising solution for condensation heat transfer applications in the foreseeable future. (paper)

  7. A numerical investigation of the effect of surface wettability on the boiling curve.

    Hua-Yi Hsu

    Full Text Available Surface wettability is recognized as playing an important role in pool boiling and the corresponding heat transfer curve. In this work, a systematic study of pool boiling heat transfer on smooth surfaces of varying wettability (contact angle range of 5° - 180° has been conducted and reported. Based on numerical simulations, boiling curves are calculated and boiling dynamics in each regime are studied using a volume-of-fluid method with contact angle model. The calculated trends in critical heat flux and Leidenfrost point as functions of surface wettability are obtained and compared with prior experimental and theoretical predictions, giving good agreement. For the first time, the effect of contact angle on the complete boiling curve is shown. It is demonstrated that the simulation methodology can be used for studying pool boiling and related dynamics and providing more physical insights.

  8. Manipulating surface wettability and oil absorbency of diatomite depending on processing and ambient conditions

    Özen, İlhan; Şimşek, Süleyman; Okyay, Gamze

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a diatomite sample, which is a natural inorganic mineral with inherently high water and oil absorption capacity, was subjected to grinding before surface modification. Afterwards, the diatomite surface was modified via facile methods using a fluorocarbon (FC) chemical and stearic acid (SA) in addition to the sol-gel fluorosilanization (FS) process. The water and oil wettability, and oil absorbency properties of the unmodified and modified diatomites were investigated in addition to diatomite characterizations such as chemical content, surface area, particle size distribution, morphology, and modification efficiency. It was revealed that the wettability was changed completely depending on the surface modification agent and the media used, while the oil absorbency property surprisingly did not change. On the other hand, the oil absorbency was worsened by the grinding process, whereas the wettability was not affected.

  9. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  10. Developing new technology of coal coking

    Erkin, L.I.; Nefedov, P.Ya.

    1981-03-01

    This paper characterizes types of coke (grain size, compression strength, abrasion, porosity) used by: blast furnaces, shaft furnaces, ferroalloys and phosphorus production, and ore agglomeration. Development of formed metallurgical coke production on the basis of technologies worked out by the Eastern Research Scientific Institute for Coal Chemistry is analyzed. The following phases in the investigations are stressed: optimization of coal blends (increasing proportion of coals with poor caking properties, pressing briquets, carbonization, temperature distribution and temperature control, using heat emitted by hot coke for coal preheating (heat consumption of coking is reduced to 200 kcal/kg). On the basis of technology developed and tested by VUKhIN formed coke consisting of 60% G6 coal and 40% 2SS coal has been produced. Using the coke in blast furnaces increases furnace capacity by 5% and reduces coke consumption in a furnace by 2.6%. It is suggested that wide use of the proposed technology of formed metallurgical coke production in the Kuzbass (using coals with poor caking properties from surface mines) would increase coke production of the region to 50 Mt for a year. technology of producing formed foundry coke from: 80 to 86% anthracites, semianthracites and coals with poor caking properties, 5 to 10% coking coal, and 8% binder is evaluated. Formed foundry coke produced from the blend reduces coke consumption in a foundry by 25 to 30% and increases cast iron temperature by 20 to 50/sup 0/C. Technologies of producing coke for phosphorus industry by continuous coking of coals difficult to coke in vertical coke ovens and production of coke for ore agglomeration are also discussed. (In Russian)

  11. Absorption mechanism study of benzoic acid on calcite. Influence on the wettability; Etude du mecanisme d`absorption de l`acide benzoique sur la calcite. Incidence sur la mouillabilite

    Legens, Ch

    1997-12-03

    A pure carbonate rock is strongly water-wet whereas oil accumulations study shows that most of carbonate reservoirs are oil-wet or of mixed-wettability. This is one of the main difficulties to extract crude oil. This change of behavior is due to the adsorption of some crude oil compounds on the mineral surface. We have mainly studied the interactions between acid molecules by adsorption on a calcite powder in an organic phase (benzoic acid and lauric acid) and in an aqueous phase (benzoic acid and lauric sodium salt). The technics which enabled us to define and characterize adsorption are thermogravimetry infrared diffuse reflection and thermal analysis with controlled kinetic linked to a mass spectrometer. Molecular modelling calculations have completed these analysis. It has been showed that when crude oil fills the biggest pores of the reservoir rock, the aqueous film is unstable and acids adsorb via ionic bonds on mineral calcium ions. Wettability is evaluated thanks to contact angle measurements of a water droplet deposited on a compacted powder pellet. Calcite wettability changes were all the greater as hydro-carbonated chains were longer, as it confers molecule hydrophobia. It has been also investigated acid molecules diffusion from the organic to the aqueous phase which saturates the smallest pores. Molecules which are able to diffuse from the first to the second medium do not adsorb on the surface. As a consequence, carbonate rock wettability changes require a direct contact between crude oil and mineral that involves aqueous film instability. (author) 128 refs.

  12. Impact of roughness, wettability and hydrodynamic conditions on the incrustation on stainless steel surfaces

    Bogacz, Wojciech; Lemanowicz, Marcin; Al-Rashed, Mohsen H.; Nakonieczny, Damian; Piotrowski, Tomasz; Wójcik, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Steel plates (X5CrNi18-10) with different roughness and wettability were prepared. • Incrustation of MgSO 4 ·7H 2 O under laminar flow (Re = 59–178) was investigated. • Influence of surface properties and fluid velocity on incrustation was found. • Wettability and surface roughness cannot be considered separately. • Analysis of heat transfer and incrustation time-lapse videos are presented. - Abstract: The goal of this work was to investigate the influence of the stainless steel surface roughness and wettability on incrustation of MgSO 4 ·7H 2 O from aqueous solutions and resulting heat transfer resistance. The experiments were done for laminar flow (Re = 59–178) which is characteristic for regions of apparatus where fouling usually begin. A series of steel plates (X5CrNi18-10) were prepared and used as a heat transfer surfaces. Their properties, i.e. roughness, wettability and elementary composition of surfaces were determined. The experiments were done using specially designed flow cell equipped with Peltier element. Each incrustation measurement lasted for two hours, during which heat transfer resistance was measured as a function of time. After the experiments the mass of crystalline deposit was weighted. It was proved that wettability as well as surface roughness cannot be considered separately in the case of incrustation phenomenon. The knowledge of surface roughness is insufficient due to the fact, that it is possible to obtain surfaces with similar roughness but substantially different wettability for the same material.

  13. Influence of biochar and terra preta substrates on wettability and erodibility of soils

    Smetanova, A.; Dotterweich, M.; Diehl, D.; Ulrich, U.; Fohrer, N.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar (BC) and terra preta substrates (TPS) have recently been promoted as soil amendments suitable for soil stabilization, soil amelioration and long-term carbon sequestration. BC is a carbon-enriched substance produced by thermal decomposition of organic material. TPS is composed of liquid and solid organic matter, including BC, altered by acid-lactic fermentation. Their effect on wettability, soil erodibility and nutrient discharge through overland flow was studied by laboratory experiments. At water contents between 0 and 100% BC is water repellent, while TPS changes from a wettable into a repellent state. The 5 and 10 vol % mixtures of BC and 10 and 20 vol% mixtures of TPS with sand remain mainly wettable during drying but repellency maxima are shifted to higher water contents with respect to pure sand and are mainly of subcritical nature. The runoff response was dominated by infiltration properties of the substrates rather than their wettability.Only one mixtures (20% TPS) produced more runoff than sandy-loamy soil on a 15% slope at an intensity of 25 mm•h-1. The 10% BC decreased runoff by up to 40%. At higher rainfall intensities (45 and 55 mm•h-1) the 10% TPS7 was up to 35% less erodible than 10% BC. Despite the TPS containing more nutrients, nutrient discharge varied between types of nutrients, slopes, rainfall intensities and mixtures. The application of a 1 cm layer onto the soil surface instead of 10% mixtures is not recommended due to high nutrient concentrations in the runoff and the wettability of pure substrates. The usage of 10% BC in lowland areas with low frequency and low-intensity precipitation and 10% TPS7 in areas with higher rainfall intensities appears to be appropriate and commendable according to current results. However, together with reversibility of repellency, it needs to undergo further examination in the field under different environmental and land use conditions Key words: biochar, terra preta substrate, wettability

  14. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Shridharani, K.G.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1983-02-15

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260/sup 0/ C to 315/sup 0/ C in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275/sup 0/ C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350/sup 0/ C.

  15. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  16. Coal use and coal technology study (KIS)

    Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.; Gerbers, D.; Lako, P.; Rouw, M.; Tiemersma, D.N.

    1991-11-01

    The title study aims to assess the possible role for coal in the Netherlands energy system in the first decades of the next century and the part new coal conversion technologies will play under various conditions. The conditions considered relate to (sectoral) energy demand derived from national scenarios in an international context, to energy prices, to environmental constraints (acidification, solid waste management and disposal) and to the future role for nuclear power production. Targets for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are not explicitly included, but resulting CO 2 emissions are calculated for each variant case. The part that coal can play in the Dutch energy supply is calculated and analyzed by means

  17. Economic and environmental evaluation of coal-and-biomass-to-liquids-and-electricity plants equipped with carbon capture and storage (data for figures and tables)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data used in the manuscript's tables and figures. Most data represent the modeled optimal capacity of the coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuels-and-electricity (CBTLE)...

  18. Theoretical model of droplet wettability on a low-surface-energy solid under the influence of gravity.

    Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    The wettability of droplets on a low surface energy solid is evaluated experimentally and theoretically. Water-ethanol binary mixture drops of several volumes are used. In the experiment, the droplet radius, height, and contact angle are measured. Analytical equations are derived that incorporate the effect of gravity for the relationships between the droplet radius and height, radius and contact angle, and radius and liquid surface energy. All the analytical equations display good agreement with the experimental data. It is found that the fundamental wetting behavior of the droplet on the low surface energy solid can be predicted by our model which gives geometrical information of the droplet such as the contact angle, droplet radius, and height from physical values of liquid and solid.

  19. Evaluation of occupational exposure in a underground coal mine by environmental measures of 222Rn and in vivo measurements of 210Pb in bones

    Dantas, A.L.A.; Veiga, L.H.S.; Dantas, B.M.; Melo, V.P.

    2005-01-01

    A radiological survey performed in an underground coal mining in the State of Parana, southern Brazil, has indicated the occurrence of high levels of concentration of radon and its decay products. The levels of 222 Rn concentration measured in the basement of this mine, in the period from 1999 to 2003 ranged from 2000 to 7000 Bq m -3 . It is estimated, for these workers, an average annual exposure of 2.1 WLM ranging from 0.2 to 7.2 WLM. A retrospective mortality study conducted with 2856 miners of this mining indicated a risk of lung cancer mortality greater than the one expected for the male population of the State. In this study the cumulative exposure to radon cannot be estimated since there was no radon measures in other periods. In this way, the cumulative exposure can be evaluated by through 210 Pb activities monitored in the skeleton. The measures of 210 Pb in skeleton ranged from 83 to 164 Bq, indicating that these workers were significantly exposed to 222 Rn. These results show that cumulative exposure to radon has been higher than estimated based on recent measures of the activity concentration of radon in the workplace and is compatible with the risk determined in the epidemiological study

  20. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to improve understanding of the wettability alteration of mixed-wet rocks that results from contact with the components of synthetic oil-based drilling and completion fluids formulated to meet the needs of arctic drilling; (2) to investigate cleaning methods to reverse the wettability alteration of mixed-wet cores caused by contact with these SBM components; and (3) to develop new approaches to restoration of wetting that will permit the use of cores drilled with SBM formulations for valid studies of reservoir properties.

  1. Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development; Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications

    Hollis, Rebecca

    2013-03-31

    Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in 2005 to study and develop a competing technology for use in future fossil-fueled power generation facilities that could operate with near zero emissions. CES’s background in oxy-fuel (O-F) rocket technology lead to the award of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42645, “Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development,” where CES was to first evaluate the potential of these O-F power cycles, then develop the detailed design of a commercial-scale O-F combustor for use in these clean burning fossil-fueled plants. Throughout the studies, CES found that in order to operate at competitive cycle efficiencies a high-temperature intermediate pressure turbine was required. This led to an extension of the Agreement for, “Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications” where CES was to also develop an intermediate-pressure O-F turbine (OFT) that could be deployed in O-F industrial plants that capture and sequester >99% of produced CO2, at competitive cycle efficiencies using diverse fuels. The following report details CES’ activities from October 2005 through March 2013, to evaluate O-F power cycles, develop and validate detailed designs of O-F combustors (main and reheat), and to design, manufacture, and test a commercial-scale OFT, under the three-phase Cooperative Agreement.

  2. Effects of increased rock strata stresses on coal gettability

    Sikora, W; Skoczynski, W [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes effects of rock strata pressure on a coal seam, its cracking and on energy consumption of coal cutting by shearer loaders and coal plows. Effects of mining depth on stresses in a coal seam rib side were analyzed using formulae developed by Budryk, Chudek and Borecki. Formulae used for selecting optimum yield strength of powered supports at working faces are reviewed. Four types of spontaneous separation of coal seam blocks caused by rock strata stresses are evaluated: layers parallel to the face with constant thickness, coal blocks with thickness decreasing in the direction of the floor or roof (blocks with a planar triangle cross-cut), blocks situated in the seam layer adjacent to the floor or roof. Causes of each type of coal seam separation are analyzed. 9 refs.

  3. Heavy metal distribution in soils near Palapye, Botswana: An evaluation of the environmental impact of coal mining and combustion on soils in a semi-arid region

    Zhai, M.; Totolo, O.; Modisi, M.P.; Finkelman, R.B.; Kelesitse, S.M.; Menyatso, M.

    2009-01-01

    Morupule Colliery near Palapye in eastern Botswana is the only coalmine in production in Botswana at present. Its coal is mainly used in the nearby coal-fired Morupule Power Station, which generates approximately 1,000 GWh of electricity per annum. After more than 30 years mining and more than 20 years of combustion, the sedimentation of outlet fly ash from the Morupule Power Station has increased concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn and As by 13, 2.5, 16 and 5 ppm, respectively, in the fine portion (<53 ??m) of surface soils for approximately 9 km downwind. Elements that have higher concentrations in coal have stronger small-particle association during coal combustion and are less mobile in surface soils, thus showing stronger contaminations in surface soils around the coal-fired plant. Although the degree of contamination of Cr, Ni, Zn and As from coal combustion in the Palapye area at present is low, it is necessary to monitor concentrations of these elements in surface soils routinely in the future. This study also reveals moderate Pb and Zn contaminations in the Palapye area. The former is due to the use of leaded petroleum in motor vehicle traffic and the latter is mainly due to the use of galvanized iron sheets in construction. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. Rock Expansion Boundary Anti-Permeability Strength and Its Application in the Coal Mine Floor Water Inrush Evaluation%岩石膨胀界限抗渗强度及在底板突水评价中应用

    段宏飞; 姜振泉; 王一栋; 邵明喜; 赵丽娟; 朱前林

    2012-01-01

    在岩石全应力应变伺服渗透试验的基础上,提出了岩石膨胀界限抗渗强度的概念,并在此基础上建立了底板突水评价模型,模型考虑了底板岩层有效隔水层厚度、岩性、岩体完整程度以及膨胀界限抗渗强度并详细分析了各参数的取值,以兖矿集团杨村煤矿17煤及其2702工作面突水评价为例,证实了以膨胀界限抗渗强度为基础的底板突水评价模型在突水评价上具有可行性.%To solve the difficulties in coal mine floor water inrush evaluation, on the basis of the servo-controlled permeability test of rock in the complete stress-strain process, we proposed the concept of rock expansion boundary anti-permeability strength, and established a theoretical evaluation model of floor water inrush. In the model, several factors, such as the floor aquifuge effective thickness, lithology, rock mass integrity, and expansion boundary anti-permeability strength were considered, and the taking values of all factors were described in detail. Taking the No. 17 coal seam and 2702 working face in Yangcun coal mine, Yanzhou mining group as an example, it proves that the evaluation model based on the expansive boundary anti-permeability strength is feasible to evaluate the coal mine floor water inrush.

  5. Clean coal technologies

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  6. Coal prices rise

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  7. South Blackwater Coal`s maintenance program

    Nash, J. [South Blackwater Coal Limited, Blackwater, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-09-01

    The South Blackwater operation consists of two opencut mining areas and two underground mines (Laleham and Kenmure) near Blackwater in central Queensland, all of which supply coal to a central coal preparation plant. South Blackwater Coal Ltd. recently developed a maintenance improvement programme, described in this article. The programme involved implementation systems of key performance indicators (KPIs), benchmaking, condition monitoring, work planning and control, failure analysis and maintenance audit. Some improvements became almost immediately apparent, others were quite gradual. Major results included: improved availability (and reliability) of all opencast fleets, improvements in rear dump availability; reduced maintenance man-hours for opencast fleets; and increased availability of the coal handling and preparation plant. The paper is an edited version of that presented at the `Maintenance in mining conference` 16-19 March 1998, held in Bali, Indonesia. 4 figs., 2 photos.

  8. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNERS

    The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

  9. A novel method for estimating methane emissions from underground coal mines: The Yanma coal mine, China

    Ji, Zhong-Min; Chen, Zhi-Jian; Pan, Jie-Nan; Niu, Qing-He

    2017-12-01

    As the world's largest coal producer and consumer, China accounts for a relatively high proportion of methane emissions from coal mines. Several estimation methods had been established for the coal mine methane (CMM) emission. However, with large regional differences, various reservoir formation types of coalbed methane (CBM) and due to the complicated geological conditions in China, these methods may be deficient or unsuitable for all the mining areas (e.g. Jiaozuo mining area). By combing the CMM emission characteristics and considering the actual situation of methane emissions from underground coal mine, we found that the methane pre-drainage is a crucial reason creating inaccurate evaluating results for most estimation methods. What makes it so essential is the extensive pre-drainage quantity and its irrelevance with annual coal production. Accordingly, the methane releases were divided into two categories: methane pre-drainage and methane release during mining. On this basis, a pioneering method for estimating CMM emissions was proposed. Taking the Yanma coal mine in the Jiaozuo mining area as a study case, the evaluation method of the pre-drainage methane quantity was established after the correlation analysis between the pre-drainage rate and time. Thereafter, the mining activity influence factor (MAIF) was first introduced to reflect the methane release from the coal and rock seams around where affected by mining activity, and the buried depth was adopted as the predictor of the estimation for future methane emissions. It was verified in the six coal mines of Jiaozuo coalfield (2011) that the new estimation method has the minimum errors of 12.11%, 9.23%, 5.77%, -5.20%, -8.75% and 4.92% respectively comparing with other methods. This paper gives a further insight and proposes a more accurate evaluation method for the CMM emissions, especially for the coal seams with low permeability and strong tectonic deformation in methane outburst coal mines.

  10. Coal transportation road damage

    Burtraw, D.; Harrison, K.; Pawlowski, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  11. Altering Reservoir Wettability to Improve Production from Single Wells

    W. W. Weiss

    2006-09-30

    Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured and typically produce less than 10% original oil in place during primary recovery. Spontaneous imbibition has proven an important mechanism for oil recovery from fractured reservoirs, which are usually weak waterflood candidates. In some situations, chemical stimulation can promote imbibition of water to alter the reservoir wettability toward water-wetness such that oil is produced at an economic rate from the rock matrix into fractures. In this project, cores and fluids from five reservoirs were used in laboratory tests: the San Andres formation (Fuhrman Masho and Eagle Creek fields) in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico; and the Interlake, Stony Mountain, and Red River formations from the Cedar Creek Anticline in Montana and South Dakota. Solutions of nonionic, anionic, and amphoteric surfactants with formation water were used to promote waterwetness. Some Fuhrman Masho cores soaked in surfactant solution had improved oil recovery up to 38%. Most Eagle Creek cores did not respond to any of the tested surfactants. Some Cedar Creek anticline cores had good response to two anionic surfactants (CD 128 and A246L). The results indicate that cores with higher permeability responded better to the surfactants. The increased recovery is mainly ascribed to increased water-wetness. It is suspected that rock mineralogy is also an important factor. The laboratory work generated three field tests of the surfactant soak process in the West Fuhrman Masho San Andres Unit. The flawlessly designed tests included mechanical well clean out, installation of new pumps, and daily well tests before and after the treatments. Treatments were designed using artificial intelligence (AI) correlations developed from 23 previous surfactant soak treatments. The treatments were conducted during the last quarter of 2006. One of the wells produced a marginal volume of incremental oil through October. It is interesting to note that the field

  12. Coal comes clean

    Minchener, A.

    1991-01-01

    Coal's status as the dominant fuel for electricity generation is under threat because of concern over the environmental impacts of acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. All are produced when coal is burnt. Governments are therefore tightening the emission limits for fossil-fuel power plants. In the United Kingdom phased reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are planned. It will be the responsibility of the power generator to take the necessary steps to reduce the emissions. This will be done using a number of technologies which are explained and outlined briefly - flue gas desulfurization, separation of coal into high and low-sulphur coal, direct desulfurization of coal, circulating fluidised bed combustion, integrated-gasification combined cycle systems and topping cycles. All these technologies are aiming at cleaner, more efficient combustion of coal. (UK)

  13. Cuttability of coal

    Sikora, W

    1978-01-01

    The process of cutting dull M, dull bright MB, bright dull BM, and bright B coal under various compressive stress conditions was studied in laboratory tests. The efficiency of ploughs depends much more on the natural mining conditions than does that of shearer-loaders. For seams of medium workability, it is difficult to forecast whether ploughs will be successful. Cuttability tests are a good way of determining whether ploughs can be used. The effort necessary to cut coal in a stressed condition depends not only on such properties as the workability defined by the Protodyakonov index or compressive strength, but also, and mainly, on the petrographic structure and elastic properties of the coal. In bright coals with high elastic strain, and with BM and MB coals, a much greater increment of effort is necessary with increase in compressive stresses. The cuttability of dull coals from difficult mines was not very different.

  14. Coal tar in dermatology

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  15. Coal-to-liquid

    Cox, A.W.

    2006-03-15

    With crude oil prices rocketing, many of the oil poor, but coal rich countries are looking at coal-to-liquid as an alternative fuel stock. The article outlines the two main types of coal liquefaction technology: direct coal liquefaction and indirect coal liquefaction. The latter may form part of a co-production (or 'poly-generation') project, being developed in conjunction with IGCC generation projects, plus the production of other chemical feedstocks and hydrogen. The main part of the article, based on a 'survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research' reviews coal-to-liquids projects in progress in the following countries: Australia, China, India, New Zealand, the Philippines, Qatar and the US. 2 photos.

  16. Coal, culture and community

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  17. Coal contract cost reduction through resale of coal

    Simon, R.

    1990-01-01

    The weak coal market of the 1980's has enabled utilities and other users of coal to enjoy stable or falling prices for coal supplies. Falling prices for coal stimulated the renegotiation of numerous coal contracts in recent years, as buyers look to take advantage of lower fuel prices available in the marketplace. This paper examines the use of coal resale transactions as a means of reducing fuel costs, and analyzes the benefits and risks associated with such transactions

  18. Clean coal technologies

    Bourillon, C.

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 more than 3.4 billion tonnes of coal was produced, of which half was used to generate over 44 per cent of the world's electricity. The use of coal - and of other fossil fuels- presents several environmental problems such as emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO 2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into the atmosphere. This article reviews the measures now available to mitigate the environmental impacts of coal. (author)

  19. Coal geology and assessment of coal resources and reserves in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the final results of the first assessment of both coal resources and reserves for all significant coal beds in the entire Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The basin covers about 19,500 square miles, exclusive of the part of the basin within the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservations in Montana. The Powder River Basin, which contains the largest resources of low-sulfur, low-ash, subbituminous coal in the United States, is the single most important coal basin in the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey used a geology-based assessment methodology to estimate an original coal resource of about 1.16 trillion short tons for 47 coal beds in the Powder River Basin; in-place (remaining) resources are about 1.15 trillion short tons. This is the first time that all beds were mapped individually over the entire basin. A total of 162 billion short tons of recoverable coal resources (coal reserve base) are estimated at a 10:1 stripping ratio or less. An estimated 25 billion short tons of that coal reserve base met the definition of reserves, which are resources that can be economically produced at or below the current sales price at the time of the evaluation. The total underground coal resource in coal beds 10–20 feet thick is estimated at 304 billion short tons.

  20. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to