WorldWideScience

Sample records for coal structure progress

  1. Progress report 2003 - coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the activities of the Group ''Charbonnages de France'' in 2003. The administration council is detailed in the new structure and organization. It concerns also the end of the industrial activities, the social policy, the mine sites remediation, the industrialization of mine regions, the financial results and key data. (A.L.B.)

  2. Chemistry and structure of coal-derived asphaltenes, Phase III. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T. F.

    1978-01-01

    Preparative scale GPC separation of Synthoil asphaltene was carried out on styrene-divinyl benzene packing (Bio-Beads S-X8). The elution took place in the order of high to low molecular weight. Analyses indicate that aromatic ring systems with large saturated substituents elute first followed by more aromatic molecules with less saturated substituents. Infrared measurements on coal-derived asphaltenes were carried out with a large path cell (1 cm) in order to measure absorbance as a function of concentration in dilute solution down to 0.3 g/l where association between asphaltenes is not significant. VPO molecular weight studies indicate that coal-derived oils and resins undergo very little association in the solvent THF in the range 4 to 30 g/l in contrast to coal-derived asphaltenes and benzene insolubles. Thermal treatment of a Synthoil Coal liquid solvent fraction (oil + resin), in tetralin (1:2 wt. ratio) at 232/sup 0/C for 20 h resulted in the transformation of 3 to 10% of the oil + resin into asphaltene. These results support the proposed reversibility of coal liquefaction steps. Pryolysis of coal-derived asphaltenes has been shown to produce residues that are characteristic of coalesced mesophase. Asphaltenes from three liquefaction processes, Catalytic Incorporatd SRC, Synthoil, and FMC-COED, were pyrolyzed under a nitrogen atmosphere at 20/sup 0/C/h to 360/sup 0/C and at 5/sup 0/C/h to 420/sup 0/C. Crossed polarized light reflection micrographs showed a coarse deformed structure for Synthoil asphaltene, a course, but not deformed structure for Catalytic Inc. asphaltne, and a fine isotropic structure for FMC-COED asphaltene.

  3. Coal Technology Program progress report, March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    In the final hydrocarbonization experiment with Wyodak subbituminous coal, the coal was hydrocarbonized at 1100/sup 0/F and 300 psig in the recirculating fluidized bed. Two-dimensional pyrolysis behavior of an eastern bituminous coal (Pittsburgh seam) continues to be examined. Results to date indicate that swelling is significantly more pronounced at very low heating rates. Several activities in progress are related to inspection techniques for wear- and process-resistant coatings. Experimental investigations of fireside corrosion on tubing from a fluidized bed combustor have proceeded with metallographic examination and analyses of the scale formed during the test exposure. Methods for nondestructively determining remaining tube wall thickness and scale thickness were developed. Failure prevention and analysis work was aimed at several parts from the Solvent Refined Coal Plant in Ft. Lewis, Washington. The mechanical design of the gas-fired potassium boiler system was completed with the issue of the last four drawings. One electrical and five instrument and control drawings were completed and some fabrication work was completed. Surveys of industrial coal conversion capabilities continued with emphasis on rotating components, valves, hot gas cleanup devices, and heat recovery equipment. Process and program analysis research studies continued with work on low-Btu gasification, direct combustion, advanced power conversion, liquefaction, high-Btu gasification, in-situ gasification, and beneficiation. In the fossil energy environmental project, a first draft of a landfill assessment report was issued for review. Work continued on the Environmental Monitoring Handbook and Pipeline Gas Programmatic Assessment.

  4. Coal mine subsidence and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Underground coal mining has occurred beneath 32 x 10 9 m 2 (8 million acres) of land in the United States and will eventually extend beneath 162 x 10 9 m 2 (40 million acres). Most of this mining has taken place and will take place in the eastern half of the United States. In areas of abandoned mines where total extraction was not achieved, roof collapse, crushing of coal pillars, or punching of coal pillars into softer mine floor or roof rock is now resulting in sinkhole or trough subsidence tens or even hundreds of years after mining. Difference in geology, in mining, and building construction practice between Europe and the United States preclude direct transfer of European subsidence engineering experience. Building damage cannot be related simply to tensile and compressive strains at the ground surface. Recognition of the subsidence damage role played by ground-structure interaction and by structural details is needed

  5. FT-IR Investigation of the Structural Changes of Sulcis and South Africa Coals under Progressive Heating in Vacuum: Correlation with Volatile Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo D'Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of gas evolving during the pyrolysis of two very different rank coals was studied by using FT-IR spectroscopy. These coals, coming from Sulcis (Sardinia, Italy and from South Africa, respectively, were subjected to progressive heating up to 800°C in vacuum. The thermal destruction of coal was followed by monitoring the production of gases in this range of temperature. The gases evolving in the heating from room temperature to 800°C were collected at intervals of 100°C and analysed by infrared spectroscopy. The relative pressures were plotted against temperature. These graphs clearly show the correlation among qualitative gas composition, temperature, and the maximum value of emissions, thus confirming FT-IR analysis as a powerful key for pyrolysis monitoring.

  6. Coal technology program. Progress report, May 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    Two successful operability tests with sustained operation of the bench-scale hydrocarbonizer were achieved with Illinois No. 6 coal diluted with char. Several activities in the area of nondestructive testing of coatings are reviewed. Failure analysis activities included examination of several components from the solvent refined coal plants at Wilsonville, Alabama, and Tacoma, Washington. In the gas-fired potassium boiler project, all of the design work were completed except for several of the instrument and control drawings. In the design studies of a coal-fired alkali metal vapor topping cycle, the first phase of a cycle analysis and the design and analysis of a metal vapor turbine were completed. A report entitled ''Critical Component Test Facility--Advance Planning for Test Modules'' presents the planning study for the conceptual design of component test modules on a nonsite-specific basis. Engineering studies, project evaluation and process and program analysis of coal conversion processes were continued. A report on the landfill storage of solid wastes from coal conversion is being finalized. In the coal-fueled MIUS project, a series of successful tests of the coal feeding system and a report on the analysis of 500-hr fire-side corrosion tests in a fluidized bed combustor were completed.

  7. Progress and performance of on-line analyzers of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, C.M.; Brown, D.R.; Gozani, T.; Bozorgmanesh, H.; Bernatowicz, H.; Tassicker, O.J.; Karlson, F.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the past year's progress in the laboratory testing of the most comprehensive Nucoalyzer, the CONAC, and the performance of a Nucoalyzer-Sulfurmeter in special field tests. Previous papers and presentations provide more detailed background information. The near real-time analysis provided by a Nucoalyzer can be used in a variety of strategies to optimize efficiency of coal use. Nucoalyzers can be used to monitor coal deliveries and achieve uniformity in coal storage and recovery. In a coal cleaning plant, on-line analysis with a Nucoalyzer can lead to optimum Btu recovery while meeting specifications for the washed coal. A Nucoalyzer can monitor the blending of different coals to maintain a key cosntituent such as sulfur below a specified level, or can predict sulfur dioxide emissions, allowing feed-forward control to gas scrubbers and precipitators. Variability in coal feed to the boiler can lead to gross changes in thermodynamic efficiency in combustion. In addition, fouling and slagging incidents due to poor coal quality cause costly boiler shutdowns and maintenance. Nucoalyzer monitoring of key constituents and Btu in the coal feed allows operators to adjust boiler parameters for increased efficiency. To summarize, the primary advantages of Nucoalyzers relate to their ability to quickly identify changes in coal composition so that adjustments can be made in a timely manner to accommodate these changes in the process being monitored. Nucoalyzers are the only instruments available that can monitor the coal (for ash, Btu, sulfur, etc.) on-line and provide real-time continuous results. One Nucoalyzer is already working in the field, and by the time of the next Symposium we will have had performance reports on two more

  8. Low-rank coal research under the UND/DOE cooperative agreement. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1983-June 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, Jr., G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) gasification wastewater treatment and reuse; (2) fine coal cleaning; (3) coal-water slurry preparation; (4) low-rank coal liquefaction; (5) combined flue gas cleanup/simultaneous SO/sub x/-NO/sub x/ control; (6) particulate control and hydrocarbons and trace element emissions from low-rank coals; (7) waste characterization; (8) combustion research and ash fowling; (9) fluidized-bed combustion of low-rank coals; (10) ash and slag characterization; (11) organic structure of coal; (12) distribution of inorganics in low-rank coals; (13) physical properties and moisture of low-rank coals; (14) supercritical solvent extraction; and (15) pyrolysis and devolatilization.

  9. Coal technology program progress report for January 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-03-01

    Block pyrolysis experiments were begun utilizing eastern bituminous coal from the Pricetown, West Virginia area. Results are significantly different from those obtained in past experiments with western subbituminous coals. Studies of liquid mixing in coal-solvent hydrogenation reactors continued as part of the Coal-Solvent-Hydrogen Mixing project. A series of residence-time, liquid hold-up, and pressure drop measurements was completed for air and clean water flowing cocurrently upward through a bed packed with 4-mm-diam glass spheres. The piping and pressure vessel project has experimental work in progress to determine the effects of heat treatment of 2 1/4 Cr--1 Mo plate. A FY 1977 work statement for inspection techniques for wear- and process-resistant coatings was completed. Experimental deposition of Alloy 20 cladding on carbon and low-alloy steels, and testing for cracking and microfissuring is in progress. An eddy current inspection system has been designed and fabricated and will be used for the inspection of the surveillance test tubes previously subjected to a 500-hr exposure in a fluidized bed coal combustor environment. In the gas-fired potassium boiler work, the parametric cycle analysis of the plant and the analysis of the metal vapor turbine designs for the fluidized-bad, coal-fired, alkali-metal-vapor topping cycle project was completed. Engineering studies and technical support continued with work on process modeling, the process research digest, a survey of industrial equipment capabilities, and s study of large air separation plants. An information assessment on landfill storage of coal conversion solid wastes is complete and final editing is underway.

  10. Changes in the macromolecular structure of coals with pyrolysis temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndaji, F.E.; Butterfield, I.M.; Thomas, K.M. [University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Northern Carbon Research Labs., Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-01-01

    The macromolecular structure of coal is characterised by its cross-link density. This paper describes a study of the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the macromolecular structure of coal using solvent swelling techniques. Heat treatment initially dissociates the intermolecular interactions in the coal and cleaves some cross-links, leading to increase in the solvent swelling of the coal, which indicates a decrease in the cross-link density. The solvent swelling reaches a maximum before cross-linking reactions predominate, causing a progressive increase in cross-link density and a decrease in solvent swelling. For lower-rank coals there appears to be an overlap (near the temperature of minimum cross-link density) of the dissociation of intermolecular interactions and thermal decomposition. Appreciable decrease in the apparent cross-link density of high-rank coals as indicated by increase in solvent swelling was observed only after thermal decomposition had commenced. Major decomposition involves cross-linking reactions leading to the formation of chars. However, the solvent swelling characteristics continue to change above the resolidification temperature, eventually ceasing at {approximately}600{degree}C. The results are discussed in relation to measurements of thermoplastic properties and devolatilization characteristics. 23 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. China reports on progress in coal water technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-18

    Progress in coal-water mixture (CWM) technology in China, as described by Zhao Changfeng at the Pacific Coal Flow Conference held on 2-3 March in Japan, is summarized. Pricing policies favouring oil over coal remain an obstacle to commercial application but CWM can ease railroad transport loads, improve efficiency and reduce air pollution. A CWM technical and economic complex in Beijing oversees five CWM-related production centres and has an annual output of 250,000 tons. The CWM is used in six industrial boilers. The complex is researching CWM preparation, pipeline transportation and combustion testing. CWM is used in a paper mill and in demonstration projects at the Guilin and Laiwu Steel Plants. Developments of a spray nozzle and in preparation technologies are outlined. More R D on these and other aspects is needed to make CWM more economic and popular. Oil consumption is to be reduced in China by 10 million tons under a five year plan and coal transport by pipeline is targeted at 30 million tons by the year 2000. Other CWM-related targets are mentioned.

  12. Studies of coal structure using carbene chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The object of this grant was to react coal, derivatized forms of coal, and solvent swelled coal with carbenes (divalent carbon species) under mild conditions. These carbenes were to be prepared by treating the coal with several diazo compounds and then thermally decomposing them at relatively low temperatures (80--130{degree}C). The carbenes were to be chosen to show varying selectively toward aromatic rings containing heteroatom functionalities and toward polynuclear aromatic systems. In some instances, where selectivities toward aromatic and heteroaromatic ring systems were not known, model studies were to be carried out. Because of the generally mild conditions employed and the good selectivity anticipated, and actually observed with one particular system, it was expected that this methodology would provide structural information about the coal, along with data on the extent of occurrence and type of aromatic systems. After carbene reactions, treatment of the coal samples was to include extractions and thermolysis. Physical studies included thermogravimetric analysis, diffuse reflectance FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) spectroscopy, gas chromatography, GC/MS and GC/FT-IR. 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Spin-mapping of coal structures with ESE and ENDOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.

    1990-12-01

    To ENDOR and ESE we have added another advanced EPR technique. VHF-EPR, as a tool with which to observe coal molecular structure, especially organic sulfur. We have constructed a unique VHF EPR instrument operating at the W-band (96 Ghz), one of only two such instruments in the world, and the only one studying coal. We are employing this instrument, as well as collaborating with scientists at Cornell University, who have a 250 GHz spectrometer, to develop a clearer understanding of the relationships between the VHF EPR spectra we observe from Illinois coal and the organic sulfur species present in it. Efforts in this quarter focussed on three area: recruitment of personnel (especially a new postdoctoral fellow) to join the coal research team work on improving the W-band spectrometer, and studies of vitrinite, sporinite, and fusinite macerals at G-band (250 GHz). All three areas have shown good progress. This report will discuss in detail the main features of the W-band instrument, stressing its unique engineering features as well as comparing it to the few other instruments in the world operating in the VHF frequency range (90--250 GHz). Preliminary analysis of the 250 GHz data on macerals obtained by density gradient centrifugation from an Illinois {number sign}6 coal gives the first indication that at the very highest frequencies, there may be a separation of the heteroatom VHF EPR signals into a sulfur and on oxygen-containing component. 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. STRUCTURE-BASED PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR COAL CHAR COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHRISTOPHER M. HADAD; JOSEPH M. CALO; ROBERT H. ESSENHIGH; ROBERT H. HURT

    1998-06-04

    During the past quarter of this project, significant progress continued was made on both major technical tasks. Progress was made at OSU on advancing the application of computational chemistry to oxidative attack on model polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and graphitic structures. This work is directed at the application of quantitative ab initio molecular orbital theory to address the decomposition products and mechanisms of coal char reactivity. Previously, it was shown that the �hybrid� B3LYP method can be used to provide quantitative information concerning the stability of the corresponding radicals that arise by hydrogen atom abstraction from monocyclic aromatic rings. In the most recent quarter, these approaches have been extended to larger carbocyclic ring systems, such as coronene, in order to compare the properties of a large carbonaceous PAH to that of the smaller, monocyclic aromatic systems. It was concluded that, at least for bond dissociation energy considerations, the properties of the large PAHs can be modeled reasonably well by smaller systems. In addition to the preceding work, investigations were initiated on the interaction of selected radicals in the �radical pool� with the different types of aromatic structures. In particular, the different pathways for addition vs. abstraction to benzene and furan by H and OH radicals were examined. Thus far, the addition channel appears to be significantly favored over abstraction on both kinetic and thermochemical grounds. Experimental work at Brown University in support of the development of predictive structural models of coal char combustion was focused on elucidating the role of coal mineral matter impurities on reactivity. An �inverse� approach was used where a carbon material was doped with coal mineral matter. The carbon material was derived from a high carbon content fly ash (Fly Ash 23 from the Salem Basin Power Plant. The ash was obtained from Pittsburgh #8 coal (PSOC 1451). Doped

  15. Structure-Based Predictive model for Coal Char Combustion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, R.; Colo, J [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering; Essenhigh, R.; Hadad, C [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Stanley, E. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-09-24

    During the third quarter of this project, progress was made on both major technical tasks. Progress was made in the chemistry department at OSU on the calculation of thermodynamic properties for a number of model organic compounds. Modelling work was carried out at Brown to adapt a thermodynamic model of carbonaceous mesophase formation, originally applied to pitch carbonization, to the prediction of coke texture in coal combustion. This latter work makes use of the FG-DVC model of coal pyrolysis developed by Advanced Fuel Research to specify the pool of aromatic clusters that participate in the order/disorder transition. This modelling approach shows promise for the mechanistic prediction of the rank dependence of char structure and will therefore be pursued further. Crystalline ordering phenomena were also observed in a model char prepared from phenol-formaldehyde carbonized at 900{degrees}C and 1300{degrees}C using high-resolution TEM fringe imaging. Dramatic changes occur in the structure between 900 and 1300{degrees}C, making this char a suitable candidate for upcoming in situ work on the hot stage TEM. Work also proceeded on molecular dynamics simulations at Boston University and on equipment modification and testing for the combustion experiments with widely varying flame types at Ohio State.

  16. Correlation between gas permeability and pore structure of coal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, J.; Gao, F.; Li, Y.; Niu, H.; Gao, H.

    2012-04-01

    The sequestration of CO2 in unminable coal seams represents a promising option for CO2 geologic storage, because the injected CO2 may enhance coalbed methane recovery (CO2-ECBM), which could partly offset the costs of the storage process. The CO2-ECBM technology is based on the relative affinity of CO2 and CH4 to coals under given pressure and temperature conditions. The excess sorption capacity of coals for CO2 is generally higher than the sorption capacity for methane. The coal seams are characterized by a dual porosity structure including cleat and matrix pores. The cleats in the coal seams are considered as highways for gas and water flow, while the matrix is the storage location of gas by adsorption. The slow transport process of gas in coal matrix may constrain the efficiency of the displacement of CH4 by CO2 due to the compacted pore structure of the coal matrix. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the correlation between permeability of gas and pore structure in coal matrix is crucial for the CO2-ECBM processes. Yangquan coals originating from the Qingshui basin, which contains gas-rich coals in China, were selected for the tests in this study. Yangquan coals are classified as anthracite. In order to avoid the influence of coal cleats on fluid flow, small coal plugs (~6 mm in diameter, ~13 mm in length) were selected and fixed in the sample compartment by special glue. A test system for simultaneously measuring adsorption-porosity-permeability on the coal matrix blocks in its free state is constructed. The permeability of gas and porosity in coal plugs to He under different gas pressure and temperature conditions were simultaneously investigated. The permeability and excess sorption capacity of the coal plugs to He, N2, CH4 and CO2 were compared at a constant gas pressure and temperature. It is expected that gas break through a cleat-plug is much faster than that through a coal matrix-plug. Different sample plugs with the different pore structure results

  17. Structure and chemistry of coals: calorimetric analyses. [Wetting heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1979-01-01

    Heats of immersion (h/sub i/) of coals have been shown to be a valuable means of investigating structure and chemistry of coals. This report outlines some of the factors involved. Lower ranked coals imbibe more liquids (i.e., H/sub 2/O) onto more polar sites (carbonyl, phenolic, etc.) than higher ranked coals. Mineral matter reacts strongly with polar liquids (i.e., H/sub 2/O) giving rise to enhanced h/sub i/. Grinding of coals not only decreases particle size but modifies the coal structure to an increasing degree dependent upon the extent and severity of grinding. The magnitude of h/sub i/ and the rate of reaction are both modified consistent with the existence of a shrinking core or unperturbed coal structure serving as substrate to which the modified (less ordered) material is bound. Chemical (alkali) attack seems to loosen the coal structure markedly to allow enhanced access to fluid reagents. These exploratory studies have shown that calorimetric analyses similar to those developed and used by A.C. Zettlemoyer and his coworkers are excellent means for elucidating the structure and chemistry of coals and related materials.

  18. Total Factor Productivity Growth, Technical Progress & Efficiency Change in Vietnam Coal Industry - Nonparametric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Vu Hung

    2018-03-01

    This research applies Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach to analyze Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and efficiency changes in Vietnam coal mining industry from 2007 to 2013. The TFP of Vietnam coal mining companies decreased due to slow technological progress and unimproved efficiency. The decadence of technical efficiency in many enterprises proved that the coal mining industry has a large potential to increase productivity through technical efficiency improvement. Enhancing human resource training, technology and research & development investment could help the industry to improve efficiency and productivity in Vietnam coal mining industry.

  19. X-ray structural analysis of some Indian coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binoy K Saikia, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources and has the capability to meet future energy needs with high reliability. The use of coal as an energy source and as a source of organic chemicals feedstock may become more important in the future. It is physically and chemically a heterogeneous and carbonaceous rock which consists of organic and inorganic materials. Assam coal has been, and continuous to be, a valuable energy source, especially for the various industry in India and for liquefactions of coal. The basic chemical structure of coal that has been widely accepted today was built up from the synthesis of results obtained from X-ray diffraction data. The present paper reports a comparative investigation of coals from different collieries/areas of Makum coal field, Assam viz. Ledo, Tikak, Baragolai, Tipong and Tirap collieries Makum coal field, Assam with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD). The X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the coals are amorphous in nature. The present XRD method includes the evaluation of Function of Radial Distribution of Atoms (FRDA) and structural interpretations of the coals from their Radial Distribution Function (RDF) plots after proper corrections for air scatter, absorption by sample and polarization. The curve intensity profiles in FRDA clearly show quite regular molecular packets for these coals. The first maxima in the FRDA curves was obtained at r= 0.4 Amstrong for Ledo, Baragolai and Tipong coals whereas for Tikak coal it was observed at r= 0.5 Amstrong. The first maximum in the pair distribution function plots, G (r) of Ledo, Tikak, and Tipong coals was obtained at r=0.15 nm whereas for Baragolai and Tirap coals it was observed at r=0.14 nm and r=0.12 nm respectively, which relates to the C=C (aliphatic/aromatic) bonds in coal matrix. The Assam coal samples from Ledo, Tikak, Baragolai, Tipong and Tirap collieries of Makum coalfield have almost the same RDF inter-atomic distances except slight differences. This

  20. The Effect of Bedding Structure on Mechanical Property of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical property of coal, influencing mining activity considerably, is significantly determined by the natural fracture distributed within coal mass. In order to study the effecting mechanism of bedding structure on mechanical property of coal, a series of uniaxial compression tests and mesoscopic tests have been conducted. The experimental results show that the distribution characteristic of calcite particles, which significantly influences the growth of cracks and the macroscopic mechanical properties of coal, is obviously affected by the bedding structure. Specifically, the uniaxial compression strength of coal sample is mainly controlled by bedding structure, and the average peak stress of specimens with axes perpendicular to the bedding planes is 20.00 MPa, which is 2.88 times the average amount of parallel ones. The test results also show a close relationship between the bedding structure and the whole deformation process under uniaxial loading.

  1. Coal technology program progress report for February 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-04-01

    Two-dimensional pyrolysis studies were continued using Eastern bituminous coal. Unusual char formations (associated with the swelling nature of the material) have been observed, though tar and gas production per gram is not greatly different from that observed with Western subbituminous coals. Materials engineering support activities continued with work on properties of thick sections of steel, development of methods for nondestructive testing of coatings, cladding of low-alloy steels, fireside corrosion in fluidized bed boilers, failure analysis, and publication of a draft report on the use of prestressed concrete pressure vessels. Design and construction work continued in preparation for operation of the gas-fired boiler with potassium. Design studies of a coal-fired, alkali-metal-vapor, power system continued. Engineering studies and technical support continued with work on process modeling, the process research digest, a survey of industrial equipment capabilities, and a study of large air separation plants. Process and program analysis studies continued with work on low Btu gasification, direct combustion, advanced power systems, liquefaction, in-situ gasification, and beneficiation of coal. In the coal-fueled MIUS project, a 1000-hr endurance run of the coal feed system was completed and analysis of corrosion specimens exposed in a fluidized bed combustor was started.

  2. Development of a Coal Quality Expert. Technical progress report No. 6, [July 1--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-20

    This is the sixth Technical Progress Report, describing work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-FC22-90PC89663, ``Development of a Coal Quality Expert.`` The contract is a Cooperative Agreement between the US Department of Energy, CQ Inc., and Combustion Engineering, Inc. This report covers the period from July 1 through September 30, 1991. Four companies and seven host utilities have teamed with CQ Inc. and C-E to perform the work on this project. The work falls under DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program category of ``Advanced Coal Cleaning.`` The 45-month project will provide the utility industry with a PC expert system to confidently and inexpensively evaluate the potential for coal cleaning, blending, and switching options to reduce emissions while producing lowest cost electricity. Specifically, this project will: Enhance the existing Coal Quality Information System (CQIS) database and Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM) to allow confident assessment of the effects of cleaning on specific boiler cost and performance; and develop and validate a methodology, Coal Quality Expert (CQE) which allows accurate and detailed predictions of coal quality impacts on total power plant capital cost, operating cost, and performance based upon inputs from inexpensive bench-scale tests. The project consists of the following seven tasks: Project management; coal cleanability characterization; pilot-scale combustion testing; utility boiler field testing; CQIM completion and development of CQE specification; develop CQE and CQE workstation testing and Validation.

  3. Coal Technology Program progress report for April 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    Several modifications were made in the bench scale hydrocarbonization system in an attempt to develop a procedure for handling of caking coals. Experimental work on the pyrolysis of large blocks of coal, on pressurized carbonization of residues, and on three-phase mixing was continued. Impact testing of 10-in.-thick pressure vessel steel disclosed major gradients in impact properties. Development of a variety of methods for nondestructive testing of wear- and process-resistant coating was continued. The development of welding techniques for cladding of carbon steels with Alloy 320 stainless steel has been successful. A microprobe examination of high alloy steel tubes that had been exposed in a fluidized bed combustor for 500 hr revealed about 0.001-in.-thick scales of predominantly calcium sulfate. In the gas-fired potassium boiler project design, fabrication, and installation of equipment needed for initial operations with potassium was continued. Similarly, the design study of a coal-fired boiler for an alkali metal vapor topping cycle was continued. Engineering study and technical support work continued with activities in process modeling; a survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities; and studies of processes for heat recovery, rapid hydrogenation, and purification of hot gas. Process and program assistance work included studies on low-Btu gasification, high-Btu gasification, liquefaction, direct combustion, advanced power conversion, and in-situ gasification of coal.

  4. Coal Technology Program progress report for April 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    In the Hydrocarbonization Research program, two successful experiments were completed in the bench-scale hydrocarbonizer. A settling test at a lower temperature (390/sup 0/F) using 20 percent toluene in Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Unfiltered Oil (UFO) produced a 30 percent clarified product in 2 hr. Characterization tests include distillation curves for Wilsonville's SRC-UFO and a particle size distribution of Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Company's (PAMCO) SRC-UFO. Studies of intermediate-temperature pyrolysis of large blocks have been maintained with char samples continuing to demonstrate pyrophoricity, even after heating to 700/sup 0/C. Simulated distillation analysis of tars produced by the last eight experiments are being compared with those performed at Laramie upon tars produced by the Hanna No. 2 experiment. In Coal-Fueled MIUS, stainless steel tubing to be used in one of the furnace tube bundles was ordered and the bid package for the furnace completed. Tests continued on the coal feed system and with the cold flow fluidized bed model. For the Synthoil process, flow diagrams, material balances, and utilities requirements were completed for the entire facility. For the Hydrocarbonization process, flowsheets were reviewed for compatibility; equipment lists were brought up to date; and utilities requirements were compiled from the individual flowsheets. The char recovery and storage subsystem flowsheet was completed. (auth)

  5. Coal technology program progress report for July 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    The bench-scale hydrocarbonization system was modified to permit recirculating fluidized-bed operation. Three residue carbonization runs were performed. In solids-liquid separations work, a sealed filtrate weighing unit was installed in the bench-scale apparatus that will allow continuous print-outs of filtration rates at operating pressures downstream of the filter up to 150 lb/in. Settling runs at 530/sup 0/F with process solvents and oil from the P and M-SRC pilot plant have shown excellent results; twenty percent light process oil gave settling rates which were more than double those obtained with SRC-unfiltered oil alone. High-temperature (greater than 873/sup 0/K) pyrolysis tests with large blocks of coal produce significantly greater quantities of gas than that produced by pyrolysis of powdered coal. Work was completed on capital and operating cost estimates and economic analyses in conceptual design studies of commercial-scale Synthoil and Hydrocarbonization plants. In the Coal-Fueled MIUS program work continued on analysis of the turbine electronic control system, design of building modifications, endurance testing of coal feed systems and a prototype feed nozzle, and supplemental studies. In materials engineering work, the assessment for the pressure vessel and piping technology project, inspection techniques for wear and process-resistant-coatings, and conceptual design studies of prestressed concrete pressure vessels for gasifier applications were continued. (LTN)

  6. Model optimizing production structure of coal enterprise and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Business and Adminsitration

    2000-05-01

    The models which optimize the product structure and maximize the profit of a coal enterprise were established. These models are mainly the increment and total analysis model for determining the optimum coal preparation scheme, the model of management risk analysis, and the linear plan model for deciding the optimum product structure under the condition of a given technology. They have been applied to coal enterprise in practice and obtained obvious economic benefit. This shows that the models are scientifically reasonable and efficient, and are valuable in designing preparation plant and in planning production under the condition of market economy. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Development of a Coal Quality Expert. Final technical progress report No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-08

    This is the ninth Technical Progress Report, describing work performed under DOE Contract No. (DE-FC2290PC896631) ``Development of a Coal Quality Expert.`` The contract is a Cooperative Agreement between the US Department of Energy, CQ Inc., and ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. This report covers the period from April 1, through June 30, 1992. Four companies and seven host utilities have teamed with CQ Inc. and ABB/CE to perform the work on this project. The work falls under DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program category of ``Advanced Coal Cleaning.`` The 45-month project will provide the utility industry with a PC expert system to confidently and inexpensively evaluate the potential for coal cleaning blending, and switching options to reduce emissions while producing lowest cost electricity. Specifically, this project will: (1) Enhance the existing Coal Quality Information System (CQIS) database and. Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM) to allow confident assessment of the effects of cleaning on specific boiler cost and performance. (2) Develop and validate a methodology, Coal Quality Expert (CQE) which allows accurate and detailed predictions of coal quality impacts on total power plant capital cost, operating cost, and performance based upon inputs from inexpensive bench-scale tests.

  8. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The international coal market trends are outlined and the place of Australian coal industry is discussed. It is shown that while the world supply and demand for coal has begun to tighten, the demand for coal is expected to remain strong in both Asia and Europe. Consequently, in 1991-1992 Australian black coal production and export returns are forecast to rise by 4% and 7% respectively. 1 fig

  9. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1979-March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project by the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. for the Department of Energy for the period January 1, 1979 to March 31, 1979. Activities included the operation and modification of the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant at Fort Lewis, Washington; the Process Development Unit P-99 at Harmarville, Pennsylvania; and research at Merriam Laboratory in Merriam, Kansas. The Pilot Plant processed Powhatan No. 5 Coal in the SRC-II mode of operation studying the effect of coal particle size and system temperature on coal slurry blending and the effect of carbon monoxide concentration in the reaction feed gas on process yields. January and February were spent completing installation of a fourth High Pressure Separator on Process Development Unit P-99 to better simulate operating conditions for the proposed Demonstration Plant. During March, one run was completed at P-99 feeding Pittsburgh Seam Coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine. Merriam investigations included a study of the effect of iron containing additives on SRC-I operation, the addition of carbon monoxide to the feed gas, utilization of a hydrogenated solvent (Cresap process solvent) in the SRC-I mode under both normal and short residence time operating conditions, and development of a simulated distillation technique to determine the entire boiling range distribution of product oils.

  10. Coal Liquefaction characteristics and chemical structure of product oil; Sekitan ekika hanno tokusei to seiseibutsu no kagaku kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, H.; Sato, M.; Chiba, T.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Sasaki, M. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Through the hydrogenolysis of Wandoan coal and Tanito Harum coal which are used for the NEDOL process, differences of liquefaction characteristics between them were found. The purpose of this study is to grasp these differences as differences of chemical structures of oil fractions. The compound type analysis was conducted for oil fractions obtained at varied reaction temperature for varied reaction time. Coal liquefaction characteristics of these coals were discussed by relating oil yields and chemical structures. For Tanito Harum coal, yields of gas and oil were considered to be lower than those for Wandoan coal, which reflected that the contents of partially hydrogenated hydroaromatics in oil fraction from the former were lower than those from the latter, and that the remarkable change of composition did not occur with the progress of the reaction. For both the coals, the remarkable changes in the average molecular weight of oil fraction were not observed with the progress of the reaction. While, the content of methane gradually increased with the progress of the reaction, which suggested that oil was gradually dealkylated. 5 figs.

  11. Revegetation of Alaskan coal mine spoils. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, W W; Mitchell, G A; McKendrick, J D

    1980-05-23

    Activities initiated after the start of the revegetation project on Alaskan coal mine spoils on September 1, 1979 have consisted mainly of some fall plantings (dormant seedings) and soil and coal spoil samplings and analyses. Because of the late summer start for the project, only a limited amount of field work could be initiated in plant material studies. This consisted of a fall planting at the Usibelli mine site at Healy in interior Alaska. The planting was intended to test the efficacy of seeding in the frost period following the growing season, requiring the seed to remain dormant over winter and to germinate when conditions become favorable in late spring. It also was intended as a comparison of a number of different grasses. Thirty entries were seeded in three replications. Fifteen species of grasses and a clover were included in the trial. The site provided for the trial was on overburden material along a streambed. Among the entries were eight cultivars of introduced grasses, five cultivars of native Alaskan germplasm, one introduced clover cultivar, and sixteen experimental grasses mainly of Alaskan origin.

  12. Pricing structures in US coal supply contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacker, Kanishka

    The subject of my dissertation is the study of coal procurement by electric utilities in the US over 2 decades, from 1979 to 2000. Energy markets are typically characterized by severe contracting problems. Buyers and sellers therefore employ various instruments, such as contract length or complex pricing arrangements, to restrict these problems. Relationship specific investment, wherein buyers make investments specific to their suppliers, has been advanced as a prominent explanation for contractual length. Investment decisions are however endogenous in length or pricing, making causal identification of the role of investment specificity difficult. In my first chapter, I attempt a resolution. I use the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment as an exogenous shifter of the extent of relationship specific investment. A key feature of the Amendment's design helps me define a difference-in-difference model arguably free of the endogeneity issues discussed above. I find that the plants forced into switching - Phase I plants located in the US Midwest - are more likely to choose fixed price contracts than those that were not. Further they also write contracts of shorter terms, with the reduction being approximately 30%. Considerably little is known about the performance implications of contractual choices. These form the basis for Chapter 2. Here I find prices to be lower, by between 5% to 20% of the total transaction price, but the probability of renegotiation higher, under fixed price contracts than under escalator or cost-plus contracts. Contract choices appear consistent with a trade-off between establishing incentives ex-ante and lowering negotiation costs ex-post, with relationship specific investments in particular making such a trade-off compelling. Chapter 3 considers the regulatory environment these utilities were subject to. Both incentive based regulation as well as the restructuring of electricity generation are smaller in comparison to relationship specific investment

  13. Exploratory research on solvent refined coal liquefaction. Annual technical progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co.'s Merriam Laboratory during 1979. In a series of experiments with varying feed gas composition, low levels (5 to 10 mole %) of carbon monoxide had little effect on the SRC II processing of Pittsburgh Seam coal (Powhatan No. 5 Mine) while higher levels (20 to 40 mole %) resulted in a general degradation of operability and reduced oil yields. Addition of finely divided (approx. 1 ..mu..m) pyrite to the reactive Powhatan coal had little effect on oil yields although the molecular weight of the distillation residue was apparently decreased. When finely divided pyrite and magnetite were added to the less reactive coals from the Loveridge and Blacksville No. 1 Mines (also Pittsburgh Seam), however, substantial increases in oil yields and product quality were obtained. In a comparison of upflow and downflow dissolver configurations with Powhatan coal in the SRC II mode, there was no difference in yields or product quality. A study characterizing specific reactors revealed a significantly higher conversion in the SRC I mode with a reactor approximating plug flow conditions compared to a completely backmixed reactor. In the SRC II mode there was only a slightly higher oil yield with the plug flow reactor.

  14. Effects of effluents of coal combustion and gasification upon lung structure and function. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to correlate both structural and functional alterations in cells and tissues of the lung brought about by exposure to fluidized bed combustion and fixed bed gasification effluents and reagent grade oxides of metals known to be associated with coal combustion gasification. Projected milestones are described. Progress during the first year in setting up aerosol exposure facilities, intratracheal instillations, pulmonary mechanics, and morphometric examinations is reported. (DMC)

  15. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  16. Changes in pore structure of coal caused by coal-to-gas bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Liu, Shimin; Bahadur, Jitendra; Elsworth, Derek; Wang, Yi; Hu, Guanglong; Liang, Yanna

    2017-06-19

    Microbial enhanced coalbed methane (ME-CBM) recovery is critically examined as a viable technology for natural gas recovery from coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs. Since the majority of gas-in-place (GIP) is stored as an adsorbed phase in fine pores of coal matrix, the nano-pore structure directly influences gas storage and transport properties. Only limited studies have quantified the alteration of the nano-pore structure due to ME-CBM treatment. This study examines the evolution of the pore structure using a combination of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), low-pressure N 2 and CO 2 adsorption (LPGA) and high-pressure methane adsorption methods. The results show that the surface fractal dimension decreases for the two bioconverted coals compared to the untreated coal. After bio-treatment, the mesopore surface area and pore volume decrease with the average pore diameter increases, while the micropore surface area increases with pore volume decreases. Both inaccessible meso-/micropore size distributions decrease after bioconversion, while the accessible micropore size distribution increases, making a portion of closed micropore network accessible. In addition, the methane adsorption capacities increase after bio-treatment, which is confirmed by the increase of micropore surface area. A conceptual physical model of methanogenesis is proposed based on the evolution of the pore structure.

  17. The pore structure in processed Victorian Brown coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P J; Snook, I K; Treimer, W

    2002-08-01

    Changes in the pore structure of Victorian Brown coal when upgraded with heated gases under pressure are investigated. We show that the results obtained from ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) measurements agree with previous results using small-angle X-ray scattering results but that USANS may also be used to investigate the meso porosity. Findings from small-angle scattering are confirmed using electron microscopy. We also show evidence from electron diffraction that thermal conditions within the brown coals during the upgrade procedure may be far more extreme than previously thought.

  18. The pore structure in processed Victorian brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, P.J.; Snook, I.K.; Treimer, W. [University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia). School of Physics

    2002-07-01

    Changes in the pore structure of Victorian Brown coal when upgraded with heated gases under pressure are investigated. It is shown that the results obtained from ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) measurements agree with previous results using small-angle X-ray scattering results but that USANS may also be used to investigate the meso porosity. Findings from small-angle scattering are confirmed using electron microscopy. Evidence is given from electron diffraction that thermal conditions within the brown coals during the upgrade procedure may be far more extreme than previously thought.

  19. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, May-July 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Alan; Suhr, N. H.; Spackman, W.; Painter, P. C.; Walker, P. L.; Given, P. H.

    1980-10-01

    The basic objectives of this new program are, firstly, to understand the systematic relationships between the properties of coals and macerals, and, secondly, to determine the lateral and vertical variability in the properties of a single seam imposed by varying environmental conditions at the time of coal formation. Thirty-four coal samples were collected during the quarter from Pennsylvania and Illinois. To date, 54 vitrinite concentrates have been hand picked and will be studied by a range of physical and chemical techniques. One hundred and forty coal samples and 53 printouts of coal data were provided on request to the coal research community. The Lower Kittanning seam has been selected for the study of the variability in chemical, petrographic, mineralogic, fluid, and conversion properties of a single seam. A description of the structural and stratigraphic settings of the important coal seam as they relate to this investigation is given. Bivariate plots of data from the Lower Kittanning seam are presented. The fluid temperature range as measured with the Gieseler plastometer reaches a maximum at a reflectance of 1.10 to 1.15% and carbon content of 87 to 88% dmmf. Liquefaction conversion in a tubing-bomb reactor with tetralin shows a linear decrease with rank (reflectance). The problems associated with the application Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to the characterization of coal structure are critically discussed. The micropore surface areas and micropore volumes of three selected coals and a vitrinite concentrate, as measured from uptake of CO/sub 2/ at 25/sup 0/C, increased with decreasing particle size. Work on measurements of apparent densities and uptake of methanol and water is in progress.

  20. Coal to SNG: Technical progress, modeling and system optimization through exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sheng; Ji, Xiaozhou; Zhang, Xiaosong; Gao, Lin; Jin, Hongguang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Technical progresses of coal to SNG technologies are reported. • The entire coal to SNG system is modeled. • Coupling between SNG production and power generation is investigated. • Breakthrough points for further energy saving are determined. • System performance is optimized based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. - Abstract: For both energy security and CO 2 emission reduction, synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from coal is an important path to implement clean coal technologies in China. In this paper, an overview of the progress of coal to SNG technologies, including the development of catalysts, reactor designs, synthesis processes, and systems integration, is provided. The coal to SNG system is modeled, the coupling between SNG production and power generation is investigated, the breakthrough points for further energy savings are determined, and the system performance is optimized based on the first and the second laws of thermodynamics. From the viewpoint of the first law of thermodynamics, the energy conversion efficiency of coal to SNG system can reach 59.8%. To reduce the plant auxiliary power, the breakthrough points are the development of low-energy-consumption oxygen production technology and gas purification technology or seeking new oxidants for coal gasification instead of oxygen. From the viewpoint of the second law of thermodynamics, the major exergy destruction in a coal to SNG system occurs in the coal gasification unit, SNG synthesis unit and the raw syngas cooling process. How to reduce the exergy destruction in these units is the key to energy savings and system performance enhancement. The conversion ratio of the first SNG synthesis reactor and the split ratio of the recycle gas are key factors that determine the performance of both the SNG synthesis process and the whole plant. A “turning point” phenomenon is observed: when the split ratio is higher than 0.90, the exergy destruction of the SNG

  1. Structure-Based Predictive Model for Coal Char Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Hadad; Joseph Calo; Robert Essenhigh; Robert Hurt

    1998-04-08

    Progress was made this period on a number of separate experimental and modelling activities. At Brown, the models of carbon nanostructure evolution were expanded to consider high-rank materials with initial anisotropy. The report presents detailed results of Monte Carlo simulations with non-zero initial layer length and with statistically oriented initial states. The expanded simulations are now capable of describing the development of nanostructure during carbonization of most coals. Work next quarter will address the remaining challenge of isotropic coke-forming coals. Experiments at Brown yielded important data on the "memory loss" phenomenon in carbon annealing, and on the effect of mineral matter on high-temperature reactivity. The experimental aspects of the Brown work will be discussed in detail in the next report.

  2. Investment specific technological progress and structural change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Silva Azevedo Araujo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce investment specific technical progress into Pasinetti's model of structural change. Our aim is to assess the effects of embodied technical progress on economic growth and macroeconomic variables. Our findings suggest that despite the fact that this type of technical progress increases the productivity of capital, it has negative effects on conditions that promote full employment.

  3. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    It is estimated that World coal trade remained strong during the second quarter of 1991, with contributing factors including unseasonally large shipments to Japan for power generation, sustained Japanese steel production at around 112 Mt and some buildup in stocks in that country. Purchases by North Asian and European consumers also remained high. At the same time Soviet output and exports declined because of strikes and political unrest. In addition, exportable supplies in Poland fell. As a result the demand for Indonesian coal increased, and Australia exported larger than previously expected quantities of coal. ills

  4. Coal combustion science: Task 1, Coal char combustion: Task 2, Fate of mineral matter. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. [ed.; Hurt, R.H.; Davis, K.A.; Baxter, L.L.

    1994-07-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) kinetics and mechanisms of pulverized coal char combustion and (2) fate of inorganic material during coal combustion. The objective of Task 1 is to characterize the combustion behavior of selected US coals under conditions relevant to industrial pulverized coal-fired furnaces. In Sandia`s Coal Combustion Laboratory (CCL), optical techniques are used to obtain high-resolution images of individual burning coal char particles and to measure, in situ, their temperatures, sizes, and velocities. Detailed models of combustion transport processes are then used to determine kinetic parameters describing the combustion behavior as a function of coal type and combustion environment. Partially reacted char particles are also sampled and characterized with advanced materials diagnostics to understand the critical physical and chemical transformations that influence reaction rates and burnout times. The ultimate goal of the task is the establishment of a data base of the high temperature reactivities of chars from strategic US coals, from which important trends may be identified and predictive capabilities developed. The overall objectives for task 2 are: (1) to complete experimental and theoretical investigation of ash release mechanisms; (2) to complete experimental work on char fragmentation; (3) to establish the extent of coal (as opposed to char) fragmentation as a function of coal type and particle size; (4) to develop diagnostic capabilities for in situ, real-time, qualitative indications of surface species composition during ash deposition, with work continuing into FY94; (5) to develop diagnostic capabilities for in situ, real-time qualitative detection of inorganic vapor concentrations; and (6) to conduct a literature survey on the current state of understanding of ash deposition, with work continuing into FY94.

  5. Effect of some structural features of coals on their reducibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor' eva, E.A.; Bakirova, E.V.; Lesnikova, E.B.; Larina, N.K.; Zharova, M.N.

    1978-09-01

    Two samples of Kuzbass hard coal, each differing in the intensity of the conversion during hydrogenation (86.5% and 80.4% respectively) were investigated. Sample 1 differed from sample 2 in higher oxygen content, increased ratios of hydrogen to carbon and oxygen to carbon atoms, the presence of humic acid and a high ash content. The data from physical and chemical analysis demonstrate the process of destruction of unstable ester bonds. Sample 1 was characterized by an increased tendency to hydrolize which explained the more intense conversion during hydrogenation. The two raw samples as well as samples, hydrolized and demineralized by 3% hydrochloric acid were reduced. Sample 1 demonstrated an increased disposition to reduce and had a high content in the raw coal of easily hydrolized ester bonds. The behaviour of the coal during reduction by sodium boron hydride was directly dependent on the presence of easily hydrolized bonds in the organic mass, and on the form of bonding of the mineral components in the structure of the coal.

  6. Effect of certain structural features of coal on Its tendency towards reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor' yeva, Ye. A.; Bakirova, Ye.V.; Dzhalyabova, L.V.; Larina, N.K.; Lesnikova, Ye.B.; Zharova, M.N.,

    1981-01-01

    A study is made of the effect of easily destroyed ether groupings and organic-mineral bonds in coal structure on the tendency towards reduction with the help of hydrolytic destruction of coals and subsequent selective reduction by sodium borohydride.

  7. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1980-March 1980. [In process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project at the SRC Pilot Plant in Fort Lewis, Wahsington, and the Process Development Unit (P-99) in Harmarville, Pennsylvania. After the remaining runs of the slurry preheater survey test program were completed January 14, the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down to inspect Slurry Preheater B and to insulate the coil for future testing at higher rates of heat flux. Radiographic inspection of the coil showed that the welds at the pressure taps and the immersion thermowells did not meet design specifications. Slurry Preheater A was used during the first 12 days of February while weld repairs and modifications to Slurry Preheater B were completed. Two attempts to complete a material balance run on Powhatan No. 6 Mine coal were attempted but neither was successful. Slurry Preheater B was in service the remainder of the quarter. The start of a series of runs at higher heat flux was delayed because of plugging in both the slurry and the hydrogen flow metering systems. Three baseline runs and three slurry runs of the high heat flux program were completed before the plant was shut down March 12 for repair of the Inert Gas Unit. Attempts to complete a fourth slurry run at high heat flux were unsuccessful because of problems with the coal feed handling and the vortex mix systems. Process Development Unit (P-99) completed three of the four runs designed to study the effect of dissolver L/D ratio. The fourth was under way at the end of the period. SRC yield correlations have been developed that include coal properties as independent variables. A preliminary ranking of coals according to their reactivity in PDU P-99 has been made. Techniques for studying coking phenomenona are now in place.

  8. Improved ultrasonic differentiation model for structural coal types based on neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zi-jian Tian; Fu-zhong Wang; Tao Li; Shan-shan Bai [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). School of Electromechanical and Information Engineering

    2009-03-15

    In order to solve the difficulty of detailed recognition of subdivisions of structural coal types, a differentiation model that combines BP neural network with an ultrasonic reflection method is proposed. Structural coal types are recognized based on a suitable consideration of ultrasonic speed, an ultrasonic attenuation coefficient, characteristics of ultrasonic transmission and other parameters relating to structural coal types. We have focused on a computational model of ultrasonic speed, attenuation coefficient in coal and differentiation algorithm of structural coal types based on a BP neural network. Experiments demonstrate that the model can distinguish structural coal types effectively. It is important for the improved ultrasonic differentiation model to predict coal and gas outbursts. 12 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  9. Structural insights from boron tribromide ether cleavage into lignites and low maturity coals from the New Zealand Coal Band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Horsfield, Brian

    2011-01-01

    structure, boron tribromide (BBr3) ether cleavage was applied to a series of lignite and coal samples of different maturity (R0 0.27–0.80%) obtained from coal mines and natural outcrops from the North and South Island of New Zealand. Terminal ether-bound alcohols rapidly decrease during diagenesis and occur......Ether functionalities form an important cross-linking structure within the macromolecular organic matrix of lignites and coals. To obtain a deeper insight into the complex internal structure of such macromolecules and the maturation related changes of the ether compounds within the network...... important cross-linking substructures within the macromolecular matrix of lignites and coals being sterically protected within the macromolecular network during the maturation process. Additional cross-linking substructures were (poly)ether aromatics, esters and ketones...

  10. Change in pore structure of coals by activation with KOH; KOH fukatsushita sekitan no saiko kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, K.; Yoshizawa, N.; Ishikawa, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Toda, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Shiraishi, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Three typical Japanese coals of non-coking coal, coking coal and anthracite were heat-treated with KOH, and change in their pore structure was examined by absorption of N2, X-ray diffraction and TEM observation. In addition, the relation between a coal rank and pore structure was also studied by absorption experiment of N2. In experiment, the mixture of coal and KOH in a nickel holder was heat-treated in N2 gas flow at heating rate of 2{degree}C/min, and held at a fixed temperature for one hour. To clarify the pore structure, N2 absorption isotherms were measured at -196{degree}C under nearly 76cmHg using a commercially available full-automatic absorption measurement equipment. Based on the X-ray diffraction and TEM observation results on activated coals, the relation between the N2 absorption and pore structure was studied. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The yield and absorption ability of coals increase with a coal rank, (2) The specific surface area of coals reaches its peak at 800{degree}C in activation temperature regardless of a coal rank, and (3) The activation behavior of coals is dependent on a coal rank. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  12. Fossil Energy Program. Progress report for November 1979. [35 Wt % Illinois No. 6 coal with Wilsonville recycle solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report - the sixty-fourth of a series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, materials engineering, a coal equipment test program, an atmospheric fluid bed combustor for cogeneration, engineering studies and technical support, process and program analysis, environmental assessment studies, magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, technical support to the TVA fluid bed combustion program, coal cogeneration/district heating plant assessment, chemical research and development, and technical support to major liquefaction projects.

  13. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    A set of statistically designed experiments was used to study the effects of several important operating variables on coal liquefaction product yield structures. These studies used a Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor to provide a hydrodynamically well-defined system from which kinetic data could be extracted. An analysis of the data shows that product yield structures can be adequately represented by a correlative model. It was shown that second-order effects (interaction and squared terms) are necessary to provide a good model fit of the data throughout the range studied. Three reports were issued covering the SRC-II database and yields as functions of operating variables. The results agree well with the generally-held concepts of the SRC reaction process, i.e., liquid phase hydrogenolysis of liquid coal which is time-dependent, thermally activated, catalyzed by recycle ash, and reaction rate-controlled. Four reports were issued summarizing the comprehensive SRC reactor thermal response models and reporting the results of several studies made with the models. Analytical equipment for measuring SRC off-gas composition and simulated distillation of coal liquids and appropriate procedures have been established.

  14. Theoretical nuclear structure. Progress report for 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarewicz, W.; Strayer, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    This research effort is directed toward theoretical support and guidance for the fields of radioactive ion beam physics, gamma-ray spectroscopy, and the interface between nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. The authors report substantial progress in all these areas. One measure of progress is publications and invited material. The research described here has led to more than 25 papers that are published, accepted, or submitted to refereed journals, and to 25 invited presentations at conferences and workshops

  15. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Run 260 with Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal: Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of Run 260 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R&D Facility in Wilsonville. The run was started on July 17, 1990 and continued until November 14, 1990, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Black Thunder mine subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam from Wyoming Powder River Basin). Both thermal/catalytic and catalytic/thermal tests were performed to determine the methods for reducing solids buildup in a subbituminous coal operation, and to improve product yields. A new, smaller interstage separator was tested to reduce solids buildup by increasing the slurry space velocity in the separator. In order to obtain improved coal and resid conversions (compared to Run 258) full-volume thermal reactor and 3/4-volume catalytic reactor were used. Shell 324 catalyst, 1/16 in. cylindrical extrudate, at a replacement rate of 3 lb/ton of MF coal was used in the catalytic stage. Iron oxide was used as slurry catalyst at a rate of 2 wt % MF coal throughout the run. (TNPS was the sulfiding agent.)

  16. Coal-fired MHD test progress at the Component Development and Integration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, A.T.; Rivers, T.J.; Alsberg, C.M.; Filius, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) is a Department of Energy test facility operated by MSE, Inc. In the fall of 1984, a 50-MW t , pressurized, slag rejecting coal-fired combustor (CFC) replaced the oil-fired combustor in the test train. In the spring of 1989, a coal-fired precombustor was added to the test hardware, and current controls were installed in the spring of 1990. In the fall of 1990, the slag rejector was installed. MSE test hardware activities included installing the final workhorse channel and modifying the coalfired combustor by installing improved design and proof-of-concept (POC) test pieces. This paper discusses the involvement of this hardware in test progress during the past year. Testing during the last year emphasized the final workhorse hardware testing. This testing will be discussed. Facility modifications and system upgrades for improved operation and duration testing will be discussed. In addition, this paper will address long-term testing plans

  17. EDS coal liquefaction process development. Phase V. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-01

    This report is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report for US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC01-77ET10069 (formerly EF-77-A-01-2893) for Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) Coal Liquefaction Process Development - Phase V. The Laboratory Process Research and Development studies were conducted at various Exxon Research and Engineering Co. (ER and E) facilities: Research and Development Division at Baytown, Texas; Products Research Division at Linden, New Jersey; and the Exxon Research and Development Laboratories at Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The Engineering Research and Development studies were performed at the Synthetic Fuels Engineering and Exxon Engineering Technology Departments of ER and E at Florham Park, New Jersey. The information dealing with the Management, Detailed Engineering, and Procurement activities related to revamp of the FLEXICOKING Prototype Unit was generated at Exxon Company, USA, Houston, Texas, and Exxon Engineering - Project Management Department of ER and E, Florham Park, New Jersey. The information dealing with operation of the 250 T/D Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant (ECLP) was generated at Exxon Company, USA, Houston, Texas.

  18. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: (1) The results of a study designed to determine the effects of the conditions employed at the Wilsonville slurry preheater vessel on coal conversion is described. (2) Stable carbon isotope ratios were determined and used to source the carbon of three product samples from Period 49 of UOP bench-scale coprocessing Run 37. The results from this coprocessing run agree with the general trends observed in other coprocessing runs that we have studied. (3) Microautoclave tests and chemical analyses were performed to ``calibrate`` the reactivity of the standard coal used for determining donor solvent quality of process oils in this contract. (4) Several aspects of Wilsonville Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) resid conversion kinetics were investigated; results are presented. Error limits associated with calculations of deactivation rate constants previously reported for Runs 258 and 261 are revised and discussed. A new procedure is described that relates the conversions of 850{degrees}F{sup +} , 1050{degrees}F{sup +}, and 850 {times} 1050{degrees}F material. Resid conversions and kinetic constants previously reported for Run 260 were incorrect; corrected data and discussion are found in Appendix I of this report.

  19. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  20. Influence of some structural features of a coal on its tendency to undergo reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor' eva, E.A.; Bakirova, E.V.; Lesnikova, E.B.; Larina, N.K.; Zharova, M.N.; Dzhalyabova, L.V.

    1981-01-01

    Among the many factors determining the depth of conversion of a coal on hydrogenation, various structural features and, in particular, the nature and number of the labile oxygen-containing structures and bridge bonds, have an influence. There are statements that a direct relationship exists between the activity of a coal in destructive hydrogenation and the amount of oxygen in the ether/ester form, and also the nature of the bond of the mineral fraction of the coal with the organic constituents. The present paper is devoted to an investigation of the dependence of the tendancy of coal to undergo hydrogenation on the nature and number of the ether/ester and organomineral bonds in the structure of the coal. In experiments the researchers used the hydrolytic destruction of the coals and subsequent selective hydrogeneatin with sodium tetrahydroborate. 17 refs.

  1. Central Appalachia in advanced capitalism: its coal industry structure and coal operator associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walls, D.S.

    1978-01-01

    This study traces the origins of the notion that Appalachia constitutes a unique social-problem region, examines the models of Appalachian problems popularized during the 1960s, proposes an alternative framework for situating the Central Appalachian coalfields, and examines aspects of the coal industry's structure in the Central Appalachian region. The idea of Appalachia as a distinctive social problem region was created between 1890 and 1930 by a social movement affiliated with various Protestant church home mission boards and organizationally focused in the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers and Berea College. The movement stressed an environmental explanation of regional problems. During the 1960s, three explanatory models of Appalachian poverty and underdevelopment achieved prominence: the subculture of poverty model, the regional development model, and the internal colonialism model. Each contributed to a regionalized conception of Appalachian problems. Empirical studies show the subculture of poverty model to fail as an explanation of regional underdevelopment. In the absence of a critique of domination and a redistribution of power and wealth, the regional development model serves as a rationalization of existing structures of privilege. The internal colonialism model provides a critique of domination, but not the most appropriate one. This study argues that the above models should not be viewed as mutually exclusive formulations, and that they may be reconstructed to represent different dimensions of social existence.

  2. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning. Quarterly technical progress report no. 4, November 1, 1988--January 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1989-12-31

    The progress achieved during this quarter includes the ten months shelf life study of magnetizing reagent, the effect of cation regulators on minerals and coals, the combination effect of depressant and activator on the adsorption of magnetizing reagent, optimum magnetite size for magnetizing reagent, and the magnetic field strength for separating magnetic enhanced minerals. The work is generally on schedule with the original plan. The Phase I study (a fundamental study) is nearly completed. Selective conditions for adsorbing magnetizing reagent on minerals have been identified. The work for the next quarter will be mainly on the Phase II study. Coal will be selected, procured, characterized, and processed.

  3. Development of a coal quality expert. Technical progress report No. 6, [July 1--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-20

    The project will provide the utility industry with a PC expert system to confidently and inexpensively evaluate the potential for coal cleaning, blending, and switching options to reduce emissions while producing lowest cost electricity. Specifically, this project will: (1) Enhance the existing Coal Quality Information System (CQIS) database and Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM) to allow confident assessment of the effects of cleaning on specific boiler cost and performance; (2) Develop and validate a methodology, Coal Quality Expert (CQE) which allows accurate and detailed predictions of coal quality impacts on total power plant capital cost, operating cost, and performance based upon inputs from inexpensive bench-scale tests.

  4. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-10-01

    Accomplishments for the past year are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts some of the highlights are: very promising results have been obtained from the liquefaction of plastics, rubber tires, paper and other wastes, and the coliquefaction of wastes with coal; a number of water soluble coal liquefaction catalysts, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, have been comparatively tested; mossbauer spectroscopy, XAFS spectroscopy, TEM and XPS have been used to characterize a variety of catalysts and other samples from numerous consortium and DOE liquefaction projects and in situ ESR measurements of the free radical density have been conducted at temperatures from 100 to 600{degrees}C and H{sub 2} pressures up to 600 psi.

  5. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This report discusses the effects on SRC yields of seven process variables (reactor temperature, SRT, hydrogen partial pressure, recycle ash and coal concentrations, gas velocity and coal type) predicted by second-order regression models developed from a data base containing pilot plant data with both Kentucky and Powhatan coals. The only effect of coal type in the model is a shift in each yield by a constant factor. Although some differences were found between the models developed from the Kentucky data base (1) (which we call Kentucky models) and the pooled coal models, the general conclusions of the previous report are confirmed by the new models and the assumption of similar behavior of the two coals appears to be justified. In some respects the dependence of the yields (MAF coal basis) on variables such as pressure and temperature are clearer than in the previous models. The principal trends which emerge are discussed.

  6. Temperature effects on chemical structure and motion in coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, G.E.

    1996-09-30

    The objective of this project was to apply recently developed, state-of-the-art nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to examine in situ changes in the chemical structure and molecular/macromolecular motion in coal as the temperature is increased above room temperature. Although alterations in the chemical structure of coal have been studied previously by {sup 13}C NMR, using quenched samples, the goal of this project was to examine these chemical structural changes, and changes in molecular/macromolecular mobility that may precede or accompany the chemical changes, at elevated temperatures, using modern {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR techniques, especially {sup 1}H dipolar-dephasing techniques and related experiments pioneered in the laboratory for examining pyridine-saturated coals. This project consisted of the following four primary segments and related efforts on matters relevant to the first four tasks. (1) {sup 1}H NMR characterization of coal structure and mobility as a function of temperature variation over a temperature range (30--240 C) for which substantial chemical transformations were not anticipated. (2) {sup 1}H NMR characterization of coal structure, mobility and conversion as a function of temperature variation over a temperature range (240--500 C) for which chemical transformations of coal are known to occur. (3) {sup 13}C NMR investigation of coal structure/mobility as a function of temperature over a temperature range (30--240 C) for which substantial chemical transformations were not anticipated. (4) {sup 13}C NMR investigation of coal structure, dynamics and conversion as a function of temperature variation over a range (240--500 C) for which chemical transformations of coal are known to occur. (5) Related matters relevant to the first four tasks: (a) {sup 1}H CRAMPS NMR characterization of oil shales and their kerogen concentrates; and (b) improved quantitation in {sup 13}C MAS characterization of coals.

  7. Multiscale Multifunctional Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Minnetyan, L.

    2012-01-01

    A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells. Global fracture is enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads. The old reference denotes that nothing has been added to this comprehensive report since then.

  8. Relevance of carbon structure to formation of tar and liquid alkane during coal pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Le, Jiawei; Wang, Lanlan; Pan, Tieying; Lu, Xilan; Zhang, Dexiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Curve-fitting method was used to quantify the accurate contents of structural carbon. • Effect of carbon structure in coal with different rank on formation of pyrolysis tar was studied. • Numerical interrelation between carbon types in coal structure and tar yield is elaborated. • Effect of carbon structure on formation of liquid alkane during coal pyrolysis is discussed. - Abstract: The relevance of carbon structure to formation of tar and liquid alkane during coal pyrolysis were discussed extensively. The pyrolysis tests were carried out in a tube reactor at 873 K and keep 15 min. The carbon distribution in coals was investigated by solid state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (N.M.R.). The curve-fitting method was used to quantify the accurate contents of structural carbon. The alkanes in coal tar were analyzed by Gas Chromatograph–Mass Spectrometer (GC–MS). The results show that oxygen-linked aromatic carbon decreases with the increasing of coal rank. The aliphatic carbon contents of Huainan (HN) coal are 44.20%, the highest among the four coals. The carbon types in coal structure have a significant influence on the formation of tar and liquid alkane. The coal tar yields are related to the aliphatic substituted aromatic carbon, CH 2 /CH 3 ratio and oxygen-linked carbon in coal so that the increasing order of tar yield is Inner Mongolia lignite (IM, 6.30 wt.%) < Sinkiang coal (SK, 7.55 wt.%) < Shenmu coal (SM, 12.84 wt.%) < HN (16.29 wt.%). The highest contents of oxygen-linked aromatic carbon in IM lead to phenolic compound of 41.06% in IM-tar. The contents of alkane in SM-tar are the highest because the appropriate CH 2 /CH 3 ratio and the highest aliphatic side chains on aromatic rings in SM leading to generate aliphatic hydrocarbon with medium molecular weight easily. The mechanism on formation of tar and liquid alkane plays an important role in guiding the industrialization of pyrolysis-based poly-generation producing tar with high

  9. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis are increasingly more prevalent among workers in small underground coal mines in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, A Scott; Attfield, Michael D

    2010-06-01

    To determine whether the prevalence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) or progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) among United States underground miners is associated with mine size. We examined chest radiographs from 1970 to 2009 of working miners who participated in the National Coal Workers Health Surveillance Program for the presence of small and large opacities consistent with pneumoconiosis, based upon the International Labour Organization classification system. A total of 145 512 miners contributed 240 067 radiographs for analysis. From the 1990s to the 2000s, the prevalence of radiographic CWP increased among miners in mines of all sizes, while miners working in mines with fewer than 50 employees had a significantly higher prevalence of CWP compared to miners who worked in mines with 50 or more employees (pmine size was significant for all decades. Since 1999, miners from small mines were five times more likely to have radiographic evidence of PMF (1.0% of miners) compared to miners from larger mines (0.2% of miners) with a prevalence ratio of 5.0 and 95% CI 3.3 to 7.5. The prevalence of CWP among United States coal miners is increasing in mines of all sizes, while CWP and PMF are much more prevalent among workers from underground mines with fewer than 50 workers.

  10. Structure Based Predictive Model for Coal Char Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Robert Essenhigh; Christopher Hadad

    2000-12-30

    This unique collaborative project has taken a very fundamental look at the origin of structure, and combustion reactivity of coal chars. It was a combined experimental and theoretical effort involving three universities and collaborators from universities outside the U.S. and from U.S. National Laboratories and contract research companies. The project goal was to improve our understanding of char structure and behavior by examining the fundamental chemistry of its polyaromatic building blocks. The project team investigated the elementary oxidative attack on polyaromatic systems, and coupled with a study of the assembly processes that convert these polyaromatic clusters to mature carbon materials (or chars). We believe that the work done in this project has defined a powerful new science-based approach to the understanding of char behavior. The work on aromatic oxidation pathways made extensive use of computational chemistry, and was led by Professor Christopher Hadad in the Department of Chemistry at Ohio State University. Laboratory experiments on char structure, properties, and combustion reactivity were carried out at both OSU and Brown, led by Principle Investigators Joseph Calo, Robert Essenhigh, and Robert Hurt. Modeling activities were divided into two parts: first unique models of crystal structure development were formulated by the team at Brown (PI'S Hurt and Calo) with input from Boston University and significant collaboration with Dr. Alan Kerstein at Sandia and with Dr. Zhong-Ying chen at SAIC. Secondly, new combustion models were developed and tested, led by Professor Essenhigh at OSU, Dieter Foertsch (a collaborator at the University of Stuttgart), and Professor Hurt at Brown. One product of this work is the CBK8 model of carbon burnout, which has already found practical use in CFD codes and in other numerical models of pulverized fuel combustion processes, such as EPRI's NOxLOI Predictor. The remainder of the report consists of detailed

  11. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  12. Situational approach to the choice of information systems for business management for various organizational structures of deep coal mines. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendkowski, J.

    1983-01-01

    Organizational models of business management in 65 underground black coal mines in Poland are evaluated. The following problems are discussed: development of black coal mining, organizational structures of underground mining and their changes from 1950 to 1983, information needs of a coal mine depending on position of the mine in organizational structures, analyses of mining and geologic conditions in underground coal mines, comparative evaluations of operation and profitableness of coal mines, investigations into information needs of coal mines, a model of information needs of a coal mine, recommendations for development of a computerized control systems for business management in underground mining, recommendations for hardware and software. Following a critical evaluation of information systems used in coal mines, recommendations are made for information and control systems which would correspond with the needs of coal mines. 68 references.

  13. MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly/annual technical progress report, October-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicks, J. B.; Chapman, J. N.; Crawford, L. W.

    1980-02-01

    In this Fourth Quarterly/Annual Report submitted under DOE contracts EX-76-C-01-1760 and DE-AC02-79ET10815, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, and development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) and the Research and Development Laboratory. Work on the CFFF progressed with only minor problems. Total construction activity for all site work presently awarded is nearly 98% complete. Water analysis shows that Woods Reservoir baseline conditions are within EPA or Tennessee drinking water standards. For the primary combustor, the vitiation heater and primary combustor fabrication drawings were completed and the nozzle design was completed. The drum module for the radiant slagging furnace was awarded. On the MHD Power Generator, development continued in several areas of advanced analysis including development of time-dependent models for use with the one-dimensional code. For seed regeneration, the tentative determination is that the Tomlinson Tampella is the most economically viable method. With regard to capped electrode erosion, investigations have shown that the major degradation of the cladding still present is at the leading edge of the capped anode. To alleviate this, plans are to hot work the noble metal in the bending operation. In resolving another problem, a system employing the modified line-reversal method has been assembled and successfully tested to measure absolute plasma temperatures.

  14. Biochemical removal of HAP precursors from coal. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Analytical methods were finalized and all analyses completed on shake flask tests with Indiana No. 5 and Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. A column leaching-rotating biological contractor (RBC) unit was used to bioleach pyrite and hazardous air pollutant precursors from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Shake flask tests with Rosebud subbituminous coal were begun. In connection with upcoming slurry column reactor tests, coal was prepared and shipped to INEL, and a detailed work plan was developed for operation and sampling for the tests. A manuscript and poster was prepared for presentation at the PETC contractors conference.

  15. Origin of banded structure and coal lithotype cycles in Kargali coal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The computed value of χ2 exceeds the limiting value suggesting the presence of Markovity and cyclic arrangement of banded coal lithotypes. The Markov chain model for the Kargali bottom seam of the East Bokaro Gondwana sub-basin is based on the transition probability (pij) matrix and positive values of the difference ...

  16. Cleavage and crosslinking of polymeric coal structures during pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillen, D.F.; Malhotra, R.

    1992-02-01

    The ultimate objective of this project was to develop a better understanding of volatiles production to help optimize the yield and character of condensable coproducts during coal pyrolysis or mild gasification. The specific objectives were to (1) Develop pyrolysis procedures that minimize secondary reactions; and (2) Develop coal pretreatments that current knowledge suggests will prorate bond scission or prevent retrograde reactions. Our approach was to study the pyrolysis of coals and tar-loaded coals by using several techniques that span a range of heating rates and pressures. Slow-heating pyrolyses were performed at low pressures in the inlet of a field ionization mass spectrometer and at atmospheric pressures in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Moderately rapid-heating pyrolyses were performed in a vacuum TGA apparatus and in sealed silica ampules heated in a molten-salt bath. The fastest heating rates were achieved with laser pyrolysis at about 30,000 X/s. The high tar yield seen in this work where the entire volume of the coal particle becomes hot and fluid at very nearly the same time, taken together with the evident non-vapor transport of the tar under these conditions, emphasizes the importance of better understanding the development of fluidity during coal heating. This specifically includes the profound effects--long-recognized but poorly understood that mild oxidation has in suppressing coal fluidity. It also includes the more recently recognized fact that heating in the presence of an inert gas produced substantially greater fluidity than does heating in the presence of combustion gases, even if the conditions are very fuel rich and all the oxygen itself has already been consumed when the coal particles are encountered.

  17. Chemistry and structure of coal derived asphaltenes and preasphaltenes. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    It is the objective of this project to isolate the asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions from coal liquids from a number of liquefaction processes. These processes consist of in general: catalytic hydrogenation, staged pyrolysis and solvent refining. The asphaltene fractions may be further separated by both gradient elution through column chromatography, and molecular size distribution through gel permeation chromatography. These coal-derived asphaltene and preashpaltene fractions will then be investigated by various chemical and physical methods for characterization of their structures. After the parameters are obtained, these parameters will be correlated with the refining and conversion variables which control a given type of liquefaction process. The effects of asphaltene in catalysis, ash or metal removal, desulfurization and denitrification will also be correlated. It is anticipated that understanding the role of asphaltenes in liquefaction processes will enable engineers to both improve existing processes, and to make recommendations for operational changes in planned liquefaction units. The objective of Phase 1 was to complete the isolation and separation of coal liquid fractions and to initiate their characterization. The objective of Phase 2 is to continue the characterization of coal asphaltenes and other coal liquid fractions by use of physical and instrumental methods. The structural parameters obtained will be used to postulate hypothetical average structures for coal liquid fractions.The objective of Phase 3 is to concentrate on the characterization of the preasphaltene (benzene insoluble fraction) of coal liquid fraction by the available physical and chemical methods to obtain a number of structural parameters.

  18. Structural characterization of graphene layers in various Indian coals by X-Ray Diffraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj, B.; Kunjomana, A. G.

    2015-02-01

    The results of the structural investigation of three Indian coals showed that, the structural parameters like fa & Lc increased where as interlayer spacing d002 decreased with increase in carbon content, aromaticity and coal rank. These structural parameters change just opposite with increase in volatile matter content. Considering the 'turbostratic' structure for coals, the minimum separation between aromatic lamellae was found to vary between 3.34 to 3.61 A° for these coals. As the aromaticity increased, the interlayer spacing decreased an indication of more graphitization of the sample. Volatile matter and carbon content had a strong influence on the aromaticity, interlayer spacing and stacking height on the sample. The average number of carbon atoms per aromatic lamellae and number of layers in the lamellae was found to be 16-21 and 7-8 for all the samples.

  19. An Innovative Support Structure for Gob-Side Entry Retention in Steep Coal Seam Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Jianguo Ning; Jun Wang; Tengteng Bu; Shanchao Hu; Xuesheng Liu

    2017-01-01

    This study considered longwall working face No. 41101—located in a steeply inclined coal seam at the Awuzisu coal mine in Xinjiang, China—as an example in which macroscopic shear cracks had occurred in the cement-based filling body of the gob-side entry retention structure. A mechanical model of the support structure for the gob-side entry retention was first established. Then, field observations and laboratory tests were used to obtain the force exerted by the coal wall on the main roof, the...

  20. Changes in the structure of coal tar during its thermolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koloc, M.; Bekarek, V.; Rojak, A.; Roubicek, V.

    1983-01-01

    The changes in the structure of coal tar during thermal decomposition at 150 to 500 degrees have been studied (every 50 degrees). The heating was conducted at a speed of 3C per minute. The samples were analyzed using a nuclear magnetic resonance (YaMR) (H-1) method at 60 megahertz in a Varian A-60 instrument. The spectra were measured in a 30 percent solution in hexadeuterium benzene using tetramethylsilane as the external standard. The carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen contents were determined in the microsamples in a Perkin Elmer instrument. The structural parameters (the ratio of the number of aromatic carbon atoms to the total number of carbon atoms, the ratio of the number of aromatic hydrogen atoms to the number of aromatic carbon atoms and the degree of substitution of the aromatic carbon systems by aliphatic substituents) were determined using a Brown Ladner method. The elementary composition with the distribution of hydrogen into aromatic and aliphatic and the carbon into aliphatic and aromatic (including a common one for several nuclei which bears the hydrogen and the aliphatic substituents) was determined using a nuclear magnetic resonance method. All of the studied samples had a high degree of aromatization with small differences. The ratio of the number of aromatic hydrogen atoms to the number of aromatic carbon atoms with an increase in the final temperature from 150 to 500 degrees is reduced from 0.603 to 0.483, which points to the shift of the starting 4 to 5 nuclear systems into 10 to 12 nuclear condensed systems.

  1. Effect of several structural features in coal on its tendency to reduce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor' eva, E.A.; Bakirova, E.V.; Lesnikova, E.B.; Larina, N.K.; Zharova, M.N.; Dzhalyabova, L.V.

    1981-07-01

    Relationship between the tendency of coal to be reduced and the nature and quantity of the ether and organo-mineral bonds in the structure of coals is studied. The purpose of the study was to determine the intensity of the reaction during coal hydrogenation. Sodium borhydrate was used as a reducing agent because of its selective action on carbonyl groups and because of the possibility of describing the nature of hydrolyzed bonds in coal which form carbonyl groups. By hydrolysis of hard and brown coals and subsequent selective reduction, the effect of various carbonyl groups and organo-mineral bonds formed as a result of the destruction of ether groupings and carbon to carbon cross linkages were demonstrated. (17 refs.) (In Russian)

  2. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 2, Appendices. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Hatcher, P.

    1996-01-01

    This semiannual progress report contains the following appendices: description of the 1,000 lb steam/h watertube research boiler; the Pennsylvania CGE model; Phase II, subtask 3.9 coal market analysis; the CGE model; and sector definition

  3. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 2, Appendices. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Hatcher, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1996-10-15

    This semiannual progress report contains the following appendices: description of the 1,000 lb steam/h watertube research boiler; the Pennsylvania CGE model; Phase II, subtask 3.9 coal market analysis; the CGE model; and sector definition.

  4. Progress on nuclear modifications of structure functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumano S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report progress on nuclear structure functions, especially on their nuclear modifications and a new tensor structure function for the deuteron. To understand nuclear structure functions is an important step toward describing nuclei and QCD matters from low to high densities and from low to high energies in terms of fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom beyond conventional hadron and nuclear physics. It is also practically important for understanding new phenomena in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, since systematic errors of current neutrinooscillation experiments are dominated by uncertainties of neutrino-nucleus interactions, such studies are valuable for finding new physics beyond current framework. Next, a new tensor-polarized structure function b1 is discussed for the deuteron. There was a measurement by HERMES; however, its data are inconsistent with the conventional convolution estimate based on the standard deuteron model with D-state admixture. This fact suggests that a new hadronic phenomenon should exist in the tensor-polarized deuteron at high energies, and it will be experimentally investigated at JLab from the end of 2010’s.

  5. Market Structure Differences Impacting Australian Iron Ore and Metallurgical Coal Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Steelmaking relies on iron ore and metallurgical coal as main ingredients, the trade of which is hypothesized to theoretically change in tandem. However, strong correlation is not evident in historical trade prices of steelmaking inputs. To determine causes to this occurrence, the market factors that influence the Australian iron ore and metallurgical coal industries were studied. Data was collected over the past decade for worldwide resource production and trade quantities of crude steel, iron ore, and metallurgical coal. The data was analysed to reveal trends, allowing examination of the macroeconomic trade of metallurgical coal and iron ore with relation to worldwide and country specific steel production. It was determined that the influential growth of China’s steel production has spurred the growth of worldwide iron ore demand, which was met with increased production and supply, from Australia. The increased metallurgical coal demand has been met with increased production within China locally. Measures of supply elasticity were created for worldwide iron ore and metallurgical coal trade, where comparisons between Australia’s industries to the relevant greatest competitor were examined. The results, along with respective resource production data, highlighted the elevated competitive position that Australian iron ore producers enjoy compared to metallurgical coal producers. Trade characteristics revealed the different market structures that iron ore and metallurgical coal industries operate in, prompting a discussion of the effects these markets have on the two Australian industries.

  6. Rationalization of production structure by integrated mechanization in Miike Coal Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, Tetsuyoh

    1991-01-01

    The Miike Coal Mine, the largest and oldest coal mine in Japan, has to cope with such problems, as the extension and deepening of mining areas. This mine has maintained a policy of giving priority to increasing coal production for many years. However, this mine, like other coal mines in Japan, is obliged to reduce production according to The 8th Coal Policy of the Japanese Government. In this difficult economic environment the Miike Coal Mine has been making extensive efforts to rationalize mining operation by integrated mechanization. The results of this rationalization are summarized as follows. (1) The shift of production structure of 4.5 million tons (salable) from 3 pits comprising 10 coal faces, to 2.5 million tons from 1 pit comprising 2 coal faces. (2) Improving of overall productivity from 106.3 tons/man.month in 1986 to 127.3 tons/man.month in 1989. (3) Production cost savings of 10 %. (4) Improving of safety from an accident rate of 35/million workers in 1986 to 26/million workers in 1989. (author)

  7. Superacid Catalyzed Coal Conversion Chemistry. 1st and 2nd Quarterly Technical Progress Reports, September 1, 1983-March 30, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    In our laboratories we have previously developed a mild coal conversion process. This involves the use of a superacid system consisting of HF and BF{sub 3} in presence of hydrogen and/or a hydrogen donor solvent. In order to understand the chemistry involved in the process of depolymerization of coal by the HF:BF{sub 3}:H{sub 2} system we are carrying out a systematic study of a number of coal model compounds. The model compounds selected for present study have two benzene rings connected with various bridging units such as alkylidene, ether, sulfide etc. From studies so far carried out it appears that high pyridine extractibilities achieved by treating coal at temperature below 100 degrees C results from the cleavage of bridges such as present in bibenzyl, diphenyl methane, dibenzyl ether, dibenzyl sulfide etc. On the other hand the increased cyclohexane extractibility and distillability observed at relatively higher temperatures and hydrogen pressures reflects the hydrogenation and cleavage of the aromatic backbone in coal structure similar to what is seen in the conversion of model compounds such as biphenyl, diphenyl ether, diphenyl sulfide, anthracene, etc.

  8. Solvent refined coal studies: effects and characterization of treated solvent refined coal effluent. Progress report, FY 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D.; Woodfield, W.G.; Strand, J.A.

    1978-07-01

    The Freshwater Sciences Section of PNL has initiated biologically oriented studies at the P and M solvent refined coal (SRC) pilot plant on the Fort Lewis Reservation in western Washington. Essentially, the study objectives are to identify residual components in the treated SRC process and assess potential for adverse impact on water quality and aquatic biota. Since inception of research in mid-1976, six static toxicity tests with treated SRC process effluent have been conducted. Toxic components, not yet specifically identified, sometimes occur in the effluent. It is believed these components involve organic hydrocarbons of the phenol and cresol groups. Analyses have been obtained on inorganic and organic constituents in partially-treated and treated process effluent. Concentrations of inorganics identified in the effluent did not differ greatly from their concentrations in Lake Sequalitchew or SRC plant tap water, but the low concentrations may be due primarily to dilution with freshwater before discharge. Organics identified in the effluent are similar to those found in samples contaminated with petroleum, and involve many complex hydrocarbons.

  9. Leaching behavior of coal combustion products and the environmental implication in road construction : project progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The use of coal fly ash in road base and sub-base applications can provide better properties and performance, and is superior to it being otherwise disposed and becoming a possible environmental liability. Understanding the metal leaching behavior fo...

  10. LLNL Underground-Coal-Gasification Project. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, D.R.; Clements, W. (eds.)

    1981-11-09

    We have continued our laboratory studies of forward gasification in small blocks of coal mounted in 55-gal drums. A steam/oxygen mixture is fed into a small hole drilled longitudinally through the center of the block, the coal is ignited near the inlet and burns toward the outlet, and the product gases come off at the outlet. Various diagnostic measurements are made during the course of the burn, and afterward the coal block is split open so that the cavity can be examined. Development work continues on our mathematical model for the small coal block experiments. Preparations for the large block experiments at a coal outcrop in the Tono Basin of Washington State have required steadily increasing effort with the approach of the scheduled starting time for the experiments (Fall 1981). Also in preparation is the deep gasification experiment, Tono 1, planned for another site in the Tono Basin after the large block experiments have been completed. Wrap-up work continues on our previous gasification experiments in Wyoming. Results of the postburn core-drilling program Hoe Creek 3 are presented here. Since 1976 the Soviets have been granted four US patents on various aspects of the underground coal gasification process. These patents are described here, and techniques of special interest are noted. Finally, we include ten abstracts of pertinent LLNL reports and papers completed during the quarter.

  11. Structural changes in deashed coals induced by heat treatment; Kanetsu shori ni yoru dakkaitan no kozo henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugano, M.; Sekita, M.; Muramatsu, Y.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1996-10-28

    Change in structures of 3 kinds of coals with different coal ranks and their deashed coals was studied by heat treatment below 200{degree}C. In experiment, crushed Adaro, Taiheiyo and Huaibei coals below 200mesh and their deashed coals were used as specimens. The coal and deashed coal specimens dried in vacuum at 110{degree}C for 3 hours were filled into an autoclave, and the heat-treated coal specimens were prepared by holding them under initial nitrogen pressure of 2kg/cm{sup 2} at a fixed temperature for 30min. Extraction using pyridine as solvent, volumetric swelling using methanol or benzene as solvent, and measurement of the amount of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl functional groups were conducted for these coal specimens. The experimental results are as follows. Huaibei coal has developed aromatic ring structure, and its structure is hardly affected by heat treatment. The oxygen containing functional groups decrease by heat treatment over 100{degree}C in Adaro coal and 150{degree}C in Taiheiyo coal, and PS, MQ and BQ also decrease due to aggregation between molecules. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning. Quarterly technical progress report no. 3, August 1, 1988--October 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1988-12-31

    The progress achieved during this quarter includes the reagent shelf life study, the evaluation and selection of magnetizing reagents, an experimental database for activating and depressing the adsorption of magnetizing reagents in the presence of various chemicals, an adsorption regulator investigation, the establishment of a coal surface controlling theory, and a magnetite size effect study for the separation of magnetic enhanced minerals. The work is on schedule with the original plan. Modifications include the addition of a regulator study to help proving the selectivity controlling theory. The fundamentals for applying the magnetizing reagent technology on coal cleaning are generally established during this quarter. Selective magnetic enhancement of minerals through the adsorption of magnetizing reagents has been experimentally proved. The work for the next quarter will be mainly on optimizing the selective adsorption conditions and the continuation on magnetite size effect study.

  13. Structural and stress analysis of mining practice in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Waclawik, Petr; Ptáček, Jiří; Grygar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2013), s. 255-265 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : horizontal stress * structural analysis * mine roadway stability * coal mining * rock burst Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/acta_content/2013_02/acta_170_15_Waclawik_255-265.pdf

  14. Processing of Janina coal at 600 atm. to gasoline and middle oil. Second progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer, H.; Leonhardt

    1944-03-13

    The experiments described here were run in a 10-liter hydrogenation oven which was fitted with an outlet for desanding the reaction mixture to keep down the formation of caviar deposits in the oven. The experiments proceeded very well, and the Janina coal proved to be one that was very well suited to hydrogenation because of its relatively low carbon content. The coal gave high yields of products (0.35 kg/liter/hour), low losses to gases (18.6%), and low levels of asphalt formation. Although the fact needed further confirmation in full-scale operations, it seemed that the Janina coal did not require as high a temperature from the preheater as did other coals in order to initiate the reaction (about 400/sup 0/C vs. about 425/sup 0/C). One of the disadvantages of the Janina coal was the fact that its rather large yield of liquid-phase gasoline had lower octane number than that from some other coals (Heinitz coal, for example - about 71 vs. 74). The gasoline contained 33% paraffins, 35% naphthenes, 23% aromatics, and 9% unsaturated compounds. The gasoline contained 11% phenol, whereas the middle oil contained 20.5% phenols. The aniline point of the various dephenolized fractions of gasoline varied from 18.2 to 36.0/sup 0/, whereas the aniline point of the various dephenolized fractions of middle oil varied from -24.5 to -14.0/sup 0/. The solidifying point of the heavy oil was 9/sup 0/C. 7 tables.

  15. Novel catalysts for upgrading coal-derived liquids. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.T.; Savage, P.E.; Briggs, D.E.

    1995-03-31

    Research described in this report was aimed at synthesizing and evaluating supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen from model and authentic coal-derived liquids. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported oxynitrides and oxycarbides were synthesized via the temperature programmed reaction of supported molybdenum oxides or hydrogen bronzes with NH{sub 3} or an equimolar mixture of CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}. Phase constituents and composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, CHN analysis, and neutron activation analysis. Oxygen chemisorption was used to probe the surface structure of the catalysts. The reaction rate data was collected using specially designed micro-batch reactors. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides were competitively active for quinoline hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), benzothiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). In fact, the HDN and HDO specific reaction rates for several of the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were higher than those of a commercial Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hydrotreatment catalyst. Furthermore, the product distributions indicated that the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were more hydrogen efficient than the sulfide catalysts. For HDN and HDS the catalytic activity was a strong inverse function of the Mo loading. In contrast, the benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) activities did not appear to be affected by the Mo loading but were affected by the heating rate employed during nitridation or carburization. This observation suggested that HDN and HDS occurred on the same active sites while HDO was catalyzed by a different type of site.

  16. Gasification in pulverized coal flames. First annual progress report, July 1975--June 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenzer, R. C.; George, P. E.; Thomas, J. F.; Laurendeau, N. M.

    1976-07-01

    This project concerns the production of power and synthesis gas from pulverized coal via suspension gasification. Swirling flow in both concentric jet and cyclone gasifiers will separate oxidation and reduction zones. Gasifier performance will be correlated with internally measured temperature and concentration profiles. A literature review of vortex and cyclone reactors is complete. Preliminary reviews of confined jet reactors and pulverized coal reaction models have also been completed. A simple equilibrium model for power gas production is in agreement with literature correlations. Cold gas efficiency is not a suitable performance parameter for combined cycle operation. The coal handling facility, equipped with crusher, pulverizer and sieve shaker, is in working order. Test cell flow and electrical systems have been designed, and most of the equipment has been received. Construction of the cyclone gasifier has begun. A preliminary design for the gas sampling system, which will utilize a UTI Q-30C mass spectrometer, has been developed.

  17. Reconstruction of 3D Micro Pore Structure of Coal and Simulation of Its Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-zhe Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article takes the low permeability coal seam in the coalfield of South Judger Basin in Xinjiang, as a research object. The pore structure characteristics of coal rock mass in low permeability coal seam were analyzed quantitatively using scanning electron microscopy (SEM through the methods of statistics and digital image analysis. Based on the pore structure parameters and the distribution function of the coal rock mass, a three-dimensional porous cylinder model with different porosity was reconstructed by FLAC3D. The numerical simulation study of reconstructed pore model shows that (1 the porosity and the compressive strength have obvious nonlinear relation and satisfy the negative exponential relation; (2 the porosity significantly affects the stress distribution; with the increase of micro porosity, the stress distribution becomes nonuniform; (3 the compressive failures of different models are mainly shear failures, and the shape of fracture section is related to porosity; (4 the variation of seepage coefficient of the pore reconstruction model is consistent with the development of micro cracks. The micro mechanism of the deformation and failure of coal and the interaction of multiphase flow with porosity are revealed, which provides a theoretical reference for the clean development of the low permeability coal seam.

  18. IGCC faces coal-antipathy in USA while Chinese projects progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higman, C. [Syngas Consultants Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-15

    The paper reports from the 2007 Gasification Technologies conference, San Francisco. Although the decision was taken to terminate the construction of an IGCC plant at Stanton, Florida in favour of a natural-gas-fired combined cycle unit, gasification projects continue to do well in China. Nuon, TECO and Southern have all said they consider IGCC to be the path forward for coal-based power. the conference discussed projects in coal gasification, production of substitute natural gas, hydrogen production and carbon capture and storage. 2 figs.

  19. Development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems. Technical progress report, October 1- October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, D. G.

    1979-11-19

    A bibliography on various aspects of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems is included. Relevant federal and state legislation and regulations have been identified. Mines of interest to the project have been identified and listed for field visits. Seven regions of different climates, hydrology, geology, etc., are being studied individually. (LTN)

  20. Progress for coal exports at Lake Maracaibo`s floating terminal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The purpose-designed floating storage transfer station (FSTS) is helping move more coal to export in Venezuela`s Maracaibo Lake. The 64,400 dwt Bulk Wayuu, owned and operated by Italy`s Coeclerici Group, began operations for Carbones del Guasare (CdG) last July. Coeclerici beat a number of other companies to win the five year contract, estimated to be worth around 30 million dollars. The FSTS is permanently moored by chain lines at the entrance channel of Maracaibo Lake in 11.9 m water depth. Five holds give storage capacity of 61,600 t of coal, effectively doubling CdG`s stockpile capacity. Four 25 t Krupp grab cranes are used to unload 2200 dwt coal barges coming from the Santa Cruz de Mara terminal. Three mobile deck-mounted belt shiploaders load and trim the ocean going vessels berthed on the other side. In the first 8 months` operations, 3.43 mt of coal was shipped into 69 vessels. 1 fig., 3 photos.

  1. Studies on structural coal characteristics. Part 2. Parameters of electron absorption by coal and their links with reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, V.K.; Rys' yanova, N.D.; Plastun, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    Problems associated with determining black coal rank on the basis of vitrinite reflectivity are discussed. Correlations between coal rank and vitrinite reflectivity are analyzed. Factors which disturb coal rank analyses are reviewed. A method for determining absorption spectra in ultraviolet spectra, visible spectra and infrared spectra using radiation which is diffused-dispersed by coal is evaluated. The method is used for investigations into nature of changes in parameters of electron spectra of vitrinites depending on coal rank, which is determined on the basis of vitrinite reflectivity. Method for coal sample preparation, measurements using the MPS-5000 system and evaluating measurement results are discussed. Investigation results are given in 3 schemes. Correlations between radiation absorption and coal microstructure are analyzed. Recommendations are made for use of the method in black coal rank determination.

  2. [Structure-function correlation in early diagnosis of glaucoma progression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dascălu, Ana-Maria; Alexandrescu, Cristina; Popa-Cherecheanu, Alina; Stana, Daniela; Panca, Aida; Pascu, Ruxandra; Voinea, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates the correlations between structure and function in early detection of glaucoma progression. A prospective study was carried on 204 patients diagnosed with POAG and a follow-up period of 4 years. All the patients underwent complex ophthalmological examination, C/D ratio, Disk Damage Likelyhood Scale (DDLS), automated perimetry and Heidelberg retina tomography The relations between structure and function were investigated for all patients, but also according to clinical stage of glaucomatous damage. Structural progression was more frequently associated with perimetric progression for patients with moderate advanced glaucoma. For patients with preperimetric glaucoma and early glaucoma, the progression was present more often for structural test (19,04% and 29,3%), while perimetric progression was less frequent objectivated and weak correlated with structural progression (16,66%). For the 15 cases diagosed with both structural and functional progression, the locations of the structural lesion and functional defect were better correlated in cases involving the poles of the optic disc. Structure-function relation depends on clinical stage of glaucoma and the location of the glaucomatous defects. In early stages, structural investigations can detect progression before perimetry, while in advanced stages, the functional tests are more useful for early detection of progression.

  3. The changing structure of the US coal industry: An update, July 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 requires the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of changes in the structure of the US coal industry between 1976 and 1991. The structural elements examined include the number of mines, average mine size, the size distribution of mines, and the size distribution of coal firms. The report measures changes in the market shares of the largest coal producers at the national level and in various regions. The Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal market is given special attention, and the market for coal reserves is examined. A history of mergers in the coal industry is presented, and changes in the proportions of US coal output that are produced by various types of companies, including foreign-controlled firms, are described. Finally, the impact of post-1991 mergers on the structure of the industry is estimated. The legislation that created the EIA vested the organization with an element of statutory independence. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA's responsibility is to provide timely, high-quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of deliberations by both public and private decisionmakers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration

  4. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lili [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Schobert, Harold H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

  5. The impact of the structural features of the rock mass on seismicity in Polish coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyńska, Renata

    2017-11-01

    The article presents seismic activity induced in the coal mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW) in relation to the locations of the occurrence of rockbursts. The comparison of these measurements with the structural features of the rock mass of coal mines indicates the possibility of estimating the so-called Unitary Energy Expenditure (UEE) in a specific time. The obtained values of UEE were compared with the distribution of seismic activity in GZW mines. The level of seismic activity in the analysed period changed and depended on the intensity of mining works and diverse mining and geological conditions. Five regions, where tremors occurred (Bytom Trough, Main Saddle, Main Trough, Kazimierz Trough, and Jejkowice and Chwałowice Trough) which belong to various structural units of the Upper Silesia were analyzed. It was found out that rock bursts were recorded only in three regions: Main Saddle, Bytom Trough, and Jejkowice and Chwałowice Trough.

  6. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x} SO {sub x} and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R&D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO{sub x} production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  7. Pulverized coal firing of aluminum melting furnaces. First annual technical progress report, May 1978-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.E.; Hines, J.E.; Stewart, D.L. Jr.; Yu, H.

    1979-10-01

    The ultimate objective of this program is the commercial demonstration of an efficient, environmentally acceptable coal firing process suitable for implementation on melting furnaces throughout the aluminum industry. To achieve this goal, the program has been divided into two phases. Phase I has begun with the design and construction of a 350 lb/h (coal) staged slagging cyclone combustor (SSCC) attached to a 7-ft dia aluminum melting ladle furnace. Process development will culminate with a 1000 pph prototype SSCC firing a 40,000 lb capacity open hearth melting furnace at the Alcoa Laboratories. Phase II implementation is currently planned for Alcoa's Lafayette, IN, Works, where two of the ingot plant's five open hearth melting furnaces will be converted to utilize coal. In addition to confirmation of data gathered in Phase I, the effect of extended production schedule operation on equipment and efficiencies will be determined. This work would begin in 1982 pursuant to technical and economic evaluation of the process development at that time. A major design subcontract for assistance in the design of the SSCC is 80% completed.

  8. Materials technology for coal-conversion processes. Progress report, January-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, William A.

    1980-06-01

    The program entails nondestructive testing, failure analysis, and studies of erosive wear, corrosion, and refractory degradation. Analysis of recent refractory-slag interaction tests suggests that as the chromia content is increased from 10 to 32%, the primary reaction product changes from calcium hexaluminate to spinel, significantly increasing the corrosion resistance of the refractory. Field reliability of the high-temperature ultrasonic erosion scanner was demonstrated at both a coal liquefaction plant (SRC at Tacoma, WA) and a coal gasification plant (Morgantown, WV). Continuous high-temperature operation has been demonstrated and an accuracy of +-0.025 mm seems achievable. Equipment has been ordered for field tests of passive acoustic systems at Exxon. This includes a four-channel tape recorder, differential amplifiers, and signal conditioners. Corrosion studies have been completed on effects of multicomponent gas environments on corrosion mechanisms and uniaxial tensile properties of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys. Results of these and other tests utilizing 10,000-h exposures suggest that corrosion rates of 0.6 mm/y can be expected. Failure analysis activities included studies of compressor diaphragms from the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center coal-liquefaction continuous-process unit. Cracks were found in two of the three diaphragms. Failure of an internal solids transfer line from HYGAS appears to have been caused by severe localized sulfidation of the high-nickel Inconel 182 weld metal used to fabricate the line.

  9. Coal mining activities change plant community structure due to air pollution and soil degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Bhanu; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Singh, Siddharth

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coal mining activities on the community structures of woody and herbaceous plants. The response of individual plants of community to defilement caused by coal mining was also assessed. Air monitoring, soil physico-chemical and phytosociological analyses were carried around Jharia coalfield (JCF) and Raniganj coalfield. The importance value index of sensitive species minified and those of tolerant species enhanced with increasing pollution load and altered soil quality around coal mining areas. Although the species richness of woody and herbaceous plants decreased with higher pollution load, a large number of species acclimatized to the stress caused by the coal mining activities. Woody plant community at JCF was more affected by coal mining than herbaceous community. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that structure of herbaceous community was mainly driven by soil total organic carbon, soil nitrogen, whereas woody layer community was influenced by sulphur dioxide in ambient air, soil sulphate and soil phosphorus. The changes in species diversity observed at mining areas indicated an increase in the proportion of resistant herbs and grasses showing a tendency towards a definite selection strategy of ecosystem in response to air pollution and altered soil characteristics.

  10. Impact of coal structural heterogeneity on the nonideal sorption of organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xin; Fu, Heyun; Li, Yuan; Mao, Jingdong; Zheng, Shourong; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2011-06-01

    Carbonaceous geosorbents (black carbon, coal, and humin/kerogen) play a primary role in the nonideal sorption (isotherm nonlinearity, hysteresis, and multiphasic kinetics) of hydrophobic organic chemicals by soils and sediments. The present study investigated the impact of coal structural heterogeneity on sorption/desorption of two model monoaromatic compounds (1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,3-dinitrobenzene). Due to the higher degree of aromaticity and condensation, anthracite showed stronger sorption affinity and nonlinearity and slower sorption kinetics than lignite. Removal of humic substances by alkali extraction and/or mineral fraction by acidification did not much affect organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficient to the coal, suggesting nearly complete accessibility of adsorption sites on the condensed organic carbon. However, the treatments greatly increased sorption kinetics and meanwhile alleviated hysteresis of 1,3-dinitrobenzene, as compared with the original lignite. These observations were attributed to the enhanced exposure of high-energy adsorption sites on the condensed organic carbon after exfoliating the surface coverage by humic substances and minerals. An empirical biphasic pseudo-second-order model consisting of a fast sorption phase and a slow sorption phase adequately quantified the overall sorption kinetics for the coal sorbents. The results indicated that the condensed organic carbon, in combination with other structural components, controls the nonideal sorption of unburned coal. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  11. Recent Progress in Large-Scale Structure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    I will discuss recent progress in the understanding of how to model galaxy clustering. While recent analyses have focussed on the baryon acoustic oscillations as a probe of cosmology, galaxy redshift surveys contain a lot more information than the acoustic scale. In extracting this additional information three main issues need to be well understood: nonlinear evolution of matter fluctuations, galaxy bias and redshift-space distortions. I will present recent progress in modeling these three effects that pave the way to constraining cosmology and galaxy formation with increased precision.

  12. X-ray Computed Tomography of coal: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maylotte, D.H.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.; Lamby, E.J.

    1986-12-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a method of mapping with x-rays the internal structures of coal. The technique normally produces 2-D images of the internal structures of an object. These images can be recast to create pseudo 3-D representations. CT of coal has been explored for a variety of different applications to coal and coal processing technology. In a comparison of CT data with conventional coal analyses and petrography, CT was found to offer a good indication of the total ash content of the coal. The spatial distribution of the coal mineral matter as seen with CT has been suggested as an indicator of coal washability. Studies of gas flow through coal using xenon gas as a tracer have shown the extremely complicated nature of the modes of penetration of gas through coal, with significant differences in the rates at which the gas can pass along and across the bedding planes of coal. In a special furnace designed to allow CT images to be taken while the coal was being heated, the pyrolysis and gasification of coal have been studied. Gasification rates with steam and CO/sub 2/ for a range of coal ranks have been obtained, and the location of the gasification reactions within the piece of coal can be seen. Coal drying and the progress of the pyrolysis wave into coal have been examined when the coal was subjected to the kind of sudden temperature jump that it might experience in fixed bed gasifier applications. CT has also been used to examine stable flow structures within model fluidized beds and the accessibility of lump coal to microbial desulfurization. 53 refs., 242 figs., 26 tabs.

  13. Cost structure of coal- and nuclear-fired electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmuth, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the cost structure of coal and nuclear electric power generation. The emphasis of the paper is to empirically estimate the direct costs of generating base-load electric power at the plant level. Empirically, the paper first investigates the relative comparative costs of nuclear and coal power generation, based on historical operating data. Consideration of the learning curve and other dynamic elements is incorporated in the analysis. The second empirical thrust is to inestigate economies of scale for both technologies. The results from the empirical studies give an indication as to the future and present cost viability of each technology. Implications toward energy policy are discussed

  14. Preparation of Fe-intercalated Graphite Based on Coal Tailings, Dimensional Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Gustian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercalated graphite from coal tailings have been modified through the intercalation of iron. Coal tailings which is a byproduct of the destruction process and flakes washing results from mining coal. Intercalation of iron goal is to improve the physical properties of graphite and modifying sizes of crystal lattice structure with thermal method. Modification process begins with the carbonization of coal tailings at 500ºC and activated with phosphoric acid. Activation process has done by pyrolysis at 700ºC. The results of pyrolysis was soaked in mineral oil for 24 hours, then pyrolysis again with variations in temperature 800°C and 900ºC for 1 hour and subsequent intercalation iron at 1% and 2%. Material before activated, after activated, and the results of pyrolysis still indicates order nano: 29, 25 and 36 nm respectively. X-ray diffraction characterization results indicate that change in the structure, the sizes crystal lattice structure of the material The greater the concentration of iron was added, the resulting peak at 2θ = 33 and 35 also will be more sharply. The results of SEM showed different morphologies from each treatment.

  15. Fundamental research on surface science of coal in support of physical beneficiation of coal: Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, R. J.; Keller, Jr., D. V.

    1989-01-01

    Research on coal surfaces continued. Our contact angle study of the decane-water-coal system has been extended using various ranks of coal. The study of the effect of surface oxidation on contact angles has also been extended to Upper Freeport, Illinois No. 6 and Kentucky No. 9 coals. Measurements of contact angles of liquid-air interfaces, on polished surfaces of coal of two different ranks, have been made using the captive drop technique. The data have been analyses using the acid/base theory. Some preliminary contact angle measurements have been made on rock pyrite, using the microscopic technique. The measurements were carried out for decane-water interfaces. A study of laboratory-scale agglomeration has been undertaken, using an Osterizer blender. The coals used were Illinois No. 6 and Kentucky No. 9. The effect of CO/sub 2/ on the agglomeration process has been looked into. Finally, the adsorption alcohols (cyclohexanol and n-octanol) from both aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, onto coal, has been measured. Two ranks of coal were used: Upper Freeport (mvb) and Illinois No. 6 (hvcb). 9 refs., 6 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Progress report on nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    In this report, new results are reported for the decay and nuclear orientation of 114,116 I and 114 Sb as well as data for the structure of daughter nuclides 114,116 Te. New results for IBM-2 calculations for the structure of 126 Xe are also reported. 6 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Coal froth flotation: effects of reagent adsorption on the froth structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meryem Ozmak; Zeki Aktas [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering

    2006-05-15

    The amount and quality of concentrate obtained from froth flotation of a coal are very important to determine the efficiency of the separation process. The shape and size of the bubbles in the froth directly affect the amount and purity of the concentrate overflowed during the froth flotation of the coal. The froth structure is significantly dependent on parameters such as the size of the solid particles, the surface properties of the particles, the chemical structure of surface active agents, the reagents adsorbed onto solid particles, and the reagents remaining in water. This work was performed to determine the relationship between the reagents adsorbed on the solid particles, froth structure, and froth flotation performance. The -53 {mu}m size fraction of a bituminous coal was used to perform froth flotation experiments. The froth flotation of the coal used was performed in the presence of two nonionic surfactants, Triton x-100 (poly(ethylene glycol) tert-octylphenyl ether) and MIBC (methyl isobutyl carbinol), and an anionic surfactant, SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). The results showed that the adsorption of a high amount of reagent on the particles decreased the ability of separation, thus a substantial amount of mineral particles overflowed along with the hydrophobic coal particles. The use of MIBC with Triton x-100 or SDS as mixture increased solid recovery, and it was concluded that MIBC selectively adsorbed on solids acting as collector as well as a frother. Reagent adsorption has a crucial effect on the froth structure, which is strongly related to flotation performance. 33 refs., 18 figs.

  18. 13C-NMR Study on Structure Evolution Characteristics of High-Organic-Sulfur Coals from Typical Chinese Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The structure evolution characteristics of high-organic-sulfur (HOS coals with a wide range of ranks from typical Chinese areas were investigated using 13C-CP/MAS NMR. The results indicate that the structure parameters that are relevant to coal rank include CH3 carbon (fal*, quaternary carbon, CH/CH2 carbon + quaternary carbon (falH, aliphatic carbon (falC, protonated aromatic carbon (faH, protonated aromatic carbon + aromatic bridgehead carbon (faH+B, aromaticity (faCP, and aromatic carbon (farC. The coal structure changed dramatically in the first two coalification jumps, especially the first one. A large number of aromatic structures condensed, and aliphatic structures rapidly developed at the initial stage of bituminous coal accompanied by remarkable decarboxylation. Compared to ordinary coals, the structure evolution characteristics of HOS coals manifest in three ways: First, the aromatic CH3 carbon, alkylated aromatic carbon (faS, aromatic bridgehead carbon (faB, and phenolic ether (faP are barely relevant to rank, and abundant organic sulfur has an impact on the normal evolution process of coal. Second, the average aromatic cluster sizes of some super-high-organic-sulfur (SHOS coals are not large, and the extensive development of cross bonds and/or bridged bonds form closer connections among the aromatic fringes. Moreover, sulfur-containing functional groups are probably significant components in these linkages. Third, a considerable portion of “oxygen-containing functional groups” in SHOS coals determined by 13C-NMR are actually sulfur-containing groups, which results in the anomaly that the oxygen-containing structures increase with coal rank.

  19. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix H: Work breakdown structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A work breakdown structure (WBS) is presented which encompasses the multiple facets (hardware, software, services, and other tasks) of the coal gasification program. The WBS is shown to provide the basis for the following: management and control; cost estimating; budgeting and reporting; scheduling activities; organizational structuring; specification tree generation; weight allocation and control; procurement and contracting activities; and serves as a tool for program evaluation.

  20. Progress in research on aging of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Mori, Y.; Arndt, E.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is conducted for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program has the overall objective of preparing an expandable handbook or report which will provide the NRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in nuclear power plant evaluations for continued service. Initial focus of the program is on concrete and concrete-related materials which comprise the safety-related (Category I) structures in light-water reactor facilities. The program consists of a management task and three technical tasks: materials property data base, structural component assessment/repair technology, and quantitative methodology for continued service determinations. Objectives, background information, and accomplishments under each of these tasks are presented

  1. Progress in research on aging of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Mori, Y.; Arndt, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is conducted for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program has the overall objective of preparing an expandable handbook or report which will provide the NRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in nuclear power plant evaluations for continued service. Initial focus of the program is on concrete and concrete-related materials which comprise the safety-related (Category 1) structures in light-water reactor facilities. The program consists of a management task and three technical tasks: materials property data base, structural component assessment/repair technology, and quantitative methodology for continued service determinations. Objectives, background information, and accomplishments under each of these tasks are presented

  2. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction infratechnology and generic technology development: Final report, October 1, 1985 to December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1987-06-29

    During the first year of its research program, the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science has made significant progress in many areas of coal liquefaction and coal structure research. Research topics for which substantial progress has been made include integrated coal structure and liquefaction studies, investigation of differential liquefaction processes, development and application of sophisticated techniques for structural analysis, computer analysis of multivariate data, biodesulfurization of coal, catalysis studies, co-processing of coal and crude oil, coal dissolution and extraction processes, coal depolymerization, determination of the liquefaction characteristics of many US coals for use in a liquefaction database, and completion of a retrospective technology assessment for direct coal liquefaction. These and related topics are discussed in considerably more detail in the remainder of this report. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base.

  3. Magnetic relaxation--coal swelling, extraction, pore size. Technical progress report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doetschman, D.C.

    1991-12-31

    The grant activities during this period fall into four categories: (1) Completion of preparatory work, (2) Procedure refinement and actual preparation of whole coal, coal residue, coal extract and swelled coal samples for NMR studies, (3) Related studies of coal photolysis that employ materials from preliminary extractions and that examine the u.v.-visible and mass spectra of the extracts and (4) Continued investigations of the pulsed EPR characteristics of the whole coal samples that were prepared in the first quarter of the grant.

  4. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1992-01-01

    We report here oil the progress that we made for the nine months beginning October 1, 1991 for DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-87ER40309. The report covers the third year of a three year grant. Since we are submitting an accompanying Grant Renewal Proposal, we provide in this report more background information than usual for the different projects. The theme that unites the experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of AGS bar p experiment E854, AGS heavy ion experiment E810, as-well as the approved STAR experiment at RHIC), - all these projects share this common goal. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: That of just how colored quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they traverse nuclei of different-sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned, above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are available to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do. The format we follow in the Progress Report is,to provide a concise, but fairly complete write-up on each project. The publications listed in Section In give much greater detail on many of the projects. The aim in this report is to focus on the physics goals, the results, and their significance

  5. Production and screening of carbon products precursors from coal. Quarterly technical progress report and key personnel staffing report No. 6, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The main goal of this program is to demonstrate the utility of coal extracts from the West Virginia University (WVU) extraction process as suitable base raw materials for the carbon products encompassed by the Carbon Products Consortium (CPC) team. This quarterly report covers activities during the period from April 1, 1996 through June 30, 1996. The first year of the project ended in February, 1996; however, the WVU research effort has continued on a no-cost extension of the original contract. Samples have been supplied to CPC participants so they could conduct their portions of the project as contracted through ORNL. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: project planning and administration; consortium administration and reporting; coal extraction; technical/economic evaluation of WVU extraction process; and technology transfer. Previous work has shown that the WVU coal extraction process coupled with hydrotreatment, does have the potential for producing suitable base raw materials for carbon products. Current effort, therefore, involved the screening and evaluation of extracts produced by the WVU Group and recommending appropriate materials for scaleup for subsequent evaluation by Consortium Team members. As part of this program, the activation of the coal extraction residues was investigated for the purpose of producing a useful active carbon. A further task, which was started towards the end of the program, was to fabricate a small graphite artifact using Coke derived from coal extract as the filler and the coal extract itself as a binder. The results of these studies are summarized in this report.

  6. [Parent schools: definition, progress and structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstadinidis, L; Goga, P

    2015-01-01

    The institution of parent training is not an innovation. It exists since the beginning of the previous century. Presently, the parent training programmes or the so-called parent schools in Greece are structured programmes with specific coverage and set goals, their ultimate purpose is the prevention of the mental health of the child and they belong to a variety of interventions for parents. They address to parents of infants, toddlers, children and adolescents and show several differences regarding the form, content, purpose and theoretical direction they are based on. There are three categories of parent training programs. The programs that address all parents of the general population, the programs that are designed and implemented in special groups of parents or for a special purpose and the programs that address parents and children with specific serious problems. Usually, depending on their orientation, the parent training programs have either a parent-child relationship orientation (humanistic) or a behavioral orientation (behavioral). Research in the field of parent training saw that interventions based on Cognitive Behavioral Theory seem to be more effective than other interventions. The parent training programs-schools of parents are applied in almost all the regions of Greece. Unfortunately the existing data related to the structure, the content, the theoretical background and the effectiveness of these programs is not enough. The present study tries to review the bibliography concerning the development of the parent training programmes. The most significant data about the categories of the training programmes, as well as information about the structure, the content and the cost of these programmes, are also reviewed. Finally, the most popular programmes are mentioned based on their impact, according to the results of the studies.

  7. An Innovative Support Structure for Gob-Side Entry Retention in Steep Coal Seam Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Ning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study considered longwall working face No. 41101—located in a steeply inclined coal seam at the Awuzisu coal mine in Xinjiang, China—as an example in which macroscopic shear cracks had occurred in the cement-based filling body of the gob-side entry retention structure. A mechanical model of the support structure for the gob-side entry retention was first established. Then, field observations and laboratory tests were used to obtain the force exerted by the coal wall on the main roof, the relationship between the axial bearing capacity and compression ratio of the rubble inside the gob, the supporting force exerted by the rubble and filling body, and the thrust of the rubble on the filling body. The shear stress experienced by the roadside filling body of the gob-side entry retention in working face No. 41101 was calculated to be 15.89 MPa. To meet the needs of roadside support, an innovative roadside backfill–truss support structure was adopted, with a 60° angle of inclination used for the anchor bolts of the gob-side entry retention structure. In this way, the ultimate shear strength was improved by 107.54% in comparison with the cement-based filling body.

  8. Model proposal for representing a deep coal mine spatial and functional structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Iwaszenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal mining usually requires the development of a set of underground corridors (workings. The workings fulfill many different functions. They are used for transportation, ventilation, dewatering and even escape pathways. The proposition of a formal representation of a working's structure for deep coal mining has been presented. The model was developed as a basis for the software system, support management and operational activities for longwall deep mine. The proposed solution is based on graph formalism along with its matrix representation. However, the idea of matrix representation is enhanced. Not only are the topological properties of workings structure considered, but also information about their functions and spatial characteristic. The object model was designed and implemented based upon the matrix idea.

  9. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (eds.)

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  10. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Technical progress report, September 1995 - March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [and others

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. During this reporting period, the Phase I final report was completed. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included completing a study to identify appropriate SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies for coal-fired industrial boilers. In addition, work continued on the design of a ceramic filtering device for installation on the demonstration boiler. The ceramic filtering device will be used to demonstrate a smaller and more efficient filtering device for retrofit applications. Work related to coal preparation and utilization, and the economic analysis was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  11. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of chemical analyses to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods are obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, new analytical instruments and techniques to examine coal-derived samples are being evaluated. The data obtained form this study are used to guide process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank, established and maintained for use in this project, is available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) is being examined. From the literature and experimental data, a kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. Such a model will provide insights to improve process performance and the economics of direct coal liquefaction.

  12. Nuclear structure research. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The most significant development this year has been the realization that EO transition strength is a fundamental manifestation of nuclear mean-square charge radius differences. Thus, EO transitions provide a fundamental signature for shape coexistence in nuclei. In this sense, EO transitions are second only to E2 transitions for signaling (quadrupole) shapes in nuclei and do so when shape differences occur. A major effort has been devoted to the review of EO transitions in nuclei. Experiments have been carried out or are scheduled at: ATLAS/FMA (α decay of very neutron-deficient Bi isotopes); MSU/NSCL (β decay of 56 Cu); and HRIBF/RMS (commissioning of tape collector, internal conversion/internal-pair spectrometer; β decay of 58 Cu). A considerable effort has been devoted to planning the nuclear structure physics that will be pursued using HRIBF. Theoretical investigations have continued in collaboration with Prof. K. Heyde, Prof. D.J. Rowe, Prof. J.O. Rasmussen, and Prof. P.B. Semmes. These studies focus on shape coexistence and particle-core coupling

  13. Nuclear structure research. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The most significant development this year has been the realization of a method for estimating EO transition strength in nuclei and the prediction that the de-excitation (draining) of superdeformed bands must take place, at least in some cases, by strong EO transitions. A considerable effort has been devoted to planning the nuclear structure physics that will be pursued using the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge. A significant effort has been devoted to HRIBF target development. This is a critical component of the HRIBF project. Exhaustive literature searches have been made for a variety of target materials with emphasis on thermodynamic properties. Vapor pressure measurements have been carried out. Experimental data sets for radioactive decays in the very neutron-deficient Pr-Eu and Ir-Tl regions have been under analysis. These decay schemes constitute parts of student Ph.D. theses. These studies are aimed at elucidating the onset of deformation in the Pr-Sm region and the characteristics of shape coexistence in the Ir-Bi region. Further experiments on shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient Ir-Bi region are planned using α decay studies at the FMA at ATLAS. The first experiment is scheduled for later this year

  14. Structural variations in lignite coal: a small angle X-ray scattering investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, P. U.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Chandrasekaran, K. S.

    2000-04-01

    The structural morphology of raw and processed lignite coal specimens from Neyveli (Tamil Nadu, India) is characterized over a length scale of 5-100 nm by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The scattering profile from the unprocessed lignite specimen exhibits two distinct power laws indicating different fractal morphologies over different length scales: a pore fractal (dimension Dp˜2.7) for the pore-coal interface below 17 nm and a surface fractal (dimension Ds˜2.3) above 17 nm. As a result of industrial processing at different temperature, pressure and carbonization, significant changes in the structure are noticed as indicated by the scattering profiles. The fractal roughness of the pore-coal interface becomes smooth (average Ds˜2) for a large window of the length scale, whereas a part of the pore fractal transforms to a surface ( Ds˜2.8). The specimen treated at relatively higher temperature exhibits further variation from the fractal geometry with a tendency to form a new non-fractal micropore structure for the length scale ≤8 nm.

  15. Geohydrology and potential effects of coal mining in 12 coal-lease areas, Powder River structural basin, northeastern Wyoming. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogg, J.L.; Martin, M.W.; Daddow, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the report is to describe the geohydrology of 12 coal-lease areas in the Powder River structural basin in relation to the mining proposed for each area. The description of the geohydrology of each of the lease areas focuses on the shallow ground-water system and includes identification of recharge and discharge areas, directions of ground-water movement, and potential effects of mining. The shallow ground-water system in the Powder River structural basin is not well defined because of the discontinuous nature of the aquifers in the basin. Understanding the ground-water hydrology of these 12 coal-lease areas will improve understanding of the shallow ground-water system in the basin. The first part of the report is a description of the general geohydrology of the Wyoming part of the Powder River structural basin. The second part of the report is a general discussion of the effects of coal mining on ground-water hydrology. The third part of the report contains site-specific discussions of the ground-water hydrology and potential effects of mining for each of the 12 coal-lease areas

  16. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vo1 7, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In China, there are bottle-necks of the coal transportation capacity in the major inter-regional routes. The Chinese Government`s eighth and ninth five-year plans intend to increase the capacity. In the 9% growth case, the planned railway transport capacity will be critical. Measures are considered, as to promotion of coal dressing, transport as electric power, construction of nuclear power plants and hydraulic power plants, and construction of coal water slurry pipe lines. Japan`s coal policy includes the structural adjustment of coal mining industry, and a new policy for coal in the total energy policy. To secure the stable overseas coal supply, NEDO has a leading part in overseas coal resources development. Coal demand and supply, mining technology, mine safety, coal preparation and processing technology, and comprehensive coal utilization technology including clean coal technology in Japan are described. At present, Thailand is progressing with the seventh plan, and the development of domestic energy emphasize lignite, natural gas, and oil. Thai import demand for high-quality coal is to be increasing. Japan`s cooperation is considered to be effective for the environmental problems. 12 figs., 40 tabs.

  17. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The experimental study of coal swelling ratios have been determined with a wide variety of solvents. Only marginal levels of coal swelling were observed for the hydrocarbon solvents, but high levels were found with solvents having heteroatom functionality. Blends were superior to pure solvents. The activity of various catalyst precursors for pyrene hydrogenation and coal conversion was measured. Higher coal conversions were observed for the S0{sub 2}-treated coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Coal conversions were highest for Molyvan-L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively. Bottoms processing consists of a combination of the ASCOT process coupling solvent deasphalting with delayed coking. Initial results indicate that a blend of butane and pentane used near the critical temperature of butane is the best solvent blend for producing a yield/temperature relationship of proper sensitivity and yet retaining an asphalt phase of reasonable viscosity. The literature concerning coal swelling, both alone and in combination with coal liquefaction, and the use of dispersed or unsupported catalysts in coal liquefaction has been updated.

  18. PPLICATION OF COAL MINING WASTE IN THE PRODUCTION OF STRUCTURAL CERAMICS USING AN ECOLOGICALLY FRIENDLY AND RESOURCE SAVING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaysman Yakov Iosifovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article states that the use of spoil heaps (coal mining waste in the production of structural ceramics is expedient. It shows the reduction of negative ecological effects during the life cycle when coal mining waste is used in the initial blend for the production of structural ceramics. It shows that the development of the recommendations for the use of coal mining waste in the production of structural ceramics is an urgent issue as far as the use of coal mining waste in the production of structural ceramics can lead both to the achievement of resource saving and positive ecological effect and to the undesirable decrease of the basic physical and mechanical properties of the final products when the structure of the mix is inappropriate. In order to develop these recommendations the authors have examined the microstructure, mineral composition and physical and mechanical properties of structural ceramics produced with the use of coal mining waste, which effect the consumer properties of the target material. As a result of the research the authors have made the conclusions about the nature and degree of impact of coal mining waste quantity on the physical and mechanical properties of construction ceramics. The comparison of the data received during the measurement of the basic physical and mechanical properties of construction ceramics with the results of the research of microstructure, elemental and mineral composition of the samples has shown their correlation.

  19. Anomalous Hall conductivity and electronic structures of Si-substituted Mn2CoAl epitaxial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, K.; Kuroda, F.; Yamada, S.; Fukushima, T.; Oguchi, T.; Hamaya, K.

    2018-02-01

    We study anomalous Hall conductivity (σAHC) and electronic band structures of Si-substituted Mn2CoAl (Mn2CoAl1 -xSix ). First-principles calculations reveal that the electronic band structure is like a spin-gapless system even after substituting a quaternary element of Si for Al up to x =0.2 in Mn2CoAl1 -xSix . This means that the Si substitution enables the Fermi-level shift without largely changing the electronic structures in Mn2CoAl . By using molecular beam epitaxy techniques, Mn2CoAl1 -xSix epitaxial films can be grown, leading to the systematic control of x (0 ⩽x ⩽0.3 ). In addition to the electrical conductivity, the values of σAHC for the Mn2CoAl1 -xSix films are similar to those in Mn2CoAl films shown in previous reports. We note that a very small σAHC of ˜1.1 S/cm is obtained for x = 0.225, and the sign of σAHC is changed from positive to negative at around x = 0.25. We discuss the origin of the sign reversal of σAHC as a consequence of the Fermi-level shift in Mn2CoAl . Considering the presence of the structural disorder in the Mn2CoAl1 -xSix films, we can conclude that the small value and sign reversal of σAHC are not related to the characteristics of spin-gapless semiconductors.

  20. Bioconversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, H.

    1993-10-25

    The overall objective of the project is to develop an integrated two stage fermentation process for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to a mixture of alcohols. This is achieved in two steps. In the first step, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) to butyric and acetic acids. Subsequent fermentation of the acids by Clostridium acetobutylicum leads to the production of butanol and ethanol. The tasks for this quarter were: (1) development/isolation of superior strains for fermentation of syngas, (2) optimization of process conditions for fermentation of syngas, (3) evaluation of bioreactor configuration for improved mass transfer of syngas, (4) development of a membrane-based pervaporation system, (5) optimization of process conditions for reducing carbon and electron loss by H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} fermentation, and (6) synthesis gas fermentation in single-stage by co-culture. Progress is reported in isolation of CO utilizing anaerobic strains; investigating the product profile for the fermentation of syngas by B. methylotrophicum; and determining the effect of carbon monoxide on growth of C. acetobutylicum.

  1. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  2. Progress report 2003 - coal; Rapport d'activite 2003 - charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents the activities of the Group ''Charbonnages de France'' in 2003. The administration council is detailed in the new structure and organization. It concerns also the end of the industrial activities, the social policy, the mine sites remediation, the industrialization of mine regions, the financial results and key data. (A.L.B.)

  3. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. During this quarter, analyses were completed on 65 process samples from representative periods of HRI Run POC-2 in which coal, coal/plastics, and coal/rubber were the feedstocks. A sample of the oil phase of the oil/water separator from HRI Run POC-1 was analyzed to determine the types and concentrations of phenolic compounds. Chemical analyses and microautoclave tests were performed to monitor the oxidation and measure the reactivity of the standard coal (Old Ben Mine No. 1) which has been used for the last six years to determine solvent quality of process oils analyzed in this and previous DOE contracts.

  4. Progress Toward NLC/GLC Prototype Accelerator Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J

    2004-01-01

    The accelerator structure groups for NLC (Next Linear Collider) and GLC (Global Linear Colliders) have successfully collaborated on the research and development of a major series of advanced accelerator structures based on room-temperature technology at X-band frequency. The progress in design, simulation, microwave measurement and high gradient tests are summarized in this paper. The recent effort in design and fabrication of the accelerator structure prototype for the main linac is presented in detail including HOM (High Order Mode) suppression and design of HOM couplers and fundamental mode couplers, optimized accelerator cavities as well as plans for future structures

  5. Investigation of structural characteristics of coals. Two parameters of the electron absorption of coals and their connection with reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, V.K.; Rys' yanova, N.D.; Plastun, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    A method was developed for obtaining reflectance spectra of coals in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared regions utilising diffuse scattering of light. This enabled the determination of electron spectra to be considerably simplified. The method was used to evaluate changes in electron spectra of vitrinites with rank, using reflectance measurement as the determinant.

  6. Progressive failure analysis of fibrous composite materials and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahei-El-din, Yehia A.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description is given of the modifications implemented in the PAFAC finite element program for the simulation of progressive failure in fibrous composite materials and structures. Details of the memory allocation, input data, and the new subroutines are given. Also, built-in failure criteria for homogeneous and fibrous composite materials are described.

  7. Temperature induced development of porous structure of bituminous coal chars at high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Howaniec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The porous structure of chars affects their reactivity in gasification, having an impact on the course and product distribution of the process. The shape, size and connections between pores determine the mechanical properties of chars, as well as heat and mass transport in thermochemical processing. In the study the combined effects of temperature in the range of 973–1273 °K and elevated pressure of 3 MPa on the development of porous structure of bituminous coal chars were investigated. Relatively low heating rate and long residence time characteristic for the in-situ coal conversion were applied. The increase in the temperature to 1173 °K under pressurized conditions resulted in the enhancement of porous structure development reflected in the values of the specific surface area, total pore volume, micropore area and volume, as well as ratio of the micropore volume to the total pore volume. These effects were attributed to the enhanced vaporization and devolatilization, as well as swelling behavior along the increase of temperature and under high pressure, followed by a collapse of pores over certain temperature value. This proves the strong dependence of the porous structure of chars not only on the pyrolysis process conditions but also on the physical and chemical properties of the parent fuel.

  8. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. Some of the contract activities for this quarter are: We completed many of the analyses on the 81 samples received from HTI bench-scale run CMSL-9, in which coal, coal/mixed plastics, and coal/high density polyethylene were fed; Liquid chromatographic separations of the 15 samples in the University of Delaware sample set were completed; and WRI completed CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR analyses on the Delaware sample set.

  9. Robustness Assessment of RC Framed Structures against Progressive Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Antonio; Chiaia, Bernardino; De Biagi, Valerio

    2017-10-01

    The structural behaviour of buildings under overloading or extraordinary events like impacts, explosions or human errors is extensively admitted to be an influential feature of structural design. Structural robustness is a requirement provided by many current design codes. However, the problem is often recognized in a qualitative manner without referring to a specific process for the evaluation or the achievement of the robustness of constructions. In this paper, a novel procedure derived from dynamic and non-linear static analyses is provided for evaluating and comparing the relative robustness of reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings against progressive collapse. The developed methodology offers a formal way to compute “robustness curves” following the sudden loss of one or more vertical load carrying member/s. This method suggests a strategy for the definition of the robustness indices, which are applied to two RC frame buildings. The first building was designed for gravity load and earthquake resistance in accordance with Eurocode 8 and the second was the same structure, modified according to the tie force (TF) method. The TF method is one of the major design quantitative procedures for enhancing resistance to progressive collapse and it is currently recommended by the codes of practice. In an attempt to demonstrate the suitability of the procedure, the structural robustness and resistance to progressive collapse of the two schemes is compared.

  10. Analysis Methods for Progressive Damage of Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Cheryl A.; Davila, Carlos G.; Leone, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides an overview of recent accomplishments and lessons learned in the development of general progressive damage analysis methods for predicting the residual strength and life of composite structures. These developments are described within their State-of-the-Art (SoA) context and the associated technology barriers. The emphasis of the authors is on developing these analysis tools for application at the structural level. Hence, modeling of damage progression is undertaken at the mesoscale, where the plies of a laminate are represented as a homogenous orthotropic continuum. The aim of the present effort is establish the ranges of validity of available models, to identify technology barriers, and to establish the foundations of the future investigation efforts. Such are the necessary steps towards accurate and robust simulations that can replace some of the expensive and time-consuming "building block" tests that are currently required for the design and certification of aerospace structures.

  11. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1996-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. This project builds on work performed in DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC89883. Independent analyses by well-established methods are obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently under utilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples are being evaluated. The data obtained from this study is used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank, established and maintained for use in this project, is available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) is being examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction.

  12. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1996-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. During this reporting period, CONSOL completed analyses of 81 feed and process stream samples from HTI bench Run CMSL-9. HTI liquefaction bench unit Run CMSL-9 (227-87) was operated with all-dispersed catalyst and Black Thunder Mine (Wyodak and Anderson seam) coal, with and without mixed plastics or high density polyethylene (HDPE) as coprocessing feedstocks. The dispersed catalysts used were Molyvan A and HTI`s iron catalyst, a sulfated iron hydroxide. Results are discussed in this report.

  13. Combustion of pulverized coal in vortex structures. Final report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gollahalli, S.R.; Butuk, N.

    1996-03-01

    The objectives of the project were: (i) to understand the effects of heating one of the streams on the characteristics of shear layers, (ii) to investigate the changes in the characteristics of large scale vortex structures in the shear layer caused by the introduction of inert solid particles in one of the feed streams; (iii) to understand the effects of pyrolyzing solids on the shear layer behavior; and (iv) to study the effects of combustion of particles and their pyrolysis products on the shear layer structure, heat release rate, and pollutant emission characteristics. An experimental facility for generating two-dimensional shear layers containing vortex structures has been designed and fabricated. The experimental facility is essentially a low speed wind tunnel designed to (i) provide two gas streams, initially with uniform velocity profiles and isotropic turbulence, mixing at the end of a splitter plate, (ii) introduce vorticity by passively perturbing one of the streams, (iii) allow heating of one of the streams to temperatures high enough to cause pyrolysis of coal particles, and (iv) provide a natural gas flame in one of the streams to result in ignition and burning of coal particles.

  14. The structural and surface properties of natural and modified coal gangue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłońska, Beata; Kityk, Andriy V; Busch, Mark; Huber, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    A novel application of coal gangue as inexpensive adsorbents is considered in this study. The structural and surface properties of natural and modified gangue were studied via nitrogen adsorption. Four types of samples were studied: natural, modified with H 2 NO 3 and H 2 O 2 and calcined at 250 °C and 600 °C. The specific surface area and porosity of the samples were determined using various methods. The raw material is mainly mesoporous with relatively small specific surface area. The chemical modification enlarged the total pore volume and the specific surface area. The calcination at 250 °C enlarged slightly the pore volume and lowered the specific surface area, but did not cause significant changes in the structural properties. The calcination at 600 °C resulted in a significant increase in pore volume and a decrease in specific surface area. These results suggest that the coal gangue studied here could be used as inexpensive adsorbent in industrial wastewater pretreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  16. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Two base case flow sheets have now been prepared. In the first, which was originally presented in TPR4, a Texaco gasifier is used. Natural gas is also burned in sufficient quantity to increase the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the synthesis gas to the required value of 1. 1 for alcohol synthesis. Acid gas clean up and sulfur removal are accomplished using the Rectisol process followed by the Claus and Beavon processes. About 10% of the synthesis gas is sent to a power generation unit in order to produce electric power, with the remaining 90% used for alcohol synthesis. For this process, the estimated installed cost is $474.2 mm. The estimated annual operating costs are $64.5 MM. At a price of alcohol fuels in the vicinity of $1. 00/gal, the pay back period for construction of this plant is about four years. The details of this case, called Base Case 1, are presented in Appendix 1. The second base case, called Base Case 2, also has a detailed description and explanation in Appendix 1. In Base Case 2, a Lurgi Gasifier is used. The motivation for using a Lurgi Gasifier is that it runs at a lower temperature and pressure and, therefore, produces by-products such as coal liquids which can be sold. Based upon the economics of joint production, discussed in Technical Progress Report 4, this is a necessity. Since synthesis gas from natural gas is always less expensive to produce than from coal, then alcohol fuels will always be less expensive to produce from natural gas than from coal. Therefore, the only way to make coal- derived alcohol fuels economically competitive is to decrease the cost of production of coal-derived synthesis gas. one method for accomplishing this is to sell the by-products from the gasification step. The details of this strategy are discussed in Appendix 3.

  17. Stratigraphic and Structural Analysis of Coals in the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale and Fruitland Formation: Relationship to Coal Reservoir Permeability and Coalbed Methane Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kneedy, Jason Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Coal reservoir quality in the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale, and in the Fruitland Formation is dependent on coal cleat characteristics. Coal reservoir permeability increases as a result of high cleat density. From careful outcrop examination, we were able to identify several factors that increase cleat density. Vitrain coal typically has the highest fracture density as a result of having well-developed face cleats and conchoidal fractures. Clarain coal contains face and butt cle...

  18. A novel coal feeder for production of low sulfur fuel. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1990--October 1, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khang, S.J.; Lin, L.; Keener, T.C.; Yeh, P.

    1991-12-31

    A dual-screw feeder was designed for desulfurization of coal. This reactor contains two screw tubes, the inner tube acting as a coal pyrolizer and the outer tube acting as a desulfurizer with hot calcined lime pellets or other renewable sorbent pellets. The objectives of this project is to study the feasibility of an advanced concept of desulfurization and possibly some denitrification in this coal feeder. In this year, two basic studies have been performed: (1) the desulfurization and (2) the denitrification due to mild pyrolysis. Specifically, the following tasks have been performed: (1) Setting up the Dual-Screw reactor, (2) Determination of the pyrolysis product and the sulfur distribution in char, tar and gas based on experimental data, (3) Study of the devolatilization, the desulfurization kinetics and the denitrification kinetics and obtaining the basic kinetic parameters, (4) Study of the sulfur removal efficiency of lime pellets fed into the outer tube of the dual-feeder reactor, (5) Study of the effect of the coal particle size on pyrolysis and desulfurization, (6) Study of the coal pyrolysis and desulfurization using a TGA(Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer).

  19. Dynamic analysis on market structure of China's coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qing; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    According to industrial organization theory, market structure is a crucial factor to market performance. Based on the VAR model and the data from 1994 to 2014, we revealed the dynamic response route of the market structure to these factors and the change process of contribution rate of these factors to the market structure. It shows that market structure is inertial adjustment; technology advance and industry policy have continuous effects on improvement of market concentration ratio; market size and production scale have sustained negative effects on market concentration ratio; fixed capital has barrier effect, which is mainly the entry barrier effect at the beginning, and then the exit barrier effect continues to play a leading role. Therefore, the government has no need to introduce special policies to encourage merger or expansion on the capacity as enterprises would do it spontaneously; it is necessary to make market access system stricter, to improve exit compensation mechanism and to promote technological innovation; all these policies need dynamic adjustment based on the stages of economic cycle. - Highlights: • The adjustment mechanism of China's coal market structure is revealed. • Technology and industry policy are significant factors to optimize the market structure. • The government need not introduce special policy to encourage merger. • The market access system should be stricter. • Policies strength should be dynamically adjusted based on the economic cycle.

  20. Environmental, physical and structural characterisation of geopolymer matrixes synthesised from coal (co-)combustion fly ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Querol, X; Plana, F; Alastuey, A; Moreno, N; Izquierdo, M; Font, O; Moreno, T; Diez, S; Vázquez, E; Barra, M

    2008-06-15

    The synthesis of geopolymer matrixes from coal (co-)combustion fly ashes as the sole source of silica and alumina has been studied in order to assess both their capacity to immobilise the potentially toxic elements contained in these coal (co-)combustion by-products and their suitability to be used as cement replacements. The geopolymerisation process has been performed using (5, 8 and 12 M) NaOH solutions as activation media and different curing time (6-48 h) and temperature (40-80 degrees C) conditions. Synthesised geopolymers have been characterised with regard to their leaching behaviour, following the DIN 38414-S4 [DIN 38414-S4, Determination of leachability by water (S4), group S: sludge and sediments. German standard methods for the examination of water, waste water and sludge. Institut für Normung, Berlin, 1984] and NEN 7375 [NEN 7375, Leaching characteristics of moulded or monolithic building and waste materials. Determination of leaching of inorganic components with the diffusion test. Netherlands Normalisation Institute, Delft, 2004] procedures, and to their structural stability by means of compressive strength measurements. In addition, geopolymer mineralogy, morphology and structure have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. It was found that synthesised geopolymer matrixes were only effective in the chemical immobilisation of a number of elements of environmental concern contained in fly ashes, reducing (especially for Ba), or maintaining their leachable contents after the geopolymerisation process, but not for those elements present as oxyanions. Physical entrapment does not seem either to contribute in an important way, in general, to the immobilisation of oxyanions. The structural stability of synthesised geopolymers was mainly dependent on the glass content of fly ashes, attaining at the optimal activation conditions (12 M NaOH, 48 h, 80

  1. Progress in organic and physical chemistry structures and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Zaikov, Gennady E; Lobanov, Anton V

    2013-01-01

    Progress in Organic and Physical Chemistry: Structures and Mechanisms provides a collection of new research in the field of organic and physical properties, including new research on: The physical principles of the conductivity of electrical conducting polymer compounds The dependence on constants of electromagnetic interactions upon electron spacial-energy characteristics Effects of chitosan molecultural weight on rehological behavior of chitosan modified nanoclay at hight hydrated state Bio-structural energy criteria of functional states in normal and pathological conditions Potentiometric study on the international between devalent cations and sodium carboxylates in aqueous solutions Structural characteristic changes in erythrocyte membranes of mice bearing Alzheimer's-like disease caused by the olfactory bulbetomy This volume is intended to provide an overview of new studies and research for engineers, faculty, researchers, and upper-level students in the field of organic and physical chemistry.

  2. Production and screening of carbon products precursors from coal. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zondlo, J.; Stiller, A.

    1996-10-25

    This quarterly report covers activities during the period from July 1, 1996 through September 30, 1996 on the development of carbon products precursor materials from coal. The first year of the project ended in February, 1996; however, the WVU research effort continued through August 14, 1997 on a no-cost extension of the original contract. PETC chose to exercise the option for continuation of the projects and $100,000 became available on August 9, 1996. The objective for year two is to focus on development of those carbon products from coal-based solvent extract precursors which have the greatest possibility for commercial success.

  3. Nuclear Structure Group annual progress report June 1974 -May 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    This is the first annual progress report of the Nuclear Structure Group of the University of Birmingham. The introduction lists the main fields of study of the Group as: polarisation penomena and optical model studies using 3 He and 4 He probes; photonuclear physics; heavy-ion physics; and K- meson physics. The programme is related to particle accelerators at Birmingham, Oxford, Harwell and the Rutherford Laboratory. The body of the report consists of summaries of 38 experiments undertaken by members of the Group. The third section contains 10 notes on instrumentation topics. Appendices contain lists of (a) personnel, (b) papers published or submitted during the period. (U.K.)

  4. Structural and functional characteristics of natural and constructed channels draining a reclaimed mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has altered the landscape of the Central Appalachian region in the United States. The goals of this study were to 1) compare the structure and function of natural and constructed stream channels in forested and MTR/VF catch...

  5. Fundamental data needs for coal conversion technology. Six-month progress report, August 15, 1976--February 15, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, N.J.

    1977-02-28

    A survey of various coal gasification and liquefaction processes was carried out to determine the information needs of each process with respect to: physical properties, chemical properties, thermodynamic properties and transport properties of materials involved in the processes and also with respect to the engineering type data needed. (LTN)

  6. Toxicity studies of underground coal gasification and tarsands processes. Progress report, February 1, 1982-January 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Process waters were obtained from trial coal gasification experiments at Hanna, Wyoming and Vernal, Utah. Samples were assayed for toxicity using the Ames test and the Paramecium bioassay. Results indicate that both the Paramecium and Ames bioassays show sporadic genotoxic response to the process waters. (DMC)

  7. Correlation between optical, chemical and micro-structural parameters of high-rank coals and graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, M.; Flores, D.; Guedes, A.; Rodrigues, S. [Departamento e Centro de Geologia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Suarez-Ruiz, I. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2009-01-31

    In order to identify the parameters that best characterize the chemical and structural evolution of organic matter during coalification, the relationships between optical, chemical and micro-structural parameters in high-rank coals and natural graphite were studied. The samples include anthracites from Penarroya-Belmez-Espiel Basin (Spain), Douro Basin (Portugal), and Alto Chicama Basin (Peru); and natural graphite from Canada, Mozambique, and Austria. Correlations between the following optical parameters were assessed: vitrinite random reflectance (R{sub r}), Reflectance Indicating Surfaces (RIS) axis (R{sub MAX}, R{sub INT} and R{sub MIN}), and RIS parameters (R{sub am}, R{sub ev} and R{sub st}), as well as B{sub w} and AI anisotropy parameters. Furthermore, the chemical parameters used were chosen according to their significant variation in coals, namely volatile matter, carbon, and hydrogen contents calculated in dry ash free basis (VM{sub daf}, C{sub daf}, H{sub daf}), as well as the H/C atomic ratio. Structural organization was characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy and XRD. Raman parameters used were the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and position of G and D1 bands on the first-order Raman spectrum, and the ID1/IG intensity area ratio. The selected XRD parameters were interlayer spacing d{sub 002}, and crystallite sizes L{sub a} and L{sub c}. Results show that: (i) R{sub MAX} RIS axis seems to correlate best with chemical and micro-structural parameters; (ii) for the majority of studied samples, H{sub daf} and H/C atomic ratio are the only chemical parameters with significant correlations with R{sub MAX}; (iii) the FWHM of the G band of Raman spectrum shows good linear correlation with the XRD parameter d{sub 002}; and, (iv) structural organization of carbon materials, as measured by trends in their optical and crystalline parameters, is influenced by their hydrogen content (daf basis) and therefore by the H/C atomic ratio. (author)

  8. Coal Matrix Deformation and Pore Structure Change in High-Pressure Nitrogen Replacement of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal matrix deformation is one of the main controlling factors for coal reservoir permeability changes in nitrogen foam fracturing. The characteristics and mechanism of coal matrix deformation during the process of adsorption/desorption were studied by isothermal adsorption/desorption experiments with methane and nitrogen. Based on the free-energy theories, the Langmuir equation, and elastic mechanics, mathematical models of coal matrix deformation were developed and the deformation characteristics in adsorption/desorption processes were examined. From the study, we deduced that the coal matrix swelling, caused by methane adsorption, was a Langmuir-type relationship with the gas pressure, and exponentially increased as the adsorption quantity increased. Then, the deformation rate and amplitude of the coal matrix decreased gradually with the increase of the pressure. At the following stage, where nitrogen replaces methane, the coal matrix swelling continued but the deformation amplitude decreased, which was only 19.60% of the methane adsorption stage. At the mixed gas desorption stage, the coal matrix shrank with the reduction of pressure and the shrinkage amount changed logarithmically with the pressure, which had the hysteresis effect when compared with the swelling in adsorption. The mechanism of coal matrix deformation was discussed through a comparison of the change of micropores, mesopores, and also part macropores in the adsorption process.

  9. NMR imaging studies of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Z.R.; Zhang, P.Z.; Ding, G.L.; Li, L.Y.; Ye, C.H. [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    The permeation transportation and swelling behavior of solvents into coal are investigated by NMR imaging using pyridine-d{sub 5} and acetone-d{sub 6}. Images of coal swollen with deuterated solvents illuminate proton distributions of mobile phases within the coal macromolecular networks. More information about the chemical and physical structure of coal can be obtained using NMR imaging techniques.

  10. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Draft quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report covers work carried out under Task 3, Preliminary R and D, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal-Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of >47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulates {le} 25% NSPS; cost {ge}65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign. A crucial aspect of the authors design is the integration of the gas turbine requirements with the HITAF output and steam cycle requirements. In order to take full advantage of modern highly efficient aeroderivative gas turbines they have carried out a large number of cycle calculations to optimize their commercial plant designs for both greenfield and repowering applications.

  11. Determination of local radiative properties in coal-fired flames. Technical progress report, September 15, 1987--September 15, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menguec, M.P.; Agarwal, B.; Bush, M.; Dsa, D.; Subramaniam, S.

    1988-12-31

    Recently, an extensive, in-depth review of the modeling of radiation heat transfer in combustion chambers has been prepared (Viskanta and Menguc, 1987); therefore, there is no need to repeat that material here. It is already known that the most important missing link in the prediction of radiation heat transfer in combustion systems is the lack of detailed information about the optical and physical properties of combustion products (Viskanta and Menguc, 1987). The purpose of this research is to determine the radiative properties of coal particles. Considering the uncertainty in the fundamental optical and physical properties of coal particles, such as complex index of refraction, size, size distribution, and shape, it is difficult to predict the radiative properties of particles using available analytical methods, such as Lorenz-Mie theory. For a better understanding of radiation and radiation/combustion or radiation/turbulence interactions, it is preferable to determine the radiative properties in situ.

  12. Update of progress for Phase II of B&W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, D.K. [Babcock & Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States); Madden, D.A.; Rodgers, L.W. [Babcock & Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Over the past five years, advances in emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements in steam turbine and cycle design have significantly altered the governing criteria by which advanced technologies have been compared. With these advances, it is clear that pulverized coal technology will continue to be competitive in both cost and performance with other advanced technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) technologies for at least the next decade. In the early 1990`s it appeared that if IGCC and PFBC could achieve costs comparable to conventional pulverized coal plants, their significantly reduced NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions would make them more attractive. A comparison of current emission control capabilities shows that all three technologies can already achieve similarly low emissions levels.

  13. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 1995--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Cooke, W.S.; Schmidt, E.; Schobert, H.H.

    1996-02-01

    Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting polycyclic aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. Here in this quarterly, we report on the catalytic effects of several molybdenum-, cobalt-, and iron-containing compounds in the reactions of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with hydrogen under conditions related to coal liquefaction. The catalytic effects of several molybdenum-, cobalt-, and iron-containing compounds have been examined in the hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization reactions of dibenzothiophene (DBT) under conditions related to coal liquefaction. The metal compounds are candidate catalyst precursors for direct coal liquefaction. The reactions were carried out in batch microautoclave reactors at 400{degrees}C for 30 minutes with 6.9 MPa (cold) hydrogen pressure, and tridecane solvent. A metal loading of 0.5 mol% resulted in low conversion and only hydrogenation. Addition of sulfur in 4:1 molar ratio led only to a minor increase in conversion and hydrodesulfurization. The use of a higher boiling solvent (octadecane vs. tridecane) was beneficial in providing increased conversion, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrogenation. An increase in metal compound loading to 36.2 mol% led to a dramatic increase in conversion, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrocracking. Molybdenum hexacarbonyl at 36 mol% loading, with added sulfur at 6:1 ratio and octadecane solvent, gave 100% conversion of dibenzothiophene to other products with 100% hydrodesulfurization. Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate and molybdenum(III) chloride are less active under similar conditions. A cobalt-molybdenum thiocubane complex gave unexpectedly low conversions. Iron and cobalt carbonyls also provided very low conversions, even with added sulfur.

  14. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  15. Regional Rockburst Inidicator for Structural Units of Upper Silesia Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyńska, Renata; Stec, Krystyna

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of seismic tremors and rockbursts that occurred between 2001 and 2015. The characteristics are based on a general description of the geological structure of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB). The level of seismic activity in the analysed period changed a number of times and depended on the intensity of mining works and diverse mining and geological conditions in each of the five regions where tremors occurred (Bytom Trough, Main Saddle, Main Trough, Kazimierz Trough, and Jejkowice and Chwałowice Troughs) and which belong to various structural units of the Upper Silesia. It was found out that in the case of rockbursts the phenomena were recorded in three regions. These are: Main Saddle, Bytom Trough, and Jejkowice and Chwałowice Troughs. The so called Regional Rockburst Indicator (RWT) was estimated for each of the regions where the rockbursts had been recorded. The obtained values of RWT are presented against the Probability of RockBurst (PT) in a given area.

  16. Developing Queensland coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philp, A. [Australian QTherm (Australia)

    1998-11-01

    Despite regional economic woes and falling coal prices, there have been exciting developments in Queensland`s coal industry with the announcement of three new coal mines, four mine expansions and two mine feasibility studies being undertaken. The article describes new projects being undertaken in Coppabella, Morahbah North and Hall Creek all in the Northern Bowen Basin, and mine expansions underway at Burton, Enshan, Newlands and Oaky North. Feasibility studies are the progress in the Millmerran and Acland deposits in The Moreton Basin. However, a number of proposed expansions at some major mines, such as Moura, Saraji and Peak Downs, have been postponed due to falling international coal prices. 2 figs., 2 photos.

  17. Coal structure construction system with construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation; Kochiku chishiki to bubunteki energy hyoka ni yoru sekitan bunshi kozo kochiku system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okawa, T.; Sasai, T.; Komoda, N. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The computer aided coal structure construction system is proposed, and a computational construction example is presented. The coal structure construction engine of this system fabricates molecular structure by connecting fragments sequentially inputted through a user interface. The best structure candidate is determined using construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation every addition of one fragment, and this process is subsequently repeated. The structure evaluation engine analyzes the 3-D conformation candidate by molecular dynamics, and evaluates the conformation by determining the energy value of an optimum structure. As an example, this system was applied to construction of coal molecular structure based on the actual data of partial structure composed of 26 structures from 2l kinds of aromatic cluster structures, 27 bonds from 2 kinds of bridged bonds, and 16 groups from 2 kinds of terminal substitutional groups. As a result, this system could construct a superior structure according to expert knowledge from the viewpoint of energy. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The influence of coal-fired power plants on lake sediment in central Alberta, Canada (work in progress)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Sanei; F. Goodarzi [University of Victoria (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2003-07-01

    This study focuses on the distribution, mobility, and early diagenesis of elements in the sediments and pore water from Wabamun Lake, Isle Lake and Lac St. Anne. These lakes are all located in Central Alberta, within the emission range of four major coal-fired power plants. The sediments are dated using 210Pb and 137Cs. The vertical profile of the elements in conjunction with the age of the sediments may reveal the history of the lake basin as related to the activities of the coal-fired power plants versus those of other anthropogenic and natural sources. However, the proper interpretation of the elemental data, in terms of historical events requires careful examination of the sediments in relation to the pore water found within the sediments. This task can be accomplished by collecting the pore water from the sediments and studying the elemental concentration in both media under anoxic conditions. The exchange of elements between sediments and pore water and therefore the mobility of the elements throughout the sediment profile in the early diagenesis, may alter the historical record of elements. Furthermore, the organic matter can be studied using conventional methods used in petroleum geochemistry such as Rock-Eval analyses and organic petrology. This is to study the role of organic matter in adsorption of elements and also to trace the organic matter originating from the coal seams or emitted from the power plants into surrounding lakes. The study also investigates possible correlations between the elements and other physical and geochemical factors involved in the sedimentation process (e.g., organic matter, grain size, catchments properties, etc.). 3 refs., 2 figs.

  19. The utilization of coal mining wastes as filling material in reinforced earth structures: geotechnical and electrochemical characteristics; Utilizacion de los esteriles del carbon como material de relleno para estructuras de tierra reforzada: caracteristicas geotecnicas y electroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Canibana, J.; Pardo, F.; Sopena, L.M.; Perez, J.J.; Torres, M; Martinez, C.; Gonzalez, M.R. [Laboratorio Geotecnia CEDEX, MOPTMA (Spain)

    1996-06-01

    This paper summarizes the geotechnical and electrochemical properties of coal mining wastes (mine stones). Such properties are the starting basis from which the technical feasibility of using coal mining wastes in reinforced earth structures can be determined. (Author) 9 refs.

  20. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phases 2 and 3. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1996. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The goals of this program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: {gt} 47% efficiency (HHV); NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates {gt} 10% NSPS; coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all sold wastes benign; and cost of electricity 90% of present plant. Work reported herein is from Task 1.3 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design, Task 2,2 HITAF Air Heater, and Task 2.4 Duct Heater Design. The impact on cycle efficiency from the integration of various technology advances is presented. The criteria associated with a commercial HIPPS plant design as well as possible environmental control options are presented. The design of the HITAF air heaters, both radiative and convective, is the most critical task in the program. In this report, a summary of the effort associated with the radiative air heater designs that have been considered is provided. The primary testing of the air heater design will be carried out in the UND/EERC pilot-scale furnace; progress to date on the design and construction of the furnace is a major part of this report. The results of laboratory and bench scale activities associated with defining slag properties are presented. Correct material selection is critical for the success of the concept; the materials, both ceramic and metallic, being considered for radiant air heater are presented. The activities associated with the duct heater are also presented.

  1. Structural modification of coal-tar pitch fractions during mild oxidation - relevance to carbonization behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machnikowski, J.; Kaczmarska, H.; Gerus-Piasecka, I.; Diez, M.A.; Alvarez, R.; Garcia, R. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2002-07-01

    Modified pitches with softening points of about 175{degree}C were prepared by air-blowing at 300{degree}C of coal-tar pitches from different commercial coke-oven tars. The modifications induced by the mild oxidation were monitored using solvent and extrographic fractionation, elemental analysis, H-1 NMR and HPLC. Optical microscopy was used to follow the effect of air-blowing on carbonization behaviour. Low molecular weight cata-condensed PAHs and those with basic nitrogen and hydroxylic functionalities present in extrographic fractions F2 and F4, respectively, are preferentially polymerized pitch constituents. In contrast, peri-condensed PAHs in extrographic fractions F2 and F3, are practically unreactive under the oxidation conditions used. The mild oxidation enhances the tendency of quinoline insoluble (QI) particles to form aggregates in an early stage of thermal treatment, modifying the mode of mesophase development and leading to a non-homogeneous optical texture. The enhanced propensity of QI to aggregation is discussed in terms of structural peculiarities of the parent pitch and possible oxidative polymerization reactions.

  2. Deashing of coal liquids with ceramic membrane microfiltration and diafiltration. Final quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    This program is directed towards development of an improved process for de-ashing and recovery of coal-derived residual oil by the use of ceramic membranes for high-temperature microfiltration and diafiltration. Using laboratory-scale ceramic membrane modules, samples of a coal-derived residual oil containing ash will be processed by crossflow microfiltration, followed by solvent addition and refiltration (diafiltration). Recovery of de-ashed residual oil will be demonstrated. Data from this program will be used to develop a preliminary engineering design and cost estimate for a demonstration pilot plant incorporating full-scale membrane modules. In addition, estimates for production system capital and operating costs will be developed to assess process economic feasibility. The five program tasks include (1) ceramic membrane fabrication, (2) membrane test system assembly, (3) testing of the ceramic membranes, (4) design of a demonstration system using full scale membrane modules, and (5) development of estimates for microfiltration capital and operating costs and assessment of process economic feasibility.

  3. Cleavage and crosslinking of polymeric coal structures during pyrolysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillen, D.F.; Malhotra, R.

    1992-02-01

    The ultimate objective of this project was to develop a better understanding of volatiles production to help optimize the yield and character of condensable coproducts during coal pyrolysis or mild gasification. The specific objectives were to (1) Develop pyrolysis procedures that minimize secondary reactions; and (2) Develop coal pretreatments that current knowledge suggests will prorate bond scission or prevent retrograde reactions. Our approach was to study the pyrolysis of coals and tar-loaded coals by using several techniques that span a range of heating rates and pressures. Slow-heating pyrolyses were performed at low pressures in the inlet of a field ionization mass spectrometer and at atmospheric pressures in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Moderately rapid-heating pyrolyses were performed in a vacuum TGA apparatus and in sealed silica ampules heated in a molten-salt bath. The fastest heating rates were achieved with laser pyrolysis at about 30,000 X/s. The high tar yield seen in this work where the entire volume of the coal particle becomes hot and fluid at very nearly the same time, taken together with the evident non-vapor transport of the tar under these conditions, emphasizes the importance of better understanding the development of fluidity during coal heating. This specifically includes the profound effects--long-recognized but poorly understood that mild oxidation has in suppressing coal fluidity. It also includes the more recently recognized fact that heating in the presence of an inert gas produced substantially greater fluidity than does heating in the presence of combustion gases, even if the conditions are very fuel rich and all the oxygen itself has already been consumed when the coal particles are encountered.

  4. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, H.

    1993-07-16

    The overall objective of the project is to develop two stage fermentation process for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to a mixture of alcohols. This is achieved in two steps. In the first step, B .methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) to butyric and acetic acids. Subsequent fermentation of the acids by Clostridium acetobutylicum leads to the production of butanol and ethanol. The tasks for this quarter were: Development/isolation of superior strains for fermentation of syn gas; optimization of process conditions for fermentation of syn gas; evaluation of bioreactor configuration for improved mass transfer of syn gas; and optimization of process conditions for reducing carbon and electron loss by H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} fermentation.

  5. [Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

  6. Deashing of coal liquids with ceramic membrane microfiltration and diafiltration. Final quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Diafiltration experiments were done to determine how much particulate- free oil could be extracted from the solids-containing stream. The 0. 05 {mu}m titania membrane was used for the concentration/diafiltration process runs at 270 C, 80 psig inlet pressure, and 6 gpm crossflow. Five concentration process runs were conducted. After the initial run, the concentrated material was diluted with hydrotreated start-up oil from the final solids back to 10% solids. The concentration was limited by increased pressure drop with increased solids content and plugged membrane module channels. Solids retention was greater than 99.5% for all samples. Attempts to clean membranes with solvent failed due to lack of time. Samples of the permeate and concentrate streams were taken for analysis; the diluent had a similar bp range to the coal liquids in the atmospheric bottoms; thus, distillation could not be used to separate the bottoms from the diluent.

  7. Effect of structural discontinuities on coal pillar strength as a basis for improving safety in the design of coal pillar systems.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esterhuizen, GS

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability of underground coal mines depends on the integrity of the pillars which are required to support the overlying strata. Should the pillars collapse, the safety of the persons in the workings will be threatened. The strength of a coal...

  8. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-02-01

    Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

  9. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1997--September 27, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Morrison, J.L. [and others

    1998-01-06

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Phase I was completed on November 1, 1995. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included performing pilot-scale air toxics (i.e., trace elements and volatile organic compounds) testing and evaluating a ceramic filtering device on the demonstration boiler. Also, a sodium bicarbonate duct injection system was installed on the demonstration boiler. An economic analysis was conducted which investigated the benefits of decreased dependence on imported oil by using new coal combustion technologies. Work related to coal preparation and utilization was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, and surface-based separation processes. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included receiving three cleaned coals from Cyprus-Amax.

  10. W(h)ither the coal industry? The long-term view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schobert, H.H.; Rusinko, F. Jr.; Mathews, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Global warming--real or imaginary, friend or foe, carbon dioxide emissions a threat to the planet, benign, or good for agriculture--while the debate rages on, the debaters occasionally seem to pause long enough to agree on one point: coal is the bad guy. There is little doubt that coal combustion must continue as a major contributor to the energy economy for the near to mid-term future. It is likely, though, those environmental pressures on conventional processes for coal utilization will only intensify. This factor alone makes questionable the long-term future. Environmental issues also severely impact the metallurgical coke industry. The traditional coal industry and coal markets of the 20th century are under increasingly intense assault. But why waste coal by burning it? Steady progress is being made in two directions for using coal as a valuable hydrocarbon resource. On the one hand, continuous improvements in computer-based structural modeling, which now include the ability to calculate not only a molecular structure that is consistent with chemical facts, but also some of the physical properties and even the incorporation of water. The increasing reasonableness of such structures places one on the verge of being able to do rational organic chemistry on coals, that is, deliberately to select coals as starting materials for certain desired chemical transformations that will produce high-value chemical products in good yields. This opens a route to chemicals from coal that does not rely on by-product coal tars as the feedstock. On the other hand, excellent opportunities also exist for coals as precursors to high-value carbon materials. Anthracites in particular represent an under-exploited, and as yet poorly explored, opportunity for conversion to graphitic materials. Taking coal in both directions high-value chemicals and premium carbon products represent profitable opportunities for innovation, leadership, and new directions for the coal industry in the 21st

  11. Structural controls on fractured coal reservoirs in the southern Appalachian Black Warrior foreland basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groshong, R.H.; Pashin, J.C.; McIntyre, M.R. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Geological Science

    2009-09-15

    Coal is a nearly impermeable rock type for which the production of fluids requires the presence of open fractures. Basin-wide controls on the fractured coal reservoirs of the Black Warrior foreland basin are demonstrated by the variability of maximum production rates from coalbed methane wells. Reservoir behavior depends on distance from the thrust front. Far from the thrust front, normal faults are barriers to fluid migration and compartmentalize the reservoirs. Close to the thrust front, rates are enhanced along some normal faults, and a new trend is developed. The two trends have the geometry of conjugate strike-slip faults with the same sigma(1) direction as the Appalachian fold-thrust belt and are inferred to be the result of late pure-shear deformation of the foreland. Face cleat causes significant permeability anisotropy in some shallow coal seams but does not produce a map-scale production trend.

  12. Structural controls on fractured coal reservoirs in the southern Appalachian Black Warrior foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshong, Richard H., Jr.; Pashin, Jack C.; McIntyre, Marcella R.

    2009-09-01

    Coal is a nearly impermeable rock type for which the production of fluids requires the presence of open fractures. Basin-wide controls on the fractured coal reservoirs of the Black Warrior foreland basin are demonstrated by the variability of maximum production rates from coalbed methane wells. Reservoir behavior depends on distance from the thrust front. Far from the thrust front, normal faults are barriers to fluid migration and compartmentalize the reservoirs. Close to the thrust front, rates are enhanced along some normal faults, and a new trend is developed. The two trends have the geometry of conjugate strike-slip faults with the same σ1 direction as the Appalachian fold-thrust belt and are inferred to be the result of late pure-shear deformation of the foreland. Face cleat causes significant permeability anisotropy in some shallow coal seams but does not produce a map-scale production trend.

  13. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1996--March 27, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Pisupati, S.V. [and others

    1997-07-22

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. Preliminary pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction catalyst tests were conducted when firing natural gas in Penn State`s down-fired combustor. This is the first step in the scale-up of bench-scale results obtained in Phase II to the demonstration boiler scale when firing coal. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional/national economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included installing a ribbon mixer into Penn State`s micronized coal-water mixture circuit for reentraining filter cake. In addition, three cleaned coals were received from CQ Inc. and three cleaned coals were received from Cyprus-Amax.

  14. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 5, [October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-11-30

    Studies involving the tubular furnace are in the process of identifying the ideal experimental coal-to-refuse derived fuel(RDF) ratio for use in the AFBC system. A series of experiments with this furnace has been performed to determine the possible chemical pathway for formation of chlorinated organic compounds during the combustion of various RDF sources. Phenol and chlorine appear to be likely reactants necessary for the formation of these compounds. The main goal of these experiment is to determine the exact experimental conditions for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds, as well as methods to inhibit their development. Work on the fluidized bed combustor has involved five combustion runs, in which a combustion efficiency of greater than 96% and with a consistent CO{sub 2} concentration of approximately 13% was obtained. Modifications responsible for these improvements include the addition of the underbed fuel feed system and revision of the flue gas sampling system. New methods of determining combustion efficiency and percentage of SO{sub 2} capture using TG techniques to analyze combustion products are being developed. The current outlook using this TGA/FTIR method is very promising, since previously obscured reactions are being studied. the analysis of combustion products is revealing a more complete picture of the combustion process within the AFBC system.

  15. Theoretical nuclear structure and astrophysics. Progress report for 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidry, M.W.; Nazarewicz, W.; Strayer, M.R.

    1996-12-31

    This research effort is directed toward theoretical support and guidance for the fields of radioactive ion beam physics, gamma ray spectroscopy, computational and nuclear astrophysics, and the interface between these disciplines. The authors report substantial progress in all those areas. One measure of progress is publications and invited material. The research described here has led to more than 43 papers that are published, accepted, or submitted to refereed journals, and to 15 invited presentations at conferences and workshops.

  16. Theoretical nuclear structure and astrophysics. Progress report for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, M.W.; Nazarewicz, W.; Strayer, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This research effort is directed toward theoretical support and guidance for the fields of radioactive ion beam physics, gamma ray spectroscopy, computational and nuclear astrophysics, and the interface between these disciplines. The authors report substantial progress in all those areas. One measure of progress is publications and invited material. The research described here has led to more than 43 papers that are published, accepted, or submitted to refereed journals, and to 15 invited presentations at conferences and workshops

  17. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, September 26, 1990--December 31, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1991-03-01

    Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

  18. Assessing market structures in resource markets. An empirical analysis of the market for metallurgical coal using various equilibrium models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenczik, Stefan; Panke, Timo [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics

    2015-05-15

    The prevalent market structures found in many resource markets consist of a high concentration on the supply side and a low demand elasticity. Market results are therefore frequently assumed to be an outcome of strategic interaction between producers. Common models to investigate the market outcomes and underlying market structures are games representing competitive markets, strategic Cournot competition and Stackelberg structures taking into account a dominant player acting first followed by one or more followers. Besides analysing a previously neglected scenario of the latter kind, we add to the literature by expanding the application of mathematical models by applying an Equilibrium Problem with Equilibrium Constraints (EPEC), which is used to model multi-leader-follower games, to a spatial market. We apply our model by investigating the prevalent market setting in the international market for metallurgical coal between 2008 and 2010, whose market structure provides arguments for a wide variety of market structures. Using different statistical measures and comparing model with actual market outcomes, we find that two previously neglected settings perform best: First, a setting in which the four largest metallurgical coal exporting firms compete against each other as Stackelberg leaders, while the remainders act as Cournot followers. Second, a setting with BHPB acting as sole Stackelberg leader.

  19. Assessing market structures in resource markets. An empirical analysis of the market for metallurgical coal using various equilibrium models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenczik, Stefan; Panke, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The prevalent market structures found in many resource markets consist of a high concentration on the supply side and a low demand elasticity. Market results are therefore frequently assumed to be an outcome of strategic interaction between producers. Common models to investigate the market outcomes and underlying market structures are games representing competitive markets, strategic Cournot competition and Stackelberg structures taking into account a dominant player acting first followed by one or more followers. Besides analysing a previously neglected scenario of the latter kind, we add to the literature by expanding the application of mathematical models by applying an Equilibrium Problem with Equilibrium Constraints (EPEC), which is used to model multi-leader-follower games, to a spatial market. We apply our model by investigating the prevalent market setting in the international market for metallurgical coal between 2008 and 2010, whose market structure provides arguments for a wide variety of market structures. Using different statistical measures and comparing model with actual market outcomes, we find that two previously neglected settings perform best: First, a setting in which the four largest metallurgical coal exporting firms compete against each other as Stackelberg leaders, while the remainders act as Cournot followers. Second, a setting with BHPB acting as sole Stackelberg leader.

  20. Structural analysis of the Tabaco anticline, Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, Colombia, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Néstor; Montes, Camilo; Marín, Dora; Gutierrez, Iván; Palencia, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    The Tabaco anticline is a 15 km long, south plunging, east-vergent anticline in northern Colombia, close to the transpressional collisional margin between the Caribbean and South American plates. In the Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, systematic mapping of coal seams in the middle to upper Paleocene Cerrejón Formation has yielded an exceptional dataset consisting of 10 horizontal slices (sea level to 90 m elevation, regularly spaced at 10 m intervals) through the anticline. Coal seams and fault traces in these slices are used to construct a 3D model of the anticline. This 3D model shows tighter folds within lower coal seams, NW-vergent thrusts and related folds on the gentler western limb, and strike-slip faults on the steeper eastern limb. Fault slip-tendency analysis is used to infer that these two faulting styles resulted from two different stress fields: an earlier one consistent with thrusting and uplift of the Perijá range, and a later one consistent with strike-slip faulting (Oca, Ranchería and Samán faults). Our preferred interpretation is that the anticline developed its eastern vergence during the early stages (late Paleocene-early Eocene) of tilting of the Santa Marta massif. Later NW-vergent thrusting on the western limb (early to middle Eocene) was related to western propagation of the Perijá thrust system. These results contribute to the understanding of the structural evolution of the area. They are also a good example of the complex interplay between detachment folding, thrusting, and strike-slip faulting during the growth of a km-size fold in a transpressive setting.

  1. Coal market outlook in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhufeng; Zheng Xingzhou

    2005-01-01

    Coal is the major primary energy source in China. It is forecast that coal will account for over 60% of the primary energy consumption mix, and the total coal demand will reach 2.3-2.9 billion tons in 2020. However, ensuring the coal supply will be faced with a lot of obstacles in fields such as the degree of detailed exploration of coal reserves, the level of mining technology and mine safety, the production capacity building of mines, transport conditions, and ecological and environmental impacts. More comprehensive measures should be adopted, including improvements in energy efficiency, strengthening coal production and transportation capacity, to rationalise coal mine disposition and the coal production structure, and to raise the levels of coal mining technologies and mine safety management, etc. (author)

  2. Historical review of the progress in direct coal liquefaction technology in the 21st century; Sekita kara ekitai nenryo wo tsukuru (chokusetsu ekika)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-05-20

    Direct coal liquefaction technology under high pressure and temperature was established by Friedrich Bergius in Germany in 1913. Then, Matthias Pier, I.G. Farbenindustrie, realized the industrial production of gasoline from brown coal based on Bergius method in 1927. During World War 2, the industrial production of gasoline from coals was carried out in Germany, the U.K. and Japan. After World War 2, the U.S. Bureau of Mines evaluated the IG process economically. As a result, it was clarified that a coproduction of coal chemicals with gasoline turned to economic advantages for coal liquefaction process. The coproduction of coal chemicals from coal liquefaction process was examined in Japan during 1956-1962. On occurring of the first oil crisis in 1973, a variety of modern coal liquefaction processes, such as SRC process, EDS process, H-Coal process, new IG process and LSE process, were developed in the U.S., Germany and the U.K.. In Japan, the Sunshine Program under AIST, MITI was started in 1974. Under the Sunshine Program, NEDO promoted the development of coal liquefaction technology, Regarding BCL process for the liquefaction of brown coal, the operation of 50 t/d pilot plant was begun from 1988 and continued by 1990 in Victoria, Australia. As to NEDOL initiated from 1996 and continued by 1998 at Kashima, Ibaraki. Results of both process development unit for the upgrading of coal liquids is under construction at Funakawa, Akita to complete coal liquefaction technologies in Japan. Coal liquefaction technologies being developed in Japan are expected to be commercialized in China or Indonesia in the near future. (author)

  3. Phyllocladane in brown coal from Handlová, Slovakia: Isolation and structural characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zubrik, A.; Šaman, David; Vašíčková, Soňa; Simoneit, B. R. T.; Turčániová, L.; Lovás, M.; Cvačka, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2009), s. 126-134 ISSN 0146-6380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk MEB080863 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : coal * hydrocarbons * diterpanes Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2009

  4. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Quarterly progress report, July 15, 1995--September 15, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1995-09-15

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is actively pursuing the development of reliable and cost-effective processes to clean coal gasifier gases for application to integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plants. A large portion of gas cleanup research has been directed towards hot gas desulfurization using Zn-based sorbents. However, zinc titinate sorbents undergo reduction to the metal at temperatures approaching 700{degrees}C. In addition, sulfate formation during regeneration leads to spalling of reactive 293 surfaces. Due to zinc-based sorbent performance, METC has shown interest in formulating and testing manganese-based sorbents. Westmoreland and Harrison evaluated numerous candidate sulfur sorbents and identified Mn as a good candidate. Later, Turkdogan and Olsson tested manganese-based sorbents which demonstrated superior desulfurization capacity under high temperatures, and reducing conditions. Recently, Ben-Slimane and Hepworth conducted several studies on formulating Mn-sorbents and desulfurizing a simulated fuel gas. Although thermodynamics predicts higher over-pressures with Mn verses Zn, under certain operating conditions Mn-based sorbents may obtain < 20 ppmv. In addition, the manganese-sulfur-oxygen (Mn-S-O) system does not reduce to the metal under even highly reducing gases at high temperatures (550-900{degrees}C). Currently, many proposed IGCC processes include a water quench prior to desulfurization. This is for two reasons; limitations in the process hardware (1000{degrees}C), and excessive Zn-based sorbent loss (about 700{degrees}C). With manganese the water quench is obviated due to sorbent loss, as Mn-based sorbents have been shown to retain reactivity under cycling testing at 900{degrees}C. This reduces system hardware, and increases thermal efficiency while decreasing the equilibrium H{sub 2}S over-pressure obtainable with a manganese sorbent.

  5. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, May 9, 1992--August 8, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-10-01

    An investigation of new methods for the production of mixed pillared clay catalysts and clay-supported catalysts and determination of their catalytic activities were continued in this quarter. To demonstrate the reproducibility of the preparative method for high activity iron/alumina-pillared montmorillonite catalysts, a new batch of the catalyst was prepared and tested for hydrocracking activity with bibenzyl. This preparation gave conversion and product distribution similar to that reported previously. The mixed iron/alumina-pillared clay was also prepared using a pillaring solution that was aged for longer period of time. To determine the importance of the type of pillaring support in hydrocracking activity, iron/zirconia-pillared montmorillonite was prepared using the same technique as that for iron/alumina-pillared montmorillonite. The reaction of bibenzyl with the sulfided iron/zirconia-pillared catalyst gave a lower hydrocracking conversion than the iron/alumina-pillared catalyst. Addition of a second catalytic metal to the clay support was attempted to determine if a synergistic effect could improve liquefaction. Ferric nitrate and stannous chloride were added to the clay, but the resulting catalyst was relatively poor for hydrocracking and hydrogenation compared with ferric nitrate supported on the clay. New disposable iron catalysts with high acidity and surface area are desired for coal liquefaction. Synthetic iron aluminosilicates were prepared by methods similar to those used for the nickel-substituted synthetic mica montmorillonite (NiSMM) catalysts, which are very effective for hydrogenation and reforming of hydrocarbons. The iron aluminosilicate catalysts were tested for hydrocracking and hydrogenation of bibenzyl, naphthalene and pyrene. Pyrene hydrogenation was effectively catalyzed by the sulfided synthetic iron catalyst.

  6. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 1, Technical report. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Hatcher, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1996-10-15

    This program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium for Coal Water Mixture Technology and the U.S. Department of Energy. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. Phase I is nearly completed. During this reporting period, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, engineering designs and economics for retrofitting the Crane, Indiana boiler to fire coal-based fuels, and a 1,000-hour demonstration of dry, micronized coal were completed. In addition, a demonstration-scale micronized-coal water mixture (MCWM) preparation circuit was constructed and a 1,000-hour demonstration firing MCWM began. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations involved literature surveys of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, trace metals, volatile organic compounds, and fine particulate matter capture. In addition, vendors and engineering firms were contacted to identify the appropriate emissions technologies for the installation of commercial NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} removal systems on the demonstration boiler. Information from the literature surveys and engineering firms will be used to identify, design, and install a control system(s). Work continued on the refinement and optimization of coal grinding and MCWM preparation procedures, and on the development of advanced processes for beneficiating high ash, high sulfur coals. Work also continued on determining the basic cost estimation of boiler retrofits, and evaluating environmental, regulatory, and regional economic impacts. In addition, the feasibility of technology adoption, and the public`s perception of the benefits and costs of coal usage was studied. A coal market analysis was completed. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, emissions reductions and economic analyses of coal use.

  7. The Indonesian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.; Daulay, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this comprehensive article the authors describe the origins and progress of the Indonesian coal industry and the role it plays, and will play, in the domestic energy scene and world coal trade. In the '80s, the Indonesian coal industry laid the basis for major expansion such that coal production rose from under a million tonnes in 1983 to 10.6 million tonnes in 1990, 50.9 million tonnes by 1996 and 61.2 million tonnes in 1992. At the same time, exports have increased from 0.4 million tonnes to 44.8 million tonnes. Current export levels are higher than originally expected, due in part to a slow down in the construction of electric power stations and a partial switch to natural gas. This has slowed the rate at which domestic coal demand has built up. The majority of coals currently exported are low rank steam coals, but some of the higher rank and very low ash coals are used for blast furnace injection, and a very small proportion may even be used within coking blends, even though they have poor coking properties. The Indonesian coal industry has developed very rapidly over the last six years to become a significant exporter, especially within the ASEAN context. The resources base appears to be large enough to support further increases in production above those already planned. It is probable that resources and reserves can be increased above the current levels. It is likely that some reserves of high value coals can be found, but it is also probable that the majority of additions to reserves will be lower in rank (and therefore quality) compared with the average of coals currently being mined. Reserves of qualities suitable for export will support that industry for a considerable period of time. However, in the longer term, the emphasis of production will increasingly swing to the domestic market

  8. Predictive assessment of the Ukrainian power industry fuel balance structure progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Voinov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing structure of the fuel balance in Ukraine does largely determine high prices of such energy products as the electricity and the heat. The main reason lies in the fact that approximately 40% of the fuel balance represents the expensive imported liquid and gaseous fuels. Of course, such balance structure significantly affects the energy security of Ukraine. The article analyzes the three main directions of this situation possible normalization: replacing the imported gas with relatively inexpensive domestic coal burned at boilers and innovative coal-fired burner systems, especially in the low-temperature boilers with fluidized bed furnaces; replacement of imported fuel with respectively cheap pyrolysis gas obtained from the domestic low-grade brown coal; organization of domestic production of shale gas, which industrial production is scheduled for 2020. These promising directions of the national energetics’ fuel balance development can be considered as a priority part of the national tasks of increasing the country’s energy independence.

  9. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Quarterly technical progress report, March--May 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1990-12-31

    The objectives of the project are to investigate various coal pretreatment techniques and to determine the effect of these pretreatment procedures on the reactivity of the coal. Reactivity enhancement will be evaluated under both direct hydroliquefaction and co-processing conditions. Coal conversion utilizing low rank coals and low severity conditions (reaction temperatures generally less than 350{degrees}C) are the primary focus of the liquefaction experiments, as it is expected that the effect of pretreatment conditions and the attendant reactivity enhancement will be greatest for these coals and at these conditions. This document presents a comprehensive report summarizing the findings on the effect of mild alkylation pretreatment on coal reactivity under both direct hydroliquefaction and liquefaction co-processing conditions. Results of experiments using a dispersed catalyst system (chlorine) are also presented for purposes of comparison. IN general, mild alkylation has been found to be an effective pretreatment method for altering the reactivity of coal. Selective (oxygen) methylation was found to be more effective for high oxygen (subbituminous) coals compared to coals of higher rank. This reactivity enhancement was evidenced under both low and high severity liquefaction conditions, and for both direct hydroliquefaction and liquefaction co-processing reaction environments. Non-selective alkylation (methylation) was also effective, although the enhancement was less pronounced than found for coal activated by O-alkylation. The degree of reactivity enhancement was found to vary with both liquefaction and/or co-processing conditions and coal type, with the greatest positive effect found for subbituminous coal which had been selectively O-methylated and subsequently liquefied at low severity reaction conditions. 5 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1995--September 27, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Hatcher, P.; Knicker, H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1996-10-21

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through the Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Mixture Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. During this reporting period, preparation of the Phase I final report continued. Work on Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included initiating a study to identify appropriate SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies for coal-fired industrial boilers. In addition, work started on the design of a ceramic filtering device for installation on the demonstration boiler. The ceramic filter device will be used to demonstrate a more compact and efficient filtering device for retrofit applications. Coal preparation and utilization activities, and the economic analysis were completed and work focused on preparing the final report. Work on Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on selecting incentives for commercialization of coal using technologies, community sensitivity to coal usage, regional economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  11. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  12. Effect of structural heterogeneity water-coal fuel conditions and characteristics of ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrodoy S.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the particle ignition of coal-water fuel (CWF with a joint course of the main processes of a thermal (thermal conductivity, evaporation, filtration heat and mass transfer, thermal decomposition of the organic part has been solved. According to the results of numerical simulation ways of describing the extent of the influence of the thermophysical properties on the characteristics and conditions of ignition WCF have been set.

  13. Diagnostic and clinical application value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for progressive massive fibrosis of coal worker pneumoconiosis: Case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lansheng; Wang, Chun; Yan, Qiuyue; Zhang, Tao; Han, Zhengxiang; Jiang, Guan

    2017-05-01

    Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we diagnosed pneumoconiosis by identifying the content and distribution of hydrogen protons in the water molecules in different tissues and lesions. 25 cases of CWP patients with progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) lesions. Patients were correctly diagnosed, with one case each of Phase I and II pneumoconiosis and 23 cases of Phase III pneumoconiosis. None. Through MRI, 39 PMF pneumoconiosis lesions exhibited equal, low or equally low, and uneven signals on T2WI and fat suppression (SPIR) (38/39, 37/39). MRI has good specificity to identify the characteristics of PMF lesions of CWP, as well as has high application value for the differential diagnosis of lung cancer and other lung tumor-like lesions.

  14. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1994--September 27, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Morrison, J.L. [and others

    1995-04-14

    The US Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. Activities this reporting period included performing coal beneficiation/preparation studies, conducting combustion performance evaluations, preparing retrofit engineering designs, determining retrofit economics, and installing a micronized coal-water mixture (MCWM) circuit.

  15. Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, N.C.

    1996-02-01

    In order to develop a system for a large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, we plan to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitate depolymerization of coal. We also plan to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms. In addition the product of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein.

  16. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-09-29

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University has been successfully managing the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by Penn State, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. Base funding for the selected projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. At the annual funding meeting held in October 2003, ten projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten 2004 projects were completed during the previous annual reporting period and their final reports were submitted with the previous annual report (i.e., 10/01/04-09/30/05). The final report for the remaining project, which was submitted during this reporting

  17. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected ten projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten projects have been completed and the final reports for these 2004 projects are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2004 and the council

  18. China's Coal Methane: Actors, Structures, Strategies and their Global Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ke; Charnoz, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    The need for China to alleviate its energy shortage, reduce its dependence on foreign sources and mitigate its climate impact is driving a dire quest for alternative fuels. Coal Mine Methane (CMM), in this context, holds significant potential. While the 11. Five-Year Plan aimed to capture and use 10 billion m 3 per year of CMM by 2010, the country achieved less than a quarter of this. This paper enquires into this puzzling outcome, which bears consequences for the world at large. China is indeed responsible for more than 40% of the world's total un-captured CMM emissions - which act as a greenhouse gas 21 times more potent than CO 2 , and whose role in global warming is often underestimated, especially in short- and medium-term climate strategies. While the Chinese central government may have incentive to work towards promoting CMM, the benefits of such policies at the sub-national level are far from self-evident. National CMM policies can have significant economic and social costs at the local level, and thus their implementation can be jeopardized. Implementation of such policies is inherently ambiguous, conflicting, and as such, political. Current research on the Chinese CMM industry has largely focused on its techno-economic aspects, with little if any politico-institutional analyses. As for policy research on the larger Chinese energy sector, this seems sturdily to embody a top-down view: it mostly ends up blaming the country's decentralized governance structure and lack of a stringent implementation chain. Such top-down approaches do not help uncover 'the sinews of war': the range of less formal mechanisms, negotiations and agreements among the local actors, without which implementation does not in fact occur at the sub-national level. Nor do top-down research approaches facilitate inquiry into the way local stakeholders re-frame the meaning, content and impact of CMM policies. More generally, the top-down approaches fail to consider the

  19. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal. Semi-annual report, January--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    Summaries of progress on the following tasks are presented: Mixed waste treatment; Hot water extraction of nonpolar organic pollutant from soils; Aqueous phase thermal oxidation wastewater treatment; Review of results from comprehensive characterization of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants; Air toxic fine particulate control; Effectiveness of sorbents for trace elements; Catalyst for utilization of methane in selective catalytic reduction of NOx; Fuel utilization properties; Hot gas cleaning; PFBC; catalytic tar cracking; sulfur forms in coal; resid and bitumen desulfurization; biodesulfurization; diesel fuel desulfurization; stability issues; Sorbent carbon development; Evaluation of carbon products; Stable and supercritical chars; Briquette binders; Carbon molecular sieves; Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent; Development of a coal by-product classification protocol for utilization; Use of coal ash in recycled plastics and composite materials; Corrosion of advanced structural materials; Joining of advanced structural materials; Resource data evaluation; and the Usti and Labem (Czech Republic) coal-upgrading program.

  20. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  1. Nuclear structure from radioactive decay. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The most exciting development during this year has been the formulation of a unified description of shape coexistence in nuclei. The picture is built on the idea that deformation in nuclei is due to an attractive proton-neutron force acting in the valence shell model space. The excitation of nucleon pairs across closed shells effectively increases the number of valence nucleons, giving rise to a set of coexisting states with larger deformation. The major area of activity is the study of neutron-deficient nuclei around the Z = 82 shell closure, with special emphasis on the levels of the odd-mass Pt, Au, Hg and Tl isotopes. Progress is reported

  2. Progress of study on MOS structure dose detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng Song; Mao Yong Ze

    2002-01-01

    The authors presented the principle of MOS structure dose detector, review the development and status in this area, and summarise the technique parameters of MOS structure detector, which is widely used in the regions of radiation dose measurement and space environment monitoring and so on

  3. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1992--March 27, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; Hogg, R. [and others

    1993-05-13

    The US Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first phase of the program is underway. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (MC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and pre-combustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash and high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phase I are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil- designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or MC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.

  4. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  5. Progress in composite structure and space construction systems technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodle, J. B.; Jenkins, L. M.

    1981-01-01

    The development of deployable and fabricated composite trusses for large space structures by NASA and private industry is reviewed. Composite materials technology is discussed with a view toward fabrication processes and the characteristics of finished truss beams. Advances in roll-forming open section caps from graphite-composite strip material and new ultrasonic welding techniques are outlined. Vacuum- and gravity-effect test results show that the ultrasonic welding of graphite-thermoplastic materials in space is feasible. The structural characteristics of a prototype truss segment are presented. A new deployable graphite-composite truss with high packaging density for broad application to large space platforms is described.

  6. Pore structure development of in-situ pyrolyzed coals for pollution prevention in iron foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, He; Cannon, Fred S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Sackett Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wang, Yujue [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Bejing, 100084 (China)

    2009-09-15

    A protocol was devised for preparing pyrolyzed coals that could be made in-situ at foundries to capture volatile organic compound (VOC) emission. This pyrolysis created extensive micropore volume in lignite over a broad range of temperature and time; and could use waste heat from cupola exhaust gases by a heat-exchange tube. For foundry application, moderate porous carbon with relatively uniform pores over wide ranges of temperature and time would be more practical than highly porous activated carbon (AC) that requires narrowly-controlled operations. This pyrolysis protocol was developed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and in a small tube furnace, while using lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite. The lignite yielded the most pore volume; and this was relatively uniform (0.1-0.13 mL/g of pores) while temperatures were 600-900 C, and times were 0-60 min. Smaller grain sizes yielded improved porosity; and this corresponded to more release of phenols and naphthalenes from smaller grains, as discerned by TGA-mass spectroscopy (MS). TGA-MS also revealed that improved pore development between 600-800 C corresponded to the release of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; and concurrently higher slurry pH linked to less oxygenated functionality. Adsorption of benzene was compared between the in-situ porous carbon and a commercial AC. (author)

  7. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 21, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. The conceptual flowsheet must be examined to identify critical areas that need additional design data. This data will then be developed using batch and semi-continuous bench scale testing. In addition to actual bench scale testing, other unit operations from other industries processing fine material will be reviewed for potential application and incorporated into the design if appropriate.

  8. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1991--August 15, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jiangyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1991-10-01

    Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less that 3.0% ash and 0.9% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

  9. Progress in the research and development of photonic structure devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Van Hoi; Bui, Huy; Van Nguyen, Thuy; Nguyen, The Anh; Son Pham, Thanh; Pham, Van Dai; Cham Tran, Thi; Trang Hoang, Thu; Ngo, Quang Minh

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we review the results of the research and development of photonic structure devices performed in the Institute of Materials Science in the period from 2010-2015. We have developed a configuration of 1D photonic crystal (PC) microcavities based on porous silicon (PS) layers and applied them to optical sensing devices that can be used for the determination of organic content with a very low concentration in different liquid environments. Various important scientific and technological applications of photonic devices such as the ultralow power operation of microcavity lasers, the inhibition of spontaneous emissions and the manipulation of light amplification by combining the surface plasmonic effect and the microcavity are expected. We developed new kinds of photonic structures for optical filters based on guided-mode resonances in coupled slab waveguide gratings, which have great potential for application in fiber-optic communication and optical sensors.

  10. Characterization of Coal Porosity for Naturally Tectonically Stressed Coals in Huaibei Coal Field, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoshi; Hou, Quanlin; Li, Zhuo; Wei, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    The enrichment of coalbed methane (CBM) and the outburst of gas in a coal mine are closely related to the nanopore structure of coal. The evolutionary characteristics of 12 coal nanopore structures under different natural deformational mechanisms (brittle and ductile deformation) are studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. The results indicate that there are mainly submicropores (2~5 nm) and supermicropores (coal and mesopores (10~100 nm) and micropores (5~10 nm) in brittle deformed coal. The cumulative pore volume (V) and surface area (S) in brittle deformed coal are smaller than those in ductile deformed coal which indicates more adsorption space for gas. The coal with the smaller pores exhibits a large surface area, and coal with the larger pores exhibits a large volume for a given pore volume. We also found that the relationship between S and V turns from a positive correlation to a negative correlation when S > 4 m2/g, with pore sizes coal. The nanopore structure (coal. PMID:25126601

  11. Effect of Coal Grain Size on Sorption Capacity with Respect to Propylene and Acetylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Dudzińska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Propylene and acetylene are released to mine air with the increase in the temperature of self-heating coal. Concentrations of these gases in mine air are applied as indicators of the progress of the self-heating process. Hydrocarbons emitted from the self-ignition center are sorbed on coal, while migrating through the mine workings. Coal crushed during the mining process is characterized by a high sorption capacity, which facilitates the sorption phenomena. This results in the decrease in hydrocarbons content in mine air, and in the subsequent incorrect assessment of the development of the self-heating process. The results of the experimental study on propylene and acetylene sorption on Polish coals acquired from operating coal mines are presented in this paper. Bituminous coal is characterized by a high sorption capacity with respect to unsaturated hydrocarbons, like propylene and acetylene. The sorbed volumes depend on the grade of metamorphism, porosity, and chemical characteristics of coal. Low level of metamorphism, increased porosity, and oxygen content result in higher sorption capacity of coals. The reduction in grain size of coals also results in the increased sorption capacity with respect to hydrocarbons. The most significant increase in the volumes of sorbed propylene and acetylene with the decrease in grain class was observed for coals of low porosity, high grade of metamorphism, and low to medium sorption capacities. The 10-fold decrease in coal grain size resulted in the 3 to 6-fold increase in the volume of sorbed propylene, and 2-fold increase for acetylene. The decrease in grain size results in higher accessibility of pore structure, increased pore volume and area, and higher number of active centers interacting with hydrocarbons of dipole characteristics. For coals with low grade metamorphism, high porosity, and high sorption capacity the volumes of sorbed propylene and acetylene increased only slightly with the decrease in

  12. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  13. Recent progress on the structure separation of single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiaming; Yang, Dehua; Zeng, Xiang; Zhou, Naigen; Liu, Huaping

    2017-11-01

    The mass production of single-structure, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with identical properties is critical for their basic research and technical applications in the fields of electronics, optics and optoelectronics. Great efforts have been made to control the structures of SWCNTs since their discovery. Recently, the structure separation of SWCNTs has been making great progress. Various solution-sorting methods have been developed to achieve not only the separation of metallic and semiconducting species, but also the sorting of distinct (n, m) single-chirality species and even their enantiomers. This progress would dramatically accelerate the application of SWCNTs in the next-generation electronic devices. Here, we review the recent progress in the structure sorting of SWCNTs and outline the challenges and prospects of the structure separation of SWCNTs.

  14. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 16, July--September, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, G.L.; Moro, N.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-10-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. 28 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1993--March 27, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Sharifi, R.; Shepard, J.F.; Scaroni, A.W.; Hogg, R.; Chander, S.; Cho, H.; Ityokumbul, M.T.; Klima, M.S. [and others

    1994-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. To achieve the objectives of the program, a team of researchers was assembled. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFS) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and precombustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phases I and II are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.

  16. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1993--September 27, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Sharifi, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1993-12-17

    The US DOD, through an Interagency Agreement with the US DOE, has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first phase of the program is underway. A team of researchers has been assembled from Penn State, ABB Combustion Engineering Systems (CE), AMAX Research and Development Center (AMAX), and Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER). These four organizations are the current members of the Consortium. Phase 1 activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase 2 research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and pre-combustion strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase 3 activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phase 1 are described in this report. The objective of Phase 1 is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program of the following tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package. Miscellaneous activities are reported. Activities planned for the next semiannual period are listed. The project schedule, with a description of milestones, is included.

  17. Nuclear structure studies. Progress report, [1988--1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    In this report, newly initiated work at the FMA is described where the use of double-sided strip detectors for charged particle spectroscopy on nuclides near the proton drip line has been investigated. Half lives for proton emitting nuclides have been determined with improved uncertainties. Several sections report on the results of studies of model parameters in the Z = 50 region for even-even nuclides, for odd-mass nuclides and for odd-odd nuclides. Other studies are reported for nuclear orientation in Br and for structure of Pr-147 which lies in a transition zone between reflection-asymmetric, spherical, and prolate nuclides. And there is a section in which the positions of the single Particle levels in the A = 100 region are discussed

  18. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  19. Research progress in modern structure of platinum complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Linkui; Gao, Chuanzhu; Liu, Qinghua; Yu, Congtao; Zhang, Zhuxin; Cai, Linxiang; Yang, Bo; Qian, Yunxu; Yang, Jian; Liao, Xiali

    2017-11-10

    Since the antitumor activity of cisplatin was discovered in 1967 by Rosenberg, platinum-based anticancer drugs have played an important role in chemotherapy in clinic. Nevertheless, platinum anticancer drugs also have caused severe side effects and cross drug resistance which limited their applications. Therefore, a significant amount of efforts have been devoted to developing new platinum-based anticancer agents with equal or higher antitumor activity but lower toxicity. Until now, a large number of platinum-based complexes have been prepared and extensively investigated in vitro and in vivo. Among them, some platinum-based complexes revealing excellent anticancer activity showed the potential to be developed as novel type of anticancer agents. In this account, we present such platinum-based anticancer complexes which owning various types of ligands, such as, amine carrier ligands, leaving groups, reactive molecule, steric hindrance groups, non-covalently binding platinum (II) complexes, Platinum(IV) complexes and polynuclear platinum complexes. Overall, platinum-based anticancer complexes reported recently years upon modern structure are emphasized. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Progress on acoustic techniques for LMFBR structural surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, E.J.; Bentley, P.G.; McKnight, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Acoustic techniques are being developed to monitor remotely the incipient events of various modes of failure. Topics have been selected from the development programme which are either of special importance or in which significant advances have been made recently. Ultrasonic inspection of stainless steel welds is difficult and one alternative approach which is being explored is to identify manufacturing defects during fabrication by monitoring the welding processes. Preliminary measurements are described of the acoustic events measured during deliberately defective welding tests in the laboratory and some initial analysis using pattern recognition techniques is described. The assessment of structural failures using probability analysis has emphasised the potential value of continuous monitoring during operation and this has led to the investigation into the use of vibrational analysis and acoustic emission as monitoring techniques. Mechanical failure from fatigue may be anticipated from measurement of vibrational modes and experience from PFR and from models have indicated the depth of detailed understanding required to achieve this. In the laboratory a vessel with an artificial defect has been pressurised to failure. Detection of the weak stress wave emissions was possible but difficult and the prospects for on-line monitoring are discussed. Ultrasonic technology for providing images of components immersed in the opaque sodium of LMFBRs is being developed. Images are cormed by the physical scanning of a target using transducers in a pulse-echo mode. Lead zirconate transducers have been developed which can be deployed during reactor shut-down. The first application will be to examine a limited area of the core of PFR. Handling the data from such an experiment involves developing methods for reading and storing the information from such ultrasonic echo. Such techniques have been tested in real time by simulation in a water model. Methods of enhancing the images to be

  1. [Impact of energy related pollutants on chromosome structure]: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rill, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of the structure of nucleosome cores using chymotrypsin as a probe of hydrophobic residues showed that only leu-20 of H3 was readily accessible. Primary sites of cleavage of H2a, H2b, and H4 were identified. Chymotrypsin removal of specific histone termini showed that removal of the amino-terminal plus the carboxy-terminal 13 residues of H2a caused little unfolding. Using carbon-13 NMR spectroscopic, about 10% of histone amino acid residues were found to be in termini that are highly mobile. The major mobile segments were amino terminal regions of H3 and H2a, plus a carboxy-terminal region of H2a. The histone variants and developmental changes during embryogenesis of sea urchin were characterized. The early histone gene organization in L. variegatus was characterized, a genomic library was cloned in lambda phage, and several histone gene clones were selected. The nucleosome core length DNA forms crystalline phases at physiological concentrations. Microscopic and NMR spectroscopic methods were used to identify crystalline phases and to establish phase diagrams for transitions between phases as functions of DNA concentration and temperature. The sequence specificities of binding of several polycyclic aromatic chemicals to early H3 and H2a genes were examined. Chemicals studied were the bis-(o-phenanthroline) Cu(I) complex, AAAF, benzopyrene dihydrodiol epoxide, methylene blue, and acridine orange A preliminary map of binding sites of CuOP, AAAF and BPDE in and near the H3 gene showed that several sequence regions were bound preferentially by two or more of these chemicals. CuOP appeared to exhibit the most specificity. 80 refs., 4 figs

  2. Effects of modified coal-winning methods on structures in the coal mining industry. Learning from a case of damage; Auswirkungen veraenderter Abbauverfahren auf Bauwerke des Steinkohlenbergbaus. Lehren aus einem Schadensfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fastabend, M.; Schaefers, T.; Reissmann, F. [Ingenieurbuero IDN, Duisburg (Germany); Fischer, P.; Kaehler, A. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DSK), Herne (Germany)

    2006-11-07

    The collapse of a side wall of a raw feed coal bunker after 30 years in operation at a DSK colliery gave rise to the checking of structures of the same type of the basis of the causes of damage. Due to highly mechanised working methods in the colliery the soil mechanical boundary conditions of the filling material have changed. Meanwhile a deeper knowledge of the ground pressure theory to be assumed, which always necessitates consideration of at least a proportion of the earth static pressure in the case of rigid structures of this type, is also available. (orig.)

  3. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  4. Structural Disease Progression in Axial Spondyloarthritis: Still a Cause for Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerinckx, Barbara; Lories, Rik J

    2017-03-01

    Progressive ankylosis is a feared consequence of long-standing axial spondyloarthritis. We aim to critically review current insights into the effect of therapy, the molecular pathways involved in this process, and to present a model explaining the sequence of events. Long-term follow-up data suggest that successful control of inflammation may slow down radiographic progression of disease in axial spondyloarthritis. Structural effects of new therapies such as interleukin-17 targeting need to be further studied. Bone loss and architectural changes could act as driver for the tissue remodeling process trying to maintain spinal stability in the presence of inflammation. Despite some progress, the nature and mechanisms of new bone formation in axial spondyloarthritis still remain incompletely understood. However, long-term control of inflammation appears critical to avoid progressive disability due to structural damage.

  5. Material and structural characterization of alkali activated low-calcium brown coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvara, Frantisek; Kopecky, Lubomir; Smilauer, Vit; Bittnar, Zdenek

    2009-01-01

    The waste low-calcium Czech brown coal fly ash represents a considerable environmental burden due to the quantities produced and the potentially high content of leachable heavy metals. The heterogeneous microstucture of the geopolymer M n [-(Si-O) z -Al-O] n .wH 2 O, that forms during the alkaline activation, was examined by means of microcalorimetry, XRD, TGA, DSC, MIP, FTIR, NMR MAS ( 29 Si, 27 Al, 23 Na), ESEM, EDS, and EBSD. The leaching of heavy metals and the evolution of compressive strength were also monitored. The analysis of raw fly ash identified a number of different morphologies, unequal distribution of elements, Fe-rich rim, high internal porosity, and minor crystalline phases of mullite and quartz. Microcalorimetry revealed exothermic reactions with dependence on the activator alkalinity. The activation energy of the geopolymerization process was determined as 86.2 kJ/mol. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed no additional crystalline phases associated with geopolymer formation. Over several weeks, the 29 Si NMR spectrum testified a high degree of polymerization and Al penetration into the SiO 4 tetrahedra. The 23 Na NMR MAS spectrum hypothesized that sodium is bound in the form of Na(H 2 O) n rather than Na + , thus causing efflorescence in a moisture-gradient environment. As and Cr 6+ are weakly bonded in the geopolymer matrix, while excellent immobilization of Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Cr 3+ are reported.

  6. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    Preliminary economic investigations have focused on cost reduction measures in the production of syngas from coal. A spread sheet model has been developed which can determine the cost of syngas production based upon the cost of equipment and raw materials and the market value of energy and by-products. In comparison to natural gas derived syngas, coal derived syngas is much more expensive, suggesting a questionable economic status of coal derived alcohol fuels. While it is possible that use of less expensive coal or significant integration of alcohol production and electricity production may reduce the cost of coal derived syngas, it is unlikely to be less costly to produce than syngas from natural gas. Fuels evaluation is being conducted in three parts. First, standard ASTM tests are being used to analyze the blend characteristics of higher alcohols. Second, the performance characteristics of higher alcohols are being evaluated in a single-cylinder research engine. Third, the emissions characteristics of higher alcohols are being investigated. The equipment is still under construction and the measurement techniques are still being developed. Of particular interest is n-butanol, since the MoS{sub 2} catalyst produces only linear higher alcohols. There is almost no information on the combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol, hence the importance of gathering this information in this research.

  7. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1992--August 15, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Shamanna, S.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-10-13

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits.

  8. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. 4. Radical formation and structural change with thermal decomposition of coal; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 4. Netsubunkai ni tomonau radical seisei kyodo to kozo henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaji, M.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kumagai, H.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    In relation to coal liquefaction reaction, the effect of the coexistence of transferable hydrogen (TH) from process solvent on reduction of radical concentration and the effect of pre-heat treatment on average structure of coals were studied. In experiment, change in radical concentration with temperature rise was measured using the system composed of Yallourn coal and process solvent. The results are as follows. Process solvent with a wide boiling point range of 180-420{degree}C is effective in suppressing an increase in radical concentration even at higher temperature. The effect of hydrogen-donating solvent increases with TH. It was also suggested that high-boiling point constituents in solvent stabilize radicals even over 400{degree}C by vapor phase hydrogenation. The experimental results of pre-heat treatment are as follows. Although the conversion improvement effect of TH is equivalent to that of the model solvent, TH tends to produce soluble products with smaller ring numbers. It was thus suggested that pre-heat treatment in process solvent is effective to inhibit retrogressive reactions. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 2 - hydrogenative and hydrothermal pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization using pyrolysis-GC-MS, CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Hatcher, P.G.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    It has been indicated by DOE COLIRN panel that low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals. As the second volume of the final report, here we summarize our work on spectroscopic characterization of four raw coals including two subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals, tetrahydrofuran (THF)-extracted but unreacted coals, the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been thermally pretreated. in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent, and the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been catalytically pretreated in the presence of a dispersed Mo sulfide catalyst in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent.

  10. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1991--February 15, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jianyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-05-29

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

  11. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  12. R&D for the storage, transport, and handling of coal-based fuels. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1990--March 31, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    The product of several advanced physical coal cleaning processes is a dry ultra-fine coal (DC), in the order of 10 microns mean mass diameter. To utilize this fuel commercially, cost-effective, environmentally safe systems must be provided for the storage, transport, and handling of this finely divided form of fuel. The objective of the project described herein is the development of total logistics systems for DC, including experimental verification of key features. The systems to be developed will provide for safe, economic, and environmentally protective storage and delivery of DC for residential, commercial, and industrial uses. (VC)

  13. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-12-31

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  14. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and Phase III. Quarter progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Work is presented on the development of a coal-fired high performance power generation system by the year 2000. This report describes the design of the air heater, duct heater, system controls, slag viscosity, and design of a quench zone.

  15. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase 2 and 3. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: >47% thermal efficiency (HHV); NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulates {ge} 10% NSPS; coal {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; and cost of electricity 90% of present plant. The HIPPS generating plant integrates a combustion gas turbine/HRSG combined cycle arrangement with an advanced coal-fired boiler. The unique feature of the HIPPS plant is the partial heating of gas turbine (GT) compressor outlet air using energy released by firing coal in the high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The compressed air is additionally heated prior to entering the GT expander section by burning natural gas. Energy available, in the gas turbine exhaust and in the HITAF flue gas are used in a steam cycle to maximize energy production. The HIPPS plant arrangement is thus a combination of existing technologies (gas turbine, heat recovery boilers, conventional steam cycle) and new technologies (the HITAF design especially the heater located in the radiant section). Work reported herein is from Task 1.3, HIPPS Commercial Design and Task 2.2, HITAF Air Heaters.

  16. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1992--February 15, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  17. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report Number 8, 1 July, 1993--30 September, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Task 1, the preparation of catalyst materials, is proceeding actively. At WVU, catalysts based on Mo are being prepared using a variety of approaches to alter the oxidation state and environment of the Mo. At UCC and P, copper-based zinc chromite spinel catalysts will be prepared and tested. The modeling of the alcohol-synthesis reaction in a membrane reactor is proceeding actively. Under standard conditions, pressure drop in the membrane reactor has been shown to be negligible. In Task 2, base case designs had previously been completed with a Texaco gasifier. Now, similar designs have been completed using the Shell gasifier. A comparison of the payback periods or production cost of these plants shows significant differences among the base cases. However, a natural gas only design, prepared for comparison purposes, gives a lower payback period or production cost. Since the alcohol synthesis portion of the above processes is the same, the best way to make coal-derived higher alcohols more attractive economically than natural gas-derived higher alcohols is by making coal-derived syngas less expensive than natural gas-derived syngas. The maximum economically feasible capacity for a higher alcohol plant from coal-derived syngas appears to be 32 MM bbl/yr. This is based on consideration of regional coal supply in the eastern US, coal transportation, and regional product demand. The benefits of economics of scale are illustrated for the base case designs. A value for higher alcohol blends has been determined by appropriate combination of RVP, octane number, and oxygen content, using MTBE as a reference. This analysis suggests that the high RVP of methanol in combination with its higher water solubility make higher alcohols more valuable than methanol.

  18. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1994--August 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new system specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. During this reporting period, the construction of the CWSF preparation circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) continued. The CWSF preparation circuit will be completed by November 1,1994. Additional activities included receiving a coal-designed burner and installing it on the demonstration boiler, and working with DOE in selecting pollution control systems to install on the boiler.

  19. Trophic structure and metal bioaccumulation differences in multiple fish species exposed to coal ash-associated metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otter, Ryan [Middle Tennessee State University; Bailey, Frank [Middle Tennessee State University; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    On December 22, 2008 a dike containing coal fly ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant near Kingston Tennessee USA failed and resulted in the largest coal ash spill in U.S. history. Coal ash, the by-product of coal combustion, is known to contain multiple contaminants of concern, including arsenic and selenium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of arsenic and selenium and to identify possible differences in trophic dynamics in feral fish at various sites in the vicinity of the Kingston coal ash spill. Elevated levels of arsenic and selenium were observed in various tissues of largemouth bass, white crappie, bluegill and redear sunfish from sites associated with the Kingston coal ash spill. Highest concentrations of selenium were found in redear sunfish with liver concentrations as high as 24.83 mg/kg dry weight and ovary concentrations up to 10.40 mg/kg dry weight at coal ash-associated sites. To help explain the elevated selenium levels observed in redear sunfish, investigations into the gut pH and trophic dynamics of redear sunfish and bluegill were conducted which demonstrated a large difference in the gut physiology between these two species. Redear sunfish stomach and intestinal pH was found to be 1.1 and 0.16 pH units higher than in bluegill, respectively. In addition, fish from coal ash-associated sites showed enrichment of 15N & 13C compared to no ash sites, indicating differences in food web dynamics between sites. These results imply the incorporation of coal ash-associated compounds into local food webs and/or a shift in diet at ash sites compared to the no ash reference sites. Based on these results, further investigation into a broader food web at ash-associated sites is warranted.

  20. Research progress on structural ore-controlling of Xinjiang Baiyanghe uranium-polymetallic deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mou; Wang Guo; Zhang Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    This article mainly starts from the tectonics of Baiyanghe uranium-polymetallic deposit, which control the ore-mineralization distribution. Elaborate the research progress by analysising the characteristics and divising the stage of ore-controlling structures. which divided into contact zone structure and fracture structure, including complex contact zone and extensional double tectonic superimposition which control the output of main ore-body. According to the tectonic activities order. the ore-controlling structure can be mainly divided into three stage activities, metallogenic before, mineralization and metallogenic period after. (authors)

  1. Characterization of Coal Porosity for Naturally Tectonically Stressed Coals in Huaibei Coal Field, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshi Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The enrichment of coalbed methane (CBM and the outburst of gas in a coal mine are closely related to the nanopore structure of coal. The evolutionary characteristics of 12 coal nanopore structures under different natural deformational mechanisms (brittle and ductile deformation are studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. The results indicate that there are mainly submicropores (2~5 nm and supermicropores (4 m2/g, with pore sizes <5 nm in ductile deformed coal. The nanopore structure (<100 nm and its distribution could be affected by macromolecular structure in two ways. Interconversion will occur among the different size nanopores especially in ductile deformed coal.

  2. Bright outlook for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    After enduring contract price cuts over the past two years of almost 17% for thermal coal and 23% for hard coking coal, the New South Wales coal industry is looking forward to a reversal of fortune for 2001. Increased export demand, improved prices, significant improvements in mine site productivity, a weak Australian dollar and the probability of a number of new projects or extensions progressing to development are likely to result in an increase in NSW saleable production to around 110 million tonnes (Mt) in 2000-01. Sharply weaker coal prices over the past two years, intensified international competition and the Asian economic downturn had a negative impact on profitability, investment, exports and employment in the NSW coal industry. As a result, the industry has undergone substantial restructuring. The restructuring process has led to a consolidation in ownership, reduced production costs and improved operational efficiency. The outcome is an industry well positioned to take advantage of the positive market conditions and one likely to experience levels of profitability not achieved over the past few years

  3. Bond cleavage reactions of the bridge structure in coal in the presence of hydrogen donating compounds; Suiso kyoyosei kagobutsu sonzaika deno sekitanchu no kakyo kozo no kairetsu hanno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bando, N.; Kidena, K.; Murata, S.; Nomura, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In this paper, bond cleavage reactions are discussed in relation to the softening and solubilization of coal. Were used 9,10-dihydroanthracene (DHA) and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (DHP) as models of hydrogen donating compounds in coal, and bibenzyl, 1,2-diethane, benzylphenylether, and 1,5-dibenzylnaphthalene were used as models of bridge structure compounds. They were compared mutually, as to reactivity of coal against DHA and DHP. For the homolytic cleavage of bridges, DHA with excellent radical supplement performance provided excellent hydrogen donating performance. While, for the ipso-position cleavage of bridges, it was found that DHP can act as an effective hydrogen donor. For the reaction between coal and hydrogenated aromatic compounds, cleavage of relatively weak bonds, such as ether linkage and dimethylene linkage, occurred at about 380{degree}C, and hydrogen from DHA or DHP was consumed. On the other hand, the results suggested that the cleavage reaction at ipso-position affected by hydrogen donating solvent is also important at temperature range around 420{degree}C. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. The economic case for industrial application of low-rank coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, W.

    1991-01-01

    The World Coal Institute estimates coal should overtake oil as the world's largest source of primary energy by the turn of the century. Current world coal production of 3.6 billion tons in 1990 is predicted to rise to 4 billion tons by the year 2000. It is conceded that a major environmental problem with burning coal is the so-called greenhouse effect. The question is how do you use the new technologies that have been developed which now allow coal to be burned with minimum damage to the environment. Despite their technical merits, acceptance of these new technologies is slow because they appear uncompetitive when compared with historic energy costs. Unless economic comparisons include some form of environmental evaluation, this issue will continue to be a barrier to progress. To avoid stagnation and provide the necessary incentive for implementing badly needed change, structural changes in energy economics need to be made which take into account the environmental cost element of these emerging new technologies. The paper discusses coal trade and quality and then describes the three main areas of development of clean coal technologies: coal preparation, combustion, and flue gas treatment

  5. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Factors Shape Littoral Invertebrate Community Structure in Coal-Mining End-Pit Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luek, Andreas; Rasmussen, Joseph B.

    2017-04-01

    Aquatic invertebrates form the base of the consumer food web in lakes. In coal-mining end-pit lakes, invertebrates are exposed to an environment with potentially challenging physical and chemical features. We hypothesized that the physical and chemical features of end-pit lakes reduce critical littoral habitat and thus reduce invertebrate diversity, thereby limiting the potential for these lakes to be naturalized. We used a multivariate approach using principle component analysis and redundancy analysis to study relationships between invertebrate community structure, habitat features, and water quality in five end-pit lakes and five natural lakes in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada. Results show a significantly different invertebrate community structure was present in end-pit lakes as compared with reference lakes in the same region, which could be accounted for by water hardness, conductivity, slope of the littoral zone, and phosphorus concentrations. Habitat diversity in end-pit lakes was also limited, cover provided by macrophytes was scarce, and basin slopes were significantly steeper in pit lakes. Although water chemistry is currently the strongest influencing factor on the invertebrate community, physical challenges of habitat homogeneity and steep slopes in the littoral zones were identified as major drivers of invertebrate community structure. The addition of floating wetlands to the littoral zone of existing pit lakes can add habitat complexity without the need for large-scale alterations to basing morphology, while impermeable capping of waste-rock and the inclusion of littoral habitat in the planning process of new pit lakes can improve the success of integrating new pit lakes into the landscape.

  6. Study on the structure and gasification characteristics of selected South African bituminous coal in fluidised bed gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available . The microstructural characteristics of the parent coals and their resultant chars were determined using XRD, FTIR, Raman and petrographic analysis. The microstructural changes that occurred in the organic (maceral) and the inorganic (mineral) fractions of the selected...

  7. Study on the structure and gasification characteristics of selected South African bituminous coals in fluidised bed gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available . The microstructural characteristics of the parent coals and their resultant chars were determined using XRD, FT-IR, Raman and petrographic analysis. The microstructural changes that occurred in the organic (maceral) and the inorganic (mineral) fractions...

  8. The Low-Carbon Transition toward Sustainability of Regional Coal-Dominated Energy Consumption Structure: A Case of Hebei Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunmin Ou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available CO2 emission resulted from fossil energy use is threatening human sustainability globally. This study focuses on the low-carbon transition of Hebei’s coal-dominated energy system by estimating its total end-use energy consumption, primary energy supply and resultant CO2 emission up to 2030, by employing an energy demand analysis model based on setting of the economic growth rate, industrial structure, industry/sector energy consumption intensity, energy supply structure, and CO2 emission factor. It is found that the total primary energy consumption in Hebei will be 471 and 431 million tons of coal equivalent (tce in 2030 in our two defined scenarios (conventional development scenario and coordinated development scenario, which are 1.40 and 1.28 times of the level in 2015, respectively. The resultant full-chain CO2 emission will be 1027 and 916 million tons in 2030 in the two scenarios, which are 1.24 and 1.10 times of the level in 2015, respectively. The full-chain CO2 emission will peak in about 2025. It is found that the coal-dominated situation of energy structure and CO2 emission increasing trend in Hebei can be changed in the future in the coordinated development scenario, in which Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area coordinated development strategy will be strengthened. The energy structure of Hebei can be optimised since the proportion of coal in total primary energy consumption can fall from around 80% in 2015 to below 30% in 2030 and the proportions of transferred electricity, natural gas, nuclear energy and renewable energy can increase rapidly. Some specific additional policy instruments are also suggested to support the low-carbon transition of energy system in Hebei under the framework of the coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area, and with the support from the central government of China.

  9. The peculiarities of structurizing enclosing rock massif while developing a coal seam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyreva, E. N.; Shinkevich, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    Different concepts of the development of geo-mechanical processes during longwall mining of a seam which are fundamentally different from the conventional ones are introduced in the article. Fundamental principles of the model for structurizing enclosing rock mass while longwall mining along the strike are described. The model was developed on the bases of non-linear geomechanical laws. According to the model, rock mass in the area of mining operation is organized as rock geomechanical layers with shifting arches. And the formation period of shifting arches in disintegrated rock mass is divisible by the length of the stope. Undulate characteristic of a massif as a peculiarity of man-made structurization of a massif is defined. It is shown that structuring the broken massif causes the formation of block-structured system and it can be detected while monitoring the ground pressure in powered support props. The results of the research allow decreasing the negative influence of a ground pressure and can be applied to specify parameters for controlling the roof, defining geometrical dimensions of a mining section and positioning of holing chute (face entry).

  10. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Technical progress report, [June 1, 1989--September 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-10-01

    The general goal of this research project is to enhance, and transfer to DOE, a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Systems utilizing pre-combustion, combustion, or post-combustion control methods, individually or in combination, may be considered. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model input parameters. This stochastic simulation capability allows the performance and cost of environmental control systems to be quantified probabilistically, accounting for the interactions among all uncertain process and economic parameters. This method facilitates more rigorous comparisons between conventional and advanced clean coal technologies promising improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Detailed modeling of several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE/PETC have been selected for analysis as part of this project.

  11. Clean Coal Technology III (CCT III) 10 MW demonstration of gas suspension absorption. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-07

    The Gas Suspension Absorber (GSA) system brings coal combustion gases into contact with a suspended mixture of solids, including sulfur-absorbing lime. After the lime absorbs the sulfur pollutants, the solids are separated from the gases in a cyclone device and recirculated back into the system where they capture additional sulfur pollutant. The cleaned flue gases are sent through a dust collector before being released into the atmosphere. The key to the system`s superior economic performance with high sulfur coals is the recirculation of solids. Typically, a solid particle will pass through the system about one hundred times before leaving the system. Another advantage of the GSA system is that a single spray nozzle is used to inject fresh lime slurry. The GSA system is expected to be the answer to the need of the US industry for an effective, economic and space efficient solution to the SO{sub 2} pollution problem.

  12. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1994--February 15, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.

    1995-05-12

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement to determine if CWSFs prepared from cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can be burned effectively in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and stagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first three phases (i.e., the first demonstration) have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours.

  13. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1993--February 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Poe, R.L.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first demonstrations been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler has been determined to be unacceptable. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours. The second demonstration will be conducted after a proven CWSF-designed burner is installed on the boiler. During this reporting period, the construction of the fuel preparation facility that will contain the CWSF circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) was completed. Proposals from potential suppliers of the flue gas treatment systems were reviewed by Penn State and DOE.

  14. Deashing of coal liquids with ceramic membrane microfiltration and diafiltration. Final quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Removal of mineral matter from liquid hydrocarbons derived from the direct liquefaction of coal is required for product acceptability. Current methods include critical solvent de-ashing and filtration, both of which produce an ash reject stream containing up to 15% of the liquid hydrocarbon product. This program is directed towards development of an improved process for de-ashing and recovery of coal-derived residual oil: the use of ceramic membranes for high-temperature microfiltration and diafiltration. Using laboratory-scale ceramic membrane modules, samples of a coal-derived residual oil containing ash will be processed by crossflow microfiltration, followed by solvent addition and refiltration (diafiltration). Recovery of de-ashed residual oil will be demonstrated. Data from this program will be used to develop a preliminary engineering design and cost estimate for a demonstration pilot plant incorporating full-scale membrane modules. In addition, estimates for production system capital and operating costs will be developed to assess process economic feasibility. The five program tasks include (1) ceramic membrane fabrication, (2) membrane test system assembly, (3) testing of the ceramic membranes, (4) design of a demonstration system using full scale membrane modules, and (5) development of estimates for microfiltration capital and operating costs and assessment of process economic feasibility.

  15. Composite Elements for Biomimetic Aerospace Structures with Progressive Shape Variation Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Airoldi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some engineering solutions for the development of innovative aerodynamic surfaces with the capability of progressive shape variation. A brief introduction of the most significant issues related to the design of such morphing structures is provided. Thereafter, two types of structural solutions are presented for the design of internal compliant structures and flexible external skins. The proposed solutions exploit the properties and the manufacturing techniques of long fibre reinforced plastic in order to fulfil the severe and contradictory requirements related to the trade-off between morphing performance and load carrying capabilities.

  16. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Analysis of coal streams with californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worster, B.W.

    1976-01-01

    The sulfur, ash, water, and energy content of coal are increasingly important parameters to various coal users because of their relationship to air pollution, energy conservation, and to the proper operation of coal-burning plants. For example, ash accumulation is critical in electric power plants and suppliers of coal operate under contracts specifying maximum ash and sulfur content of their product. Conventional analysis of streams of coal on the order of 100 to 2000 tons/hour have relief on elaborate mechanical sampling mechanisms to take primary, secondary, and tertiary cuts from the coal stream with pulverizing stages between cuts to reduce it down to a fine powder which is analyzed off-line with wet chemical methods. (X-ray backscatter techniques have been applied to small coal streams for ash analysis.) This technique is too slow for process control in coal cleaning and blending operations, and is unreliable because of the highly heterogeneous nature of coal as it comes from the mine. Analysis of the entire stream of coal for the parameters of interest appears to be feasible only by analyzing the prompt gamma rays produced by capture of thermal neutrons diffusing through the coal. At FMC Corporation, we are performing extensive tests of the analysis of coal on-line for its important parameters using a californium-252 neutron source. In this paper we report the progress of our tests and the outlook for commercial industrial application of the method

  18. Recent Progress in First-Principles Methods for Computing the Electronic Structure of Correlated Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Nilsson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Substantial progress has been achieved in the last couple of decades in computing the electronic structure of correlated materials from first principles. This progress has been driven by parallel development in theory and numerical algorithms. Theoretical development in combining ab initio approaches and many-body methods is particularly promising. A crucial role is also played by a systematic method for deriving a low-energy model, which bridges the gap between real and model systems. In this article, an overview is given tracing the development from the LDA+U to the latest progress in combining the G W method and (extended dynamical mean-field theory ( G W +EDMFT. The emphasis is on conceptual and theoretical aspects rather than technical ones.

  19. APPLICATION OF AEM IN PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE DYNAMICS ANALYSIS OF R.C. STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama El-Mahdy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Finite Element Method (FEM and the other numerical strategies are viably actualized in linear and non-linear analysis of structures. Recently, a new displacement based on Applied Element Method (AEM has been developed. It is applicable for static and dynamic for both linear and non-linear analysis of framed and continuum structures. In AEM, the structural member is partitioned into virtual elements connected through normal and shear springs representing stresses and strains of certain portion of structure. FEM assumes the material as continuous and can indicate highly stressed region of structure, however it is difficult to model separation of element unless crack location is known. The main advantage of AEM is that it can track the structural collapse behavior going through all phases of the application of loads. In the current research, the application of AEM is illustrated through a non-linear dynamic analysis. Progressive collapse simulation is conducted using Extreme Loading for Structures software (ELS, which follows the AEM. The experimental and analytical works carried by Park et al. [17 and 28] for 1/5 scaled 3 and 5 stories reinforced concrete structures are used for verification. Good matching between the experimental and numerical results has been obtained using ELS. Therefore, it can be confirmed that ELS is capable in simulating the structures’ behavior up to collapse. Furthermore, a study has been made to investigate the effect of considering the floor slabs on progressive collapse. The results show that considering slab in progressive collapse analysis of multistory buildings is important as neglecting the slabs’ contribution leads to incorrect simulation and uneconomic design.

  20. Type and amount of organic amendments affect enhanced biogenic methane production from coal and microbial community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Katherine J.; Lu, Shipeng; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Parker, Albert E.; Fields, Matthew W.; Gerlach, Robin

    2018-01-01

    Slow rates of coal-to-methane conversion limit biogenic methane production from coalbeds. This study demonstrates that rates of coal-to-methane conversion can be increased by the addition of small amounts of organic amendments. Algae, cyanobacteria, yeast cells, and granulated yeast extract were tested at two concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 g/L), and similar increases in total methane produced and methane production rates were observed for all amendments at a given concentration. In 0.1 g/L amended systems, the amount of carbon converted to methane minus the amount produced in coal only systems exceeded the amount of carbon added in the form of amendment, suggesting enhanced coal-to-methane conversion through amendment addition. The amount of methane produced in the 0.5 g/L amended systems did not exceed the amount of carbon added. While the archaeal communities did not vary significantly, the bacterial populations appeared to be strongly influenced by the presence of coal when 0.1 g/L of amendment was added; at an amendment concentration of 0.5 g/L the bacterial community composition appeared to be affected most strongly by the amendment type. Overall, the results suggest that small amounts of amendment are not only sufficient but possibly advantageous if faster in situcoal-to-methane production is to be promoted.

  1. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  2. THE LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK. PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE PERIOD OF MARCH 2003 - MARCH 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN,T.M.LIPFERT,F.D.MORRIS,S.M.

    2003-05-01

    This report presents a follow-up to previous assessments of the health risks of mercury that BNL performed for the Department of Energy. Methylmercury is an organic form of mercury that has been implicated as the form of mercury that impacts human health. A comprehensive risk assessment report was prepared (Lipfert et al., 1994) that led to several journal articles and conference presentations (Lipfert et al. 1994, 1995, 1996). In 2001, a risk assessment of mercury exposure from fish consumption was performed for 3 regions of the U.S (Northeast, Southeast, and Midwest) identified by the EPA as regions of higher impact from coal emissions (Sullivan, 2001). The risk assessment addressed the effects of in utero exposure to children through consumption of fish by their mothers. Two population groups (general population and subsistence fishers) were considered. Three mercury levels were considered in the analysis, current conditions based on measured data, and hypothetical reductions in Hg levels due to a 50% and 90% reduction in mercury emissions from coal fired power plants. The findings of the analysis suggested that a 90% reduction in coal-fired emissions would lead to a small reduction in risk to the general population (population risk reduction on the order of 10{sup -5}) and that the population risk is born by less than 1% of the population (i.e. high end fish consumers). The study conducted in 2001 focused on the health impacts arising from regional deposition patterns as determined by measured data and modeling. Health impacts were assessed on a regional scale accounting for potential percent reductions in mercury emissions from coal. However, quantitative assessment of local deposition near actual power plants has not been attempted. Generic assessments have been performed, but these are not representative of any single power plant. In this study, general background information on the mercury cycle, mercury emissions from coal plants, and risk assessment are

  3. The two-year progression of structural and functional cerebral MRI in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.L. Menke

    2018-01-01

    A longer period of follow-up, though necessarily involving more slowly-progressive cases, demonstrated widespread changes in both grey and white matter structural MRI measures. The mixed picture of regional decreases and increases in FC is compatible with compensatory change, in what should be viewed as a brain-based disease characterised by larger-scale disintegration of motor and frontal projection cerebral networks.

  4. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15--August 15, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1997-06-03

    The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, performing baseline tests firing No. 6 fuel oil, and conducting additional CWSF testing). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers is also evaluated. The first three phases have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. A maximum coal combustion efficiency of 95% (compared to a target of 98%) was achieved and natural gas cofiring (15% of the total thermal input) was necessary to maintain a stable flame. Consequently, the first demonstration was terminated after 500 hours. The second CWSF demonstration (Phase 4) was conducted with a proven coal-designed burner. Prior to starting the second demonstration, a CWSF preparation circuit was constructed to provide flexibility in CWSF production. The circuit initially installed involved single-stage grinding. A regrind circuit was recently installed and was evaluated. A burner was installed from ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB/CE) and was used to generate baseline data firing No. 6 fuel oil and fire CWSF. A temporary storage system for No. 6 fuel oil was installed and modifications to the existing CWSF handling and preheating system were made to accommodate No. 6 oil.

  5. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semi-annual technical progress report, 15 August 1995--15 February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1997-06-03

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to determine the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement to determine if CWSFs prepared from cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can be burned effectively in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. Information will also be generated to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, performing baseline tests firing No. 6 fuel oil, and conducting additional CWSF testing). The first three phases (i.e., the first 1,000-hour demonstration) have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. A maximum coal combustion efficiency of 95% (compared to a target of 98%) was achieved and natural gas cofiring (15% of the total thermal input) was necessary to maintain a stable flame. Consequently, the first demonstration was terminated after 500 hours. The second CWSF demonstration (Phase 4) will be conducted with a proven CWSF-designed burner. Prior to starting the second demonstration, a CWSF preparation circuit was constructed to provide flexibility in CWSF production. The circuit initially installed involved single-stage grinding. A regrid circuit was recently installed and will be evaluated. A burner was installed from ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB/CE) and will be used to generate baseline data firing No. 6

  6. [Research progress in the structure and function of dengue virus non-structural 1 protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Ren, Rui-wen; Liu, Jian-wei

    2014-11-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a re-emerging disease transmitted by the Aedes mosquitoes and has become a major public health problem in southern China. Currently, no antiviral drug or effective vaccine exist to control this disease. The chimeric DENV structural protein vaccine cannot elicit balanced levels of protective immunity to each of the four viral serotypes; therefore, non-structural protein components may be required to construct an effective DENV vaccine. The Dengue virus non-structural 1 (DENV NS1) protein plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis and protective immunity. Therefore, immunity to Dengue 1-4 NS1 subtypes may be crucial for the prevention of severe disease. This review attempts to provide an overview about the structure and function of DENV NS1.

  7. A progressive methodology for structural safety evaluation of gravity dams subjected to floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, P.; Tinawi, R.; Leclerc, M.; Rheault, S.

    1996-01-01

    Failure mechanisms that could be expected for gravity dams subjected to hydrostatic overloads, and flood safety performance criteria for gravity dams, were reviewed. A progressive structural analysis methodology, divided into four structural analysis levels of increasing complexity to evaluate the flood safety of gravity dams was proposed. Application of the proposed methodology was illustrated by parametric analysis performed on a typical 52 m gravity dam. Results of a coupled hydro-fracture analysis of an old masonry dam was also presented to provide qualitative correlations between numerical analysis procedures and traditional observations of failure mechanisms of gravity dams under hydrostatic overload. 9 refs., 8 figs

  8. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  9. Particulate behavior in a controlled-profile pulverized coal-fired reactor: A study of coupled turbulent particle dispersion and thermal radiation transport. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, M.; Webb, B.W.

    1996-06-01

    To aid in the evaluation and development of advanced coal-combustion models, comprehensive experimental data sets are needed containing information on both the condensed and gas phases. To address this need a series of test were initiated on a 300 kW laboratory-scale, coal-fired reactor at a single test condition using several types of instrumentation. Data collected on the reactor during the course of the test includes: gas, particle, and wall temperature profiles; radiant, total, and convective heat fluxes to the walls; particle size and velocity profiles; transmission measurements; and gas species concentrations. Solid sampling was also performed to determine carbon and total burnout. Along with the extensive experimental measurements, the particle dispersion and radiation submodels in the ACERC comprehensive 2D code were studied in detail and compared to past experimental measurements taken in the CPR. In addition to the presentation and discussion of the experimental data set, a detailed description of the measurement techniques used in collecting the data, including a discussion of the error associated with each type of measurement, is given.

  10. Coal sector model: Source data on coal for the energy and power evaluation program (ENPEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwala, W.

    1997-01-01

    Coal is the major primary energy source in Poland and this circumstances requires that the data on coal supply for use in energy planning models should be prepared properly. Economic sectors' development depends on many factors which are usually considered in energy planning models. Thus, data on the development of such sectors as coal mining should be consistent with the economic assumptions made in the energy planning model. Otherwise, coal data could bias the results of the energy planning model. The coal mining and coal distribution models which have been developed at the Polish Academy of Sciences could provide proper coal data of use in ENPEP and other energy planning models. The coal mining model optimizes the most important decisions related to coal productions, such as coal mines development, retirement of non-profitable mines, and construction of new mines. The model uses basic data forecasts of coal mine costs and coal production. Other factors such as demand for coal, world coal prices, etc., are parameters which constitute constraints and requirements for the coal mining development. The output of the model is the amount of coal produced and supply curves for different coal types. Such data are necessary for the coal distribution model and could also be used by ENPEP. This paper describes the model, its structure and how the results of the model could serve as coal-related data for ENPEP. Improvement of some input data forms of the BALANCE module of ENPEP are also suggested in order to facilitate data preparation. (author). 7 figs

  11. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The status of coal liquefaction pilot plants supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract, funding, process name, process description, flowsheet, history and progress during the July-September 1979 quarter. Supporting projects such as test facilities, refining and upgrading coal liquids, catalyst development, and gasification of residues from coal gasification plants are discussed similarly. (LTN)

  12. Micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Na; Yao, Yuan; Sun, Henghu; Feng, Huan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Al IV and Al VI both exist in the hydration products. • Increase of Ca/Si ratio promotes the conversion from [AlO 4 ] to [AlO 6 ]. • Polymerization degree of [SiO 4 ] in the hydration products declines. -- Abstract: In this research, the micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials has been investigated through SEM-EDS, 27 Al MAS NMR and 29 Si MAS NMR techniques, in which the used red mud was derived from the bauxite calcination method. The results show that the red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials mainly form fibrous C-A-S-H gel, needle-shaped/rod-like AFt in the early hydration period. With increasing of the hydration period, densification of the pastes were promoted resulting in the development of strength. EDS analysis shows that with the Ca/Si of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials increases, the average Ca/Si and Ca/(Si + Al) atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel increases, while the average Al/Si atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel decreases. MAS NMR analysis reveals that Al in the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials exists in the forms of Al IV and Al VI , but mainly in the form of Al VI . Increasing the Ca/Si ratio of raw material promotes the conversion of [AlO 4 ] to [AlO 6 ] and inhibits the combination between [AlO 4 ] and [SiO 4 ] to form C-A-S-H gel. Meanwhile, the polymerization degree of [SiO 4 ] in the hydration products declines

  13. Progressive Dictionary Learning with Hierarchical Predictive Structure for Scalable Video Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenrui; Shen, Yangmei; Xiong, Hongkai; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Zou, Junni; Taubman, David

    2017-04-12

    Dictionary learning has emerged as a promising alternative to the conventional hybrid coding framework. However, the rigid structure of sequential training and prediction degrades its performance in scalable video coding. This paper proposes a progressive dictionary learning framework with hierarchical predictive structure for scalable video coding, especially in low bitrate region. For pyramidal layers, sparse representation based on spatio-temporal dictionary is adopted to improve the coding efficiency of enhancement layers (ELs) with a guarantee of reconstruction performance. The overcomplete dictionary is trained to adaptively capture local structures along motion trajectories as well as exploit the correlations between neighboring layers of resolutions. Furthermore, progressive dictionary learning is developed to enable the scalability in temporal domain and restrict the error propagation in a close-loop predictor. Under the hierarchical predictive structure, online learning is leveraged to guarantee the training and prediction performance with an improved convergence rate. To accommodate with the stateof- the-art scalable extension of H.264/AVC and latest HEVC, standardized codec cores are utilized to encode the base and enhancement layers. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the latest SHVC and HEVC simulcast over extensive test sequences with various resolutions.

  14. Structural hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression revealed by probabilistic fiber tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Robert; Loewe, Kristian; Kaufmann, Joern; Machts, Judith; Kollewe, Katja; Petri, Susanne; Dengler, Reinhard; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Vielhaber, Stefan; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel; Stoppel, Christian Michael

    2015-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive limb and/or bulbar muscular weakness and atrophy. Although ALS-related alterations of motor and extra-motor neuronal networks have repeatedly been reported, their temporal dynamics during disease progression are not well understood. Recently, we reported a decline of motor system activity and a concurrent increase of hippocampal novelty-evoked modulations across 3 months of ALS progression. To address whether these functional changes are associated with structural ones, the current study employed probabilistic fiber tractography on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data using a longitudinal design. Therein, motor network integrity was assessed by DTI-based tracking of the intracranial corticospinal tract, while connectivity estimates of occipito-temporal tracts (between visual and entorhinal, perirhinal or parahippocampal cortices) served to assess structural changes that could be related to the increased novelty-evoked hippocampal activity across time described previously. Complementing these previous functional observations, the current data revealed an ALS-related decrease in corticospinal tract structural connectivity compared to controls, while in contrast, visuo-perirhinal connectivity was relatively increased in the patient group. Importantly, beyond these between-group differences, a rise in the patients' occipito-temporal tract strengths occurred across a 3-month interval, while at the same time no changes in corticospinal tract connectivity were observed. In line with previously identified functional alterations, the dynamics of these structural changes suggest that the affection of motor- and memory-related networks in ALS emerges at distinct disease stages: while motor network degeneration starts primarily during early (supposedly pre-symptomatic) phases, the hippocampal/medial temporal lobe dysfunctions arise at later stages of the disease.

  15. Coal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroenig, W.

    1944-02-11

    Some considerations in the selection of a catalyst for the liquid phase of coal hydrogenation are discussed. Some of the previous history of such selections is mentioned. At one stage of the development, the principal catalyst had been iron sulfate (FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O). Later, for reasons of cost and availability of large supplies, selections had turned to mixtures of iron sulfate and one or another of some iron oxide- and aluminum oxide-containing byproducts of aluminum manufacture, namely Bayermasse, Luxamsse, or Lautamasse. Much of the discussion centered on optimal proportions for such mixtures, particularly as related to pH values of resulting coal pastes. Upper Silesian coal was more alkaline than Ruhr coal, and Bayermasse, etc., were quite alkaline. Thus, since the iron sulfate served as a partial neutralizer for the coal as well as a catalyst, it seemed necessary to increase the proportions of iron sulfate in the catalyst mixture when processing coal of greater alkalinity. A further reason for a greater proportion of iron sulfate seemed to be that most of the catalytic activity of the iron came from the ferrous iron of iron sulfate rather than from the ferric iron of the other materials. Ferrous-ferric ratios also seemed to indicate that Luxmasse or Lautamasse might be better catalyst components than Bayermasse but their water content sometimes caused handling problems, so Bayermasse had been more widely used. Formation of deposits in the preheater was more likely due to the Bayermasse than to the iron sulfate; sodium sulfide could help to prevent them.

  16. Lung disease and coal mining: what pulmonologists need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Leonard H T; Krefft, Silpa D; Cohen, Robert A; Rose, Cecile S

    2016-03-01

    Coal mine workers are at risk for a range of chronic respiratory diseases including coal workers' pneumoconiosis, diffuse dust-related fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The purpose of this review is to describe coal mining processes and associated exposures to inform the diagnostic evaluation of miners with respiratory symptoms. Although rates of coal workers' pneumoconiosis declined after regulations were enacted in the 1970s, more recent data shows a reversal in this downward trend. Rapidly progressive pneumoconiosis with progressive massive fibrosis (complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis) is being observed with increased frequency in United States coal miners, with histologic findings of silicosis and mixed-dust pneumoconiosis. There is increasing evidence of decline in lung function in individuals with pneumoconiosis. Multiple recent cohort studies suggest increased risk of lung cancer in coal miners. A detailed understanding of coal mining methods and processes allows clinicians to better evaluate and confirm chronic lung diseases caused by inhalational hazards in the mine atmosphere.

  17. Studies on reactivity of coal surfaces at low temperature; Teion ni okeru sekitan hyomen no hannosei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, H.; Kaiho, M.; Yamada, O.; Soneda, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn reactivity of coal at its surface, surfaces of oxidized coal samples were investigated. Miike coal was oxidized by using {sup 18}O2 in a closed loop system. As the reaction progresses, proportion of CO2 including isotopes increased rapidly as a result of oxidation of CO sites existing in the coal and the newly generated C{sup 18}O sites. The oxidizing reaction progressed via oxygen adsorbing sites generated near the surface, and oxygen containing groups. An FT-IR analysis estimated the depth of the oxidized layer to be 10{mu}m or less from particle surface. The oxidized coal was pulverized to see its surface condition. Functional groups introduced by the oxidation enter into the vicinity of the surface in a form to desorb as CO. CO2 is trapped in inner pores. The coal surface was observed by using an atomic force microscope. No observable openings in the pore structure were discerned on the surface before the oxidation, and the structure agrees with a closed pore model. Surface image oxidized in-situ by oxygen for one hour had slight roundness, which led to a supposition of structural change, and changes in the functional group and adsorption species. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Analysis of Porous Structure Parameters of Biomass Chars Versus Bituminous Coal and Lignite Carbonized at High Pressure and Temperature—A Chemometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Smoliński

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the porous structure of carbonized materials affect their physical properties, such as density or strength, their sorption capacity, and their reactivity in thermochemical processing, determining both their applicability as fuels or sorbents and their efficiency in various processes. The porous structure of chars is shaped by the combined effects of physical and chemical properties of a carbonaceous material and the operating parameters applied in the carbonization process. In the study presented, the experimental dataset covering parameters of various fuels, ranging from biomass through lignite to bituminous coal, and chars produced at 1273 K and under the pressure of 1, 2, 3, and 4 MPa was analyzed with the application of the advanced method of data exploration. The principal component analysis showed that the sample of the highest coal rank was characterized by lower values of parameters reflecting the development of the porous structure of chars. A negative correlation was also observed between the carbon content in a fuel and the evolution of the porous structure of chars at high pressure. The highest total pore volume of chars produced under 1 and 3 MPa and the highest micropore surface area under 3 MPa were reported for a carbonized fuel sample of the highest moisture content.

  19. Recent Progress and Development of Crystal Structure Analysis of Enzymes and Other Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanokura, Masaru; Nagata, Koji; Miyazono, Ken-Ichi; Miyakawa, Takuya; Okai, Masahiko

    Structural biology has made tremendous progress in this decade. Here we briefly introduce the Target Proteins Research Program, a national project promoted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan. The program aims to reveal the structure and function of proteins that are of great importance in both academic research and industrial application. We also summarize the results of structure-function analyses of (i) transcriptional regulatory proteins useful for the breading of drought and heat stress tolerant crops, (ii) useful enzymes for the production of chiral compounds, and (iii) useful enzymes for the degradation of environmental pollution substances. These results can be utilized in various areas of industries, to enhance food production, to improve the efficiency of pharmaceutical compound production, and to promote the bioremediation of contaminated soil and water.

  20. Structural investigations on the tetragonal to cubic phase transformations in zirconia induced by progressive yttrium additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthavel, S.; Kannan, S.

    2018-01-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is inevitable in many industrial applications. Yttrium additions in ZrO2 system induces either tetragonal (t-ZrO2) or cubic (c-ZrO2) phase stabilization that predominantly depends on the yttrium content. Here, the structural changes in ZrO2 system upon a wide range of yttrium additions are investigated. Powder synthesis is carried out through citrate-nitrate assisted sol-gel technique and analytical techniques involving XRD, Raman spectra and structural analysis through Rietveld refinement were utilized to investigate the structural changes in ZrO2 upon progressive yttrium additions. The critical limit of yttrium content to retain unique t-ZrO2, mixtures of t-ZrO2 and c-ZrO2 and discrete c-ZrO2 is determined.

  1. Résultats de recherches récentes sur la structure géologique des gîtes de houille de la Ruhr Results of Recent Research on the Geological Structure of Coal Beds in the Ruhr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaulfuss R.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Un inventaire exact des gîtes de houille était lié à la réorganisation des rapports de propriété dans la région de la Ruhr (Fondation de la Ruhrkohle AG. Du fait que dans les domaines de gîtes de houille en exploitation les réserves de houille ne suffiront pas à assurer à long terme un rendement d'extraction suffisant, on commença une vaste exploration dans des parties de quartier encore inconnues. Il fut ainsi possible d'élargir considérablement les connaissances sur la situation géologique des gîtes de houille grâce à des études par réflexion sismique, des forages profonds et des enregistrements de forages géophysiques. An accurate inventory of the coal beds was dependent upon the reorganization of property reports in the Ruhr region (Ruhrkohle Fondation AG. Because the working coal fields do not contain sufficient coal reserves to guarantee satisfactory productivity rates on a long-term basis, extensive exploration in previously unexplored parts of the area was undertaken. Thus, it became possible to extend considerably our knowledge of the geological structure of the coal beds through refraction shooting, deep drilling, and the well logging.

  2. Rate Dependent Multicontinuum Progressive Failure Analysis of Woven Fabric Composite Structures under Dynamic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lua

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine composite materials typically exhibit significant rate dependent response characteristics when subjected to extreme dynamic loading conditions. In this work, a strain-rate dependent continuum damage model is incorporated with multicontinuum technology (MCT to predict damage and failure progression for composite material structures. MCT treats the constituents of a woven fabric composite as separate but linked continua, thereby allowing a designer to extract constituent stress/strain information in a structural analysis. The MCT algorithm and material damage model are numerically implemented with the explicit finite element code LS-DYNA3D via a user-defined material model (umat. The effects of the strain-rate hardening model are demonstrated through both simple single element analyses for woven fabric composites and also structural level impact simulations of a composite panel subjected to various impact conditions. Progressive damage at the constituent level is monitored throughout the loading. The results qualitatively illustrate the value of rate dependent material models for marine composite materials under extreme dynamic loading conditions.

  3. Investigation on characterization of Ereen coal deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jargalmaa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ereen coal deposit is located 360 km west from Ulaanbaatar and 95 km from Bulgan town. The coal reserve of this deposit is approximately 345.2 million tons. The Ereen coal is used directly for the Erdenet power plant for producing of electricity and heat. The utilization of this coal for gas and liquid product using gasification and pyrolysis is now being considered. The proximate and ultimate analysis show that the Ereen coal is low rank D mark hard coal, which corresponds to subbituminous coal. The SEM images of initial coal sample have compact solid pieces. The SEM image of carbonized and activated carbon samples are hard material with high developed macro porosity structure. The SEM images of hard residue after thermal dissolution in autoclave characterizes hard pieces with micro porous structure in comparison with activated carbon sample. The results of the thermal dissolution of Ereen coal in tetralin with constant weight ratio between coal and tetralin (1:1.8 at the 450ºC show that 38% of liquid product can be obtained by thermal decomposition of the COM (coal organic matter.Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 16 (42, 2015, 18-21

  4. Nuclear structure theory. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1978-01-01

    Progress during the past year in the following areas of nuclear structure and reaction theory is summarized: statistical spectroscopy, including random matrix methods, with applications to fluctuations in spectra and in strength distributions, and to problems of erogodicity; group symmetries in spectral distribution theory; effective interactions; statistical reaction theory, applied to ''deep inelastic'' collisions of heavy ions, and to pion absorption by nuclei; meson scattering and absorption by nuclei, including general scattering theory with absorption, multiple scattering theory and its reactive content, models for absorption, theory of the absorption operator (πNN vertex), theory of πN scattering. A list of publications is included

  5. Nuclear structure theory. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year in the following areas of nuclear structure and reaction theory: (1) statistical spectroscopy, including giant resonances for beta and electromagnetic excitation and sum rules (including inverse-energy-weighted sum rules), statistical methods of truncating shell model spaces and renormalization of operators, study of state labelling and ''chains'' of groups, evaluation of fluctuation measures, technical aspects of operator averaging; (2) meson interactions with nuclei, including scattering and absorption of mesons by nuclei (general methods), models for absorption, single- and double-charge exchange of pions, role of rho mesons

  6. Nuclear structure theory. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year in the following areas of nuclear structure and reaction theory: Statistical spectroscopy, including: Random matrix methods, with applications to fluctuations in spectra and in strength distributions, and to problems of ergodicity; Group symmetries in spectral-distribution theory; Electromagnetic and β transitions. Meson scattering and absorption by nuclei, including: general scattering theory with absorption, multiple scattering theory and its reactive content, statistical theory of absorption, theory of the absorption operator (πNN vertex), theory of πN scattering. A list of publications is included

  7. Structured approach to design of diagnostic test evaluation studies for chronic progressive infections in animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Gardner, Ian Andrew

    2011-01-01

    ) than originally intended. The objective of this paper is to outline a structured approach to the design and conduct of a DTE for diagnostic tests used for chronic infections in animals, and intended for different purposes. We describe the process from reflections about test purpose and the underlying......Diagnostic test evaluations (DTEs) for chronic infections are challenging because a protracted incubation period has to be considered in the design of the DTE, and the adverse effects of infection may be widespread and progressive over an animal's entire life. Frequently, the specific purpose...

  8. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  9. Mercury capture by selected Bulgarian fly ashes: Influence of coal rank and fly ash carbon pore structure on capture efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, I.J.; Hower, J.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Vassilev, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury capture by fly ash C was investigated at five lignite- and subbituminous-coal-burning Bulgarian power plants (Republika, Bobov Dol, Maritza East 2, Maritza East 3, and Sliven). Although the C content of the ashes is low, never exceeding 1.6%, the Hg capture on a unit C basis demonstrates that the low-rank-coal-derived fly ash carbons are more efficient in capturing Hg than fly ash carbons from bituminous-fired power plants. While some low-C and low-Hg fly ashes do not reveal any trends of Hg versus C, the 2nd and, in particular, the 3rd electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows at the Republika power plant do have sufficient fly ash C range and experience flue gas sufficiently cool to capture measurable amounts of Hg. The Republika 3rd ESP row exhibits an increase in Hg with increasing C, as observed in other power plants, for example, in Kentucky power plants burning Appalachian-sourced bituminous coals. Mercury/C decreases with an increase in fly ash C, suggesting that some of the C is isolated from the flue gas stream and does not contribute to Hg capture. Mercury capture increases with an increase in Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and micropore surface area. The differences in Hg capture between the Bulgarian plants burning low-rank coal and high volatile bituminous-fed Kentucky power plants suggests that the variations in C forms resulting from the combustion of the different ranks also influence the efficiency of Hg capture. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Composition and Structure of Microalgae Indicated in Raman and Hyperspectral Spectra and Scanning Electron Microscopy: from Cyanobacteria to Isolates from Coal-bed Methane Water Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Zhou, Z.; Apple, M. E.; Spangler, L.

    2017-12-01

    Microalgae can be used for many potential applications for human's benefits. These potential applications included biofuel production from microalgae, biofiltering to cleaning water, chemical extraction as nutrients, etc. However, exploration for such applications is still in the early stages. For instance, many species and strains of microalgae have been investigated for their lipid content and growing conditions for efficient productions of lipids, but no specific species have yet been chosen as a fuel source for commercial production because of the huge biodiversity and subsequently a wide range of species that can potentially be exploited for biodiesel production, the great variability between species in their fuel precursor producing capabilities. Numerous coal-bed methane water ponds were established in the world as a consequence of coal-bed methane production from deep coal seams. Microalgae were isolated from such ponds and potentially these ponds can be used as venues for algal production. In this study, we characterized chemical composition and structure of the Cyanobacteria Anabaena cylindrica (UTEX # 1611) and isolates from coal-bed methane ponds Nannochloropsis gaditana and PW95 using Laser Raman Spectroscopy (LRS), hyperspectral spectra, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The objective is to seek bio-indicators for potential applications of these microalgae species. For instance, indicator of rich content lips shows the great potential for biofuel production. Fig.1 shows an example of the Raman spectra of the three species in desiccated form. The spectral peaks were isolated and the corresponding composition was identified. The insert at the right hand of the Raman spectrum of each species is the micrograph of the cell morphology under a microscope. The Raman spectra of cells in aquatic solutions were also obtained and compared with the desiccated form. The hyperspectral reflectances of the three species show quite different characteristics and

  11. The utilization of coal mining wastes as filling materials in reinforced earth structures. III. Construction of a full scale experimental structure; Utilizacion de los esteriles del carbon como material de relleno en estructuras de tierra reforzada. II. Construccion de una estructura experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CaNibano Gonzalez, J.; Martinez, C.; Gonzalez, M.R. [HUNOSA. Programa Desarrollo Esteriles. Oviedo (Spain); Pardo, F.; SopeNa, L. [CEDEX. Laboratorio Geotecnia, Madrid (Spain); Torres, M. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Oviedo (Spain); Perez, J.J. [MOPTMA. Demarcacion Carreteras del Estado, Oviedo (Spain)

    1997-06-01

    This article describes the construction of a full scale experimental structure in which coal mining wastes (mine stones) were utilized as a filling material. In such structure, which was 20 m long and 2 high coal mining wastes from two different tips were tested together with different types of reinforcing frames such as metal bands, geomeshes and Paraweb (Freyssisol) bands. Also, thermocouples were placed at different heights. On the other hand, the said structure was subjected to 3.085 passes of a truck having a ballast of 10.5 tons on its rear axle. The performance of the coal mining wastes was completely satisfactory. (Author) 3 refs.

  12. Research Progress of the Gravity Field Application in Earth's Geodynamics and Interior Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Heping

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of deep internal structure and internal dynamics of the earth has always been a hot topic in the field of basic geoscience research.Traditional approach relies mainly on seismic technology. However, in recent decades, the innovation of modern gravity observation technology (especially the successful application of high-precision superconducting gravity technology makes it possible to detect the earth's internal dynamics and physical information. In this paper, we summarize the research progress of Chinese group in detecting the earth's free oscillation, free core nutation, inner core translational oscillation, tidal model and polar tide and the internal structure by using modern high-precision gravity technology in recent years.

  13. Nuclear structure theory. Annual technical progress report, 1 July 1974--30 June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    Progress during the past year is summarized for the following areas of nuclear structure and reaction theory: Meson interactions with nucleons and nuclei, including inelastic scattering of pions, three-body theories of scattering and absorption of pions by deuterons, and π-p bremsstrahlung. Theory of the effective interaction, including behavior of the expansion in orders of the reaction matrix. Statistical spectroscopy including fluctuations in energy levels and excitation strengths, and sum rules and strength distributions for various excitation processes, including single-nucleon transfer, β decay and multipole giant resonances. Studies of the inverse scattering problem. Studies of nuclear symmetries, of nuclear clustering, and of general nuclear structure by α-transfer reactions, and of nuclear shapes by (d, 3 He) reactions. (U.S.)

  14. Proper microtubule structure is vital for timely progression through meiosis in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yamashita

    Full Text Available Cells of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe normally reproduce by mitotic division in the haploid state. When subjected to nutrient starvation, two haploid cells fuse and undergo karyogamy, forming a diploid cell that initiates meiosis to form four haploid spores. Here, we show that deletion of the mal3 gene, which encodes a homolog of microtubule regulator EB1, produces aberrant asci carrying more than four spores. The mal3 deletion mutant cells have a disordered cytoplasmic microtubule structure during karyogamy and initiate meiosis before completion of karyogamy, resulting in twin haploid meiosis in the zygote. Treatment with anti-microtubule drugs mimics this phenotype. Mutants defective in karyogamy or mutants prone to initiate haploid meiosis exaggerate the phenotype of the mal3 deletion mutant. Our results indicate that proper microtubule structure is required for ordered progression through the meiotic cycle. Furthermore, the results of our study suggest that fission yeast do not monitor ploidy during meiosis.

  15. Environmental protection during coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachenko, N.G.; Vavilin, V.P.; Reznikov, I.G.; Perel' , Eh.P.; Kirilenko, V.M.

    1983-03-01

    The paper evaluates effects of surfactants used in underground coal mining for dust suppression on efficiency of water treatment and on mine water pollution. Two surfactant types are compared: conventional surfactants such as BD, OP-7 or OP-10 and a new generation of soft surfactants which do not have a negative influence on water treatment systems (active sludge, nitrification process, etc.). The results of tests carried out by the KGMI Institute and the VNIIPAV Institute are discussed. About 100 surfactants of both types were evaluated. Coal samples of the following coal types were used: PZh, Zh, G, K, A, T and D coal. Coal samples with grain size from 0.315 mm to 0.4 mm were wet by surfactant solutions in water. The following surfactant concentrations were used: 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 g/l. Fresh water and mine water with increased mineral content was used. Selected results of the experiments aimed at determining the optimum surfactants for use in underground coal mining are shown in a table. The following surfactants are described: secondary alkyl sulfates (of the 'Progress' type), diethanolamides, monoethanolamides, alkyl sulfonates, Avirol', Savo, Sintanol DC-10, etc.

  16. MOLECULAR ACCESSIBILITY IN OXIDIZED AND DRIED COALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell D. Kispert

    1999-07-01

    Changes in physical and chemical structure of the micropore system in eight solvent swelled Argonne Premium Coal Sample (APCS) coals upon weathering were studied using the EPR spin probe method. Spin probes, which are allowed to diffuse into the coal structure during swelling, are trapped when the swelling solvent is removed. Excess spin probes are removed from the coal surface and larger pores so that only the presence of spin probes trapped in pores which closely approximate the size of the spin probe are detected. Detailed explanations and illustrations of the experimental procedure used are given. Careful examination of the weathering process on coal as a function of rank was accomplished using the EPR spin probe method. The retention of spin probes in eight APCS coals provided valuable insight into both the loss of water and the oxidation which occur during the weathering process. The results could be explained in terms of the autoxidation process observed in other polymeric systems. It was shown that initial oxidation of coal can result in increased cross-linking in the coal structure. As the oxidation process continued, both the covalent and hydrogen bonded character of the coal were significantly altered. The retention character of some coals during oxidation was shown to change by as much as three orders of magnitude. Experiments were performed to study the effects of short term oxidation and dehydration on coal structure by exposing the coal samples to argon or oxygen for time periods up to five minutes. The results indicate that the structure of coal is extremely sensitive to environmental changes and exhibits significant changes in as little as 30 seconds. Exposure of Illinois No.6 coal to argon or oxygen for 30 seconds caused a decrease in the retention of polar spin probes by as much as an order of magnitude. The studies presented here suggest that the structure of coal is dynamic in nature, and has an intimate relationship with the nature of its

  17. EYS Mutations Causing Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa: Changes of Retinal Structure and Function with Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. McGuigan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the EYS (eyes shut homolog gene are a common cause of autosomal recessive (ar retinitis pigmentosa (RP. Without a mammalian model of human EYS disease, there is limited understanding of details of disease expression and rates of progression of the retinal degeneration. We studied clinically and with chromatic static perimetry, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT, and en face autofluoresence imaging, a cohort of 15 patients (ages 12–51 at first visit, some of whom had longitudinal data of function and structure. Rod sensitivity was able to be measured by chromatic perimetry in most patients at their earliest visits and some patients retained patchy rod function into the fifth decade of life. As expected from RP, cone sensitivity persisted after rod function was no longer measurable. The photoreceptor nuclear layer of the central retina was abnormal except at the fovea in most patients at first visit. Perifoveal disease measured over a period of years indicated that photoreceptor structural loss was followed by dysmorphology of the inner retina and loss of retinal pigment epithelial integrity. Although there could be variability in severity, preliminary analyses of the rates of vision loss suggested that EYS is a more rapidly progressive disease than other ciliopathies causing arRP, such as USH2A and MAK.

  18. Small-angle x-ray scattering studies of the porosity of coals and chars. Quarterly progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, P.W.

    1980-09-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to checking and verifying some of the preliminary data reported previously. The technique employed in the past for measuring the x-ray transmission of the samples has been modified to provide more accurate values of the transmission. These transmission measurements are important for quantitative interpretation of the scattering data both because they are needed to determine the amount of background scattering that must be subtracted from a measured scattering curve and also because the value of the transmission is required for calculating the specific surface from the scattering data. Previous determinations of the specific surface have been checked and modified when corrected transmission values made recalculation necessary. Evaluation of the specific surface from the scattering data also requires a measurement of the absolute scattered intensity, or scattering cross section. In other words, the fraction of the incident radiation which is scattered must be known. For this scattering investigation of coals, the absolute intensity for the scattering system was determined by measurement of the scattering from a colloidal silica suspension. The details of this technique are described by I.S. Patel and P.W. Schmidt, J. Appl. Cryst. 4, 50 to 55. (1971).

  19. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  20. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  1. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  2. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  3. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  4. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  5. Coal and the competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, M. [RDI Consulting, Arlington, VA (United States). FT Energy

    2000-07-01

    24 overheads/viewgraphs outline a presentation on competition in the US coal industry. It discussed four main subjects: key factors driving coal demand (environmental regulations, electric utility deregulation; competition with natural gas, inter-regional coal competition, supply availability and pricing; and the export market and competition from off-shore coal sources); coal's ability to boost market share; shifts in coal distribution and the risk of more branded coal; and attempts to keep more regional sources of coal in business. State tax incentives for coal use in Arizona, Ohio, Oklahoma, Virginia and Alabama were discussed.

  6. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  7. Programming system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanìk František

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Programming system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits (calculation of coal reserves based on data stored in coal deposit database including processing of textual and graphic outputs was elaborated. The nature of such outputs is based on conventional coal reserve calculations so that connection with coal reserve calculations made in the past is secured. Differences in particular coal deposits as well as in individual coal seams are respected in the system. Coal seams differ one from another in their development by variability of seam thickness and seam quality within coal deposit etc. In addition to this, coal deposits are disturbed by tectonic failures and deformations. The system of evaluation of coal deposits is based on development of planar models of particular seams where calculation blocks are created and coal reserves contained in them are determined. Subsequently coal reserves of particular seams and of the whole deposit are determined. Natural limitation of seam model is given by determined minimum seam thickness and maximum ash content (i.e. content of inorganic component in coal. Basic model is structured according to detected main tectonic lines into tectonic blocks. According to further geological factors (e.g. erosion and contractual boundaries (e.g. demarcations, the deposit is structured into smaller units - calculation blocks. The whole system operates in a maximum automated regime with minimum manual interventions into solving procedure. The system enables rapid alternative calculations of coal reserves according to varying limit values of basic calculation parameters.

  8. Optimal use of coal for power generation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Ritu; Chand, Sharat; Tezuka, Tetsuo

    2003-01-01

    There is growing consensus among energy planners that electricity requirements in India would increase rapidly in the next couple of decades, and that coal would continue to dominate the generating capacity mix. Comparatively high levels of ash in Indian coal causes concern both in terms of the high costs of coal movement and the associated environmental impacts. As per the notification of September 1997, all power plants located in sensitive areas, metropolitan cities and in areas distant from the coalfields, must use coal with <34% ash. However, little progress has been made towards coal beneficiation and some consumers have already started to import non-coking coal for blending in order to comply with environmental requirements. The importance of planning for optimal utilization and transportation of thermal coal cannot be underestimated, especially at a juncture where the Indian coal industry is already facing competition from rising imports of non-coking coal. This paper assesses the optimality of the current patterns of coal movement and examines the economics of beneficiating thermal coals. A linear programming model has been developed based on the framework of the general transportation problem. The authors conclude that the washery is not economically attractive given the current costs, beneficiation technique and quality of Indian non-coking coal. Model simulations have been attempted to assess the possibility of coal beneficiation based on techno-economic considerations rather than political or other considerations. The paper also stresses the possibility of overall gains to the economy by modifying the current patterns of coal movement

  9. Structure of the Kaoko Belt, Namibia: progressive evolution of a classic transpressional orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goscombe, Ben; Hand, Martin; Gray, David

    2003-07-01

    The Kaoko Belt portion of the Damara Orogen, Namibia, is the deeply eroded core of a sinistral transpressional orogen that has half-flower structure geometry centred on the major, 4-5-km-wide Purros Mylonite Zone. Formed between the Congo Craton in the east and Rio De La Plata Craton in Brazil, the Kaoko Belt represents the northern coastal arm of a triple junction within the Pan-African Orogenic System. Consisting of reworked Archaean, Palaeoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic basement and a cover of Neoproterozoic Damara Sequence, the Kaoko Belt can be sub-divided structurally into three parallel NNW-trending zones. The Eastern Kaoko Zone comprises sub-greenschist facies shelf carbonates that have been uprightly folded. The Central Kaoko Zone contains a slope and deep basin facies succession that has experienced intense deformation, including pervasive reworking of basement into large-scale east-vergent nappes. The Western Kaoko Zone is predominantly deep basin facies of high metamorphic grade intruded by numerous granites. It has experienced intense wrench-style deformation with formation of upright isoclines and steep, crustal-scale shear zones. The Kaoko Belt evolved through three distinct phases of a protracted Pan-African Orogeny in the late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian. (1) An early Thermal Phase (M 1) was responsible for pervasive partial melting and granite emplacement in the Western Kaoko Zone from 656 Ma. (2) The Transpressional Phase produced the geometry of the belt by progressive sinistral shearing between 580 and 550 Ma. Deformation was continuously progressive through two stages and involved both temporal and spatial migration of deformation outwards towards the margin. The early strike-slip Wrench-Stage produced a high-strain L-S fabric by sub-horizontal transport. Deformation became progressively more transpressive, with high-angle convergence and flattening strains during the Convergent-Stage. In this stage, strike-slip movements evolved through

  10. Stability and dynamics of spatio-temporal structures. Progress report, September 15, 1993--September 14, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riecke, H.

    1994-05-01

    Goal is to contribute to understanding of localized spatial and spatio-temporal structures far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Here we report on our progress in the study of three classes of systems. (1) We have studied cellular flame structures arising in a circular burner. Using numerical computations we have found a number of traveling-wave structures in which different cells undergo different motion. Most strikingly, we have found a localized wave traveling through the array of steady cells. Results are interpreted using various asymptotic approaches. They are in qualitative agreement with recent experiments. (2) We have continued our investigation of localized waves in binary-mixture convection. Starting from the extended Ginzburg-Landau equations introduced earlier, we have derived equations of motion for interacting fronts connecting the conductive and the convective state. These equations reveal a repulsive interaction between the fronts which implies a new localization mechanism for waves. It is solely due to the long-wavelength mode specific to the extended Ginzburg-Landau equations. The stability properties of the resulting localized waves are in qualitative agreement with very recent experiments. (3) We have extended our investigation of domain structures to include their temporal evolution.

  11. PROGRESS ON DEVELOPING SONIC INFRARED IMAGING FOR DEFECT DETECTION IN COMPOSITE STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xiaoyan; He Qi; Li Wei; Newaz, Golam; Favro, Lawrence D.; Thomas, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    At last year's QNDE conference, we presented our development of Sonic IR imaging technology in metal structures, with results from both experimental studies and theoretical computing. In the latest aircraft designs, such as the B787 from Boeing, composites have become the major materials in structures such as the fuselage and wings. This is in contrast to composites' use only in auxiliary components such as flaps and spoilers in the past. With today's advanced technology of fabrication, it is expected the new materials can be put in use in even more aircraft structures due to its light weight and high strength (high strength-to-weight ratio), high specific stiffness, tailorability of properties, design flexibility etc. Especially, with increases in fuel cost, reducing the aircraft's body weight becomes more and more appealing. In this presentation, we describe the progress on our development of Sonic IR imaging for aircraft composite structures. In particular, we describe the some unexpected results discovered while modeling delaminations. These results were later experimentally verified with an engineered delamination.

  12. Chemical structures of coal lithotypes before and after CO2 adsorption as investigated by advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X.; Mastalerz, Maria; Chappell, M.A.; Miller, L.F.; Li, Y.; Mao, J.

    2011-01-01

    Four lithotypes (vitrain, bright clarain, clarain, and fusain) of a high volatile bituminous Springfield Coal from the Illinois Basin were characterized using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR techniques included quantitative direct polarization/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS), cross polarization/total sideband suppression (CP/TOSS), dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, and recoupled C-H long-range dipolar dephasing techniques. The lithotypes that experienced high-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherm analysis were also analyzed to determine possible changes in coal structure as a result of CO2 saturation at high pressure and subsequent evacuation. The main carbon functionalities present in original vitrain, bright clarain, clarain and fusain were aromatic carbons (65.9%-86.1%), nonpolar alkyl groups (9.0%-28.9%), and aromatic C-O carbons (4.1%-9.5%). Among these lithotypes, aromaticity increased in the order of clarain, bright clarain, vitrain, and fusain, whereas the fraction of alkyl carbons decreased in the same order. Fusain was distinct from other three lithotypes in respect to its highest aromatic composition (86.1%) and remarkably small fraction of alkyl carbons (11.0%). The aromatic cluster size in fusain was larger than that in bright clarain. The lithotypes studied responded differently to high pressure CO2 saturation. After exposure to high pressure CO2, vitrain and fusain showed a decrease in aromaticity but an increase in the fraction of alkyl carbons, whereas bright clarain and clarain displayed an increase in aromaticity but a decrease in the fraction of alkyl carbons. Aromatic fused-rings were larger for bright clarain but smaller for fusain in the post-CO2 adsorption samples compared to the original lithotypes. These observations suggested chemical CO2-coal interactions at high pressure and the selectivity of lithotypes in response to CO2 adsorption. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Household structure vs. composition: Understanding gendered effects on educational progress in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Madhavan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demographers have long been interested in the relationship between living arrangements and gendered outcomes for children in sub-Saharan Africa. Most research conflates household structure with composition and has revealed little about the pathways that link these components to gendered outcomes. Objective: We offer a conceptual approach that differentiates structure from composition with a focus on gendered processes that operate in the household in rural South Africa. Methods: We use data from the 2002 round of the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System. Our analytical sample includes 22,997 children aged 6‒18 who were neither parents themselves nor lived with a partner or partner's family. We employ ordinary least squares regression models to examine the effects of structure and composition on educational progress of girls and boys. Results: Non-nuclear structures are associated with similar negative effects for both boys and girls compared to children growing up in nuclear households. However, the presence of other kin in the absence of one or both parents results in gendered effects favouring boys. Conclusions: The absence of any gendered effects when using a household structure typology suggests that secular changes to attitudes about gender equity trump any specific gendered processes stemming from particular configurations. On the other hand, gendered effects that appear when one or both parents are absent show that traditional gender norms and/or resource constraints continue to favour boys. Contribution: We have shown the value of unpacking household structure to better understand how gender norms and gendered resource allocations are linked to an important outcome for children in sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Atrophy and structural covariance of the cholinergic basal forebrain in primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teipel, Stefan; Raiser, Theresa; Riedl, Lina; Riederer, Isabelle; Schroeter, Matthias L; Bisenius, Sandrine; Schneider, Anja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Fliessbach, Klaus; Spottke, Annika; Grothe, Michel J; Prudlo, Johannes; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Straub, Sarah; Otto, Markus; Danek, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by profound destruction of cortical language areas. Anatomical studies suggest an involvement of cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) in PPA syndromes, particularly in the area of the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP). Here we aimed to determine the pattern of atrophy and structural covariance as a proxy of structural connectivity of BF nuclei in PPA variants. We studied 62 prospectively recruited cases with the clinical diagnosis of PPA and 31 healthy older control participants from the cohort study of the German consortium for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We determined cortical and BF atrophy based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Patterns of structural covariance of BF with cortical regions were determined using voxel-based partial least square analysis. We found significant atrophy of total BF and BF subregions in PPA patients compared with controls [F(1, 82) = 20.2, p Atrophy was most pronounced in the NSP and the posterior BF, and most severe in the semantic variant and the nonfluent variant of PPA. Structural covariance analysis in healthy controls revealed associations of the BF nuclei, particularly the NSP, with left hemispheric predominant prefrontal, lateral temporal, and parietal cortical areas, including Broca's speech area (p < .001, permutation test). In contrast, the PPA patients showed preserved structural covariance of the BF nuclei mostly with right but not with left hemispheric cortical areas (p < .001, permutation test). Our findings agree with the neuroanatomically proposed involvement of the cholinergic BF, particularly the NSP, in PPA syndromes. We found a shift from a structural covariance of the BF with left hemispheric cortical areas in healthy aging towards right hemispheric cortical areas in PPA, possibly reflecting a consequence of the profound and early destruction of cortical language areas in PPA. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by

  15. Reactivity of North Bohemian coals in coprocessing of coal/oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebor, G.; Cerny, J.; Maxa, D.; Blazek, J. [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Sykorova, I. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Autoclave experiments with North Bohemian coal were done in order to evaluate their reactivity in coprocessing with petroleum vacuum residue, Selected coals were comprehensively characterized by using a number of analytical methods. While the coals were of similar geological origin, some of their characteristics differed largely from one coal to another. Despite the differences in physical and chemical structure, the coals provided very similar yields of desired reaction products. The yields of a heavy non- distillable fraction and/or an insoluble solid residue were, under experimental conditions, largely affected by retrogressive reactions (coking). The insoluble solid fractions were examined microscopically under polarized light.

  16. Database on nuclide content of coal and gangue in Chinese coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fudong; Liao Haitao; Wang Chunhong; Chen Ling; Liu Senlin

    2006-01-01

    The designing ides, structure, interface and basic function of a database are introduced of nuclide content of coal or gangue in Chinese coal mine. The design of the database adopts Sybase database system, and the database has the functions of making inquiries of keyword, classification and statistics, printing, data input which are achieved by using Power builder Language program. At the present, in this database, the data are collected on the radioactivity of natural radionuclide of 2043 coal, gangue and the other relative samples from various coal miners of all over the country. The database will provide the basic data for the environmental impact assessment of Chinese coal energy. (authors)

  17. Structure and high temperature frictional behavior of a coal pitch-derived carbonaceous mesophase (CM) treated by high-energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruijun; Liu Riping; Cui Xiaohao

    2007-01-01

    A coal tar pitch-derived carbonaceous mesophase (CM) was treated in a high-energy ball mill apparatus. The structures for the raw and the as-milled CMs were characterized by X-ray diffraction and laser-Raman spectroscopic techniques, and the frictional behaviors for the CMs were investigated by using a SRV high temperature friction and wear tester. The results have shown that, high-energy ball milling leads to a drop in the crystallinity of the CMs and a decrease in the size of graphite planar micro-crystals, implying a higher structural amorphism caused by the high-energy ball milling. In addition, the CMs display a high temperature lubrication effect. High-energy ball milling is supposed to be beneficial to the graphitization of the CMs induced by friction mechanical action, and, therefore, facilitate the high temperature lubrication effect to some extent

  18. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  19. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  20. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  1. Detailed Post-Soft Impact Progressive Damage Assessment for Hybrid Structure Jet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddens, Aaron; Bayandor, Javid; Celestina, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, certification of engine designs for resistance to bird strike is reliant on physical tests. Predictive modeling of engine structural damage has mostly been limited to evaluation of individual forward section components, such as fan blades within a fixed frame of reference, to direct impact with a bird. Such models must be extended to include interactions among engine components under operating conditions to evaluate the full extent of engine damage. This paper presents the results of a study aim to develop a methodology for evaluating bird strike damage in advanced propulsion systems incorporating hybrid composite/metal structures. The initial degradation and failure of individual fan blades struck by a bird were investigated. Subsequent damage to other fan blades and engine components due to resultant violent fan assembly vibrations and fragmentation was further evaluated. Various modeling parameters for the bird and engine components were investigated to determine guidelines for accurately capturing initial damage and progressive failure of engine components. Then, a novel hybrid structure modeling approach was investigated and incorporated into the crashworthiness methodology. Such a tool is invaluable to the process of design, development, and certification of future advanced propulsion systems.

  2. Cladding and structural materials semi-annual progress report, January 1975--July 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudson, T.T.

    1975-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental programs are in progress to determine the effects of fast neutron radiation on the mechanical properties and swelling of 3C4 and 316SS cladding and duct materials. Detailed specimen characterization and detailed test conditions are required in order to provide the 2 to 5 percent accuracy of results at 1γ. Preliminary swelling tests show that swelling in stressed assemblies is much larger than in unstressed structural components. Correlation of swelling data from high exposure cladding (11.4 at. percent burnup) agrees with previous data and with the current design equation for 20 percent CW 316 stainless steel. Improved techniques for TEM specimen preparation are described along with recent results on crack propagation. Initial results are given for the effects of aging on Inconel 718 base and weld materials. Compilations of these design values of materials properties have been issued in the form of the Nuclear Systems Materials Handbook

  3. Investigation of the structure of photosynthetic reaction centers. Progress report, June 1, 1981-April 1, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Willigen, H.

    1982-04-01

    The investigation is concerned with the application of Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR) and Electron Nuclear Triple Resonance (TRIPLE) in the study of the photo excited triplet state of photosynthetic resonance methods hyperfine interactions between unpaired electrons and nuclear spins can be measured, giving an insight in the electronic and geometric structure of paramagnetic systems. During this initial phase of the project, research has focused on the following areas. (1) Instrumental aspects associated with the application of ENDOR and TRIPLE on the photo excited triplets randomly oriented in solid solution. (2) Exploration of the conditions required for these studies employing ground state triplet systems. (3) Study of photo excited triplet states of model systems such as naphthylene, zinc and magnesium tetraphenyl-porphyrin in polymethylmethacrylate or polycrystalline benzophenone. Progress made in these areas is discussed

  4. Proceedings of the Second APEC Coal Flow Seminar Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-05

    This proceedings includes papers presented at the Second APEC Coal Flow Seminar held at Shanghai in December, 1995. Three keynote speeches were presented, and two panel discussions were held. `Medium-term outlook for coal trade,` `Energy and the environment,` and `Progress with environmental control technology and technical exchanges between economies` were presented as keynote speeches. In the panel discussions, `Achieving low environmental impact from coal production and utilization` and `How to tackle environmental issues related to coal` were discussed. The Panel 1 was divided into Part 1 and Part 2. In the Part 1, overview of current environmental protection policy measures was discussed in relation to coal production and use in economies where coal consumption has been increasing significantly. In the Part 2, overview of current environmental protection policy measures was discussed in relation to coal production and use in major coal producing and consuming economies. 38 refs., 64 figs., 31 tabs.

  5. Spatial Variability of PAHs and Microbial Community Structure in Surrounding Surficial Soil of Coal-Fired Power Plants in Xuzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wangyuan; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Shaoliang; Feng, Qiyan; Hou, Huping; Chen, Fu

    2016-09-02

    This work investigated the spatial profile and source analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil that surrounds coal-fired power plants in Xuzhou, China. High-throughput sequencing was employed to investigate the composition and structure of soil bacterial communities. The total concentration of 15 PAHs in the surface soils ranged from 164.87 to 3494.81 μg/kg dry weight. The spatial profile of PAHs was site-specific with a concentration of 1400.09-3494.81 μg/kg in Yaozhuang. Based on the qualitative and principal component analysis results, coal burning and vehicle emission were found to be the main sources of PAHs in the surface soils. The phylogenetic analysis revealed differences in bacterial community compositions among different sampling sites. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, while Acidobacteria was the second most abundant. The orders of Campylobacterales, Desulfobacterales and Hydrogenophilales had the most significant differences in relative abundance among the sampling sites. The redundancy analysis revealed that the differences in bacterial communities could be explained by the organic matter content. They could also be explicated by the acenaphthene concentration with longer arrows. Furthermore, OTUs of Proteobacteria phylum plotted around particular samples were confirmed to have a different composition of Proteobacteria phylum among the sample sites. Evaluating the relationship between soil PAHs concentration and bacterial community composition may provide useful information for the remediation of PAH contaminated sites.

  6. Progressive gender differences of structural brain networks in healthy adults: a longitudinal, diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in the brain maturation during childhood and adolescence has been repeatedly documented, which may underlie the differences in behaviors and cognitive performance. However, our understanding of how gender modulates the development of structural connectome in healthy adults is still not entirely clear. Here we utilized graph theoretical analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data over a five-year period to investigate the progressive gender differences of brain network topology. The brain networks of both genders showed prominent economical "small-world" architecture (high local clustering and short paths between nodes. Additional analysis revealed a more economical "small-world" architecture in females as well as a greater global efficiency in males regardless of scan time point. At the regional level, both increased and decreased efficiency were found across the cerebral cortex for both males and females, indicating a compensation mechanism of cortical network reorganization over time. Furthermore, we found that weighted clustering coefficient exhibited significant gender-time interactions, implying different development trends between males and females. Moreover, several specific brain regions (e.g., insula, superior temporal gyrus, cuneus, putamen, and parahippocampal gyrus exhibited different development trajectories between males and females. Our findings further prove the presence of sexual dimorphism in brain structures that may underlie gender differences in behavioral and cognitive functioning. The sex-specific progress trajectories in brain connectome revealed in this work provide an important foundation to delineate the gender related pathophysiological mechanisms in various neuropsychiatric disorders, which may potentially guide the development of sex-specific treatments for these devastating brain disorders.

  7. Progressive gender differences of structural brain networks in healthy adults: a longitudinal, diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Lee, Renick; Chen, Yu; Collinson, Simon; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Sim, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the brain maturation during childhood and adolescence has been repeatedly documented, which may underlie the differences in behaviors and cognitive performance. However, our understanding of how gender modulates the development of structural connectome in healthy adults is still not entirely clear. Here we utilized graph theoretical analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data over a five-year period to investigate the progressive gender differences of brain network topology. The brain networks of both genders showed prominent economical "small-world" architecture (high local clustering and short paths between nodes). Additional analysis revealed a more economical "small-world" architecture in females as well as a greater global efficiency in males regardless of scan time point. At the regional level, both increased and decreased efficiency were found across the cerebral cortex for both males and females, indicating a compensation mechanism of cortical network reorganization over time. Furthermore, we found that weighted clustering coefficient exhibited significant gender-time interactions, implying different development trends between males and females. Moreover, several specific brain regions (e.g., insula, superior temporal gyrus, cuneus, putamen, and parahippocampal gyrus) exhibited different development trajectories between males and females. Our findings further prove the presence of sexual dimorphism in brain structures that may underlie gender differences in behavioral and cognitive functioning. The sex-specific progress trajectories in brain connectome revealed in this work provide an important foundation to delineate the gender related pathophysiological mechanisms in various neuropsychiatric disorders, which may potentially guide the development of sex-specific treatments for these devastating brain disorders.

  8. A wavelet-based structural damage assessment approach with progressively downloaded sensor data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Zhang Yunfeng; Zhu Songye

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a wavelet-based on-line damage assessment approach based on the use of progressively transmitted multi-resolution sensor data. In extreme events like strong earthquakes, real-time retrieval of structural monitoring data and on-line damage assessment of civil infrastructures are crucial for emergency relief and disaster assistance efforts such as resource allocation and evacuation route arrangement. Due to the limited communication bandwidth available to data transmission during and immediately after major earthquakes, innovative methods for integrated sensor data transmission and on-line damage assessment are highly desired. The proposed approach utilizes a lifting scheme wavelet transform to generate multi-resolution sensor data, which are transmitted progressively in increasing resolution. Multi-resolution sensor data enable interactive on-line condition assessment of structural damages. To validate this concept, a hysteresis-based damage assessment method, proposed by Iwan for extreme-event use, is selected in this study. A sensitivity study on the hysteresis-based damage assessment method under varying data resolution levels was conducted using simulation data from a six-story steel braced frame building subjected to earthquake ground motion. The results of this study show that the proposed approach is capable of reducing the raw sensor data size by a significant amount while having a minor effect on the accuracy of hysteresis-based damage assessment. The proposed approach provides a valuable decision support tool for engineers and emergency response personnel who want to access the data in real time and perform on-line damage assessment in an efficient manner

  9. Investigation of coals and coal conversion products by FT-IR methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanchuk, V.V.; Ismagilov, M.S.; Korobetskii, I.A. [Clean Coal Technology and Certification Center Ltd., Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The influence of water content on coal pyrolysis was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Three coals varying in rank were studied. The coal samples were previously dried at 200 C. Pyrolysis was carried out in a nitrogen flow reactor at temperature 450 C. The FT-IR examination showed that the aliphatic structures and hydroxyl functional groups were removed from chars, while aromatic hydrogen content increased during the pyrolysis. Several structural characteristics based on FT-IR data were calculated for coals and their chars. These structural characteristics showed increasing of aromatic hydrogen content during the drying.

  10. Investigation of sulfur-tolerant catalysts for selective synthesis of hydrocarbon liquids from coal-derived gases. Quarterly technical progress report, September 19-December 18, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, C H

    1981-01-10

    A 15% iron boride on SiO/sub 2/ catalyst was prepared using an alcohol solution reduction with NaBH/sub 4/. H/sub 2/ chemisorption measurements were performed for Fe-S-100 (3% Fe/SlO/sub 2/) and are in progress for the iron-boride-silica catalyst. Reduction of Co catalysts at 623 K rather than 723 K is being tested as a method to improve dispersion by decreasing the amount of Co-support interaction. An in depth study of non olefinic and nonparaffinic compound retention times on the 10% SP2100 chromotograph column has shown that the compounds elute in the following order for a specific carbon number: alkene < alkane < aldehyde < ketone < ester < alcohol < acid. Mass flow controllers have been installed in the reactor system and are fully operational.

  11. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  12. Research on structural integration of thermodynamic system for double reheat coal-fired unit with CO2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanjing; Shao, Wenjing; Wang, Zhiyue; Fu, Wenfeng; Zhao, Wensheng

    2018-02-01

    Taking the MEA chemical absorption carbon capture system with 85% of the carbon capture rate of a 660MW ultra-super critical unit as an example,this paper puts forward a new type of turbine which dedicated to supply steam to carbon capture system. The comparison of the thermal systems of the power plant under different steam supply schemes by using the EBSILON indicated optimal extraction scheme for Steam Extraction System in Carbon Capture System. The results show that the cycle heat efficiency of the unit introduced carbon capture turbine system is higher than that of the usual scheme without it. With the introduction of the carbon capture turbine, the scheme which extracted steam from high pressure cylinder’ s steam input point shows the highest cycle thermal efficiency. Its indexes are superior to other scheme, and more suitable for existing coal-fired power plant integrated post combustion carbon dioxide capture system.

  13. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  14. NEDO coal mining structure adjustment subcommittee. 18th project report meeting; NEDO sekitan kogyo kozo chosei bunkakai. Dai 18 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Concerning the subject matter, a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) director Keishiro Kawamo reports on NEDO's projects designed to smoothly implement the 'new coal policy'. Nobuaki Terasaka, chief of the planning division, coal and new energy department, Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, takes up the current status of the coal policy and the tasks it faces, and discusses, predicting the development of the coal policy, the assurance of stable supply of coal from abroad, development of clean coal technologies that will rightly deal with the world-wide environmental problems, and the international diffusion of the clean coal technologies and the completion of the basement therefor. Concerning the 'development of zeolite-related commodities,' a report is delivered on the manufacture of a soil improving material and a deodorant for fish grill from zeolite found rich in coal layers of Pacific Coal Mine Co., Ltd. Concerning the 'polycrystalline diamond manufacturing project,' a polycrystalline diamond synthesizing method making use of the blasting technique employed at coal mines is reported. (NEDO)

  15. Microbiological desulfurization and conversion of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, D.R.; Stoner, D.L.; Dugan, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Bio processing of coal is a young and emerging technology. Until the early 1980's it consisted primarily of coal depyritization using Thiobacillus ferro oxidans to either oxidize pyritic sulfur or to alter particle wettability or floatation properties by binding to exposed pyrite inclusions. Since then, other major avenues of research have been pursued. One of these is the microbiologically mediated liquefaction of coal. Initial work indicated that microorganisms were able to transform low rank coal into a black liquid that was later identified as water solubilized by alkaline substances produced by the microbes and could be enhanced by the removal of multi valent cations from coal. Current work at the INEL involves of the identification and characterization of microorganisms that are able to alter the structure of polymeric desulfurization of coal. This work initially focused on the ability of microorganisms to oxidatively remove organic sulfur from model compounds that were representative of those sulfur containing moieties identified as being in coals (e.g., dibenzo thiophene). The work also focused on those organisms that were could remove the organic sulfur without degrading the carbon structure. While some organisms that are able to perform such these reactions will effectively remove organo sulfur from coal. These concerns stem from steric hindrance considerations and the thermodynamically unfavourable nature of reaction. Current work at the INEL involves the isolation and biochemical characterization of microorganisms that are able to desulfurize and solubilized coals that have high organic sulfur contents. (author)

  16. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.A. Robbins; S.D. Brandes; D.J. Pazuchanics; D.G. Nichols; R.A. Winschel

    1998-12-01

    This is the Technical Progress Report for the fifteenth quarter of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. It covers the period January 1 through March 31, 1998. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) CONSOL characterized 41 process stream samples obtained from HTI Run PB-01 (227-90), in which Black Thunder Mine coal, Hondo VTB resid, municipal solid waste (MSW) plastics, and virgin plastics were co-liquefaction feedstocks with all-dispersed Fe and Mo catalysts. (2) A request was made for samples from the Nippon Coal Oil NEDOL pilot plant in Kashima, Japan. (3) Phenols were extracted from two samples of separator overhead oil from HTI Run PB-03 Periods 10A and 10B. The phenols were converted to ethylphenyl ethers, and the ethers were distilled to produce a sample within the diesel fuel boiling range. The ethers were mixed with diesel fuel to make 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% solutions. The four mixtures and a control sample (0% ether) were tested for diesel fuel properties by Intertek Testing Services, Caleb Brett. (4) Computational studies related to the University of Delaware's resid conversion model were continued on the Hewlett Packard Apollo HP-735 RISC workstation at CONSOL R and D. The Structure Optimization Program and the Structure Once-Through Program were used to generate physicochemical properties and structure models for the 15 coal resid samples which have been under study.

  17. Reassessment of coal pillar design procedure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madden, BJ

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The SIMRAC project COL 021A entitled “a reassessment of coal pillar design procedures” set out to achieve a coal pillar design procedure that takes cognisance of different geological and structural factors as well as the influence...

  18. Queensland set to expand coal operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    In addition to new coal mines which came on line in 2006 (as mentioned on pp 8-12 in this issue in the article entitled 'Coal production, exports and new mine developments' a number of advanced coal projects are at various stages of assessment and most are proceeding through the statutory approvals process while others are progressing to and beyond pre-feasibility studies. An overview of several of these projects is given in the article. These are: development of the Clermont open-cut thermal project; expanding open-cut operations at Ensham Central; assessing development of the Glen Wilga and Haystack Road deposits; and development at mines at Goonyella-Riverside, Hail Creek, Monto, Lenton, New Acland, Olive Downs, Peak Downs, Sonoma and Vermont. Coal exploration developments, particularly in the Bowen Basin, are reported, together with work in progress under the AUS $20 m Smart Exploration program. Figures are given for private expenditure on coal exploration, exploration, permits for coal received and active exploration permits for coal for June 1997 to June 2006. The article is part of a review called 'Queensland Mining and Production Industries 2006'. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending January 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    Progress is reported in the following fields: coal chemistry, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures, geochemistry, high-temperature chemistry and thermodynamics of structural materials, chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds, separations chemistry, elecrochemistry, catalysis, chemical physics, theoretical chemistry, nuclear waste chemistry, chemistry of hazardous chemicals, and thermal energy storage.

  20. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  1. Development of a Coal Quality Expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-08

    This is the ninth Technical Progress Report, describing work performed under DOE Contract No. (DE-FC2290PC896631) Development of a Coal Quality Expert.'' The contract is a Cooperative Agreement between the US Department of Energy, CQ Inc., and ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. This report covers the period from April 1, through June 30, 1992. Four companies and seven host utilities have teamed with CQ Inc. and ABB/CE to perform the work on this project. The work falls under DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program category of Advanced Coal Cleaning.'' The 45-month project will provide the utility industry with a PC expert system to confidently and inexpensively evaluate the potential for coal cleaning blending, and switching options to reduce emissions while producing lowest cost electricity. Specifically, this project will: (1) Enhance the existing Coal Quality Information System (CQIS) database and. Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM) to allow confident assessment of the effects of cleaning on specific boiler cost and performance. (2) Develop and validate a methodology, Coal Quality Expert (CQE) which allows accurate and detailed predictions of coal quality impacts on total power plant capital cost, operating cost, and performance based upon inputs from inexpensive bench-scale tests.

  2. STYLE - A European project on structural integrity: Progress of the work after 2 Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heussner, Stefan; Nicak, Tomas; Keim, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the progress of the work on the EURATOM project STYLE (Structural integrity for lifetime management - non-RPV components). The project focuses on the structural integrity assessment of reactor coolant pressure boundary components (RCPB) relevant to ageing and life time management. The 4-years project started in January 2010 and is now in its third year. Within STYLE realistic failure models for some of the key components will be identified. The range of assessment tools considered will include those for assessment of component failure by advanced fracture mechanics analyses validated on small and large scale experiments, quantification of weld residual stresses by numerical analysis and by measurements, stress corrosion crack initiation and growth effects and assessment of RCPB components (excluding the reactor pressure vessel) under dynamic and seismic loading. Based on theoretical and experimental results, performance assessment and further development of simplified engineering assessment methods (EAM) will be carried out considering both deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Integrity assessment case studies and large scale demonstration experiments will be performed on Mock-ups of safety relevant components. These will include a repair weld in an aged butt-welded austenitic pipe, a dissimilar narrow gap TIG weld (following the EPR design) and a cladded ferritic pipe. Moreover, experiments on specimens and feature test pieces will be carried out to support the large scale Mock-up analyses. The end product of the project ('STYLE TOOLS') will comprise best practice guidelines on the use of advanced tools, on improvement and qualification of EAM as a part of European Leak-before-break (LBB) procedures and on life time management of the integrity of RCPB components in European nuclear power plants. The project is interacting with the European Network of Excellence NUGENIA (former NULIFE). (author)

  3. Visual pathway function and structure in Wolfram syndrome: patient age, variation and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekel, James; Narayanan, Anagha; Rutlin, Jerrel; Lugar, Heather; Al-Lozi, Amal; Hershey, Tamara; Tychsen, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    To report alterations in visual acuity and visual pathway structure over an interval of 1-3 years in a cohort of children, adolescents and young adults who have Wolfram syndrome (WFS) and to describe the range of disease severity evident in patients with WFS whose ages differed by as much as 20 years at first examination. Annual, prospective ophthalmological examinations were performed in conjunction with retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) analysis. Diffusion tensor MRI-derived fractional anisotropy was used to assess the microstructural integrity of the optic radiations (OR FA). Mean age of the 23 patients with WFS in the study was 13.8 years (range 5-25 years). Mean log minimum angle resolution visual acuity was 0.66 (20/91). RNFL thickness was subnormal in even the youngest patients with WFS. Average RNFL thickness in patients with WFS was 57±8 µ or ~40% thinner than that measured in normal (94±10 µ) children and adolescents (P<0.01). Lower OR FA correlated with worse visual acuity (P=0.006). Subsequent examinations showed declines (P<0.05) in visual acuity, RNFL thickness and OR FA at follow-up intervals of 12-36 months. However, a wide range of disease severity was evident across ages: some of the youngest patients at their first examination had deficits more severe than the oldest patients. The genetic mutation of WFS causes damage to both pregeniculate and postgeniculate regions of the visual pathway. The damage is progressive. The decline in visual pathway structure is accompanied by declines of visual function. Disease severity differs widely in individual patients and cannot be predicted from their age.

  4. Progressive Minimal Path Method for Segmentation of 2D and 3D Line Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei; Worz, Stefan; Kang, Chang-Ki; Cho, Zang-Hee; Rohr, Karl

    2018-03-01

    We propose a novel minimal path method for the segmentation of 2D and 3D line structures. Minimal path methods perform propagation of a wavefront emanating from a start point at a speed derived from image features, followed by path extraction using backtracing. Usually, the computation of the speed and the propagation of the wave are two separate steps, and point features are used to compute a static speed. We introduce a new continuous minimal path method which steers the wave propagation progressively using dynamic speed based on path features. We present three instances of our method, using an appearance feature of the path, a geometric feature based on the curvature of the path, and a joint appearance and geometric feature based on the tangent of the wavefront. These features have not been used in previous continuous minimal path methods. We compute the features dynamically during the wave propagation, and also efficiently using a fast numerical scheme and a low-dimensional parameter space. Our method does not suffer from discretization or metrication errors. We performed qualitative and quantitative evaluations using 2D and 3D images from different application areas.

  5. Nuclear structure theory: Technical progress report for period September 1, 1986-August 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes progress in the following areas of research: (1) quark theory of nuclear matter, including further development of models in one-dimension with analytic solutions, numerical studies, bound properties, inclusion of spin and isospin degrees of freedom, excitation properties and response function; electron scattering, including application of sum rules to deeply inelastic scattering, and of quark models of nuclei; charge exchange in pion-nucleus reactions, including models of isotensor optical potential, optical theorem for double charge exchange, and coupled-channel calculations of single charge exchange; a unified theory of reaction dynamics and nuclear structure for intermediate energies, including diagrammatic formulation and development of appropriate computer programs; weak interactions: a study of the neutrino mass-matrix; bounds for time reversal noninvariance in the nucleon-nucleon interaction, obtained from spectral and strength fluctuations in complex nuclei, and separately from detailed balance in compound nuclear reactions. The relative sensitivities of the two methods are discussed; fluctuation measures for the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator; random matrices and symmetry-breaking in atomic spectra data; saturation effects for spectral measures in many-particle systems; and finally fluctuation-free statistical spectroscopy, applied to state densities and partition functions, including accurate absolute calculations of nuclear level spacings

  6. Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

  7. Sumpor u ugljenu (Sulphur in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sulphur in coal possesses important environmetal problems in its usage. The sulphur dioxide (S02 emissions produced during coal combustion account for a significant proportion of the total global output of anthropogenic SO2. The extent of sulphur separation depends on several variables such as the form of sulphur in coal, intimacy of contact between minerals and the products of devolatilization. The total sulphur in coal varies in the range of 0.2 - 11 wt %, although in most cases it is beetwen 1 and 3 wt %. Sulphur occurs in a variety of both inorganic and organic forms. Inorganic sulphur is found mainly as iron pyrite, marcasite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopirite and as sulphates (rarely exceeds w = 0,1 %. Organic sulphur is found in aromatic rings and aliphatic functionalities usually as mercaptans, aliphatic and aryl sulfides, disulfides and thiophenes. Organic and pyritic sulphur quantities depend on coal rank. Higher rank coals tend to have a high proportion of labile sulphur. All the organic sulphur is bivalent and it is spread throughout the organic coal matrix. Sulphur occurs in all the macerals and most minerals. Vitrinite contains the major part of organic sulphur and metals. Elemental sulphur is produced during coal weathering. The depolymerization methods as pyrolysis and hydrogenation are very drastic methods wich change the structure of the coal and the sulphur groups. In the case of pyrolysis, high levels of desulphurization, in chars and additional production of liquid hydrocarbon can be achieved. Thiophenes and sulphides were the major sulphur components of tars from coal pyrolysis. Hyrdogen sulphide and the lower mercaptans and sulphides were found in the volatile matters. Hydrogen sulphide and thiophenes are practically the only sulphur products of coal hydrogenation. H2S is produced in char hydrodesulphurization. A number of options are available for reducing sulphur emissions including the

  8. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  9. Race, class loyalty and the structure of capitalism: Coal miners in Alabama and the Transvaal, 1918-1922

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, P. [Rand Afrikaans University, Auckland Park (South Africa). Dept. of Sociology

    2004-03-15

    Focusing on two major coal-industry strikes, one in Alabama (1920-1921) and one in the Transvaal (1922), this article seeks to understand why the former was biracial and the latter only involved white employees. The contrast is interesting because of its wider significance within the US and South Africa, and because of resemblances between the two cases. In Alabama, blacks and whites undertook similar work and there were cultural commonalities as well as divides, but in the Transvaal the economic and social gulf was so great that, for practical purposes, there were two working classes. In Alabama, most black miners and most white miners were free and settled, and came from similar rural areas. In the Transvaal, whilst blacks were coerced and migrated between subsistence societies and the collieries, whites were free and settled, and mostly had proletarian backgrounds. In South Africa, the regular supply of 'cheap' black labour - upon which the economy depended - was maintained by institutions created or supported by the state. It is argued, finally, that whilst the possibility of interracialism was rooted in the outcome of the Civil War, the institutionalisation of a dual working class was a product of imperialist victory in the South African War.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Transport and Sorption Behavior in Confined Coal Cores for Enhanced Coalbed Methane and CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jikich, S.A.; McLendon, T.R.; Seshadri, K.S.; Irdi, G.A.; Smith, D.H.

    2007-11-01

    Measurements of sorption isotherms and transport properties of CO2 in coal cores are important for designing enhanced coalbed methane/CO2 sequestration field projects. Sorption isotherms measured in the lab can provide the upper limit on the amount of CO2 that might be sorbed in these projects. Because sequestration sites will most likely be in unmineable coals, many of the coals will be deep and under considerable lithostatic and hydrostatic pressures. These lithostatic pressures may significantly reduce the sorption capacities and/or transport rates. Consequently, we have studied apparent sorption and diffusion in a coal core under confining pressure. A core from the important bituminous coal Pittsburgh #8 was kept under a constant, three-dimensional external stress; the sample was scanned by X-ray computer tomography (CT) before, then while it sorbed, CO2. Increases in sample density due to sorption were calculated from the CT images. Moreover, density distributions for small volume elements inside the core were calculated and analyzed. Qualitatively, the computerized tomography showed that gas sorption advanced at different rates in different regions of the core, and that diffusion and sorption progressed slowly. The amounts of CO2 sorbed were plotted vs. position (at fixed times) and vs. time (for various locations in the sample). The resulting sorption isotherms were compared to isotherms obtained from powdered coal from the same Pittsburgh #8 extended sample. The results showed that for this single coal at specified times, the apparent sorption isotherms were dependent on position of the volume element in the core and the distance from the CO2 source. Also, the calculated isotherms showed that less CO2 was sorbed than by a powdered (and unconfined) sample of the coal. Changes in density distributions during the experiment were also observed. After desorption, the density distribution of calculated volume elements differed from the initial distribution

  11. Evaluation of the effect of macerals on coal permeability in Tazareh and Parvadeh mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhang Sereshki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the subject of gas emission in underground coal mines in many countries is an important subject. Many factors affect in gas emissions in coal seams. Geological and physical structures of coal are affecting on gas emissions'. Also, composition and mineralization of coal, affect in coal permeability for different gases. In this study, the relationship between maceral composition and coal permeability in Tazareh and Parvadeh mines has been studied. Accordingly, a laboratory studies to investigate the relationship between coal composition and coal permeability was done. In coal samples, with MFORR equipment the permeability test was done. With microscopic analysis, the maceral contents of coal such as Inertinite and Vitrinite have been measured. Accordingly, many coal samples of Parvadeh and Tazareh coal mines have the pyrite as the dominant mineral matter. Parvadeh coal samples has the average percentage of Vitrinite equal 81.34% and 10.52% Inertinite. Also, in the Tazareh coal samples in Eastern Alborz coal mines, the average percentage of Vitrinite is 69.31% and inertinite is 22.47%. The average percentage of Pyrite content in Parvadeh coal samples in Tabas coal mines is 2.38% and in the Tazareh coal samples in Eastern Alborz coal mines is 2.62%.  The permeability test results have been shown, which, with increase of Inertinite contents, the permeability of coal is increasing. Also, test results have been shown, there was a reduction in the coal permeability with increasing of mineral contents and carbonate contents of the coal. So, the coal permeability in Tabas coal samples is more than Eastern Alborz coal samples.

  12. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield, forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N2 at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900°C and retention times (3-28 s were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900°C. The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300°C. Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900°C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenosferes, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed.

  13. Coal atlas. Data and facts about a global fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    Germany is world champion. In the production of lignite. But not only the brown coal, the coal leaves traces to. A quarter of German greenhouse gas emissions are discharged from the 30 largest coal-fired plants. But with its hunger for coal Germany neither in Europe nor in the world ist not alone. The governments of the 20 largest industrial countries subsidize the search for new fossil fuels each year with many billion dollars, although these projects have no future. In addition, there is the partly dramatic damage to the air, on the environment and on humans. Above all reports the Coal Atlas. It is published at a time, in which in Germany is an intense debate in progress about the future of this energy sector. In fact, it comes to the phasing out of coal for generating elektricity. The coal Atlas shows in understandable texts with illustrative graphics: This is technically possible and necessary. [de

  14. Fossil Energy Program semiannual progress report for April 1991 through September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1992-10-01

    This report covers progress made during the period April 1, 1991, through September 30, 1991, for research and development projects that contribute to the advancement of various fossil energy technologies. Projects on the Fossil Energy Program are supported by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, the DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, the DOE Fossil Energy Clean Coal Technology Program, the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves, and the US Agency for International Development (USAID). The Fossil Energy Program organization chart is shown in the appendix. Project discussed are: materials research and development; environmental analysis support; coal conversion development; coal combustion research; fossil fuel supplies modeling and research; evaluations and assessments; and coal structure and chemistry.

  15. Characterization and supply of coal-based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    Contract objectives are as follows: Develop fuel specifications to serve combustor requirements. Select coals having appropriate compositional and quality characteristics as well as an economically attractive reserve base; Provide quality assurance for both the parent coals and the fuel forms; and deliver premium coal-based fuels to combustor developers as needed for their contract work. Progress is discussed, particulary in slurry fuel preparation and particle size distribution.

  16. Disease-specific structural changes in thalamus and dentatorubrothalamic tract in progressive supranuclear palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surova, Yulia; Hall, Sara; Widner, Haakan; Nilsson, Markus; Laett, Jimmy; Lampinen, Bjoern; Lindberg, Olof; Nilsson, Christer; Westen, Danielle van; Hansson, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify disease-specific changes of the thalamus, basal ganglia, pons, and midbrain in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple system atrophy with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P) using diffusion tensor imaging and volumetric analysis. MRI diffusion and volumetric data were acquired in a derivation of 30 controls and 8 patients with PSP and a validation cohort comprised of controls (n = 21) and patients with PSP (n = 27), PD (n = 10), and MSA-P (n = 11). Analysis was performed using regions of interest (ROI), tract-based spatial statistic (TBSS), and tractography and results compared between diagnostic groups. In the derivation cohort, we observed increased mean diffusivity (MD) in the thalamus, superior cerebellar peduncle, and the midbrain in PSP compared to controls. Furthermore, volumetric analysis showed reduced thalamic volumes in PSP. In the validation cohort, the observations of increased MD were replicated by ROI-based analysis and in the thalamus by TBSS-based analysis. Such differences were not found for patients with PD in any of the cohorts. Tractography of the dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRTT) showed increased MD in PSP patients from both cohorts compared to controls and in the validation cohort in PSP compared to PD and MSA patients. Increased MD in the thalamus and along the DRTT correlated with disease stage and motor function in PSP. Patients with PSP, but not PD or MSA-P, exhibit signs of structural abnormalities in the thalamus and in the DRTT. These changes are associated with disease stage and impaired motor function. (orig.)

  17. Disease-specific structural changes in thalamus and dentatorubrothalamic tract in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surova, Yulia; Hall, Sara; Widner, Haakan [Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund (Sweden); Skaane University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Markus [Lund University, Lund University Bioimaging Center, Lund (Sweden); Laett, Jimmy [Skaane University Hospital, Center for Medical Imaging and Physiology, Lund (Sweden); Lampinen, Bjoern [Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund (Sweden); Lindberg, Olof [Malmoe, Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmoe (Sweden); Nilsson, Christer [Skaane University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Lund (Sweden); Malmoe, Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmoe (Sweden); Westen, Danielle van [Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund (Sweden); Skaane University Hospital, Center for Medical Imaging and Physiology, Lund (Sweden); Hansson, Oskar [Malmoe, Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmoe (Sweden); Skaane University Hospital, Memory Clinic, Lund (Sweden)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study is to identify disease-specific changes of the thalamus, basal ganglia, pons, and midbrain in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple system atrophy with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P) using diffusion tensor imaging and volumetric analysis. MRI diffusion and volumetric data were acquired in a derivation of 30 controls and 8 patients with PSP and a validation cohort comprised of controls (n = 21) and patients with PSP (n = 27), PD (n = 10), and MSA-P (n = 11). Analysis was performed using regions of interest (ROI), tract-based spatial statistic (TBSS), and tractography and results compared between diagnostic groups. In the derivation cohort, we observed increased mean diffusivity (MD) in the thalamus, superior cerebellar peduncle, and the midbrain in PSP compared to controls. Furthermore, volumetric analysis showed reduced thalamic volumes in PSP. In the validation cohort, the observations of increased MD were replicated by ROI-based analysis and in the thalamus by TBSS-based analysis. Such differences were not found for patients with PD in any of the cohorts. Tractography of the dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRTT) showed increased MD in PSP patients from both cohorts compared to controls and in the validation cohort in PSP compared to PD and MSA patients. Increased MD in the thalamus and along the DRTT correlated with disease stage and motor function in PSP. Patients with PSP, but not PD or MSA-P, exhibit signs of structural abnormalities in the thalamus and in the DRTT. These changes are associated with disease stage and impaired motor function. (orig.)

  18. Fossil energy program. Progress report, March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1979-05-01

    This report - the fifty-sixth of a series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, materials engineering, a coal equipment test program, an atmospheric fluid bed combustor for cogeneration, engineering studies and technical support, process and program analysis, environmental assessment studies, magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, technical support to the TVA fluid bed combustion program, coal cogeneration/district heating plant assessment, and chemical research and development.

  19. Coal information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  20. GC/MS analysis of coal tar composition produced from coal pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfang Jiang

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Coal tar is a significant product generated from coal pyrolysis. A detailed analytical study on its composition and chemical structure will be of great advantage to its further processing and utilization. Using a combined method of planigraphy-gas chromatograph/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS, this work presents a composition analysis on the coal tar generated in the experiment. The analysis gives a satisfactory result, which offers a referable theoretical foundation for the further processing and utilization of coal tar.

  1. Mercury distribution in coals influenced by magmatic intrusions, and surface waters from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, Anhui, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhicao; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Wu, Dun; Wu, Bin; Zhou, Chuncai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg concentrations in coal and surface water samples were determined. • Hg is enriched in the Huaibei coals. • Magmatic activities imparted influences on Hg content and distribution. • Hg contents in surface waters are relative low at the present status. - Abstract: The Hg concentrations in 108 samples, comprising 81 coal samples, 1 igneous rock, 2 parting rock samples and 24 water samples from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, China, were determined by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The abundance and distribution of Hg in different coal mines and coal seams were studied. The weighted average Hg concentration for all coal samples in the Huaibei Coalfield is 0.42 mg/kg, which is about twice that of average Chinese coals. From southwestern to northeastern coalfield, Hg concentration shows a decreasing trend, which is presumably related to magmatic activity and fault structures. The relatively high Hg levels are observed in coal seams Nos. 6, 7 and 10 in the southwestern coal mines. Correlation analysis indicates that Hg in the southwestern and southernmost coals with high Hg concentrations is associated with pyrite. The Hg concentrations in surface waters in the Huaibei Coal Mining District range from 10 to 60 ng/L, and display a decreasing trend with distance from a coal waste pile but are lower than the regulated levels for Hg in drinking water

  2. China’s Strategic Choice of the Coal Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zhengquan; Niu, Dongxiao; Wang, Daojuan

    2012-01-01

    Coal mining industry is one of the most influential industries on environment pollution. In recent years, most studies have shown that green and circular economy is the way to solve the deteriorative environment issue. After introducing green economy theory, including background, concept...... of circular economy model, promoting coal industrial technological progress, improving management and security technological innovation....

  3. Is There Any Future For Coal Power Plants In Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zimakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the policies of EU countries towards coal power plants as well as practical steps taken by their governments. Coal power plants are widely considered to be environmentally harmful which confronts with environmental policies of the EU suggesting Europe-wide cuts of greenhouse gas emissions. Based on that assumption a number of EU countries such asBelgium,Austria,Portugal,Dania,Finland,SwedenandUKare striving to phase out coal power plants and achieved significant progress on this path replacing coal with other generation sources. On the other hand, other EU members are lagging behind as coal phase-out is not an urgent item of their political agenda. This situation is typical forIreland,Netherlands,Italy,Croatia,SloveniaandSlovakia. Domestic coal extracting industry can pose a significant hindering factor for a coal power plants phase-out and can effectively block the process. This is the case inBulgaria,Romania,Hungary,CzechRepublic,GreeceandPoland. ButGermany, which also has a well-developed coal industry, transforms its energy sector towards a green one cutting the share of coal in the generation mix. If this effort of the German government proves successful it will deliver a positive transformation model for other EU countries with a large share of coal in generation-mix due to domestic coal extraction industry. The analysis of the political and economic (both macro and micro processes leads to conclusion that there is no unity among EU member states in their approach towards coal fired power plants phase-out. This will allow for coal power plants to retain their market share in a short to medium term. But in the longer run one can expect a significant decrease of coal fired generation inEurope, even in the countries traditionally dependent on coal.

  4. Coal as an abundant source of graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ruquan; Xiang, Changsheng; Lin, Jian; Peng, Zhiwei; Huang, Kewei; Yan, Zheng; Cook, Nathan P.; Samuel, Errol L. G.; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Ruan, Gedeng; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O.; Martí, Angel A.; Tour, James M.

    2013-12-01

    Coal is the most abundant and readily combustible energy resource being used worldwide. However, its structural characteristic creates a perception that coal is only useful for producing energy via burning. Here we report a facile approach to synthesize tunable graphene quantum dots from various types of coal, and establish that the unique coal structure has an advantage over pure sp2-carbon allotropes for producing quantum dots. The crystalline carbon within the coal structure is easier to oxidatively displace than when pure sp2-carbon structures are used, resulting in nanometre-sized graphene quantum dots with amorphous carbon addends on the edges. The synthesized graphene quantum dots, produced in up to 20% isolated yield from coal, are soluble and fluorescent in aqueous solution, providing promise for applications in areas such as bioimaging, biomedicine, photovoltaics and optoelectronics, in addition to being inexpensive additives for structural composites.

  5. GC/MS analysis of coal tar composition produced from coal pyrolysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coal tar is a significant product generated from coal pyrolysis. A detailed analytical study on its composition and chemical structure will be of great advantage to its further processing and utilization. Using a combined method of planigraphy-gas chromatograph/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), this work presents a composition ...

  6. gc/ms analysis of coal tar composition produced from coal pyrolysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coal tar is a significant product generated from coal pyrolysis. A detailed analytical study on its composition and chemical structure will be of great advantage to its further processing and utilization. Using a combined method of planigraphy-gas chromatograph/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), this work presents a composition ...

  7. Gc/ms analysis of coal tar composition produced from coal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    produce gasoline, diesel oil, etc. Therefore, a detailed analytical study on the composition and chemical structure of coal tar will be advantageous to its processing and utilization, and enable it to be a chemical and power fuel materials of great value. Because of the complex characteristics of coal tar, most previous ...

  8. [Characterization and supply of coal based fuels]. Quarterly technical report, February 1, 1988--April 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-31

    Contract objectives are as follows: Develop fuel specifications to serve combustor requirements; Select coals having appropriate compositional and quality characteristics as well as an economically attractive reserve base; Provide quality assurance for both the parent coals and the fuel forms; and deliver premium coal-based fuels to combustor developers as needed for their contract work. Progress is described.

  9. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  10. Using iterative fragment assembly and progressive sequence truncation to facilitate phasing and crystal structure determination of distantly related proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Virtanen, Jouko; Xue, Zhidong; Tesmer, John J G; Zhang, Yang

    2016-05-01

    Molecular replacement (MR) often requires templates with high homology to solve the phase problem in X-ray crystallography. I-TASSER-MR has been developed to test whether the success rate for structure determination of distant-homology proteins could be improved by a combination of iterative fragmental structure-assembly simulations with progressive sequence truncation designed to trim regions with high variation. The pipeline was tested on two independent protein sets consisting of 61 proteins from CASP8 and 100 high-resolution proteins from the PDB. After excluding homologous templates, I-TASSER generated full-length models with an average TM-score of 0.773, which is 12% higher than the best threading templates. Using these as search models, I-TASSER-MR found correct MR solutions for 95 of 161 targets as judged by having a TFZ of >8 or with the final structure closer to the native than the initial search models. The success rate was 16% higher than when using the best threading templates. I-TASSER-MR was also applied to 14 protein targets from structure genomics centers. Seven of these were successfully solved by I-TASSER-MR. These results confirm that advanced structure assembly and progressive structural editing can significantly improve the success rate of MR for targets with distant homology to proteins of known structure.

  11. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  12. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  13. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1, 1993--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in four areas of research under the general heading of Coal Liquefaction. Results of studies concerning the coliquefaction of coal with waste organic polymers or chemical products of these polymers were reported. Secondly, studies of catalytic systems for the production of clean transportation fuels from coal were discussed. Thirdly, investigations of the chemical composition of coals and their dehydrogenated counterparts were presented. These studies were directed toward elucidation of coal liquefaction processes on the chemical level. Finally, analytical methodologies developed for in situ monitoring of coal liquefaction were reported. Techniques utilizing model reactions and methods based on XAFS, ESR, and GC/MS are discussed.

  14. The prospects of hard and brown coal in Poland and in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, Lidia; Majchrzak, Henryk; Mokrzycki, Eugeniusz; Uliasz-Bochenczyk, Alicja

    2010-09-15

    Poland possess significant reserves of hard and brown coal and is an important producer of these fuels, for that reason coal has a dominant position in Polish energy balance. The government document describing energy policy of Poland up to the year 2030 treats Polish coal as an stabilizer of national energy safety. The progress in clean coal technologies development is a key element to determine the role of Polish coal both in Polish and EU economy. The possibilities of prospective use of coal pointing at the main direction of clean technology development has also been discussed in the paper.

  15. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. Technical progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979. [Summaries of research activities at Washington Univ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental research on nuclear structure and reactions both published and in progress is summarized. Included are fusion reactions, strongly damped heavy ion collisions, and nuclear structure at high angular momentum. A list of publications is included. (JFP)

  16. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  17. Cleaner Coal in China [Chinese Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    China’s rapid economic growth has aroused intense interest around the world. Policy makers, industrialists, investors, environmentalists, researchers and others want to better understand the issues that this populous nation faces as it further develops an already thriving economy largely fuelled by coal. This study sheds light on the Chinese coal supply and transformation sectors. China’s rapid economic growth has aroused intense interest around the world. Policy makers, industrialists, investors, environmentalists, researchers and others want to better understand the issues that this populous nation faces as it further develops an already thriving economy largely fuelled by coal. This study sheds light on the Chinese coal supply and transformation sectors. China’s coal, mined locally and available at a relatively low cost, has brought enormous benefits to energy consumers in China and to those outside the country who enjoy the products of its coal-based economy. Yet from another perspective, China’s coal use has a high cost. Despite progress, health and safety in the thousands of small coal mines lag far behind the standards achieved in China’s modern, large mines. Environmental degradation is a real and pressing problem at all stages of coal production, supply and use. Adding to these burdens, emissions of carbon dioxide are of concern to the Chinese government as it embarks on its own climate protection strategy. Technology solutions are already transforming the way coal is used in China and elsewhere. This study explores the context in which the development and deployment of these technologies can be accelerated. Providing a large amount of new data, it describes in detail the situation in China as well as the experiences of other countries in making coal cleaner. Above all, the report calls for much greater levels of collaboration – existing bi-lateral and multi-lateral co-operation with China on coal is found lacking. China’s growing openness

  18. Flash hydrogenation of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manowitz, Bernard; Steinberg, Meyer; Sheehan, Thomas V.; Winsche, Warren E.; Raseman, Chad J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

  19. Characterization of Malaysian coals for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abunowara, M.; Bustam, M. A.; Sufian, S.; Eldemerdash, U.

    2016-06-01

    Coal samples from Mukah-Balingian and Merit-Pila coal mines were characterized with ultimate, approximate, petrographic analysis, FT-IR spectra patterns, FESEM images and BET measurements to obtain information on the chemical composition and chemical structure in the samples. Two coal samples were obtained from Merit-Pila coal mine namely sample1 (S1) and sample2 (S2). The other two coal samples were obtained from Mukah-Balingian coal mine namely sample3 (S3) and sample4 (S4), Sarawak, Malaysia. The results of ultimate analysis show that coal S1 has the highest carbon percentage by 54.47%, the highest hydrogen percentage by 10.56% and the lowest sulfur percentage by 0.19% and the coal S4 has the highest moisture content by 31.5%. The coal S1 has the highest fixed carbon percentage by 42.6%. The coal S4 has BET surface area by 2.39 m2/g and Langmuir surface area by 3.0684 m2/g respectively. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis of all coal samples shows a presence of oxygen containing functional groups which considered are as active sites on coal surface. The oxygen functional groups are mainly carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (-CH, -CH2, -CH3), aliphatic (C-O-C stretching associated with -OH), amino (-NH stretching vibrations), (-NH stretching vibrations), aromatic (C=C), vinylic (C=C) and clay minerals. In all FE-SEM images of coal samples matrix, it can be seen that there are luminous and as non luminous features which refer to the existence of various minerals types distributed in the coal organic matrix. The bright luminosity is due to the presence of sodium, potassium or aluminium. According to petrographic analysis, all coal sample samples are range in vitrinite reflectance from 0.38% to 56% (VRr) are sub-bituminous coals.

  20. Progress of the COST Action TU1402 on the Quantification of the Value of Structural Health Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Limongelli, Maria Pina; Ivankovic, Ana Mandic

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of Value of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Information analyses and introduces the development, objectives and approaches of the COST Action TU1402 on this topic. SHM research and engineering has been focused on the extraction of loading, degradation...... encompassing the infrastructure and the SHM systems, their functionality and thus require the interaction of several research disciplines. For progressing on these points, a scientific networking and dissemination project namely the COST Action TU1402 has been initiated....

  1. Nuclear structure studies with pions and light ions: Progress report for the period June 1, 1984-May 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehnhard, D.

    1986-11-01

    Pion and proton scattering experiments were done on a variety of nuclei at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The data were used to test nuclear structure models and models of the pion-nucleus interaction, as well as assumptions about the basic nucleon-nucleon interaction. Included in this report are descriptions of completed work, work in progress, and a list of publications. 63 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab

  2. Organic sulphur in macromolecular sedimentary organic matter : I. Structure and origin of sulphur-containing moieties in kerogen, asphaltene and coal as revealed by flash pyrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Eglinton, T.I.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Schenk, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The distributions of sulphur-containing compounds generated by flash pyrolysis of macromolecular sedimentary organic matter (kerogen, coal, asphaltenes) were studied by gas chromatography in combination with S-selective flame photometric detection or mass spectrometry. The abundance of

  3. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.

    1979-01-01

    Progress Report, covering the period up to the end of 1979 year, was sent to the IAEA according to the research agreement No. 1971 /CF. This work covered the following fields: preparation and dummy irradiation experiments with a new experimental capsule of ''CHOUCA-M'' type; measurement of temperature fields and design of specimen holders; measurement of neutron energy spectrum in the irradiation place in our experimental reactor of VVR-S type (Nuclear Research Institute) using a set of activation detectors; unification and calibration of the measurement of neutron fluence with the use of Fe, Cu, Mn-Mg and Co-Al monitors; development and improvement of the measuring apparatus and technique for the dynamic testing of pre-cracked specimens with determination of dynamic parameters of fracture mechanics; preparation and manufacture of testing specimens from the Japanese steels - forging, plate and weld metal; preparation of the irradiation capsule for assembling

  4. [Molecular cloning and structural characteristics of the R complex of maize]. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    Studies on the R complex in Maize continued Progress is discussed in the following areas: Establishing identity of R components and cloning of R components; CO allele origin; molecular organization of R-r complex; NCO allele origin; genetic analysis of R-r complex; studies of the Sn locus and reverse paramutation.

  5. Self-scrubbing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  6. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ronald A. Ratti

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  7. CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF COAL AND STEEL INDUSTRIES UNDER THE ECSC (1952-1967: WAS WEST GERMANY KEPT “SMALL”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Poelmans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1951, six European countries founded the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC, which they hoped would be a first step towards more European integration and which they hoped would provide a common legal framework for their coal and steel industries. The main aim of the ECSC was to make sure that the German coal and steel industries would never again reach their prewar capacities, which according to many had played a part in the coming of World War II. Another important aim was to forestall any attempt of the USSR to conquer West Germany. This article constitutes a case study of the regional concentration of the coal and steel industries in the six ECSC countries, and it investigates whether the importance of certain coal and steel producing regions within the ECSC changed between 1952 and 1967. Furthermore, an analysis is conducted of how the concentration ratios of the ECSC's industries differed among the six countries, whether these differences changed over time, how this influenced the size and number of coal and steel firms and whether the ECSC succeeded in its initial aim of keeping West Germany small.

  8. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  9. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  10. Chemistry of formation and properties of sapropelitic coals. III. Extraction of aliphatic carboxylic acids and ketones of normal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodoev, N.V.; Rokosov, Y.V.; Koptyug, V.A.

    1989-05-01

    Aliphatic carboxylic acids and ketones of normal structure produced in high yields by the reaction of Taimylyr boghead or Matagan gagat with water and sodium hydroxide at elevated pressure and at temperatures from 400 to 450 degrees C have been investigated. The compositions of these compounds have been studied by IRS, NMR and chromato-mass-spectrometry. The possible ways of formation of aliphatic carboxylic acids and ketones during the fossilization process have been discussed. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  12. Characterization of organic nitrogen in IBCSP coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruge, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this study was to determine the content and distribution of organic nitrogen in a series of IBCSP coals and their isolated macerals. The specific objectives were: to determine the bulk nitrogen contents for coals, isolated macerals, oxidation products and residues, solvent extracts and their liquid chromatographic fractions, and pyrolyzates; to determine the distribution of organic nitrogen in all coal derivatives enumerated in Objective 1 which are Gas Chromatography (GC)-amenable. This will be accomplished by GC-Thermionic Specific Detectors; to determine the molecular structure of the major nitrogen compounds detected in Objective 2, using mass spectrometry.

  13. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,'' describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  14. A Graphical Approach to Progress for Structured Communication in Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carbone

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a graphical representation of session invocation interdependency in order to prove progress for the pi-calculus with sessions under the usual session typing discipline. We show that those processes whose associated dependency graph is acyclic can be brought to reduce. We call such processes transparent processes. Additionally, we prove that for well-typed processes where services contain no free names, such acyclicity is preserved by the reduction semantics. Our results encompass programs (processes containing neither free nor restricted session channels and higher-order sessions (delegation. Furthermore, we give examples suggesting that transparent processes constitute a large enough class of processes with progress to have applications in modern session-based programming languages for web services.

  15. Flexible Multibody Dynamics Finite Element Formulation Applied to Structural Progressive Collapse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo André Kuche Sanches

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a two-dimensional frame finite element methodology to deal with flexible multi-body dynamic systems and applies it to building progressive collapse analysis. The proposed methodology employs a frame element with Timoshenko kinematics and the dynamic governing equation is solved based on the stationary potential energy theorem written regarding nodal positions and generalized vectors components instead of displacements and rotations. The bodies are discretized by lose finite elements, which are assembled by Lagrange multipliers in order to make possible dynamical detachment. Due to the absence of rotation, the time integration is carried by classical Newmark algorithm, which reveals to be stable to the position based formulation. The accuracy of the proposed formulation is verified by simple examples and its capabilities regarding progressive collapse analysis is demonstrated in a more complete building analysis.

  16. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies: Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the progress in the following experiments: Λ Spin Transfer Experiment; Σ 0 Spin Transfer Experiment; Strangeness Production in Heavy Ion Collisions; Measurement of the Imaginary Part of the I=1 /bar N/N S-Wave Scattering Length; Single Pion Production in np Scattering; Measurements of the π + d→Δ ++ n at Intermediate Energy; and PhotoJets from Nuclei

  17. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies. Progress report, April 1, 1978--March 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.C.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    During the contract year progress was made in data analysis and interpretation of a number of LAMPF experiments: E-80 (pi+- scattering from nuclei), E-81 (pp and pd reactions), E-341 (pd → dpi + n), E-82 (pi+-d reactions), and E-197 (pd → 3 Hepi 0 ). This anaysis was aided by the start of operation of a new PDP 11/34 computer system. A list of publications is included

  18. SECA Coal-Based Systems - LGFCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettler, Richard

    2014-01-31

    LGFCS is developing an integrated planar (IP) SOFC technology for mega-watt scale power generation including the potential for use in highly efficient, economically competitive central generation power plant facilities fuel by coal synthesis gas. This Department of Energy Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program has been aimed at achieving further cell and stack technical advancements and assessing the readiness of the LGFCS SOFC stack technology to be scaled to larger-scale demonstrations as a path to commercialization. Significant progress was achieved in reducing to practice a higher performance and lower cost cell technology, identifying and overcoming degradation mechanisms, confirming the structural capability of the porous substrate for reliability, maturing the strip design for improved flow to allow high fuel utilization operation while minimizing degradation mechanisms and obtaining full scale block testing at 19 kW under representative conditions for eventual product and meeting SECA degradation metrics. The SECA program has played a key role within the overall LGFCS development program in setting the foundation of the technology to justify the progression of the technology to the next level of technology readiness testing.

  19. Recent progress and application on seismic isolation energy dissipation and control for structures in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fulin; Tan, Ping

    2018-01-01

    China is a country where 100% of the territory is located in a seismic zone. Most of the strong earthquakes are over prediction. Most fatalities are caused by structural collapse. Earthquakes not only cause severe damage to structures, but can also damage non-structural elements on and inside of facilities. This can halt city life, and disrupt hospitals, airports, bridges, power plants, and other infrastructure. Designers need to use new techniques to protect structures and facilities inside. Isolation, energy dissipation and, control systems are more and more widely used in recent years in China. Currently, there are nearly 6,500 structures with isolation and about 3,000 structures with passive energy dissipation or hybrid control in China. The mitigation techniques are applied to structures like residential buildings, large or complex structures, bridges, underwater tunnels, historical or cultural relic sites, and industrial facilities, and are used for retrofitting of existed structures. This paper introduces design rules and some new and innovative devices for seismic isolation, energy dissipation and hybrid control for civil and industrial structures. This paper also discusses the development trends for seismic resistance, seismic isolation, passive and active control techniques for the future in China and in the world.

  20. Recent advances and progress towards an integrated interdisciplinary thermal-structural finite element technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namburu, Raju R.; Tamma, Kumar K.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated finite element approach is presented for interdisciplinary thermal-structural problems. Of the various numerical approaches, finite element methods with direct time integration procedures are most widely used for these nonlinear problems. Traditionally, combined thermal-structural analysis is performed sequentially by transferring data between thermal and structural analysis. This approach is generally effective and routinely used. However, to solve the combined thermal-structural problems, this approach results in cumbersome data transfer, incompatible algorithmic representations, and different discretized element formulations. The integrated approach discussed in this paper effectively combines thermal and structural fields, thus overcoming the above major shortcomings. The approach follows Lax-Wendroff type finite element formulations with flux and stress based representations. As a consequence, this integrated approach uses common algorithmic representations and element formulations. Illustrative test examples show that the approach is effective for integrated thermal-structural problems.

  1. Multivariate statistical assessment of coal properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klika, Z.; Serenčíšová, J.; Kožušníková, Alena; Kolomazník, I.; Študentová, S.; Vontorová, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 128 (2014), s. 119-127 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : coal properties * structural,chemical and petrographical properties * multivariate statistics Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 3.352, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2014.06.029

  2. Structural and functional hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression in motor- and memory-related brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, Christian Michael; Vielhaber, Stefan; Eckart, Cindy; Machts, Judith; Kaufmann, Jörn; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Kollewe, Katja; Petri, Susanne; Dengler, Reinhard; Hopf, Jens-Max; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) multiple motor and extra-motor regions display structural and functional alterations. However, their temporal dynamics during disease-progression are unknown. To address this question we employed a longitudinal design assessing motor- and novelty-related brain activity in two fMRI sessions separated by a 3-month interval. In each session, patients and controls executed a Go/NoGo-task, in which additional presentation of novel stimuli served to elicit hippocampal activity. We observed a decline in the patients' movement-related activity during the 3-month interval. Importantly, in comparison to controls, the patients' motor activations were higher during the initial measurement. Thus, the relative decrease seems to reflect a breakdown of compensatory mechanisms due to progressive neural loss within the motor-system. In contrast, the patients' novelty-evoked hippocampal activity increased across 3 months, most likely reflecting the build-up of compensatory processes typically observed at the beginning of lesions. Consistent with a stage-dependent emergence of hippocampal and motor-system lesions, we observed a positive correlation between the ALSFRS-R or MRC-Megascores and the decline in motor activity, but a negative one with the hippocampal activation-increase. Finally, to determine whether the observed functional changes co-occur with structural alterations, we performed voxel-based volumetric analyses on magnetization transfer images in a separate patient cohort studied cross-sectionally at another scanning site. Therein, we observed a close overlap between the structural changes in this cohort, and the functional alterations in the other. Thus, our results provide important insights into the temporal dynamics of functional alterations during disease-progression, and provide support for an anatomical relationship between functional and structural cerebral changes in ALS.

  3. Structural and functional hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progression in motor- and memory-related brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Michael Stoppel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS multiple motor and extra-motor regions display structural and functional alterations. However, their temporal dynamics during disease-progression are unknown. To address this question we employed a longitudinal design assessing motor- and novelty-related brain activity in two fMRI sessions separated by a 3-month interval. In each session, patients and controls executed a Go/NoGo-task, in which additional presentation of novel stimuli served to elicit hippocampal activity. We observed a decline in the patients' movement-related activity during the 3-month interval. Importantly, in comparison to controls, the patients' motor activations were higher during the initial measurement. Thus, the relative decrease seems to reflect a breakdown of compensatory mechanisms due to progressive neural loss within the motor-system. In contrast, the patients' novelty-evoked hippocampal activity increased across 3 months, most likely reflecting the build-up of compensatory processes typically observed at the beginning of lesions. Consistent with a stage-dependent emergence of hippocampal and motor-system lesions, we observed a positive correlation between the ALSFRS-R or MRC-Megascores and the decline in motor activity, but a negative one with the hippocampal activation-increase. Finally, to determine whether the observed functional changes co-occur with structural alterations, we performed voxel-based volumetric analyses on magnetization transfer images in a separate patient cohort studied cross-sectionally at another scanning site. Therein, we observed a close overlap between the structural changes in this cohort, and the functional alterations in the other. Thus, our results provide important insights into the temporal dynamics of functional alterations during disease-progression, and provide support for an anatomical relationship between functional and structural cerebral changes in ALS.

  4. APPLICATION OF AEM IN PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE DYNAMICS ANALYSIS OF R.C. STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Osama El-Mahdy; El-Sayed El-Kasaby; Hala Abusafa; Amr El-Gamal

    2018-01-01

    The Finite Element Method (FEM) and the other numerical strategies are viably actualized in linear and non-linear analysis of structures. Recently, a new displacement based on Applied Element Method (AEM) has been developed. It is applicable for static and dynamic for both linear and non-linear analysis of framed and continuum structures. In AEM, the structural member is partitioned into virtual elements connected through normal and shear springs representing stresses and strains of certain p...

  5. Recent NASA progress in composites. [application to spacecraft and aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenfels, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The application of composites in aerospace vehicle structures is reviewed. Research and technology program results and specific applications to space vehicles, aircraft engines, and aircraft and helicopter structures are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is given to flight service evaluation programs that are or will be accumulating substantial experience with secondary and primary structural components on military and commercial aircraft to increase confidence in their use.

  6. Micronized coal-fired retrofit system for SO{sub x} reduction: Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Technical progress report No. 3, October 1996--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The PROJECT proposes to install a new TCS micronized coal-fired heating plant for the Produkcja I Hodowla Roslin Ogrodniczych (PHRO) Greenhouse Complex; Krzeszowice, Poland (about 20 miles west of Krakow). PHRO currently utilizes 14 heavy oil-fired boilers to produce heat for its greenhouse facilities and also home heating to several adjacent apartment housing complexes. The boilers currently burn a high-sulfur content heavy crude oil, called Mazute. For size orientation, the PHRO Greenhouse complex grows a variety of vegetables and flowers for the Southern Poland marketplace. The greenhouse area under glass is very large and equivalent to approximately 50 football fields. The new micronized coal fired boiler would: (1) provide a significant portion of the heat for PHRO and a portion of the adjacent apartment housing complexes, (2) dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide air pollution emissions, while satisfying new Polish air regulations, and (3) provide attractive savings to PHRO, based on the quantity of displaced oil. Currently, the Town of Krzeszowice is considering a district heating program that would replace some, or all, of the 40 existing small in-town heating boilers that presently burn high-sulfur content coal. Potentially the district heating system can be expanded and connected into the PHRO boiler network; so that, PHRO boilers can supply all, or a portion of, the Town`s heating demand. The new TCS micronized coal system could provide a portion of this demand.

  7. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  8. Coal sector profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  9. Coal derived-briquetted solid fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciazko, M.

    1993-01-01

    Despite considerable progress, there are some regions in Central and Eastern Europe where residential heating is dominated by direct burning of bituminous or brown coal with all environmental consequences. In Poland, the residential heating consumes more than 25 mln tons of coal annually. It is estimated that during the heating season coal-fired individual home ovens and local heating stations in some Polish heavily populated areas contribute up to 22% in total emission of dust, 86% of SO 2 , and 56% of tar species. It has been proposed to replace some of the fuel, i.e. directly burnt coal by more ecological solid fuels in a form of briquettes. Considering the emissive characteristics, solid ecological fuels can be divided into two groups. The first one manufactured on the basis of high rank coals, and a cold briquetting with some additives capturing harmful combustion products. Production of these fuels is reasonably cheap and simple and the result of their use is a noticeable decrease in dust, sulfur oxides and soot emissions. The second one is ecologically clean fuel, i.e. smokeless fuel, produced on the basis of deeply degasified coals and a hot briquetting with the addition of either binder or caking coals and other compounds aimed at capturing harmful combustion products. The technology of production of the smokeless fuels is much more complicated and expensive, but as a result of their use a significant decrease in atmospheric emission is achieved. The best results are observed in decreasing the emission of tars and aromatic hydrocarbons. Technologies of production of ecological fuels are non-waste and non-emissive. The paper deals with the economical and technological side of briquetted solid fuels of both types. Emission factors of chosen components for ecological fuels with reference to primary coal are also discussed

  10. Ionic current devices-Recent progress in the merging of electronic, microfluidic, and biomimetic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyung-Jun; Velev, Orlin D

    2013-05-09

    We review the recent progress in the emerging area of devices and circuits operating on the basis of ionic currents. These devices operate at the intersection of electrochemistry, electronics, and microfluidics, and their potential applications are inspired by essential biological processes such as neural transmission. Ionic current rectification has been demonstrated in diode-like devices containing electrolyte solutions, hydrogel, or hydrated nanofilms. More complex functions have been realized in ionic current based transistors, solar cells, and switching memory devices. Microfluidic channels and networks-an intrinsic component of the ionic devices-could play the role of wires and circuits in conventional electronics.

  11. WhiteCap System, structural analysis reports. Progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Y.H.; Romstad, K.M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-04-27

    The authors have completed an engineering investigation of the CoolRoof System as applicable to typical building construction in the Sacramento Valley. The purpose of this investigation is to provide structural engineering recommendations regarding structural modifications to typical building construction required by CoolRoof. This report presents the results of our investigation.

  12. Specific Energy of Hard Coal Under Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusz Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of experimental tests of energy parameters of hard coals under loading, collected from research sites located within five main geologic structures of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW - Main Trough, Main Anticline, Bytom Trough, Rybnik Trough and Chwałowice Trough. Coals from12 mines were analysed, starting with seams of group 200, through groups 400, 500, 600 and, finally, seams of group 700. Coal of each of the groups of seams underwent uniaxial compression stress of the energy parameters, in a servo-controlled testing machine MTS-810NEW, for the full range of strain of the tested coal samples. Based on the tests the dependence of different types of specific energy of longitudinal strain of coals on the value of uniaxial compression strength was determined. The dependence of the value of dissipated energy and kinetic energy of coals on the uniaxial compression strength was described with a linear function, both for coals which due to their age belong to various bed sand for various lithotypes of coal. An increase in the value of dissipated energy and in kinetic energy was observed, which was correlated with an increase in uniaxial compression strength of coal. The share of dissipated energy is dominant in the total energy of strain. Share of recoverable energy in the total energy of strain is small, independent of the compression strength of coals and is at most a few per cent high. In coals of low strength and dominant share of dissipated energy, share of recoverable energy is the biggest among the tested coals. It was shown that following an increase in compression strength the share of recoverable energy decreases, while the share of dissipated energy in the total energy increases. Further studies of specific energy of longitudinal strain of rocks in the full-range strain will be the next step inperfecting methodology of research into natural rock burst susceptibility of Carboniferous rock mass and changes in the

  13. HINDERED DIFFUSION OF COAL LIQUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodore T. Tsotsis; Muhammad Sahimi; Ian A. Webster

    1996-01-01

    It was the purpose of the project described here to carry out careful and detailed investigations of petroleum and coal asphaltene transport through model porous systems under a broad range of temperature conditions. The experimental studies were to be coupled with detailed, in-depth statistical and molecular dynamics models intended to provide a fundamental understanding of the overall transport mechanisms and a more accurate concept of the asphaltene structure. The following discussion describes some of our accomplishments.

  14. Review of Recent Progress of Plasmonic Materials and Nano-Structures for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan X. Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS has demonstrated single-molecule sensitivity and is becoming intensively investigated due to its significant potential in chemical and biomedical applications. SERS sensing is highly dependent on the substrate, where excitation of the localized surface plasmons (LSPs enhances the Raman scattering signals of proximate analyte molecules. This paper reviews research progress of SERS substrates based on both plasmonic materials and nano-photonic structures. We first discuss basic plasmonic materials, such as metallic nanoparticles and nano-rods prepared by conventional bottom-up chemical synthesis processes. Then, we review rationally-designed plasmonic nano-structures created by top-down approaches or fine-controlled synthesis with high-density hot-spots to provide large SERS enhancement factors (EFs. Finally, we discuss the research progress of hybrid SERS substrates through the integration of plasmonic nano-structures with other nano-photonic devices, such as photonic crystals, bio-enabled nanomaterials, guided-wave systems, micro-fluidics and graphene.

  15. Behaviors of overlying strata in extra-thick coal seams using top-coal caving method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accidents such as support failure and excessive deformation of roadways due to drastic changes in strata behaviors are frequently reported when mining the extra-thick coal seams Nos. 3–5 in Datong coal mine with top-coal caving method, which significantly hampers the mine's normal production. To understand the mechanism of strata failure, this paper presented a structure evolution model with respect to strata behaviors. Then the behaviors of strata overlying the extra-thick coal seams were studied with the combined method of theoretical analysis, physical simulation, and field measurement. The results show that the key strata, which are usually thick-hard strata, play an important role in overlying movement and may influence the mining-induced strata behaviors in the working face using top-coal caving method. The structural model of far-field key strata presents a “masonry beam” type structure when “horizontal O-X” breakage type happens. The rotational motion of the block imposed radial compressive stress on the surrounding rock mass of the roadway. This can induce excessive deformation of roadway near the goaf. Besides, this paper proposed a pre-control technology for the hard roof based on fracture holes and underground roof pre-splitting. It could effectively reduce stress concentration and release the accumulated energy of the strata, when mining underground coal resources with top-coal caving method.

  16. Microbial community structure and biodegradation activity of particle-associated bacteria in a coal tar contaminated creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer M. DeBruyn; Gary S. Sayler [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology and Department of Microbiology

    2009-05-01

    The Chattanooga Creek Superfund site (Chattanooga, TN) is one of the most polluted waterways in the southeastern U.S. with high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the sediments. PAHs associate with suspended solids in the water column, and may be redeposited onto the floodplain. These suspended particles represent an interesting but understudied environment for PAH-degrading microbial communities. This study tested the hypotheses that particle-associated bacterial (PAB) communities have genotypic potential (PAH-dioxygenase genes) and activity (naphthalene and pyrene mineralization), and can contribute to natural attenuation of PAHs in Chattanooga Creek. Upstream of the Superfund site, mineralization ranged from 0.2 to 2.0% of added {sup 14}C-naphthalene and 0 to 0.1% {sup 14}C-pyrene (after 40 h), with first order biodegradation rate constants (k{sub 1}) ranging from 1.09 to 9.18 x 10{sup -5} h{sup -1} and 0 to 1.13 x 10{sup -6} h{sup -1}, respectively. Mineralization was significantly greater in PAB communities within the contaminated zone, with 11.8 to 31.2% {sup 14}C-naphthalene (k{sup 1} 5.34 to 14.2 x 10-4 h{sup -1}) and 1.3 to 6.6% {sup 14}C-pyrene mineralized (k{sub 1} 2.89 to 15.0 x 10{sup -5} h{sup -1}). Abundances of nagAc (naphthalene dioxygenase) and nidA (pyrene dioxygenase) genes indicated that PAB communities harbored populations with genetic potential for both low- and high-molecular weight PAH degradation, and quantification of Mycobacterium 16S rDNA genes indicated that PAH-degrading mycobacteria are also prevalent in this environment. Phylogenetic comparisons (T-RFLPs) between PAB and sediments indicated these microbial communities were taxonomically distinct, but shared some functional similarities, namely PAH catabolic genotypes, mineralization capabilities, and community structuring along a contamination gradient. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The progress achieved during this quarter includes the ten months shelf life study of magnetizing reagent, the effect of cation regulators on minerals and coals, the combination effect of depressant and activator on the adsorption of magnetizing reagent, optimum magnetite size for magnetizing reagent, and the magnetic field strength for separating magnetic enhanced minerals. The work is generally on schedule with the original plan. The Phase I study (a fundamental study) is nearly completed. Selective conditions for adsorbing magnetizing reagent on minerals have been identified. The work for the next quarter will be mainly on the Phase II study. Coal will be selected, procured, characterized, and processed.

  18. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  19. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  20. Comprehensive Fractal Description of Porosity of Coal of Different Ranks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiangang; Zhang, Guocheng; Song, Zhimin; Liu, Gaofeng; Li, Bing

    2014-01-01

    We selected, as the objects of our research, lignite from the Beizao Mine, gas coal from the Caiyuan Mine, coking coal from the Xiqu Mine, and anthracite from the Guhanshan Mine. We used the mercury intrusion method and the low-temperature liquid nitrogen adsorption method to analyze the structure and shape of the coal pores and calculated the fractal dimensions of different aperture segments in the coal. The experimental results show that the fractal dimension of the aperture segment of lignite, gas coal, and coking coal with an aperture of greater than or equal to 10 nm, as well as the fractal dimension of the aperture segment of anthracite with an aperture of greater than or equal to 100 nm, can be calculated using the mercury intrusion method; the fractal dimension of the coal pore, with an aperture range between 2.03 nm and 361.14 nm, can be calculated using the liquid nitrogen adsorption method, of which the fractal dimensions bounded by apertures of 10 nm and 100 nm are different. Based on these findings, we defined and calculated the comprehensive fractal dimensions of the coal pores and achieved the unity of fractal dimensions for full apertures of coal pores, thereby facilitating, overall characterization for the heterogeneity of the coal pore structure. PMID:24955407

  1. Safety management of pipelines based on structural reliability: historical perspective and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Andre Teofilo; Bazan, Felipe Alexander Vargas [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Mendes, Renato [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Donato, Guilherme [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento; Gardiner, Michael [GL Noble Denton, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Since the early beginnings in the sixties and seventies, Structural Reliability theory has reached a mature stage encompassing solid theoretical developments and increasing practical applications. Structural reliability methods have permeated the engineering profession, finding applications in code calibration, structural optimization, life extension of existing structures, life-cycle management of infrastructure risks and costs, and so on. This review paper shows that the ground work for Reliability Based Design and Assessment (RBDA) of onshore pipeline systems is already developed. Hence, this allows the economic management of the risks involved in operation of pipeline systems. It is shown that RBDA is a rational tool to safely manage the operational life of pipeline systems, optimizing initial design and the expenditures in inspection and maintenance operations. (author)

  2. Structural change of the economy, technological progress and long-term energy demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    ) the effect on energy demand of structural changes exemplified by changes in the energy supply sector and in Danish trade patterns. The report highlights a few aspects of the interaction between structural economic changes and energy demand, but it does not intend to cover a wide range of issues related...... change of a specific sector, namely the energy supply sector, and the implications for long-term energy demand. The last two papers are devoted to the structural change of trade patterns and its implications for long-term energy demand from industries and the effects on trade from changes in energy...... on different aspects of structural change of the economy and energy demand. Three different issues related to long-term energy demand are discussed: (1) the importance of technological change and its representation in energy-economy modelling, (2) an integration of two different modelling approaches, and (3...

  3. Technological Progress, Structural Change and Productivity Growth in Manufacturing Sector of South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Lakhwinder

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of technology, structural change on the aggregate productivity growth in manufacturing sector of South Korea, using the eight firm size classes over the period 1970-2000. The conventional shift-share analysis is used to measure the impact of shift of both labor and capital inputs. The results show that structural change on average has been conducive to productivity growth during the 1970s and this pattern reversed afterwards. Small and medium industries were m...

  4. Coal contract cost reduction through resale of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.

    1990-01-01

    The weak coal market of the 1980's has enabled utilities and other users of coal to enjoy stable or falling prices for coal supplies. Falling prices for coal stimulated the renegotiation of numerous coal contracts in recent years, as buyers look to take advantage of lower fuel prices available in the marketplace. This paper examines the use of coal resale transactions as a means of reducing fuel costs, and analyzes the benefits and risks associated with such transactions

  5. Coal and our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet describes how coal is important for economic development and how it can be used without environmental damage. Aspects covered include: improved air quality; Clean Air Act; controlling emissions from coal; flue gas desulfurization; acid rain; the greenhouse effect and climatic change; the cost of clean air; surface coal mining and land reclamation; underground mining and subsidence; and mining and water pollution including acid mine drainage

  6. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies. Progress report, April 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.C.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    During the contract year several results of prior LAMPF experiments were completed and prepared for publication. Progress was made in the data analysis of other experiments. Three LAMPF variable energy experiments were carried out with the polarized target PPT-VI: sigma/sub total, transverse/ (p(polarized)p(polarized)) and A/sub YY/ for p(polarized)p(polarized) elastic scattering at 14 energies between 300 and 800 MeV, and A/sub YY/ for p(polarized)p(polarized) → dπ + at a few energies. Proposals were made for future experiments: two for continued nucleon-nucleon studies and one for a search for neutrino oscillations

  7. Blood pressure and the risk of chronic kidney disease progression using multistate marginal structural models in the CRIC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens-Shields, Alisa J; Spieker, Andrew J; Anderson, Amanda; Drawz, Paul; Fischer, Michael; Sozio, Stephen M; Feldman, Harold; Joffe, Marshall; Yang, Wei; Greene, Tom

    2017-11-20

    In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), clinical interest often centers on determining treatments and exposures that are causally related to renal progression. Analyses of longitudinal clinical data in this population are often complicated by clinical competing events, such as end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and death, and time-dependent confounding, where patient factors that are predictive of later exposures and outcomes are affected by past exposures. We developed multistate marginal structural models (MS-MSMs) to assess the effect of time-varying systolic blood pressure on disease progression in subjects with CKD. The multistate nature of the model allows us to jointly model disease progression characterized by changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the onset of ESRD, and death, and thereby avoid unnatural assumptions of death and ESRD as noninformative censoring events for subsequent changes in eGFR. We model the causal effect of systolic blood pressure on the probability of transitioning into 1 of 6 disease states given the current state. We use inverse probability weights with stabilization to account for potential time-varying confounders, including past eGFR, total protein, serum creatinine, and hemoglobin. We apply the model to data from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study, a multisite observational study of patients with CKD. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  9. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  10. ESR of radicals captured in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y.; Yamakawa, T.

    1986-01-01

    A study is reported of the interrelation between the state of movement exhibited by a spin probe radical added to Morwell, Wandoan and Liddell coals, and 1) the pore structure of the coals, 2) the configuration of their functional groups. The radicals used as the spin probe was 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinol-1-oxyl (TEMPOL). In the case of Wandoan coal, the probe radical entered the pores, with the result that the degree of freedom of its rotational movement remained restricted up to high temperatures. With Liddell coal, the shift to free rotation took place over a broader range of temperatures. This was due to the distribution of active sites where interaction with the introduced radical molecules was possible. 14 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Modelling and analysis of global coal markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueby, Johannes

    2013-01-17

    The thesis comprises four interrelated essays featuring modelling and analysis of coal markets. Each of the four essays has a dedicated chapter in this thesis. Chapters 2 to 4 have, from a topical perspective, a backward-looking focus and deal with explaining recent market outcomes in the international coal trade. The findings of those essays may serve as guidance for assessing current coal market outcomes as well as expected market outcomes in the near to medium-term future. Chapter 5 has a forward-looking focus and builds a bridge between explaining recent market outcomes and projecting long-term market equilibria. Chapter 2, Strategic Behaviour in International Metallurgical Coal Markets, deals with market conduct of large exporters in the market of coals used in steel-making in the period 2008 to 2010. In this essay I analyse whether prices and trade-flows in the international market for metallurgical coals were subject to non-competitive conduct in the period 2008 to 2010. To do so, I develop mathematical programming models - a Stackelberg model, two varieties of a Cournot model, and a perfect competition model - for computing spatial equilibria in international resource markets. Results are analysed with various statistical measures to assess the prediction accuracy of the models. The results show that real market equilibria cannot be reproduced with a competitive model. However, real market outcomes can be accurately simulated with the non-competitive models, suggesting that market equilibria in the international metallurgical coal trade were subject to the strategic behaviour of coal exporters. Chapter 3 and chapter 4 deal with market power issues in the steam coal trade in the period 2006 to 2008. Steam coals are typically used to produce steam either for electricity generation or for heating purposes. In Chapter 3 we analyse market behaviour of key exporting countries in the steam coal trade. This chapter features the essay Market Structure Scenarios in

  12. Modelling and analysis of global coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueby, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The thesis comprises four interrelated essays featuring modelling and analysis of coal markets. Each of the four essays has a dedicated chapter in this thesis. Chapters 2 to 4 have, from a topical perspective, a backward-looking focus and deal with explaining recent market outcomes in the international coal trade. The findings of those essays may serve as guidance for assessing current coal market outcomes as well as expected market outcomes in the near to medium-term future. Chapter 5 has a forward-looking focus and builds a bridge between explaining recent market outcomes and projecting long-term market equilibria. Chapter 2, Strategic Behaviour in International Metallurgical Coal Markets, deals with market conduct of large exporters in the market of coals used in steel-making in the period 2008 to 2010. In this essay I analyse whether prices and trade-flows in the international market for metallurgical coals were subject to non-competitive conduct in the period 2008 to 2010. To do so, I develop mathematical programming models - a Stackelberg model, two varieties of a Cournot model, and a perfect competition model - for computing spatial equilibria in international resource markets. Results are analysed with various statistical measures to assess the prediction accuracy of the models. The results show that real market equilibria cannot be reproduced with a competitive model. However, real market outcomes can be accurately simulated with the non-competitive models, suggesting that market equilibria in the international metallurgical coal trade were subject to the strategic behaviour of coal exporters. Chapter 3 and chapter 4 deal with market power issues in the steam coal trade in the period 2006 to 2008. Steam coals are typically used to produce steam either for electricity generation or for heating purposes. In Chapter 3 we analyse market behaviour of key exporting countries in the steam coal trade. This chapter features the essay Market Structure Scenarios in

  13. Clean coal technologies: Research, development, and demonstration program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, has structured an integrated program for research, development, and demonstration of clean coal technologies that will enable the nation to use its plentiful domestic coal resources while meeting environmental quality requirements. The program provides the basis for making coal a low-cost, environmentally sound energy choice for electric power generation and fuels production. These programs are briefly described.

  14. Output and utilization of hard coal in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciszak, E.; Skrzypek, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The forecast of fuel energy consumption structure in Poland and the world until 1999, 2000 and 2001 is presented. Considerable proportion of coal in energy balance of Polish economy will be kept in the nearest future, but it claims to enter the new enterprises, which improves the quality of coals and promote the new pro-ecological technology of coal utilization. 7 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  15. Seismic Monitoring To Assess Performance Of Structures In Near-Real Time: Recent Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celebi, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    Earlier papers have described how observed data from classical accelerometers deployed in structures or from differential GPS with high sampling ratios deployed at roofs of tall buildings can be configured to establish seismic health monitoring of structures. In these configurations, drift ratios 1 are the main parametric indicator of damage condition of a structure or component of a structure.Real-time measurement of displacements are acquired either by double integration of accelerometer time-series data, or by directly using GPS. Recorded sensor data is then related to the performance level of a building. Performance-based design method stipulates that for a building the amplitude of relative displacement of the roof of a building (with respect to its base) indicates its performance.Usually, drift ratio is computed using relative displacement between two consecutive floors. When accelerometers are used, a specific software is used to compute displacements and drift ratios in realtime by double integration of accelerometer data from several floors. However, GPS-measured relative displacements are limited to being acquired only at the roof with respect to its reference base. Thus, computed drift ratio is the average drift ratio for the whole building. Until recently, the validity of measurements using GPS was limited to long-period structures (T>1 s) because GPS systems readily available were limited to 10-20 samples per seconds (sps) capability. However, presently, up to 50 sps differential GPS systems are available on the market and have been successfully used to monitor drift ratios [1,2]--thus enabling future usefulness of GPS to all types of structures. Several levels of threshold drift ratios can be postulated in order to make decisions for inspections and/or occupancy.Experience with data acquired from both accelerometers and GPS deployments indicates that they are reliable and provide pragmatic alternatives to alert the owners and other authorized parties

  16. Changes in optical properties, chemistry, and micropore and mesopore characteristics of bituminous coal at the contact with dikes in the Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Schimmelmann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in high-volatile bituminous coal (Pennsylvanian) near contacts with two volcanic intrusions in Illinois were investigated with respect to optical properties, coal chemistry, and coal pore structure. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) increases from 0.62% to 5.03% within a distance of 5.5??m from the larger dike, and from 0.63% to 3.71% within 3.3??m from the small dike. Elemental chemistry of the coal shows distinct reductions in hydrogen and nitrogen content close to the intrusions. No trend was observed for total sulfur content, but decreases in sulfate content towards the dikes indicate thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Contact-metamorphism has a dramatic effect on coal porosity, and microporosity in particular. Around the large dike, the micropore volume, after a slight initial increase, progressively decreases from 0.0417??cm3/g in coal situated 4.7??m from the intrusive contact to 0.0126??cm3/g at the contact. Strongly decreasing mesopore and micropore volumes in the altered zone, together with frequent cleat and fracture filling by calcite, indicate deteriorating conditions for both coalbed gas sorption and gas transmissibility. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in optical properties, chemistry, and micropore and mesopore characteristics of bituminous coal at the contact with dikes in the Illinois Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastalerz, M.; Drobniak, A. [Indiana University, Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Schimmelmann, A. [Indiana University, Dept. of Geological Sciences, Bloomington, IN 47405-1405 (United States)

    2009-01-31

    Changes in high-volatile bituminous coal (Pennsylvanian) near contacts with two volcanic intrusions in Illinois were investigated with respect to optical properties, coal chemistry, and coal pore structure. Vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) increases from 0.62% to 5.03% within a distance of 5.5 m from the larger dike, and from 0.63% to 3.71% within 3.3 m from the small dike. Elemental chemistry of the coal shows distinct reductions in hydrogen and nitrogen content close to the intrusions. No trend was observed for total sulfur content, but decreases in sulfate content towards the dikes indicate thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Contact-metamorphism has a dramatic effect on coal porosity, and microporosity in particular. Around the large dike, the micropore volume, after a slight initial increase, progressively decreases from 0.0417 cm{sup 3}/g in coal situated 4.7 m from the intrusive contact to 0.0126 cm{sup 3}/g at the contact. Strongly decreasing mesopore and micropore volumes in the altered zone, together with frequent cleat and fracture filling by calcite, indicate deteriorating conditions for both coalbed gas sorption and gas transmissibility. (author)

  18. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  19. Restructuring of the coal industry and thermal power sector in the Commonwealth of Independent States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-30

    The paper summarizes the most recent developments in the transformation of the coal and thermal power sector in Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Ukraine to market economy conditions. It also provides statistical data concerning the dynamics of the major indicators of restructuring, such as the allocation of state subsidies, productivity growth, employment and investment. Over the last three years, the restructuring of the coal and thermal power sectors has progressed differently in the above three countries. Both sectors and especially the coal industry sector have been forced to restructure with extreme rapidity under unstable conditions, such as economic decline, absence of stable economic and fiscal laws, hyperinflation, loss of purchasing power, collapse of payment system. The transformation has been management restructuring rather than technical or reinvestment. The programmes of restructuring were mor ambitious than their realistic implementation as the lack of financial resources had, in many cases, delayed or even postponed the deadlines and objectives. The first stage has been completed in the Russian Federation, but has not yet started in Ukraine. In Kazakhstan, the coal industry has been fully privatized, mainly by foreign companies, power generation is now following along the same lines. Both sectors adapt their structure to new market requirements.

  20. STYLE - A European Project on Structural Integrity: Progress of the work after 2 Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heussner, Stefan; Nicak, Tomas; Keim, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The overall objective of STYLE is to assess, optimise and develop the use of advanced tools for the structural integrity assessment of components relevant to ageing and life time management and to support the integration of the knowledge created in the project into main-stream nuclear industry assessment codes.

  1. Progress In Developing an Impermeable, High Temperature Ceramic Composite for Advanced Reactor Clad And Structural Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinroth, Herbert; Hao, Bernard; Fehrenbacher, Larry; Patterson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Most Advanced Reactors for Energy and Space Applications require higher temperature materials for fuel cladding and core internal structures. For temperatures above 500 deg. C, metal alloys do not retain sufficient strength or long term corrosion resistance for use in either water, liquid metal or gas cooled systems. In the case of water cooled systems, such metals react exo-thermically with water during core overheating accidents, thus requiring extensive and expensive emergency systems to protect against major releases. Past efforts to apply ceramic composites (oxide, carbide or nitride based) having passive safety characteristics, good strength properties at high temperatures, and reasonable resistance to crack growth, have not been successful, either because of irradiation induced effects, or lack of impermeability to fission gases. Under a Phase 1 SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) project sponsored by DOE's Office of Nuclear Energy, the authors have developed a new material system that may solve these problems. A hybrid tubular structure (0.6 inches in outside diameter) consisting of an inner layer of monolithic silicon carbide (SiC) and outer layers of SiC-SiC composite, bonded to the inner layer, has been fabricated in small lengths. Room temperature permeability tests demonstrate zero gas leakage at pressures up to 120 psig internal pressure. Four point flexural bending tests on these hybrid tubular specimens demonstrate a 'graceful' failure mode: i.e. - the outer composite structure sustains a failure mode under stress that is similar to the yield vs. stress characteristics of metal structures. (authors)

  2. Work in Progress in the Nordic Countries Related to Fatigue of Welded Components and Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsson, Jack; Haagensen, Per; Agerskov, Henning

    2008-01-01

    Close international cooperation has been an important characteristic of the research on fatigue of welded structures in the Nordic countries. Cooperative projects were initiated already in the mid- 1980s and have continued for more than 20 years. Nordic delegates to IIW Commission XIII have surve...

  3. Structural Aging Program technical progress for period, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is conducted for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program has the overall objective of preparing an expandable handbook or report which will provide potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use by the NRC in nuclear power plant evaluations of continued service. Initial focus of the program is on concrete and concrete-related materials which comprise safety-related (Category I) structures in light-water reactor facilities. The SAG Program is organized into four tasks: Task S.1 -- Program Management, Task S.2 -- Materials Property Data Base, Task S.3 -- Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Task S.4 -- Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. In meeting the individual objectives of these tasks resources are drawn from ORNL with subcontract support from universities and other research laboratories. This report provides an overview of principal developments in each of the four program tasks from January 1, 1992 to December 31, 1992. Planned activities under each of these tasks are also presented.

  4. Structural Aging Program technical progress for period, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.

    1993-07-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is conducted for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program has the overall objective of preparing an expandable handbook or report which will provide potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use by the NRC in nuclear power plant evaluations of continued service. Initial focus of the program is on concrete and concrete-related materials which comprise safety-related (Category I) structures in light-water reactor facilities. The SAG Program is organized into four tasks: Task S.1 -- Program Management, Task S.2 -- Materials Property Data Base, Task S.3 -- Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Task S.4 -- Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. In meeting the individual objectives of these tasks resources are drawn from ORNL with subcontract support from universities and other research laboratories. This report provides an overview of principal developments in each of the four program tasks from January 1, 1992 to December 31, 1992. Planned activities under each of these tasks are also presented

  5. Work in progress on fatigue of welded structures in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsson, Jack; Haagensen, Per; Agerskov, Henning

    2006-01-01

    Close international cooperation has been an important characteristic of the research on fatigue of welded structures in the Nordic countries. Cooperative projects were initiated already in the mid-1980's and have continued for nearly 20 years. This report is by no means exhaustive of all the work...

  6. Coals of Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landis, E.R.; Rohrbacher, T.J.; Gluskoter, H.; Fodor, B.; Gombar, G.; Sebestyen, I.

    1999-07-01

    As part of the activities conducted under the U.S. Hungarian Science and Technology Fund, a total of 39 samples from five coal mines in Hungary were selected for standard coal analyses and major, minor and trace elements analysis. The mine areas sampled were selected to provide a spectrum of coal quality information for comparison with other coal areas in central Europe and worldwide. All of the areas are of major importance in the energy budget of Hungary. The five sample sites contain coal in rocks of Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene age. The coals, from four underground and one surface mine, range in rank from high volatile bituminous to lignite B. Most of the coal produced from the mines sampled is used to generate electricity. Some of the power plants that utilize the coals also provide heat for domestic and process usage. The standard coal analysis program is based on tests performed in accordance with standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Proximate and ultimate analyses were supplemented by determinations of the heating value, equilibrium moisture, forms of sulfur, free-swelling index, ash fusion temperatures (both reducing and oxidizing), apparent specific gravity and Hardgrove Grindability index. The major, minor and trace element analyses were performed in accordance with standardized procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey. The analytical results will be available in the International Coal Quality Data Base of the USGS. The results of the program provide data for comparison with test data from Europe and information of value to potential investors or cooperators in the coal industry of Hungary and Central Europe.

  7. Clean coal technologies and future prospects for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.; Torries, T.; Labys, W.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the future potential of coal in the US economy during the next 25 years in light of clean coal technologies. According to official US Department of Energy (DOE) designations, these technologies pertain only to the beneficiation, transformation, combustion, and postcombustion clean-up stages of the coal cycle; no coal mining or coal transport technologies are included. In general, clean coal technologies offer the prospect of mitigating environmental side-effects of coal utilization, primarily through improved operating efficiencies and lowered costs of air emission controls. If they prove successful, coal users will be able to meet more stringent environmental regulations at little or no additional cost. In assessing the influence of clean coal technologies on coal demand, we focus on the economics of three crucial areas: their development, their deployment, and coal utilization implications of their operation

  8. Nuclear structure theory. Technical progress report, September 1, 1984-August 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes progress in the following areas of research: Spectral Averaging, including the theory of level densities and partition functions for interacting nucleons, spectral distributions for fixed symmetries, general studies of distributions (in particular of strength distributions) considered as multivariate processes, and applications to the secular behavior of fluctuation measures; spectral and strength fluctuations, including study of the transitions between different fluctuation patterns (i.e., between different types of quantum chaos) as a conserved symmetry is gradually broken, application of these results to determining values of, or upper bounds for, the goodness of symmetries in complex nuclei, reduction of values or bounds to statements about the nuclear Hamiltonian, in particular for time-reversal symmetry, and specific studies of quantum chaos; statistical theory of pion absorption, including analysis of the (π,p) inclusive reaction; and quark theory of nuclear matter, involving development of models which show two limiting behaviors - that of a Fermi gas of nucleons (quark clusters) at low density and of a Fermi gas of quarks at high density. Both variational and exact solutions of one model have been found. 9 refs

  9. Supramolecular structures for photochemical energy conversion. Technical progress report, 1993--1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This research project is concerned with the design, synthesis and study by photochemical and spectroscopic methods of complex molecular devices that mimic some important aspects of photosynthetic electron and energy transfer. Properly engineered molecules of this type can functionally mimic photosynthetic light harvesting (singlet-singlet energy transfer between chromophores), photoprotection from light-initiated singlet oxygen damage (triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophylls to carotenoid polyenes), and, most importantly, photoinduced multistep electron transfer to generate charge-separated states that preserve some of the photon energy as chemical potential. During the last three years, progress has been made on several fronts, all of which are related to the overall goal. A biomimetic system based on carotenoid-porphyrin-quinone triads has been constructed that demonstrates photoinduced transmembrane charge separation which in turn drives transmembrane proton transfer. Another investigation has focused on the use of proton transfer reactions to stabilize the initial products of photoinduced electron transfer and thereby increase the yield of long-lived charge separation. A third study has investigated the influence of rigid molecular geometries and short donor-acceptor separations on photoinduced electron transfer reactions. Finally, generation and quenching of singlet molecular oxygen by chlorophyll aggregates has been studied. All four studies are described and results are discussed.

  10. Geopolymer obtained from coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, V.; Bissari, E.S.; Uggioni, E.; Bernardin, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Geopolymers are three-dimensional alumino silicates that can be rapidly formed at low temperature from naturally occurring aluminosilicates with a structure similar to zeolites. In this work coal ash (Tractebel Energy) was used as source of aluminosilicate according a full factorial design in eight formulations with three factors (hydroxide type and concentration and temperature) and two-levels. The ash was dried and hydroxide was added according type and concentration. The geopolymer was poured into cylindrical molds, cured (14 days) and subjected to compression test. The coal ash from power plants belongs to the Si-Al system and thus can easily form geopolymers. The compression tests showed that it is possible to obtain samples with strength comparable to conventional Portland cement. As a result, temperature and molarity are the main factors affecting the compressive strength of the obtained geopolymer. (author)

  11. Progress toward a model based approach to the robust design of welded structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric M.

    Civilization has relied on welded structures to facilitate fabrication and improve our quality of living for the past century. Welds are used in our production of energy, to create infrastructure that we rely upon such as bridges and building, and to fabricate the equipment that makes all of this happen. In short, the joining of two metals through welding has contributed immensely to our society. One problem that has plagued welds is their susceptibility to fatigue failure due to cyclic loading. Fatigue in welded joints is a complicated phenomenon and the subject of fatigue of welded structures been the subject of great study. The goal of the research presented in this dissertation is to improve fatigue life prediction capability by incorporating the effect of the welding process prior to making the structure. The first area examined in this study is the residual stress that is induced during the welding process. If the goal of virtual design and verification of welded structures is to become a reality the residual stress state needs to be known prior to making a product. Computational welding simulation can be used to predict the residual stress state of the welded structure prior to the manufacturing of any part. In order to use computational welding simulation in fatigue life predictions the validity of the results need to be confirmed. This was done in the following dissertation work in two steps, initially by using 3D image correlation to measure the full field displacement of a structure as compared to simulation, and secondly by using neutron diffraction to measure the residual stress after welding as compared to the computational welding simulation results. The results showed that the residual stress state could be predicted with enough accuracy to be used in fatigue life predictions. It is known that the residual stresses redistribute during cyclic loading which can have an impact on their effect on the fatigue life of the structure. The third area this

  12. Theory of nuclear structure and reactions. Annual technical progress report, April 1, 1984-March 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macfarlane, M.H.; Serot, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    In the period covered by this report, work focused on five main areas: (1) relativistic effects in intermediate-energy nuclear reactions; (2) the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear physics; (3) quantum hadrodynamics and relativistic nuclear mean-field theory; (4) structure and reaction effects in intermediate-energy nuclear reactions; and (5) weak and electromagnetic interactions in nuclei. Results and publications in these areas are summarized. Publications are listed

  13. [Structure and dynamics of microemulsions in bulk, at interfaces, and in confined geometries]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The authors have been constructing a special purpose small angle neutron scattering spectrometer (SAND) in collaboration with IPNS of Argonne National Laboratory and Texaco Research Laboratories in Beacon, New York. The spectrometer, having a moderate neutron flux, will be uniquely suited for detailed studies of complex fluids in their various phases. This spectrometer will be fully available to general users of the small angle scattering community after a year of testing and upon installation of the auxiliary equipment. The general research objective of the MIT group is to continue studies of the microstructural relationship to phase-behavior in three-component microemulsion systems. Specifically, they shall study the (1) variation of bulk structures when a microemulsion undergoes a non-wetting to wetting transition, (2) correlating interfacial reflectivity measurements of these wetting transitions to the SANS results, (3) use the contrast variation technique they recently developed for measuring the mean and Gaussian curvatures of the surfactant sheet to study the structural inversion of water-in-oil to oil-in-water microemulsions and the transition of disordered bicontinuous microemulsion to ordered lamellar phases, (4) investigation of the effects of spatial confinement on the phase behavior and structure of bicontinuous microemulsions, and finally (5) they shall continue the study of the recently discovered non-exponential relaxation of droplet density fluctuations near the critical and percolation points in water-in-oil droplet microemulsions.

  14. Nuclear structure research. Progress report, August 1, 1993--July 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.S.

    1994-08-01

    The Clark University research program in nuclear structure is a collaborative effort involving Clark University personnel, staff members from Brookhaven National Laboratory and an active participation of scientists from the US and other nations. The TRISTAN on-line isotope separator and the capture γ-ray facility at the High Flux Beam Reactor have been the primary experimental foci of the program although experiments have been carried out at other installations such as the High Flux Reactor of the Institute Laue-Langevin in Grenoble and at the Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator, Yale University. Recently, we have joined colleagues from Argonne National Laboratory, Vanderbilt University and the University of Maryland in experiments using the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) at the ATLAS accelerator. Our program has four principal research themes which underlie the various research initiatives, three involving nuclear structure physics and one directed towards astrophysics. These themes are: (1) the critical role of the proton-neutron interaction in the evolution of nuclear structure and its relation to collectivity, (2) the study of exotic nuclei far-from-stability produced by radioactive ion beams (REBs), (3) the appearance and role of dynamical symmetries in nuclei and the characterization of transitions among these limits, and (4) the characterization and prediction of properties of nuclei far from stability of importance in stellar nucleosynthesis

  15. [Structure and stability of nucleic acids]. Progress report, July 1, 1988--June 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinoco, I. Jr.

    1991-12-01

    We study the conformations of DNA and RNA oligonucleotides in order to understand their biological roles. We have determined the structure of the most common type of hairpin loop found in ribosomal RNA--the extra-stable tetraloop. It is actually a biloop with the other two bases in the loop forming a non-Watson-Crick base pair. This is the highest resolution structure reported for an RNA molecule in solution so far. We have obtained structures of pseudoknots and we have deduced general rules for their formation. We are presently studying a pseudoknot which is necessary for the replication of a retrovirus. The research done in the laboratory has been reported in 24 publications, plus 7 manuscripts in press or submitted. The research was done by 14 graduate students and 7 postdoctoral fellows. Five graduate students have received their Ph.D.s and 4 postdoctorals have finished their stay here. There are presently 9 graduate students and 3 postdoctorals working on the project; 2 new postdoctorals are expected this summer. One undergraduate student usually participates in the research during the year; this summer two undergraduates are working on the project. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  16. India clamours for coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, S.

    2000-10-01

    The steadily deteriorating quality of coal provided by government-owned companies in India has persuaded coal users to follow the lead of the World Bank and call for deregulation of the sector to allow quality coal to be procured at competitive prices from the global market.Some 24 opencast mines belonging to Coal India Limited subsidiaries were to be expanded to produce 112 mta of coal but the World Bank terminated a loan of 507 million dollars from the total sanctioned loan of 1.06 bn. CIL refuses to accept that the loan was terminated because the government failed to meet the terms and conditions imposed at the time of the loan sanction. In addition to slow demand from the power sector, the state-owned coal companies have found the World Bank terms impossible to meet. The favourable debt market in India has come to their aid but even this will not enable the quality of coal to be improved for use in many power plants. The Maharashtra State Electricity Board has called for the formation of a joint venture with the private sector to explore for and supply quality coal. 1 photo.

  17. Imported coal remains flexible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, F.

    1982-01-01

    The new law on coal tariff quotas is one year old. During this period hard coal imports increased by 1 million tons, in spite of the slowed down economic activities and the wait-and-see attitude of consumers. The author gives a first survey.

  18. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T.; Smol, Robert; Farber, Gerald; Naphtali, Leonard M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  19. COAL USE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world's coal reserves have been estimated to be about one exagram accessible with current extraction technology. The energy content has been valued at 290 zettajourles. Using a value of 15 terawatt as the current global energy consumption, the coal supply could global needs f...

  20. Clean Coal Technologies in China: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyan Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the dominant primary energy source in China and the major source of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. To facilitate the use of coal in an environmentally satisfactory and economically viable way, clean coal technologies (CCTs are necessary. This paper presents a review of recent research and development of four kinds of CCTs: coal power generation; coal conversion; pollution control; and carbon capture, utilization, and storage. It also outlines future perspectives on directions for technology research and development (R&D. This review shows that China has made remarkable progress in the R&D of CCTs, and that a number of CCTs have now entered into the commercialization stage.

  1. The Correlation of PPARα Activity and Cardiomyocyte Metabolism and Structure in Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy during Heart Failure Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Czarnowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to define relationship between PPARα expression and metabolic-structural characteristics during HF progression in hearts with DCM phenotype. Tissue endomyocardial biopsy samples divided into three groups according to LVEF ((I 45–50%, n=10; (II 30–40%, n=15; (III 60%, n=6 were investigated. The PPARα mRNA expression in the failing hearts was low in Group (I, high in Group (II, and comparable to that of the control in Group (III. There were analogous changes in the expression of FAT/CD36 and CPT-1 mRNA in contrast to continuous overexpression of GLUT-4 mRNA and significant increase of PDK-4 mRNA in Group (II. In addition, significant structural changes of cardiomyocytes with glycogen accumulation were accompanied by increased expression of PPARα. For the entire study population with HF levels of FAT/CD36 mRNA showed a strong tendency of negative correlation with LVEF. In conclusion, PPARα elevated levels may be a direct cause of adverse remodeling, both metabolic and structural. Thus, there is limited time window for therapy modulating cardiac metabolism and protecting cardiomyocyte structure in failing heart.

  2. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  3. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  4. The renaissance of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schernikau, Lars

    2013-01-01

    There is hardly another energy resource where public opinion and reality lie as far apart as they do for coal. Many think of coal as an inefficient relic from the era of industrialisation. However, such views underestimate the significance of this energy resource both nationally and globally. In terms of global primary energy consumption coal ranks second behind crude oil, which plays a central role in the energy sector. Since global electricity use is due to rise further, coal, being the only energy resource that can meet a growing electricity demand over decades, stands at the beginning of a renaissance, and does so also in the minds of the political leadership. Coal is indispensable as a bridging technology until the electricity demand of the world population can be met primarily through renewable resources.

  5. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  6. Investigation of the structure of photosynthetic reaction centers. Progress report, June 1, 1981-January 5, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Willigen, H.

    1983-01-01

    In this initial phase of the project we have been concerned primarily with the development of the methodology of the application of ENDOR in the study of the photo-excited triplets in amorphous solids. Over the past year and a half the instrumentation has been vastly improved. First of all, by the incorporation of a computer. Secondly, by the development of a better cavity suitable for optical irradiation studies. And finally, as a result of an improved cryogenic system. Proper conditions for the recording of ENDOR spectra of randomly oriented triplets in a solid matrix were found in a study of a series of ground-state triplets with zero field splittings (D) ranging from less than 100 gauss to more than 400 gauss. The measurements established that to be successful ENDOR measurements on chlorophyll triplets must be performed at temperatures well below 10 K. Furthermore, it could be shown that hyperfine and quadrupole data extracted from spectra will be helpful for the elucidation of electronic as well as geometric structure. Finally, ENDOR measurements on a series of photo-excited triplets were performed. From the point of view of the objective of this research it was particularly encouraging to learn from these measurements that a short triplet lifetime does not preclude ENDOR measurements. In fact, of the molecules investigated those with the shortest tau/sub T/ gave the strongest ENDOR effect. This can be attributed to spin-alignment effects of which we can also take advantage in studies of chlorophyll systems. Measurements performed on the porphyrins give an insight into substituent effects which can be of aid in the elucidation of their electronic structure. Hyperfine data obtained from ZnTPP (CN) 4 suggest that the structure proposed for this molecule may be incorrect

  7. Structures and shear response of lipid monolayers. Progress report, August 1, 1993--January 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, P.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1995-08-01

    Of the many systems now classified as open-quotes soft condensed matterclose quotes, lipids are some of the best known and most studied. Lipids occur most commonly in membranes, but the artificially created lipid systems known as Langmuir films (on water) and Langmuir-Blodgett films (on solid substrates) are in some ways better-defined and more easily controlled systems with which to address many of the same questions. Studies of these systems have a long and distinguished history, but in the past decade there has been an explosion of activity in this area, driven by the availability of a or more powerful experimental probes but also in part by the hope of producing new structured molecular materials and devices. Today the focus of device-oriented research is shifting to self-assembled (chemisorbed) films, because it is recognized that these films are somewhat more stable under application conditions. This trend has resulted in a generally more appropriate view of Langmuir and Langmuir Blodgett films as model systems with which to study the properties of organized molecular assemblies. These films are part of a larger class that includes membranes, lamellar paraffins and liquid crystals as well as self-assembled films, but with certain experimental and conceptual advantages (such as the ease with which the density may be varied, and the tethering to a flat plane). This report describes the continued studies of the phase diagrams of Langmuir monolayers, and efforts to understand the variables that affect the structures formed. It also describes studies of the structure of a transferred monolayer, and how this evolves as further layers are added. Finally, the authors describe their studies of the mechanical response of Langmuir-Blodgett films using a small-strain torsion balance at the center of a circular trough

  8. Radioactive decay and nuclear structure studies: Progress report, October 1, 1986 through September 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    New data are presented for the level structures of 143 Ba, 147 Ce, 147 Pr, 143 Cs, 132 Sb, 130 Sb, 129 Sb, 129 Te, and 132 Te. New conversion electron and gamma-ray coincidence measurements are reported for the even-even 118 Xe, 120 Xe, 122 Xe, 124 Xe nuclides which include the identification of a number of new E0 transitions. New values for the magnetic moments in 77 Br, 75 Br, and 74 Br are presented. The results for each of these nuclides are discussed

  9. Nonlinear, distortive phenomena in solids: Martensitic, crack, and multiscale structures. Progress report, 1991--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, J.A.; Sethna, J.P.

    1992-08-01

    This ongoing program, from the beginning of the first three year grant 1988--1991 and now in the first year of the second phase 1991--1994, has been directed at developing both an understanding of the physics underlying structural transformations in real (alloy) materials as well as new theoretical methods which adequately describe the large (nonlinear) distortions which characterize such processes. We have had a particular interest in martensitic systems, first (1988--1991) in the equilibrium limits, and now (below) in phenomena associated with the transformation process.

  10. Rock massif observation from underground coal gasification point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sasvári

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Underground coal gasification (UCG of the coal seams is determined by suitable geological structure of the area. The assumption of the qualitative changes of the rock massif can be also enabled by application of geophysical methods (electric resisting methods and geoelectric tomography. This article shows the example of evaluating possibilities of realization of the underground coal gasification in the area of the Upper Nitra Coal Basin in Cíge¾ and Nováky deposits, and recommend the needs of cooperation among geological, geotechnical and geophysical researchers.

  11. Structuring Ethical Interpretations of the Sustainable Development Goals—Concepts, Implications and Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Keitsch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, like the sustainable development (SD concept itself, are open to multifaceted interpretations, and the same is true for their ethical implications. While SDG values are widely accepted as universal, the ethical structure of the SDGs is complex, with differing interpretations and ideas, e.g., on how to regard and value nature. This article is a conceptual attempt to clarify and structure ethical interpretations based on an environmental ethics framework consisting of two branches: anthropocentrism and biocentrism. The aim is to provide an overview of SDG positions and locate them in the wider field of environmental ethics, addressing the human–nature relationship as a recurring topic in the SDGs. Section 1 of this article presents environmental ethics and briefly discusses anthropocentrism and biocentrism. Section 2 outlines ethical similarities of SD and the SDGs and locates representative SDG interpretations within the environmental ethics framework. Section 3 summarizes findings and suggests a possibility of integrating biocentrism and anthropocentrism with regard to the further interpretation and discussion of SDG ethics. Insights from this article will aid researchers in adopting a better overview on ethical positions in the SDG debate.

  12. Progressive structural changes of Avicel, bleached softwood, and bacterial cellulose during enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Kabindra; Shin, Heenae; Lee, Christopher M.; Park, Sunkyu; Kim, Seong H.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive picture of structural changes of cellulosic biomass during enzymatic hydrolysis is essential for a better understanding of enzymatic actions and development of more efficient enzymes. In this study, a suite of analytical techniques including sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed for lignin-free model biomass samples—Avicel, bleached softwood, and bacterial cellulose—to find correlations between the decrease in hydrolysis rate over time and the structural or chemical changes of biomass during the hydrolysis reaction. The results showed that the decrease in hydrolysis rate over time appears to correlate with the irreversible deposition of non-cellulosic species (either reaction side products or denatured enzymes, or both) on the cellulosic substrate surface. The crystallinity, degree of polymerization, and meso-scale packing of cellulose do not seem to positively correlate with the decrease in hydrolysis rate observed for all three substrates tested in this study. It was also found that the cellulose Iα component of the bacterial cellulose is preferentially hydrolyzed by the enzyme than the cellulose Iβ component. PMID:26463274

  13. Progressive deformation of feldspar recording low-barometry impact processes, Tenoumer impact structure, Mauritania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Kah, Linda C.; Harris, R. Scott

    2014-06-01

    The Tenoumer impact structure is a small, well-preserved crater within Archean to Paleoproterozoic amphibolite, gneiss, and granite of the Reguibat Shield, north-central Mauritania. The structure is surrounded by a thin ejecta blanket of crystalline blocks (granitic gneiss, granite, and amphibolite) and impact-melt rocks. Evidence of shock metamorphism of quartz, most notably planar deformation features (PDFs), occurs exclusively in granitic clasts entrained within small bodies of polymict, glass-rich breccia. Impact-related deformation features in oligoclase and microcline grains, on the other hand, occur both within clasts in melt-breccia deposits, where they co-occur with quartz PDFs, and also within melt-free crystalline ejecta, in the absence of co-occurring quartz PDFs. Feldspar deformation features include multiple orientations of PDFs, enhanced optical relief of grain components, selective disordering of alternate twins, inclined lamellae within alternate twins, and combinations of these individual textures. The distribution of shock features in quartz and feldspar suggests that deformation textures within feldspar can record a wide range of average pressures, starting below that required for shock deformation of quartz. We suggest that experimental analysis of feldspar behavior, combined with detailed mapping of shock metamorphism of feldspar in natural systems, may provide critical data to constrain energy dissipation within impact regimes that experienced low average shock pressures.

  14. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT's. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT's in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT's introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT's in a number of countries.

  15. The Steam Coal Market in 2016: the Supply Shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2017-03-01

    had the effect of lowering Chinese and international coal prices. However, many uncertainties persist in the short term. Given China's weight on the international coal market and the difficulty in driving the structural reform of the domestic coal supply, one can expect highly volatile international coal prices, which, more than ever, will be determined by Chinese policy

  16. Influence of high-energy impact on the physical and technical characteristics of coal fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'tsev, L. I.; Belogurova, T. P.; Kravchenko, I. V.

    2017-08-01

    Currently, in the world's large-scale coal-fired power industry, the combustion of pulverized coal is the most widely spread technology of combusting the coals. In recent years, the micropulverization technology for preparation and combustion of the coal has been developed in this field. As applied to the small-scale power industry, the method of combusting the coal in the form of a coal-water slurry has been explored for years. Fine coal powders are produced and used in the pulverized-coal gasification. Therefore, the coal preparation methods that involve high-dispersion disintegration of coals attract the greatest interest. The article deals with the problems of high-energy impact on the coal during the preparation of pulverized-coal fuels and coal-water slurries, in particular, during the milling of the coal in ball drum mills and the subsequent regrinding in disintegrators or the cavitation treatment of the coal-water slurries. The investigations were conducted using samples of anthracite and lignite from Belovskii open-pit mine (Kuznetsk Basin). It is shown that both the disintegration and the cavitation treatment are efficient methods for controlling the fuel characteristics. Both methods allow increasing the degree of dispersion of the coal. The content of the small-sized particles reground by cavitation considerably exceeds the similar figure obtained using the disintegrator. The specific surface area of the coal is increased by both cavitation and disintegration with the cavitation treatment producing a considerably greater effect. Being subjected to the cavitation treatment, most coal particles assume the form of a split characterized by the thermodynamically nonequilibrium state. Under external action, in particular, of temperature, the morphological structure of such pulverized materials changes faster and, consequently, the combustion of the treated coal should occur more efficiently. The obtained results are explained from the physical point of view.

  17. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies: Progress report, November 1986-August 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.; Phillips, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    The report includes information on prior, current, and future experiments; nuclear theory; and instrumentation. Current experiments include single pion production in np scattering, spin transfer in hyperon production, photoproduction of high p/sub T/jets, and meson studies. Future experiments will continue current research and also include the production of lambda particles with heavy ions and the production of polarized antiproton beams at LEAR. Theoretical research programs are investigating the Gaussian effective potential (GEP), hadron-nucleus scattering as a function of nuclear size, nucleon structure, and exotic contributions to lambda production in pion-deuteron interactions. Instrumentation developments include proportional wire counters, other electronics, and computer systems. 13 refs., 1 tab

  18. Identification of plant megafossils in Pennsylvanian-age coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    Criteria are provided for identification of certain Pennsylvanian-age plant megafossils directly from coal based on their characteristic anatomical structures as documented from etched polished coal surfaces in comparison with other modes of preservation. Lepidophloios hallii periderm, Diaphorodendron periderm, an Alethopteris pinnule, and a Cordaites leaf were studied in material in continuity with adjacent permineralized peat (carbonate coal-ballas). Calamites wood in attachment to a pitch cast and a Psaronius stem in coal in attachment to a fusinitized Psaronius inner root mantle were studied. Sigillaria was identified in coal by comparison to its structure in permineralized peat. Other plant tissues with characteristic structures were found but could not be attributed to specific plants. ?? 1989.

  19. Diffuse interlobular septal thickening in a coal miner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrumurthy, S.G.; Kearney, S.; Sissons, M.; Haider, Y. [Lancashire Teaching Hospital for NHS Funding Trust, Chorley (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Diffuse interlobular septal thickening (DIST) is an abnormality seen on high-resolution CT (HRCT) scanning of the thorax. While DIST may be present to variable extents in a number of lung conditions, it is uncommon as a predominant finding except in a few entities. This report features an ex-coal miner, thought to have coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), in whom the HRCT scan showed no evidence of CWP and instead showed DIST. The patient's condition progressed incessantly towards death from severe secondary pulmonary hypertension. The case links fatal pulmonary hypertension to DIST, a pattern not previously described in coal workers.