WorldWideScience

Sample records for coal unit trains

  1. No more coal-fired units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    According to Minister of the Environment Pekka Haavisto natural gas, bioenergy and renewables are the ways of responding to future base load power need. Greenhouse gas emissions using natural gas are around 60 % of those with coal. Increasing the share of generation accounted for by natural gas in the Nordic region is just as feasible in principle as elsewhere in Europe. A good proportion of new power stations elsewhere in the community are natural gas-fired. Vattenfall is planning a combined cycle station in the 700 - 900 MW range for Imatra, and Imatran Voima a 600 MW gas-fired unit for Inkoo. Replacing coal with natural gas is an essential part of efforts to stabile CO 2 emissions

  2. Comparative analysis of large biomass & coal co-utilization units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liszka, M.; Nowak, G.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Favrat, D.; Marechal, F.

    2010-01-01

    The co-utilization of coal and biomass in large power units is considered in many countries (e.g. Poland) as fast and effective way of increasing renewable energy share in the fuel mix. Such a method of biomass use is especially suitable for power systems where solid fuels (hard coal, lignite) are

  3. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  4. Coal Fields and Federal Lands of the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    1997-01-01

    The map depicts the relationship of coal and public lands in the conterminous U. S. Multiple GIS layers are being created for the purpose of deriving estimates of how much coal is owned and administered by the Federal government. Federal coal areas have a profound effect on land-management decisions. Regulatory agencies attempt to balance energy development with alternative land-use and environmental concerns. A GIS database of Federal lands used in energy resource assessments is being developed by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to integrate information on status of public land, and minerals owned by the Federal government with geologic information on coal resources, other spatial data, coal quality characteristics, and coal availability for development. Using national-scale data we estimate that approximately 60 percent of the area underlain by coal-bearing rocks in the conterminous United States are under Federal surface. Coal produced from Federal leases has tripled from about 12 percent of the total U.S. production in 1976 to almost 34 percent in 1995 (Energy Information Administration website ftp://ftp.eia.doe.gov/pub/coal/cia_95_tables/t13p01.txt). The reason for this increase is demand for low-sulfur coal for use in power plants and the fact that large reserves of this low-sulfur coal are in the western interior U.S., where the Federal government owns the rights to most of the coal reserves. The map was created using Arc/Info 7.0.3 on a UNIX system. The HPGL2 plot file for this map is available from the USGS Energy Resource Surveys Team from http://energy.cr.usgs.gov:8080/energy/coal.html.

  5. Do-it-yourself 'electric' coal trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines a recent phenomenon where the coal-burning utilities are investing in their own railroads to gain more control over their fuel transportation costs. Topics discussed include deciding to build, who should own the line after construction, who should operate the line, examining the options and the advantages and disadvantages of each

  6. Coal industry - problems and prospects. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddall, N

    1984-01-01

    Presidential Address by Sir Norman Siddall is presented which considers the problems and prospects facing the UK coal industry. The range of changes which business management is subject to are outlined together with the coal industry's response to these changes. Fluctuations in the energy market and the economy have resulted in a customer orientated approach to marketing, and improved efficiency throughout the industry. New technology has increased the efficiency of some aspects of operations but at the some time developments in the areas of industrial relations and public accountability have limited management's ability to respond to changes in the commercial environment.

  7. High tech conveyors unitize Selby coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-10-01

    Designs proposed by Anderson Strathclyde PLC and Cable Belt for single-flight conveyors to bring the output of the five Selby mines to the surface have both been developed by the UK National Coal Board. Both designs extend the limits of conveyor technology and are expected to economise on transport and longwalling costs. 4 references.

  8. Reserve reporting in the United States coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubert, Emily

    2012-01-01

    United States energy policymaking can be better supported with accurate and consistent data on coal reserves, both in the public and private sectors. In particular, reserve data for coal and other energy resources should be directly comparable so that decision-makers can easily understand the relationship among available resources. Long-term policy and investment choices regarding energy security, the environment, and resource allocation depend on accurate information, but existing and easily available data on the magnitude of geologically, environmentally, economically, socially, and legally accessible coal reserves are of insufficient quality to guide such decisions. Even still, these data are often presented for use in policy and energy analysis. Currently, coal reserves are overstated relative to competitor energy resource reserves, in part because coal reporting standards have historically been more liberal and vague than standards for resources like natural gas. Overstating the marketable coal resource could lead to inefficient allocation of limited capital investment that can be difficult to reverse. US government bodies like the Energy Information Administration, United States Geological Survey, Securities and Exchange Commission, and Bureau of Land Management can help correct deficiencies by clarifying standards and collecting data that are relevant for decision-makers, such as energy-based reserve information. - Highlights: ► US Coal reserves are important to public and private policy and investment decisions. ► Poor quality data and coal reserve overreporting misrepresent reality. ► Choices made based on bad information can lead to long-term capital misallocation. ► Numerous government agencies are tasked with providing public data on coal reserves. ► Clearer, more restrictive reserves reporting standards can aid decision-makers.

  9. United Kingdom Ireland coal ports directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The directory gives details of ports at 65 locations in the UK and Ireland. For each port, the directory lists the name of the terminal; the name, address, contact name and numbers of the terminal owner and of the terminal operator; and the name and telephone/fax numbers of ship's agents. It also give details, for each terminal, where available, of tidal rise, access routes, vessel maxima, working hours, coal traders and handlers, discharge facilities, daily discharge rate, coal loading facilities, daily loading rate, stocking area dimensions and capacity, stocking area facilities and inland transport infrastructure. Research for the directory was undertaken by S. Fazal and C. Measham of Sheffield Hallam University, Business School.

  10. Junior Leader Training Development in Operational Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    UNITS Successful operational units do not arise without tough, realistic, and challenging training. Field Manual (FM) 7-0, Training Units and D...operations. The manual provides junior leaders with guidance on how to conduct training and training management. Of particular importance is the definition...1 Relation htp between ADDIE and the Anny Training Management Model. The Army Training Management Model and ADDIE process appear in TRADOC PAM 350

  11. Natural desulfurization in coal-fired units using Greek lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konidaris, Dimitrios N

    2010-10-01

    This paper analyzes the natural desulfurization process taking place in coal-fired units using Greek lignite. The dry scrubbing capability of Greek lignite appears to be extremely high under special conditions, which can make it possible for the units to operate within the legislative limits of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. According to this study on several lignite-fired power stations in northern Greece, it was found that sulfur oxide emissions depend on coal rank, sulfur content, and calorific value. On the other hand, SO2 emission is inversely proportional to the parameter gammaCO2(max), which is equal to the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) content by volume of dry flue gas under stoichiometric combustion. The desulfurization efficiency is positively correlated to the molar ratio of decomposed calcium carbonate to sulfur and negatively correlated to the free calcium oxide content of fly ash.

  12. 30 CFR 74.5 - Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units... Personal Sampler Unit § 74.5 Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units. (a) The National Institute for... tests and evaluations to determine whether the pump unit of a CMDPSU that is submitted for approval...

  13. Coal conversion process by the United Power Plants of Westphalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-08-01

    The coal conversion process used by the United Power Plants of Westphalia and its possible applications are described. In this process, the crushed and predried coal is degassed and partly gasified in a gas generator, during which time the sulfur present in the coal is converted into hydrogen sulfide, which together with the carbon dioxide is subsequently washed out and possibly utilized or marketed. The residual coke together with the ashes and tar is then sent to the melting chamber of the steam generator where the ashes are removed. After desulfurization, the purified gas is fed into an external circuit and/or to a gas turbine for electricity generation. The raw gas from the gas generator can be directly used as fuel in a conventional power plant. The calorific value of the purified gas varies from 3200 to 3500 kcal/cu m. The purified gas can be used as reducing agent, heating gas, as raw material for various chemical processes, or be conveyed via pipelines to remote areas for electricity generation. The conversion process has the advantages of increased economy of electricity generation with desulfurization, of additional gas generation, and, in long-term prospects, of the use of the waste heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors for this process.

  14. Report on the 1997 Coal Engineer Training Program General Course Training; 1997 nendo sekitan gijutsusha yosei jigyo ippan course kenshu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The paper reported training in the fiscal 1997 coal engineer training course. The training was made in a period from June 9 to November 12 in terms of actual training, English training, joint seminar, visits to the related facilities in Japan, overseas training, etc. for 10 engineers from mining companies, oil companies and electric power companies. In the actual training, the following lectures were given at International Resource University in Akita prefecture: coal exploration technology, coal situation of Australia, physical/chemical characteristics of coal and the application, coal preparation technology, coal situation in India, coal situation in the U.S., trend of general coal demand, coal situation in China, coal mining technology, actual surface mining technology, coal situation in Canada, commercial English, trend of raw coal demand, coal geology, environmental protection technology related to coal utilization, etc. Overseas training, which was divided into an Australia group and a Canada/America group, was conducted for about a month. Training in Indonesia was canceled because of a large scale forest fire which broke out immediately before the start. 88 figs., 52 tabs.

  15. One coal miner's perspective on the present United States coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.E. [Murray Energy Corp., Pepper Pike, OH (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The President and CEO of the Murray Energy Corporation presented his observations on and concerns about the coal and energy industries in the USA, as a coal miner and an energy trader. He outlines the coal mining operations of the Murray Energy Corporation. He offers critical comments about, for example, some unscrupulous energy trading activities, the future of Powder River Basin coal (which he believes may be curtailed by the introduction of clean coal technologies), the lack of expertise in coal mining, the need to revise the law concerning coal company bankruptcies, the need for the government to provide a means to secure bonds, the need to liberalize black lung disease benefits, and the factors deterring improvement of the performance of the eastern coal industry. He criticises current policy and puts forward some recommendations.

  16. FY 2001 report on the coal engineer training project. Advanced course; 2001 nendo sekitan gijutsusha yose jigyo. Jokyu kosu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    The paper summed up the details of the training in the coal engineer training project (advanced course) carried out in FY 2001. The term of training was from June 1 to November 14, 2001. In the business training, lectures were given on coal geology, coal exploration technology, coal mining technology, draft survey, coal sampling and analysis method, maritime freight transport mainly of coal, coal utilization technology, environmental protection technology related to coal utilization, projects on overseas coal development, physical properties/chemical characteristics and usage of coal, and coal situation in China. In the inspection training, inspectional visits were paid to Taiheiyo Coal Mining Co., Noshiro Power Plant of the Tohoku Electric Power Co., Kumagaya Plant of Taiheiyo Cement Corp. and Keihin Steelworks of NKK Corp. In the training overseas, inspectional visits were paid to the following in Australia: coal mines of Moonee, Rix's Creek, West Wallsend, Bloomfield, Beltana, Bulga, South Bulga, Mt. Thorley, Warkworth, Liddell, Wambo, Mount Owen, Camberwell, etc. and harbors of Port Newcastle, Port Kembla Coal Terminal, etc. (NEDO)

  17. Commerical electric power cost studies. Capital cost addendum multi-unit coal and nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    This report is the culmination of a study performed to develop designs and associated capital cost estimates for multi-unit nuclear and coal commercial electric power stations, and to determine the distribution of these costs among the individual units. This report addresses six different types of 2400 MWe (nominal) multi-unit stations as follows: Two Unit PWR Station-1139 MWe Each, Two Unit BWR Station-1190 MWe Each, Two Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1232 MWe Each, Two Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1243 MWe Each, Three Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-794 MWe Each, Three Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-801 MWe Each. Recent capital cost studies performed for ERDA/NRC of single unit nuclear and coal stations are used as the basis for developing the designs and costs of the multi-unit stations. This report includes the major study groundrules, a summary of single and multi-unit stations total base cost estimates, details of cost estimates at the three digit account level and plot plan drawings for each multi-unit station identified

  18. Coal Transition in the United Kingdom. An historical case study for the project 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fothergill, Steve

    2017-01-01

    This is one of the 6 country case-studies commissioned to collect experience on past coal transitions. The 6 countries are: Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK, USA. Their role in the Coal Transitions project was to provide background information for a Synthesis Report for decision makers, and provide general lessons for national project teams to take into account in developing their coal transitions pathways for the future. The UK has virtually completed its move away from the production and use of coal - an astonishing transformation for an economy that once relied overwhelmingly on coal power. This is however a transformation that was never really 'planned' and the move away from coal started long before concerns about climate change achieved political prominence. Until as late as November 2015, for example, there was no government commitment to phase out coal in UK electricity generation. But it was already happening, and some of the most rapid change was actually in 2016, triggered in particular by the impact of a 'carbon tax' which has tipped the economics away from coal to gas-fired generation. A handful of coal-fired power stations will remain on the grid for a few years to help meet peak demand, but to all intents the UK is already entering the post-coal era. Whether this has been achieved without undue pain to coal mining areas is however deeply questionable. Job losses were for many years managed by a combination of redundancies and transfers to surviving mines. Redundancy payments, welfare benefits and early access to pensions provided support former miners, and careers advice and training was on offer. Most former miners have now reached retirement age. The big problem for mining communities has been replacement of the lost jobs. The UK has a long history of efforts to regenerate areas affected by coal closures and there is clear evidence that this has delivered positive results in the form of new jobs. Nevertheless, there continues to

  19. Fiscal 2000 coal engineer training project. Report on senior course; 2000 nendo sekitan gijutsusha yosei jigyo jokyu course hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The above-named course consisted of three weeks of lectures and three months of visits to coal mines and harbor facilities and tours to coal consumers such as power stations and steel manufacturing plants. The report has turned out to be an introductory manual on coal mining consisting of coal mining technologies such as coal resource exploration, coal mining, and coal preparation, and the state of Australian coal industry. The manual comprises (1) job training in Japan (attendance at lectures), (2) inspection and training in Japan (coal consumers), (3) intensified lectures at University of New South Wales (coal mining and preparation), (4) current state of Austrian coal industry, (5) inspection tours to Australian coal mines, (6) inspection tours to Australian harbor facilities, and (7) the state of Australian coal mine management. Fifteen intensified lectures were given, including the 'Overview of Australian coal industry' and 'Coal handling and transport.' Nine coal mines were visited in Queensland, and 21 in New South Wales. As for the state of Australian coal mine management, there is a trend toward contract mining but self-mining constitutes the mainstream. (NEDO)

  20. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  1. Electrical - light current remote monitoring, control and automation. [Coal mine, United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collingwood, C H

    1981-06-01

    A brief discussion is given of the application of control monitoring and automation techniques to coal mining in the United Kingdom, especially of the use of microprocessors, for the purpose of enhancing safety and productivity. Lighting systems for the coal mine is similarly discussed.

  2. Comparative costs of coal and nuclear-generated electricity in the united states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandfon, W.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper compares the future first-year operating costs and lifetime levelized costs of producing baseload coal- and nuclear-generated electricity under schedules shorter than those recently experienced at U.S. plants. Nuclear appears to have a clear economic advantage. Coal is favorable only when it is assumed that the units will operate at very low capacity factors and/or when the capital cost differential between nuclear and coal is increased far above the recent historical level. Nuclear is therefore a cost-competitive electric energy option for utilities and should be considered as an alternative to coal when large baseload capacity is required. (author)

  3. The impact of TTIP agreement on the European Union-United States coal trade potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkuski Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to assess the impact of currently negotiated TTIP agreement (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership on the use of hard coal in the EU and the US. Hard coal is the most important fuel in global electricity generation. This also applies to the United States, a leading manufacturer and exporter of this energy source. The US coal is exported to the EU market. The article presents the estimated exports of hard coal from the US to the EU. Due to the fact that price has a major impact on the size of exports, the paper presents the estimated prices, including freight costs, of power coal for the analyzed scenarios. According to one scenario, the US and European prices will be equalized (including freight costs by 2020, while from 2025 on the comparative advantage and competitiveness of the US hard coal will decrease. Taking into account the fact that the export of coal from the United States is free from customs duties, the acceptance of TIPP should not affect the currently existing trade between the two continents and the amount of exported coal. Nevertheless, the question of hard coal economy cannot be separated from other sectors of the energy market, which can be significantly affected by the future agreement.

  4. Coal reserves in the United States and around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubert, K.; Masudi, H.

    1995-01-01

    There is an urgent need to examine the role that coal might play in meeting world energy needs during the next 20 years. Oil from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) can no longer be relied upon to provide expanding supplies of energy, even with rapidly rising prices. Neither can nuclear energy be planned on for rapid expansion worldwide until present uncertainties about it are resolved. Yet, the world's energy needs will continue to grow, even with vigorous energy conservation programs and with optimistic rates of expansion in the use of solar energy. Coal already supplies 25% of the world's energy, its reserves are vast, and it is relatively inexpensive. This study, with the aid of reports from the World Coal Study (WOCOL) examines the needs for coal on a global scale, its availability past and present, and its future prospects

  5. Fiscal 2000 coal engineer training program. Report on research study of general training course; 2000 nendo sekitan gijutsusha yosei jigyo. Ippan kosu kenshu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-22

    In connection with fiscal 2000 coal engineer training program, a research study of the general course was implemented with eight participants for the period from June 12 to November 22. In the field training, lectures were given at International Resources University by speakers from related companies, universities and laboratories, on such subjects as coal geology, coal mining technology, coal probing technology, marine cargo transportation, analysis, coal utilization technology, environmental preservation technology, overseas coal mine development project, and foreign coal situations. Also, in the seminar, on-the-spot training was conducted at such places as Taiheiyo Tanko Kushiro mining station, Nippon Kokan KK Keihin ironworks, Electric Power Development Co., Isogo thermal power station, Idemitsu Kosan Co., coal laboratory, MITI Agency of Natural Resources and Energy. In the overseas training, research study in China was carried out during the period from July 2 to July 7 while research study in the U.S./Canada and Australia/Indonesia were conducted separately by two groups through 35 day trip from Oct 7 to November 10. The major places for visit were energy-related organizations, coal mining companies, railway companies, coal handling harbors, coal thermal power stations, coal analysis companies, etc.. (NEDO)

  6. Training of Engineering Personnel for the Innovative Coal Industry: Problems and Ways of Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaruba, Natalya; Fraltsova, Tamara; Snegireva, Tatyana

    2017-11-01

    The article is written based on some results of the long-term scientific research of the problem related to the urgent need to find the ways of training personnel for the innovative coal industry in the higher education system. This is due to the fundamental changes in the Russian social and economic conditions: the change in the social system and the owner of the coal industry, the emergence of new technologies in the field of coal mining and processing, and in the management of these processes. At the same time, the system of training specialists for the coal industry in the higher education institutions has largely remained unchanged: technologies and principles of training, scientific approaches and concepts take little account of the changed situation, traditional views of specialists work-ing in the university continue to dominate innovative ideas. Many innovations, especially related to technology and the principles of education, struggle to make their way into the higher education system. The article substantiates the urgency of the problem of training personnel for the innovative coal industry in the higher education system, as well as the importance of scientific analysis of the problem in order to find the ways to solve it.

  7. Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country's coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently

  8. Testing the application of portable scintillation unit HOU 22 SCS in determining ash content in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, L.; Barcalova, L.; Sok, V.; Kacena, V.

    1977-01-01

    Operating tests were conducted for determining the ash content of coal on the conveyor belt using a portable scintillation radiometric unit of the HOU22 SCS type. The apparatus operated on the principle of scattered gamma radiation from a 75 Se source with an activity of 18 MBq. The detection probe 41 mm in diameter was mounted at the inlet of the coal flow onto the conveyor belt. The accuracy of determination of the ash content of undersize coal used for power production (grain size 0 to 10 mm) was +-4.4%. (B.S.)

  9. AN OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR A COAL MINING PRODUCTION UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Visser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The coal mining industry faces increased pressure for higher quality coal at lower cost and increased volumes. To satisfy these requirements the industry needs technically skilled first line supervisors with operational management skills. Most first line supervisors possess the necessary technical, but not the required operational management skills. Various operational management philosophies, describing world-class operational management practices exist; however, it is not possible to implement these philosophies as-is in a mining environment due to the various differences between manufacturing and mining. The solution is to provide an operational management model, adapted from these philosophies, to first line supervisors in the coal mining industry.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die steenkoolmynbedryf ervaar groeiende druk van die mark vir hoër gehalte steenkool, laer koste en verhoogde volumes. Om hierdie behoefte te bevredig benodig die myn tegniesgeskoolde eerstelyntoesighouers met bedryfsbestuursvaardighede. Ongelukkig beskik die meeste toesighouers wel oor die nodige tegniese kennis, maar nie die nodige bedryfsbestuursvaardighede nie. Daar bestaan verskeie bedryfsbestuursfilosofieë wat wêreldklas bedryfsbestuurspraktyke omskryf. Dit is egter nie moontlik om die filisofieë net so in die mynbedryf te implimenteer nie a.g.v. die verskille tussen vervaardiging en mynbou. Die oplossing is om ‘n bedryfsbestuurmodel wat op hierdie filosofieë geskoei is, aan eerstelyntoesighouers in die steenkoolbedryf te verskaf.

  10. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) Input Coal Analyses and Off-Gass Filter (OGF) Content Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, David M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Guenther, Chris P. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Shekhawat, Dushyant [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); VanEssendelft, Dirk T. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Means, Nicholas C. [AECOM Technology Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-23

    A full engineering scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) system is being used at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) to stabilize acidic Low Activity Waste (LAW) known as Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW). The INTEC facility, known as the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), underwent an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) in March 2014. The IWTU began non-radioactive simulant processing in late 2014 and by January, 2015 ; the IWTU had processed 62,000 gallons of simulant. The facility is currently in a planned outage for inspection of the equipment and will resume processing simulated waste feed before commencing to process 900,000 gallons of radioactive SBW. The SBW acidic waste will be made into a granular FBSR product (carbonate based) for disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In the FBSR process calcined coal is used to create a CO2 fugacity to force the waste species to convert to carbonate species. The quality of the coal, which is a feed input, is important because the reactivity, moisture, and volatiles (C,H,N,O, and S) in the coal impact the reactions and control of the mineralizing process in the primary steam reforming vessel, the Denitration and Mineralizing Reformer (DMR). Too much moisture in the coal can require that additional coal be used. However since moisture in the coal is only a small fraction of the moisture from the fluidizing steam this can be self-correcting. If the coal reactivity or heating value is too low then the coal feedrate needs to be adjusted to achieve the desired heat generation. Too little coal and autothermal heat generation in the DMR cannot be sustained and/or the carbon dioxide fugacity will be too low to create the desired carbonate mineral species. Too much coal and excess S and hydroxide species can form. Excess sulfur from coal that (1) is too rich in sulfur or (2) from overfeeding coal can promote wall scale and contribute to corrosion

  11. Assessment of materials selection and performance for direct-coal- liquefaction plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Judkins, R.R.; Keiser, J.R.

    1996-09-01

    Several direct coal liquefaction processes have been demonstrated at the pilot plant level in the United States. Presently only one plant remains operational, namely, the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., 4.0- ton-per-day process development unit in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. The period from 1974 to 1982 saw the greatest amount of development of direct coal liquefaction in the United States with four major pilot plants being devoted to variants of this technology. The plants included the SRC-I plant at Wilsonville, Alabama, which operated from 1974 to 1992; the SRC-I/II plant at Fort Lewis, Washington, which operated from 1974 to 1981; the H-Coal plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, which operated from 1980 to 1982; and the Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant at Baytown, Texas, which operated from 1980 to 1982. Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists and engineers were actively involved in many phases and technical disciplines at all four of these plants, especially in materials testing, evaluation, and failure analyses. In addition, ORNL materials scientists and engineers conducted reviews of the demonstration and commercial plant designs for materials selections. The ORNL staff members worked closely with materials engineers at the pilot plants in identifying causes of materials degradation and failures, and in identifying solutions to these problems. This report provides a comprehensive summary of those materials activities. Materials performance data from laboratory and coal liquefaction pilot plant tests, failure analyses, and analyses of components after use in pilot plants were reviewed and assessed to determine the extent and causes of materials degradation in direct coal liquefaction process environments. Reviews of demonstration and commercial plant design documents for materials selections were conducted. These reviews and assessments are presented to capture the knowledge base on the most likely materials of construction for direct coal liquefaction plants.

  12. Residency training in the United States: What foreign medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FMGs) planning to pursue post-graduate residency training in the United States of America (USA). While the number of residency training positions is shrinking, and the number of United States graduates has steadily declined over the past ...

  13. Investigation of the feasibility of underground coal gasification in North Dakota, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Peng; Nasah, Junior; Solc, Jaroslav; Korom, Scott F.; Laudal, Daniel; Barse, Kirtipal

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A four-year feasibility study of underground coal gasification is presented. • A test site was selected for feasibility investigation. • Gasification test, a hydrogeological study and geomechanical study were performed. • Results suggest favorable conditions for UCG development at the selected site. - Abstract: Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a promising technology that has the potential to recover currently-unmineable coal resources. The technical feasibility and economic success of a UCG project is highly site specific. Any risks associated with UCG, such as subsidence, groundwater contamination, and syngas quality, should be sufficiently evaluated through a feasibility study. This paper presents a four-year UCG feasibility study utilizing lignite seams in North Dakota, United States. Four wells were drilled through the lignite seams at a selected site, and lignite and strata cores were recovered. A geological model of the formation was built, coal and rock properties were analyzed, and field hydrogeological tests and laboratory gasification tests were performed. This work provided valuable insights in rock mechanics, hydrogeology, and coal properties. The study results show that the selected site is suitable for development of a UCG plant because there are minimal induced subsidence risks, there is hydrological isolation from major aquifers and the coal produces desirable syngas quality for liquid fuel production. Methodologies developed in this study will benefit the design, optimization and management of the UCG process.

  14. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States-Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzek, Tad W.; Croft, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    The United States has the world's largest coal reserves and Montana the highest potential for mega-mine development. Consequently, a large-scale effort to convert coal to liquids (CTL) has been proposed to create a major source of domestic transportation fuels from coal, and some prominent Montanans want to be at the center of that effort. We calculate that the energy efficiency of the best existing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process applied to average coal in Montana is less than 1/2 of the corresponding efficiency of an average crude oil refining process. The resulting CO 2 emissions are 20 times (2000%) higher for CTL than for conventional petroleum products. One barrel of the FT fuel requires roughly 800 kg of coal and 800 kg of water. The minimum energy cost of subsurface CO 2 sequestration would be at least 40% of the FT fuel energy, essentially halving energy efficiency of the process. We argue therefore that CTL conversion is not the most valuable use for the coal, nor will it ever be, as long as it is economical to use natural gas for electric power generation. This finding results from the low efficiency inherent in FT synthesis, and is independent of the monumental FT plant construction costs, mine construction costs, acute lack of water, and the associated environmental impacts for Montana

  15. Report on the general course training of the fiscal 1996 coal engineer training program; 1996 nendo sekitan gijutsusha yosei jigyo ippan course kenshu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The paper reported the general training of the fiscal 1996 coal engineer training program supported by NEDO. In Japan, where natural resource is poor, it is important to transfer from its petroleum dependence energy structure to the system for new energy development and dispersed energy supply. Coal resource is distributed widely in the world and is expected to spread in the future as a main substitute for petroleum. Worldwide attention is much paid to coal supply/demand and environmental problems, but the situation surrounding coal is not necessarily favorable. Under these conditions, Japan is a prominent coal importing country and is on the world-top level in terms of coal utilization technology. Japan has heavy responsibility and needs to play a leading role in adjusting and solving various problems on coal both domestically and internationally. Under the circumstances, 7 persons who are engaged in the coal related business and expected to be in future (3 from the mining relation and 4 from electric power comapanies) participated in the training this fiscal year and received the top-level training in Japan and overseas. 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Subsequent flue gas desulfurization of coal-fired power plant units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willibal, U.; Braun, Gy.

    1998-01-01

    The presently operating coal-fired power plant in Hungary do not satisfy the pollution criteria prescribed by the European Union norms. The main polluting agent is the sulfur dioxide emitted by some of the power plants in Hungary in quantities over the limit standards. The power plant units that are in good operating state could be made competitive by using subsequent desulfurization measures. Various flue gas desulfurization technologies are presented through examples that can be applied to existing coal-fired power plants. (R.P.)

  17. Coal-Powered Electric Generating Unit Efficiency and Reliability Dialogue: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Emmanuel [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Coal continues to play a critical role in powering the Nation’s electricity generation, especially for baseload power plants. With aging coal generation assets facing decreased performance due to the state of the equipment, and with challenges exacerbated by the current market pressures on the coal sector, there are opportunities to advance early-stage technologies that can retrofit or replace equipment components. These changes will eventually result in significant improvements in plant performance once further developed and deployed by industry. Research and development in areas such as materials, fluid dynamics, fuel properties and preparation characteristics, and a new generation of plant controls can lead to new components and systems that can help improve the efficiency and reliability of coal-fired power plants significantly, allowing these assets to continue to provide baseload power. Coal stockpiles at electricity generation plants are typically large enough to provide 30 to 60 days of power prior to resupply—significantly enhancing the stability and reliability of the U.S. electricity sector. Falling prices for non-dispatchable renewable energy and mounting environmental regulations, among other factors, have stimulated efforts to improve the efficiency of these coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). In addition, increased reliance on natural gas and non-dispatchable energy sources has spurred efforts to further increase the reliability of coal EGUs. The Coal Powered EGU Efficiency and Reliability Dialogue brought together stakeholders from across the coal EGU industry to discuss methods for improvement. Participants at the event reviewed performance-enhancing innovations in coal EGUs, discussed the potential for data-driven management practices to increase efficiency and reliability, investigated the impacts of regulatory compliance on coal EGU performance, and discussed upcoming challenges for the coal industry. This report documents the key

  18. Environmental implications of United States coal exports: a comparative life cycle assessment of future power system scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnengel, Barrett; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Bergerson, Joule

    2014-08-19

    Stricter emissions requirements on coal-fired power plants together with low natural gas prices have contributed to a recent decline in the use of coal for electricity generation in the United States. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, many coal companies are taking advantage of a growing coal export market. As a result, U.S. coal exports hit an all-time high in 2012, fueled largely by demand in Asia. This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of two scenarios: a baseline scenario in which coal continues to be burned domestically for power generation, and an export scenario in which coal is exported to Asia. For the coal export scenario we focus on the Morrow Pacific export project being planned in Oregon by Ambre Energy that would ship 8.8 million tons of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal annually to Asian markets via rail, river barge, and ocean vessel. Air emissions (SOx, NOx, PM10 and CO2e) results assuming that the exported coal is burned for electricity generation in South Korea are compared to those of a business as usual case in which Oregon and Washington's coal plants, Boardman and Centralia, are retrofitted to comply with EPA emissions standards and continue their coal consumption. Findings show that although the environmental impacts of shipping PRB coal to Asia are significant, the combination of superior energy efficiency among newer South Korean coal-fired power plants and lower emissions from U.S. replacement of coal with natural gas could lead to a greenhouse gas reduction of 21% in the case that imported PRB coal replaces other coal sources in this Asian country. If instead PRB coal were to replace natural gas or nuclear generation in South Korea, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of electricity generated would increase. Results are similar for other air emissions such as SOx, NOx and PM. This study provides a framework for comparing energy export scenarios and highlights the importance of complete life cycle assessment in

  19. Analysis of the use of waste heat obtained from coal-fired units in Organic Rankine Cycles and for brown coal drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Łukowicz, Henryk; Kochaniewicz, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The ever-increasing restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions have created a need for new energy technologies. One way to meet these new requirements is to optimise the efficiency of power units. This paper presents two energy technologies that, if used, will increase the efficiency of electricity generation. One of the most effective ways to improve the efficiency of brown coal-fired units is by drying the coal that is fed into the boiler. Here, we describe a technology that uses the waste heat obtained from exhaust gases. This paper also presents an analysis of the feasibility of and potential for using waste heat obtained from exhaust gases to feed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs). Several low-temperature working fluids were considered, which were selected based on properties that were best suited for these types of cycles. The impact of these working fluids on the efficiency and capacity of the ORC was also examined. The calculations for ORCs fed with waste heat obtained from exhaust gases from hard coal- and brown coal-fired boilers were compared. -- Highlights: ► We describe a technology that uses the waste heat obtained from exhaust gases. ► The impact of using different working fluids with a low boiling point is examined. ► We describe integrating the ORC with the power unit. ► The use of waste heat from boiler exhaust gases to dry brown coal is proposed. ► We demonstrate a possible increase in power unit efficiency.

  20. 78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Reopen... coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit remanded a training... for refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. On January 13, 2009, the United Mine Workers of...

  1. [Training and experience in stroke units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, J F

    2008-01-01

    The social and sanitary benefits provided by stroke units can not be achieved without an adequate training and learning process. This dynamic process consists of the progressive acquisition of: a) a greater degree of expertise in stroke management by the stroke team; b) better coordination between the stroke team, extrahospitalary emergency medical systems, and other in-hospital professionals involved in stroke assistance, and c) more human and technological resources dedicated to improve attention to stroke patients. The higher degree of experience in a stroke unit will have an effect: a) improving (time and quality) the diagnostic process in acute stroke patients; b) increasing the proportion of patients treated with thrombolysis; c) reducing extra and intrahospitalary latencies to stroke treatment, and d) improving stroke outcome in terms of reducing mortality and increasing functional independence. Finally, comprehensive stroke centers will achieve a higher degree of organizational complexity that will permit a global assessment of the most advanced aspects in stroke management, including education and research.

  2. Coal engineer training project for fiscal 1999. Report on general course training; 1999 nendo sekitan gijutsusha yosei jigyo. Ippan course kenshu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-19

    This report was made on the general course training in the coal engineer training project implemented in fiscal 1999. The training was conducted from June 7 through November 19 with total 7 participating trainees from an electric power company, mining company, etc.. In the training, the lectures were given by speakers from domestic coal related companies, universities, laboratories and the like at the University of International Resources, a foundation, for about three weeks. An English training was carried out by three instructors at the same University for about eleven weeks with the purpose of acquiring the linguistic ability required for overseas coal development. The joint seminar was conducted in Tokyo by inviting lecturers, two from Australia and one each from Canada and Indonesia. The training by visiting the domestic coal related companies was such that the overseas lecturers and trainees visited Matsushima Mining Co., the Electric Power Development Company, NKK Corp and others. The overseas study and training were performed on a 35 day schedule by visiting energy-related institutions, mining companies, railway companies, coal loading/unloading harbors, and thermal power stations in Canada, the U.S., and Australia. (NEDO)

  3. Coal Transition in the United States. An historical case study for the project 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, Irem

    2017-01-01

    This is one of the 6 country case-studies commissioned to collect experience on past coal transitions. The 6 countries are: Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK, USA. Their role in the Coal Transitions project was to provide background information for a Synthesis Report for decision makers, and provide general lessons for national project teams to take into account in developing their coal transitions pathways for the future. Over the past decade, the US started to cut down the production and the use of coal, which was affected by unfavorable market dynamics and changing federal regulatory environment. Even before the shale gas revolution and uptake of renewables diminish the use of coal in power generation, coal communities were struggling to meet ends. The regional cost differences between producing states, such as the Appalachian and the Powder River Basins, indicates that coal-impacted communities and workers have lived through the impacts of coal transition at varying magnitudes and time periods. In the period between 2014 and 2016, we have seen the crash of major US coal companies due to declining demand for US coal domestically and internationally. Furthermore, Obama administration's climate change policies negatively impacted coal-fired power plants with additional GHG emission requirements, contributing to declining domestic demand for coal. Combined with market downturn, US coal producers already struggle to pay for high operational costs and legal liabilities under bankruptcy conditions. With under-funded state budgets, coal states are also grappling with financial exposure resulting from pension, health care and reclamation liabilities of bankrupt coal companies. In 2016, former President Obama announced the Power Plus Plan to aid coal-impacted communities and workers to prepare for a low carbon future. The federal budget plan targeted diversification of local economies, funding of health and pension funds of miners and retraining for

  4. The enhancement of natural radiation dosage by coal-fired power generation in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.O.

    1980-02-01

    The total fuel cycle of electricity generation from coal is assessed as a source of enhanced exposure to natural radiation. The various routes by which such exposure can arise are discussed and the consequent individual and collective radiation doses in the United Kingdom are estimated on the basis of a critical review of published data augmented by the results of recent, hitherto unpublished work within the CEGB. Further work is in progress to clarify particular areas of uncertainty that have been identified. (author)

  5. A compact XRF unit for determining total sulphur content in coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumitra, T.; Chankow, N.; Punnachaiya, S.; Srisatit, S.

    1994-01-01

    A microcomputer based x-ray fluorescence (XRF) unit was developed for off-line determination of total sulphur content in coal samples. The unit consisted of the x-ray exciting/measuring set and the microcomputer with a plug-in interface card. An Fe-55 radioisotope was used as the exciting source while a krypton-filled proportional counter was used to measure x-rays from the samples. The x-ray spectrum was simultaneously displayed on the microcomputer screen. For quantitative determination of sulphur, the intensities of sulphur K x-rays as well as calcium K x-rays and scattered x-rays were taken into account. The unit was tested with finely-ground, dried and compressed lignite, subbituminous and bituminous samples. If was found that for low-calcium coals, the results were in good agreement with those obtained from the standard chemical analysis method within ± 0.2% and within ± 0.5%S for high-calcium coals. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  7. Memorandum of Understanding on Surface Coal Mining Operations Resulting in Placement of Excess Spoil Fills in the Waters of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOU on Surface Coal Mining Operations establishes a process for improving coordination in the review of permit applications required for surface coal mining and reclamation in waters of the United States

  8. Contributions of dust exposure and cigarette smoking to emphysema severity in coal miners in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuempel, E.D.; Wheeler, M.W.; Smith, R.J.; Vallyathan, V.; Green, F.H.Y. [NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Previous studies have shown associations between dust exposure or lung burden and emphysema in coal miners, although the separate contributions of various predictors have not been clearly demonstrated. The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust, cigarette smoking, and other factors on emphysema severity. The study group included 722 autopsied coal miners and nonminers in the United States. Data on work history, smoking, race, and age at death were obtained from medical records and questionnaire completed by next-of-kin. Emphysema was classified and graded using a standardized schema. Job-specific mean concentrations of respirable coal mine dust were matched with work histories to estimate cumulative exposure. Relationships between various metrics of dust exposure (including cumulative exposure and lung dust burden) and emphysema severity were investigated in weighted least squares regression models. Emphysema severity was significantly elevated in coal miners compared with nonminers among ever- and never-smokers (P < 0.0001). Cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust or coal dust retained in the lungs were significant predictors of emphysema severity (P < 0.0001) after accounting for cigarette smoking, age at death, and race. The contributions of coal mine dust exposure and cigarette smoking were similar in predicting emphysema severity averaged over this cohort. Coal dust exposure, cigarette smoking, age, and race are significant and additive predictors of emphysema severity in this study.

  9. The Research of Utilization Hours of Coal-Fired Power Generation Units Based on Electric Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhui; Yang, Jianlian; Wang, Jiangbo; Yang, Meng; Tian, Chunzheng; He, Xinhui

    2018-01-01

    With grid-connected scale of clean energy such as wind power and photovoltaic power expanding rapidly and cross-province transmission scale being bigger, utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units become lower and lower in the context of the current slowdown in electricity demand. This paper analyzes the influencing factors from the three aspects of demand, supply and supply and demand balance, and the mathematical model has been constructed based on the electric energy balance. The utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units have been solved considering the relationship among proportion of various types of power installed capacity, the output rate and utilization hours. By carrying out empirical research in Henan Province, the utilization hours of coal-fired units of Henan Province in 2020 has been achieved. The example validates the practicability and the rationality of the model, which can provide a basis for the decision-making for coal-fired power generation enterprises.

  10. Rheumatology training in Poland vs. United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lazarewicz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When evaluating the quality of Rheumatology specialty training, it can be useful to explore similarities and differences between countries. In this article we compare the training in the UK and Poland. The two training programmes are similar in length and in the competencies that must be achieved, although they do have significant differences in the way the training is structured. The UK-based system is more out-patient based, which can be advantageous, as after completion of training the doctor is more confident in treating common rheumatological problems. On the other hand, having exposure to paediatric rheumatology and orthopaedics like one has in Polish-based training, despite a short placement time, is definitely beneficial for the trainee in gaining all-round knowledge. In conclusion, each system has its merits and can be further enhanced by observing how junior doctors are sub-speciality trained in different countries.

  11. Specialized Training on Addictions for Physicians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontchev, Gramen V.; Housel, Timothy R.; Callahan, James F.; Kunz, Kevin B.; Miller, Michael M.; Blondell, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States accredited residency programs in addiction exist only for psychiatrists specializing in addiction psychiatry (ADP); nonpsychiatrists seeking training in addiction medicine (ADM) can train in nonaccredited "fellowships," or can receive training in some ADP programs, only to not be granted a certificate of completion of…

  12. The Training Resource Unit--An Outreach Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Meredith A.

    1991-01-01

    The Training Resource Unit is a New South Wales (Australia) community services initiative that provides services such as direct client training, career training, and consultation to individuals with severe intellectual disability and severe challenging behaviors. The service is provided in the person's place of residence, workplace, or school…

  13. A data envelopment analysis for energy efficiency of coal-fired power units in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chenxi; Li, Mingjia; Zhang, Fan; He, Ya-Ling; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two kinds of energy efficiency (EE) indices are analyzed and compared. • The influence degrees of different uncontrollable factors on EE are compared. • The influence of load factor on special EE is 82.6% larger than capacity factor. • The influence of cooling method on special EE is 90.32% larger than steam pressure. • The generalized EE indicator is more recommended by the authors. - Abstract: In this article, the non-parametric data envelopment analysis method (DEA) is employed to evaluate energy efficiency (EE) of 34 coal-fired power units in China. Input-oriented CCR (Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes) model is used for EE analysis. Two efficiency indices, generalized EE and special EE are defined and analyzed. The generalized EE is calculated based on four input parameters: coal consumption, oil consumption, water consumption and auxiliary power consumption by power units. The special EE is only based on two input parameters: coal consumption and auxiliary power consumption. Relations between these two EE indices and non-comparable factors including quality of coal, load factor, capacity factor, parameters of main steam and cooling method are studied. Comparison between EE evaluation results of the two indices is conducted. Results show that these two kinds of EE are more sensitive to the load factor than the capacity factor. The influence of the cooling method on EE is larger than that of main steam parameter. The influence of non-comparable factors on the special EE is stronger than that on the generalized EE

  14. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  15. Backstepping-based nonlinear adaptive control for coal-fired utility boiler-turbine units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Fang; Wei, Le

    2011-01-01

    The control system of boiler-turbine unit plays an important role in improving efficiency and reducing emissions of power generation unit. The nonlinear, coupling and uncertainty of the unit caused by varying working conditions should be fully considered during the control system design. This paper presents an efficient control scheme based on backstepping theory for improving load adaptability of boiler-turbines in wide operation range. The design process of the scheme includes model preprocessing, control Lyapunov functions selection, interlaced computation of adaptive control laws, etc. For simplification and accuracy, differential of steam pipe inlet pressure and integral terms of target errors are adopted. Also, to enhance practicality, implementation steps of the scheme are proposed. A practical nonlinear model of a 500 MW coal-fired boiler-turbine unit is used to test the efficiency of the proposed scheme in different conditions.

  16. Coal quality influence on availability and reliability of two 620 MW lignite fired units after 100 000 operating hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, Dragomir

    1997-01-01

    General statistics data on operation of two 620 MW low calorific value coal fired units are foundation for analysis of influence of variable coal characteristics on availability and reliability. Changeable mineralogical structure, ash contents and heating value cause the following problems: increased abrasive wear and unstable firing. Almost 23 % of plant shutting down are caused by the mentioned reasons, which have multiplied in the last years. Analysis will show how it is possible to plan terms of overhaul of boilers with respect to quality of used coal and reliability of pipe system and maintenance of high level of availability and reliability in spite of periodical low heating value of coal. Described experiences are also important for planning, design, construction and operation of new power plants firing with same coal. (Author)

  17. Adapting United States training practices to European utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    The factors which must be considered in the process of adapting United States nuclear utility training programs to the needs of a European utility are discussed. Following a review of the present situation and drawing up of a new training program, the management commitments in terms of personnel and finance must be considered. Short term, medium and long term programs are outlined. The long term objectives should include the establishment of a total training centre. This facility should be capable of providing all the training necessary to operate a power plant safely. This would include specific simulator training, classroom training for operators, technician training, staff training, management training etc. In addition to a simulator, it should include an emergency response facility to train personnel. (U.K.)

  18. Coal industry - minutes of evidence - Wednesday 14 May 1986. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The paper contains minutes of evidence on the coal industry from the examination of witnesses from Associated Heat Services PLC, Boots PLC, the chamber of Coal Trades and the Domestic Coal Consumers' Council.

  19. Comparative assessment of coal tars obtained from 10 former manufactured gas plant sites in the eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.G.; Gupta, L.; Kim, T.H.; Moo-Young, H.K.; Coleman, A.J. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2006-11-15

    A comparative analysis was performed on eleven coal tars obtained from former manufactured gas plant sites in the eastern United States. Bulk properties analyzed included percent ash, Karl Fisher water content, viscosity and average molecular weight. Chemical properties included monocyclic- and polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations, alkylated aromatic concentrations, and concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic fractions. It was found that there was at least an order-of-magnitude variation in all properties measured between the eleven coal tars. Additionally, two coal tars obtained from the same manufactured gas plant site had very different properties, highlighting that there can be wide variations in coal tar properties from different samples obtained from the same site. Similarities were also observed between the coal tars. The relative chemical distributions were similar for all coal tars, and the coal tars predominantly consisted of PAHs, with naphthalene being the single-most prevalent compound. The C{sub 9-22} aromatic fraction, an indicator of all PAHs up to a molecular weight of approximately 276 g mole{sup -1}, showed a strong power-law relationship with the coal tar average molecular weight (MWct). And the concentrations of individual PAHs decreased linearly as MWct increased up to ca. 1000 g mole{sup -1}, above which they remained low and variable. Implications of these properties and their variation with MWct on groundwater quality are discussed. Ultimately, while these similarities do allow generalities to be made about coal tars, the wide range of coal tar bulk and chemical properties reported here highlights the complex nature of coal tars.

  20. A Review of Mine Rescue Ensembles for Underground Coal Mining in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, F Selcen; Monaghan, William D; Powell, Jeffrey B

    The mining industry is among the top ten industries nationwide with high occupational injury and fatality rates, and mine rescue response may be considered one of the most hazardous activities in mining operations. In the aftermath of an underground mine fire, explosion or water inundation, specially equipped and trained teams have been sent underground to fight fires, rescue entrapped miners, test atmospheric conditions, investigate the causes of the disaster, or recover the dead. Special personal protective ensembles are used by the team members to improve the protection of rescuers against the hazards of mine rescue and recovery. Personal protective ensembles used by mine rescue teams consist of helmet, cap lamp, hood, gloves, protective clothing, boots, kneepads, facemask, breathing apparatus, belt, and suspenders. While improved technology such as wireless warning and communication systems, lifeline pulleys, and lighted vests have been developed for mine rescuers over the last 100 years, recent research in this area of personal protective ensembles has been minimal due to the trending of reduced exposure of rescue workers. In recent years, the exposure of mine rescue teams to hazardous situations has been changing. However, it is vital that members of the teams have the capability and proper protection to immediately respond to a wide range of hazardous situations. Currently, there are no minimum requirements, best practice documents, or nationally recognized consensus standards for protective clothing used by mine rescue teams in the United States (U.S.). The following review provides a summary of potential issues that can be addressed by rescue teams and industry to improve potential exposures to rescue team members should a disaster situation occur. However, the continued trending in the mining industry toward non-exposure to potential hazards for rescue workers should continue to be the primary goal. To assist in continuing this trend, the mining industry

  1. Shale gas vs. coal: Policy implications from environmental impact comparisons of shale gas, conventional gas, and coal on air, water, and land in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenner, Steffen; Lamadrid, Alberto J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the major environmental impacts of shale gas, conventional gas and coal on air, water, and land in the United States. These factors decisively affect the quality of life (public health and safety) as well as local and global environmental protection. Comparing various lifecycle assessments, this paper will suggest that a shift from coal to shale gas would benefit public health, the safety of workers, local environmental protection, water consumption, and the land surface. Most likely, shale gas also comes with a smaller GHG footprint than coal. However, shale gas extraction can affect water safety. This paper also discusses related aspects that exemplify how shale gas can be more beneficial in the short and long term. First, there are technical solutions readily available to fix the most crucial problems of shale gas extraction, such as methane leakages and other geo-hazards. Second, shale gas is best equipped to smoothen the transition to an age of renewable energy. Finally, this paper will recommend hybrid policy regulations. - Highlights: ► We examine the impacts of (un)conventional gas and coal on air, water, and land. ► A shift from coal to shale gas would benefit public health. ► Shale gas extraction can affect water safety. ► We discuss technical solutions to fix the most crucial problems of shale gas extraction. ► We recommend hybrid regulations.

  2. "Rule of Thumb Methods No Longer Suffice": Development of British Coal Industry Education and Training 1900-circa 1970 and Lessons for Present-Day Education Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martyn A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the origins and development of coal mining education and training in Britain from 1900 to the 1970s, by which time the coal industry had substantially declined. It looks at the progress from working-class self-help to national policy in support of education and training. The research makes use of college prospectuses and…

  3. Late Cretaceous coal overlying karstic bauxite deposits in the Parnassus-Ghiona Unit, Central Greece: Coal characteristics and depositional environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaitzidis, Stavros; Siavalas, George; Christanis, Kimon [Dept. of Geology, University of Patras, 26504 Rio-Patras (Greece); Skarpelis, Nikos [Dept. of Geology and Geoenvironment, University of Athens, 15784 Zografou (Greece); Araujo, Carla Viviane [Petrobras-Cenpes GEOQ/PDEXP, Rua Horacio Macedo n 950, Cidade Universitaria - Ilha do Fundao, 21941-915 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-04-01

    The Pera-Lakkos coal located on top of bauxite deposits in the Ghiona mining district (Central Greece), is the only known Mesozoic (Late Cretaceous) coal in the country. It was derived from herbaceous plants and algae growing in mildly brackish mires that formed behind a barrier system during a regression of the sea, on a karstified limestone partly filled in with bauxitic detritus. Petrological, mineralogical and geochemical data point to the predominance of reducing conditions and intense organic matter degradation in the palaeomires. O/C vs. H/C and OI vs. HI plots, based on elemental analysis and Rock-Eval data, characterize kerogen types I/II. This reflects the relatively high liptinite content of the coal. Besides kerogen composition, O/C vs. H/C plot for the Pera-Lakkos coals is in accordance with a catagenesis stage of maturation in contrast with vitrinite reflectance and T{sub max} from Rock-Eval pyrolysis, which indicate the onset of oil window maturation stage. Suppression of vitrinite reflectance should be considered and the high liptinite content corroborates this hypothesis. Despite some favourable aspects for petroleum generation presented by the Pera-Lakkos coal, its maximum thickness (up to 50 cm) points to a restricted potential for petroleum generation. Coal oxidation took place either during the late stage of peat formation, due to wave action accompanying the subsequent marine transgression, or epigenetically after the emergence of the whole sequence due to percolation of drainage waters. Both options are also supported by the REE shale-normalized profiles, which demonstrate an upwards depletion in the coal layer. Oxidation also affected pyrite included in the coal; this led to the formation of acidic (sulfate-rich) solutions, which percolated downwards resulting in bleaching of the upper part of the underlying bauxite. (author)

  4. TRAINING OF THE STATE PRESIDENT'S UNIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary function of the State President's Unit is to protect the head of state - not his person as is generally believed, but his authority over the state. Ironically, the ceremonial performances of the State President's Unit lead people to believe that they are only capable of doing drill exer- cises. However, upon investigating.

  5. Optimization methods for the Train Unit Shunting Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Lusby, Richard Martin; Wagenaar, Joris Camiel

    2017-01-01

    We consider the Train Unit Shunting Problem, an important planning problem for passenger railway operators. This problem entails assigning train units from shunting yards to scheduled train services in such a way that the resulting operations are without conflicts. The problem arises at every...... shunting yard in the railway network and involves matching train units to arriving and departing train services as well as assigning the selected matchings to appropriate shunting yard tracks. We present an extensive comparison benchmark of multiple solution approaches for this problem, some of which...... are novel. In particular, we develop a constraint programming formulation, a column generation approach, and a randomized greedy heuristic. We compare and benchmark these approaches with two existing methods, a mixed integer linear program and a two-stage heuristic. The benchmark contains multiple real...

  6. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training Disparities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewer, Audrey L; Ibrahim, Said A; Leary, Marion; Dutwin, David; McNally, Bryan; Anderson, Monique L; Morrison, Laurie J; Aufderheide, Tom P; Daya, Mohamud; Idris, Ahamed H; Callaway, Clifton W; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Vilke, Gary M; Abella, Benjamin S

    2017-05-17

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is associated with increased survival from cardiac arrest, yet bystander CPR rates are low in many communities. The overall prevalence of CPR training in the United States and associated individual-level disparities are unknown. We sought to measure the national prevalence of CPR training and hypothesized that older age and lower socioeconomic status would be independently associated with a lower likelihood of CPR training. We administered a cross-sectional telephone survey to a nationally representative adult sample. We assessed the demographics of individuals trained in CPR within 2 years (currently trained) and those who had been trained in CPR at some point in time (ever trained). The association of CPR training and demographic variables were tested using survey weighted logistic regression. Between September 2015 and November 2015, 9022 individuals completed the survey; 18% reported being currently trained in CPR, and 65% reported training at some point previously. For each year of increased age, the likelihood of being currently CPR trained or ever trained decreased (currently trained: odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99; P trained: OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98-0.99; P =0.04). Furthermore, there was a greater then 4-fold difference in odds of being currently CPR trained from the 30-39 to 70-79 year old age groups (95% CI, 0.10-0.23). Factors associated with a lower likelihood of CPR training were lesser educational attainment and lower household income ( P training in CPR. Older age, lesser education, and lower income were associated with reduced likelihood of CPR training. These findings illustrate important gaps in US CPR education and suggest the need to develop tailored CPR training efforts to address this variability. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  7. Geochemical database of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from five power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Ronald H.; Groves, Steve; Betterton, William J.; William, Benzel; Conrad, Kelly L.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Clough, James G.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Kolker, Allan; Hower, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The principal mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) is to (1) understand the processes critical to the formation, accumulation, occurrence, and alteration of geologically based energy resources; (2) conduct scientifically robust assessments of those resources; and (3) study the impacts of energy resource occurrence and (or) their production and use on both the environment and human health. The ERP promotes and supports research resulting in original, geology-based, non-biased energy information products for policy and decision makers, land and resource managers, other Federal and State agencies, the domestic energy industry, foreign governments, non-governmental groups, and academia. Investigations include research on the geology of oil, gas, and coal, and the impacts associated with energy resource occurrence, production, quality, and utilization. The ERP's focus on coal is to support investigations into current issues pertaining to coal production, beneficiation and (or) conversion, and the environmental impact of the coal combustion process and coal combustion products (CCPs). To accomplish these studies, the USGS combines its activities with other organizations to address domestic and international issues that relate to the development and use of energy resources.

  8. Extravehicular mobility unit training and astronaut injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Samuel; Krog, Ralph L.; Feiveson, Alan H.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astronaut spacewalk training can result in a variety of symptom complaints and possible injuries. This study quantified and characterized signs, symptoms, and injuries resulting from extravehicular activity spacesuit training at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, immersion facility. METHODS: We identified the frequency and incidence of symptoms by location, mechanisms of injury, and effective countermeasures. Recommendations were made to improve injury prevention, astronaut training, test preparation, and training hardware. At the end of each test, a questionnaire was completed documenting signs and symptoms, mechanisms of injury, and countermeasures. RESULTS: Of the 770 tests, there were 190 in which suit symptoms were reported (24.6%). There were a total of 352 reported suit symptom comments. Of those symptoms, 166 were in the hands (47.16%), 73 were in the shoulders (20.7%), and 40 were in the feet (11.4%). Others ranged from 6.0% to 0.28%, respectively, from the legs, arms, neck, trunk, groin, and head. Causal mechanisms for the hands included moisture and hard glove contacts resulting in fingernail injuries; in the shoulders, hard contact with suit components and strain mechanisms; and in the feet, hard boot contact. The severity of symptoms was highest in the shoulders, hands, and feet. CONCLUSIONS: Most signs and symptoms were mild, self-limited, of brief duration, and were well controlled by available countermeasures. Some represented the potential for significant injury with consequences affecting astronaut health and performance. Correction of extravehicular activity training-related injuries requires a multidisciplinary approach to improve prevention, medical intervention, astronaut training, test planning, and suit engineering.

  9. SPECIALITY TRAINING IN ABROAD – UNITED KINGDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pakiž

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud. According to the Rules on types and curriculum of specialization of doctors in Slovenia part of the specialization can be conducted in abroad after conformation of Medical Chambers. Specialization abroad enables us to learn about different therapeutic approaches, organization of work, educational systems, new methods of treatment, etc. Content In the article organization of work at the Liverpool Women’s Hospital, the greatest European hospital for women’s diseases is presented. Furthermore, specialty training for obstetrics and gynecology according to the rules of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in the UK is described. The specialty training and education programme last seven years in the UK. The specialty trainees attend specific modules besides working at gynaecological and obstetrics departments. The exam is divided in two parts and performed after the second and fifth year of training. During the last two years of the specialty training the doctor is able to roughly determine the subspeciality. The education programme is adjusted for those who are interested in research and academic fields. Conclusions. My experiences as foreign visiting doctor, as well as differences towards our system, are shared.

  10. Coal and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  11. Options for near-term phaseout of CO(2) emissions from coal use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharecha, Pushker A; Kutscher, Charles F; Hansen, James E; Mazria, Edward

    2010-06-01

    The global climate problem becomes tractable if CO(2) emissions from coal use are phased out rapidly and emissions from unconventional fossil fuels (e.g., oil shale and tar sands) are prohibited. This paper outlines technology options for phasing out coal emissions in the United States by approximately 2030. We focus on coal for physical and practical reasons and on the U.S. because it is most responsible for accumulated fossil fuel CO(2) in the atmosphere today, specifically targeting electricity production, which is the primary use of coal. While we recognize that coal emissions must be phased out globally, we believe U.S. leadership is essential. A major challenge for reducing U.S. emissions is that coal provides the largest proportion of base load power, i.e., power satisfying minimum electricity demand. Because this demand is relatively constant and coal has a high carbon intensity, utility carbon emissions are largely due to coal. The current U.S. electric grid incorporates little renewable power, most of which is not base load power. However, this can readily be changed within the next 2-3 decades. Eliminating coal emissions also requires improved efficiency, a "smart grid", additional energy storage, and advanced nuclear power. Any further coal usage must be accompanied by carbon capture and storage (CCS). We suggest that near-term emphasis should be on efficiency measures and substitution of coal-fired power by renewables and third-generation nuclear plants, since these technologies have been successfully demonstrated at the relevant (commercial) scale. Beyond 2030, these measures can be supplemented by CCS at power plants and, as needed, successfully demonstrated fourth-generation reactors. We conclude that U.S. coal emissions could be phased out by 2030 using existing technologies or ones that could be commercially competitive with coal within about a decade. Elimination of fossil fuel subsidies and a substantial rising price on carbon emissions are the

  12. Report on the FY 1999 project for training coal engineers. Advanced course; 1999 nendo sekitan gijutsusha yosei jigyo hokokusho. Jokyusha course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This is a report on the training for coal technology which two Japanese engineers received in Australia. In Chapter 3 (Outline of Australia), they studied the national land, constitution of the national land, population, history, politics, economy and trade. In Chapter 4 (Coal geology), they read lecture data of university. In Chapter 5 (Outline of coal supply/demand), the coal export amount from Australia is 167 million tons. Steam coal of a little less than 50% is exported to Japan. In Chapter 6 (Coal mining technology), 100 million tons of NSW state and 100 million and 570 thousand tons of QLD state are mined by underground mining and open pit mining. Training was conducted on overburden/drilling/transportation of the open pit mining coal. As coal mining methods of underground mining, they learned the board and pillar coal mining and high wall mining as an extension of open pit mining. In Chapter 7 (Coal preparation), they observed/studied the jig, heavy media separator, heavy media cyclone separator, flotation equipment, spiral ore dressing equipment, fine powder centrifugal dewatering equipment, thickener, sieve, etc. They studied by data or by observation in Chapters 8 (Outline of coal mine), 9 (Outline of export port), 10 (Outline of railroad transportation), and 11 (Quality management). (NEDO)

  13. A Rating of training units in boys basketball by category of U14

    OpenAIRE

    Mašková, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Title: A Rating of training units in boys basketball by category of U14. Objective: Preparation, implementation and evaluation of basketball training units starting by U14 categories. The training units focus on a drill, training game and fitness training following by blending these three components. Methods: Preparing these training units I have used the professional basketball literature. This bachelor work is based on quantitative way of research. The raiting of training units was analyzed...

  14. Partitioning of selected trace elements in coal combustion products from two coal-burning power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Engle, Mark A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Jones, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Samples of feed coal (FC), bottom ash (BA), economizer fly ash (EFA), and fly ash (FA) were collected from power plants in the Central Appalachian basin and Colorado Plateau to determine the partitioning of As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in coal combustion products (CCPs). The Appalachian plant burns a high-sulfur (about 3.9 wt.%) bituminous coal from the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed and operates with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), with flue gas temperatures of about 163 °C in the ESPs. At this plant, As, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in FA samples, compared to BA and EFA. A mass balance (not including the FGD process) suggests that the following percentages of trace elements are captured in FA: As (48%), Cr (58%), Pb (54%), Se (20%), and Hg (2%). The relatively high temperatures of the flue gas in the ESPs and low amounts of unburned C in FA (0.5% loss-on-ignition for FA) may have led to the low amount of Hg captured in FA. The Colorado Plateau plant burns a blend of three low-S (about 0.74 wt.%) bituminous coals from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and operates with fabric filters (FFs). Flue gas temperatures in the baghouses are about 104 °C. The elements As, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in the fine-grained fly ash product (FAP) produced by cyclone separators, compared to the other CCPs at this plant. The median concentration of Hg in FA (0.0983 ppm) at the Colorado Plateau plant is significantly higher than that for the Appalachian plant (0.0315 ppm); this higher concentration is related to the efficiency of FFs in Hg capture, the relatively low temperatures of flue gas in the baghouses (particularly in downstream compartments), and the amount of unburned C in FA (0.29% loss-on-ignition for FA).

  15. [Continuing training plan in a clinical management unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa Antiñolo, Fernando Miguel; Bayol Serradilla, Elia; Gómez Camacho, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Continuing Care Unit (UCA) focused the attention of frail patients, polypathological patients and palliative care. UCA attend patients at home, consulting, day unit, telephone consulting and in two hospitals of the health area. From 2002 UCA began as a management unit, training has been a priority for development. Key elements include: providing education to the workplace, including key aspects of the most prevalent health care problems in daily work, directing training to all staff including organizational aspects of patient safety and the environment, improved working environment, development of new skills and knowledge supported by the evidence-based care for the development of different skills. The unit can be the ideal setting to undertake the reforms necessary conceptual training of professionals to improve the quality of care. 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Report for fiscal 2000 on joint seminar for coal engineer training project; 2000 nendo sekitan gijutsusha yosei jigyo godo semina hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    This paper summarizes the contents of the joint seminar for coal engineer training project in fiscal 2000, which has been held in Tokyo on September 25, 2000. The lectures included 'Coal Resources in Gunnedah Basin - Future Coal Supply Potential and Geophysical Exploration' by Ms. Julie Ann Moloney, senior geographical engineer at NSW Department of Mineral Resources, Australia, 'Human Resources Development for Coal Mining in Indonesia' by Mr. Bangun Usman Harahap at the Ministry of Mines and Energy in Indonesia, 'Queensland Rail, a strategic partner - linking Coal Producers to World Markets' by Mr. John Stuart Burrows at Coal Queensland Rail, Australia, and 'The export coal mines of western Canada - A review' by Mr. Ron Smyth, director BC Geological Survey Branch, Ministry of Energy and Mines, British Columbia, Canada. Questions and answers were exchanged actively for these lectures. (NEDO)

  17. Report for fiscal 2000 on joint seminar for coal engineer training project; 2000 nendo sekitan gijutsusha yosei jigyo godo semina hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    This paper summarizes the contents of the joint seminar for coal engineer training project in fiscal 2000, which has been held in Tokyo on September 25, 2000. The lectures included 'Coal Resources in Gunnedah Basin - Future Coal Supply Potential and Geophysical Exploration' by Ms. Julie Ann Moloney, senior geographical engineer at NSW Department of Mineral Resources, Australia, 'Human Resources Development for Coal Mining in Indonesia' by Mr. Bangun Usman Harahap at the Ministry of Mines and Energy in Indonesia, 'Queensland Rail, a strategic partner - linking Coal Producers to World Markets' by Mr. John Stuart Burrows at Coal Queensland Rail, Australia, and 'The export coal mines of western Canada - A review' by Mr. Ron Smyth, director BC Geological Survey Branch, Ministry of Energy and Mines, British Columbia, Canada. Questions and answers were exchanged actively for these lectures. (NEDO)

  18. Policy drivers and barriers for coal-to-liquids (CtL) technologies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallentin, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Because of a growing dependence on oil imports, powerful industrial, political and societal stakeholders in the United States are trying to enhance national energy security through the conversion of domestic coal into synthetic hydrocarbon liquid fuels-so-called coal-to-liquids (CtL) processes. However, because of the technology's high costs and carbon intensity, its market deployment is strongly affected by the US energy, technology and climate policy setting. This paper analyses and discusses policy drivers and barriers for CtL technologies in the United States and reaches the conclusion that an increasing awareness of global warming among US policy-makers raises the requirements for the technology's environmental performance and, thus, limits its potential to regional niche markets in coal-producing states or strategic markets, such as the military, with specific security and fuel requirements

  19. Influences of volcanism on coal quality - Examples from the western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, R.T.; Affolter, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Several small Tertiary coal deposits in Idaho, Nevada, and Washington formed in fresh-water basins located near active continental (salic) volcanic centers. Metastable glassy material (tephra) ejected during volcanic eruptions was introduced into the coal-forming environment of these basins as ash falls. This tephra contributed to the high ash content of many of the coal beds, formed laterally persistent partings (''tonsteins'') in the coal, and constitutes a large part of the strata enclosing the deposits. In order to study the possible relationships between the presence of tephra and coal quality, chemical data for 65 coal samples from 12 of these deposits were compiled and statistically analyzed. The results indicate that, in addition to the high ash content, coal from Tertiary deposits containing appreciable amounts of tephra generally is enriched in many elements compared to 460 coal samples from 11 deposits of similar ages remote from volcanic activity

  20. SO3 tinges stack gas from scrubbed coal-fired units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.; Ellison, W.

    1998-01-01

    The small amount of SO 3 in flue gas creates enough problems inside the plant. New US EPA regulations on so-called air toxics are making SO 3 discharge an emission problem as well - and a visible one at that. Units that have installed wet scrubbers to control SO 2 emissions may be most affected. The article explains that SO 3 levels in coal-fired power plants are mainly increased by catalytic oxidation of SO 2 by iron oxide on the fireside surfaces of the superheater tubes. Dependence on air-heater temperature is discussed. Wet FGD systems are responsible for the formation of 'blue eye' where SO 3 causes a blue hue in the plume. Ammonia injection has been effective in reducing SO 3 vapour, as has injecting water ahead of the electrostatic precipitator. Replacement of a wet ESP with a dry ESP is also a solution. 2 figs

  1. Psychiatry training in the United Kingdom--part 2: the training process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, N; Kasiakogia, K

    2015-01-01

    In the second part of this diptych, we shall deal with psychiatric training in the United Kingdom in detail, and we will compare it--wherever this is meaningful--with the equivalent system in Greece. As explained in the first part of the paper, due to the recently increased emigration of Greek psychiatrists and psychiatric trainees, and the fact that the United Kingdom is a popular destination, it has become necessary to inform those aspiring to train in the United Kingdom of the system and the circumstances they should expect to encounter. This paper principally describes the structure of the United Kingdom's psychiatric training system, including the different stages trainees progress through and their respective requirements and processes. Specifically, specialty and subspecialty options are described and explained, special paths in training are analysed, and the notions of "special interest day" and the optional "Out of programme experience" schemes are explained. Furthermore, detailed information is offered on the pivotal points of each of the stages of the training process, with special care to explain the important differences and similarities between the systems in Greece and the United Kingdom. Special attention is given to The Royal College of Psychiatrists' Membership Exams (MRCPsych) because they are the only exams towards completing specialisation in Psychiatry in the United Kingdom. Also, the educational culture of progressing according to a set curriculum, of utilising diverse means of professional development, of empowering the trainees' autonomy by allowing initiative-based development and of applying peer supervision as a tool for professional development is stressed. We conclude that psychiatric training in the United Kingdom differs substantially to that of Greece in both structure and process. Τhere are various differences such as pure psychiatric training in the United Kingdom versus neurological and medical modules in Greece, in-training

  2. Study Improving Performance of Centrifugal Compressor In Paiton Coal Fired Power Plant Unit 1 And 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Yuriadi; Permana, Dadang S.

    2018-03-01

    The compressed air system becomes part of a very important utility system in a Plant, including the Steam Power Plant. In PLN’S coal fired power plant, Paiton units 1 and 2, there are four Centrifugal air compressor types, which produce compressed air as much as 5.652 cfm and with electric power capacity of 1200 kW. Electricity consumption to operate centrifugal compressor is 7.104.117 kWh per year. This study aims to measure the performance of Centrifugal Compressors operating in Paiton’s coal fired power plant units 1 and 2. Performance Compressor is expressed by Specific Power Consumption (SPC) in kW/100 cfm. For this purpose, we measure the compressed air flow rate generated by each compressor and the power consumed by each compressor. The result is as follows Air Compressor SAC 2B : 15.1 kW/100 cfm, Air Compressor SAC 1B : 15.31 kW/100 cfm,Air Compressor SAC 1A : 16.3 kW/100 cfm and air Compressor SAC 2C : 18.19 kW/100 cfm. From the measurement result, air compressor SAC 2B has the best performance that is 15.1 kW / 100 cfm. In this study we analyze efforts to improve the performance of other compressors to at least match the performance of the SAC 2B air compressor. By increasing the Specific Power Consumption from others Compressor, it will get energy saving up to 284,165 kWh per year.

  3. Technical engineers exchange project (coal mine technology field). Training in China; Gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun`ya). Chugoku no kenshu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, T. [Japan Coal Energy Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    The paper described JCOAL`s project on the exchange of technical coal engineers of China. In the project on sending of engineers to China in the first term, coal mine engineers of Japan (Taiheiyo Coal Mine, Kushiro Works, Training Center) were sent to the Daitun coal-thermal power plant, Peixuan city, Jiangsu province, in September, 1997 to introduce the production control technology in Japan. They contributed to the heightening of productivity in coal mines in China. Eighteen Chinese participated in the training. Mechanization has been comparatively well in progress, and it was 83% in coal mining and 91% in drilling. The kind of coal is mostly a raw material coal. The stuff members are 30,000, and expert engineers are 4,200. The plant has an output of 130,000 kWh, owns its railroad, is run on the general multiple management, and is largely developing. The project on sending of engineers to China in the last term was carried out in February 1998 for tracing/confirming how the results of the training conducted in September are made the most of and if or not there is something bad and for obtaining the detailed data. A certain degree of promotion and effects were able to be confirmed. A project on training of the head, sub-head, etc. who were invited to Japan to lean production/management control was also carried out in November and December 1997. 1 tab.

  4. Scheduling Additional Train Unit Services on Rail Transit Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhibin Jiang; Yuyan Tan; Özgür Yalçınkaya

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of scheduling additional train unit (TU) services in a double parallel rail transit line, and a mixed integer programming (MIP) model is formulated for integration strategies of new trains connected by TUs with the objective of obtaining higher frequencies in some special sections and special time periods due to mass passenger volumes. We took timetable scheduling and TUs scheduling as an integrated optimization model with two objectives: minimizing travel ti...

  5. Analytic institutes: A guide to training in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Terry G.

    This investigation was inspired by the researcher's desire to pursue psychoanalytic training subsequent to completion of her PhD in clinical psychology and the discovery that no comprehensive resource existed to assist prospective psychoanalytic candidates with identifying or evaluating psychoanalytic training opportunities. This dissertation therefore aspires to provide a comprehensive guide to analytic training in the United States today. The researcher presents the expanding horizons of depth-oriented training leading to certification as an analyst, including training based on those schools of thought that resulted from early splits with Freud (Adlerian and Jungian) as well as training based on thought that has remained within the Freudian theoretical umbrella (e.g., classical, object relations, self psychology, etc.). Employing a heuristic approach and using hermeneutics and systems theory methodologies, the study situates analytic training in its historical context, explores contemporary issues, and considers its future. The study reviews the various analytic schools of thought and traces the history of psychoanalytic theory from its origins with Freud through its many permutations. It then discusses the history of psychoanalytic training and describes political, social, and economic factors influencing the development of training in this country. The centerpiece of the dissertation is a guidebook offering detailed information on each of 107 training institutes in the United States. Tables provide contact data and information which differentiate the institutes in terms of such parameters as size; length of program, theoretical orientation, and accreditation. A narrative of each institute summarizes the unique aspects of the program, including its admissions policy, the requirements for the training analysis and supervised clinical work, and the didactic curriculum, along with lists of courses offered. Child and adolescent psychoanalytic training is also

  6. IMPROVING THE METHODS OF ESTIMATION OF THE UNIT TRAIN EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro KOZACHENKO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies of freight transportation by unit trains. The article is aimed at developing the methods of the efficiency evaluation of unit train dispatch on the basis of full-scale experiments. Duration of the car turnover is a random variable when dispatching the single cars and group cars, as well as when dispatching them as a part of a unit train. The existing methodologies for evaluating the efficiency of unit trains’ make-up are based on the use of calculation methodologies and their results can give significant errors. The work presents a methodology that makes it possible to evaluate the efficiency of unit train shipments based on the processing of results of experimental travels using the methods of mathematical statistics. This approach provides probabilistic estimates of the rolling stock use efficiency for different approaches to the organization of car traffic volumes, as well as establishes the effect for each of the participants in the transportation process.

  7. Near-term implications of a ban on new coal-fired power plants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Adam; Apt, Jay

    2009-06-01

    Large numbers of proposed new coal power generators in the United States have been canceled, and some states have prohibited new coal power generators. We examine the effects on the U.S. electric power system of banning the construction of coal-fired electricity generators, which has been proposed as a means to reduce U.S. CO2 emissions. The model simulates load growth, resource planning, and economic dispatch of the Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator (ISO), Inc., Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and PJM under a ban on new coal generation and uses an economic dispatch model to calculate the resulting changes in dispatch order, CO2 emissions, and fuel use under three near-term (until 2030) future electric power sector scenarios. A national ban on new coal-fired power plants does not lead to CO2 reductions of the scale required under proposed federal legislation such as Lieberman-Warner but would greatly increase the fraction of time when natural gas sets the price of electricity, even with aggressive wind and demand response policies.

  8. Reserve Component Unit Stability: Effects on Deployability and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    within the last year before mobi - lization). However, attendance rates at AT have historically ranged around 60 to 70 percent, and, the more time they...recruiters, offering enlistment incentives, boosting advertising ) but also for initial training of new nonprior- service recruits. And, since the unit would

  9. Thermal coal utilization for the ESCAP region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A selection of papers is presented originating from talks to coal utilization workshops for the ASEAN region in 1981. The papers cover: planning aspects - economic and technical aspects of coal usage, long term planning for fuel coal needs, planning and coal selection for coal-fired power plants, coal availability and marketing, and economic aspects of coal usage in developing countries; combustion and plant - changing from coal to oil, principles and problems of coal combustion, use of indigenous and imported coals and their effects on plant design, coal pulverizing mills, ash and dust disposal, environmental aspects of coal combustion, industrial sized coal-fired boilers; transport and storage -ocean shipment, coal receival facilities and associated operations, shipping and rail transport, coal handling and transport, environmental issue in the transport and handling of coal, coal preparation and blending; testing and properties - coal types, characterization properties and classification; training power plant operators; the cement industry and coal, the Australian black coal industry.

  10. Development of broadleaved woodland on colliery and open pit coal mines in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, R.N.; McQuire, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    Broadleaved woodland is an important land use and vegetation type in the United Kingdom (UK), and potentially the most effective landscape and restoration treatment for colliery waste tips and open pit coal sites. A field-based national survey of collieries in England and Wales in 1986 and 1987 showed that establishment was satisfactory in only half of the schemes, and growth was deemed satisfactory in less than one-fifth. There are standard forestry practices whereby stock quality can be assured, and herbaceous vegetation controlled or eliminated by the use of herbicides. During the restoration of the site, depending on choice of species, adequate soil water can be provided by the selection of appropriate soil types and thicknesses, and adoption of appropriate soil handling and decompaction practices. The low affinity of the plantations with local and regional types was partly due to the planting of non-native species and partly due to the failure to match species with site and soil characteristics. There is no reason why woodlands of a local and regional character cannot be established by planting the associated species. A matrix of fast-growing tree and/or shrub species should be used to promote early woodland development. These would be removed during normal management which is essential for the ultimate success of the woodland. Planting schemes should also incorporate woodland structural elements and understory and ground flora species. Provided that these measures are fully implemented, significant improvements in establishment, growth, and woodland development on restored sites should be achieved

  11. A Review of Underground Coal Gasification Research and Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-26

    An intense and productive period of research and development on underground coal gasification (UCG) took place in the United States from the mid-1970’s through the late 1980’s. It began with the translation and review of Soviet literature and ended with the Rocky Mountain 1 field test. This demonstrated the feasibility of newly-developed technologies that form the basis of many UCG projects around the world today. This period began with little domestic understanding of UCG and ended with an accurate observation-based conceptual model and a corresponding predictive multi-physics mathematical model of the process. The many accomplishments of this period form the main content of this report. This report also covers recent U.S. activities and accomplishments during the period 2004-2015, and touches briefly on the Bureau of Mines efforts between 1948 and 1963. Most of the activities were funded by the United States Department of Energy and its predecessors. While private/commercially-funded activities are reviewed here, the emphasis is on government-funded work. It has a much greater extent of publicly available reports and papers, and they generally contain much greater technical detail. Field tests were the marquis activities around which an integrated multi-faceted program was built. These are described in detail in Section 4. Highlights from modeling efforts are briefly covered, as the program was integrated and well-rounded, with field results informing models and vice-versa. The primary goal of this report is to review what has been learned about UCG from the U.S. experience in aggregate. This includes observations, conclusions, lessons-learned, phenomena understood, and technology developed. The latter sections of this report review these things.

  12. Building Unit Cohesion via the Videodisc Interpersonal Skills Training and Assessment (VISTA) Unit Training Program (VUTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    tworf) Unclassified h a O~ASSI UICATI ON IDOWN ORA 010C r DS IST RISUTION STATEMENT (of olitdopmf) Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 7...maLai&l:. .• hire •.Dd roveseiet would be to spend more time iti training the leaders. Alt . vih they vere famillarize6 wh --h= --,_-rpa-nt and 25

  13. CoalVal-A coal resource valuation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; McIntosh, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    ; operating cost per ton; and discounted cash flow cost per ton to mine and process the resources. Costs are calculated as loaded in a unit train, free-on-board the tipple, at a rate of return prescribed by the evaluator. The recoverable resources (in short tons) may be grouped by incremental cost over any range chosen by the user. For example, in the Gillette coalfield evaluation, the discounted cash flow mining cost (at an 8 percent rate of return) and its associated tonnage may be grouped by any applicable increment (for example, $0.10 per ton, $0.20 per ton, and so on) and using any dollar per ton range that is desired (for example, from $4.00 per ton to $15.00 per ton). This grouping ability allows the user to separate the coal reserves from the nonreserve resources and to construct cost curves to determine the effects of coal market fluctuations on the availability of coal for fuel whether for the generation of electricity or for coal-to-liquids processes. Coking coals are not addressed in this report.

  14. Integrating rolling stock scheduling with train unit shunting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Lusby, Richard Martin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider integrating two important railway optimization problems, in particular the Rolling Stock Scheduling Problem and the Train Unit Shunting Problem. We present two similar branch-and-cut based approaches to solve this integrated problem and, in addition, provide a comparison......, sequential approach ends in infeasibility. Furthermore, for the considered instances, solutions are typically found within a few minutes, indicating the applicability of the methodology to short-term planning....

  15. Training programs in medical physics in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzl, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    The history of the field of medical physics in the United States is reviewed; the importance of the development of the nuclear reactor and particle accelerators to medical physics is pointed out. Conclusions and recommendations of an IAEA/WHO seminar on the training of medical physicists (in 1972) are given and compared with existing programs in the US. It is concluded that the recommendations of the IAEA are, for the most part, followed. 1 table

  16. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training Rates in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Monique L.; Cox, Margueritte; Al-Khatib, Sana M.; Nichol, Graham; Thomas, Kevin L.; Chan, Paul S.; Saha-Chaudhuri, Paramita; Fosbol, Emil L.; Eigel, Brian; Clendenen, Bill; Peterson, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    Context Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves the likelihood of surviving out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), yet treatment rates differ by a community’s racial and income composition. Objective To determine if CPR training differs by the race and income of communities across the United States (U.S.). Design, Setting, and Participants We analyzed county-level CPR training rates from 2010–2011 using CPR training data from the American Heart Association, the American Red Cross, and the Health and Safety Institute. We utilized multivariable logistic regression models to examine the association of annual adult CPR training rates with a county’s proportion of black residents and median household income (categorized as tertiles), as well as other demographic, geographic, and healthcare characteristics. Main Outcome Measure CPR training rate. Results From 07/01/2010–06/30/2011, 13.1 million persons in 3143 U.S. counties received CPR training. The median county training rate ranged from 0.00%–1.29% (median=0.51%) in the lower tertile, 1.29%–4.07% (median=2.39%) in the middle tertile, and >4.07% (median=6.81%) in the upper tertile. Counties that were most likely to have CPR training rates in the lower tertile included those with a higher proportion of rural (odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10, 1.15 per 5 percentage point [PP] change), black (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.06, 1.13 per 5 PP change), and Hispanic residents (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02, 1.11 per 5 PP change); those with a lower median household income (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04, 1.34 per $10,000 decrease); those with a higher median age (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04, 1.53 per 10 year change); and those located in the South. Conclusions Counties with a higher proportion of rural, black, Hispanic, and lower income residents had lower CPR training rates. Differences in CPR training by race and income may contribute to recognized disparities in bystander CPR treatment and OHCA survival, and

  17. Training operators of VVER-1000 units in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, X.; Nabet, E.; Hauesberger, P.

    1996-01-01

    The VVER 1000 is the most recent nuclear reactor designed in the former Soviet Union. Its design and operation principles are close to Western four-loop reactors in the 1000- to 1500-MW class; therefore, the Western simulation technology is usually directly applicable to the simulation of these units. Moreover, the current number of state-of-the-art training simulators in operation is very limited. A total of 19 units are in operation, while only 2 modern simulators are available (full-scope type) in Balakovo and Zaporozhe. Access to these simulators is practically limited to the respective plants' trainees, which means that the other units have to be satisfied with hands-on training. Facing this situation and taking into account the predicted lifetime of these plants (15 to 25 yr to go, maybe more), a lot of effort has been made in recent years to provide the plants with modern simulators. The major hurdles to this action were obviously financial and technical (availability of codes, computers, software tools). Today, one full-scope project (Kalinin) is almost complete, and three have been announced (Novovoronezh, Khmelnitsky, Kozloduy). Full-scope simulators are clearly the ultimate target of a concerned power plants. However, all users do realize the advantages of the complementary approach with compact simulators: 1. They can be available quickly for starting the training process. 2. They cover a training field that is not (or partly) addressed by full-scope simulators, i.e., the demonstration of physical phenomena in normal and accidental situations

  18. Investigation of the contributors to wrong unit or wrong train events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persinko, D.; Ramey-Smith, A.

    1986-04-01

    This report presents information on human error in nuclear power plants causing actions to be performed on the wrong train of systems with redundant trains or on the wrong unit of a multi-unit facility. 10 refs

  19. An Integrated Database of Unit Training Performance: Description an Lessons Learned

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leibrecht, Bruce

    1997-01-01

    The Army Research Institute (ARI) has developed a prototype relational database for processing and archiving unit performance data from home station, training area, simulation based, and Combat Training Center training exercises...

  20. Compressed Air Quality, A Case Study In Paiton Coal Fired Power Plant Unit 1 And 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indah, Nur; Kusuma, Yuriadi; Mardani

    2018-03-01

    The compressed air system becomes part of a very important utility system in a Plant, including the Steam Power Plant. In PLN’S coal fired power plant, Paiton units 1 and 2, there are four Centrifugal air compressor types, which produce compressed air as much as 5.652 cfm and with electric power capacity of 1200 kW. Electricity consumption to operate centrifugal compressor is 7.104.117 kWh per year. Compressed air generation is not only sufficient in quantity (flow rate) but also meets the required air quality standards. compressed air at Steam Power Plant is used for; service air, Instrument air, and for fly Ash. This study aims to measure some important parameters related to air quality, followed by potential disturbance analysis, equipment breakdown or reduction of energy consumption from existing compressed air conditions. These measurements include counting the number of dust particles, moisture content, relative humidity, and also compressed air pressure. From the measurements, the compressed air pressure generated by the compressor is about 8.4 barg and decreased to 7.7 barg at the furthest point, so the pressure drop is 0.63 barg, this number satisfies the needs in the end user. The measurement of the number of particles contained in compressed air, for particle of 0.3 micron reaches 170,752 particles, while for the particle size 0.5 micron reaches 45,245 particles. Measurements of particles conducted at several points of measurement. For some point measurements the number of dust particle exceeds the standard set by ISO 8573.1-2010 and also NACE Code, so it needs to be improved on the air treatment process. To see the amount of moisture content in compressed air, it is done by measuring pressure dew point temperature (PDP). Measurements were made at several points with results ranging from -28.4 to 30.9 °C. The recommendation of improving compressed air quality in steam power plant, Paiton unit 1 and 2 has the potential to extend the life of

  1. Rates of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Monique L; Cox, Margueritte; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Nichol, Graham; Thomas, Kevin L; Chan, Paul S; Saha-Chaudhuri, Paramita; Fosbol, Emil L; Eigel, Brian; Clendenen, Bill; Peterson, Eric D

    2014-02-01

    Prompt bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves the likelihood of surviving an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Large regional variations in survival after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest have been noted. To determine whether regional variations in county-level rates of CPR training exist across the United States and the factors associated with low rates in US counties. We used a cross-sectional ecologic study design to analyze county-level rates of CPR training in all US counties from July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011. We used CPR training data from the American Heart Association, the American Red Cross, and the Health & Safety Institute. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we examined the association of annual rates of adult CPR training of citizens by these 3 organizations (categorized as tertiles) with a county's geographic, population, and health care characteristics. Completion of CPR training. Rate of CPR training measured as CPR course completion cards distributed and CPR training products sold by the American Heart Association, persons trained in CPR by the American Red Cross, and product sales data from the Health & Safety Institute. RESULTS During the study period, 13.1 million persons in 3143 US counties received CPR training. Rates of county training ranged from 0.00% to less than 1.29% (median, 0.51%) in the lower tertile, 1.29% to 4.07% (median, 2.39%) in the middle tertile, and greater than 4.07% or greater (median, 6.81%) in the upper tertile. Counties with rates of CPR training in the lower tertile were more likely to have a higher proportion of rural areas (adjusted odds ratio, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.10-1.15] per 5-percentage point [PP] change), higher proportions of black (1.09 [1.06-1.13] per 5-PP change) and Hispanic (1.06 [1.02-1.11] per 5-PP change) residents, a lower median household income (1.18 [1.04-1.34] per $10 000 decrease), and a higher median age (1.28 [1.04-1.58] per 10-year change). Counties in the South

  2. Assessment methods in surgical training in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenios Evgeniou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used.

  3. Proposition of primary methods for nitrogen oxides emissions reduction at coal-fired 200 MW power unit (Yugoslavia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repic, B.; Mladenovic, R.; Crnomarkovic, N.

    1997-01-01

    The combustion of coal is followed by increased pollution of the environment with toxic products. Together with the generation of other pollutants, the emission of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) represents, due to its high toxicity, a great environmental risk. Appropriate measures must be taken for lowering NO x emission, both on new facilities and those already in operation. Basic technologies (primary reduction methods) of several generations, developed until now and used in practice, are presented in the paper. The technologies applicable on domestic facilities and adjusted to domestic coals have been given particular consideration. Proposition of primary methods for NO x emission reduction at coal-fired 200 MW power unit at TPS 'Nikola Tesla' is analyzed. The following methods have been considered in detail: flue gases recirculation, multi-stage combustion, low-NO x burners, additional over-fire air, multi-stage air intake into the furnace, staged fuel injection, grinding fineness increase, etc. Considerations were performed according to existing constructive characteristics of the furnace and the burners, and characteristics of used fuels, i. e. lignites from Kolubara pit. (Author)

  4. A Reflection and Comparison of Physician Training in the United States of America and United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit S. Aiyer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As a final year medical student at the University of Birmingham in England, I am very familiar with the training structure of physicians in the National Health Service (NHS. Recently, I had the opportunity to do 4 months of clinical electives at the University of Massachusetts in Worcester, Massachusetts and Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City, New York. This experience allowed me to gain insight on the American training system for medical student graduates that provided a new perspective on physician training. The following reflection will be based on my experiences in the two countries and focus on the working guidelines for junior doctors in the United States that is based on the Accredited Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME Duty Hours protocol, and will be compared to the European Work Time Directive (EWTD guidelines for British junior doctors.

  5. Performance of double source boiler with coal-fired and solar power tower heat for supercritical power generating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Maolong; Du, Xiaoze; Pang, Liping; Xu, Chao; Yang, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    An approach of high-efficiency utilization of solar energy was proposed, by which the high concentrated heat received by the solar tower was integrated to the supercritical coal-fired boiler. Two schemes that solar energy was used to heat superheat steam or subcooled feed water were presented. The thermodynamic and heat transfer models were established. For a practical 660 MW supercritical power generating unit, the standard coal consumption of power generation could be decreased by more than 17 g/kWh by such double source boiler. The drawbacks of both schemes were found and then were amended by adding a flue gas bypass to the boiler. It also can be concluded that the maximum solar contribution of two schemes for the gross power generation are 6.11% and 4.90%, respectively. The solar power efficiency of the re-modified designs were demonstrated be superior to that of PS10. In terms of turbine efficiency, the comparisons with Solar Two plant having similar initial temperature found that the efficiency of Scheme I was 5.25% higher than that of Solar Two while the advantage of Scheme II was existing either. Additionally, in two schemes with flue bypass when the medium was extracted, the thermal efficiency of boiler could be improved as well. - Highlights: • High concentrated solar tower heat is integrated to the supercritical coal-fired boiler. • The double source boiler can use solar energy to heat superheat steam or subcooled feed water. • Power generating coal consumption can be reduced by more than 17 g/kWh by the double source boiler. • The solar contribution of double source boiler for the gross power generation can be as high as 6.11%.

  6. PAHs underfoot: contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter C. Van Metre; Barbara J. Mahler; Jennifer T. Wilson [U.S. Geological Survey, Austin, TX (USA)

    2009-01-15

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U.S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of {Sigma}PAHs associated with sealcoat. Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U.S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U.S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median SPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median SPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2.1 and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. PAHs underfoot: Contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.; Wilson, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U. S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of PAHs associated with sealcoat Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U. S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U. S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2. 1 and 0. 8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted.

  8. Washability equations of raw coal from some lithostratigraphic units of the Upper Silesian coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    On the basis of statistical analysis, partial and general washability equations have been calculated for coarse and slack raw coal from the Upper Silesian Coalfield. The equations make it possible to forecast the quantity and quality of saleable products, and to select preparation plant equipment.

  9. Improving the effectiveness of boiler units with coal dust systems equipped with mill-ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsukov, V. K.

    2007-09-01

    Problems pertinent to controlling the load of steam boilers and coal dust systems equipped with mill-ventilators are analyzed. A comprehensive set of patented technical solutions for these problems is presented. A formula for determining the ventilation output of mill-ventilators as a function of the fuel charge is proposed.

  10. Assessment of the relative socioeconomic effects of increased coal development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenehjem, E.J.; Santini, D.J.

    1979-12-01

    This report contains a description of the Social and Economic Assessment Model, which is used to analyze the social and economic effects of energy development at the regional and county levels. Using the SEAM, the effects of coal mines and coal-fired utilities projected for over 340 US counties are examined. The study utilizes a clustering algorithm to determine the assimilative capacity of a county, that is, the county's ability to sustain the effects of an influx of population and thus an increased demand on its resources. The results of the clustering algorithm are used, together with county demographic data, as well as data on projected facility location, size, timing, and type, to estimate socioeconomic effects in terms of public costs that will be imposed on the affected populations. These results are aggregated to the regional level to give a rough estimate of the relative regional effects of coal development. The results indicate that 93% of the entire long-term, adverse impact from coal will be borne by states and counties of the Rocky Mountain area, whereas only 14% of the short-term impacts will be borne by this region. About 42% of the short-term costs will occur in the Southern region and 33% in the North Central region, but only 5% of the long-term costs are estimated for these two regions. Of the four major Census regions (Northeast, South, North Central, and West) only the Northeast is expected to be relatively free of community growth problems caused by coal development.

  11. Prospects for coal: technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, W G; Peirce, T J

    1983-07-01

    This article summarises the reasons for predicting an increase in the use of coal as an industrial energy source in the United Kingdom. The development of efficient and reliable coal-burning techniques is therefore of great importance. Various techniques are then discussed, including conventional combustion systems, fluidised bed combustion systems, fluidised bed boilers and furnaces, coal and ash handling, coal-liquid mixtures, coal gasification and coal liquefaction. (4 refs.)

  12. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  13. Aesthetic Surgery Training during Residency in the United States: A Comparison of the Integrated, Combined, and Independent Training Models

    OpenAIRE

    Momeni, Arash; Kim, Rebecca Y.; Wan, Derrick C.; Izadpanah, Ali; Lee, Gordon K.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Three educational models for plastic surgery training exist in the United States, the integrated, combined, and independent model. The present study is a comparative analysis of aesthetic surgery training, to assess whether one model is particularly suitable to provide for high-quality training in aesthetic surgery. Methods. An 18-item online survey was developed to assess residents’ perceptions regarding the quality of training in aesthetic surgery in the US. The survey had three...

  14. Differences in dermatology training abroad: A comparative analysis of dermatology training in the United States and in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jhorar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dermatology residency training is not standardized internationally, and each country dictates how training is conducted within its own borders. This article highlights the types of variability in training that can occur from country to country by comparing dermatology residency training programs in the United States and India. This article specifically analyzes the differences that pertain to application and selection, residency program structure, and post-residency opportunities.

  15. Nuclear instrument maintenance and technical training in Nuclear Energy Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Nasir Abdul Wahid

    1987-01-01

    Instrument maintenance service is a necessity in a Nuclear Research Institute, such as the Nuclear Energy Unit (NEU) to ensure the smooth running of our research activities. However, realising that maintenance back-up service for either nuclear or other scientific equipment is a major problem in developing countries such as Malaysia, NEU has set up an Instrumentation and Control Department to assist in rectifying the maintenance problem. Beside supporting in house activities in NEU, the Instrumentation and Control Department (I and C) is also geared into providing services to other organisations in Malaysia. This paper will briefly outline the activities of NEU in nuclear instrument maintenance as well as in technical training. (author)

  16. Research on structural integration of thermodynamic system for double reheat coal-fired unit with CO2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanjing; Shao, Wenjing; Wang, Zhiyue; Fu, Wenfeng; Zhao, Wensheng

    2018-02-01

    Taking the MEA chemical absorption carbon capture system with 85% of the carbon capture rate of a 660MW ultra-super critical unit as an example,this paper puts forward a new type of turbine which dedicated to supply steam to carbon capture system. The comparison of the thermal systems of the power plant under different steam supply schemes by using the EBSILON indicated optimal extraction scheme for Steam Extraction System in Carbon Capture System. The results show that the cycle heat efficiency of the unit introduced carbon capture turbine system is higher than that of the usual scheme without it. With the introduction of the carbon capture turbine, the scheme which extracted steam from high pressure cylinder’ s steam input point shows the highest cycle thermal efficiency. Its indexes are superior to other scheme, and more suitable for existing coal-fired power plant integrated post combustion carbon dioxide capture system.

  17. Coal. [1987 and 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    Despite increases in recently negotiated coal prices in US dollar terms, unit export returns for Australian coal are expected to rise only marginally in 1988-89 due to the anticipated appreciation of the Australian dollar. Australian coal production is expected to recover in 1988-89, after falling in 1987-88. A table summarising coal statistics in 1985-87 is presented. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The influence of selected parameters on the efficiency and economic charactersistics of the oxy-type coal unit with a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a 600 MW oxy-type coal unit with a pulverized bed boiler and a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator and carbon capture installation was analyzed. A membrane-cryogenic oxygen separation installation consists of a membrane module and two cryogenic distillation columns. In this system oxygen is produced with the purity equal to 95%. Installation of carbon capture was based on the physical separation method and allows to reduce the CO2 emission by 90%. In this work the influence of the main parameter of the membrane process – the selectivity coefficient, on the efficiency of the coal unit was presented. The economic analysis with the use of the break-even point method was carried out. The economic calculations were realized in view of the break-even price of electricity depending on a coal unit availability.

  19. Co-firing Bosnian coals with woody biomass: Experimental studies on a laboratory-scale furnace and 110 MWe power unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of research into cofiring two Bosnian cola types, brown coal and lignite, with woody biomass, in this case spruce sawdust. The aim of the research was to find the optimal blend of coal and sawdust that may be substituted for 100% coal in large coal-fired power stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Two groups of experimental tests were performed in this study: laboratory testing of co-firing and trial runs on a large-scale plant based on the laboratory research results. A laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated and entrained pulverized-fuel flow furnace. Coal-sawdust blends of 93:7% by weight and 80:20% by weight were tested. Co-firing trials were conducted over a range of the following process variables: process temperature, excess air ratio and air distribution. Neither of the two coal-sawdust blends used produced any significant ash-related problems provided the blend volume was 7% by weight sawdust and the process temperature did not exceed 1250ºC. It was observed that in addition to the nitrogen content in the co-fired blend, the volatile content and particle size distribution of the mixture also influenced the level of NOx emissions. The brown coal-sawdust blend generated a further reduction of SO2 due to the higher sulphur capture rate than for coal alone. Based on and following the laboratory research findings, a trial run was carried out in a large-scale utility - the Kakanj power station, Unit 5 (110 MWe, using two mixtures; one in which 5%/wt and one in which 7%/wt of brown coal was replaced with sawdust. Compared to a reference firing process with 100% coal, these co-firing trials produced a more intensive redistribution of the alkaline components in the slag in the melting chamber, with a consequential beneficial effect on the deposition of ash on the superheater surfaces of the boiler. The outcome of the tests confirms the feasibility of using 7%wt of sawdust in combination

  20. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of

  1. 78 FR 20176 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... renewable electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45... resources, and to 2013 sales of refined coal and Indian coal produced in the United States or a possession...

  2. 77 FR 21835 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45. DATES: The 2012... sales of refined coal and Indian coal produced in the United States or a possession thereof. Inflation...

  3. Development of brown coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilmann, W

    1985-01-01

    The significance of brown coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany for the development of opencast technology and the power industry is discussed with emphasis on mining in the Rhineland Area. In 1984, 126.7 mt of brown coal were produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. In the development of high-performance equipment it is essential that the efficiency of the bucket-wheel excavator is increased. Trains and conveyors are mainly used for mine transport in the Federal Republic of Germany. A high moral commitment is linked to land claims, recultivation and environmental issues on the part of brown coal mining. In 1984 the percentage share of brown coal supplied to the public power stations was 83.6%, corresponding to 105.9 mt. The installed capacity of all brown coal power stations amounted to 12,764 MW at the end of 1984, providing around one quarter of overall public power output. Charge coal for coal refining has become more important and the production of brown coal dust and brown coal coke has also increased. The share of brown coal in domestic primary energy production is currently around 24% of 151 mt hard-coal units or around 10% of 376.5 mt hard-coal units in terms of energy consumption. 12 references.

  4. Coal information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  5. Low-Btu coal gasification in the United States: company topical. [Brick producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesch, L.P.; Hylton, B.G.; Bhatt, C.S.

    1983-07-01

    Hazelton and other brick producers have proved the reliability of the commercial size Wellman-Galusha gasifier. For this energy intensive business, gas cost is the major portion of the product cost. Costs required Webster/Hazelton to go back to the old, reliable alternative energy of low Btu gasification when the natural gas supply started to be curtailed and prices escalated. Although anthracite coal prices have skyrocketed from $34/ton (1979) to over $71.50/ton (1981) because of high demand (local as well as export) and rising labor costs, the delivered natural gas cost, which reached $3.90 to 4.20/million Btu in the Hazelton area during 1981, has allowed the producer gas from the gasifier at Webster Brick to remain competitive. The low Btu gas cost (at the escalated coal price) is estimated to be $4/million Btu. In addition to producing gas that is cost competitive with natural gas at the Webster Brick Hazelton plant, Webster has the security of knowing that its gas supply will be constant. Improvements in brick business and projected deregulation of the natural gas price may yield additional, attractive cost benefits to Webster Brick through the use of low Btu gas from these gasifiers. Also, use of hot raw gas (that requires no tar or sulfur removal) keeps the overall process efficiency high. 25 references, 47 figures, 14 tables.

  6. Operative training in otolaryngology in the United Kingdom: a specialist registrar survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgalas, Christos; Hadjihannas, Edward; Ghufoor, Khalid; Pracy, Paul; Papesch, Michael

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the current status of operative training for otolaryngology specialist registrars in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Web-based questionnaire survey. PARTICIPANTS: All otolaryngology specialist registrars in the United Kingdom. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The overall satisfaction with

  7. Automated system of monitoring and positioning of functional units of mining technological machines for coal-mining enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshcheryakov Yaroslav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is show to the development of an automated monitoring and positioning system for functional nodes of mining technological machines. It describes the structure, element base, algorithms for identifying the operating states of a walking excavator; various types of errors in the functioning of microelectromechanical gyroscopes and accelerometers, as well as methods for their correction based on the Madgwick fusion filter. The results of industrial tests of an automated monitoring and positioning system for functional units on one of the opencast coal mines of Kuzbass are presented. This work is addressed to specialists working in the fields of the development of embedded systems and control systems, radio electronics, mechatronics, and robotics.

  8. Comparison of Plastic Surgery Residency Training in United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianmin; Zhang, Boheng; Yin, Yiqing; Fang, Taolin; Wei, Ning; Lineaweaver, William C; Zhang, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Residency training is internationally recognized as the only way for the physicians to be qualified to practice independently. China has instituted a new residency training program for the specialty of plastic surgery. Meanwhile, plastic surgery residency training programs in the United States are presently in a transition because of restricted work hours. The purpose of this study is to compare the current characteristics of plastic surgery residency training in 2 countries. Flow path, structure, curriculum, operative experience, research, and evaluation of training in 2 countries were measured. The number of required cases was compared quantitatively whereas other aspects were compared qualitatively. Plastic surgery residency training programs in 2 countries differ regarding specific characteristics. Requirements to become a plastic surgery resident in the United States are more rigorous. Ownership structure of the regulatory agency for residency training in 2 countries is diverse. Training duration in the United States is more flexible. Clinical and research training is more practical and the method of evaluation of residency training is more reasonable in the United States. The job opportunities after residency differ substantially between 2 countries. Not every resident has a chance to be an independent surgeon and would require much more training time in China than it does in the United States. Plastic surgery residency training programs in the United States and China have their unique characteristics. The training programs in the United States are more standardized. Both the United States and China may complement each other to create training programs that will ultimately provide high-quality care for all people.

  9. Correlation chart of Pennsylvanian rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania showing approximate position of coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units: Chapter D.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin, one of the largest Pennsylvanian bituminous coal-producing regions in the world, currently contains nearly one-half of the top 15 coal-producing States in the United States (Energy Information Agency, 2006). Anthracite of Pennsylvanian age occurs in synclinal basins in eastern Pennsylvania, but production is minimal. A simplified correlation chart was compiled from published and unpublished sources as a means of visualizing currently accepted stratigraphic relations between the rock formations, coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. The thickness of each column is based on chronostratigraphic divisions (Lower, Middle, and Upper Pennsylvanian), not the thickness of strata. Researchers of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin also use biostratigraphic markers and other relative and absolute geologic age associations between the rocks to better understand the spatial relations of the strata. Thus, the stratigraphic correlation data in this chart should be considered provisional and will be updated as coal-bearing rocks within the Appalachian coal regions continue to be evaluated.

  10. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  11. Correlation of United States Medical Licensing Examination and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jose A., Jr.; Greer, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (ITE) is administered during residency training in the United States as a self-assessment and program assessment tool. Performance on this exam correlates with outcome on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying examination. Internal Medicine Program Directors use the United States Medical…

  12. Science-practice nexus for landslide surveying: technical training for local government units in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, A. L.; Hespiantoro, S.; Dyar, D.; Balzer, D.; Kuhn, D.; Torizin, J.; Fuchs, M.; Kastl, S.; Anhorn, J.

    2017-02-01

    The Indonesian archipelago is prone to various geological hazards on an almost day to day basis. In order to mitigate disaster risk and reduce losses, the government uses its unique setup of ministerial training institutions. The Centre for Development of Human Resources in Geology, Mineral and Coal offers different level of technical training to local governments in order to provide them with the necessary means to understand geological hazards, mitigate risks, and hence close the gap between local and national governments. One key factor has been the continuous incorporation of new scientific knowledge into their training curricula. The paper presents benefits and challenges of this science-practice nexus using the standardised landslide survey as one example where mobile technology has been introduced to the training just recently.

  13. Improvement of the System of Training of Specialists by University for Coal Mining Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhalchenko, Vadim; Seredkina, Irina

    2017-11-01

    In the article the ingenious technique of the Quality Function Deployment with reference to the process of training of specialists with higher education by university is considered. The method is based on the step-by-step conversion of customer requirements into specific organizational, meaningful and functional transformations of the technological process of the university. A fully deployed quality function includes four stages of tracking customer requirements while creating a product: product planning and design, process design, production design. The Quality Function Deployment can be considered as one of the methods for optimizing the technological processes of training of specialists with higher education in the current economic conditions. Implemented at the initial stages of the life cycle of the technological process, it ensures not only the high quality of the "product" of graduate school, but also the fullest possible satisfaction of consumer's requests and expectations.

  14. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from a Coal-Fired Boiler Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuikov, Andrey V.; Feoktistov, Dmitry V.; Koshurnikova, Natalya N.; Zlenko, Lyudmila V.

    2016-02-01

    During combustion of fossil fuels a large amount of harmful substances are discharged into the atmospheres of cities by industrial heating boiler houses. The most harmful substances among them are nitrogen oxides. The paper presents one of the most effective technological solutions for suppressing nitrogen oxides; it is arrangement of circulation process with additional mounting of the nozzle directed into the bottom of the ash hopper. When brown high-moisture coals are burnt in the medium power boilers, generally fuel nitrogen oxides are produced. It is possible to reduce their production by two ways: lowering the temperature in the core of the torch or decreasing the excess-air factor in the boiler furnace. Proposed solution includes the arrangement of burning process with additional nozzle installed in the lower part of the ash hopper. Air supply from these nozzles creates vortex involving large unburned fuel particles in multiple circulations. Thereby time of their staying in the combustion zone is prolonging. The findings describe the results of the proposed solution; and recommendations for the use of this technological method are given for other boilers.

  15. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from a Coal-Fired Boiler Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuikov Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During combustion of fossil fuels a large amount of harmful substances are discharged into the atmospheres of cities by industrial heating boiler houses. The most harmful substances among them are nitrogen oxides. The paper presents one of the most effective technological solutions for suppressing nitrogen oxides; it is arrangement of circulation process with additional mounting of the nozzle directed into the bottom of the ash hopper. When brown high-moisture coals are burnt in the medium power boilers, generally fuel nitrogen oxides are produced. It is possible to reduce their production by two ways: lowering the temperature in the core of the torch or decreasing the excess-air factor in the boiler furnace. Proposed solution includes the arrangement of burning process with additional nozzle installed in the lower part of the ash hopper. Air supply from these nozzles creates vortex involving large unburned fuel particles in multiple circulations. Thereby time of their staying in the combustion zone is prolonging. The findings describe the results of the proposed solution; and recommendations for the use of this technological method are given for other boilers.

  16. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  17. Global Diversity and Academic Success of Foreign-Trained Academic Neurosurgeons in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Akshitkumar M; Ganesh Kumar, Nishant; Reynolds, Rebecca A; Hale, Andrew T; Wellons, John C; Naftel, Robert P

    2017-08-01

    To quantify the proportion of academic neurosurgeons practicing in the United States who acquired residency training outside of the United States and compare their training backgrounds and academic success with those who received their residency training in the United States. We identified 1338 clinically active academic neurosurgeons from 104 programs that participated in the neurosurgery residency match in the United States in January-February 2015. Their training backgrounds, current academic positions, and history of National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant awards between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from publicly accessible sources. Eighty-four U.S. academic neurosurgeons (6.3%) received their residency training in 20 different countries outside of the United States/Puerto Rico, representing all major regions of the world. The majority trained in Canada (n = 48). We found no major differences between the foreign-trained and U.S.-trained neurosurgeons in male:female ratio, year of starting residency, proportion with positions in medical schools ranked in the top 15 by the U.S. News and World Report, general distribution of academic positions, and proportion with an NIH grant. Compared with U.S.-trained academic neurosurgeons, foreign-trained academic neurosurgeons had a significantly higher proportion of Ph.D. degrees (32.1% vs. 12.3%; P neurosurgeons were widely distributed throughout the United States. A small group of U.S. academic neurosurgeons (6.3%) have acquired residency training outside of the United States, representing all major regions of the world. Their general demographic data and academic accomplishments are comparable to those of U.S.-trained neurosurgeons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Systems-Based Aspects in the Training of IMG or Previously Trained Residents: Comparison of Psychiatry Residency Training in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Gaurav; Mazhar, Mir Nadeem; Uga, Aghaegbulam; Punwani, Manisha; Broquet, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: International medical graduates (IMGs) account for a significant proportion of residents in psychiatric training in the United States. Many IMGs may have previously completed psychiatry residency training in other countries. Their experiences may improve our system. Authors compared and contrasted psychiatry residency training in the…

  19. Foreign Language Training in the United States Peace Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakow, Allan

    This document reports on the foreign language training offered in the Peace Corps. Following a brief introductory statement, a list of languages taught by the Peace Corps in the years 1961-67 is provided, as well as a brief description of Peace Corps language training methods. Guidelines for language coordinators are outlined, and the approach to…

  20. Collective Training and Fielding Opportunities for the Objective Force Maneuver Systems at the Unit of Action Level in a Unit Manning/Unit Replacement Personnel System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Courts, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of Objective Force formations, beginning with the first Unit of Action, will fundamentally change existing organizational structures, training requirements and operational constructs for the U.S. Army...

  1. Training and Organizational Commitment among Nurses in New Zealand and United States Public Hospitals Experiencing Industry and Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Kenneth; Kang, Dae-seok

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between employee attitudes towards training and organizational commitment among a sample of nurses in New Zealand and the United States. Results show that perceived access to training, training frequency, motivation to learn from training, benefits of training, and supervisory support for training were…

  2. Plutonium Finishing Plant Treatment and Storage Unit Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENTROP, G.E.

    2000-01-01

    The training program for personnel performing waste management duties pertaining to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit is governed by the general requirements established in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Dangerous Waste Training Plan (PFP DWTP). The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit DWTP presented below incorporates all of the components of the PFP DWTP by reference. The discussion presented in this document identifies aspects of the training program specific to the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit. The training program includes specifications for personnel instruction through both classroom and on-the-job training. Training is developed specific to waste management duties. Hanford Facility personnel directly involved with the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit will receive training to container management practices, spill response, and emergency response. These will include, for example, training in the cementation process and training pertaining to applicable elements of WAC 173-303-330(1)(d). Applicable elements from WAC 173-303-330(1)(d) for the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit include: procedures for inspecting, repairing, and replacing facility emergency and monitoring equipment; communications and alarm systems; response to fires or explosions; and shutdown of operations

  3. Coal development potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M N; Pelofsky, A H [eds.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 48 papers were presented, and covered the following topics: the current situation in Pakistan with respect to development and utilization of coal resources; the policies that have been responsible for the development and utilization of coal resources in Pakistan; coal development and utilization in other developing nations e.g. Indonesia, Greece, Philippines, China, Thailand and Haiti; and technological developments in coal exploration; extraction, handling, transport and utilization which could accelerate future development of Pakistan's coal resources. Specific subjects covered include the use of coal in the cement industry of Pakistan; the production of briquettes for domestic use, development and training of personnel for the coal industry; and sources of finance for coal development projects. Particular emphasis is given throughout the conference to the Lakhra coal mine/power plant project which aims to develop and effectively utilize the lignite reserves of Sind Province. 47 papers have been abstracted separately.

  4. Special requirements for the fluid mechanical design of hard coal-fired SCR retrofit units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The system design of high-dust SCR units for retrofits is a challenge that is to be mastered in order to meet the fluid mechanical requirements. Retrofitting power plants with NOx control technologies is a cost-intensive adventure that many utilities are undertaking. Except for a few recent new boiler installations, SCR installations must be considered as retrofit projects. In most cases the limitation of space on site entails unfavorable conditions that do not allow appropriate upstream conditions for SCR catalysts. To comply with the requirements of high performance DeNOx systems and to lower the investment costs for retrofit units, several technical solutions and concepts for the reactor layout, for NOx and dust distribution, for flow stabilization in diffusers, and advanced ammonia injection systems are explained in this paper. Balcke-Duerr offers customer-tailored solutions for flow optimization, which are evaluated by model studies. Physical flow and dust model tests in an appropriate scale provide flexibility to test various engineering concepts. The experience of Balcke-Duerr is based on continuous research and development activities over the last 25 years and more than 350 executed projects for gas flow optimization applications. The success of these installations is a direct result of the key decisions based on the improved fluid mechanical design and proper system integration. This paper also identifies the sensible design particularities and solutions that have two be considered in the fluid mechanical design of high-dust SCR retrofit units. This article demonstrates that the layout of SCR units must be carefully reviewed in order to meet the performance requirements and to avoid problems, i.e. wear, catalyst plugging and ammonia slip. 9 refs., 18 figs.

  5. Wearing a training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, astronaut Mario

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    STS-77 TRAINING VIEW --- Wearing a training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, astronaut Mario Runco, mission specialist, prepares to participate in an underwater rehearsal of a contingency Extravehicular Activity (EVA). This type of training routinely takes place in the 25-feet deep pool of the Johnson Space Centers (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Center (WET-F). The training prepares at least two crew members on each flight for procedures to follow outside the spacecraft in event of failure of remote methods to perform various chores.

  6. Too Much Coal, Too Little Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick van der Ploeg; Cees Withagen

    2011-01-01

    Optimal climate policy is studied. Coal, the abundant resource, contributes more CO2 per unit of energy than the exhaustible resource, oil. We characterize the optimal sequencing oil and coal and departures from the Herfindahl rule. "Preference reversal" can take place. If coal is very dirty compared to oil, there is no simultaneous use. Else, the optimal outcome starts with oil, before using oil and coal together, and finally coal on its own, The "laissez-faire" outcome uses coal forever or ...

  7. An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management ______________________________________ By...Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management 6...Level Training; United States Marine Corps; Operations Management ; Supply Chain Management; Process Analysis 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  8. On-Demand Interactive Simulation-Centered Training for Small Unit Tactics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Munro, Allen

    2003-01-01

    Training on small unit infantry tactics in both the context of present-day infantry operations and in Objective Force Warrior contexts may benefit from the use of interactive graphics with behavioral...

  9. Safety analysis of the CSTR-1 bench-scale coal liquefaction unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulburt, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the CSTR-1 bench scale unit located in Building 167 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. It was apparent that considerable effort was expended in the design and construction of the unit, and in the development of operating procedures, with regard to safety. Exhaust ventilation, H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S monitoring, overpressure protection, overtemperature protection, and interlock systems have been provided. Present settings on the pressure and temperature safety systems are too high, however, to insure prevention of vessel deformation or damage in all cases. While the occurrence of catastrophic rupture of a system pressure vessel (e.g., reactor, high pressure separators) is unlikely, the potential consequences to personnel are severe. Feasibility of providing shielding for these components should be considered. A more probable mode of vessel failure in the event of overpressure or overtemperature and failure of the safety system is yielding of the closure bolts followed by high pressure flow across the mating surfaces. As a minimum, shielding should be designed to restrict travel of resultant spray. The requirements for personal protective equipment are presently stated in rather broad and general terms in the operating procedures. Safe practices and procedures would be more assured if specific requirements were stated and included for each operational step. Recommendations were developed for all hazards triggered by the guidelines.

  10. Global thermal coal trade outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, E.

    2008-01-01

    Wood Mackenzie operates coal consulting offices in several cities around the world and is the number one consulting company in terms of global coal coverage. The company offers a unique mine-by-mine research methodology, and owns a proprietary modeling system for coal and power market forecasting. This presentation provided an overview of global thermal markets as well as recent market trends. Seaborne markets have an impact on price far greater than the volume of trade would imply. Research has also demonstrated that the global thermal coal market is divided between the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. The current status of several major coal exporting countries such as Canada, the United States, Venezuela, Colombia, Indonesia, Australia, China, South Africa, and Russia was displayed in an illustration. The presentation included several graphs indicating that the seaborne thermal coal market is highly concentrated; traditional coal flow and pricing trends shift as Asian demand growth and supply constraints lead to chronic under supply; coal prices have risen to historic highs in recent times; and, the Asian power sector demand is a major driver of future growth. The correlation between oil and gas markets to thermal coal was illustrated along with two scenarios of coal use in the United States in a carbon-constrained world. The impact of carbon legislation on coal demand from selected coal regions in the United States was also discussed. Wood Mackenzie forecasts a very strong growth in global thermal coal demand, driven largely by emerging Asian economies. tabs., figs

  11. Thirty five years of COIG - information science in service of progress. [Central Calculation Office for Coal Industry Enterprises, Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heblinski, J.

    1985-12-01

    Development is evaluated for the COIG (Central Calculation Office for Coal Industry Enterprises), founded in 1950. In the first phase of its activities the Office concentrated on preparation of statistical data on coal industry in Poland. Range of activities was enlarged in 1969 after the ICL 1904S computer was installed. In 1975 CIOG was transformed into a research institute. CIOG consists of a central unit in Katowice and 7 branches. It has 1600 employees (including 96 researchers). CIOG develops computerized control systems and information systems for coal mining (19 information systems have been developed). The Office analyzes coal reserves, efficiency of coal mining, coal losses, resource conservation, mining systems, energy consumption in mining. It also coordinates development of computerized control systems in mines and organizes training for coal mine personnel.

  12. An Integrated Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model and AHP Weighting Uncertainty Analysis for Sustainability Assessment of Coal-Fired Power Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianfa Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the power generation industry from coal-based to more sustainable energy sources is an irreversible trend. In China, the coal-fired power plant, as the main electric power supply facility at present, needs to know its own sustainability level to face the future competition. A hybrid multi-criteria decision making (MCDM model is proposed in this paper to assess the sustainability levels of the existing Chinese coal-fired power units. The areal grey relational analysis (AGRA method is involved in the hybrid model, and a combined weighting method is used to determine the priorities of the criteria. The combining weight fuses the fuzzy rough set (FRS and entropy objective weighting method together with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP subjective weighting method by game theory. Moreover, an AHP weighting uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo (MC simulation is introduced to measure the uncertainty of the results, and a 95 percent confidence interval (CI is defined as the uncertainty measurement of the alternatives. A case study about eight coal-fired power units is carried out with a criteria system, which contains five aspects in an operational perspective, such as the flexibility, economic, environmental, reliability and technical criterion. The sustainability assessment is performed at the unit level, and the results give a priority rank of the eight alternatives; additionally, the uncertainty analysis supplies the extra information from a statistical perspective. This work expands a novel hybrid MCDM method to the sustainability assessment of the power generation systems, and it may be a benefit to the energy enterprises in assessing the sustainability at the unit level and enhance its ability in future sustainable development.

  13. New control and safety rod unit for the training reactor of the Dresden Technical University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, E.; Schab, J.; Knorr, J.

    1983-01-01

    The extension of the experimental training of students at the training reactor AKR of the Dresden Technical University requires the reconstruction of the reactor with a new control and safety rod unit. The specific conditions at the AKR led to a new variant. Results of preliminary experiments, design and mode of operation of the first unit as well as hitherto gained operation experiences are presented. (author)

  14. Training Teachers in the United Kingdom for a Multicultural Society--The Rhetoric and the Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Keith

    1984-01-01

    Urges the introduction of more courses in multiracial and multicultural education in training institutions in the United Kingdom, rather than blaming the teachers for being racist and/or ethnocentric. In addition, a survey of teacher training institutions indicates that little is done in comparative education which would change ethnocentric…

  15. Impact of a mental health training course for correctional officers on a special housing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, George F

    2009-05-01

    This study determined the impact of a ten-hour mental health training program developed by the Indiana chapter of the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI-Indiana) for correctional officers on a prison special housing ("supermax") unit. The training was delivered to all of the correctional officers on the unit in five weekly sessions and was repeated 15 months later for new unit staff. The number of incidents reported by unit staff in standard monthly reports, consisting of use of force by the officers and battery by bodily waste on the officers by the offenders, was compared for the nine months before and after both training sessions. Attendance at the initial training ranged from 48 to 57 officers per session, and on the basis of Likert ratings, training was well received by the officers. The total number of incidents, the use of force by the officers, and battery by bodily waste all declined significantly after the first mental health training, and the total number of incidents and battery by bodily waste declined significantly after the second training. The provision of ten hours of mental health training to correctional officers was associated with a significant decline in use of force and battery by bodily waste.

  16. United States Japan Industry and Technology Management Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gercik, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    .... The intellectual focus of the Program is to integrate the research methodologies of the social sciences, the humanities, and technology to approach issues confronting the United States and Japan...

  17. Comparative study on the impact of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation in the western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1979-06-01

    A comparative study and quantitative assessment of the impacts, costs and benefits associated with the mining, processing and transportation of coal and uranium within the western states, specifically Arizona, California, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming are presented. The western states possess 49% of the US reserve coal base, 67% of the total identified reserves and 82% of the hypothetical reserves. Western coal production has increased at an average annual rate of about 22% since 1970 and should become the major US coal supplier in the 1980's. The Colorado Plateau (in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) and the Wyoming Basin areas account for 72% of the $15/lb U 3 O 8 resources, 76% of the $30/lb, and 75% of the $50/lb resources. It is apparent that the West will serve as the major supplier of domestic US coal and uranium fuels for at least the next several decades. Impacts considered are: environmental impacts, (land, water, air quality); health effects of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation; risks from transportation accidents; radiological impact of coal and uranium mining; social and economic impacts; and aesthetic impacts (land, air, noise, water, biota, and man-made objects). Economic benefits are discussed

  18. Comparative study on the impact of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1979-06-01

    A comparative study and quantitative assessment of the impacts, costs and benefits associated with the mining, processing and transportation of coal and uranium within the western states, specifically Arizona, California, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming are presented. The western states possess 49% of the US reserve coal base, 67% of the total identified reserves and 82% of the hypothetical reserves. Western coal production has increased at an average annual rate of about 22% since 1970 and should become the major US coal supplier in the 1980's. The Colorado Plateau (in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) and the Wyoming Basin areas account for 72% of the $15/lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ resources, 76% of the $30/lb, and 75% of the $50/lb resources. It is apparent that the West will serve as the major supplier of domestic US coal and uranium fuels for at least the next several decades. Impacts considered are: environmental impacts, (land, water, air quality); health effects of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation; risks from transportation accidents; radiological impact of coal and uranium mining; social and economic impacts; and aesthetic impacts (land, air, noise, water, biota, and man-made objects). Economic benefits are discussed.

  19. Full-scale ash deposition measurements at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 during suspension-firing of wood with and without coal ash addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    The formation of deposits during suspension-firing of wood at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 (AVV2) was studied by using an advanced deposit probe system. The tests were conducted both with and without coal ash addition, and at two different locations with flue gas temperatures of 1250-1300 oC and 750...... with a high flue gas temperature of 1250-1300 oC, although the addition of coal fly ash increased the differential deposit formation rate (DDF-rate) and the ash deposition propensity, the deposit removal frequency were considerably increased and the major shedding mechanism was changed from soot...... corrosion. At the location with a low flue gas temperature of 750-800 oC, the addition of coal fly ash reduced the ash deposition propensity and caused the formed deposits being easily removable. Moreover, the KCl and KOH/K2CO3 found in the low-temperature deposits without coal ash addition disappeared when...

  20. Coal prices rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  1. Coal comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchener, A.

    1991-01-01

    Coal's status as the dominant fuel for electricity generation is under threat because of concern over the environmental impacts of acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. All are produced when coal is burnt. Governments are therefore tightening the emission limits for fossil-fuel power plants. In the United Kingdom phased reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are planned. It will be the responsibility of the power generator to take the necessary steps to reduce the emissions. This will be done using a number of technologies which are explained and outlined briefly - flue gas desulfurization, separation of coal into high and low-sulphur coal, direct desulfurization of coal, circulating fluidised bed combustion, integrated-gasification combined cycle systems and topping cycles. All these technologies are aiming at cleaner, more efficient combustion of coal. (UK)

  2. 10 CFR 35.690 - Training for use of remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... radiation safety, radionuclide handling, treatment planning, quality assurance, and clinical use of... medical unit that includes— (i) 200 hours of classroom and laboratory training in the following areas— (A... administrative controls to prevent a medical event involving the use of byproduct material; (D) Implementing...

  3. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  4. Variability of Mercury Content in Coal Matter From Coal Seams of The Upper Silesia Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchowski, Krzysztof; Chećko, Jarosław; Pyka, Ireneusz

    2017-12-01

    The process of identifying and documenting the quality parameters of coal, as well as the conditions of coal deposition in the seam, is multi-stage and extremely expensive. The taking and analyzing of seam samples is the method of assessment of the quality and quantity parameters of coals in deep mines. Depending on the method of sampling, it offers quite precise assessment of the quality parameters of potential commercial coals. The main kind of seam samples under consideration are so-called "documentary seam samples", which exclude dirt bands and other seam contaminants. Mercury content in coal matter from the currently accessible and exploited coal seams of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) was assessed. It was noted that the mercury content in coal seams decreases with the age of the seam and, to a lesser extent, seam deposition depth. Maps of the variation of mercury content in selected lithostratigraphic units (layers) of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin have been created.

  5. Numerical simulation of aerodynamic performance of a couple multiple units high-speed train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ji-qiang; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Tang-hong; Liang, Xi-feng

    2017-05-01

    In order to determine the effect of the coupling region on train aerodynamic performance, and how the coupling region affects aerodynamic performance of the couple multiple units trains when they both run and pass each other in open air, the entrance of two such trains into a tunnel and their passing each other in the tunnel was simulated in Fluent 14.0. The numerical algorithm employed in this study was verified by the data of scaled and full-scale train tests, and the difference lies within an acceptable range. The results demonstrate that the distribution of aerodynamic forces on the train cars is altered by the coupling region; however, the coupling region has marginal effect on the drag and lateral force on the whole train under crosswind, and the lateral force on the train cars is more sensitive to couple multiple units compared to the other two force coefficients. It is also determined that the component of the coupling region increases the fluctuation of aerodynamic coefficients for each train car under crosswind. Affected by the coupling region, a positive pressure pulse was introduced in the alternating pressure produced by trains passing by each other in the open air, and the amplitude of the alternating pressure was decreased by the coupling region. The amplitude of the alternating pressure on the train or on the tunnel was significantly decreased by the coupling region of the train. This phenomenon did not alter the distribution law of pressure on the train and tunnel; moreover, the effect of the coupling region on trains passing by each other in the tunnel is stronger than that on a single train passing through the tunnel.

  6. Reconstruction of the aero-mixture channels of the pulverized coal plant of the 100MW power plant unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanovic Vladan B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After the last revitalization of thermal power block of 100 MW in TPP “Kostolac A”, made in the year 2004, during the operation of the plant, pulverized coal deposition often occurred in horizontal sections of the aero-mixture channels. Deposition phenomenon manifested itself in places ahead of spherical compensators in the direction of flow of pulverized coal to the burners, due to unfavorable configuration of these channels. Coal dust deposited in the channels dried and spontaneously combusted, causing numerous damage to channels and its isolation as well as the frequent stoppage of the operation for necessary interventions. The paper presents the original solution of reconstruction of aero-mixture channels which prevented deposition of coal dust and its eventual ignition. In this way the reliability of the mill plant is maximized and higher availability of boiler and block as a whole is achieved.

  7. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is

  8. Overcoming KC-10 Formal Training Unit Pilot Production Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    Additionally, KC-10s were used to support multiple Operation PHOENIX SCORPION contingencies beginning in November 1997 and through 1998 as well. KC-10s...and ACIQ syllabi recommend for training purposes. As part of determining sources of delay, qualitative data will be used to explain what is...bare hands in that arena, because we can’t teach you to learn how to use a spear. If we do, you might cut your finger while you’re learning." And

  9. United States Army physical readiness training: rationale and evaluation of the physical training doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Rieger, William; Palkoska, Frank; Van Camp, Steven; Darakjy, Salima

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviews the rationale and evaluations of Physical Readiness Training (PRT), the new U.S. Army physical training doctrine designed to improve soldiers' physical capability for military operations. The purposes of PRT are to improve physical fitness, prevent injuries, progressively train soldiers, and develop soldiers' self-confidence and discipline. The PRT follows the principles of progressive overload, regularity, specificity, precision, variety, and balance. Specificity was achieved by examining the standard list of military (warrior) tasks and determining 1) the physical requirements, 2) the fitness components involved, and 3) the training activities that most likely could improve the military tasks. Injury-prevention features include reduced running mileage, exercise variety (cross-training), and gradual, progressive training. In 3 military field studies, the overall adjusted risk of injury was 1.5-1.8 times higher in groups of soldiers performing traditional military physical training programs when compared with groups using a PRT program. Scores on the Army Physical Fitness Test were similar or higher in groups using PRT programs. In an 8-week laboratory study comparing PRT with a weightlifting/running program, both programs resulted in major improvements in militarily relevant tasks (e.g., 3.2-km walk/run with 32-kg load, 400-m run with 18-kg load, 5- to 30-second rushes to and from prone position, 80-kg casualty drag, obstacle course). When compared with traditional military physical training programs, PRT consistently resulted in fewer injuries and in equal or greater improvements in fitness and military task performance.

  10. Evaluation of consumer satisfaction with the quality of training of young professionals by the universities for enterprises of coal-mining complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhalchenko Vadim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the study results of evaluation of customer satisfaction (a big coal mining company with the quality of training of young specialists with higher education. Research is based on the model of Kano, one of the most effective tools for assessing the quality of products within the framework of modern management model - Total Quality Management. Based on the results, “quality profile” of training of young specialists with higher education is built and the factors that determine its level and characteristics are identified. The findings show universities the need to include such transformations and changes into the system and the processes of creation and positioning of their “product”. It will give a higher added value to the “product” and, therefore, provide the manufacturer and the consumer with the higher competitive advantage in the current economic conditions.

  11. Determining the environmental training needs and training preferences of tribal officials on reservations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Jeeta Lakhani

    The problem of this research was to determine the priority environmental management training needs (drinking water, wastewater, and solid waste), classroom training system preferences and related cultural factors of Native American tribal officials with environmental responsibilities living on reservations in the United States. The researcher conducted telephone interviews with 18 tribal officials on reservations in diverse geographic areas of the United States to determine their classroom training preferences. These officials also responded to a mail/fax survey comprised of 28 statements describing their environmental responsibilities in the areas of drinking water, wastewater, and solid waste. Tribal officials indicated how important the statements were according to them on a scale of 1--5 (1 being low importance and 5 being high importance). Tribal officials also indicated their ability to perform in the stated areas on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being low ability and 5 being high ability). It was found that tribal officials felt they needed training in the areas of: (1) Solid Waste: Awareness of conventional and alternative solid waste management strategies as well as assessing the reservation's need related to solid waste management. (2) Regional or Inter-Governmental Strategies : Working with the federal, and, state governments for enforcing and developing regulations. (3) Drinking water: Assessing the reservation's drinking water needs and awareness of conventional and alternative drinking water systems. (4) Training for environmental staff: Determining and planning training for environmental personnel is another area of need indicated by the responding tribal officials. (5) Wastewater : Assessing the reservations wastewater needs, compliance and liability issues and awareness of alternative and conventional wastewater systems. It was also found that tribal officials preferred: (1) Trainers who were knowledgeable about the subject matter and tribal culture

  12. Building capacity for Health Impact Assessment: Training outcomes from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchter, Joseph [Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutt, Candace, E-mail: awr8@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity, 4770 Buford Highway MS/F-77, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Satariano, William A. [University of California Berkeley, School of Public Health, Division of Community Health and Human Development, Berkeley, CA (United States); Seto, Edmund [University of Washington, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Background: Despite the continued growth of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in the US, there is little research on HIA capacity-building. A comprehensive study of longer-term training outcomes may reveal opportunities for improving capacity building activities and HIA practice. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with HIA trainees in the United States to assess their outcomes and needs. Using a training evaluation framework, we measured outcomes across a spectrum of reaction, learning, behavior and results. Results: From 2006 to 2012, four organizations trained over 2200 people in at least 75 in-person HIA trainings in 29 states. We interviewed 48 trainees, selected both randomly and purposefully. The mean duration between training and interview was 3.4 years. Trainees reported that their training objectives were met, especially when relevant case-studies were used. They established new collaborations at the trainings and maintained them. Training appeared to catalyze more holistic thinking and practice, including a range of HIA-related activities. Many trainees disseminated what they learned and engaged in components of HIA, even without dedicated funding. Going forward, trainees need assistance with quantitative methods, project management, community engagement, framing recommendations, and evaluation. Conclusions: The research revealed opportunities for a range of HIA stakeholders to refine and coordinate training resources, apply a competency framework and leverage complimentary workforce development efforts, and sensitize and build the capacity of communities. - Highlights: • We interviewed HIA trainees in the United States to assess longer-term outcomes. • Training appeared to catalyze a range of beneficial partnerships and activities. • Trainees reported outstanding needs for specific skills and competencies. • There are various opportunities to improve training and capacity-building.

  13. Building capacity for Health Impact Assessment: Training outcomes from the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuchter, Joseph; Rutt, Candace; Satariano, William A.; Seto, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the continued growth of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in the US, there is little research on HIA capacity-building. A comprehensive study of longer-term training outcomes may reveal opportunities for improving capacity building activities and HIA practice. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with HIA trainees in the United States to assess their outcomes and needs. Using a training evaluation framework, we measured outcomes across a spectrum of reaction, learning, behavior and results. Results: From 2006 to 2012, four organizations trained over 2200 people in at least 75 in-person HIA trainings in 29 states. We interviewed 48 trainees, selected both randomly and purposefully. The mean duration between training and interview was 3.4 years. Trainees reported that their training objectives were met, especially when relevant case-studies were used. They established new collaborations at the trainings and maintained them. Training appeared to catalyze more holistic thinking and practice, including a range of HIA-related activities. Many trainees disseminated what they learned and engaged in components of HIA, even without dedicated funding. Going forward, trainees need assistance with quantitative methods, project management, community engagement, framing recommendations, and evaluation. Conclusions: The research revealed opportunities for a range of HIA stakeholders to refine and coordinate training resources, apply a competency framework and leverage complimentary workforce development efforts, and sensitize and build the capacity of communities. - Highlights: • We interviewed HIA trainees in the United States to assess longer-term outcomes. • Training appeared to catalyze a range of beneficial partnerships and activities. • Trainees reported outstanding needs for specific skills and competencies. • There are various opportunities to improve training and capacity-building

  14. Suicide Prevention Training: Policies for Health Care Professionals Across the United States as of October 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Janessa M; Mackelprang, Jessica L; Van Natta, Sara E; Holliday, Carrie

    2018-06-01

    To identify and compare state policies for suicide prevention training among health care professionals across the United States and benchmark state plan updates against national recommendations set by the surgeon general and the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention in 2012. We searched state legislation databases to identify policies, which we described and characterized by date of adoption, target audience, and duration and frequency of the training. We used descriptive statistics to summarize state-by-state variation in suicide education policies. In the United States, as of October 9, 2017, 10 (20%) states had passed legislation mandating health care professionals complete suicide prevention training, and 7 (14%) had policies encouraging training. The content and scope of policies varied substantially. Most states (n = 43) had a state suicide prevention plan that had been revised since 2012, but 7 lacked an updated plan. Considerable variation in suicide prevention training for health care professionals exists across the United States. There is a need for consistent polices in suicide prevention training across the nation to better equip health care providers to address the needs of patients who may be at risk for suicide.

  15. Differences between rural and urban primary care units in Turkey: Implications on residents′ training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Yikilkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Family practice training takes place at primary care based training centers linked to Education and Research State Hospitals in Turkey. There is a discussion if these units are adequate to train primary care staff and if the patients of these units reflect the applicants of primary care. Aims: The aim of our study is to investigate the demographic characteristics, the effect of distance on primary care utilization, and most common diagnosis of the patients who applied to two different outpatient clinics: One urban and one rural. Settings and Design: Study was conducted from the electronic health records of the patients applied to outpatient clinics of Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital Department of Family Medicine between 1 January and 31 December 2009. Results: Total number of patients applied to both of the outpatient clinics was 34,632 [urban clinic: 16.506 (47.7%, rural clinic: 18.126 (52.3%]. Leading three diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (URTI, general medical examination (GME, and hypertension (HT in the most common 10 diagnosis. Conclusion: In our study, the rural outpatient clinic is regarded as a primary care unit in the neighborhood of living area and the urban clinic as close to working environment. We found statistically meaningful differences in most common diagnosis, gender, age, and consultation time between the rural and urban clinics. According to our results, family practitioners′ field training should take place at different primary care units according to sociodemographic characteristics of each country.

  16. Training for the future NHS: training junior doctors in the United Kingdom within the 48-hour European working time directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shreelatta T; Davies, Sally J

    2014-01-01

    Since August 2009, the National Health Service of the United Kingdom has faced the challenge of delivering training for junior doctors within a 48-hour working week, as stipulated by the European Working Time Directive and legislated in the UK by the Working Time Regulations 1998. Since that time, widespread concern has been expressed about the impact of restricted duty hours on the quality of postgraduate medical training in the UK, particularly in the "craft" specialties--that is, those disciplines in which trainees develop practical skills that are best learned through direct experience with patients. At the same time, specialist training in the UK has experienced considerable change since 2007 with the introduction of competency-based specialty curricula, workplace-based assessment, and the annual review of competency progression. The challenges presented by the reduction of duty hours include increased pressure on doctors-in-training to provide service during evening and overnight hours, reduced interaction with supervisors, and reduced opportunities for learning. This paper explores these challenges and proposes potential responses with respect to the reorganization of training and service provision.

  17. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  18. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hendryx

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS techniques – exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping – to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and “other” age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  20. Methanogenic pathways of coal-bed gas in the Powder River Basin, United States: The geologic factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Stricker, Gary D.; Warden, Augusta; Ellis, Margaret S. [U.S. Geological Survey, Box 25046, MS 939, Denver, Colorado 80225 (United States)

    2008-10-02

    Coal-bed gas of the Tertiary Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana, U.S. was interpreted as microbial in origin by previous studies based on limited data on the gas and water composition and isotopes associated with the coal beds. To fully evaluate the microbial origin of the gas and mechanisms of methane generation, additional data for 165 gas and water samples from 7 different coal-bed methane-bearing coal-bed reservoirs were collected basinwide and correlated to the coal geology and stratigraphy. The C{sub 1}/(C{sub 2} + C{sub 3}) ratio and vitrinite reflectance of coal and organic shale permitted differentiation between microbial gas and transitional thermogenic gas in the central part of the basin. Analyses of methane {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D, carbon dioxide {delta}{sup 13}C, and water {delta}D values indicate gas was generated primarily from microbial CO{sub 2} reduction, but with significant gas generated by microbial methyl-type fermentation (aceticlastic) in some areas of the basin. Microbial CO{sub 2} reduction occurs basinwide, but is generally dominant in Paleocene Fort Union Formation coals in the central part of the basin, whereas microbial methyl-type fermentation is common along the northwest and east margins. Isotopically light methane {delta}{sup 13}C is distributed along the basin margins where {delta}D is also depleted, indicating that both CO{sub 2}-reduction and methyl-type fermentation pathways played major roles in gas generation, but gas from the latter pathway overprinted gas from the former pathway. More specifically, along the northwest basin margin gas generation by methyl-type fermentation may have been stimulated by late-stage infiltration of groundwater recharge from clinker areas, which flowed through highly fractured and faulted coal aquifers. Also, groundwater recharge controlled a change in gas composition in the shallow Eocene Wasatch Formation with the increase of nitrogen and

  1. Determinants of Effective Unit Performance: Research on Measuring and Managing Unit Training Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    underlies it. However, it can be suppressed through harsh discipline and cultural beliefs. Often the lack of will to fight can be a subconscious ...modified easily without major reprogramming of software. The military still has very limited experience applying 264 Meliza, Bessemer, and Hiller DIS to...skills, equipment maintenance), and CORRECTING WEAKNESSES through immediate re- play or through reprogramming of necessary training. These

  2. Compex system for teaching and training operators for TPP and NPP power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiptsyura, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Requirements, taken as a principle for constructing the system for operator teaching and training (OTT), have been formulated on the basis of investigation of operators' work at TPP and NPP power units. Functional structure and a structural block-diagram for OTT are built. As a criterion, which determines the structure of any trainers, being a part of OTT a requirement has been chosen satisfying the correspondence beetween habits developed with the help of trainers and habits of real operators' work. Results of analysis permit to confirm that refusal or under statement of the role of any stage of operator training leads to reduction of quality of his training

  3. Review of laparoscopic training in pediatric surgery in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormer, Emma J; Sabharwal, Atul J

    2009-04-01

    To review the exposure pediatric surgery trainees have to laparoscopic surgery in the United Kingdom (UK). A confidential postal questionnaire was sent to all trainees working at registrar level in centers responsible for pediatric surgical training in the UK. Questions assessed the number of consultants with an interest in laparoscopic surgery, types of cases performed laparoscopically, and trainees' role in laparoscopic appendicectomy (LA). Questionnaires were sent to 112 trainees with a 55% response rate (62 replies). At least one response was received from each unit. Based on responses, 49 to 67 consultants in 21 training centers have an interest in laparoscopic surgery (0%-100% of consultants per unit). LA was offered in 20 out of 21 training centers. There was no significant difference in the proportion of appendicectomies performed laparoscopically by junior (years 1-3) and senior (years 4-6) trainees. A significantly higher proportion of junior trainees had not performed any LAs (P = 0.02). Seventy-three percent of trainees were the principal operator. For trainees who were principal operators, the cameraperson was a consultant in 52% and a junior trainee in 17%. The time of day affected the likelihood of a procedure being carried out laparoscopically in 43 (81%) responses. The majority of trainees' exposure to laparoscopic surgery could be viewed as suboptimal; however, the exposure gained varies significantly between different units throughout the UK. In an age moving in favor of minimal access surgery, all units must be in a position to offer pediatric laparoscopic surgical training.

  4. Coal distribution, January--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-17

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents information for January through June 1990. Coal distribution data are shown (in tables 1--34) by coal-producing state of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and state of destination. 6 figs., 34 tabs.

  5. Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

  6. Coking coal outlook from a coal producer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrasher, E.

    2008-01-01

    Australian mine production is recovering from massive flooding while Canadian coal shipments are limited by mine and rail capacity. Polish, Czech, and Russian coking coal shipments have been reduced and United States coking coal shipments are reaching their maximum capacity. On the demand side, the Chinese government has increased export taxes on metallurgical coal, coking coal, and thermal coal. Customers seem to be purchasing in waves and steel prices are declining. This presentation addressed the global outlook for coal as well as the challenges ahead in terms of supply and demand. Supply challenges include regulatory uncertainty; environmental permitting; labor; and geology of remaining reserves. Demand challenges include global economic uncertainty; foreign exchange values; the effect of customers making direct investments in mining operations; and freight rates. Consolidation of the coal industry continued and several examples were provided. The presentation also discussed other topics such as coking coal production issues; delayed mining permits and environmental issues; coking coal contract negotiations; and stock values of coking coal producers in the United States. It was concluded that consolidation will continue throughout the natural resource sector. tabs., figs

  7. Blood Pressure Directed Booster Trainings Improve Intensive Care Unit Provider Retention of Excellent Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Heather; Maltese, Matthew R; Niles, Dana E; Fischman, Elizabeth; Legkobitova, Veronika; Leffelman, Jessica; Berg, Robert A; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Sutton, Robert M

    2015-11-01

    Brief, intermittent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training sessions, "Booster Trainings," improve CPR skill acquisition and short-term retention. The objective of this study was to incorporate arterial blood pressure (ABP) tracings into Booster Trainings to improve CPR skill retention. We hypothesized that ABP-directed CPR "Booster Trainings" would improve intensive care unit (ICU) provider 3-month retention of excellent CPR skills without need for interval retraining. A CPR manikin creating a realistic relationship between chest compression depth and ABP was used for training/testing. Thirty-six ICU providers were randomized to brief, bedside ABP-directed CPR manikin skill retrainings: (1) Booster Plus (ABP visible during training and testing) versus (2) Booster Alone (ABP visible only during training, not testing) versus (3) control (testing, no intervention). Subjects completed skill tests pretraining (baseline), immediately after training (acquisition), and then retention was assessed at 12 hours, 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome was retention of excellent CPR skills at 3 months. Excellent CPR was defined as systolic blood pressure of 100 mm Hg or higher and compression rate 100 to 120 per minute. Overall, 14 of 24 (58%) participants acquired excellent CPR skills after their initial training (Booster Plus 75% vs 50% Booster Alone, P = 0.21). Adjusted for age, ABP-trained providers were 5.2× more likely to perform excellent CPR after the initial training (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.3-21.2; P = 0.02), and to retain these skills at 12 hours (adjusted odds ratio, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.3-14.9; P = 0.018) and 3 months (adjusted odds ratio, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.2-13.9; P = 0.023) when compared to baseline performance. The ABP-directed CPR booster trainings improved ICU provider 3-month retention of excellent CPR skills without the need for interval retraining.

  8. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. [Mainly, the effect of preteatment of coal with carbon monoxide and steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    CAER/UK: Detail coal and starting solvents from Wilsonville were analyzed to develop the data necessary to conduct process studies in the CO Pretreatment and Catalyst Evaluation segment of this program. A comparison of the solvent separation analysis with the distillation/separation used at Wilsonville showed that the residual solvent components contained a large amount of residual pentane soluble products. The ashy resid contained 3% iron and 400 ppM molybdenum. Although the iron content in the distillate and deashed resid was much less, namely about 200 ppM., the molybdenum concentrations in these fractions were not significantly reduced over the concentration in the ashy resid, i.e., 200 ppM in each. The pretreatment of coal with CO/H{sub 2}O in the presence of NaOH and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} has been shown to give a product which is lower in oxygen content and higher in hydrogen content compared to the raw coal. The atomic H/C ratios of the H{sub 2}O-insolubles, THF insolubles and the PA+A fractions of the products-together with the hydrogen consumption data suggested that the raw coal has been substantially depolymerized and hydrogenated via the WGS reaction during the pretreatment process. The extensive amount of molecular reconstruction that has occurred in the solid product was evident from the ease of solubilization of the product into pyridine. The result of the pretreatment process is a product which is highly reactive under hydroliquefaction conditions at 400{degrees}C. Reaction rates seem to be much faster than the raw coal, especially at shorter reaction times, providing the opportunity for major reductions in plant vessel sizes, and preliminary data has led us to believe that better efficiency in hydrogen utilization is achieved.

  9. The effect of stress fracture interventions in a single elite infantry training unit (1983-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Charles; Finestone, Aharon S

    2017-10-01

    Stress fractures can be seen as an undesired byproduct of demanding physical training. The threshold value of stress that places an individual bone at high risk for stress fracture has not been identified. In a prospective study of stress fractures in 1983, a 31% incidence was found during demanding Israeli infantry basic training by bone scan criteria. Within a subgroup of these recruits, an elite infantry unit was found to have a 40% incidence. Since then and until 2015, eight additional induction companies of the same elite infantry unit were prospectively monitored for stress fractures during their basic training. In all of the studies, stress fracture surveillance and the examining orthopedist were the same. A retrospective review of all nine studies and of eight training changes was performed to look for a temporal trend in stress fracture incidence and to see if these might be related to training changes. There was a statistically significant trend for lower radiological proven stress fractures (p=0.0001) and radiological proven stress fractures plus clinical stress fractures (p=0.0013), as well as lower stress fracture severity by radiological criteria (p=0.0001) between 1983 and 2015. The only training change that was associated, by multivariate logistic regression, with a decreased incidence of stress fracture was restricting training to the authorized training protocol (odds ratio, 3874; 95% CI, 1.526 to 9.931; p=0.004). Increased recruit weight was found by multivariate analysis to be associated with lower stress fracture incidence (odds ratio 1.034; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.070; p=0.051). Moving the training to a base with flatter terrain and reducing the formal marching distance by 1/3 was associated with a decrease in high grade stress fractures (odds ratio, 10.03; 95% CI, 3.5 to 28.4; p=0.0001). Neither the combined changes of enforcing a seven hour a night sleep regimen, training in more comfortable boots and adding a physical therapist to the unit nor

  10. U.S. Coal Fields

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This data set shows the coal fields of Alaska and the conterminous United States. Most of the material for the conterminous United States was collected from James...

  11. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R ampersand D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base

  12. A coal combine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlachovsky, I; Bartos, J

    1980-02-15

    A design is presented for a coal combine, equipped with two drum operational units, on whose both ends of the upper surface of the body, two coal saws are mounted with the help of a lever system. These saws, found in an operational position, form a gap in the block of the coal block, which is not embraced by the drum operational unit. The coal block, found between the gap and the support, falls down onto the longwall scraper conveyor. The lever system of each coal saw is controlled by two hydraulic jacks. One of the jacks is mounted vertically on the facial wall of the body of the combine and is used for the hoisting for the required height of the horizontal arm of the lever, reinforced by one end in the hinge on the body of the combine. On the ''free'' end of that lever, a coal saw is mounted in a hinge-like fashion and which is connected by the hydraulic jack to the horizontal arm of the lever system. This hydraulic jack is used for the clamping of the coal saw to the face.

  13. Ecological Systems Theory: Using Spheres of Influence to Support Small-unit Climate and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    identifying the model’s elements and influential individuals, define spheres of influence and construct a model that details the ecological systems...Research Report 1997 Ecological Systems Theory: Using Spheres of Influence to Support Small-unit Climate and Training...Technical review by: Sena Garven, U.S. Army Research Institute Michael D. Wood , Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

  14. Crew resource management training in the intensive care unit. A multisite controlled before–after study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, Peter F.; de Bruijne, Martine; van Dyck, C.; Wagner, Cordula

    Introduction There is a growing awareness today that adverse events in the intensive care unit (ICU) are more often caused by problems related to non-technical skills than by a lack of technical, or clinical, expertise. Team training, such as crew resource management (CRM), aims to improve these

  15. Crew resource management training in the intensive care unit: a multisite controlled before-after study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, P.F.; Bruijne, M. de; Dyck, C. van; So, R.L.; Tangkau, P.; Wagner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a growing awareness today that adverse events in the intensive care unit (ICU) are more often caused by problems related to non-technical skills than by a lack of technical, or clinical, expertise. Team training, such as crew resource management (CRM), aims to improve these

  16. The effect of training on noise reduction in neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calikusu Incekar, Mujde; Balci, Serap

    2017-07-01

    Noise, an environmental stimulus, is especially important in the neurobehavioral development of newborns and brain development of infants at high risk. Conditions in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) may cause certain sensory stimuli that are not appropriate for the development of newborns, especially preterm infants. This study was conducted in order to determine noise levels in the NICU and to evaluate the effect of training provided for noise control. This study was conducted as a pretest-posttest quasiexperimental design between September and November 2014 in a 30-bed NICU of a tertiary hospital in Istanbul. A sample group consisting of 30 people (26 nurses, 4 care workers). Noise measurement devices were used in the Training Program of Noise Control. Of the health professionals, 96.7% were women, 86.7% were nurses, and 63.3% were university graduates. Some 36.7% of the health professionals had worked within the unit for more than 5 years. Noise measurements of full implementations were made over three 24-h periods. Noise measurements were taken before and after the training on Monday, Friday, and Sunday. Noise levels after training diminished in all three measurements, and the decrease was found statistically significant (P Noise Control Training for health professionals who work in NICUs is an effective way of reducing noise. We recommend that this training should be given to NICU health professionals and noise levels should be determined through measurements at specific times. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The transition to competency-based pediatric training in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Halah; Al Tatari, Hossam; Holmboe, Eric S

    2015-04-01

    Although competency-based medical education has become the standard for physician training in the West, many developing countries have not yet adopted competency-based training. In 2009 in the United Arab Emirates, the government regulatory and operational authorities for healthcare in Abu Dhabi mandated a wide-scale reform of the emirate's postgraduate residency programs to the competency-based framework of the newly formed Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-International (ACGME-I). This article briefly describes the rationale for competency-based medical education and provides an overview of the transition from traditional, time-based residency training to competency-based postgraduate medical education for the Pediatrics residency programs in Abu Dhabi. We will provide data on the initial impact of this transition on resident performance and patient outcomes in a Pediatrics residency program in an academic medical center in the United Arab Emirates.

  18. Coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    ACR's Coal 1992, the successor to the ACR Coal Marketing Manual, contains a comprehensive set of data on many aspects of the Australian coal industry for several years leading up to 1992. Tables and text give details of coal production and consumption in New South Wales, Queensland and other states. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, China, Colombia, Poland and ex-USSR. Also listed are prices of Australian coking and non-coking coal, Australian coal stocks (and those of other major countries), loading port capacities, freight rates and coal quality requirements (analysis of coals by brand and supplier). A listing of Australian coal exporting companies is provided. A description of the spot Coal Screen Dealing System is given. World hard coal imports are listed by country and coal imports by major Asian countries tabulated. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is included.

  19. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  20. Sulfur gained from flue gas, a demonstration unit of the Wellman-Lord process annexed to a black coal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, H

    1977-12-16

    Details of reducing air pollution by desulfurization of flue gases are presented. The demonstration unit is annexed to a 115 MW block at the Gary power plant in Indiana, USA. A second unit is being installed at the larger coal power plant in San Juan, New Mexico. The Wellman-Lord technology achieves a higher than 90% desulfurization of industrial waste gases. The technology is based on washing the gases with sodium sulfide. The resulting concentrated sulfur dioxide gas is used for pure sulfur and sulfuric acid production. Sodium sulfate is another commercial by-product obtained from the sodium sulfide regeneration cycle. Chemical details and the technological flow sheet are discussed. Electricity production costs in the power plants due to desulfurization of waste gases will increase by an estimated 15%. Advantages, in addition to reducing air pollution and marketing sulfur products, are also seen in the absence of sulfur containing wastes for disposal. (In German)

  1. Clean Coal Day '94 Hokkaido International Seminar; Clean coal day '94 Hokkaido kokusai seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    The lectures given at the seminar were 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Clean coal technology in the United Kingdom, and 3) How clean coal should be in Australia. In lecture 1), remarks are made on the importance of coal and its future, coal that protects forest, whether coal is a dirty fuel, coal combustion tests started relative to environmental pollution, acid rain in China and coal combustion, briquets effective in energy conservation, etc. In lecture 2), remarks are made on the importance of coal utilization in the United Kingdom, current state of coal utilization in power generation, problems related to gasification furnaces, problems related to combustors, problems related to high-temperature gas cleaning, function of cleaning filters, advantages of high-temperature gas treatment, actualities of gas combustors, studies of gas combustors, etc. In lecture 3), remarks are made on Australia's coal situation, problems related to clean coal technology, problems related to coal preparation technology, potentialities of Australian brown coal, coal utilization in power generation, need of new technology development, current state of coal utilization in Australia, coal utilization in metal-making industry, international cooperation on technology, etc. (NEDO)

  2. Clean Coal Day '94 Hokkaido International Seminar; Clean coal day '94 Hokkaido kokusai seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    The lectures given at the seminar were 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Clean coal technology in the United Kingdom, and 3) How clean coal should be in Australia. In lecture 1), remarks are made on the importance of coal and its future, coal that protects forest, whether coal is a dirty fuel, coal combustion tests started relative to environmental pollution, acid rain in China and coal combustion, briquets effective in energy conservation, etc. In lecture 2), remarks are made on the importance of coal utilization in the United Kingdom, current state of coal utilization in power generation, problems related to gasification furnaces, problems related to combustors, problems related to high-temperature gas cleaning, function of cleaning filters, advantages of high-temperature gas treatment, actualities of gas combustors, studies of gas combustors, etc. In lecture 3), remarks are made on Australia's coal situation, problems related to clean coal technology, problems related to coal preparation technology, potentialities of Australian brown coal, coal utilization in power generation, need of new technology development, current state of coal utilization in Australia, coal utilization in metal-making industry, international cooperation on technology, etc. (NEDO)

  3. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  4. Training to be an historian of anesthesia: options at universities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Karishma R; Desai, Sukumar P

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether a lack of training opportunities explains the finding that few anesthesia historians have obtained formal training in history. Prospective study. University hospital. A list of 128 medical schools within the United States (U.S.) was obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges and information about graduate programs in history, history of science, and history of medicine was gathered. Editorial board members of journals affiliated with professional associations in history, history of science, and history of medicine were also queried. We were unable to identify any U.S. institution that offered graduate training in history of anesthesia, while only a handful offered such training in history of medicine. As a result, individuals wishing to pursue doctoral training in history of medicine often enroll in programs devoted to history of science, but with an emphasis on medicine. The vast majority of affiliated universities offer doctoral programs in history. We identified programs that may be considered centers of excellence based on affiliations of editorial board members. Graduate training in history of anesthesia is currently unavailable, and specific opportunities in history of medicine are quite limited. Individuals wishing to obtain formal training in history of anesthesia need to enroll in a history of science or history of medicine program, and choose a research topic in history of anesthesia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inspiratory muscle training is used in some intensive care units, but many training methods have uncertain efficacy: a survey of French physiotherapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Bonnevie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Questions: How common is inspiratory muscle training by physiotherapists in the intensive care unit (ICU? Which patients receive the training? What methods are used to administer the training? Is maximal inspiratory pressure used to evaluate the need for the training and the patient's outcome after training? Design: Cross-sectional survey of all ICUs in France. Participants: Two hundred and sixty-five senior physiotherapists. Results: The response rate was 99% among eligible units. Therapist experience in ICU was significantly associated with the use of inspiratory muscle training (p = 0.02. Therapists mainly used inspiratory muscle training either systematically or specifically in patients who failed to wean from mechanical ventilation. The training was used significantly more in non-sedated patients (p < 0.0001. The most commonly nominated technique that respondents claimed to use to apply the training was controlled diaphragmatic breathing (83% of respondents, whereas 13% used evidence-based methods. Among those who applied some form of inspiratory muscle training, 16% assessed maximal inspiratory pressure. Six respondents (2%, 95% CI 1 to 5 used both an evidence-based method to administer inspiratory muscle training and the recommended technique for assessment of inspiratory muscle strength. Conclusion: Most physiotherapists in French ICUs who apply inspiratory muscle training use methods of uncertain efficacy without assessment of maximal inspiratory pressure. Further efforts need to be made in France to disseminate information regarding evidence-based assessment and techniques for inspiratory muscle training in the ICU. The alignment of inspiratory muscle training practice with evidence could be investigated in other regions. [Bonnevie T, Villiot-Danger J-C, Gravier F-E, Dupuis J, Prieur G, Médrinal C (2015 Inspiratory muscle training is used in some intensive care units, but many training methods have uncertain efficacy: a survey of

  6. 78 FR 18325 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Formal Training Unit (FTU) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Statement (EIS) for the Formal Training Unit (FTU) and Main Operating Base 1 (MOB 1) for the Beddown of KC... Statement (EIS) for the Formal Training Unit (FTU) and Main Operating Base 1 (MOB 1) for the Beddown of KC...-46A tanker aircraft, associated infrastructure and manpower of the FTU and MOB 1 at existing active...

  7. Delivery Strategies to Enhance the Sustainability of Training: Lessons from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rosa, Cecilia; Nadeau, Andrew; Hernandez, Emilio; Kafeero, Fred; Zahiga, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) utilizes training as a major component of the support it provides to its member countries in Africa. In the past, stand-alone training events targeting individual actors were the norm. However, an external evaluation indicated that this type of training scores low in terms of…

  8. Effect of Mandatory Unit and Individual Physical Training on Fitness in Military Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Morgan K; Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Bushman, Timothy T; Nindl, Bradley C; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of additional individual physical training (PT) in addition to mandatory unit PT as well as other risk factors on physical fitness. A cross-sectional design. This study was conducted on a US military installation. Participants were 6290 male and 558 female active duty US Army soldiers in 3 light infantry brigades. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires asking about individual characteristics, PT, and physical fitness. Cut points were established for soldiers scoring within the top 33% for each of the 3 Army Physical Fitness Test events (2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups) and top 50% in each of the tests combined for overall performance. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariate analyses were calculated. Variables impacting physical fitness performance of men and women included increased body mass index, leading unit PT sessions, and individual distance running mileage. Other variables impacting physical performance for men included increased age, smoking, and individual resistance training. Soldiers performing additional individual PT demonstrated a positive influence on fitness compared to unit PT participation alone. Increased age and being overweight/obese negatively influenced physical fitness. To enhance fitness performance through unit PT, running by ability groups and resistance training should be encouraged by leadership.

  9. Nuclear Education & Training — Showcasing the Best Practices of the United Kingdom and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dato Syed Ahmad Idid, S.N. K. A.-I.

    2015-01-01

    Skilled, competent and sufficient human resources is fundamental for the safe and successful implementation and expansion of a nuclear power programme (NPP). As nuclear education and training (E&T) stakeholders deliberate and discuss to identify suitable syllabus and courses to offer for education and training to support NPP, it is critical that the nuclear fuel cycle as well as the nuclear power value-chain is taken into consideration in the selection and introduction of relevant courses by Universities and Institutions to nurture and educate skilled manpower for the nuclear power industry. This paper strives to share with the education and training stakeholders, that the task of educating and training students is not solely to prepare them to work in a nuclear power plant, but importantly also to train human resources to support other organizations that require skilled and competent personnel in nuclear related field including Government agencies and Ministries, Business and Industry, Financial sector, International agencies and media agencies, amongst others. Additionally this paper aims to dovetail that a critical mass of skilled manpower along the entire value-chain or scope of nuclear power sector covering planning, construction, manufacturing, commissioning, operation and maintenance and decommissioning must be trained to implement the related tasks required to support NPP competently. Thus, it is within this context, that this paper will outline best practices in nuclear education and training offered by the United Kingdom and France which trains students, professionals, technicians as well as craftsmen not only for employment in a nuclear power plant but also for supporting the nuclear policy formulation in Government Agencies and for supporting nuclear power industry sectors including engineering, construction, manufacturing and services. This paper will offer recommendations for enhancing cooperation in nuclear education and training aimed at building

  10. A brief history of federal support for health physics education and training in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemer, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    Since the formation of health physics as a profession following the end of World War II, the federal government of the United States has played an active role in the support of education and training of health physicists. The purpose of this paper is to review the types of federal support that have been available from the federal government in the past and to examine the current status of support. Individuals trained in health physics through the nuclear navy programs have not been included in this discussion. (author)

  11. Coal: Less than lackluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerell, P.

    1994-01-01

    Not many in the world coal industry will remember 1993 as a good year. The reasons for the poor state of affairs were first the weak economic climate, and second, the energy glut. For the first time after expanding steadily since the 70s, seaborne trade in hard coal fell by about 4% to 350M mt. Steam coal accounted for a good half of this volume. While demand continued to rise in the newly industrialized countries of the Pacific area, imports into Europe of both coking coal and steam coal fell sharply. The United States, CIS, and Canada had to accept substantial losses of export volume. Australia, as well as South Africa, Colombia, and Indonesia consolidated their market positions and Poland, too, recorded high volumes available for export. The positive news came from Australia, where in mid-December the New South Wales coal industry reported an increase in the net profit after tax from $A83M (about $55M) to $A98M (about $126M) in 1992/1993. This success was however ascribed less to an improvement in the fundamental mining indicators than to the fall in the Australian dollar and the lowering of corporate tax. The reduction in capital investment by 26% down to $A330M (after the previous year when it had also been cut by 25%) is seen by the chairman of the NSW Coal Assoc. as not auguring well for the industry's ability to meet the forecast growth in demand to the year 2000

  12. Intensive care unit nurses' evaluation of simulation used for team training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballangrud, Randi; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise; Hedelin, Birgitta; Persenius, Mona

    2014-07-01

    To implement a simulation-based team training programme and to investigate intensive care nurses' evaluations of simulation used for team training. Simulation-based training is recommended to make health care professionals aware of and understand the importance of teamwork related to patient safety. The study was based on a questionnaire evaluation design. A total of 63 registered nurses were recruited: 53 from seven intensive care units in four hospitals in one hospital trust and 10 from an intensive care postgraduate education programme. After conducting a simulation-based team training programme with two scenarios related to emergency situations in the intensive care, the participants evaluated each simulation activity with regard to: (i) outcome of satisfaction and self-confidence in learning, (ii) implementation of educational practice and (iii) simulation design/development. Intensive care nurses were highly satisfied with their simulation-based learning, and they were mostly in agreement with the statements about self-confidence in learning. They were generally positive in their evaluation of the implementation of the educational practice and the simulation design/development. Significant differences were found with regard to scenario roles, prior simulation experience and area of intensive care practice. The study indicates a positive reception of a simulation-based programme with regard to team training in emergency situations in an intensive care unit. The findings may motivate and facilitate the use of simulation for team training to promote patient safety in intensive care and provide educators with support to develop and improve simulation-based training programmes. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  13. Identifying an Education Gap in Wound Care Training in United States Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Emily Stamell; Ingram, Amber; Landriscina, Angelo; Tian, Jiaying; Kirsner, Robert S; Friedman, Adam

    2015-07-01

    As restoration of the integument is paramount to wound healing, dermatologists should be central to managing wounds; yet this is often not the case. If a training gap exists during residency training, this may account for the observed discrepancy. To identify United States (US) dermatology residents' impressions regarding their preparedness to care for wounds, and to assess the amount and type of training devoted to wound care during residency. An online survey among current US dermatology residents enrolled in a residency training program. The primary goal was to determine whether dermatology residents believe more wound care education is needed, evaluate preparedness to care for wounds, and identify future plans to manage wounds. Responses were received from 175 of 517 (33.8%) US Dermatology residents contacted. The majority of residents did not feel prepared to manage acute (78.3%) and chronic (84.6%) wounds. Over three quarters (77.1%) felt that more education is needed. Fewer than half (49.1% and 35.4%) of residents planned to care for acute and chronic wounds, respectively, when in practice. There is a gap in wound care education in US dermatology residency training. This translates to a low percentage of dermatology residents planning to care for wounds in future practice. Dermatology residents need to receive focused wound care training in order to translate the underpinnings of wound healing biology and ultimately better serve patients.

  14. A Comparison of Two Control Display Unit Concepts on Flight Management System Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    1997-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges for a pilot in the transition to a 'glass' cockpit is understanding the flight management system (FMS). Because of both the complex nature of the FMS and the pilot-FMS interface, a large portion of transition training is devoted to the FMS. The current study examined the impact of the primary pilot-FMS interface, the control display unit (CDU), on FMS training. Based on the hypothesis that the interface design could have a significant impact on training, an FMS simulation with two separate interfaces was developed. One interface was similar to a current-generation design, and the other was a multiwindows CDU based on graphical user interface techniques. For both application and evaluation reasons, constraints were applied to the graphical CDU design to maintain as much similarity as possible with the conventional CDU. This preliminary experiment was conducted to evaluate the interface effects on training. Sixteen pilots with no FMS experience were used in a between-subjects test. A time-compressed, airline-type FMS training environment was simulated. The subjects were trained to a fixed-time criterion, and performance was measured in a final, full-mission simulation context. This paper describes the technical approach, simulation implementation, and experimental results of this effort.

  15. Design and construction of coal/biomass to liquids (CBTL) process development unit (PDU) at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido, Andrew [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Liu, Kunlei [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Challman, Don [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Andrews, Rodney [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Jacques, David [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This report describes a first phase of a project to design, construct and commission an integrated coal/biomass-to-liquids facility at a capacity of 1 bbl. /day at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) – specifically for construction of the building and upstream process units for feed handling, gasification, and gas cleaning, conditioning and compression. The deliverables from the operation of this pilot plant [when fully equipped with the downstream process units] will be firstly the liquid FT products and finished fuels which are of interest to UK-CAER’s academic, government and industrial research partners. The facility will produce research quantities of FT liquids and finished fuels for subsequent Fuel Quality Testing, Performance and Acceptability. Moreover, the facility is expected to be employed for a range of research and investigations related to: Feed Preparation, Characteristics and Quality; Coal and Biomass Gasification; Gas Clean-up/ Conditioning; Gas Conversion by FT Synthesis; Product Work-up and Refining; Systems Analysis and Integration; and Scale-up and Demonstration. Environmental Considerations - particularly how to manage and reduce carbon dioxide emissions from CBTL facilities and from use of the fuels - will be a primary research objectives. Such a facility has required significant lead time for environmental review, architectural/building construction, and EPC services. UK, with DOE support, has advanced the facility in several important ways. These include: a formal EA/FONSI, and permits and approvals; construction of a building; selection of a range of technologies and vendors; and completion of the upstream process units. The results of this project are the FEED and detailed engineering studies, the alternate configurations and the as-built plant - its equipment and capabilities for future research and demonstration and its adaptability for re-purposing to meet other needs. These are described in

  16. 30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.20 Requirements for all coal mines. (a) The operator of each underground coal mine shall make available two certified mine rescue...

  17. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Flashing of SRC-II slurry in the vacuum column on Process Development Unit P-99. Interim report, February-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J. A.; Mathias, S. T.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents the results of 73 tests on the vacuum flash system of Process Development Unit P-99 performed during processing of three different coals; the second batch, fourth shipment (low ash batch) of Powhatan No. 5 Mine (LR-27383), Powhatan No. 6 Mine (LR-27596) and Ireland Mine (LR-27987). The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data for use in confirming and improving the design of the vacuum distillation column for the 6000 ton/day SRC-II Demonstration Plant. The 900/sup 0/F distillate content of the bottoms and the percent of feed flashed overhead were correlated with flash zone operating conditions for each coal, and the observed differences in performance were attributed to differences in the feed compositions. Retrogressive reactions appeared to be occurring in the 900/sup 0/F+ pyridine soluble material leading to an increase in the quantity of pyridine insoluble organic matter. Stream physical properties determined include specific gravity, viscosity and melting point. Elemental, distillation and solvent analyses were used to calculate component material balances. The Technology and Materials Department has used these results in a separate study comparing experimental K-values and vapor/liquid split with CHAMP computer program design predictions.

  18. Environmental geology in the United States: Present practice and future training needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lawrence

    Environmental geology as practiced in the United States confronts issues in three large areas: Threats to human society from geologic phenomena (geologic hazards); impacts of human activities on natural systems (environmental impact), and natural-resource management. This paper illustrates present U.S. practice in environmental geology by sampling the work of 7 of the 50 state geological surveys and of the United States Geological Survey as well. Study of the work of these agencies provides a basis for identifying avenues for the training of those who will deal with environmental issues in the future. This training must deal not only with the subdisciplines of geology but with education to cope with the ethical, interdisciplinary, and public-communication aspects of the work of the environmental geologist.

  19. Strategy of formation and training for the basic units of cooperative production. Actions for their implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriadna Marín de León

    2014-06-01

    The implementation of the strategy of Formation and Training had great importance since applying the same one, they could get rich our cooperatives, of elements that contribute to the obtaining of a bigger level of efficiency and effectiveness of the human resources, given by the knowledge that they can acquire the same ones.   The article approaches the topics of Administration of human resources, formation and training theoretically, the elements of the functional strategy, and lastly a journey for the Cooperative Sector leaving of its emergence until specifying the characteristics of the Basic Units of Cooperative Production as part of the same one.   He is also carried out a valuation of the current situation as for Formation and Training of the human resources in the UBPC of the County of Pinar del Ro. This is made going to different diagnosis techniques. Later on they intend the actions that allow the implementation of this strategy.

  20. Correlation of United States Medical Licensing Examination and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jose A; Greer, Sharon

    2009-12-01

    The Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (ITE) is administered during residency training in the United States as a self-assessment and program assessment tool. Performance on this exam correlates with outcome on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying examination. Internal Medicine Program Directors use the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) to make decisions in recruitment of potential applicants. This study was done to determine a correlation of USMLE Steps 1, 2 and 3 results with ITE scores in each level of Internal Medicine training. A retrospective review of all residents graduating from an Internal Medicine program from 1999 to 2006 was done. Subjects included had data for all USMLE Steps and ITE during all years of training. Thirty-one subjects were included in the study. Correlations of USMLE Steps 1, 2 and 3 were done with ITE scores (percent correct) in each year of training. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was determined for each pairing and a t test to determine statistical significance of the correlation was done. Statistical significance was defined as P value ITE percent correct in PGY I, II and III were 0.46, 0.55 and 0.51 respectively. Corresponding r values for USMLE Step 2 and ITE percent correct were 0.79, 0.70 and 0.72; for USMLE Step 3 these values were 0.51, 0.37 and 0.51 respectively for each training year. USMLE scores are correlated with ITE scores. This correlation was strongest for USMLE Step 2.

  1. Description and comparison of pharmacy technician training programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Douglas C; Draime, Juanita A; Anderson, Timothy S

    2016-01-01

    To describe pharmacy technician training programs in the United States and to compare pharmacy technician program characteristics between programs with and without a pharmacist on faculty and between programs with different accreditation status. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Not applicable. United States pharmacy technician programs. Not applicable. Student class size, faculty credentials, coursework components, program length, tuition rates, and admission criteria. Currently, there are more than 698 pharmacy technician programs across 1114 campuses, with complete data available for 216 programs. Programs varied widely in terms of class sizes, faculty credentials, and admission criteria. Programs with pharmacists on faculty were significantly less expensive than were those without pharmacists (P = 0.009). Accreditation had no impact on tuition prices. This is the first study of its kind to describe and characterize pharmacy technician training programs. There is relatively little control of technician training by the profession of pharmacy. The quality of these programs in terms of student outcomes is unknown, and it should be explored. Rigorous debate and discussion is needed regarding the future of pharmacy technician roles and the training required for those roles. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fiscal 1997 achievement report. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied for the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. In the modification of facilities, equipment and devices were procured for the product oil reforming facilities and their installation was partly accomplished. In the coal injection operation, a 60-day slurry operation was conducted, using coal types of the upper limit and lower limit qualities, for expanding the scope of coal types applicable to the NEDOL process and for exploring optimum conditions, and another operation of 37 days was conducted using Chinese coal and Chinese-prepared liquefaction catalysts, and the two operations were studied for difference in yields and in operationality. Characteristics of the liquefaction reactors were investigated and basic studies were made relative to the physical property of the yielded coal oil. In the operation for maintenance, the 1st liquefaction reactor was singly operated for an 8-day slurry operation, which was to check the progress of liquefaction in a 1-reactor setup. Concerning the reforming of the product oil, the hydrogenation reactors were checked for their response to temperature control. Moreover, hydrogenation solvents were produced for the PSU and for China. (NEDO)

  3. Optimize awareness of hazards in underground coal mines caused by electrical ignitions and fires through appropriate training guidelines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Page, TPT

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available technical requirements and suggestions for appropriate training methodologies for each category of staff that could influence the likelihood of electrical ignitions and fires occurring, are contained....

  4. Brayton Point coal conversion project (NEPCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, W.F. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    The New England Power Company (NEPCO) recently converted Brayton Point Power Station Units 1, 2, and 3 from oil to coal. The coal conversion project is the largest coal conversion project in the nation to date. Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) was hired as the engineer/constructor for the project. Units 1 and 2 are 250-MW Combustion Engineering boilers, and Unit 3 is a 650-MW Babcock and Wilcox boiler. All three units were originally designed to burn pulverized coal but were converted to oil during the years of low oil prices. Studies performed by NEPCO and SWEC indicated that the areas discussed in the following paragraphs required upgrading before the units could efficiently burn coal and meet Federal and State environmental requirements. All units have been converted and are operating. This paper discusses design modifications required to burn coal, startup, and initial operating problems, and solutions.

  5. Simulation team training for improved teamwork in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandahl, Christer; Gustafsson, Helena; Wallin, Carl-Johan; Meurling, Lisbet; Øvretveit, John; Brommels, Mats; Hansson, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to describe implementation of simulator-based medical team training and the effect of this programme on inter-professional working in an intensive care unit (ICU). Over a period of two years, 90 percent (n = 152) of the staff of the general ICU at Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden, received inter-professional team training in a fully equipped patient room in their own workplace. A case study method was used to describe and explain the planning, formation, and results of the training programme. In interviews, the participants reported that the training had increased their awareness of the importance of effective communication for patient safety. The intervention had even had an indirect impact by creating a need to talk, not only about how to communicate efficaciously, but also concerning difficult care situations in general. This, in turn, had led to regular reflection meetings for nurses held three times a week. Examples of better communication in acute situations were also reported. However, the findings indicate that the observed improvements will not last, unless organisational features such as staffing rotas and scheduling of rounds and meetings can be changed to enable use of the learned behaviours in everyday work. Other threats to sustainability include shortage of staff, overtime for staff, demands for hospital beds, budget cuts, and poor staff communication due to separate meetings for nurses and physicians. The present results broaden our understanding of how to create and sustain an organizational system that supports medical team training.

  6. Coal business heats up in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, M. [CN Rail (United States)

    2002-03-01

    The fact that CN's Coal Business Unit moved just under 50 million t of coal in 2001 would have been unimaginable just a year earlier, as CN's coal franchise faced a number of challenges last year. On the metallurgical side, where bituminous coal is used in steel production, rising extraction costs in relation to national and international values forced the closure of three CN-served mines in 2000: TeckCominco's Quinteet mine in British Columbia; Smoky River Coal's Smoky River facility and Luscar's Gregg River mine, Alberta. As for thermal coal, utilities had been moving to alternative fuels, maintaining only low coal inventories, and there were few plans for new coal plants. The article explains how North America's railroad helps fuel growing demand for thermal and metallurgical coal. 5 photos.

  7. Effects of aging and Parkinson's disease on motor unit remodeling: influence of resistance exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Neil A; Hammond, Kelley G; Bickel, C Scott; Windham, Samuel T; Tuggle, S Craig; Bamman, Marcas M

    2018-04-01

    Aging muscle atrophy is in part a neurodegenerative process revealed by denervation/reinnervation events leading to motor unit remodeling (i.e., myofiber type grouping). However, this process and its physiological relevance are poorly understood, as is the wide-ranging heterogeneity among aging humans. Here, we attempted to address 1) the relation between myofiber type grouping and molecular regulators of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) stability; 2) the impact of motor unit remodeling on recruitment during submaximal contractions; 3) the prevalence and impact of motor unit remodeling in Parkinson's disease (PD), an age-related neurodegenerative disease; and 4) the influence of resistance exercise training (RT) on regulators of motor unit remodeling. We compared type I myofiber grouping, molecular regulators of NMJ stability, and the relative motor unit activation (MUA) requirement during a submaximal sit-to-stand task among untrained but otherwise healthy young (YA; 26 yr, n = 27) and older (OA; 66 yr, n = 91) adults and OA with PD (PD; 67 yr, n = 19). We tested the effects of RT on these outcomes in OA and PD. PD displayed more motor unit remodeling, alterations in NMJ stability regulation, and a higher relative MUA requirement than OA, suggesting PD-specific effects. The molecular and physiological outcomes tracked with the severity of type I myofiber grouping. Together these findings suggest that age-related motor unit remodeling, manifested by type I myofiber grouping, 1) reduces MUA efficiency to meet submaximal contraction demand, 2) is associated with disruptions in NMJ stability, 3) is further impacted by PD, and 4) may be improved by RT in severe cases. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Because the physiological consequences of varying amounts of myofiber type grouping are unknown, the current study aims to characterize the molecular and physiological correlates of motor unit remodeling. Furthermore, because exercise training has demonstrated neuromuscular benefits in aged

  8. Training for integrated digital I and C system of Tomari unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutiya, Akiyoshi; Sanbe, Takayuki; Hayashi, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    In Tomari nuclear power station Unit No.3, integrated digital I and C facilities was applied for each control unit including safety protection system overall and which connect them by bus (a network), and perform data communications for the first time as a Japanese PWR power station. For the continuation of safe and stable operation of Tomari nuclear power station Unit No.3 which is our greatest power supply, it is important to perform appropriate maintenance jobs about integrated digital I and C System at the time of normal operation, periodical inspection and trouble outbreak. For the assured accomplishment of these work by maintenance personnel, we clarified goal of necessary knowledge and skills and examined training facilities and curriculums. (author)

  9. Crew resource management training in the intensive care unit. A multisite controlled before-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Peter F; de Bruijne, Martine; van Dyck, Cathy; So, Ralph L; Tangkau, Peter; Wagner, Cordula

    2016-08-01

    There is a growing awareness today that adverse events in the intensive care unit (ICU) are more often caused by problems related to non-technical skills than by a lack of technical, or clinical, expertise. Team training, such as crew resource management (CRM), aims to improve these non-technical skills. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of CRM in the ICU. Six ICUs participated in a paired controlled trial, with one pretest and two post-test measurements (after 3 and 12 months). Three ICUs received CRM training and were compared with a matched control unit. The 2-day classroom-based training was delivered to multidisciplinary groups (ie, ICU physicians, nurses, managers). All levels of Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework were assessed using a mixed method design, including questionnaires, observations and routinely administered patient outcome data. Level I-reaction: participants were very positive directly after the training. Level II-learning: attitudes towards behaviour aimed at optimising situational awareness were relatively high at baseline and remained stable. Level III-behaviour: self-reported behaviour aimed at optimising situational awareness improved in the intervention group. No changes were found in observed explicit professional oral communication. Level IV-organisation: patient outcomes were unaffected. Error management culture and job satisfaction improved in the intervention group. Patient safety culture improved in both control and intervention units. We can conclude that CRM, as delivered in the present study, does not change behaviour or patient outcomes by itself, yet changes how participants think about errors and risks. This indicates that CRM requires a combination with other initiatives in order to improve clinical outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  11. Industry at odds over export coal prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarwood, Ken.

    1993-01-01

    The United Mine Workers' Union claims that Australia is not getting enough for its coal. Moreover, coal company executives argue that the open market policy was failing the industry and that the export customers were manipulating Australian producers. Consequently, the unions are calling for Federal Government intervention and support the establishment of a national coal authority to co-ordinate the marketing of coal and investment in the industry. ills

  12. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  13. Venezuelan coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, L.U.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

  14. Measurements of noise from rotary coal unloading operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.S.; Bilello, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    In the licensing effort for a coal-fired power plant in the northeast United States, noise related to delivery and unloading of coal by train was identified as a significant concern to the nearby community. Specific issues included locomotive noise, the banging noises caused by railcar couplings during the start and stop cycles of the unloading operation, wheel squeal in the curves of the rail loop, and rotary coal unloader noises. This paper reports that a literature review provided adequate information on idling locomotive noise but very little on the other noise sources. Coupling impact noise was well documented for railcars actually being coupled at various speeds but not for coupled trains during start and stop operations. Wheel squeal was well documented by subway trains travelling at normal speeds, but nothing could be found for wheel squeal during very slow train movement as occurs during unloading. Similarly, adequate information was available for unenclosed rotary unloaders but not for enclosed unloaders. Consequently, actual noise measurements of a similar enclosed facility, and the associated train movements, were undertaken to obtain data more directly applicable to the planned facility

  15. The power of Indonesian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosiak, T. [Duke/Fluor Daniel (United States)

    2003-02-01

    The paper presents three Indonesian projects carried out by Duke/Fluor Daniel whose unique construction and operation have demonstrated the versatility and value of coal-fired power generation. These are: the construction of units 7 and 8 of the Paiton Private Power Project, a 1230 MW pulverised coal plant in Paiton, East Java; construction of a coal fired generation plant and transmission system to provide power for the expansion of a copper and gold mine on the island of Papua; and construction of four 28 MW pulverized coal units to provide 'heavy lifting' for a new mine at Batu Hijau on the island of Sumbawa. Coal was found to cost less than diesel for power generation. 2 photos.

  16. The directory of United States coal & technology export resources. Profiles of domestic US corporations, associations and public entities, nationwide, which offer products or services suitable for export, relating to coal and its utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of available U.S. coal and coal related resources to potential purchasers of those resources abroad. The directory lists business entities within the US which offer coal related resources, products and services for sale on the international market. Each listing is intended to describe the particular business niche or range of product and/or services offered by a particular company. The listing provides addresses, telephones, and telex/fax for key staff in each company committed to the facilitation of international trade. The content of each listing has been formulated especially for this directory and reflects data current as of the date of this edition. The directory listings are divided into four primary classifications: coal resources; technology resources; support services; and financing and resource packaging. The first three of which are subdivided as follows: Coal Resources -- coal derivatives, coal exporters, and coal mining; Technology Resources -- advanced utilization, architects and engineers, boiler equipment, emissions control and waste disposal systems, facility construction, mining equipment, power generation systems, technical publications, and transport equipment; Support Services -- coal transport, facility operations, freight forwarders, sampling services and equipment, and technical consultants. Listings for the directory were solicited on the basis of this industry breakdown. Each of the four sections of this directory begins with a matrix illustrating which companies fall within the particular subclassifications specific to that main classification. A general alphabetical index of companies and an index by product/service classification are provided following the last section of the directory.

  17. United Nations Environment Programme Capacity Building Pilot Project - Training on persistent organic pollutant analysis under the Stockholm Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Leslie, H.A.; van Leeuwen, S.P.J.; Wegener, J.W.M.; van Bavel, B; Lindstrom, G.; Lahoutifard, N.; Fiedler, H.

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of a United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Capacity Building Project for training of laboratory staff in developing countries on persistent organic pollutant (POP) analysis, an interlaboratory study was organised following an initial evaluation of the performance of

  18. Coal combustion waste management study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Coal-fired generation accounted for almost 55 percent of the production of electricity in the United States in 1990. Coal combustion generates high volumes of ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes, estimated at almost 90 million tons. The amount of ash and flue gas desulfurization wastes generated by coal-fired power plants is expected to increase as a result of future demand growth, and as more plants comply with Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Nationwide, on average, over 30 percent of coal combustion wastes is currently recycled for use in various applications; the remaining percentage is ultimately disposed in waste management units. There are a significant number of on-site and off-site waste management units that are utilized by the electric utility industry to store or dispose of coal combustion waste. Table ES-1 summarizes the number of disposal units and estimates of waste contained at these unites by disposal unit operating status (i.e, operating or retired). Further, ICF Resources estimates that up to 120 new or replacement units may need to be constructed to service existing and new coal capacity by the year 2000. The two primary types of waste management units used by the industry are landfills and surface impoundments. Utility wastes have been exempted by Congress from RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulation since 1980. As a result of this exemption, coal combustion wastes are currently being regulated under Subtitle D of RCRA. As provided under Subtitle D, wastes not classified as hazardous under Subtitle C are subject to State regulation. At the same time Congress developed this exemption, also known as the ''Bevill Exclusion,'' it directed EPA to prepare a report on coal combustion wastes and make recommendations on how they should be managed

  19. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  20. Professional Training in Software Engineering: A Critical Need in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Waldrow

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The software is related to almost every aspect of daily life: manufacturing, banking, travel, communications, defense, medicine, research, government, education, entertainment, law ... Is an essential part of military systems and is used in all civilian sectors, including safety and mission critical. Moreover, the complexity of many of these systems has increased exponentially in recent decades and the software has become an essential component for all of them. Unfortunately, the "systems of higher education", in almost all countries have not kept pace with these changes. The current science and engineering programs, both undergraduate and graduate, they need to incorporate more training in Software Engineering. It is especially true in areas such as aerospace engineering, because these systems are highly dependent on computer, information, communications and software. This article presents an analysis of the current situation of the United States in what has to do with software engineering training that receive and require the aerospace engineers.

  1. Exposure to electromagnetic fields aboard high-speed electric multiple unit trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, D; Zhu, F; Qiu, R; Niu, Q

    2016-01-01

    High-speed electric multiple unit (EMU) trains generate high-frequency electric fields, low-frequency magnetic fields, and high-frequency wideband electromagnetic emissions when running. Potential human health concerns arise because the electromagnetic disturbances are transmitted mainly into the car body from windows, and from there to passengers and train staff. The transmission amount and amplitude distribution characteristics that dominate electromagnetic field emission need to be studied, and the exposure level of electromagnetic field emission to humans should be measured. We conducted a series of tests of the on board electromagnetic field distribution on several high-speed railway lines. While results showed that exposure was within permitted levels, the possibility of long-term health effects should be investigated.

  2. Ethics and professionalism education during neonatal-perinatal fellowship training in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, C L; Geis, G M; Kesselheim, J C; Sayeed, S

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived adequacy of ethics and professionalism education for neonatal-perinatal fellows in the United States, and to measure confidence of fellows and recent graduates when navigating ethical issues. Neonatal-Perinatal Fellowship Directors, fellows and recent graduates were surveyed regarding the quality and type of such education during training, and perceived confidence of fellows/graduates in confronting ethical dilemmas. Forty-six of 97 Directors (47%) and 82 of 444 fellows/graduates (18%) completed the surveys. Over 97% of respondents agreed that ethics training is 'important/very important'. Only 63% of Directors and 37% of fellows/graduates rated ethics education as 'excellent/very good' (P=0.004). While 96% of Directors reported teaching of ethics, only 70% of fellows/graduates reported such teaching (Pethics and professionalism for fellows is important, yet currently insufficient; a more standardized curriculum may be beneficial to ensure that trainees achieve competency.

  3. Coal summit II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Various papers were presented on world coal trade. Papers include: Poland as a producer and exporter of coal; the dynamics of world coal trade; Cerrejon coal production perspectives; present state of the Australian coal industry; present state of the EC coal market and future prospects; prospects of US coal exports to Europe; forecast of Italian coal supply and demand through 1990; statistics from coal transportation outlook; status of world coal ports.

  4. Nesting success of grassland and savanna birds on reclaimed surface coal mines of the midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galligan, E.W.; DeVault, T.L.; Lima, S.L. [Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Reclaimed surface coal mines in southwestern Indiana support many grassland and shrub/savanna bird species of conservation concern. We examined the nesting success of birds on these reclaimed mines to assess whether such 'unnatural' places represent productive breeding habitats for such species. We established eight study sites on two large, grassland-dominated mines in southwestern Indiana and classified them into three categories (open grassland, shrub/savanna, and a mixture of grassland and shrub/savanna) based on broad vegetation and landscape characteristics. During the 1999 and 2000 breeding seasons, we found and monitored 911 nests of 31 species. Daily nest survival for the most commonly monitored grassland species ranged from 0.903 (Dickcissel, Spiza americana) to 0.961 (Grasshopper Sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum). Daily survival estimates for the dominant shrub/savanna nesting species ranged from 0.932 (Brown Thrasher, Toxostoma rufum) to 0.982 (Willow Flycatcher, Empidonax traillii). Vegetation and landscape effects on nesting success were minimal, and only Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) showed a clear time-of-season effect, with greater nesting success in the first half of the breeding season. Rates of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism were only 2.1% for grassland species and 12.0% for shrub/savanna species. The nesting success of birds on reclaimed mine sites was comparable to that in other habitats, indicating that reclaimed habitats on surface mines do not necessarily represent reproductive traps for birds.

  5. Training in the Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector in the United Kingdom. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhys, Garel

    An international team of researchers studied the following aspects of training in the United Kingdom's motor vehicle repair and sales sector: structure and characteristics; institutional and social context; relationship to the labor market; changing structural, economic, and organizational conditions; and training/recruitment and relationship to…

  6. The Importance of Ethical Training for the Improvement of Ethical Decision-Making: Evidence from Germany and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottig, Daniel; Heischmidt, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    Based on three independent samples from Germany and the United States, this exploratory, cross-cultural study examines empirically the importance of ethical training for the improvement of ethical decision-making. The results of the study reveal a significant difference in the use of corporate codes of conduct and ethical training, as well as…

  7. Fiscal 1998 achievement report. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied for the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. For the modification of facilities, product oil reforming facilities were installed. In the coal injection operation, a 59-day slurry operation was carried out using Tanito Harum coal, which was for the evaluation of the reforming effect under the product reforming conditions, operationality, and liquefaction characteristics. A 37-day slurry operation was also performed using Chinese coal, which was intended to pursue improved cost performance and to collect the light oil fraction in the flow of reforming operation. In the operation for maintenance, investigations were conducted into conditions for hydrogenation in a 1-through operation involving the solvent hydrogenation process and the normal pressure distillation facilities and into the effect of pre-hydrogenation solvent properties, which aimed at grasping the effect of product oil reforming measures and their influence on operationality. In the survey of environments, the properties of wastewater from the liquefaction process using Tanito Harum coal were studied and toxicity evaluation tests were conducted for activated sludge. (NEDO)

  8. Coal, energy and environment: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, J.S.; Hawse, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This international conference held in Czechoslovakia was a bold attempt to establish working relationships among scientists and engineers from three world areas: Taiwan, the United States of America, and Czechoslovakia. The magic words unifying this gathering were ''clean coal utilization.'' For the ten nationalities represented, the common elements were the clean use of coal as a domestic fuel and as a source of carbon, the efficient and clean use of coal in power generation, and other uses of coal in environmentally acceptable processes. These three world areas have serious environmental problems, differing in extent and nature, but sufficiently close to create a working community for discussions. Beyond this, Czechoslovakia is emerging from the isolation imposed by control from Moscow. The need for each of these nations to meet and know one another was imperative. The environmental problems in Czechoslovakia are extensive and deep-seated. These proceedings contain 63 papers grouped into the following sections: The research university and its relationship with accrediting associations, government and private industry; Recent advances in coal utilization research; New methods of mining and reclamation; Coal-derived waste disposal and utilization; New applications of coal and environmental technologies; Mineral and trace elements in coal; Human and environmental impacts of coal production and utilization in the Silesian/Moravian region; and The interrelationships between fossil energy use and environmental objectives. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  9. Providing Transthoracic Echocardiography Training for Intensive Care Unit Trainees: An Educational Improvement Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuza, Catherine M; Hanifi, M Tariq; Koç, Melissa; Stopfkuchen-Evans, Matthias

    2018-04-09

    Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is important in the management of critically ill patients, yet it has not been incorporated into many residency programs' curricula. Our objective is to determine if trainees undergoing a 60-minute training session on TTE have improved knowledge, ultrasound skills, and increases the utilization of TTE during their rotation in the intensive care unit (ICU). We will also compare the results of participants with prior TTE exposure to TTE-naïve trainees. Our hypothesis is that after the training, participants' will have improved knowledge and ultrasound skills compared to before training. Our secondary hypotheses are that TTE-naïve trainees will have greater improvements in knowledge scores compared to those who have had prior TTE experience and trainees will increase their use of TTE in the ICU. Single-center, prospective trial. Brigham and Women's Hospital (academic hospital). Residents and fellows rotating through the ICU, at any level of postgraduate training. Forty-two trainees participated in the study. Statistically significant improvement after training was observed for all multiple choice questions (MCQ) and practical assessments (p < 0.001). When assessing the differences in score improvement between TTE-experienced versus TTE-naïve users, mean score improvements were notably higher for TTE-naïve participants (MCQ: 28.2 ± 11.6; echo clinical: 48.6 ± 23.4) compared to TTE-experienced users (MCQ: 18.6 ± 13.5, p = 0.01; echo clinical: 38.3 ± 30.2, p = 0.04). A short didactic presentation on TTE use may be useful in teaching ICU trainees basic TTE skills and encouraging the use of bedside TTE in the ICU. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  11. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Final report - Part 10. Variability in the inorganic content of United States' coals: a multivariate statistical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glick, D.C.; Davis, A.

    1984-07-01

    The multivariate statistical techniques of correlation coefficients, factor analysis, and cluster analysis, implemented by computer programs, can be used to process a large data set and produce a summary of relationships between variables and between samples. These techniques were used to find relationships for data on the inorganic constituents of US coals. Three hundred thirty-five whole-seam channel samples from six US coal provinces were analyzed for inorganic variables. After consideration of the attributes of data expressed on ash basis and whole-coal basis, it was decided to perform complete statistical analyses on both data sets. Thirty variables expressed on whole-coal basis and twenty-six variables expressed on ash basis were used. For each inorganic variable, a frequency distribution histogram and a set of summary statistics was produced. These were subdivided to reveal the manner in which concentrations of inorganic constituents vary between coal provinces and between coal regions. Data collected on 124 samples from three stratigraphic groups (Pottsville, Monongahela, Allegheny) in the Appalachian region were studied using analysis of variance to determine degree of variability between stratigraphic levels. Most variables showed differences in mean values between the three groups. 193 references, 71 figures, 54 tables.

  12. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.

    1992-01-01

    The United States produced 257 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1992. This was the second highest quarterly production level ever recorded. US coal exports in January through March of 1992 were 25 million short tons, the highest first quarter since 1982. The leading destinations for US coal exports were Japan, Italy, France, and the Netherlands, together receiving 46 percent of the total. Coal exports for the first quarter of 1992 were valued at $1 billion, based on an average price of $42.28 per short ton. Steam coal exports totaled 10 million short tons, an increase of 34 percent over the level a year earlier. Metallurgical coal exports amounted to 15 million short tons, about the same as a year earlier. US coal consumption for January through March 1992 was 221 million short tons, 2 million short tons more than a year earlier (Table 45). All sectors but the residential and commercial sector reported increased coal consumption

  13. King coal: miners, coal, and Britain's industrial future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, T.

    1981-01-01

    The coal industry in the United Kingdom and the history of the mineworkers, from their attempts at unionization until the present day, are described. Reasons for the policy of closing pits and dismantling the coal industry, and for importing coal are discussed and analyzed.

  14. World coking coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloskey, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed conditions in world coking coal markets. There is increased demand from Asia for metallurgical coal imports. World iron production was up 22 percent in first 7 months of 2010. Supply is up in Australia, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Russia, and Mongolia, but the unexpected surge in supply caused prices to drop following a robust start to the year. Coking coal exports are up for the United States and Australia, but a delay in expanded production is expected until 2014. There is increased demand from Brazil, India, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan as well as new plants in Thailand, Indonesia, and Brazil. Unexpectedly, Australia is backing out of the Chinese market but increasing exports to Japan and South Korea. India is seeing flat performance in iron production and imports, and the United States has surged back into Asia. A considerable increase is expected in the seaborne import requirement by 2020. Prices are expected to fall and then rise. This presentation also discussed whether coking coal index pricing is impossible or inevitable. 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  15. Analysis of the average poly-cyclic aromatic unit in a meta-anthracite coal using conventional x-ray powder diffraction and intensity separation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertz, D.L.; Bissell, M.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray characterizations of coals and coal products have occurred for many years. Hirsch and Cartz measured the diffraction from several coals over the reciprocal space region from s = 0.12 angstrom -1 to 7.5 angstrom -1 where s = (4π/λ) sinΘ. In these studies, a 9 cm powder camera was used to study the high angle region, and a transmission type focusing camera equipped with a LiF monochromator was used for the low angle measurements. They reported that the height of the graphene peak measured for each coal is proportional to the % carbon in the coals. Hirsch also suggested that the ontyberem anthracite has a lamellar diameter of ca. 16 angstrom corresponding to an aromatic lamellae of ca. C 87 . For coals with lower carbon content, Hirsch proposed much smaller lamellae; C 19 for a coal with 80% carbon, and C 24 for a coal with 89% carbon. The subject coal for this study is a meta-anthracite which was derived from the Portsmouth, RI mine. The Narragansett Basin contains anthracite and meta-anthracite coals of Pennsylvanian Age. The Basin was a techtonically active non-marine coal-forming basin which has been impacted by several tectonic events. Because of the importance placed by coal scientists no correctly characterizing the nature of the micro-level structural cluster(s) in coals and because of improvements in both x-ray experimentation capabilities and computing power, we have measured the x-ray diffraction and scattering produced from irradiation of this meta-anthracite coal which contains about 94% aromatic carbon. The goal of our study is to determine the intra-planar, and where possible, inter-planar structural details of coals. To accomplish this goal we have utilized the methods normally used for the molecular analysis of non-crystalline condensed phases such as liquids, solutions, and amorphous solids. Reported herein are the results obtained from the high angle x-ray analysis of this coal

  16. Nuclear vs coal: comparing cost trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrer, B.; Nieves, L.

    1981-01-01

    The leading competitors in the new-capacity-addition options, from now to 1990, will be nuclear and coal-fired units. As an alternative viewpoint to the coal vs nuclear economic comparison presented in the October 1981 issue of Electrical World, this study represents an analysis of cost data for generating electricity from the two fuel sources. The economic impacts on nuclear and coal units of varying the levels of several key cost parameters are examined and analyzed. 13 figures

  17. Coal: an economic source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Ali, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Coal, in spite its abundance availability in Pakistan, is a neglected source of energy. Its role as fuel is not more than five percent for the last four decades. Some of the coal, mined, in used as space heating in cold areas of Pakistan but more than 90% is being used in brick kilns. There are 185 billion tonnes of coal reserves in the country and hardly 3 million tonnes of coal is, annually, mined. Lakhra coal field is, presently, major source of coal and is considered the largest productive/operative coal field of Pakistan. It is cheaper coal compared to other coals available in Pakistan. As an average analysis of colas of the country, it shows that most of the coals are lignitic in nature with high ash and sulfur content. The energy potential is roughly the same but the cost/ton of coal is quite different. It may be due to methods of mining. There should be some criteria for fixing the cost of the coal. It should be based on energy potential of unit mass of coal. (author)

  18. Multicultural training in the United States: a survey of occupational therapy programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elena Verdine Donoso; Muñoz, Jaime Phillip; Powell, Janet M

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was designed to describe multicultural training practices in occupational therapy programs. A survey was sent to occupational therapy programs in the United States to gather information on multicultural content, skills, and teaching methods as well as diversity context and challenges. The response rate was 54%. The most frequently covered multicultural content was related to cultural background and sociopolitical factors. Multicultural skills covered most often were practice oriented and interpersonal skills. Teaching methods reported as used most often differed from the methods thought by the respondents to be most effective. Programs reported multiple challenges to multicultural training including lack of time and lack of diversity in the student body, faculty, and environment. Results suggest that educators may need to expand multicultural content and skills to prepare occupational therapy students for providing care in increasingly diverse practice settings. In addition, increased use of teaching methods that focus on exposure to diverse populations and reflection may be needed to improve the effectiveness of multicultural training in occupational therapy programs.

  19. Identifying the Learning Curve for Uterine Artery Embolisation in an Interventional Radiological Training Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Raj, E-mail: rajdas@nhs.net, E-mail: raj.das@stgeorges.nhs.uk; Lucatelli, Pierleone, E-mail: pierleone.lucatelli@gmail.com; Wang, Haofan, E-mail: wwhhff123@gmail.com; Belli, Anna-Maria, E-mail: anna.belli@stgeorges.nhs.uk [St George’s Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    AimA clear understanding of operator experience is important in improving technical success whilst minimising patient risk undergoing endovascular procedures, and there is the need to ensure that trainees have the appropriate skills as primary operators. The aim of the study is to retrospectively analyse uterine artery embolisation (UAE) procedures performed by interventional radiology (IR) trainees at an IR training unit analysing fluoroscopy times and radiation dose as surrogate markers of technical skill.MethodsTen IR fellows were primary operator in 200 UAE procedures over a 5-year period. We compared fluoroscopy times, radiation dose and complications, after having them categorised according to three groups: Group 1, initial five, Group 2, >5 procedures and Group 3, penultimate five UAE procedures. We documented factors that may affect screening time (number of vials employed and use of microcatheters).ResultsMean fluoroscopy time was 18.4 (±8.1), 17.3 (±9.0), 16.3 (±8.4) min in Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between these groups (p > 0.05) with respect to fluoroscopy time or radiation dose. Analysis after correction for confounding factors showed no statistical significance (p > 0.05). All procedures were technically successful, and total complication rate was 4 %.ConclusionUAE was chosen as a highly standardised procedure followed by IR practitioners. Although there is a non-significant trend for shorter screening times with experience, technical success and safety were not compromised with appropriate Consultant supervision, which illustrates a safe construct for IR training. This is important and reassuring information for patients undergoing a procedure in a training unit.

  20. Converting coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avigliano, A. [Bedeschi (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    In September 2005, Bedeschi was commissioned to design and supply a coal unloading, conveying and storage facility for a new raw coal line system within Hatien II Cement Co. The new plant is composed of a grab unloader, a conveyor system, a storage shed with stacking and reclaiming facilities, a complete dedusting system and civil and steel structure engineering. The scope of supply includes a local fabrication portion; however, main components will be imported. The project will be completed in 21 months. The paper looks into the mechanics of loading and unloading coal. 4 figs., 4 photos.

  1. Effects of Barbell Deadlift Training on Submaximal Motor Unit Firing Rates for the Vastus Lateralis and Rectus Femoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S.; Thompson, Brennan J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years) were randomly assigned to training (n = 15) or control (n = 9) groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC) and y-intercepts (pps) of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70), but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units. PMID:25531294

  2. Effects of barbell deadlift training on submaximal motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt S Stock

    Full Text Available Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years were randomly assigned to training (n = 15 or control (n = 9 groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC and y-intercepts (pps of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70, but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units.

  3. Effects of barbell deadlift training on submaximal motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Thompson, Brennan J

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years) were randomly assigned to training (n = 15) or control (n = 9) groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC) and y-intercepts (pps) of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70), but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units.

  4. Coal liquids -- Who needs them?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the global energy demand situation as presented at the last World Energy Congress. The total energy demand was calculated for each country and projected to 2100. The paper then discusses the energy situation in the United States, especially the forecasted demand for crude oil and natural gas liquids. Imports will be needed to make up the shortfall in domestic production. The shortfall in conventional petroleum could be supplied by converting coal into liquid fuels. Currently the cost of high quality coal liquids is too high to compete with petroleum, but trends suggest that the price will be competitive in the year 2030 using current technology. Continuing research on coal liquefaction will reduce the price of coal liquids so that coal liquids could play a significant role sooner

  5. Differential Motor Unit Changes after Endurance or High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Valdes, Eduardo; Falla, Deborah; Negro, Francesco; Mayer, Frank; Farina, Dario

    2017-06-01

    Using a novel technique of high-density surface EMG decomposition and motor unit (MU) tracking, we compared changes in the properties of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis MU after endurance (END) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Sixteen men were assigned to the END or the HIIT group (n = 8 each) and performed six training sessions for 14 d. Each session consisted of 8-12 × 60-s intervals at 100% peak power output separated by 75 s of recovery (HIIT) or 90-120 min continuous cycling at ~65% V˙O2peak (END). Pre- and postintervention, participants performed 1) incremental cycling to determine V˙O2peak and peak power output and 2) maximal, submaximal (10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% maximum voluntary contraction [MVC]), and sustained (until task failure at 30% MVC) isometric knee extensions while high-density surface EMG signals were recorded from the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis. EMG signals were decomposed (submaximal contractions) into individual MU by convolutive blind source separation. Finally, MU were tracked across sessions by semiblind source separation. After training, END and HIIT improved V˙O2peak similarly (by 5.0% and 6.7%, respectively). The HIIT group showed enhanced maximal knee extension torque by ~7% (P = 0.02) and was accompanied by an increase in discharge rate for high-threshold MU (≥50% knee extension MVC) (P 0.05). HIIT and END induce different adjustments in MU discharge rate despite similar improvements in cardiopulmonary fitness. Moreover, the changes induced by HIIT are specific for high-threshold MU. For the first time, we show that HIIT and END induce specific neuromuscular adaptations, possibly related to differences in exercise load intensity and training volume.

  6. Operator Training and TEMS Support: A Survey of Unit Leaders in Northern and Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jason B; Galante, Joseph M; Sena, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Members of Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams routinely work in high-risk tactical situations. Awareness of the benefit of Tactical Emergency Medical Support (TEMS) is increasing but not uniformly emphasized. To characterize the current regional state of tactical medicine and identify potential barriers to more widespread implementation. A multiple-choice survey was administered to SWAT team leaders of 22 regional agencies in northern and central California. Questions focused on individual officer self-aid and buddy care training, the use and content of individual first aid kits (IFAKs), and the operational inclusion of a dedicated TEMS provider. Respondents included city police (54%), local county sheriff (36%), state law enforcement (5%), and federal law enforcement (5%). RESULTS showed that 100% of respondents thought it was ?Very Important? for SWAT officers to understand the basics of self-aid and buddy care and to carry an IFAK, while only 71% of respondents indicated that team members actually carried an IFAK. In addition, 67% indicated that tourniquets were part of the IFAK, and 91% of surveyed team leaders thought it was ?Very Important? for teams to have a trained medic available onsite at callouts or high-risk warrant searches. Also, 59% of teams used an organic TEMS element. The majority of SWAT team leaders recognize the benefit of basic Operator medical training and the importance of a TEMS program. Despite near 100% endorsement by unit-level leadership, a significant proportion of teams are lacking one of the key components including Operator IFAKs and/or tourniquets. Tactical team leaders, administrators, and providers should continue to promote adequate Operator training and equipment as well as formal TEMS support. 2013.

  7. Ethics education in family medicine training in the United States: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Helen M; Satin, David; Nelson, Valerie; Vadiveloo, Thenmalar

    2014-01-01

    Although professional organizations endorse ethics education in family medicine training, there is little published evidence that ethics teaching occurs. This survey collated data on the aims, content, pedagogical methods, assessment, and barriers relating to formal ethics education in family medicine residency programs in the United States. A questionnaire surveyed all 445 family medicine residency programs in the United States. Forty percent of programs responded (178/445). Of these, 95% formally teach at least one ethics topic, 68.2% teach six or more topics, and 7.1% teach all 13 core topics specified in the questionnaire. Programs show variation, providing between zero to 100 hours' ethics education over the 3 years of residency training. Of the responding programs, 3.5% specify well-defined aims for ethics teaching, 25.9% designate overall responsibility for the ethics curriculum to one individual, and 33.5% formally assess ethics competencies. The most frequent barriers to ethics education are finding time in residents' schedules (59.4%) and educator expertise (21.8%). Considerable variation in ethics education is apparent in both curricular content and delivery among family medicine residency programs in the United States. Additional findings included a lack of specification of explicit curricular aims for ethics teaching allied to ACGME or AAFP competencies, a tendency not to designate one faculty member with lead responsibility for ethics teaching in the residency program, and a lack of formal assessment of ethics competencies. This has occurred in the context of an absence of robust assessment of ethics competencies at board certification level.

  8. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.

    1998-08-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. 58 tabs.

  9. A dynamic model used for controller design of a coal fired once-through boiler-turbine unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ji-Zhen; Yan, Shu; Zeng, De-Liang; Hu, Yong; Lv, You

    2015-01-01

    Supercritical OTB (once-through boiler) units with high steam temperature and pressure have been widely used in modern power plants due to their high cycle efficiency and less emissions. To ensure the effective operation of such power generation systems, it is necessary to build a model for the design of the overall control system. There are already detailed models of once-through boilers; however, their complexity prevents them from being applied in the controller design. This study describes a lumped parameter dynamic model that has a relatively low complexity while faithfully capturing the essential overall plant dynamics. The model structure was derived by fundamental physical laws utilizing reasonable simplifications and data analysis to avoid the phase transition position problem. Parameter identification for the model structure was completed using operational data from a 1000 MW ultra-supercritical OTB. The model was determined to be reasonable by comparison tests between computed data and measured data for both steady and dynamic states. The simplified model is verified to have appropriate fidelity in control system design to achieve effective and economic operation of the unit. - Highlights: • A simplified dynamic model of once-through boiler-turbine unit is given. • The essential dynamics of active power and throttle pressure is presented. • The change of phase transition position is avoided in modeling process. • The model has appropriate complexity and fidelity for controller design.

  10. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  11. Strategies business of the unit providing services of virtual training – unipanamericana compensar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Marcela Cardona Bedoya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of processes thesis of "Master in Management and Marketing Management and Global New Markets" for the University Camilo José Cela. The data collection is done through an exploratory research and the study of business unit Unit Providing Services of Virtual Training Unipanamericana - Compensate. Considering secondary sources we identified: 1 The most important in the world and in Colombia at the level of new technologies, 2 The development trends of the array Mic Mac establishes the relationship between trends and portfolio of the business unit. And 3 Identify the growth of applications and the impact of E-learning. The collection and analysis of information on the qualitative method developed through interviews, aiming to identify trends that impact the marketing plan. In the analysis were found four trends that impact the line of business: The joint educational levels, The new educational experiences, Changes in learning models and Strengthening education systems. These trends were explored in an evaluative context, to identify new technologies that are necessary for professional development.   

  12. Coal - 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards

  13. Internalizing social costs in power plant siting: some examples for coal and nuclear plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1976-01-01

    Selected aspects of the United States experience in one particular type of energy development project, the siting of nuclear and fossil fueled power generating facilities, are examined in terms of how well community-level impacts are internalized. New institutional arrangements being devised and new requirements being made at local, state, regional, and federal levels in response to these dissociations of cost and benefits from large energy development projects are discussed. Selected examples of these new institutional responses are analyzed for adequacy and significance

  14. The training of specialists in Family and Community Health Nursing according to the supervisors of the teaching units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltra-Rodríguez, Enrique; Martínez-Riera, José Ramón; Mármol-López, María Isabel; Pastor-Gallardo, Francisco Javier; Gras-Nieto, Elvira; Holgado-Fernández, Ana

    To analyze the current situation of the training of specialists in family and community nursing from the perspective of nurses responsible for teaching units. Exploratory analysis using nominal group technique of the contributions made by representatives of 19 multidisciplinary teaching units in family and community care from 11 Spanish autonomous communities. They categorized and weighted those contributions. The emerging categories on the strengths and difficulties encountered related to the tutors, the environment where the training took place, the structure of the teaching unit, the organization of the teaching and the official programme of the speciality, the external supports and the theoretical training. Training in Family and Community Nursing is an opportunity to improve primary health care to train in news and necessary but complex skills. Support is required for training to be effective and the specialty and training should be made known. Tutors are a key part of this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  16. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant`s remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data.

  17. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant's remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data

  18. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  19. The marriage of gas turbines and coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajura, R.A.; Webb, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on developing gas turbine systems that can use coal or a coal-based fuel ensures that the United States will have cost-effective environmentally sound options for supplying future power generation needs. Power generation systems that marry coal or a coal-based fuel to a gas turbine? Some matchmakers would consider this an unlikely marriage. Historically, most gas turbines have been operated only on premium fuels, primarily natural gas or distillate oil. The perceived problems from using coal or coal-based fuels in turbines are: Erosion and deposition: Coal ash particles in the hot combustion gases passing through the expander turbine could erode or deposit on the turbine blades. Corrosion: Coal combustion will release alkali compounds form the coal ash. Alkali in the hot gases passing through the expander turbine can cause corrosion of high-temperature metallic surfaces. Emissions: coal contains higher levels of ash, fuel-bound sulfur and nitrogen compounds, and trace contaminants than premium fuels. Meeting stringent environmental regulations for particulates, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and trace contaminants will be difficult. Economics: Coal-based systems are expensive to build. The difference in price between coal and premium fuels must be large enough to justify the higher capital cost

  20. Fiscal 1996 achievement report. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1996 nendo seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied for the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. In the modification of facilities, detailed designs were prepared for product oil reforming facilities and some equipment and devices were procured. In addition, the 3rd liquefaction reactor cone section and the neutron attenuation-aided measuring device were refurbished. In the injection of coal, a 62-day and 23-day slurry injection operations were accomplished using Tanito Harum coal, when the impact imposed on the yield of the product, etc., by the change of liquefaction catalysts and by gas phase hydrogen concentration enriching conditions was investigated, and the unit was examined for operationality. During a 42-day operation for maintenance, the unit was operated using only the slurry heater for the investigation of the initial reaction in liquefaction, and studies were conducted about the heater exit temperature, G/L (gas-liquid ratio), and the effect to ensue from the use of a different solvent. In the effort to develop and evaluate new materials, implantation tests were conducted for metallic materials and the 3rd liquefaction reactor was subjected to a non-destructive inspection. Wastewater from the process was examined for quality, and environment-related measurements were performed for the atmosphere. (NEDO)

  1. Defining our destiny: trainee working group consensus statement on the future of emergency surgery training in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, A E; Gokani, V J; Harries, R L; Pearce, L; Smith, S R; Ali, O; Chu, H; Dubois, A; Ferguson, H; Humm, G; Marsden, M; Nepogodiev, D; Venn, M; Singh, S; Swain, C; Kirkby-Bott, J

    2015-01-01

    The United Kingdom National Health Service treats both elective and emergency patients and seeks to provide high quality care, free at the point of delivery. Equal numbers of emergency and elective general surgical procedures are performed, yet surgical training prioritisation and organisation of NHS institutions is predicated upon elective care. The increasing ratio of emergency general surgery consultant posts compared to traditional sub-specialities has yet to be addressed. How should the capability gap be bridged to equip motivated, skilled surgeons of the future to deliver a high standard of emergency surgical care? The aim was to address both training requirements for the acquisition of necessary emergency general surgery skills, and the formation of job plans for trainee and consultant posts to meet the current and future requirements of the NHS. Twenty nine trainees and a consultant emergency general surgeon convened as a Working Group at The Association of Surgeons in Training Conference, 2015, to generate a united consensus statement to the training requirement and delivery of emergency general surgery provision by future general surgeons. Unscheduled general surgical care provision, emergency general surgery, trauma competence, training to meet NHS requirements, consultant job planning and future training challenges arose as key themes. Recommendations have been made from these themes in light of published evidence. Careful workforce planning, education, training and fellowship opportunities will provide well-trained enthusiastic individuals to meet public and societal need.

  2. Effects of a Staff Training Intervention on Seclusion Rates on an Adult Inpatient Psychiatric Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Julie; Paun, Olimpia; Fogg, Louis

    2018-06-01

    The current article presents the effects of a 90-minute staff training intervention aimed at reducing inpatient psychiatric seclusion rates through strengthened staff commitment to seclusion alternatives and improved de-escalation skills. The intervention occurred at an 18-bed adult inpatient psychiatric unit whose seclusion rates in 2015 were seven times the national average. Although the project's primary outcome compared patient seclusion rates before and after the intervention, anonymous staff surveys measured several secondary outcomes. Seclusion rates were reduced from a 6-month pre-intervention average of 2.95 seclusion hours per 1,000 patient hours to a 6-month post-intervention average of 0.29 seclusion hours per 1,000 patient hours, a 90.2% reduction. Completed staff surveys showed significant staff knowledge gains, non-significant changes in staff attitudes about seclusion, non-significant changes in staff de-escalation skill confidence, and use of the new resource sheet by only 17% of staff. The key study implication is that time-limited, focused staff training interventions can have a measurable impact on reducing inpatient seclusion rates. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 56(6), 23-30.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Training Level, Acculturation, Role Ambiguity, and Multicultural Discussions in Training and Supervising International Counseling Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok-Mun; Smith, Shannon D.

    2012-01-01

    This research partially replicated Nilsson and Anderson's "Professional Psychology: Research and Practice" (2004) study on training and supervising international students. It investigated the relationships among international counseling students' training level, acculturation, supervisory working alliance (SWA), counseling self-efficacy (COSE),…

  4. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  5. Critical paths to coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, G R

    1977-01-01

    The present dilemma of energy producers, converters, and policy decision makers is presented. The consequences of environmental control regulations, coupled with the need for conservation and energy, and of energy resources on the increased utilization of coal, are discussed. Several recent technical accomplishments that make possible increased utilization of coal for power generation are described. Groundwork is laid for discussion of the technical development that must occur if the United States is to retain its energy viability.

  6. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-01-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A ampersand E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton's initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force

  7. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  8. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region V. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    This report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. This volume is specifically for the states of Washington, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.

  9. Training of nurses on Foley catheter insertion in intensive care unit patients: limits and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Conceição Merces

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Nursing has an important role in urinary tract infection prevention and control. Urinary catheters insertion represents the local topography with the highest rate of hospital infection. Foley catheter placement is performed solely by the nurse and requires aseptic techniques during its performance, thus preventing risks to the patients. The study aimed to evaluate the training of nurses on Foley catheter insertion and point out limits and possibilities of this practice in patients at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of Hospital Geral do Interior da Bahia (HGIB. Methods: This was a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews. After data analysis, two categories were evaluated, namely: the training of nurses on Foley catheter insertion in ICU patients and the limits and possibilities of Foley catheter insertion practice by nurses in ICU patients. Bardin analysis was used for data analysis. Results: The study shows that the nurse’s practice on Foley catheter insertion in ICU patients is based on the use of aseptic techniques for urinary tract infection prevention, theoretical and practical knowledge on Foley catheter insertion in ICU patients, knowledge on urinary tract infections and associations with catheter insertion, whereas the limits and possibilities of Foley catheter insertion practice by nurses are understood through measures to minimize the risk of hospital infection caused by long-term catheter use in the ICU. Nurses point out that the risks of hospital infection are inherent to long-term catheter use. This is an important fact, as the knowledge or its absence may constitute a limit or possibility for Foley catheter insertion practice by the nurse in ICU patients. Conclusion: Nurses must seek the systematization of knowledge, which warrants support for the team, as well as information, safety and prompt care, allowing the reduction of urinary

  10. Coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  11. Delayed coking unit preheat train optimization; Otimizacao do preaquecimento das Unidades de Coque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marins, Edson R; Geraldelli, Washington O; Barros, Francisco C [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    The oil industry has been investing in research and development of new techniques and process improvements with the objective to increase the residual fraction profitability and to fulfill the market demands. The adequacy of the refining scheme has led to the development of bottom of the barrel processes that has the objective to convert heavy fractions into products of higher aggregate value. In this context, the process of Delayed Coking presents a great importance in the production of distillates in the diesel range as well as the processing of heavy residues, mostly in the markets where the fuel oil consumption is being reduced. With the approach to help PETROBRAS decide which route to follow during new designs of Delayed Coking units, this work presents a comparative study of the preheat train performance among the energy recovery to preheat the feed, in contrast with preheating the feed and generating steam, simultaneously. In this study the Pinch Technology methodology was used as a procedure for heat integration with the objective of getting the maximum energy recovery from the process, finding the best trade-off between operational cost and investment cost. The alternative of steam generation aims to provide an appropriate flexibility in Delayed Coking units design and operation. (author)

  12. 30 CFR 49.30 - Requirements for small coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for small coal mines. 49.30 Section 49.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.30 Requirements for small coal...

  13. 30 CFR 49.40 - Requirements for large coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for large coal mines. 49.40 Section 49.40 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.40 Requirements for large coal...

  14. Distilling coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  15. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: National Coal Resource Dataset System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the coal mine density and storage volumes within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on the...

  16. Technical and economic feasibility for the application of micronized coal as a replacement for No. 2 oil for start-up and low-load operation at Illinois Power Havana No. 6 Cycling Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberger, F.; Guilfoyle, C.J.; Parker, W.O. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Uncertainty regarding oil availability and long-term price stability make it difficult for a utility to predict annual ignition costs for a cycling unit. Illinois Power Company, Sargent and Lundy Engineering and Micro-fuel Corporation have produced a detailed feasibility study on the application of micronized coal as a replacement fuel for start-up and low-load operation for Havana No. 6. This unit is a B and W opposed-fired boiler which is rated at 410 MWe (summer net). This paper presents technical and economic analysis, including the uncertainties of the application of this technology

  17. The employment status of 1995 graduates from radiation oncology training programs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, Daniel F.; Kresl, John J.; Sheldon, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the employment status of 1995 graduates of radiation oncology training programs in the United States. Methods and Materials: All senior residents (149) and fellows (36) who completed training in 1995 were mailed an employment survey questionnaire by the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO). Telephone follow-up of nonrespondents achieved a 100% response rate. Twenty graduates who chose to continue training and five who returned to their home countries were removed from the study. Of the 160 who attempted to enter the U.S. workforce, 106 were men and 54 were women. Initial job status and job status at 6-8 months following graduation were determined. Results: Unemployment was 6.9% at graduation and 4.4% at 6-8 months. Underemployment (part-time employment) was 10.6% at graduation and 11.9% at 6-8 months postgraduation. Of those working part-time 6-8 months after graduation, 63% (12 of 19) did so involuntarily after unsuccessfully seeking full-time employment. For the 20 graduates who chose to continue training with fellowships, seven (35%) did so solely to avoid unemployment, four (20%) were partially influenced by the job market, and nine (45%) were not influenced by the job market. Adverse employment search outcome was defined as being either unemployed as a radiation oncologist or involuntarily working part-time. Excluding those who chose to work part-time, a total of 19 (11.9%) graduates at 6-8 months following graduation, compared to 22 (13.8%) at graduation, were either unemployed or involuntarily working part-time. In terms of gender, this represented 18.5% (10 of 54) of females and 8.6% (9 of 105) of males. In terms of geographic restrictions in the job search, 56% of males and 70% of females with an adverse employment outcome limited their job search to certain parts of the country. This compares to 62% of all graduates in this study with geographic restrictions in their job search. In terms of perceptions of the

  18. The employment status of 1995 graduates from radiation oncology training programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, D F; Kresl, J J; Sheldon, J M

    1999-03-15

    To quantify the employment status of 1995 graduates of radiation oncology training programs in the United States. All senior residents (149) and fellows (36) who completed training in 1995 were mailed an employment survey questionnaire by the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO). Telephone follow-up of nonrespondents achieved a 100% response rate. Twenty graduates who chose to continue training and five who returned to their home countries were removed from the study. Of the 160 who attempted to enter the U.S. workforce, 106 were men and 54 were women. Initial job status and job status at 6-8 months following graduation were determined. Unemployment was 6.9% at graduation and 4.4% at 6-8 months. Underemployment (part-time employment) was 10.6% at graduation and 11.9% at 6-8 months postgraduation. Of those working part-time 6-8 months after graduation, 63% (12 of 19) did so involuntarily after unsuccessfully seeking full-time employment. For the 20 graduates who chose to continue training with fellowships, seven (35%) did so solely to avoid unemployment, four (20%) were partially influenced by the job market, and nine (45%) were not influenced by the job market. Adverse employment search outcome was defined as being either unemployed as a radiation oncologist or involuntarily working part-time. Excluding those who chose to work part-time, a total of 19 (11.9%) graduates at 6-8 months following graduation, compared to 22 (13.8%) at graduation, were either unemployed or involuntarily working part-time. In terms of gender, this represented 18.5% (10 of 54) of females and 8.6% (9 of 105) of males. In terms of geographic restrictions in the job search, 56% of males and 70% of females with an adverse employment outcome limited their job search to certain parts of the country. This compares to 62% of all graduates in this study with geographic restrictions in their job search. In terms of perceptions of the workforce and employment opportunities, 95% of

  19. Airways obstruction, coal mining, and disability.

    OpenAIRE

    Lapp, N L; Morgan, W K; Zaldivar, G

    1994-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the inhalation of coal in the absence of complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) or smoking can lead to disabling airways obstruction. The cause of such obstruction has been variously attributed to emphysema or bronchitis. The frequency of significant airways obstruction in a group of United States coal miners seeking compensation for occupationally induced pulmonary impairment was therefore determined. In a sample of 611 "Black Lung" claimants there...

  20. A newer concept of setting up coal refineries in coal utilising industries through environmentally sound clean coal technology of organosuper refining of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    In order to reduce the losses of premium organic matter of coal and its immense potential energy which is present in the form of stronger interatomic and intramolecular bonding energies, a newer and convenient technique of recovering the premium organic matter from low grade coals by organosuper-refining technique which operates under ambient pressure conditions has been developed. The residual coal obtained can be used as environmentally clean fuel or as a feedstock for the industries based on carbonization and gasification. It is suggested that a beginning be made by setting up coal refineries in coal utilizing industries on the basis of the presently developed new technology of organosuper-refining of coals to recover premium grade organic chemical feed stocks from coals before utilizing coal by techniques such as bubble bed or recirculatory fluidized bed or pulverized coal combustion in thermal power stations, carbonization in steel plants or other carbonization units, gasification in fertilizer industries or in integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. Thus, coal refineries may produce value added aromatic chemical feed stocks, formed coke or coke manufacturing; and carbon fillers for polymers. (author). 100 refs., 1 fig

  1. "Run-through" training at specialist training year 1 and uncoupled core surgical training for oral and maxillofacial surgery in the United Kingdom: a snapshot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M; Collyer, J; Dhariwal, D

    2018-05-01

    Training in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) in the UK has undergone considerable changes during the last 10years, and "core" surgical training has replaced "basic" surgical training. In 2014 a pilot "run-through" training programme from specialist training year one (ST1)-ST7 was introduced to facilitate early entry into the speciality. Run-through training guarantees that a trainee, after a single competitive selection process and satisfactory progress, will be given training that covers the entire curriculum of the speciality, whereas uncoupled training requires a second stage of competitive recruitment after the first one (for OMFS only) or two years of "core" training to progress to higher specialty training. The first two years of run-through training (ST1-ST2) are the same as for core surgical training. Dual-qualified maxillofacial aspirants and those in their second degree course are curious to know whether they should go for the uncoupled core surgical training or the run-through programme in OMFS. The General Medical Council (GMC) has now agreed that run-through training can be rolled out nationally in OMFS. To assess the two pathways we used an online questionnaire to gain feedback about the experience from all OMFS ST3 and run-through trainees (ST3/ST4) in 2016-2017. We identified and contacted 21 trainees, and 17 responded, including seven run-through trainees. Eleven, including five of the run-through trainees, recommended the run-through training programme in OMFS. Six of the seven run-through trainees had studied dentistry first. The overall mean quality of training was rated as 5.5 on a scale 0-10 by the 17 respondents. This survey gives valuable feedback from the current higher surgical trainees in OMFS, which will be useful to the GMC, Health Education England, OMFS Specialist Advisory Committee, and those seeking to enter higher surgical training in OMFS. Copyright © 2018 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published

  2. Coal mine subsidence and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Underground coal mining has occurred beneath 32 x 10 9 m 2 (8 million acres) of land in the United States and will eventually extend beneath 162 x 10 9 m 2 (40 million acres). Most of this mining has taken place and will take place in the eastern half of the United States. In areas of abandoned mines where total extraction was not achieved, roof collapse, crushing of coal pillars, or punching of coal pillars into softer mine floor or roof rock is now resulting in sinkhole or trough subsidence tens or even hundreds of years after mining. Difference in geology, in mining, and building construction practice between Europe and the United States preclude direct transfer of European subsidence engineering experience. Building damage cannot be related simply to tensile and compressive strains at the ground surface. Recognition of the subsidence damage role played by ground-structure interaction and by structural details is needed

  3. A summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. Considerable emphasis is placed on postmining assistance. This volume is specifically for the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio.

  4. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region IV. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas and Louisiana.

  5. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia and Virginia.

  6. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida.

  7. Effectiveness of classroom based crew resource management training in the intensive care unit: Study design of a controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, P.F.; de Bruijne, M.C.; van Dyck, C.; Wagner, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Crew resource management (CRM) has the potential to enhance patient safety in intensive care units (ICU) by improving the use of non-technical skills. However, CRM evaluation studies in health care are inconclusive with regard to the effect of this training on behaviour and

  8. Effectiveness of classroom based crew resource management training in the intensive care unit: study design of a controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, P.F.; Bruijne, M. de; Dyck, C. van; Wagner, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Crew resource management (CRM) has the potential to enhance patient safety in intensive care units (ICU) by improving the use of non-technical skills. However, CRM evaluation studies in health care are inconclusive with regard to the effect of this training on behaviour and

  9. Addressing Adolescent Depression in Schools: Evaluation of an In-Service Training for School Staff in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Budge, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated an adolescent depression in-service training for school staff in the United States. A total of 252 school staff (e.g., teachers, principals, counselors) completed assessments prior to and following the in-service and a subsample of these staff participated in focus groups following the in-service and three months later.…

  10. The Implications of the National Minimum Wage for Training Practices and Skill Utilisation in the United Kingdom Hospitality Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Gill; Williams, Steve; Adam-Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Two key issues thrown up by the 1999 introduction of the National Minimum Wage (NMW) in the United Kingdom are its likely impact on employers' training practices in low paying sectors of the economy and the implications for skills. Based on a study of the hospitality industry, this article assesses the limited significance of the differential,…

  11. Impact of online toxicology training on health professionals: the Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anselm; Vohra, Rais; Dawson, Andrew H; Stolbach, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    The Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP), supported by the American College of Medical Toxicology, links countries with and without toxicology services via distance education with the aim to improve education. Due to the lack of toxicology services in some countries there is a knowledge gap in the management of poisonings. We describe our experience with the worldwide delivery of an online introductory toxicology curriculum to emergency doctors and other health professionals treating poisoned patients. We delivered a 15-module introductory Internet-based toxicology curriculum to emergency doctors and health professionals, conducted from August to December 2016. This Internet-based curriculum was adapted from one used to teach emergency residents toxicology in the United States. Modules covered themes such as pharmaceutical (n = 8), toxidromes (n = 2) and agrochemicals (n = 5) poisoning. Participants completed pre-test and post-test multiple choice questions (MCQs) before and after completing the online module, respectively, throughout the course. We collected information on participant demographics, education and training, and perception of relevance of the curriculum. Participants gave feedback on the course and how it affected their practice. One hundred and thirty-six health professionals from 33 countries participated in the course: 98 emergency doctors/medical officers, 25 physicians, eight pharmacists/poisons information specialists, two toxicologists, two medical students and one nurse. Median age of participants was 34 years. Median number of years postgraduate was seven. Ninety (65%) had access to either a poisons information centre over the phone or toxicologist and 48 (35%) did not. All participants expected the course to help improve their knowledge. Overall median pre-module MCQ scores were 56% (95%CI: 38, 75%) compared to post-module MCQ scores median 89% (95% CI: 67, 100%) (p education to health professionals treating

  12. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  13. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  14. Mercury and halogens in coal: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.; Senior, Constance L.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from mercury itself, coal rank and halogen content are among the most important factors inherent in coal that determine the proportion of mercury captured by conventional controls during coal combustion. This chapter reviews how mercury in coal occurs, gives available concentration data for mercury in U.S. and international commercial coals, and provides an overview of the natural variation in halogens that influence mercury capture. Three databases, the U.S. Geological Survey coal quality (USGS COALQUAL) database for in-ground coals, and the 1999 and 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) databases for coals delivered to power stations, provide extensive results for mercury and other parameters that are compared in this chapter. In addition to the United States, detailed characterization of mercury is available on a nationwide basis for China, whose mean values in recent compilations are very similar to the United States in-ground mean of 0.17 ppm mercury. Available data for the next five largest producers (India, Australia, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Indonesia) are more limited and with the possible exceptions of Australia and the Russian Federation, do not allow nationwide means for mercury in coal to be calculated. Chlorine in coal varies as a function of rank and correspondingly, depth of burial. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, on a proportional basis, bromine is more effective than chlorine in promoting mercury oxidation in flue gas and capture by conventional controls. The ratio of bromine to chlorine in coal is indicative of the proportion of halogens present in formation waters within a coal basin. This ratio is relatively constant except in coals that have interacted with deep-basin brines that have reached halite saturation, enriching residual fluids in bromine. Results presented here help optimize mercury capture by conventional controls and provide a starting point for

  15. Optimal carbon tax with a dirty backstop: Oil, coal, or renewables?

    OpenAIRE

    van der Ploeg, Frederick; Withagen, Cees A.

    2011-01-01

    Optimal climate policy is studied. Coal, the abundant resource, contributes more CO2 per unit of energy than the exhaustible resource, oil. We characterize the optimal sequencing oil and coal and departures from the Herfindahl rule. "Preference reversal" can take place. If coal is very dirty compared to oil, there is no simultaneous use. Else, the optimal outcome starts with oil, before using oil and coal together, and finally coal on its own. The "laissez-faire" outcome uses coal forever or ...

  16. Whither the Pulmonary Ward Attending? Preserving Subspecialty Exposure in United States Internal Medicine Residency Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Lekshmi; Babik, Jennifer; Looney, Mark R; Hollander, Harry

    2017-04-01

    Twenty years ago, the term "hospitalist" was coined at the University of California-San Francisco (San Francisco, CA), heralding a new specialty focused on the care of inpatients. There are now more than 50,000 hospitalists practicing in the United States. At many academic medical centers, hospitalists are largely replacing subspecialists as attendings on the inpatient medicine wards. At University of California-San Francisco, this has been accompanied by declining percentages of residency graduates who enter subspecialty training in internal medicine. The decline in subspecialty medicine interest can be attributed to many factors, including differences in compensation, decreased subspecialist exposure, and a changing research funding landscape. Although there has not been systematic documentation of this trend in pulmonary and critical care medicine, we have noted previously pulmonary and critical care-bound trainees switching to hospital medicine instead. With our broad, multiorgan system perspective, pulmonary and critical care faculty should embrace teaching general medicine. Residency programs have instituted creative solutions to encourage more internal medicine residents to pursue careers in subspecialty medicine. Some solutions include creating rotations that promote more contact with subspecialists and physician-scientists, creating clinician-educator tracks within fellowship programs, and appointing subspecialists to internal medicine residency leadership positions. We need more rigorous research to track the trends and implications of the generalist-specialist balance of inpatient ward teams on resident career choices, and learn what interventions affect those choices.

  17. An overview of pedagogy and organisation in clinical interprofessional training units in Sweden and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the organization and pedagogy in Swedish and Danish interprofessional training units (ITUs) and to synthesize empirical findings from Swedish and Danish ITUs published in peer review journals. A questionnaire concerning organization and pedagogy was sent to twenty Swedish and Danish ITUs. After a bibliographic search aimed to find empirical studies from ITUs, twenty Swedish and eight Danish studies were included in the review. The questionnaires results showed that despite different wording, the overall aims for the ITUs were to provide students with the possibility of uniprofessional learning, interprofessional learning, and strengthening of professional identity. Furthermore, it appeared that there were different organizational and pedagogical approaches. The review revealed that differences in clinical tutors' affiliation and presence in the ITU were challenging. Also different pedagogical approaches were discussed. However, all articles showed that the goals for the ITUs in general were fulfilled. There is basis therefore to recommend the establishment of future clinical ITUs with the patient in the core and with the use of a student activating approach.

  18. Training, their influence on the quality of services. An experience in the unit "Coffee Express" of Fomento.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Ivón Sosa Ibarra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving quality of service is a necessity in this highly competitive and turbulent world, one of the elements that influence it is training. This research was designed and implemented a training procedure to improve the quality of services in a cafeteria of Development, were detected with the training needs of their staff to plan and implement actions that will raise the skills of workers. Surveys were conducted to determine the state of opinion of internal and external clients implemented before and after the procedure and to evaluate the quality of service received from the selected attributes to the application of Delphi method experts. The unit has made progress recognized and improved economic indicators becoming a reference center in the municipality, which shows that is possible to provide quality services from training workers.

  19. The future of coal-fired generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G. [Sherritt International Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The 3 features that will ensure coal's place as a primary energy source are its affordability, availability and its abundance. Coal reserves represent more than 200 years of supply. Graphs depicting coal consumption in North America, Central and South America, Western Europe, Easter Europe, Middle East, Africa, and Asia show that coal use is expected to grow 1.5 per cent annually. Asia is the greatest consumer of coal, while the consumption of coal in Eastern Europe is steadily declining. About half of the electricity supply in the United States will continue to be generated by coal and non-electrical utilization is also expected to grow. Emerging technologies that are promoting efficiency of coal utilization include combustion technology, clean coal technology, conversion technology and emissions technology. These technologies also address environmental concerns regarding coal combustion, such as removal of carbon dioxide through sequestration and reduction in nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and particulates. Mercury mitigation technologies are also being developed. It was noted that the use of coal is mitigated by other available supply such as nuclear, natural gas and hydro which provide the base load generation. Renewable energy supply can meet up to 20 per cent of the base load, while coal can fill be gap between base load and peak loads. It was noted that the use of coal in direct industrial processes allows for synergies such as syngas for bitumen upgrading, coal as a chemical feedstock with electricity as a by-product, combined heat and power and cogeneration. tabs., figs.

  20. Radiation oncology training in the United States: report from the Radiation Oncology Resident Training Working Group organized by the Society of Chairman of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: In response to the major changes occurring in healthcare, medical education, and cancer research, SCAROP addressed issues related to post-graduate education that could enhance existing programs and complement the present system. Methods and Materials: SCAROP brought together a Working Group with a broad range of representatives organized in subcommittees to address: training, curriculum, and model building. Results: The Working Group emphasized the importance of training physicians with the necessary clinical, scientific, and analytical skills, and the need to provide expert radiation oncology services to patients throughout the United States. Opportunities currently exist for graduates in academic medicine, although there may be limited time and financial resources available to support academic pursuits. Conclusions: In the face of diminishing resources for training and education and the increased scope of knowledge required, a number of models for resident training are considered that can provide flexibility to complement the present system. This report is intended to initiate dialogue among the organizations responsible for radiation oncology resident education so that resident training can continually evolve to meet the needs of cancer patients and take advantage of opportunities for progress through innovative cancer care and research

  1. Effect of just-in-time simulation training on tracheal intubation procedure safety in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishisaki, Akira; Donoghue, Aaron J; Colborn, Shawn; Watson, Christine; Meyer, Andrew; Brown, Calvin A; Helfaer, Mark A; Walls, Ron M; Nadkarni, Vinay M

    2010-07-01

    Tracheal intubation-associated events (TIAEs) are common (20%) and life threatening (4%) in pediatric intensive care units. Physician trainees are required to learn tracheal intubation during intensive care unit rotations. The authors hypothesized that "just-in-time" simulation-based intubation refresher training would improve resident participation, success, and decrease TIAEs. For 14 months, one of two on-call residents, nurses, and respiratory therapists received 20-min multidisciplinary simulation-based tracheal intubation training and 10-min resident skill refresher training at the beginning of their on-call period in addition to routine residency education. The rate of first attempt and overall success between refresher-trained and concurrent non-refresher-trained residents (controls) during the intervention phase was compared. The incidence of TIAEs between preintervention and intervention phase was also compared. Four hundred one consecutive primary orotracheal intubations were evaluated: 220 preintervention and 181 intervention. During intervention phase, neither first-attempt success nor overall success rate differed between refresher-trained residents versus concurrent non-refresher-trained residents: 20 of 40 (50%) versus 15 of 24 (62.5%), P = 0.44 and 23 of 40 (57.5%) versus 18 of 24 (75.0%), P = 0.19, respectively. The resident's first attempt and overall success rate did not differ between preintervention and intervention phases. The incidence of TIAE during preintervention and intervention phases was similar: 22.0% preintervention versus 19.9% intervention, P = 0.62, whereas resident participation increased from 20.9% preintervention to 35.4% intervention, P = 0.002. Resident participation continued to be associated with TIAE even after adjusting for the phase and difficult airway condition: odds ratio 2.22 (95% CI 1.28-3.87, P = 0.005). Brief just-in-time multidisciplinary simulation-based intubation refresher training did not improve the resident

  2. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  3. The influence of taekwondo training on school-life adaptation and exercise value in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ik Rae; Park, Hyo Joo; Lee, Taek Kyun

    2018-04-01

    Previous experience has shown that school-based taekwondo training in the United States (US) results in many beneficial effect sregarding school education and the physical health of the adolescent participants; of especial significance, the training plays an important role in terms of exercise value and school-life adaptation. To explore this overall effect, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 401 adolescents over the age of 10 years. The survey comprisesa total of 29 questions that consist of 17 exercise-value-related questions (general, moral, and status) and 12 questions that are related to school-life adaptation (adaptation to teachers, adaptation to academic activities, adaptation to rule compliance, and adaptation to school activities). The survey results show that taekwondo training affects school-life adaptation by helping to improve student morality and by bolstering the students compliance with school rules during their schooling. The exercise value of taekwondo training is considered a necessity for US adolescents due to the corresponding educational aspects; in particular, the training plays a very important role in the maintenance of amenable student-teacher and student-peer relationships. From the previously mentioned findings, and if taekwondo teachers train their students carefully with educational missions in mind, it is expected that taekwondo training will play a very important role in the cultivation of anappropriate education value among US adolescents.

  4. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  5. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  6. Automated cost modeling for coal combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on cost information developed at AMAX R and D Center for coal-water slurry production implemented in an automated spreadsheet (Lotus 123) for personal computer use. The spreadsheet format allows the user toe valuate impacts of various process options, coal feedstock characteristics, fuel characteristics, plant location sites, and plant sizes on fuel cost. Model flexibility reduces time and labor required to determine fuel costs and provides a basis to compare fuels manufactured by different processes. The model input includes coal characteristics, plant flowsheet definition, plant size, and market location. Based on these inputs, selected unit operations are chosen for coal processing

  7. Coal marketing manual 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This manual provides information on the international coal market in tabulated format. Statistics are presented for the Australian coal industry, exports, currency movements, world coal production, coal and coke imports and exports. Detailed information is provided on the Australian coal industry including mine specific summaries. Pricing summaries for thermal and coking coal in 1987, coal quality standards and specifications, trends in coal prices and stocks. Imports and exports for World coal and coke, details of shipping, international ports and iron and steel production. An exporters index of Australian and overseas companies with industry and government contacts is included. 15 figs., 67 tabs.

  8. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  9. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  10. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  11. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  12. "Coal Poisons Everything It Touches." Teaching about Coal, Climate, and the Future of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Bill

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an activity in which ninth graders explore a plan to strip-mine coal in Wyoming and Montana, send it by train to the Northwest, then ship it to Asia to be burned. Students' questions ranged from "Why are we mining for more coal if it's the biggest contributor to global warming" and "How can adults doom our…

  13. GIS representation of coal-bearing areas in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Matthew D.

    2016-03-11

    Understanding the distribution of coal-bearing geologic units in Antarctica provides information that can be used in sedimentary, geomorphological, paleontological, and climatological studies. This report is a digital compilation of information on Antarctica’s coal-bearing geologic units found in the literature. It is intended to be used in small-scale spatial geographic information system (GIS) investigations and as a visual aid in the discussion of Antarctica’s coal resources or in other coal-based geologic investigations. Instead of using spatially insignificant point markers to represent large coal-bearing areas, this dataset uses polygons to represent actual coal-bearing lithologic units. Specific locations of coal deposits confirmed from the literature are provided in the attribution for the coal-bearing unit polygons. Coal-sample-location data were used to confirm some reported coal-bearing geology. The age and extent of the coal deposits indicated in the literature were checked against geologic maps ranging from local scale at 1:50,000 to Antarctic continental scale at 1:5,000,000; if satisfactory, the map boundaries were used to generate the polygons for the coal-bearing localities.

  14. Got Coal? Teaching about the Most Dangerous Rock in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Bill

    2011-01-01

    In 30 years of teaching, the author never taught explicitly about coal. Coal appeared in his social studies curriculum solely as a labor issue, and coal was mostly invisible in his history classes. The world cannot afford this kind of curricular invisibility today. Forty percent of the main greenhouse gas produced in the United States, carbon…

  15. Integration or specialization? Similarities and differences between Sweden and the United States in gerontology education and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Mary E; Börjesson, Ulrika

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the similarities and differences in the education and training of gerontologists and others who work with older people in Sweden and the United States. It outlines the aging trends in both countries and assesses the level of training for those who provide care in a variety of fields. Both countries are aging, but the programs for gerontological training are quite different in the two countries, reflecting underlying cultural values. Sweden's education is generally more oriented toward the integration of some aging education in more disciplinary fields, such as nursing and social work and thus could benefit from more specialized, aging-specific courses. The United States is highly specialized, with multiple programs in various subfields of aging (e.g., geropsychology; aging services administration) and could benefit from integrating more aging knowledge into courses in other disciplines. The authors challenge professionals to consider if there is a basic but global curriculum and/or set of competencies in gerontology that could be agreed upon. As an increasingly global village, the ability to share and learn is more easily achievable. Sweden and the United States have much to learn from each other in terms of appropriately educating and training those who support our older people.

  16. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-26

    In the second quarter of 1993, the United States produced 235 million short tons of coal. This brought the total for the first half of 1993 to 477 million short tons, a decrease of 4 percent (21 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first half of 1992. The decrease was due to a 26-million-short-ton decline in production east of the Mississippi River, which was partially offset by a 5-million-short-ton increase in coal production west of the Mississippi River. Compared with the first 6 months of 1992, all States east of the Mississippi River had lower coal production levels, led by West Virginia and Illinois, which produced 9 million short tons and 7 million short tons less coal, respectively. The principal reasons for the drop in coal output for the first 6 months of 1993 compared to a year earlier were: a decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets, particularly the steam coal markets; a draw-down of electric utility coal stocks to meet the increase in demand for coal-fired electricity generation; and a lower producer/distributor stock build-up. Distribution of US coal in the first half of 1993 was 15 million short tons lower than in the first half of 1992, with 13 million short tons less distributed to overseas markets and 2 million short tons less distributed to domestic markets.

  17. Water pollution profile of coal washeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Singh, Gurdeep

    1995-01-01

    Environmental problems in coal mining industry is increased with the demand of good quality of coal through coal washing/beneficiation activities. The coal washeries in general have been identified as one of the serious sources of water pollution particularly of Damodar river. Coal washeries though are designed on close water circuit, most of these however, fail to operate on close water circuit thus resulting in enormous quantity of effluents containing coal fines as well. This apart from posing serious water pollution problem also results into economic losses. The present study attempts to provide an insight into water pollution profile from coal washeries in Jharia coalfield. Various process parameters/unit operations in coal washing are also described. Effluents from various selected coal washeries of Jharia coalfield are sampled and analysed over a period of six months during 1993. Suspended solids, oil and grease and COD in the washery effluents are identified as the three major water quality parameters causing lots of concern for Damodar river pollution. Reasons for unavoidable discharge of effluents containing coal fines are also described. (author). 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Relationship between Training Programs being Offered in State and Federal Penal Institutions and the Unfilled Job Openings in the Major Occupations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrence, John Thomas

    Excluding military installations, training programs in state and federal penal institutions were surveyed, through a mailed checklist, to test the hypotheses that (1) training programs in penal institutions were not related to the unfilled job openings by major occupations in the United States, and (2) that training programs reported would have a…

  19. Coal distribution, January--June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data in this report are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275, Sections 5 and 13, as amended). This issue presents information for January through June 1991. Coal distribution data are shown (in Tables 1--34) by coal-producing Sate of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and State of destination. All data in this report were collected by the EIA on Form EIA-6, ''Coal Distribution Report.'' A copy of the form and the instructions for filing appear in Appendix B. All data in this report for 1991 are preliminary. Data for previous years are final. 6 figs., 34 tabs

  20. Construction of clay sealings for dumping of brown coal ash and residues from gas desulfurization units. Herstellung von Tonabdichtungen zur Deponierung von Braunkohleaschen und REA-Rueckstaenden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortmann, W

    1989-07-01

    With the putting into operation of flue gas scrubbers at the brown coal-fired power stations of the RWE not only 5 to 6 Mt conventional power station ash but also up to 2 Mt gypsum and water from the flue gas desulphurisation units are obtained annually, and these residues together with the ash are tipped on mixed dumps. These dumps are enclosed on all sides by a mineral sealing of clay with a thickness of at least 0.6 m. In keeping with the detailed plans for the construction and operation of mixed dumps as submitted to the competent authorities for approval, the sealing must have a permeability of K < 5x10{sup -10} m/s for the dump base and of K < 1x10{sup -10} m/s for the cover of the dump. In order to meet these high quality requirements the clay, which is obtained by opencast working with the aid of bucket wheel excavators, must first of all be crushed for construction of the sealings. In addition to the crushing of the clay to as small a lump size as possible, the adjustment of the correct sealing moisture content of the clay is of primary importance. Conditioning of the clay is effected in the conventional way by means of a pulvimixer, but also by means of a processing plant in pilot operation in the construction of clay sealings for dumps. With the aid of the processing plant clay of a high homogenisation grade is constantly available for sealing construction. The clay is spread on the base and slopes of the dump layer by layer with the aid of scraper dozers, each layer having a compacted thickness of about 20 cm. Compaction of the sealing layers is effected by heavy rammer butt rollers. In the case of highly plastic earth materials of the type used here in the construction of dumps the weight of the compacting roller and also the shape of the rammer butt are of importance. Compaction in the 1:2.5 steep dump slopes by means of a detachable roller steered by a cable has proved very satisfactory.

  1. Development of the scheme of stepwise combustion of coal in the inverter firebox of a power unit of 1000 MW power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, V. B.; Chernov, S. L.; Kirichkov, V. S.

    2017-09-01

    The desire to increase the efficiency of using the heat of burned solid fuel leads to the significant growth of the initial steam parameter at steam-turbine plants. At the maximum temperatures of fresh and secondary steam of 700-720°C, the price of connecting of steam pipelines between the boiler and turbine is up to 20% of the price of a power plant unit, which dictates the necessity to decrease their length. One of the methods to achieve this is the application of an inverter firebox. An M-shaped profile of boiler, allowing one to decrease the length of heat-resistant steam pipelines, was developed at NRU MPEI. A distinctive feature of the profile is two inclined connecting gas flues between the firebox and convective shaft, starting from the gas windows located in the lower third of the firebox height. The boiler was designed for the steam production of 2493 t/h with the parameters of fresh steam of 35 MPa and 710°C. Thermal and aerodynamic calculations made it possible to get the sizes of boiler and dimensions of heating surfaces, and they also allow one to get the values of temperatures in the characteristic points along the gas path. On the basis of the results of calculations, the coefficient of efficiency of the boiler was 93.07% and the fuel consumption was 91.13 kg/s. For this boiler, the technology of effective stepwise burning of coal in a direct-flow-vortex torch (DFVT) in a system of vertical and horizontal tangential torches in the mode of solid slag removal, previously successively used in boilers with a traditional profile and upgraded to an inverter firebox, is proposed. The layouts of the direct-flow burners and nozzles for even and odd vertical sections of the firebox and also in a horizontal section were proposed. Organization of staged air supply in the vertical direction with a high fraction of in-firebox recycle of hot gases leads to low concentration of nitrogen oxides.

  2. The United Kingdom and Ireland Association of Forensic Toxicologists; establishing best practice for professional training & development in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosbey, Simon; Elliott, Simon; Paterson, Sue

    2017-01-01

    The current status of forensic toxicology in the United Kingdom is discussed with an emphasis on professional training and development. Best practice is proposed using a blend of modular foundation knowledge training, continuing professional development, academic study, research & development and ongoing analytical practice. The need for establishing a professional career structure is also discussed along with a suggested example of a suitable model. The issues discussed in this paper are intended to provoke discussion within the forensic toxicology community, industry regulators and other government bodies responsible for the administration of justice. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Current knowledge of scoliosis in physiotherapy students trained in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D A Jason; Pilcher, Christine; Drake, Shawn; Maude, Erika; Glynn, David

    2017-01-01

    It has been highlighted in both Poland and the United States of America (USA) that knowledge of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) among physiotherapy students is limited with respect to the 2011 International Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT) guidelines. Early detection of scoliosis and correct initial management is essential in effective care, and thus physiotherapists should be aware of the basic criteria for diagnosis and indications for treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic knowledge of IS in physiotherapy students trained in the United Kingdom (UK). A previously designed and tested 10-question survey, including knowledge of the 2011 SOSORT guidelines, was transcribed onto an online-survey platform. Questions were designed to analyse knowledge of definition, cause, development, prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and bracing of scoliosis. All UK universities offering physiotherapy degrees were invited to participate, with the programme lead of each institution asked to distribute the questionnaire to all penultimate and final year physiotherapy students (bachelor's and master's degrees). The final number of students who received the study invitation is unknown. The survey link closed after 8 weeks of data collection. Two hundred and six students, split over 12 institutions, successfully completed the questionnaire. Analysis showed that 79% of students recognised when IS is likely to develop, yet only 52% recognised that IS's aetiology is unknown. Eighty-eight percent of students incorrectly defined IS as a 2-dimensional deformity, with only 24% successfully recognising the prevalence of IS within the scoliosis population. Just 12% knew the criteria for diagnosis; however, 93% were unable to recognise the appropriate treatment approach through therapeutic exercise. Finally, 54% of students managed to identify correctly when bracing is recommended for IS. In comparison to previous studies within the USA, students in

  4. Coal and nuclear electricity fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, F.

    1982-06-01

    Comparative economic analysis is used to contrast the economic advantages of nuclear and coal-fired electric generating stations for Canadian regions. A simplified cash flow method is used with present value techniques to yield a single levelized total unit energy cost over the lifetime of a generating station. Sensitivity analysis illustrates the effects of significant changes in some of the cost data. The analysis indicates that in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia nuclear energy is less costly than coal for electric power generation. In the base case scenario the nuclear advantage is 24 percent in Quebec, 29 percent in Ontario, 34 percent in Manitoba, and 16 percent in British Columbia. Total unit energy cost is sensitive to variations in both capital and fuel costs for both nuclear and coal-fuelled power stations, but are not very sensitive to operating and maintenance costs

  5. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  6. Start-Up and Operation of the Pressurized-Pulverized-Coal Gasification Unit%贵州开阳粉煤加压气化装置开车及运行总结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳军; 杨金

    2014-01-01

    Based on the 500 kt/a ammonia plant actual operation in our company ,describe the pressurized‐dry‐pulverized‐coal gasification unit process , start‐up , shut‐dow n and operation , the common problems and solutions are also described .%结合贵州开阳化工有限公司500 kt/a合成氨项目的实际情况,介绍干煤粉加压气化装置的工艺流程、开停车及运行状况,并阐述系统运行常见问题及其处理。

  7. Coal statistics 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statistical Office of the European Communities

    1978-01-01

    Presents tables of data relating to the coal market in the European Community in 1977. The tables cover hard coal production, supply and trade; briquettes; cokes; lignite, brown coal briquettes and peat; and mines and coke ovens.

  8. Australian coal yearbook 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, A [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This yearbook contains a mine directory; details of coal export facilities and ports; annual coal statistics; a buyers' guide; names and addresses of industry organisations and an index of coal mine owners.

  9. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  10. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  11. Conversion of metallurgical coke and coal using a Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) moving bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Siwei; Bayham, Samuel; Zeng, Liang; McGiveron, Omar; Chung, Elena; Majumder, Ankita; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Accumulated more than 300 operation hours were accomplished for the moving bed reducer reactor. • Different reactor operation variables were investigated with optimal conditions identified. • High conversions of sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were achieved without flow problems. • Co-current and counter-current contact modes were tested and their applicability was discussed. - Abstract: The CLC process has the potential to be a transformative commercial technology for a carbon-constrained economy. The Ohio State University Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process directly converts coal, eliminating the need for a coal gasifier oran air separation unit (ASU). Compared to other solid-fuel CLC processes, the CDCL process is unique in that it consists of a countercurrent moving bed reducer reactor. In the proposed process, coal is injected into the middle of the moving bed, whereby the coal quickly heats up and devolatilizes, splitting the reactor roughly into two sections with no axial mixing. The top section consists of gaseous fuel produced from the coal volatiles, and the bottom section consists of the coal char mixed with the oxygen carrier. A bench-scale moving bed reactor was used to study the coal conversion with CO 2 as the enhancing gas. Initial tests using metallurgical cokefines as feedstock were conducted to test the effects of operational variables in the bottom section of the moving bed reducer, e.g., reactor temperature, oxygen carrier to char ratio, enhancer gas CO 2 flow rate, and oxygen carrier flow rates. Experiments directly using coal as the feedstock were subsequently carried out based on these test results. Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and Illinois #6 coal were tested as representative sub-bituminous and bituminous coals, respectively. Nearly complete coal conversion was achieved using composite iron oxide particles as the oxygen carriers without any flow problems. The operational results demonstrated that a

  12. Australian black coal statistics 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This second edition of Australian black coal statistics replaces the Joint Coal Board's publication 'Black coal in Australia'. It includes an expanded international coal trade supplement. Sections cover resources of black coal, coal supply and demand, coal production, employment and productivity of mines, export data, coal consumption and a directory of producers.

  13. The Alpini Effect: Why the US Army Should Train Units for Mountain Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    practical knowledge of the ground, and are very little adapted for mountain warfare.”20 The concept of infantry forces trained in mountain combat was...spearheaded the word of mouth campaign as he said, “It is easier to train a skier to be a soldier than to train a soldier to be a skier .” 30...author’s knowledge from professional experience 51 at Camp Carson from 1942-1944 and the US

  14. A Study of United States Army Product Support Manager (PSM) Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    you identify any additional Life Cycle training or training improvements? The theme of the responses centered on there is not one magic formula to...prepare a future PSM. One participant’s answer was: “PSMs MUST have experience in a PM shop . That experience needs to include having provided...TRAINING 33 shop only deepens an already steep learning curve for that PSM and frustrates the PMs as they don’t understand what a PSM does and CAN do

  15. Report on Seminar on Clean Coal Technology '93; Clean coal technology kokusai seminar hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The program of the above clean coal technology (CCT) event is composed of 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Research on CCT in America (study of coal structure under electron microscope), and 3) Research on CCT in Australia (high intensity combustion of ultrafine coal particles in a clean way). Remarks under item 1) are mentioned below. As for SO{sub 2} emissions base unit, Japan's is 1 at its coal-fired thermal power station while that of America is 7.8. As for the level of SO{sub 2}/NOx reduction attributable to coal utilization technologies, it rises in the order of flue gas desulfurizer-aided pulverized coal combustion, normal pressure fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation/fuel cell. As for the level of CO2 reduction attributable to power generation efficiency improvement, provided that Japan's average power generation efficiency is 39% and if China's efficiency which is now 28% is improved to be similar to that of Japan, there will be a 40% reduction in CO2 emissions. Under item 2) which involves America's CCT program, reference is made to efforts at eliminating unnecessary part from the catalytic process and at reducing surplus air, to the export of CCT technology, and so forth. Under item 3), it is stated that coal cleaning may govern reaction efficiency in a process of burning coal particles for gasification. (NEDO)

  16. The European Coal Market: Will Coal Survive the EC's Energy and Climate Policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    . Chapter 3 looks at international coal prices and their competitiveness compared with competing fuels. Chapter 4 provides an overview of EC regulations that are likely to shape the future demand of coal. Chapter 5 gives an overview of CCT and CCS development in Europe, while Chapter 6 presents the outlook of future coal demand and scenarios developed by the International Energy Agency and the European Commission. The second part of the report gives a detailed picture of the three largest European coal markets (Germany, Poland and the United Kingdom). It also looks at the Spanish coal market. Although coal in this country accounts for a small share of total energy consumption, recent austerity measures and their social impact put the sector into the public spotlight. A description of the coal market is given for each country. Then, key developments and issues pertaining to each country and its coal market are discussed. Chapter 7 analyses the impact of the phase-out of nuclear energy in Germany. Chapter 8 provides an overview of Poland's energy policy to 2030 and the CCS road-map prepared by the Bellona Foundation. Chapter 9 focuses on market reform of electricity in the United Kingdom and its impact on coal-fired power generation. Chapter 10 looks at coal subsidies in Spain and the impact of the drastic cut in coal mining subsidies decided by the government in May 2012. Annex 1 explains what the nature coal is and the main differences between steam coal (mainly used in power generation) and coking coal (used in the iron and steel industry). Annex 2 briefly analyses the use of coal in the steel industry. Annex 3 provides some useful unit conversions

  17. 1982 Australian coal conference papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This third Australian coal conference included papers discussing the market for coal, finance and investment, use of computers, mining, coal research, coal preparation and waste disposal, marketing and trade, and the transport of coal. All papers have been individually abstracted.

  18. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE DISCRIMINATION, EDUCATION, AND DIVERSITY TRAINING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY IN THE UNITED STATES AND THAILAND

    OpenAIRE

    Bahaudin G. M ujtaba; Frank J. Cavico; Albert A. Williams; Jatuporn Sungkhawan

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript explores age discrimination in employment and the challenges that managers confront in seeking to establish and maintain a legal, ethical, and productive workplace. The data regarding age and older workers comes from 218 respondents in the United States and 379 respondents in Thailand. A factor analysis was done ; and the results demonstrate that race, gender, education, country where you live the most, country where you presently live, and diversity training were statisticall...

  19. Effectiveness of classroom based crew resource management training in the intensive care unit: study design of a controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Crew resource management (CRM) has the potential to enhance patient safety in intensive care units (ICU) by improving the use of non-technical skills. However, CRM evaluation studies in health care are inconclusive with regard to the effect of this training on behaviour and organizational outcomes, due to weak study designs and the scarce use of direct observations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of CRM training on attitude, behaviour and organization after one year, using a multi-method approach and matched control units. The purpose of the present article is to describe the study protocol and the underlying choices of this evaluation study of CRM in the ICU in detail. Methods/Design Six ICUs participated in a paired controlled trial, with one pre-test and two post test measurements (respectively three months and one year after the training). Three ICUs were trained and compared to matched control ICUs. The 2-day classroom-based training was delivered to multidisciplinary groups. Typical CRM topics on the individual, team and organizational level were discussed, such as situational awareness, leadership and communication. All levels of Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework (reaction, learning, behaviour and organisation) were assessed using questionnaires, direct observations, interviews and routine ICU administration data. Discussion It is expected that the CRM training acts as a generic intervention that stimulates specific interventions. Besides effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, the assessment of the barriers and facilitators will provide insight in the implementation process of CRM. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR1976 PMID:22073981

  20. Adaptation of motor unit contractile properties in rat medial gastrocnemius to treadmill endurance training: Relationship to muscle mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryściak, Katarzyna; Majerczak, Joanna; Kryściak, Jakub; Łochyński, Dawid; Kaczmarek, Dominik; Drzymała-Celichowska, Hanna; Krutki, Piotr; Gawedzka, Anna; Guzik, Magdalena; Korostynski, Michał; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Pyza, Elżbieta; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wiesława; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Celichowski, Jan

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of 2, 4 and 8 weeks of endurance training on the contractile properties of slow (S), fast fatigue resistant (FR) and fast fatigable (FF) motor units (MUs) in rat medial gastrocnemius (MG) in relation to the changes in muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. The properties of functionally isolated MUs were examined in vivo. Mitochondrial biogenesis was judged based on the changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA), the content of the electron transport chain (ETC) proteins and PGC-1α in the MG. Moreover, the markers of mitochondria remodeling mitofusins (Mfn1, Mfn2) and dynamin-like protein (Opa1) were studied using qPCR. A proportion of FR MUs increased from 37.9% to 50.8% and a proportion of FF units decreased from 44.7% to 26.6% after 8 weeks of training. The increased fatigue resistance, shortened twitch duration, and increased ability to potentiate force were found as early as after 2 weeks of endurance training, predominantly in FR MUs. Moreover, just after 2 weeks of the training an enhancement of the mitochondrial network remodeling was present as judged by an increase in expression of Mfn1, Opa1 and an increase in PGC-1α in the slow part of MG. Interestingly, no signs of intensification of mitochondrial biogenesis assessed by ETC proteins content and mtDNA in slow and fast parts of gastrocnemius were found at this stage of the training. Nevertheless, after 8 weeks of training an increase in the ETC protein content was observed, but mainly in the slow part of gastrocnemius. Concluding, the functional changes in MUs' contractile properties leading to the enhancement of muscle performance accompanied by an activation of signalling that controls the muscle mitochondrial network reorganisation and mitochondrial biogenesis belong to an early muscle adaptive responses that precede an increase in mitochondrial ETC protein content.

  1. Effectiveness of classroom based crew resource management training in the intensive care unit: study design of a controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemper Peter F

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crew resource management (CRM has the potential to enhance patient safety in intensive care units (ICU by improving the use of non-technical skills. However, CRM evaluation studies in health care are inconclusive with regard to the effect of this training on behaviour and organizational outcomes, due to weak study designs and the scarce use of direct observations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of CRM training on attitude, behaviour and organization after one year, using a multi-method approach and matched control units. The purpose of the present article is to describe the study protocol and the underlying choices of this evaluation study of CRM in the ICU in detail. Methods/Design Six ICUs participated in a paired controlled trial, with one pre-test and two post test measurements (respectively three months and one year after the training. Three ICUs were trained and compared to matched control ICUs. The 2-day classroom-based training was delivered to multidisciplinary groups. Typical CRM topics on the individual, team and organizational level were discussed, such as situational awareness, leadership and communication. All levels of Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework (reaction, learning, behaviour and organisation were assessed using questionnaires, direct observations, interviews and routine ICU administration data. Discussion It is expected that the CRM training acts as a generic intervention that stimulates specific interventions. Besides effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, the assessment of the barriers and facilitators will provide insight in the implementation process of CRM. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR1976

  2. Physician training in aerospace medicine--an historical review in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doarn, Charles R; Mohler, Stanley R

    2013-02-01

    The training of U.S. physicians in aviation medicine closely followed the development of reliable airplanes. This training has matured as aviation and space travel have become more routine over the past several decades. In the U.S., this training began in support of military pilots who were flying increasingly complex aircraft in the early part of the 20th century. As individuals reached into the stratosphere, low Earth orbit, and eventually to the Moon, physicians were trained not only through military efforts but in academic settings as well. This paper provides an historical summary of how physician training in aerospace medicine developed in the U.S., citing both the development of the military activities and, more importantly, the perspectives of the academic programs. This history is important as we move forward in the development of commercial space travel and the needs that such a business model will be required to meet.

  3. Ultravitrinite coals from Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapo, A.V.; Letushova, I.A.

    1979-03-01

    Chemical and petrographic analysis was conducted on coals from the Anadyrya and Bukhti Ugol'noi deposits. Characteristics of the most prevalent type of vitrinite coals in both regions are presented here. Anadyrya coals belong to a transitional phase between brown coal and long flame. Ultravitrinite coals predominate. Gas coals from Bukti Ugol'noi have a higher carbon content than Anadyrya coals. They also have a higher hydrogen content and yield of initial resin. In several cases there was also a higher yield of volatile substances. Chukotka coals are characterized by a 10 percent higher initial resin yield than equally coalified Donetsk coals, other indicators were equal to those of Donetsk coals. Because of this, Chukotka coals are suitable for fuel in power plants and as raw materials in the chemical industry. (15 refs.) (In Russian)

  4. Coal trends and prospects in Malaysia. Malaysia no sekitan doko to mitoshi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husin, T. (Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia))

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes problems in coal development and coal processing techniques used in Malaysia. Malaysia has a national organization placing importance on maximizing natural gas source development, but no such an organization is available for coal. Necessity exists in developing transportation infrastructures that can transport coal at a competitive price from coal mines to users inside and outside the country. Majority of the Merit Pila coal is produced in mines with relatively thin coal beds, which raise production cost higher. Coal resources are mostly of low calorific power. Since the coal resource development is a new economic activity, it requires training of people in related areas, and frameworks of legislative regulation. Important in coal development is to select technologies that can meet environmental requirements and stand with competitions in the world coal markets. New coal processing technologies available for discussion in coal refining processes include relaxed gasification or pyrolysis, coal liquefaction, coal-water mixture to mix coal powder and water with additives, coal pretreatment techniques, coal cleaning techniques, and fluidized bed combustion. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Promoting excellence in nuclear power plant training in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangin, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) was formed in late 1979 by U.S. nuclear utilities to enhance the operational safety and reliability of their nuclear plants. One of INPO's major functions is to promote excellence in industry training and qualification programs. To accomplish this objective, INPO develops and uses guidelines and evaluation criteria to assist utilities in developing and implementing high quality training and education programs. The training guidelines permit utilities to develop performance-based programs which meet their specific need with minimal duplication of effort. INPO regularly evaluates each utility's training programs and practices in the plant evaluation and accreditation processes using criteria based on the training guidelines. In the accreditation process, INPO examines training programs and training organizations to determine whether they have the potential to produce individuals qualified to perform assigned tasks. During plant evaluations, INPO examines the implementation of the programs and their effectiveness in producing qualified individuals. After each accreditation review and plant evaluation, INPO recommends improvements and follows up to ensure they are made. (author)

  6. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  7. Coal transportation research and information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eck, R.W. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown); Hui, C.Y.

    1978-09-01

    This paper examines some of the existing and emerging issues of interest to engineers and planners dealing with coal transportation. One conclusion is that any research or data collection efforts in this field must be of a multidisciplinary nature. Not only must transportation planners, highway engineers, maintenance engineers, and soils engineers work together but, in addition, engineers will need to work with geologists, economists, and marketing specialists for effective planning, design, and operation of the coal transportation system. Earlier sections of this paper may have given the erroneous impression that all future research should concentrate on problems of transporting coal by truck. Although the West Virginia coal conversion study documented information deficiencies relative to the highway transportation of coal, research efforts involving railroads and waterways should continue. There is a serious need for research and information relative to the interactions between modes. For example, in order to predict the impact of local coal conversions on rail and barge systems that serve retailers, it is necessary to have a knowledge of the typical volumes that would be required by retail facilities, frequency of delivery to retail yards, and transportation distances involved mine and retailer. This paper deals with relatively short-term planning, however, information is required on the long-range future of the coal industry. Decision makers involved with providing an adequate coal transportation system must have information on the future role that coal will play in United States energy policy. (MCW)

  8. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

  10. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  11. Sea Training at Maritime Academies Oversight. Hearings Before the Ad Hoc Select Subcommittee on Maritime Education and Training of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session on Sea Training of United States Merchant Marine Officers and Different Ways of Satisfying This Requirement at the Various Maritime Academies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries.

    Recorded are minutes of hearings before the House Ad Hoc Select Subcommittee on Maritime Education and Training regarding the sea training of United States Merchant Marine officers. Examined are various approaches to meeting the sea training requirement, especially the options of maritime academy training vessels, sailing on U.S.-flag merchant…

  12. Simulation training improves team dynamics and performance in a low-resource cardiac intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaram Subaya Emani

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of simulationbased training in improving team dynamics and performance in lowresource pediatric CICU environments, indicating its potential role in eliminating communication barriers in these settings.

  13. Improving Leadership Training at the United States Naval Academy by Utilizing Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kawane, Shannon

    1999-01-01

    ... a program consistent with the Naval Academy's leadership training philosophy. The results suggest that an IMI program can be developed that is consistent with the Naval Academy's leadership development program...

  14. Disaster Education: A Survey Study to Analyze Disaster Medicine Training in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Ritu R; Cattamanchi, Srihari; Alqahtani, Abdulrahman; Aljohani, Majed; Keim, Mark; Ciottone, Gregory R

    2017-08-01

    The increase in natural and man-made disasters occurring worldwide places Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians at the forefront of responding to these crises. Despite the growing interest in Disaster Medicine, it is unclear if resident training has been able to include these educational goals. Hypothesis This study surveys EM residencies in the United States to assess the level of education in Disaster Medicine, to identify competencies least and most addressed, and to highlight effective educational models already in place. The authors distributed an online survey of multiple-choice and free-response questions to EM residency Program Directors in the United States between February 7 and September 24, 2014. Questions assessed residency background and details on specific Disaster Medicine competencies addressed during training. Out of 183 programs, 75 (41%) responded to the survey and completed all required questions. Almost all programs reported having some level of Disaster Medicine training in their residency. The most common Disaster Medicine educational competencies taught were patient triage and decontamination. The least commonly taught competencies were volunteer management, working with response teams, and special needs populations. The most commonly identified methods to teach Disaster Medicine were drills and lectures/seminars. There are a variety of educational tools used to teach Disaster Medicine in EM residencies today, with a larger focus on the use of lectures and hospital drills. There is no indication of a uniform educational approach across all residencies. The results of this survey demonstrate an opportunity for the creation of a standardized model for resident education in Disaster Medicine. Sarin RR , Cattamanchi S , Alqahtani A , Aljohani M , Keim M , Ciottone GR . Disaster education: a survey study to analyze disaster medicine training in emergency medicine residency programs in the United States. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):368-373.

  15. Lung disease and coal mining: what pulmonologists need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Leonard H T; Krefft, Silpa D; Cohen, Robert A; Rose, Cecile S

    2016-03-01

    Coal mine workers are at risk for a range of chronic respiratory diseases including coal workers' pneumoconiosis, diffuse dust-related fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The purpose of this review is to describe coal mining processes and associated exposures to inform the diagnostic evaluation of miners with respiratory symptoms. Although rates of coal workers' pneumoconiosis declined after regulations were enacted in the 1970s, more recent data shows a reversal in this downward trend. Rapidly progressive pneumoconiosis with progressive massive fibrosis (complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis) is being observed with increased frequency in United States coal miners, with histologic findings of silicosis and mixed-dust pneumoconiosis. There is increasing evidence of decline in lung function in individuals with pneumoconiosis. Multiple recent cohort studies suggest increased risk of lung cancer in coal miners. A detailed understanding of coal mining methods and processes allows clinicians to better evaluate and confirm chronic lung diseases caused by inhalational hazards in the mine atmosphere.

  16. Perceptions of basic, advanced, and pediatric life support training in a United States medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, Malford Tyson; Stader, Donald; Nguyen, Matthew; Cao, Dazhe; McArthur, Robert; Hoxhaj, Shkelzen

    2014-05-01

    Basic Life Support (BLS), Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), and Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) are integral parts of emergency resuscitative care. Although this training is usually reserved for residents, introducing the training in the medical student curriculum may enhance acquisition and retention of these skills. We developed a survey to characterize the perceptions and needs of graduating medical students regarding BLS, ACLS, and PALS training. This was a study of graduating 4th-year medical students at a U.S. medical school. The students were surveyed prior to participating in an ACLS course in March of their final year. Of 152 students, 109 (71.7%) completed the survey; 48.6% of students entered medical school without any prior training and 47.7% started clinics without training; 83.4% of students reported witnessing an average of 3.0 in-hospital cardiac arrests during training (range of 0-20). Overall, students rated their preparedness 2.0 (SD 1.0) for adult resuscitations and 1.7 (SD 0.9) for pediatric resuscitations on a 1-5 Likert scale, with 1 being unprepared. A total of 36.8% of students avoided participating in resuscitations due to lack of training; 98.2%, 91.7%, and 64.2% of students believe that BLS, ACLS, and PALS, respectively, should be included in the medical student curriculum. As per previous studies that have examined this topic, students feel unprepared to respond to cardiac arrests and resuscitations. They feel that training is needed in their curriculum and would possibly enhance perceived comfort levels and willingness to participate in resuscitations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Comparative Study of Surgical Training in South East Asia, Australia and The United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Kheong Lum

    2009-07-01

    Conclusion: Quality of training can be improved by changing to a curriculum and competency based model, utilization of continuous assessment methods, reducing service requirements and better compensation for trainers. Southeast Asia has the potential to provide centres of excellence for surgical training. Surgical educators in SEA will find useful information in this paper to improve their programs which will hopefully evolve into a common core curriculum and enable cross border exchange of surgical trainees in SEA for broader exposure.

  18. Training health and safety committees to use control banding: lessons learned and opportunities for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracker, Anne L; Morse, Timothy F; Simcox, Nancy J

    2009-05-01

    Control banding (CB) is a control-focused risk management model that has received international attention. CB strategies are designed to control workplace chemical exposures after the completion of a qualitative risk assessment. Connecticut was one of the first states to provide training on how to use this control-focused tool. Joint labor/management teams and individuals from 34 workplaces attended a control banding workshop and learned how to use one CB model, the United Kingdom (UK) Health and Safety Executive's Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials Toolkit. After the initial training program the investigators used follow-up workshops, questionnaires, site visit data, and case studies to evaluate the training curriculum and assess the utility and effectiveness of this CB strategy. We found that the model is easily learned, although several areas for improvement were identified. Participants from 10 workplaces used COSHH Essentials to evaluate at least one task. The training curriculum was effective in that the agreement between the exposure variables coded by these workplaces and one of the workshop instructors, a certified industrial hygienist (CIH), were highly concordant. The training curriculum and the model promoted a discussion of risk between workers and managers and resulted in the implementation of improvements in the work environment. The model agreed with both the CIH's and the worksites' qualitative risk assessments 65% of the time, and likely over-controlled for 71% (5/7) of the cases of nonagreement. Feedback from workshop participants benefits the current dialogue on the implications of implementing CB in the United States.

  19. Record coking coal settlements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, C.

    2005-02-01

    The US$100/tonne psychological barrier in coking coal prices has been well and truly smashed. The article examines developments in coal pricing. It includes quotes from many senior executives in the coal industry as collected at McCloskey's Australian Coal.04 conference held in Sydney, 18-19 November 2004. 2 photos.

  20. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  1. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 342, the Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit (FTP), which is located in Area 23 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 88 km (55 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 342 is comprised of CAS 23-56-01. The FTP is an area approximately 100 m by 140 m (350 ft by 450 ft) located west of the town of Mercury, Nevada, which was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to train fire-fighting personnel (REECo, 1991; Jacobson, 1991). The surface and subsurface soils in the FTP have likely been impacted by hydrocarbons and other contaminants of potential concern (COPC) associated with burn activities and training exercises in the area.

  2. The future of coal as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the future of such coal as an energy source which the author believes, is inextricably related to its economic and environmental acceptability. Technologies have been - and are being - developed that will help assure that coal retains its traditional share of the United States energy market. In addition, there are some 900 million tons per year of coal equivalent oil and gas currently being consumed (22.5 quads of 12.500 BTU/lb coal) in the United States that may be considered for potential coal conversion. Lastly, one can see trends emerging that may justify reconsideration of coal as a source of hydrocarbon to substitute for petrochemical industry feedstocks in addition to its customary role as a BTU supplier. The balance of this report will provide a background on environmental and legislative initiatives and discuss some of these technologies and new directions for coal research in the 1990s and beyond

  3. Coal option. [Shell Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  4. Concerning coal: an anthology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.; Hawse, M.L.; Maloney, P.J. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The anthology takes a humanistic look at coal mining in Illinois. One of its goals is to increase public awareness of coal in American society; it also seeks to enhance understanding of the historical aspects of coal and to study the impact of coal on mining families. Many of the 25 selections in the anthology come from Coal Research Center publications, `Concerning coal` and `Mineral matters`. Articles are arranged in three parts entitled: life in the mining community; mining in folklore, story telling, literature, art and music; and technology as it affected the people of the coal fields. 117 refs., 25 photos. 1 map.

  5. Fiscal 1994 achievement report 1/2. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1994 nendo seika hokokusho 1/2. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied in the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. Modification was made, which involved the installation of a high-temperature/high-pressure sampling device for observing reaction and fluidity in the liquefaction reactor, a differential pressure measuring device, and a neutron attenuation-aided measuring device. Relative to coal injection, a 49.5-day and 49.3-day slurry injections were carried out using Tanito Harum coal, when impacts on the product yield and the operability of the unit were examined. A verification test was conducted for an improved hydrogenation catalyst, and liquefaction reactor characteristics were investigated. During a 19-day operation for the study of maintenance, newly installed equipment and devices were verified for function, and operating methods were probed into. In the survey of environments, characteristics were examined of the wastewater discharged from the Tanito Harum coal liquefaction process, and wastewater treatment methods were studied. The air, odor, and tar mist were examined with the PSU in operation, and the measured values were found to be below the management limits showing that its operation did not pose any problems relating to working environments. (NEDO)

  6. Coal information 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This volume is a comprehensive reference book on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects to 2010. It contains an in-depth analysis of the 1995 international coal market covering prices, demand, trade, supply and production capacity as well as over 450 pages of country specific statistics on OECD and key non-OECD coal producing and consuming countries. The book also includes a summary of environmental policies on climate change and on coal-related air quality issues as well as essential facts on coal-fired power stations in coal-importing regions, on coal ports world-wide and on emission standards for coal-fired boilers in OECD countries. Coal Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Oil and Gas Information and Electricity Information. Coal Information 1995 is published in July 1996. (author)

  7. Coal yearbook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

  8. Coal resources of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Frank Darwyn

    1953-01-01

    The Indiana coal field forms the eastern edge of the eastern interior coal basin, which is near some of the most densely populated and highly productive manufacturing areas of the United States. (See fig. 1. ) For this reason Indiana coal reserves are an important State and National asset. In dollar value the coal mining industry is the largest of Indiana's natural-resource-producing industries. The total value of coil production for the year 1950 was more than 100 million dollars, or more than that of all other natural-resource industries in the State combined. As estimated herein, the original coal reserves of Indiana total 37,293 million tons, of which 27,320 million tons is contained in beds more than 42 inches thick; 7,632 million tons in beds 28 to 49. inches thick; and 2,341 million tons in beds 14 to 28 inches thick. The remaining reserves as of January 1951, total 35,806 million tons, of which 18,779 million tons is believed to be recoverable. The distribution of the reserves in these several categories is summarized by counties in table 1. Of the total original reserves of 37,293 million tons, 6,355 million tons can be classified as measured; 8,657 million tons as indicated; and 22,281 million tons as inferred. Strippable reserves constitute 3,524 million tons, or 9.5 percent of the total original reserves. The distribution of the strippable and nonstrippable original reserves is summarized in tables 2 and 3 by counties and by several categories, according to the thickness of the beds and the relative abundance and reliability of the information available for preparing the estimates. The distribution of the estimated 18,779 million tons of recoverable strippable and nonstrippable reserves in Indiana is further summarized by counties in table 4, and the information is presented graphically in figures 2 and 3. The tables i to 4 and figures 2 and 3 include beds in the 14- to 28-inch category, because thin beds have been mined in many places. However, many

  9. An Evaluation of a Teacher Training Program at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBerry, LaMonnia Edge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the effects of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum's work in partnering with professors from universities across the United States during a 1-year collaborative partnership through an educational program referred to as Belfer First Step Holocaust Institute for Teacher Educators (BFS…

  10. National-economic aspects of reducing coal production in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, M. (Otbor Statni Spravy pro Uhelny Prumysl MHPR CR, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-10-01

    Analyzes the planned decrease in coal output of Czechoslovakia by the year 2000 and its effects. The following aspects are evaluated: decreasing coal output of Czechoslovakia in comparison to coal output decline in the United Kingdom and FRG in 1980-1990, output of brown and black coal of Czechoslovakia in the period from 1970 to 1991, planned decrease in coal output of Czechoslovakia (influenced by resource depletion, negative effects of coal combustion on the environment, declining demand for energy of the national economy caused by transformation of a command economy into a market one, discontinuation of state subsidies of the coal industry), the situation in individual coal basins of Czechoslovakia, closing coal mines (names of coal mines and closure date), economic aspects of mine closure (social cost, cost of alternative energy sources, cost of technical mine closure), effects of decreasing coal combustion on environmental pollution in Czechoslovakia.

  11. Predictors of patrol officer interest in cybercrime training and investigation in selected United States police departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Thomas J; Bossler, Adam M

    2012-09-01

    Cybercrime has created substantial challenges for law enforcement, particularly at the local level. Most scholars and police administrators believe that patrol officers need to become more effective first responders to cybercrime calls. The evidence illustrates, however, that many patrol officers are neither adequately prepared nor strongly interested in taking an active role in addressing cybercrime at the local level. This study, therefore, examined the factors that predicted patrol officer interest in cybercrime training and investigations in two southeastern U.S. cities. The study specifically examined the relationship between demographics, cybercrime exposure, computer training, computer proficiency, Internet and cybercrime perceptions, and views on policing cybercrime with officer interest in cybercrime investigation training and conducting cybercrime investigations in the future. Officer views on policing cybercrime, particularly whether they valued cybercrime investigations and believed that cybercrime would dramatically change policing, along with their computer skills, were the strongest predictors of interest in cybercrime efforts. Officers who had received previous computer training were less interested in additional training and conducting investigations. These findings support the argument that more command and departmental meetings focusing on the value of investigating these types of crime need to be held in order to increase officer interest.

  12. Mental health first aid training for the Bhutanese refugee community in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Parangkush; Li, Changwei; Gurung, Ashok; Bizune, Destani; Dogbey, M Christina; Johnson, Caroline C; Yun, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training for Bhutanese refugee community leaders in the U.S. We hypothesized that training refugee leaders would improve knowledge of mental health problems and treatment process and decrease negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. One hundred and twenty community leaders participated in MHFA training, of whom 58 had sufficient English proficiency to complete pre- and post-tests. The questionnaires assessed each participant's ability to recognize signs of depression, knowledge about professional help and treatment, and attitudes towards people with mental illness. Between the pre- and post-test, participants showed significant improvement in the recognition of symptoms of depression and expressed beliefs about treatment that became more concordant with those of mental health professionals. However, there was no reduction in negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. MHFA training course is a promising program for Bhutanese refugee communities in the U.S. However, some adaptations may be necessary to ensure that MHFA training is optimized for this community.

  13. ACR coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is a comprehensive reference document on production, exports, prices and demand of coal in world markets. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is provided. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, Canada, Indonesia, China, C.I.S. and Colombia. A very comprehensive coal quality specification for nearly all the coal brands exported from Australia, as well as leading non-Australian coal brands, is included.

  14. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  15. Properties of sorbents from brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straka, P.; Buchtele, J. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2000-07-01

    The surface and sorptional properties of carbonaceous materials prepared from brown coal and their relation to minerals content and coal bulk density as technologically important parameters of starting coal were described. Chars were prepared from brown coal of North Bohemian Brown Coal District and activated with CO{sub 2} in a large-scale laboratory unit. Their surface and sorptive properties were investigated. It was found that mineral matter/ash content favourably affects the mesoporosity development in chars/activated chars as the sorption capacity increased with increasing ash content in chars. No influence of ash content on the macroporosity was observed. With the activated chars, both the inner surface and sorption capacity showed the maximum in the burn-off range of 41-64%. Optimization of the process is discussed.

  16. A clean coal: myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this report comments the evolution of coal demand which has doubled during the last 35 years for different reasons (increase of electricity production, development of China and India), but is still based on local production although coal international trade increased indeed quicker than coal demand. It notices that there is still a lot of coal available for the future, and that demand will keep on increasing. It outlines that coal will have to reduce its impacts on the environment, and presents the technologies which will allow this reduction. It also presents the technologies for CO 2 capture and storage (CCS), and evokes its regulatory issues and its environmental impacts. Some research and development projects in CCS in different countries (Europe, Germany, United States, Australia) are presented. Finally, it stresses the importance of a global deployment of much less polluting technologies to limit greenhouse gas emissions

  17. Impact of Subspecialty Fellowship Training on Research Productivity Among Academic Plastic Surgery Faculty in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Aditya; Therattil, Paul J; Chung, Stella; Lee, Edward S

    2015-01-01

    The impact of subspecialty fellowship training on research productivity among academic plastic surgeons is unknown. The authors' aim of this study was to (1) describe the current fellowship representation in academic plastic surgery and (2) evaluate the relationship between h-index and subspecialty fellowship training by experience and type. Academic plastic surgery faculty (N = 590) were identified through an Internet-based search of all ACGME-accredited integrated and combined residency programs. Research output was measured by h-index from the Scopus database as well as a number of peer-reviewed publications. The Kruskal-Wallis test, with a subsequent Mann-Whitney U test, was used for statistical analysis to determine correlations. In the United States, 72% (n = 426) of academic plastic surgeons had trained in 1 or more subspecialty fellowship program. Within this cohort, the largest group had completed multiple fellowships (28%), followed by hand (23%), craniofacial (22%), microsurgery (15%), research (8%), cosmetic (3%), burn (2%), and wound healing (0.5%). Higher h-indices correlated with a research fellowship (12.5; P productivity compared with their colleagues. Craniofacial-trained physicians also demonstrated a higher marker for academic productivity than multiple other specialties. In this study, we show that the type and number of fellowships influence the h-index and further identification of such variables may help improve academic mentorship and productivity within academic plastic surgery.

  18. Mobile surgical skills education unit: a new concept in surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Faisal M; Hseino, Hazem; Hill, Arnold D K; Kavanagh, Eamon; Traynor, Oscar

    2011-08-01

    Basic surgical skills are an integral part of surgical training. Simulation-based surgical training offers an opportunity both to trainees and trainers to learn and teach surgical skills outside the operating room in a nonpatient, nonstressed environment. However, widespread adoption of simulation technology especially in medical education is prohibited by its inherent higher cost, limited space, and interruptions to clinical duties. Mobile skills laboratory has been proposed as a means to address some of these limitations. A new program is designed by the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), in an approach to teach its postgraduate basic surgical trainees the necessary surgical skills, by making the use of mobile innovative simulation technology in their own hospital settings. In this article, authors describe the program and students response to the mobile surgical skills being delivered in the region of their training hospitals and by their own regional consultant trainers.

  19. United States Department of Energy breeder reactor staff training domestic program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Two US DOE projects in the Pacific Northwest offer unique on-the-scene training opportunities at sodium-cooled fast-reactor plants: the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) near Richland, Washington, which has operated successfully in a wide range of irradiation test programs since 1980; and the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, which has been in operation for approximately 20 years. Training programs have been especially designed to take advantage of this plant experience. Available courses are described

  20. Partitioning behaviour of trace elements in a stoker-fired combustion unit : An example using bituminous coals from the Greymouth coalfield (Cretaceous), New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.; Moore, T.A.; Weaver, S.D. [University of Canterbury, Department of Geological Science, Christchurch (New Zealand); Clemens, A.H.; Gong, D. [CRL Energy Ltd, PO Box 31 244, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Eby, N. [Department of Environmental, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2005-07-20

    In order to understand trace element behaviour during combustion of coals from the Greymouth coalfield, combustion tests were performed on three seam composite samples. The major and trace elements from sub-samples of feed coal, bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas were analysed by different techniques including inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF), and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analyser (SEM-EDXA). To help better understand trace element partitioning in combustion ash, float-sink and sequential leaching experiments were also employed to determine the association of trace elements with mineral matter or organic matter. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was also employed to determine trace element content in float and sink fractions of fly ash as well as in three major phases in the bottom ash. The partitioning behaviour of trace elements, including some that are environmentally sensitive, was also investigated through the use of float-sink tests and direct determination of trace elements in different combustion ash types and phases. Mass balance and partitioning of major and trace elements have been studied to determine the fate of trace elements after combustion. The partitioning of trace elements, especially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), in different combustion ashes can be summarised as follows:1.Most trace elements, especially As, Ba, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, are partitioned in the glassy and refractory bottom ash fractions. 2.A significant proportion of trace elements of As, Se, and Pb are partitioned into fly ash fractions. 3.Some volatile elements (e.g. > 90% of S and Hg and up to 64% of Cl) and, to a lesser extent, B (up to 44%) and Cd (up to 50%) are partitioned in the flue gas fraction. 4.Although the low ash yield of Greymouth coal seams have the advantage of generating less solid

  1. Retention Patterns for Army National Guard Units Attending the National Training Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    which are more difficult, Table 2.1 NTC ROUNDOUT BATTALION SCHEDULE ARNG UNIT STATE DATES 1-108 AR GA 9-22 September 󈨗 2-136 INF (M) MN 19 April-8 May...1984 1-121 INF (M) GA 3-22 October 󈨘 2-121 INF (M) GA 18 March-6 April 󈨙 2-152 AR AL 1-20 June 󈨙 2-120 INF (M) NC 26 June-15 July 󈨙 3-156 INF...roundout unit to the 24th Infantry Division headquartered at Fort Stewart, Georgia. Elements of the unit are located in Tifton , Valdosta, Fitzgerald and

  2. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-20

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  3. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada

  4. Catalog of Simulation Models and Wargames Used for Unit and Leader Training. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    149 SAS 155 -. I TAC SUPPRESSOR 181 xiv 77- TABLE 5 (continued) N’ NAME PAGE - TAM 187 TWX 205 WASGRAM 213 Other: Economi -l DROMEDARY 79 LOGISTICS...be an upgrade of WACE and BABAS as a computer-assisted mixed land and sea training simulation. DATE IMPLEMENTED: Prototype to be field tested, end of

  5. The Evaluation of Vocational Training. Report of a Seminar (University of Manchester, United Kingdom, January 1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    Based on the working papers and the results of seminar discussions on the evaluation of vocational education in various European countries, this volume summarizes current European thinking on the evaluation of training programs. Chapter 1 describes and defines the different levels of analysis which can be used in evaluation: analysis in the…

  6. Training Needs in Gerontology. Hearings, Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    At the second day of hearings on training needs in gerontology the witnesses were Stephen Kurzman accompanied by Arthur S. Flemming, John Lapp, Gerald D. LaVeck; George Maddox; Elias Cohen; Wilma Donahue; Brin Hawkins with Lettie Graves and Yolanda Owens; and John B. Martin. (MS)

  7. A Study to Identify the Transitional Training Needs for United States Army Medical Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-29

    Books Kotler , Philip, and Roberta Clarke. Marketing for Health Care Organizations. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1987. Runyon, Richard P., and...8217 and most can benefit from instruction in administrative principles and practices during residency" (444). A focus began to turn toward residency...leadership development, office communi-ations, professional and legal obligations, Rawls 8 and practice marketing . Because these newly trained physicians

  8. Effect of exercise training on Ca2+ release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro-Júnior, M.A.; Quintão-Júnior, J.F.; Drummond, L.R.; Lavorato, V.N.; Drummond, F.R.; Amadeu, M.A.; Oliveira, E.M.; Felix, L.B.; Cruz, J.S.; Mill, J.G.; Natali, A.J.; Prímola-Gomes, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca 2+ ) release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca 2+ release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca 2+ sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age) were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC) and hypertensive control (HC), and normotensive (NT) and hypertensive trained (HT) animals (7 rats per group). NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed) for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6) increased (270%) and decreased (88%), respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230%) and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%). Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca 2+ sparks (HC=7.61±0.26 vs NC=4.79±0.19 per 100 µm/s) and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260±0.08 vs NC=0.324±0.10 ΔF/F 0 ), full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05±0.08 vs NC=1.26±0.01 µm), total duration (HC=11.51±0.12 vs NC=14.97±0.24 ms), time to peak (HC=4.84±0.06 vs NC=6.31±0.14 ms), and time constant of decay (HC=8.68±0.12 vs NC=10.21±0.22 ms). These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca 2+ sparks=6.26±0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282±0.10 ΔF/F 0 , full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14±0.01 µm, total duration=13.34±0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43±0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43±0.15 ms). Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release units of left ventricular myocytes

  9. Effect of exercise training on Ca{sup 2+} release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro-Júnior, M.A. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Quintão-Júnior, J.F.; Drummond, L.R.; Lavorato, V.N.; Drummond, F.R. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Amadeu, M.A.; Oliveira, E.M. [Universidade de São Paulo, Laboratório de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular do Exercício, Escola de Educação Física e Esportes, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felix, L.B. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Cruz, J.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Laboratório de Membranas Excitáveis e Biologia Cardiovascular, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mill, J.G. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Natali, A.J.; Prímola-Gomes, T.N. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-29

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca{sup 2+} sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age) were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC) and hypertensive control (HC), and normotensive (NT) and hypertensive trained (HT) animals (7 rats per group). NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed) for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6) increased (270%) and decreased (88%), respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230%) and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%). Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca{sup 2+} sparks (HC=7.61±0.26 vs NC=4.79±0.19 per 100 µm/s) and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260±0.08 vs NC=0.324±0.10 ΔF/F{sub 0}), full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05±0.08 vs NC=1.26±0.01 µm), total duration (HC=11.51±0.12 vs NC=14.97±0.24 ms), time to peak (HC=4.84±0.06 vs NC=6.31±0.14 ms), and time constant of decay (HC=8.68±0.12 vs NC=10.21±0.22 ms). These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca{sup 2+} sparks=6.26±0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282±0.10 ΔF/F{sub 0}, full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14±0.01 µm, total duration=13.34±0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43±0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43±0.15 ms). Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release units of

  10. Effect of exercise training on Ca²⁺ release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro-Júnior, M A; Quintão-Júnior, J F; Drummond, L R; Lavorato, V N; Drummond, F R; Amadeu, M A; Oliveira, E M; Felix, L B; Cruz, J S; Mill, J G; Natali, A J; Prímola-Gomes, T N

    2014-11-01

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca²⁺) release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca²⁺ release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca²⁺ sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age) were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC) and hypertensive control (HC), and normotensive (NT) and hypertensive trained (HT) animals (7 rats per group). NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed) for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6) increased (270%) and decreased (88%), respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230%) and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%). Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca²⁺ sparks (HC=7.61 ± 0.26 vs NC=4.79 ± 0.19 per 100 µm/s) and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260 ± 0.08 vs NC=0.324 ± 0.10 ΔF/F0), full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05 ± 0.08 vs NC=1.26 ± 0.01 µm), total duration (HC=11.51 ± 0.12 vs NC=14.97 ± 0.24 ms), time to peak (HC=4.84 ± 0.06 vs NC=6.31 ± 0.14 ms), and time constant of decay (HC=8.68 ± 0.12 vs NC=10.21 ± 0.22 ms). These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca²⁺ sparks=6.26 ± 0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282 ± 0.10 ΔF/F0, full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14 ± 0.01 µm, total duration=13.34 ± 0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43 ± 0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43 ± 0.15 ms). Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release

  11. Effect of exercise training on Ca2+ release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Carneiro-Júnior

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca2+ release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca2+ release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca2+ sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC and hypertensive control (HC, and normotensive (NT and hypertensive trained (HT animals (7 rats per group. NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2 and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6 increased (270% and decreased (88%, respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230% and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%. Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca2+ sparks (HC=7.61±0.26 vs NC=4.79±0.19 per 100 µm/s and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260±0.08 vs NC=0.324±0.10 ΔF/F0, full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05±0.08 vs NC=1.26±0.01 µm, total duration (HC=11.51±0.12 vs NC=14.97±0.24 ms, time to peak (HC=4.84±0.06 vs NC=6.31±0.14 ms, and time constant of decay (HC=8.68±0.12 vs NC=10.21±0.22 ms. These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca2+ sparks=6.26±0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282±0.10 ΔF/F0, full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14±0.01 µm, total duration=13.34±0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43±0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43±0.15 ms. Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release units of left ventricular myocytes.

  12. Effect of exercise training on Ca2+ release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro-Júnior, M A; Quintão-Júnior, J F; Drummond, L R; Lavorato, V N; Drummond, F R; Amadeu, M A; Oliveira, E M; Felix, L B; Cruz, J S; Mill, J G; Natali, A J; Prímola-Gomes, T N

    2014-08-29

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca2+) release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca2+ release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca2+ sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age) were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC) and hypertensive control (HC), and normotensive (NT) and hypertensive trained (HT) animals (7 rats per group). NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed) for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6) increased (270%) and decreased (88%), respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230%) and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%). Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca2+ sparks (HC=7.61±0.26 vs NC=4.79±0.19 per 100 µm/s) and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260±0.08 vs NC=0.324±0.10 ΔF/F0), full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05±0.08 vs NC=1.26±0.01 µm), total duration (HC=11.51±0.12 vs NC=14.97±0.24 ms), time to peak (HC=4.84±0.06 vs NC=6.31±0.14 ms), and time constant of decay (HC=8.68±0.12 vs NC=10.21±0.22 ms). These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca2+ sparks=6.26±0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282±0.10 ΔF/F0, full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14±0.01 µm, total duration=13.34±0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43±0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43±0.15 ms). Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release units of left ventricular myocytes.

  13. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is ∼ 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends ∼1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of ∼1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top

  14. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  15. Commissioning and operating experiences with high-efficiency, environmentally acceptable brown coal thermal power units; Inbetriebsetzung und Betriebserfahrungen mit hoch effizienten und umweltfreundlichen Braunkohlebloecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehr, M.; Mandel, H.; Kather, A.

    1998-12-31

    The generation system of VEAG had a power output 15,000 MW, of which 82%, or 12,700 MW, came from brown coal power plants that had no flue gas desulphurisation and insufficient flue gas dedusting facilities. One of the major goals of the company`s programme for enhancing the economic efficiency and public acceptance of the conversion of brown coal to electricity was to achieve a net power plant efficiency of 40%. In the case of the ``KW Schwarze Pumpe`` project this was achieved by the use of supercritical steam parameters, installation of a flue gas heat recovery system, and the optimisation of the cold end of the turbine by allowing for a condenser pressure of 40 mbar and by connecting condensers in series. Further effects were achieved by fine adjustments to the thermal circuitry. [Deutsch] Der Kraftwerkspark der VEAG umfasste 15.400 MW und bestand mit 12.700 MW zu 82% aus Braunkohlekraftwerken, die ueber keine Rauchgasentschwefelung und unzureichende Entstaubungsanlagen im Rauchgas verfuegten. Als wesentliche Forderung zur Erhoehung der Wirtschaftlichkeit und Akzeptanz der Braunkohleverstromung wurde die Forderung nach Erreichen eines Netto-Kraftwerkswirkungsgrades von 40% gestellt. Fuer das Projekt KW Schwarze Pumpe wurde neben der Anwendung der ueberkritschen Dampfparameter zur Sicherung der Zielstellung eines Wirkungsgrades von mindestens 40% der Einbau einer Rauchgaswaermenutzung und die Optimierung des kalten Endes der Turbine mit Auslegung fuer einen Kondensatordruck von 40 mbar sowie Reihenschaltung der Kondensatoren festgelegt. Weitere Effekte wurden durch Feinoptimierung des Waermeschaltbildes erreicht. (orig.)

  16. Development of a mathematical model simulating the multiply connected automatic control system of a coal-fired power unit equipped with a direct-injection dust feed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.A. Shorokhov; A.P. Smol' nikov; D.A. Kurochkin; N.N. Komarova; A.S. Mar' yasov; A.R. Gudovich; S.N. Bartosh [ZAO SibKOTES, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    Matters relating to development and identification of a mathematical model for simulating a power unit and its individual systems are discussed. Results obtained from a large series of the active experiments on an operating power unit are presented.

  17. Electrophysiological characteristics of motor units and muscle fibers in trained and untrained young male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duez, Lene; Qerama, Erisela; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that the amplitudes of compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and interference pattern analysis (IPA) would be larger in trained subjects compared with untrained subjects, possibly due to hypertrophy of muscle fibers and/or increased central drive. Moreover, we hypothesized...... and untrained subjects in IPA power spectrum and turns per second or amplitude of the CMAPs obtained by DMS. Muscle fiber hypertrophy and/or altered central drive may account for our results, but there was no indication of changes in muscle fiber excitability. Muscle Nerve, 2010....... that the untrained muscle is less excitable compared with the trained muscle. An electromyographic (EMG) needle electrode was used to record the IPA at maximal voluntary effort. The CMAP was obtained by stimulating the musculocutaneous nerve and recording the brachial biceps muscle using surface electrodes. CMAPs...

  18. Videos, tweet-ups, and training unite scientist communicators at Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mary Catherine; Ramsayer, Kate

    2012-02-01

    AGU's public information office held several events at the 2011 Fall Meeting designed to train, recognize, and reward member scientists who communicate with, or want to communicate with, nonscience audiences. On Sunday, about 90 researchers gathered at the Marriott Marquis hotel for an all-day science communications training event covering topics including journalism from the insider's perspective, storytelling, and using humor to share science. On Wednesday a communications panel focusing specifically on climate science shared tips on communicating with audiences via TV and the Web, among other outlets. At a social media soiree Monday evening, geobloggers, Facebook fans, Twitter followers, and others met in person and talked about how to share news and research across the many platforms of the Internet. Later in the week, bloggers from AGU's blogosphere and other sites met for lunch to discuss the online Earth and space science community.

  19. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  20. United States Air Force Training Management 2010. Volume 2. A Strategy for Superiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    decontaminate the ramp area with the remote robotic Chemical- Biological Warfare (CBW) sterilizers. If the Chemical- Biological (CB) attacks continue, she will be...Of Skilled Craftsmen Troubles Some Firms." The Wall Street Journal. 14 September 1987, pp. 1,8. 44. Naisbitt, John. Megatrends : Ten New Directions...Computer Based Training CBW Chemical- Biological Warfare CMAS Computer-Based Maintenance Aids System CMI Computer-Managed Instruction DOD Department of

  1. Improving leadership training at the United States Naval Academy by utilizing Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI)

    OpenAIRE

    Kawane, Shannon E.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis addresses several issues identified in the analysis and design phases of the Instructional Systems Development process to develop an IMI leadership program for the Naval Academy. The overarching goal is to provide the Naval Academy with a study that uses current research and existing innovative leadership programs to answer questions that need to be resolved in developing a program consistent with the Naval Academy's leadership training philosophy. The results suggest that an IMI ...

  2. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM): A tool for improved flight safety (United Airlines CRM training)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J. E.; Taggart, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The approach and methodology used in developing cockpit management skills is effective because of the following features: (1) A comparative method of learning is used enabling crewmembers to study different forms of teamwork. (2) The learning comes about as a result of crewmembers learning from one another instead of from an expert instructor. (3) Key elements of cockpit teamwork and effective management are studied so that crewmembers can determine how these elements can improve safety and problem solving. (4) Critique among the crewmembers themselves rather than from outsiders is used as a common focusing point for crews to provide feedback to one another on how each can be a more effective crewmember. (5) The training is continuous in the sense that it becomes part of recurrent, upgrade, and other forms of crewmember training and development. And (6) the training results in sound and genuine insights that come about through solid education as opposed to tutoring, coaching, or telling crewmembers how to behave more effectively.

  3. Coal geology and assessment of coal resources and reserves in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the final results of the first assessment of both coal resources and reserves for all significant coal beds in the entire Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The basin covers about 19,500 square miles, exclusive of the part of the basin within the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservations in Montana. The Powder River Basin, which contains the largest resources of low-sulfur, low-ash, subbituminous coal in the United States, is the single most important coal basin in the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey used a geology-based assessment methodology to estimate an original coal resource of about 1.16 trillion short tons for 47 coal beds in the Powder River Basin; in-place (remaining) resources are about 1.15 trillion short tons. This is the first time that all beds were mapped individually over the entire basin. A total of 162 billion short tons of recoverable coal resources (coal reserve base) are estimated at a 10:1 stripping ratio or less. An estimated 25 billion short tons of that coal reserve base met the definition of reserves, which are resources that can be economically produced at or below the current sales price at the time of the evaluation. The total underground coal resource in coal beds 10–20 feet thick is estimated at 304 billion short tons.

  4. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  5. Phase 2 Sampling Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    CDM Federal Programs Corporation (CDM Federal) was contracted by Energy Systems to prepare a Phase II Sampling Plan to describe the field investigation work necessary to address regulatory agency review comments on the Remedial Investigation of the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP)/Upper McCoy Branch, Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 at the Y-12 Plant, conducted by CH2M Hill in 1990. The scope and approach of the field investigation described in this plan specifically focus on deficiencies noted by the regulators in discussions at the comment resolution meeting of May 8, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This Phase II Sampling Plan includes a field sampling plan, a field and laboratory quality assurance project plan, a health and safety plan, a waste management plan, and appendixes providing an update to the applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements for this site and field and laboratory testing methods and procedures

  6. Abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 14 chinese and american coals and their relation to coal rank and weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  7. Trends in Japanese coal trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, S

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses 1) the latest forecast for coal demand in Japan; 2) trends in Japanese steam coal demand, with breakdown by industry; 3) the organization of steam coal supply, with details of the distribution network and of the new coal cartridge system; 4) the demand for metallurgical coal. Other topics outlined include the current status of Japanese coal production, Japanese coal trade, and the development of overseas coal resources. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  8. Return on Investment for the United States Navy’s Training with Industry Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    supply lines of operations: supply chain management , acquisition management , and operational logistics (NAVSUP, n.d...included logistics support. The Supply Corps’ overall mission today, “delivering sustained global logistics capabilities to the Navy and Joint Warfighter...exposure to managing logistics from the unit level to the strategic level. With each billet assigned, Supply Corps officers build

  9. Quality assessment of occupational health and safety management at the level of business units making up the organizational structure of a coal mine: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korban, Zygmunt

    2015-01-01

    The audit of the health and safety management system is understood as a form and tool of controlling. The objective of the audit is to define whether the undertaken measures and the obtained results are in conformity with the predicted assumptions or plans, whether the agreed decisions have been implemented and whether they are suitable in view of the accepted health and safety policy. This paper presents the results of an audit examination carried out on the system of health and safety management between 2002 and 2012 on a group of respondents, the employees of two mining departments (G-1 and G-2) of Jan, a coal mine. The audit was carried out using the questionnaire developed by the author based on the MERIT-APBK survey.

  10. The upper pennsylvanian pittsburgh coal bed: Resources and mine models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, W.D.; Ruppert, L.F.; Tewalt, S.J.; Bragg, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a digital coal resource assessment model of the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed, which indicates that after subtracting minedout coal, 16 billion short tons (14 billion tonnes) remain of the original 34 billion short tons (31 billion tonnes) of coal. When technical, environmental, and social restrictions are applied to the remaining Pittsburgh coal model, only 12 billion short tons (11 billion tonnes) are available for mining. Our assessment models estimate that up to 0.61 billion short tons (0.55 billion tonnes), 2.7 billion short tons (2.4 billion tonnes), and 8.5 billion short tons (7.7 billion tonnes) could be available for surface mining, continuous mining, and longwall mining, respectively. This analysis is an example of a second-generation regional coal availability study designed to model recoverability characteristics for all the major coal beds in the United States. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  11. Elk Valley Coal innovation paving the way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.; Ednie, H.; Weldon, H.

    2006-09-15

    Elk Valley Coal maintains performance optimization across its six metallurgical coal operations. Performance, personnel issues, and training are discussed. Programmes at Fording River, Greenhills, and Coal Mountain are described. Fording River is implementing new computer systems and high-speed wireless networks. The pit control system and the equipment maintenance and remote maintenance programmes are being improved. The Glider Kit program to rebuild major equipment is described. Safety and productivity measures at Greenhills include testing and evaluation of innovations such as the Drilling and Blasting System (DABS), a payload monitor on a shovel, and two GPS-based systems. Blasting methods, a timing study that examines wall stability, fragmentation simulation, and the Six Mine structure at Coal Mountain are described. 5 photos.

  12. Is coal a four letter word?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, G.

    2004-01-01

    Political promises about the future phasing out of coal-fired power plants were presented in this paper, as well as a demonstration of coal's importance for baseload. Ontario's other energy supply options were discussed and compared, including imported hydro, nuclear projects, natural gas and green initiatives. It was stated that closing coal plants might reduce emissions by 6 per cent, but at a cost of 2 billion dollars per year. The importance of recognizing air sheds was stated, as well as financial penalties along with worsening air quality. A map of Ontario's air shed covering much of eastern North America illustrated this point. A comparison of approaches in the United States was drawn, where coal is the fuel of choice for new supply, with 92 new coal fired plants announced, and many new gas plants being cancelled. A chart of markets for new coal power plant technology was presented, as well as environmental statistics of clean coal. Criteria for coal power plant performance are: air emissions; by-product utilization; water use and discharge; efficiency and reliability; and, capital and product cost. Various research programs in the US were also discussed, with new performance targets examined. Options for Canada were presented. It was concluded that financial penalties, combined with the fact that air pollution has no borders may lead to a reevaluation of coal plant closure. Suggestions for improving coal plants include: the development of a clean air strategy; new investments in new technology for emission reduction; establishing a North American agreement on clean air with meaningful targets. Additionally, it was also suggested that treaty undertakings should involve Canadian participation in US technology development efforts. tabs., figs

  13. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  14. Coal marketing manual 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This manual presents information for the use of marketers, consumers, analysts and investors. The information is presented in a series of tables and figures. Statistics are given for: Australian export tonnages and average export values for 1978-1985; international pig iron production 1976 to 1985; and international crude steel production 1979 to 1985. Trends in Australian export tonnages and prices of coal are reviewed. Details of international loading and discharge ports are given, together with a historical summary of shipping freight-rates since 1982. Long term contract prices for thermal and coking coal to Japan are tabulated. A review of coal and standards is given, together with Australian standards for coal and coke. A section on coal quality is included containing information on consumer coal quality preferences and Australian and Overseas coal brands and qualities. Finally an index is given of contact details of Australian and Overseas exporting companies, government departments, and the Australian Coal Association.

  15. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  16. Fording Canadian Coal Trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popowich, J.; Millos, R. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This is the first of five slide/overhead presentations presented at the Fording Canadian Coal Trust and Tech Cominco Ltd. investor day and mine tour. The Fording Canadian Coal Trust is described. The Trust's assets comprise six Elk Valley metallurgical coal mines and six wollastonite operations (in the NYCO Group). Trust structure, corporate responsibility, organizational structure, reserves and resources, management philosophy, operating strategies, steel market dynamics, coal market, production expansion, sales and distribution are outlined. 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Review biodepyritisation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, C.; Sukla, L.B.; Misra, V.N. [Regional Research Lab., Orissa (India)

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a detailed summary of the recent and past research activities in the area of biodesulfurisation of coal. It provides information about microorganisms important for biodesulfurisation of coal, with the emphasis on Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The review presents an insight into various methods of desulfurisation of coal combining physical and biological methods. Also, there are discussions on coal structure, distribution, mechanism and kinetics of pyrite oxidation and jarosite precipitation. Finally, areas requiring further research are identified.

  18. Coal dust symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This paper gives a report of the paper presented at the symposium held in Hanover on 9 and 10 February 1981. The topics include: the behaviour of dust and coal dust on combustion and explosion; a report on the accidents which occurred at the Laegerdorf cement works' coal crushing and drying plant; current safety requirements at coal crushing and drying plant; and coal crushing and drying. Four papers are individually abstracted. (In German)

  19. Coal world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A brief analysis of major tendencies in the world market of coal is presented. It is pointed out that recent years, by and large, were favourable for the development of the world coal industry. Prices for coal (both for power-grade and coking one) in 1995 after many years of depressive state increased by nearly 20 % and reached a maximum of the last decade. International coal trading continues to grow and the tendency may persist in the mext two years

  20. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  1. Global Coal Trade. From Tightness to Oversupply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Over the past four years, international coal trade has been reshaped by China's surging imports. China, which was still a net exporter in 2008, became the world's first coal importer in 2011, taking over the position that Japan has occupied for three decades. Its imports have continued their rising trend and reached a record level in 2012, despite the country's economic slowdown. China imported 289 million tons of coal in 2012, up 30% over 2011. It now accounts for 23% of global imports. Although China is the world's largest coal producer, several factors have contributed to the sudden rise in its imports, including the higher cost of domestic coal relative to international prices and bottlenecks in transporting domestic coal to south-eastern provinces. More recently, another event shook the international coal business: the United States have been back on the market. The collapse of U.S. gas prices, to $4/million Btu in 2011 and even $2.75/million Btu in 2012, linked with the 'shale gas revolution', has made coal uncompetitive in the electricity sector, its main outlet on the U.S. market. U.S. coal demand dropped 4% in 2011 and 11% in 2012. The reduction in domestic demand has forced U.S. miners to look for overseas outlets. Their exports surged by 31% in 2011 and 16% in 2012. They reached 112 million tons in 2012, more than twice the level of 2009. The United States, which almost disappeared from the international steam coal market in the 2000's, have regained a larger share of the total coal export market, 9% in 2012, against 6% in 2009. These developments, although not directly linked, have a huge impact on the global market and pricing of coal. Chinese imports have helped the market to quickly recover from its low level of 2008-2009. The speed and magnitude of China's coal imports even shifts the market from a sluggish to a tight situation. Prices started to rise after their collapse in the second half of 2008 caused by the economic and financial crisis

  2. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  3. Coal economics and taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain opening remarks, the luncheon and dinner addresses, list of delegates and the papers presented at the four sessions on Coal Mines cost money - for what.; Coal mines cost money - Where the money comes from; taxation and royalty policies; and the coal industry view on operating costs. Sixteen papers are abstracted separately.

  4. Possibilities of professional career in the German coal mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierhardt, H; Mader, S

    1977-06-01

    Development and age structure of the labor force. Possibilities and courses of professional training in the German coal mining industry. Choice of profession and possibilities of promotion. More advertising campaigns necessary to obtain recruits for mining work.

  5. Land use and coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Arid Lands Ecology Reserve and the Hanford National Environmental Research Park were established to promote the use of the Hanford Site for ecological research, especially studies related to energy technologies and their potential for environmental impacts. Coal is currently regarded as the most dependable interim source of energy in the United States. To meet expected demands, coal needs to be mined in large quantities and may be mined predominantly in locations of sparse precipitation. Often the most economical way to extract coal is through surface mining. It is expected that following coal extraction the pits will be filled with overburden, graded to approximate original contour, native topsoil applied to prescribed depths and planted with climatically adapted herbs, shrubs or trees. Because primary productivity in dry regions is characteristically low, it is realistic to expect, if the above procedure is followed, that the revegetated surfaces will also produce little phytomass in the years following restoration. Appropriate data are needed for accurate estimation of the economic feasibility of a particular restoration practice or its alternative. Research programs are discussed briefly

  6. Coking coal consumption of POSCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, B.C.

    1991-01-01

    Pohang Iron and Steel Company Limited (POSCO) was established in 1968. Molten iron was first produced in July 1973 after a 3 year construction period. The long awaited start up of Korea's first integrated steel works provided the momentum for the fast growth of our steel industry. In 1973, the first year of operation, POSCO purchased 770,000 tons of coal from the United States and Australia. The import tonnage was more than doubled in 1976 when we completed the second stage of Pohang Works and has continued to increase reaching 13.1 million tons last year. POSCO's coal consumption will increase one more time next year as the fourth stage of Kwangyang works starts to operate a new blast furnace with an annual molten iron production capacity of 2.8 million tons. Even though the new blast furnace will have the same capacity as the other 3 in Kwangyang, the additional coking coal requirement will be much smaller than the tonnages we needed for the other stages of the works. This paper reports that this is due to the increased use of pulverized coal

  7. Coal fired air turbine cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Pegg, R. W.

    Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

  8. Economic effects of western Federal land-use restrictions on U.S. coal markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William Downing; Medlin, A.L.; Krohn, K.K.; Brookshire, D.S.; Bernknopf, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Current regulations on land use in the Western United States affect access to surface minable coal resources. This U.S. Geological Survey study analyzes the long-term effects of Federal land-use restrictions on the national cost of meeting future coal demands. The analysis covers 45 years. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management has determined the environmental, aesthetic, and economic values of western Federal coal lands and has set aside certain areas from surface coal mining to protect other valued land uses, including agricultural, environmental, and aesthetic uses. Although there are benefits to preserving natural areas and to developing areas for other land uses, these restrictions produce long-term national and regional costs that have not been estimated previously. The Dynamic Coal Allocation Model integrates coal supply (coal resource tonnage and coal quality by mining cost for 60 coal supply regions) with coal demand (in 243 regions) for the entire United States. The model makes it possible to evaluate the regional economic impacts of coal supply restrictions wherever they might occur in the national coal market. The main factors that the economic methodology considers are (1) coal mining costs, (2) coal transportation costs, (3) coal flue gas desulfurization costs, (4) coal demand, (5) regulations to control sulfur dioxide discharges, and (6) specific reductions in coal availability occurring as a result of land-use restrictions. The modeling system combines these economic factors with coal deposit quantity and quality information--which is derived from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Coal Resources Data System and the U.S. Department of Energy's Demonstrated Reserve Base--to determine a balance between supply and demand so that coal is delivered at minimum cost.

  9. British Coal Corporation. Report and accounts 1986/87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report reviews the accounts for British Coal from March 30, 1986 to March 28, 1987 with respect to the coal industry in the United Kingdom. The dramatic increases in production and decreases in manpower and collieries have led to many changes and these are discussed. Areas covered include: objectives and relations with public bodies; finance; production; markets; personnel; organization; British Coal Enterprise Limited; research and development; environmental issues; and annual statistics. The full company accounts are also presented.

  10. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko

    2015-03-01

    (calcite and siderite directly contribute CO2 when they decompose during coal combustion. Variations in the maceral content can also influence CO2 emissions; high inertinite contents increase CO2 emissions. Sulphur in coal reduces EF(CO2. Fuel analysis is very important when estimating greenhouse gas emissions and emission factors. In this preliminary study, based on the results of the fuel analysis, CO2 emission factors for coals and peat from Livno, B&H have been calculated. EF(CO2 is defined as the amount of carbon dioxide emission per unit net calorific values of the fuel. Net calorific value (the lower heating value corresponds to the heat produced by combustion where total water in the combustion products exists as water vapour. The EF(CO2 obtained for sub-bituminous coal, lignite and peat were: 98.7, 109.5, and 147.9 t TJ−1, respectively, which correspond to the following net calorific values: 20.6, 11.5 and 3.6 MJ kg−1. The heating value is generally known to increase with the increase in carbon content (this parameter is connected with the degree of coalification, coal age. The other indispensable parameters are hydrogen, which has a positive effect on the net calorific value, and oxygen and water which impact the net calorific value negatively. The differences in net calorific values can be explained in part by the difference of total moisture content among the different fuel types. The CO2 emission factors calculated in this study were compared with those of IPCC. A significant difference was observed for peat (39.5 %, followed by lignite (8.2 % and sub-bituminous coal (4.3 %.

  11. Energy Information Administration quarterly coal report, October--December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The United States produced just over 1 billion short tons of coal in 1992, 0.4 percent more than in 1991. Most of the 4-million-short-ton increase in coal production occurred west of the Mississippi River, where a record level of 408 million short tons of coal was produced. The amount of coal received by domestic consumers in 1992 totaled 887 million short tons. This was 7 million short tons more than in 1991, primarily due to increased coal demand from electric utilities. The average price of delivered coal to each sector declined by about 2 percent. Coal consumption in 1992 was 893 million short tons, only 1 percent higher than in 1991, due primarily to a 1-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Consumer coal stocks at the end of 1992 were 163 million short tons, a decrease of 3 percent from the level at the end of 1991, and the lowest year-end level since 1989. US coal exports fell 6 percent from the 1991 level to 103 million short tons in 1992. Less coal was exported to markets in Europe, Asia, and South America, but coal exports to Canada increased 4 million short tons

  12. Development of upgraded brown coal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, N.; Sugita, S.; Deguchi, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Makino, E. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Hyogo (Japan). Coal and Energy Project Department

    2004-07-01

    Half of the world's coal resources are so-called low rank coal (LRC) such as lignite, subbituminous coal. Utilization of such coal is limited due to low heat value and high propensity of spontaneous combustion. Since some of LRCs have advantages as clean coal, i.e. low ash and low sulfur content, LRC can be the excellent feedstock for power generation and metallurgy depending on the upgrading technology. The UBC (upgraded brown coal) process introduced here converts LRC to solid fuel with high heat value and less propensity of self-heating. Various world coals, such as Australian, Indonesian and USA LRC, were tested using the Autoclave and Bench Scale Unit, and the process application to LRC of wide range is proven. The R & D activities of the UBC process are introduced including a demonstration project with a 5 ton/day test plant in progress in Indonesia, expecting near future commercialisation in order to utilize abundant LRC of clean properties. 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Self-scrubbing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  14. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ronald A. Ratti

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  15. ANN-GA based optimization of a high ash coal-fired supercritical power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, M.V.J.J.; Reddy, K.S.; Kolar, Ajit Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Neuro-genetic power plant optimization is found to be an efficient methodology. → Advantage of neuro-genetic algorithm is the possibility of on-line optimization. → Exergy loss in combustor indicates the effect of coal composition on efficiency. -- Abstract: The efficiency of coal-fired power plant depends on various operating parameters such as main steam/reheat steam pressures and temperatures, turbine extraction pressures, and excess air ratio for a given fuel. However, simultaneous optimization of all these operating parameters to achieve the maximum plant efficiency is a challenging task. This study deals with the coupled ANN and GA based (neuro-genetic) optimization of a high ash coal-fired supercritical power plant in Indian climatic condition to determine the maximum possible plant efficiency. The power plant simulation data obtained from a flow-sheet program, 'Cycle-Tempo' is used to train the artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the energy input through fuel (coal). The optimum set of various operating parameters that result in the minimum energy input to the power plant is then determined by coupling the trained ANN model as a fitness function with the genetic algorithm (GA). A unit size of 800 MWe currently under development in India is considered to carry out the thermodynamic analysis based on energy and exergy. Apart from optimizing the design parameters, the developed model can also be used for on-line optimization when quick response is required. Furthermore, the effect of various coals on the thermodynamic performance of the optimized power plant is also determined.

  16. Lessons from previous 'coal Transitions'. High-level summary for decision-makers, Part of 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal' Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldecott, Ben; Sartor, Oliver; Spencer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The need for a so-called 'just transition' is acknowledged, away from carbon intensive activities, such as coal production and use. But what might a just transition look like in practice? What specific risks need to be managed and what are the best approaches to managing them? There is an urgent need to develop a deeper understanding of these issues. It is to this need that this report tries to respond. It provides a summary of lessons from six historical case studies of regional coal mining transitions that have occurred or are ongoing in Europe and the United States in recent decades. These case studies and this report were developed as part of a broader project led by IDDRI and Climate Strategies, entitled 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal'. This project seeks to utilise these historical lessons to facilitate the development of feasible coal transition scenarios in large coal producing countries today'

  17. Uncertainty in coal property valuation in West Virginia: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, M.E.; McDowell, R.R.

    2001-01-01

    Interpolated grids of coal bed thickness are being considered for use in a proposed method for taxation of coal in the state of West Virginia (United States). To assess the origin and magnitude of possible inaccuracies in calculated coal tonnage, we used conditional simulation to generate equiprobable realizations of net coal thickness for two coals on a 7 1/2 min topographic quadrangle, and a third coal in a second quadrangle. Coals differed in average thickness and proportion of original coal that had been removed by erosion; all three coals crop out in the study area. Coal tonnage was calculated for each realization and for each interpolated grid for actual and artificial property parcels, and differences were summarized as graphs of percent difference between tonnage calculated from the grid and average tonnage from simulations. Coal in individual parcels was considered minable for valuation purposes if average thickness in each parcel exceeded 30 inches. Results of this study show that over 75% of the parcels are classified correctly as minable or unminable based on interpolation grids of coal bed thickness. Although between 80 and 90% of the tonnages differ by less than 20% between interpolated values and simulated values, a nonlinear conditional bias might exist in estimation of coal tonnage from interpolated thickness, such that tonnage is underestimated where coal is thin, and overestimated where coal is thick. The largest percent differences occur for parcels that are small in area, although because of the small quantities of coal in question, bias is small on an absolute scale for these parcels. For a given parcel size, maximum apparent overestimation of coal tonnage occurs in parcels with an average coal bed thickness near the minable cutoff of 30 in. Conditional bias in tonnage for parcels having a coal thickness exceeding the cutoff by 10 in. or more is constant for two of the three coals studied, and increases slightly with average thickness for the

  18. Wintertime Overnight NOx Removal in a Southeastern United States Coal-fired Power Plant Plume: A Model for Understanding Winter NOx Processing and its Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, Dorothy L.; McDuffie, Erin E.; Dubé, William P.; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Lee, Ben H.; Green, Jaime R.; Fiddler, Marc N.; Holloway, John S.; Ebben, Carlena; Sparks, Tamara L.; Wooldridge, Paul; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Montzka, Denise D.; Apel, Eric C.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Hills, Alan J.; Blake, Nicola J.; DiGangi, Josh P.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Bililign, Solomon; Cohen, Ronald C.; Thornton, Joel A.; Brown, Steven S.

    2018-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted in large quantities from coal-burning power plants. During the day, the plumes from these sources are efficiently mixed into the boundary layer, while at night, they may remain concentrated due to limited vertical mixing during which they undergo horizontal fanning. At night, the degree to which NO is converted to HNO3 and therefore unable to participate in next-day ozone (O3) formation depends on the mixing rate of the plume, the composition of power plant emissions, and the composition of the background atmosphere. In this study, we use observed plume intercepts from the Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions and Reactivity campaign to test sensitivity of overnight NOx removal to the N2O5 loss rate constant, plume mixing rate, background O3, and background levels of volatile organic compounds using a 2-D box model of power plant plume transport and chemistry. The factor that exerted the greatest control over NOx removal was the loss rate constant of N2O5. At the lowest observed N2O5 loss rate constant, no other combination of conditions converts more than 10% of the initial NOx to HNO3. The other factors did not influence NOx removal to the same degree.

  19. Wintertime Overnight NOx Removal in a Southeastern United States Coal-Fired Power Plant Plume: A Model for Understanding Winter NOx Processing and Its Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, Dorothy L.; McDuffie, Erin E.; Dube, William P.; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Lopez-Hilifiker, Felipe D.; Lee, Ben H.; Green, Jaime R.; Fiddler, Marc N.; Holloway, John S.; Ebben, Carlena; hide

    2018-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted in large quantities from coal-�burning power plants. During the day, the plumes from these sources are efficiently mixed into the boundary layer, while at night, they may remain concentrated due to limited vertical mixing during which they undergo horizontal fanning. At night, the degree to which NO is converted to HNO3 and therefore unable to participate in next-�day ozone (O3) formation depends on the mixing rate of the plume, the composition of power plant emissions, and the composition of the background atmosphere. In this study, we use observed plume intercepts from the Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions and Reactivity (WINTER) campaign to test sensitivity of overnight NOx removal to the N2O5 loss rate constant, plume mixing rate, background O3, and background levels of volatile organic compounds using a 2-�D box model of power plant plume transport and chemistry. The factor that exerted the greatest control over NOx removal was the loss rate constant of N2O5. At the lowest observed N2O5 loss rate constant, no other combination of conditions converts more than 10 percent of the initial NOx to HNO3. The other factors did not influence NOx removal to the same degree.

  20. Zulia rich coal seams to fuel Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-16

    In March, 1982, Carbozulia awarded a contract to Fluor Corp. to provide basic engineering services, including mine planning and geology, for the two-phase project. The open pit mine and ancillary facilities, valued at more than $200 million, will provide steam and metallurgical coal for domestic use. The site, Mina Paso Diablo, is located about 60 miles northwest of Maracaibo. Upon phase one completion sometime in 1987, the mill will start production, gradually increasing to 4 million metric-tons-per-year. This will increase to 6.4 million metric tons when phase two is completed. In addition to the mine, the Venezuelan government plans to build an industrial complex along Lake Maracaibo. Corpozulia will build a steel-rolling mill and add a 350,000 metric tons-per-year coking oven, which will consume about 7% of the mine's metallurgical-coal production. Another government-owned firm, Electric Energy of Venezuela, plans to build a thermo-electric plant nearby. Two 250-megawatt units are planned initially, with potential to add another six units. At full capacity, the plant will burn more than 90% of the coal produced from the mine. Mina Paso Diablo contains one of Latin America's largest proven coal reserves - about 350 million metric tons - with guesstimates running as high as 4 billion metric tons for the Zulia coal basin. The coal is of superior quality, running about 12,000 to 13,000 Btu's per lb. with a low ash and sulphur content.

  1. Phase 2 Sampling Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    CDM Federal Programs Corporation (CDM Federal) was contracted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to prepare a Phase H Sampling Plan to describe field investigation work necessary to address regulatory agency review comments on the Remedial Investigation of Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP)/Upper McCoy Branch, Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 at the Y-12 Plant, conducted by CH2M Hill in 1990. The scope and approach of the field investigation described in this plan specifically focus on deficiencies noted by the regulators in discussions at the comment resolution meeting of May 8, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This Phase II Sampling Plan includes a field sampling plan, a field and laboratory quality assurance project plan, a health and safety plan, a waste management plan, and appendixes providing an update to applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements for this site and field and laboratory testing methods and procedures. To address deficiencies noted by the regulators, the following activities will be conducted: Background surface soil and surface water/sediment samples will be collected based on statistical considerations for comparison to site data. Existing and new data to be collected will be used to support a human health risk assessment that includes the future homesteader scenario. Biological surveys, samples, and measurements will be collected/conducted to augment existing data and support an ecological risk assessment. Another round of groundwater sampling will be conducted, including on-site wells and the wells on Chestnut Ridge downgradient of the Security Pits. Borings will be completed in the FCAP to collect samples from below the surface depth to describe the chemical characteristics and volume of the ash. The volume of ash associated with sluice channel on Chestnut Ridge will be determined. Soil samples will be corrected below the coal ash in the FCAP and adjacent to sluice channel to evaluate soil contamination and migration of contaminants

  2. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  3. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  4. Preregistration research training of speech and language therapists in the United Kingdom: a nationwide audit of quantity, content and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnamenta, Emma; Joffe, Victoria L

    2018-04-24

    To carry out an audit of the quantity and content of research teaching on UK preregistration speech and language therapy (SLT) degree programmes. Lecturers delivering research teaching from each higher education institution providing preregistration training were invited to complete an online survey. Amount of research teaching, content of research teaching (including final-year projects), perceived confidence by staff of graduates in research awareness, research activity and leading research. Responses were received for 14 programmes (10 undergraduate and four postgraduate), representing 73% of all undergraduate courses and 44% of all postgraduate courses in the United Kingdom. Fifty percent of courses included over 30 h of research teaching, with wide variability across both undergraduate and postgraduate courses in number of hours, modules and credits devoted to research. There was no association between quantity of research teaching and perception of adequacy of quantity of teaching. Critical appraisal, statistical software and finding literature were the most common topics taught. Conversely, service evaluation and audit was the least common topic covered. All institutions provided a final-year project, with 11/14 requiring empirical research. Perceived confidence of graduates was higher for research awareness than active research and leading research, but this varied across institutions. There was a strong correlation between lecturers' perceived confidence of graduates in research awareness and number of hours of research teaching. Despite the requirements for healthcare professionals to engage in evidence-based practice, the amount and nature of research training in preregistration courses for SLTs in the United Kingdom is highly variable. Levels of perceived confidence of graduates were also variable, not only for active participation in research, and for leading research, but also for research awareness. This has implications for the ability of SLTs to

  5. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  6. Washability of Australian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitmore, R L

    1979-06-01

    Australian coals tend to be young in geological age and high in ash by world standards; preparation of the coal before marketing is almost universal. On the basis of float and sink data from 39 locations in the eastern Australian coalfields, the coals are place in four categories representing increasing difficulty in their washability characteristics. These seem to be related neither to the geological age nor the geographical position of the deposit and Hunter Valley coals, for example, span all categories. The influence of crushing on the washability of Australian coals is briefly considered and from limited data it is concluded to be appreciably smaller than for British or North American coals. A strategy for the float and sink analysis of Australian coals is proposed and the influence of washability characteristics on current trends in the selection of separating processes for coking and steaming products is discussed.

  7. Accreditation of undergraduate medical training programs: practices in nine developing countries as compared with the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Jose; Burch, Vanessa C; Adnan, Nor Azila Mohd; Afolabi, Bosede B; Ismail, Zalina; Jafri, Wasim; Olapade-Olaopa, E Oluwabunmi; Otieno-Nyunya, Boaz; Supe, Avinash; Togoo, Altantsetseg; Vargas, Ana Lia; Wasserman, Elizabeth; Morahan, Page S; Burdick, William; Gary, Nancy

    2006-07-01

    Undergraduate medical training program accreditation is practiced in many countries, but information from developing countries is sparse. We compared medical training program accreditation systems in nine developing countries, and compared these with accreditation practices in the United States of America (USA). Medical program accreditation practices in nine developing countries were systematically analyzed using all available published documents. Findings were compared to USA accreditation practices. Accreditation systems with explicitly defined criteria, standards and procedures exist in all nine countries studied: Argentina, India, Kenya, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines and South Africa. Introduction of accreditation processes is relatively recent, starting in 1957 in India to 2001 in Malaysia. Accrediting agencies were set up in these countries predominantly by their respective governments as a result of legislation and acts of Parliament, involving Ministries of Education and Health. As in the USA, accreditation: (1) serves as a quality assurance mechanism promoting professional and public confidence in the quality of medical education, (2) assists medical schools in attaining desired standards, and (3) ensures that graduates' performance complies with national norms. All nine countries follow similar accreditation procedures. Where mandatory accreditation is practiced, non-compliant institutions may be placed on probation, student enrollment suspended or accreditation withdrawn. Accreditation systems in several developing countries are similar to those in the developed world. Data suggest the trend towards instituting quality assurance mechanisms in medical education is spreading to some developing countries, although generalization to other areas of the world is difficult to ascertain.

  8. Identification of Eastern United States Reticulitermes Termite Species via PCR-RFLP, Assessed Using Training and Test Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Garrick

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reticulitermes termites play key roles in dead wood decomposition and nutrient cycling in forests. They also damage man-made structures, resulting in considerable economic loss. In the eastern United States, five species (R. flavipes, R. virginicus, R. nelsonae, R. hageni and R. malletei have overlapping ranges and are difficult to distinguish morphologically. Here we present a molecular tool for species identification. It is based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification of a section of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene, followed by a three-enzyme restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP assay, with banding patterns resolved via agarose gel electrophoresis. The assay was designed using a large set of training data obtained from a public DNA sequence database, then evaluated using an independent test panel of Reticulitermes from the Southern Appalachian Mountains, for which species assignments were determined via phylogenetic comparison to reference sequences. After refining the interpretive framework, the PCR-RFLP assay was shown to provide accurate identification of four co-occurring species (the fifth species, R. hageni, was absent from the test panel, so accuracy cannot yet be extended to training data. The assay is cost- and time-efficient, and will help improve knowledge of Reticulitermes species distributions.

  9. [Prosthodontic specialty training in the United States: what can we learn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, H

    2017-12-09

    Prosthodontics is one of the nine recognized specialties by American Dental Association. The postgraduate prosthodontic program used to train prosthodontic specialists in U S A started about 70 years ago. Compared to China which just launched the dental residency programs, the programs in U S A have more developed and relatively more mature education system. It is worthwhile for China to study and learn the U S A prosthodontic residency education program. Prosthodontics is a specialty to diagnose and treat complex dental problems, and is often considered as the 'orchestrator' directing and coordinating all the other dental specialists to manage complex situations. This specialty plays an important role in a nation's oral health system. The present article is aimed to introduce the history of US prosthodontic residency program, initial accreditation, curriculum, education standards and mechanisms of the residency program, and how the program is monitored and managed post initial accreditation, with the hope that this system can serve as a reference for China's developing its own residency program.

  10. An analysis of the delivery of anaesthetic training sessions in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A; Tatham, K C; Yentis, S M; Wilson, J; Cox, M

    2017-11-01

    We analysed data from the electronic rota system CLWRota, covering 2,689,962 anaesthetic sessions between 01/01/2014 and 31/12/2015, in 91 UK Trusts, in order to investigate trainees' supervision. There were 8209 trainee attachments analysed, during which 618,695 sessions were undertaken by trainees. The number of supervised sessions per week that trainees worked varied considerably (median (IQR [range]) 2.6 (1.6-3.6 [0-10]) for all grades combined), with senior trainees more likely than junior trainees to be supervised for fewer than the three sessions per week mandated by the Royal College of Anaesthetists. The number of supervised sessions was unrelated to Trusts' size, suggesting that trainees in smaller hospitals receive the same level of supervision as in larger teaching hospitals. Analysis of a dataset of this size should be a good reflection of the delivery of anaesthesia training in the UK. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Impact of reduced working time on surgical training in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canter, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The European Working Time Directive (EWTD) 48 h working week has been law in European countries since 1998. A phased approach to implementation was agreed for doctors in training, which steadily brought down working hours to 58 in 2004, 56 in 2007 and 48 in 2009. Medical trainees can "opt out" to a 54 h working week but this has to be voluntary and rotas cannot be constructed that assume an opt out is taking place. A key component of the working week arrangements is that the maximum period of work for a resident doctor without rest is 13 h. Shorter sessions of work have led to complex rotas, frequent handovers with difficulties maintaining continuity of care with implications for patient safety. Although there has been over 10 years notice of the changes to the working week and progress has up to now been reasonable (helped, in part by a steady increase in consultant numbers) this latest reduction from 56 h to 48 h seems to have been the most difficult to manage. Copyright © 2010 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Guidelines for cognitive behavioral training within doctoral psychology programs in the United States: report of the Inter-organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K; Ronan, George F; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D; Belar, Cynthia D; Berry, Sharon L; Christofff, Karen A; Craighead, Linda W; Dougher, Michael J; Dowd, E Thomas; Herbert, James D; McFarr, Lynn M; Rizvi, Shireen L; Sauer, Eric M; Strauman, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a year-long series of conferences, and developed a consensus on optimal doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology. The recommendations assume solid foundational training that is typical within applied psychology areas such as clinical and counseling psychology programs located in the United States. This article details the background, assumptions, and resulting recommendations specific to doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology, including competencies expected in the areas of ethics, research, and practice. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri. 1st Quarterly report for 1995, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.

    1995-08-01

    Work continued on the study of coal log pipeline research. Individual projects described include fast compaction of coal logs; effect of cooling on coal log quality; coal log capping; effectiveness of adding fiber to enhance coal log quality; fabrication using hydrophobic binders; cost estimation of different lubricants; automatic control of coal log pipeline system; CLP design; coal log train transport; economics of coal log pipeline; legal aspects; heating, cooling, and drying of logs; vacuum systems to enhance production; design; and effect of piston modification on capping.

  14. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1983-02-15

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260/sup 0/ C to 315/sup 0/ C in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275/sup 0/ C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350/sup 0/ C.

  15. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  16. Coal use and coal technology study (KIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.; Gerbers, D.; Lako, P.; Rouw, M.; Tiemersma, D.N.

    1991-11-01

    The title study aims to assess the possible role for coal in the Netherlands energy system in the first decades of the next century and the part new coal conversion technologies will play under various conditions. The conditions considered relate to (sectoral) energy demand derived from national scenarios in an international context, to energy prices, to environmental constraints (acidification, solid waste management and disposal) and to the future role for nuclear power production. Targets for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are not explicitly included, but resulting CO 2 emissions are calculated for each variant case. The part that coal can play in the Dutch energy supply is calculated and analyzed by means

  17. Introducing geriatric health in medical training in Ajman, United Arab Emirates: A co-curricular approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMedical students’ knowledge and understanding of theelderly will affect the quality of care to the rising populationof older adults which points to a need to identify geriatrichealth training methods appropriate for the region andcurriculum. Therefore the study assessed the effect of a cocurricularintroductory workshop on knowledge regardinggeriatric health and attitude towards the elderly amongfourth year medical students in a medical universityMethodA quasi-experimental before-after study, with control wasconducted at Gulf Medical College among 60 medicalstudents from discipline-based curriculum in year IV duringMay–June 2010 of whom 16 had opted (attendees toundergo the introductory course, a five day workshop of 10hours duration. Pre- and post-testing used self-administeredquestionnaires for demographic variables: age, gender,nationality, close contact with older people; a quiz on oldpeople’s health, and Kogan’s Old People Scale (KOPS forattitude. The difference in scores on quiz and KOPS werecompared for the attendees and 26 non-attendees whoparticipated in both pre and post testing.ResultsThe attendees group had 38% male and 62% femaleparticipants and the non-attendees group had 21% and 79%respectively. The groups were not significantly different inage, sex, nationality and close contact with the elderly. Thescores on the quiz and KOPS showed no statisticallysignificant difference between the two groups before orafter the workshop. Almost all the participants evaluatedthe workshop very positively especially the interaction withhealthy elderly and inmates of old people’s home.ConclusionA 10-hour introductory co-curricular workshop made nosignificant change in the knowledge on geriatric health orattitude of fourth year medical students though theyreported it as a very enriching experience. A reflectivereport may have been a better assessment tool and theimpact on their clinical practice cannot be predicted.

  18. The Communication and Bioethical Training (CoBiT) Program for assisting dialysis decision-making in Spanish ACKD units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Llana, Helena; Bajo, Maria-Auxiliadora; Barbero, Javier; Selgas, Rafael; Del Peso, Gloria

    2017-04-01

    Healthcare professionals currently working in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease (ACKD) units must cope with difficult situations regarding assisting patients with the dialysis decision-making process, and they are often untrained for these conversations. Although we have evidence from the literature that these skills can be learned, few professionals feel confident in this area. A Communication and Bioethical Training (CoBiT) Program for ACKD staff (physicians, nurses and allied health professionals) was developed to improve their ability and self-confidence in conducting these conversations. A four-stage study was conducted: (1) development of the CoBiT program, beginning with the creation of an interdisciplinary focus group (N = 10); (2) design of a questionnaire to assess self-confidence based on the areas identified by the focus group. The face validity of the instrument was tested using an inter-judge methodology (N = 6); (3) design of the format and contents of the program; (4) piloting the program. Thirty-six health professionals took an 8-h workshop based on role-playing methodology. Participants assessed their self-confidence in their communication skills before and after the program using self-report measures. The results show that after the program, participants reported significantly higher levels of self-confidence measured with a five-point Likert scale (p CoBiT program improves ACKD Unit healthcare professionals' self-confidence in their ability to perform a specific communication task.

  19. The role of a fertilizer trial in reconciling agricultural expectations and landscape ecology requirements on an opencast coal site in South Wales, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, C.E.L.; Humphries, R.N.; Wesemann, H.

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1940s the restoration of opencast coal sites in the UK has been predominantly to productive agriculture and forestry. With new UK government policies on sustainability and biodiversity such land uses may be no longer be acceptable or appropriate in the upland areas of South Wales. A scheme was prepared for the upland Nant Helen site with the objective of restoring the landscape ecology of the site; it included acid grassland to provide the landscape setting and for grazing. The scheme met with the approval of the planning authority. An initial forty hectares (about 13% of the site) was restored between 1993 and 1996. While the approved low intensity grazing and low fertilizer regime met the requirements of the planning authority and the statutory agencies, it was not meeting the expectations of the grazers who had grazing rights to the land. To help reconcile the apparent conflict a fertilizer trial was set up. The trial demonstrated that additional fertilizer and intensive grazing was required to meet the nutritional needs of sheep. It also showed typical upland stocking densities of sheep could be achieved with the acid grassland without the need for reseeding with lowland types. However this was not acceptable to the authority and agencies as such fertilizer and grazing regimes would be detrimental to the landscape and ecological objectives of the restoration scheme. A compromise was agreed whereby grazing intensity and additional fertilizer have been zoned. This has been implemented and is working to the satisfaction of all parties. Without the fertilizer trial it is unlikely that the different interests could have been reconciled

  20. Airway registry and training curriculum improve intubation outcomes in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malo J

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intubation in critically ill patients remains a highly morbid procedure, and the optimal approach is unclear. We sought to improve the safety of intubation by implementing a simulation curriculum and monitoring performance with an airway registry. Methods and Methods: This is a prospective, single-center observational study of all intubations performed by the medical intensive care unit (ICU team over a five-year period. All fellows take part in a simulation curriculum to improve airway management performance and minimize complications. An airway registry form is completed immediately after each intubation to capture relevant patient, operator, and procedural data. Results: Over a five-year period, the medical ICU team performed 1411 intubations. From Year 1 to Year 5, there were significant increases in first-attempt success (72.6 vs. 88.0%, p<0.001, use of video laryngoscopy (72.3 vs. 93.5%, p<0.001, and use of neuromuscular blocking agents (73.5 vs. 88.4%, p<0.001. There were concurrent decreases in rates of desaturation (25.6 vs. 17.1%, p=0.01 and esophageal intubations (5 vs. 1%, p=0.009. Low rates of hypotension (8.3% and cardiac arrest (0.6% were also observed. Conclusions: The safety of intubation in critically ill patients can be markedly improved through joint implementation of an airway registry and simulation curriculum.

  1. Coal and American energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the role of coal in establishing America's energy security. There is no mismatch of subject and keynote, for in the truest sense the author's topic is nothing less than the health and safety of the United States. Both will begin with the way we handle things in the coal mines at the working face. If energy policy were a piece of new equipment, the National Energy Strategy would be the equivalent of specifications---what the new hardware should be capable of doing. The National Energy Security Act of 1991 is the blueprint for the equipment. The hardware still must be assembled, tested and perfected. Undertaken between oil-related U.S. military deployments to stabilize the oil-exporting regions of the Persian Gulf that dominate world markets, the strategy has two objectives. There are multiple threats to America's energy security

  2. Assessing U.S. coal resources and reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Brian N.

    2017-09-27

    The U.S. Coal Resources and Reserves Assessment Project, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program, conducts systematic, geology-based, regional assessments of significant coal beds in major coal basins in the United States. These assessments detail the quantity, quality, location, and economic potential of the Nation’s remaining coal resources and reserves and provide objective scientific information that assists in the formulation of energy strategies, environmental policies, land-use management practices, and economic projections.

  3. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  4. South Blackwater Coal`s maintenance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, J. [South Blackwater Coal Limited, Blackwater, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-09-01

    The South Blackwater operation consists of two opencut mining areas and two underground mines (Laleham and Kenmure) near Blackwater in central Queensland, all of which supply coal to a central coal preparation plant. South Blackwater Coal Ltd. recently developed a maintenance improvement programme, described in this article. The programme involved implementation systems of key performance indicators (KPIs), benchmaking, condition monitoring, work planning and control, failure analysis and maintenance audit. Some improvements became almost immediately apparent, others were quite gradual. Major results included: improved availability (and reliability) of all opencast fleets, improvements in rear dump availability; reduced maintenance man-hours for opencast fleets; and increased availability of the coal handling and preparation plant. The paper is an edited version of that presented at the `Maintenance in mining conference` 16-19 March 1998, held in Bali, Indonesia. 4 figs., 2 photos.

  5. Technique of complex slime water treatment of coal-mining branch

    OpenAIRE

    Solodov, G. А.; Zhbyr, Е. V.; Papin, А. V.; Nevedrov, А. V.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of complex slime water treatment at coal-mining and coal-treating plants producing marketable products: power-generating concentrate, coal-water fuel, magnetic fraction, industrial water is shown. A basic process flowsheet of slime water treatment presenting a united technological complex is suggested.

  6. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  7. TALGO BT - a variable gauge diesel driving unit for TALGO trains; TALGO BT - ein Diesel-Triebkopf mit variabler Spurweite fuer TALGO-Zuege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zander, C.P. [Siemens Krauss-Maffei Lokomotiven GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-03-01

    An adjustable driving unit was developed for the variable gauge TALGO trains which have been in use for decades. The unit also has a novel type of carriage and a novel braking system. [German] Fuer die seit Jahrzehnten im Einsatz befindlichen, spurwechselfaehigen TALGO-Zuege wurde ein umspurbarer Triebkopf entwickelt. Dieses Fahrzeug ist in mehrfacher Hinsicht ohne Vorbild. Neu sind neben dem spurveraenderlichen Drehgestell die Fahrwerksanordnung und das Bremssystem. (orig.)

  8. A STUDY ON THE GRINDABILITY OF SERBIAN COALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslava D Stojiljković

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants in the Republic of Serbia are making considerable efforts and even more considerable investments, not only to maintain electricity production at maximum design levels, but even to additionally increase the power output of existing generating units. Capacities of mills used in pulverized coal preparation are identified as one of the main constraints to achieving maximum mill plant capacity, while coal grindability is seen as one of the factors that directly affect capacities of the coal mills utilized in thermal power plants. The paper presents results of experimental investigation conducted for the purpose of determining Hardgrove grindability index of coal. The investigation was conducted in accordance with ISO 5074 and included analysis of approximately 70 coal samples taken from the open pit mine of Kolubara coal basin. Research results obtained indicate that coal rich in mineral matter and thus, of lower heating value is characterized by higher grindability index. Therefore, analyses presented in the paper suggest that characteristics of solid fuels analyzed in the research investigation conducted are such that the use coals less rich in mineral matter i. e. coals characterized by lower grindability index will cause coal mills to operate at reduced capacity. This fact should be taken into account when considering a potential for electricity production increase.

  9. Gasification of various types of tertiary coals: A sustainability approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öztürk, Murat; Özek, Nuri; Yüksel, Yunus Emre

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Production energy by burning of coals including high rate of ash and sulfur is harmful to environment. ► Energy production via coal gasification instead of burning is proposed for sustainable approach. ► We calculate exergy and environmental destruction factor of gasification of some tertiary coals. ► Sustainability index, improvement potential of gasification are evaluated for exergy-based approach. - Abstract: The utilization of coal to produce a syngas via gasification processes is becoming a sustainability option because of the availability and the economic relevance of this fossil source in the present world energy scenario. Reserves of coal are abundant and more geographically spread over the world than crude oil and natural gas. This paper focuses on sustainability of the process of coal gasification; where the synthesis gas may subsequently be used for the production of electricity, fuels and chemicals. The coal gasifier unit is one of the least efficient step in the whole coal gasification process and sustainability analysis of the coal gasifier alone can substantially contribute to the efficiency improvement of this process. In order to evaluate sustainability of the coal gasification process energy efficiency, exergy based efficiency, exergy destruction factor, environmental destruction factor, sustainability index and improvement potential are proposed in this paper.

  10. Cuttability of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1978-01-01

    The process of cutting dull M, dull bright MB, bright dull BM, and bright B coal under various compressive stress conditions was studied in laboratory tests. The efficiency of ploughs depends much more on the natural mining conditions than does that of shearer-loaders. For seams of medium workability, it is difficult to forecast whether ploughs will be successful. Cuttability tests are a good way of determining whether ploughs can be used. The effort necessary to cut coal in a stressed condition depends not only on such properties as the workability defined by the Protodyakonov index or compressive strength, but also, and mainly, on the petrographic structure and elastic properties of the coal. In bright coals with high elastic strain, and with BM and MB coals, a much greater increment of effort is necessary with increase in compressive stresses. The cuttability of dull coals from difficult mines was not very different.

  11. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  12. Coal-to-liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.W.

    2006-03-15

    With crude oil prices rocketing, many of the oil poor, but coal rich countries are looking at coal-to-liquid as an alternative fuel stock. The article outlines the two main types of coal liquefaction technology: direct coal liquefaction and indirect coal liquefaction. The latter may form part of a co-production (or 'poly-generation') project, being developed in conjunction with IGCC generation projects, plus the production of other chemical feedstocks and hydrogen. The main part of the article, based on a 'survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research' reviews coal-to-liquids projects in progress in the following countries: Australia, China, India, New Zealand, the Philippines, Qatar and the US. 2 photos.

  13. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  14. Coal contract cost reduction through resale of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.

    1990-01-01

    The weak coal market of the 1980's has enabled utilities and other users of coal to enjoy stable or falling prices for coal supplies. Falling prices for coal stimulated the renegotiation of numerous coal contracts in recent years, as buyers look to take advantage of lower fuel prices available in the marketplace. This paper examines the use of coal resale transactions as a means of reducing fuel costs, and analyzes the benefits and risks associated with such transactions

  15. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourillon, C.

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 more than 3.4 billion tonnes of coal was produced, of which half was used to generate over 44 per cent of the world's electricity. The use of coal - and of other fossil fuels- presents several environmental problems such as emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO 2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into the atmosphere. This article reviews the measures now available to mitigate the environmental impacts of coal. (author)

  16. Marketing Canada's coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The topics are presented which were discussed at the 36th Canadian Coal Conference, held in Vancouver, BC in September 1985. The theme was Challenges, today and tomorrow and the conference sought to examine the primary problems confronting the world coal industry today: overcapacity, soft demand, depressed prices and intense global competition. Coal production in Canada was presented and its role in the steelmaking and electric power industries evaluated. A general mood of optimism prevailed.

  17. Investigation on the transient enthalpy of coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Pei-fang; Wang, Na; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Huai-chun [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    The transient enthalpy ({Delta}h) of coal/char combustion of the three different coals (including anthracite, bituminous, and lignite) during the process of combustion is determined as a function of burn-off degree by using thermo-gravimetric-differential scanning calorimeter (TG-DSC) simultaneous thermal analyzer, and The error of determining calorific values of coals/chars is less 5% compared the results of TG-DSC with that of an automatic isoperibol calorimeter. It is found that In the initial stage, all the {Delta}h of coals are greater than that of the char pyrolysized from parent coal for many of volatiles contained more a great deal of heat per unit mass oxidized at low temperature, it also imply that coal is more easily ignited than char corresponded; And in the middle stage, all the {Delta}h of coals is lower than that of the char pyrolysized, so the pyrolysized char oxidation can supply much more of thermo-energy per unit mass. {Delta}h are almost a constant when the burn-off degree is equal to between 0.35/0.15 and 0.95/0.85 for ZCY bituminous coal/char and JWY anthracite/char, between 0.35/0.35 and 0.75/0.9 for SLH lignite/char; In the later stage, the {Delta}h of the coal/char decreased with the burn-off degree, it imply that the activity of the coal/char decreases. Therefore, coal pyrolysis changes not only the structure of char, but also the property of release heat; the transient enthalpy of coal/char combustion has been in change with the burn-out degree.

  18. Impact of a provider training program on the treatment of children with autism spectrum disorder at psychosocial care units in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop, implement, and verify the impact of a training program for health care providers working with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD in psychosocial care centers for children and adolescents (Centro de Atenção Psicossocial à Infância e à Adolescência – CAPSi in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted with 14 professionals from four CAPSi units. The training program consisted of six phases: 1 pre-intervention observation; 2 meeting with staff to assess the main needs of the training program; 3 developing materials for training and evaluation; 4 meetings to discuss program implementation; 5 a final meeting for case discussion and evaluation; and 6 distance supervision. Three measures were used to evaluate the training program: i the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP questionnaire; ii videos containing questions designed to assess program comprehension; and iii a satisfaction survey. Results: Thirteen videos were produced to as visual aids for use during the training program, and a further 26 videos were developed to evaluate it. The program was well evaluated by the participants. The video responses and KAP questionnaire scores suggest that staff knowledge and attitudes improved after training. Conclusion: The positive findings of this study suggest that the tested training program is feasible for use with multidisciplinary teams working in the CAPSi environment.

  19. Impact of a provider training program on the treatment of children with autism spectrum disorder at psychosocial care units in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luciana C; Teixeira, Maria C T V; Ribeiro, Edith L; Paula, Cristiane S

    2017-12-18

    To develop, implement, and verify the impact of a training program for health care providers working with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in psychosocial care centers for children and adolescents (Centro de Atenção Psicossocial à Infância e à Adolescência - CAPSi) in São Paulo, Brazil. This quasi-experimental study was conducted with 14 professionals from four CAPSi units. The training program consisted of six phases: 1) pre-intervention observation; 2) meeting with staff to assess the main needs of the training program; 3) developing materials for training and evaluation; 4) meetings to discuss program implementation; 5) a final meeting for case discussion and evaluation; and 6) distance supervision. Three measures were used to evaluate the training program: i) the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) questionnaire; ii) videos containing questions designed to assess program comprehension; and iii) a satisfaction survey. Thirteen videos were produced to as visual aids for use during the training program, and a further 26 videos were developed to evaluate it. The program was well evaluated by the participants. The video responses and KAP questionnaire scores suggest that staff knowledge and attitudes improved after training. The positive findings of this study suggest that the tested training program is feasible for use with multidisciplinary teams working in the CAPSi environment.

  20. Modelling and analysis of global coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueby, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Steam Coal Market? The essay demonstrates the ways in which different Chinese bulk energy transport strategies affect the future steam coal market in China and in the rest of the world. Increasing Chinese energy demand will require additional energy to be transported from the supply to the demand regions. If domestic transport costs escalate, Chinese coal consumers could increasingly import coal. We analyse two settings: one in which coal is increasingly transported by rail and one in which coal energy is transported as electricity. A key finding is that if coal were converted into electricity early in the supply chain, worldwide marginal costs off coal supply would be lower than if coal were hauled by train. Furthermore, China's dependence on imports is significantly reduced in this context. Allocation of welfare changes particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease.