WorldWideScience

Sample records for coal particle suspension

  1. Investigations into detonations of coal dust suspensions in oxygen-nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.; Fearnley, P.; Nettleton, M.

    1987-03-01

    The effect of particle size (practically monodispersed), volatile content and composition of gaseous oxygen-nitrogen mixtures on initiating flame acceleration rates in coal dust suspensions is investigated experimentally. Description is given of apparatus, material used and experiments carried out. The authors discusses: microwave interferograms, pressure oscillograms for various oxygen-nitrogen mixtures; development of ionization front speed in relation to distance from diaphragm; effect of composition on shock wave advance rates. It is concluded that: microwave interferometry can successfully be used in recording initiation of coal dust suspension detonations; ignition of confined coal dust suspensions by shock waves originated by detonation front in stoichiometric oxyacetylene mixtures can be explained by heating of coal particles in shock compression stream to ignition temperature (1000 K) by combined convection and radiation heat transfer. 16 refs.

  2. A method for producing a water and coal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutase, T.; Khongo, T.; Minemura, N.; Nakai, S.; Ogura, K.; Savada, M.

    1983-08-30

    Coal dust (100 parts with a 95 to 99 percent content of particles with a size of 7 to 150 micrometers) is loaded into a mixture of hydrocarbon oil (1 to 20 parts) and water (300 to 1,000 parts) and mixed for 3 to 5 minutes at a rotation frequency of 1,800 to 1,500 per minute. The agglomerates of the coal dust and hydrocarbon (Uv) (100 parts) produced in this manner are then mixed with water (25 to 60 parts), an anion surfacant (PAV) (from 0.1 to 2 parts) which has high dispersion activity and a nonionogenic surfacant (0.1 to 2 parts) which has an HLB indicator of from 7 to 17 (preferably 13) to ensure a high consistency of the aqueous suspension of high quality coal, characterized by high fluidity (dynamic viscosity from 0.5 to 1.4 pascals times seconds). It is preferable to use a heavy oil fraction, kerosene, residue from oil distillation or an anthracite coal resin as the hydrocarbon oil. Separation of the ash from the suspension is increased by adding the surfacants and a water soluble inorganic salt which provides for an alkalinity of the aqueous solution (a pH of 7). It is recommended that a salt of alkylbenzolsulfo acid, a sodium salt of polyoxyethylenalkylphenolsulfo acid, sodium laurylsulfate, ammonium lauryl sulfate polyoxyethylensorbitantristearate, polyoxyethylenlaurylic acid, polyoxyethylennonylphenol ether or polyoxyethyllauric ether be used as the surfacant.

  3. Rheology of Colombian coal-water slurry fuels: Effect of particle-size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulido, J E; Rojas, C P; Acero, G [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    1996-12-31

    Coal-water slurry fuels (CWSF`s) have been prepared and characterized in a research project in Colombia, sponsored by Colciencias and Ecocarbon, in order to evaluate the effects of the different composition variables on the behavior during preparation and pipe line transportation. The authors have previously presented details describing the characteristics of the slurry fuels prepared with five types of Colombian thermal coals and the influence of their chemical composition on the optimum particle-size distribution (PSD) required to prepare highly loaded and workable CWSF`s. The formulation and design of flow systems of suspensions with high solids content, such as the CWSF`s, require a detailed rheological knowledge of the suspension in terms of the governing parameters related to PSD, coal content, surface chemistry of the particles and dispersants used to stabilize the slurries. Important studies on these aspects have been reviewed and carried out experimentally by other authors specially devoted to the correlations between apparent viscosity, solids content and average coal particle-size. One of the targets to obtain an optimum control on the viscosity and flow properties of the CWSF`s must be based in correlating the Theological constants for the prevailing model of viscosity law to the characteristic parameters of the particle-size distribution and to the coal content in the slurry. In spite of the effect of PSD on the rheology of highly-loaded coal slurries have been long recognized as significant, the specific influence of the various PSD`s on the parameters of the Theological model continues to receive attention to further understanding in order to improve the slurry formulations for a specified purpose on preparation and hydraulic handling. This paper reports the results of an experimental technique of examining the various PSD`s on coal slurry fuel rheology, taking special attention for the effect on the parameters of the rheological model.

  4. Aqueous clay suspensions stabilized by alginate fluid gels for coal spontaneous combustion prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Botao; Ma, Dong; Li, Fanglei; Li, Yong

    2017-11-01

    We have developed aqueous clay suspensions stabilized by alginate fluid gels (AFG) for coal spontaneous combustion prevention and control. Specially, this study aimed to characterize the effect of AFG on the microstructure, static and dynamic stability, and coal fire inhibition performances of the prepared AFG-stabilized clay suspensions. Compared with aqueous clay suspensions, the AFG-stabilized clay suspensions manifest high static and dynamic stability, which can be ascribed to the formation of a robust three-dimensional gel network by AFG. The coal acceleration oxidation experimental results show that the prepared AFG-stabilized clay suspensions can improve the coal thermal stability and effectively inhibit the coal spontaneous oxidation process by increasing crossing point temperature (CPT) and reducing CO emission. The prepared low-cost and nontoxic AFG-stabilized clay suspensions, exhibiting excellent coal fire extinguishing performances, indicate great application potentials in coal spontaneous combustion prevention and control.

  5. Electric-surface characteristics and stability of type K coal suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baichenko, A A; Baran, A A; Mitina, N S; Kocherga, I I

    1987-07-01

    Investigates with the help of potentiometric titration, electrophoresis and conductometry the structure of double electric layer and aggregation stability of type K coal suspension at the Berezovsk preparation plant (Kuzbassugol' association). Discusses tests carried out with coal which was preliminarily crushed, sieved, crushed again in colloid mills, elutriated and separated into sedimento-stable fractions. Data obtained indicate that coal suspensions represent typical ion-stabilized dispersions, coagulation of which by electrolytes can be depicted within the framework of lyophobic colloid stability theory. Addition of double-charged gegenions considerably reduces electrokinetic potential while addition of triple-charged gegenions results in surface recharging. 10 refs.

  6. Particle interactions in concentrated suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondy, L.A.; Graham, A.L.; Abbott, J.R.; Brenner, H.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of research that focuses on slow flows of suspensions in which colloidal and inertial effects are negligibly small. The authors describe nuclear magnetic resonance imaging experiments to quantitatively measure particle migration occurring in concentrated suspensions undergoing a flow with a nonuniform shear rate. These experiments address the issue of how the flow field affects the microstructure of suspensions. In order to understand the local viscosity in a suspension with such a flow-induced, spatially varying concentration, one must know how the viscosity of a homogeneous suspension depends on such variables as solids concentration and particle orientation. The authors suggest the technique of falling ball viscometry, using small balls, as a method to determine the effective viscosity of a suspension without affecting the original microstructure significantly. They also describe data from experiments in which the detailed fluctuations of a falling ball's velocity indicate the noncontinuum nature of the suspension and may lead to more insights into the effects of suspension microstructure on macroscopic properties. Finally, they briefly describe other experiments that can be performed in quiescent suspensions (in contrast to the use of conventional shear rotational viscometers) in order to learn more about boundary effects in concentrated suspensions

  7. ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. James Davis

    1999-12-18

    The objective of this research was to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. The specific objectives were: Design and develop a scaleable electrophoresis apparatus to clarify suspensions of colloidal coal and clay particles; Demonstrate the separation process using polluted waste water from the coal-washing facilities at the coal-fired power plants in Centralia, WA; Develop a mathematical model of the process to predict the rate of clarification and the suspension electrical properties needed for scale up.

  8. Impact of Coal Fly Ash Addition on Combustion Aerosols (PM2.5) from Full-Scale Suspension-Firing of Pulverized Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Wu, Hao; Frandsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    The formation of combustion aerosols was studied in an 800 MWth suspension-fired power plant boiler, during combustion of pulverized wood pellets with and without addition of coal fly ash as alkali capture additive. The aerosol particles were sampled and characterized by a low-pressure cascade im...

  9. Particle-wall tribology of slippery hydrogel particle suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewan, Heather M; Stokes, Jason R; Cloitre, Michel

    2017-03-08

    Slip is an important phenomenon that occurs during the flow of yield stress fluids like soft materials and pastes. Densely packed suspensions of hydrogel microparticles are used to show that slip is governed by the tribological interactions occurring between the samples and shearing surfaces. Both attractive/repulsive interactions between the dispersed particles and surface, as well as the viscoelasticity of the suspension, are found to play key roles in slip occurring within rheometric flows. We specifically discover that for two completely different sets of microgels, the sliding stress at which slip occurs scales with both the modulus of the particles and the bulk suspension modulus. This suggests that hysteresis losses within the viscoelastic particles contribute to friction forces and thus slip at the particle-surface tribo-contact. It is also found that slip during large amplitude oscillatory shear and steady shear flows share the same generic features.

  10. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ceres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel 300 mm in diameter. The just suspension impeller speeds were measured using an electrochemical method, and were checked visually. A 2.5 % NaCl water solution was used as the liquid phase, and glass particles with four equivalent diameters between 0.18 and 0.89 mmand volumetric concentration from 2.5 % to 40% were usedasthesolid phase. The criterion values πs=Po√Fr'3(d/D7 were calculated from the particle suspension and power consumption measurements. The dependencies of πs on particle content cv show that larger agitators are more efficient for higher particle content.

  11. Numerical study of suspensions of deformable particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Luca; Rosti, Marco Edoardo

    2017-11-01

    We consider a model non-Newtonian fluid consisting of a suspension of deformable particles in a Newtonian solvent. Einstein showed in his pioneering work that the relative increase in effective viscosity is a linear function of the particle volume fraction for dilute suspensions of rigid particles. Inertia has been shown to introduce deviations from the behaviour predicted by the different empirical fits, an effect that can be related to an increase of the effective volume fraction. We here focus on the effect of elasticity, i.e. visco-elastic deformable particles. To tackle the problem at hand, we perform three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation of a plane Couette flow with a suspension of neutrally buoyant deformable viscous hyper-elastic particles. We show that elasticity produces a shear-thinning effect in elastic suspensions (in comparison to rigid ones) and that it can be understood in terms of a reduction of the effective volume fraction of the suspension. The deformation modifies the particle motion reducing the level of mutual interaction. Normal stress differences will also be considered. European Research Council, Grant No. ERC-2013-CoG- 616186, TRITOS; SNIC (the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing).

  12. Relation between rheological and structural properties of suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcal, M; Sebor, G; Volsicky, Z

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses results of investigations into separation processes for coal and kaolin suspensions. Effects of potassium chlorides and methanol additives on electrostatic potential of solid particles and on sedimentation rate are analyzed. Investigation results are shown in 5 diagrams. The relation between rheological and structural properties of coal and clay suspensions is investigated. Investigations show that the non-Newtonian behavior of suspensions cannot be attributed exclusively to the electrostatic and mechanical action of the solid phase particles. It is also caused by structure of the liquid phase, particularly on the surface of the solid particles, which depends mostly on hydrogen bonds. The internal structure of the liquid phase influences differential viscosity much more than the electrical surface properties of the solid phase. Bonds between the molecules of water and methanol are much stronger than bonds between water molecules alone. (9 refs.)

  13. Agglomeration of coal fines for premium fuel application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalay, A.; Zaman, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on fine coal in liquid suspension, which can be agglomerated in a number of ways. One of the oldest procedures involves the addition of electrolyte to the suspension to cause a reduction in the zeta potential and allow colliding particles to agglomerate. A second method involves the use of polymeric flocculants to bridge between particles. Both of these technologies are being used in the wastewater treatment plants for removal of fine waste particles from contaminated water. A third method involves the addition of a second immiscible liquid preferentially to wet the particles and cause adhesion by capillary interfacial forces. While the bonding forces in the first two methods are small and result in rather weak and voluminous agglomerates, the third method is postulated to produce more dense and much stronger agglomerates. In the case of fine coals, the carbonaceous constituents can be agglomerated and recovered from the aqueous suspension with many different coagulants. Inorganic or ash-forming constituents are also agglomerated along with the fine coal particles. As the froth floatation, agglomeration using coal and colloidal dust to effect a separation. Froth floatation, however, becomes less effective where extremely fine particles of cal must be treated or if there is considerable clay-size particle present. In contrast, there appears to be virtually no lower limit on the particle size suitable for agglomeration uses

  14. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzelli, Élisabeth

    2017-06-01

    Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing) and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava). Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liquid and by mechanical contact. These systems thus belong to an intermediate regime between pure suspensions and granular flows. We show that we can unify suspension and granular rheology under a common framework by transferring the frictional approach of dry granular media to wet suspensions of spherical particles. We also discuss non-Newtonian behavior such as normal-stress differences and shear-induced migration. Beyond the classical problem of dense suspension of hard spheres which is far from being completely resolved, there are also entirely novel avenues of study concerning more complex mixtures of particles and fluids such as those involving other types of particles (e.g. fibers) or non-Newtonian fluids that we will also address.

  15. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content. (In Polish)

  16. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content.

  17. The methods of receiving coal water suspension and its use as the modifying additive in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantuyev, S. L.; Urkhanova, L. A.; Lkhasaranov, S. A.; Stebenkova, Y. Y.; Khmelev, A. B.; Kondratenko, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Results of research of the coal water suspension (CWS) from a cake received in the electrodigit ways in the fluid environment and gas are given in article and also the possibilities of its use as the modifying additive in concrete are considered. Use of a coal cake is perspective as it is a withdrawal of the coal and concentrating enterprises and has extremely low cost. Methods of receiving CWS and possibility of formation of carbon nanomaterials (CNM) are given in their structure. Research and the analysis of a microstructure of a surface of exemplars before electrodigit processing, their element structure, dependence of durability of a cement stone on a look and quantity of an additive of CWS is conducted. For modification of cement the carbon nanomaterials received from the following exemplars of water coal suspensions were used: foams from a cake from a scrubber of the plasma modular reactor, coal water suspension from a cake from electrodigit installation. The product which can find further application for a power engineering as fuel for combustion, and also in structural materials science, in particular, as the modifying additive in concrete allows to receive these methods.

  18. CFD study of the heat transfer between a dilute gas particle suspension flow and an obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, A.V.; Fletcher, C.A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The effect on heat transfer of solid particles suspended in a gas flow is of considerable importance in a number of industrial applications, ranging from coal combustion equipment and heat exchangers to catalytic reaction or cooling of nuclear reactors using gas graphite dust suspensions. Here, the heat transfer process between a dilute gas-particle suspension flow and an obstruction has been numerically investigated employing a novel Eulerian formulation for dilute gas particle suspension flows, which allows interaction of the key mechanisms to be quantified for the first time. As the particle reflection occurs around the obstruction, the heat transfer process has been modeled taking into account the incident and reflected particles explicitly. In the energy equations these particle families are treated separately. Only the effect on the gas convective heat transfer is expected to be of primary significance and investigated. The numerical computation is performed using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code, FLUENT, with the User Defined Subroutines. The authors study the heat transfer process between a dilute gas particle flow and an obstruction with simple geometries such as a 45 degree ramp and a cylindrical tube. The theoretical results for the latter case are compared with the available experimental data. The numerical simulation shows that both the particle size and the particle concentration (in the thermal boundary layer) affect the heat transfer process. Since both the particle incidence and reflection depend on the particle size and strongly influence the particle concentration distribution, they have to be physically correctly treated in the modeling of the heat transfer, as is demonstrated in the novel formulation. There is an optimum particle size for a maximum enhancement of the heat transfer. The particle concentration increases the efficiency of the heat transfer process expressed in terms of the local Nusselt numbers

  19. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guazzelli Élisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava. Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liquid and by mechanical contact. These systems thus belong to an intermediate regime between pure suspensions and granular flows. We show that we can unify suspension and granular rheology under a common framework by transferring the frictional approach of dry granular media to wet suspensions of spherical particles. We also discuss non-Newtonian behavior such as normal-stress differences and shear-induced migration. Beyond the classical problem of dense suspension of hard spheres which is far from being completely resolved, there are also entirely novel avenues of study concerning more complex mixtures of particles and fluids such as those involving other types of particles (e.g. fibers or non-Newtonian fluids that we will also address.

  20. Size-selective separation of submicron particles in suspensions with ultrasonic atomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Susumu; Oka, Naoyoshi

    2014-11-01

    Aqueous suspensions containing silica or polystyrene latex were ultrasonically atomized for separating particles of a specific size. With the help of a fog involving fine liquid droplets with a narrow size distribution, submicron particles in a limited size-range were successfully separated from suspensions. Performance of the separation was characterized by analyzing the size and the concentration of collected particles with a high resolution method. Irradiation of 2.4MHz ultrasound to sample suspensions allowed the separation of particles of specific size from 90 to 320nm without regarding the type of material. Addition of a small amount of nonionic surfactant, PONPE20 to SiO2 suspensions enhanced the collection of finer particles, and achieved a remarkable increase in the number of collected particles. Degassing of the sample suspension resulted in eliminating the separation performance. Dissolved air in suspensions plays an important role in this separation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Suspensions of colloidal particles and aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Babick, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the properties of particles in colloidal suspensions. It has a focus on particle aggregates and the dependency of their physical behaviour on morphological parameters. For this purpose, relevant theories and methodological tools are reviewed and applied to selected examples. The book is divided into four main chapters. The first of them introduces important measurement techniques for the determination of particle size and interfacial properties in colloidal suspensions. A further chapter is devoted to the physico-chemical properties of colloidal particles—highlighting the interfacial phenomena and the corresponding interactions between particles. The book’s central chapter examines the structure-property relations of colloidal aggregates. This comprises concepts to quantify size and structure of aggregates, models and numerical tools for calculating the (light) scattering and hydrodynamic properties of aggregates, and a discussion on van-der-Waals and double layer interactions between ...

  2. Correlated particle dynamics in concentrated quasi-two-dimensional suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamant, H; Cui, B; Lin, B; Rice, S A

    2005-01-01

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally how the hydrodynamically correlated lateral motion of particles in a suspension confined between two surfaces is affected by the suspension concentration. Despite the long range of the correlations (decaying as 1/r 2 with the inter-particle distance r), the concentration effect is present only at short inter-particle distances for which the static pair correlation is nonuniform. This is in sharp contrast with the effect of hydrodynamic screening in unconfined suspensions, where increasing the concentration changes the prefactor of the large-distance correlation

  3. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooher, J.P. [Adelphi Univ., Garden City, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  4. Effect of suspension characteristics on in-flight particle properties and coating microstructures achieved by suspension plasma spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubignat, E.; Planche, M. P.; Allimant, A.; Billières, D.; Girardot, L.; Bailly, Y.; Montavon, G.

    2014-11-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of suspension properties on the manufacturing of coatings by suspension plasma spraying (SPS). For this purpose, alumina suspensions were formulated with two different liquid phases: water and ethanol. Suspensions were atomized with a twin-fluid nozzle and injected in an atmospheric plasma jet. Suspension injection was optimized thanks to shadowgraphy observations and drop size distribution measurements performed by laser diffraction. In-flight particle velocities were evaluated by particle image velocimetry. In addition, splats were collected on glass substrates, with the same conditions as the ones used during the spray process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry analyses were then performed to observe the splat morphology and thus to get information on plasma / suspension interactions, such as particle agglomeration. Finally, coatings were manufactured, characterized by SEM and compared to each other.

  5. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    To study the influence of local conditions on the reaction between gaseous KCl and kaolin or coal fly ash experiments were done on CHECs electrically heated entrained flow reactor, which can simulate the local conditions in suspension fired boilers. The experimental results were compared with mod...

  6. Rheological studies of aqueous stabilised nano-zirconia particle suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Ullah Khan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation aqueous suspensions of nano- and colloidal range particles are stabilised by changing the ambient pH. Rheology is used to establish the stability of the suspensions and it is found that the rheology of the suspensions is strongly dependent on the pH values. The viscosity is highest close to the iso-electric point of the powders. At the iso-electric point the net surface charge on the powder particles is zero and is the cause of the high viscosity. Away from the iso-electric point, the particles are charged, giving rise to a double layer phenomenon and causing the reduction in viscosity. It is also found that increasing the solid contents of the suspensions reduces the pH region of low viscosity.

  7. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) Measurements of Suspension-Feeding Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Clos, K.; Jones, I. T.; Carrier, T. J.; Jumars, P. A.

    2016-02-01

    Active suspension feeders, such as bivalves and tunicates, connect benthic and pelagic ecosystems by packaging suspended matter into larger fecal and pseudofecal particles, greatly enhancing the flux of carbon and nutrients from the water column to the benthos. The volume of water processed by a population of suspension feeders is commonly estimated by scaling up results from experiments that measure the clearance rate (the volume of water cleared of particles per time) of one or a few individual suspension feeders. Clearance rates vary, however, between species, within a species, and over time for a single individual; and the velocity fields produced by suspension feeders are likely to interact in complex ways. We measured the water velocity fields produced by two species of bivalve, Mya arenaria and Mercenaria mercenaria, and the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, using particle image velocimetry (PIV). We used these measurements to calculate flow rates and Reynolds numbers of inhalant and exhalant siphons. We also observed strong entrainment of water by M. arenaria's exhalant siphon jet that may help to explain how the clam avoids depleting the water around it of particles and oxygen as it feeds. We are using these measurements to inform computational fluid mechanics (CFD) models of suspension feeding, allowing us to examine the interactions of flow fields produced by multiple suspension feeders and other effects not quantified by clearance-rate measurements.

  8. Large Scale Brownian Dynamics of Confined Suspensions of Rigid Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donev, Aleksandar; Sprinkle, Brennan; Balboa, Florencio; Patankar, Neelesh

    2017-11-01

    We introduce new numerical methods for simulating the dynamics of passive and active Brownian colloidal suspensions of particles of arbitrary shape sedimented near a bottom wall. The methods also apply for periodic (bulk) suspensions. Our methods scale linearly in the number of particles, and enable previously unprecedented simulations of tens to hundreds of thousands of particles. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our methods on a suspension of boomerang-shaped colloids. We also model recent experiments on active dynamics of uniform suspensions of spherical microrollers. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under award DMS-1418706, and by the U.S. Department of Energy under award DE-SC0008271.

  9. Shear-induced particle migration in suspensions of rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondy, L.A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)); Brenner, H. (Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)); Altobelli, S.A. (The Lovelace Institutes, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive, S. E., Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States)); Abbott, J.R.; Graham, A.L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Shear-induced migration of particles occurs in suspensions of neutrally buoyant spheres in Newtonian fluids undergoing shear in the annular space between two rotating, coaxial cylinders (a wide-gap Couette), even when the suspension is in creeping flow. Previous studies have shown that the rate of migration of spherical particles from the high-shear-rate region near the inner (rotating) cylinder to the low-shear-rate region near the outer (stationary) cylinder increases rapidly with increasing sphere size. To determine the effect of particle shape, the migration of rods suspended in Newtonian fluids was recently measured. The behavior of several suspensions was studied. Each suspension contained well-characterized, uniform rods with aspect ratios ranging from 2 to 18 at either 0.30 or 0.40 volume fraction. At the same volume fraction of solids, the steady-state, radial concentration profiles for rods were independent of aspect ratio and were indistinguishable from those obtained from suspended spheres. Only minor differences near the walls (attributable to the finite size of the rods relative to the curvature of the walls) appeared to differentiate the profiles. Data taken during the transition from a well-mixed suspension to the final steady state show that the rate of migration increased as the volume of the individual rods increased.

  10. Study of coal oxidation by charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    It has been possible, using the technique of changed particle activation analysis, to follow the time course of the oxidation of coal exposed to air. The kinetics have been studied and seem to be consistent with a rapid initial uptake of oxygen containing molecules followed by slow diffusion into the surface of the coal particles. In this latter regard a study has been undertaken to study the depth profile of the oxygen into the coal particle surface. The depth of penetration of the activating particle is determined by the incident energy and therefore, by comparison to the appropriate standards, the depth profile may be determined either by varying the incident energy or by varying the particle size. Both approaches have been used and give consistent results. The depth to which a significant amount of oxygen penetrates varies from about 3 μm for very high rank coals to about 20 μm for low rank coals. This diffusion depth seems to be related to the porosity of the coals. A model for the low temperature air oxidation of coal has been developed to explain the results from the above mentioned experiments

  11. Sintering of Fine Particles in Suspension Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Latka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying is a process that enables the production of finely grained nanometric or submicrometric coatings. The suspensions are formulated with the use of fine powder particles in water or alcohol with some additives. Subsequently, the suspension is injected into plasma jet and the liquid additives evaporate. The remaining fine solids are molten and subsequently agglomerate or remain solid, depending on their trajectory in the plasma jet. The coating’s microstructure results from these two groups of particles arriving on a substrate or previously deposited coating. Previous experimental studies carried out for plasma sprayed titanium oxide and hydroxyapatite coatings enabled us to observe either a finely grained microstructure or, when a different suspension injection mode was used, to distinguish two zones in the microstructure. These two zones correspond to the dense zone formed from well molten particles, and the agglomerated zone formed from fine solid particles that arrive on the substrate in a solid state. The present paper focuses on the experimental and theoretical analysis of the formation process of the agglomerated zone. The experimental section establishes the heat flux supplied to the coating during deposition. In order to achieve this, calorimetric measurements were made by applying experimental conditions simulating the real coatings’ growth. The heat flux was measured to be in the range from 0.08 to 0.5 MW/m2,depending on the experimental conditions. The theoretical section analyzes the sintering during the coating’s growth, which concerns the fine particles arriving on the substrate in the solid state. The models of volume, grain boundary and surface diffusion were analyzed and adapted to the size and chemistry of the grains, temperature and time scales corresponding to the suspension plasma spraying conditions. The model of surface diffusion was found to best describe the sintering during suspension

  12. Experimental data and theoretical predictions for the rate of electrophoretic clarification of colloidal suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, T.J.; Davis, E.J.

    2000-05-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of the electrophoretic clarification rate of colloidal suspensions was conducted. The suspensions included a coal-washing effluent and a model system of TiO{sub 2} particles. A parametric study of TiO{sub 2} suspensions was performed to validate and analysis of the electrophoretic motion of the clarification front formed between a clear zone and the suspension. To measure the electric field strength needed in the prediction of the location of the front, a moveable probe and salt bridge were connected to a reference electrode. Using the measured electric field strengths, it was found that the numerical solution to the unit cell electrophoresis model agrees with the measured clarification rates. For suspensions with moderately thick electric double layers and high particle volume fractions the deviations from classical Smoluchowski theory are substantial, and the numerical analysis is in somewhat better agreement with the data than a prior solution of the problem. The numerical model reduces to the predictions of previous theories as the thickness of the electric double layer decreases, and it is in good agreement with the clarification rate measured for a coal-washing effluent suspension with thin electric double layers.

  13. Ensemble-average versus suspension-scale Cauchy continuum-mechanical definitions of stress in polarized suspensions: Global homogenization of a dilute suspension of dipolar spherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almog, Y.; Brenner, H.

    1999-01-01

    The macroscale rheological properties of a dilute suspension exposed to a uniform external field and composed of identical, rigid, inhomogeneous, dipolar, spherical particles dispersed in an incompressible Newtonian fluid and possessing the same mean density as the latter fluid are derived from knowledge of its microscale properties by applying a global ensemble-averaging technique. Each dipole, which is permanently embedded in the particle, is assumed to be generated by the presence of an inhomogeneous external body-force field in the particle interior resulting from the action of the uniform external field on an inhomogeneous distribution of interior matter. It is shown that although the ensemble-average stress tensor is symmetric, the suspension nevertheless behaves macroscopically as if it possessed an asymmetric stress tensor. This seeming contradiction can be traced to the fact that the average body force acting on the contents of any arbitrarily drawn volume lying in the interior of the suspension does not vanish despite the fact that each particle is 'neutrally buoyant'. That this force is not zero stems from the fact that some particles necessarily straddle the closed surface bounding that volume, and that the distribution of external body forces over the interiors of these particles is nonuniform. As such, that portion of the spherical particle lying outside of the surface enclosing the domain exerts a force on the remaining portion of the sphere lying within that domain. We then demonstrate that the natural macroscopic model, which is derived by equating the divergence of the suspension-scale stress appearing in that model to the ensemble-average external body-force field, and which predicts a symmetric stress tensor, is macroscopically deficient with respect to the more intuitive asymmetric stress model usually proposed by continuum mechanicians for such a suspension. It is shown that the latter, continuum-mechanical model recovers all the physically

  14. Viscosity of dilute suspensions of rodlike particles: A numerical simulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Satoru; Matsuoka, Takaaki

    1994-02-01

    The recently developed simulation method, named as the particle simulation method (PSM), is extended to predict the viscosity of dilute suspensions of rodlike particles. In this method a rodlike particle is modeled by bonded spheres. Each bond has three types of springs for stretching, bending, and twisting deformation. The rod model can therefore deform by changing the bond distance, bond angle, and torsion angle between paired spheres. The rod model can represent a variety of rigidity by modifying the bond parameters related to Young's modulus and the shear modulus of the real particle. The time evolution of each constituent sphere of the rod model is followed by molecular-dynamics-type approach. The intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of rodlike particles is derived from calculating an increased energy dissipation for each sphere of the rod model in a viscous fluid. With and without deformation of the particle, the motion of the rodlike particle was numerically simulated in a three-dimensional simple shear flow at a low particle Reynolds number and without Brownian motion of particles. The intrinsic viscosity of the suspension of rodlike particles was investigated on orientation angle, rotation orbit, deformation, and aspect ratio of the particle. For the rigid rodlike particle, the simulated rotation orbit compared extremely well with theoretical one which was obtained for a rigid ellipsoidal particle by use of Jeffery's equation. The simulated dependence of the intrinsic viscosity on various factors was also identical with that of theories for suspensions of rigid rodlike particles. For the flexible rodlike particle, the rotation orbit could be obtained by the particle simulation method and it was also cleared that the intrinsic viscosity decreased as occurring of recoverable deformation of the rodlike particle induced by flow.

  15. Immersion freezing induced by different kinds of coal fly ash: Comparing particle generation methods and measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Sarah; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Clemen, Hans-Christian; Eriksen-Hammer, Stine; Lubitz, Jasmin; Schneider, Johannes; Stratmann, Frank; Wex, Heike

    2017-04-01

    To date, a lot of effort has been put into the identification and characterization of atmospheric ice nucleating particles (INPs), which may influence both weather and climate. The majority of studies focuses on INPs from natural origin such as biological particles or mineral dust particles (Hoose and Möhler 2012, Murray et al. 2012). Combustion ashes, being possible sources of anthropogenic INPs, have rarely been investigated in the past. Ash particles may be emitted into the atmosphere either by the action of wind from ash deposits on the ground (bottom ash), or during the combustion process (fly ash). Two recent studies (Umo et al., 2015; Grawe et al., 2016) identified fly ash from coal combustion as the most efficient of the investigated samples (including also bottom ashes from wood and coal combustion). These results motivate the here presented study in which we investigated the immersion freezing behavior of four coal fly ash samples taken from the filters of different coal-fired power plants in Germany. A combination of two instruments was used to capture the temperature range from 0 °C to the homogeneous freezing limit at around -38 °C. Firstly, the new Leipzig Ice Nucleation Array (LINA) was used, where droplets from an ash-water suspension are pipetted onto a cooled plate. Secondly, we used the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS; Hartmann et al., 2011), a laminar flow tube in which every droplet contains a single size-segregated ash particle. Here, it was possible to study the effect of different kinds of particle generation, i.e., atomization of an ash-water suspension, and aerosolization of dry ash material. The composition of the ash particles was investigated by means of single particle aerosol mass spectrometry and particles were sampled on filters for environmental scanning electron microscope analysis. Our measurements show that all four fly ash samples feature a similar immersion freezing behavior (ice fractions vary by a

  16. Dewatering behaviour of ultrafine hard coal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.; Alizadeh, A.; Simonis, W.

    1986-03-01

    With decreasing particle diameter distribution the dewatering behaviour of coal gets increasingly complicated. A correlation between final moisture and content of particles below 25..mu..m in the course of centrifuging can be verified. This behaviour of the particles below 25..mu..m can be explained by the great specific surface, on the one hand, and by the distribution of the surface charge density, on the other hand. The charge density depends on the type of coal, on the minerals content and their make-up, as well as on the characteristics of the surrounding medium. The surface charge can be measured indirectly. Varying electrophoretic mobilities of the particles are observed in dependence on the type of raw material. In the neutral pH-range, minerals have a negative surface charge, while coal has a positive one. By way of adding reagents it is possible to invert the negative charges with complicated dewatering characteristics into positive charges. A similar influence will be exerted by changing the pH-value. 6 references.

  17. On issue of increasing profitability of automated energy technology complexes for preparation and combustion of water-coal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brylina, O. G.; Osintsev, K. V.; Prikhodko, YU S.; Savosteenko, N. V.

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the issues of energy technological complexes economy increase on the existing techniques of water-coal suspensions preparation and burning basis due to application of highly effective control systems of electric drives and neurocontrol. The automated control system structure for the main boiler components is given. The electric drive structure is disclosed by the example of pumps (for transfer of coal-water mash and / or suspension). A system for controlling and diagnosing a heat and power complex based on a multi-zone regulator is proposed. The possibility of using neural networks for implementing the control algorithms outlined in the article is considered.

  18. Quenching of Particle-Gas Combustible Mixtures Using Electric Particulate Suspension (EPS) and Dispersion Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colver, Gerald M.; Goroshin, Samuel; Lee, John H. S.

    2001-01-01

    A cooperative study is being carried out between Iowa State University and McGill University. The new study concerns wall and particle quenching effects in particle-gas mixtures. The primary objective is to measure and interpret flame quenching distances, flammability limits, and burning velocities in particulate suspensions. A secondary objective is to measure particle slip velocities and particle velocity distribution as these influence flame propagation. Two suspension techniques will be utilized and compared: (1) electric particle suspension/EPS; and (2) flow dispersion. Microgravity tests will permit testing of larger particles and higher and more uniform dust concentrations than is possible in normal gravity.

  19. Experimental data and theoretical predictions of the rate of electrophoretic clarification of colloidal suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, T.J.; Davis, E.J. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-05-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of the electrophoretic clarification rate of colloidal suspensions was conducted. The suspensions included a coal-washing effluent and a model system of TiO{sub 2} particles. A parametric study of TiO{sub 2} suspensions was performed to validate an analysis of the electrophoretic motion of the clarification front formed between a clear zone and the suspension. To measure the electric field strength needed in the prediction of the location of the front, a moveable probe and salt bridge were connected to a reference electrode. Using the measured electric field strength, it was found that the numerical solution to the unit cell electrophoresis model agrees with the measured clarification rates. For suspensions with moderately thick electric double layers and high particle volume fractions the deviations from classical Smoluchowski theory are substantial, and the numerical analysis is in somewhat better agreement with the data than a prior solution of the problem. The numerical model reduces to the predictions of previous theories as the thickness of the electric double layer decreases, and it is in good agreement with the clarification rate measured for a coal-washing effluent suspension with thin electric double layers. 21 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Influence of coal slurry particle composition on pipeline hydraulic transportation behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-an, Zhao; Ronghuan, Cai; Tieli, Wang

    2018-02-01

    Acting as a new type of energy transportation mode, the coal pipeline hydraulic transmission can reduce the energy transportation cost and the fly ash pollution of the conventional coal transportation. In this study, the effect of average velocity, particle size and pumping time on particle composition of coal particles during hydraulic conveying was investigated by ring tube test. Meanwhile, the effects of particle composition change on slurry viscosity, transmission resistance and critical sedimentation velocity were studied based on the experimental data. The experimental and theoretical analysis indicate that the alter of slurry particle composition can lead to the change of viscosity, resistance and critical velocity of slurry. Moreover, based on the previous studies, the critical velocity calculation model of coal slurry is proposed.

  1. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  2. Studies on the effect of coal particle size on biodepyritization of high sulfur coal in batch bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sradhanjali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The moderate thermophilic mix culture bacteria were used to depyritize the Illinois coal of varying particle sizes (-100 μm, 100-200 μm, +200 μm. Mineral libration analysis showed the presence of pyrite along with other minerals in coal. Microbial depyritization of coal was carried out in stirred tank batch reactors in presence of an iron-free 9K medium. The results indicate that microbial depyritization of coal using moderate thermophiles is an efficient process. Moreover, particle size of coal is an important parameter which affects the efficiency of microbial depyritization process. At the end of the experiment, a maximum of 75% pyrite and 66% of pyritic sulphur were removed from the median particle size. The XRD analysis showed the absence of pyrite mineral in the treated coal sample. A good mass balance was also obtained with net loss of mass ranging from 5-9% showing the feasibility of the process for large scale applications.

  3. Preparation and evaluation of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle suspensions of different particle sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojin; Wang, Ting; Lu, Mengmeng; Zhu, Luyan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, WenZhong

    2014-01-01

    Three tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle (TMS-HCO-NP) suspensions of different particle sizes were prepared with different polyvinyl alcohol surfactant concentrations using a hot homogenization and ultrasonic technique. The in vitro release, in vitro antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability study were conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the suspensions. The in vitro tilmicosin release rate, antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability of the suspensions were evaluated. When prepared with polyvinyl alcohol concentrations of 0.2%, 1%, and 5%, the mean diameters of the nanoparticles in the three suspensions were 920±35 nm, 452±10 nm, and 151±4 nm, respectively. The three suspensions displayed biphasic release profiles similar to that of freeze-dried TMS-HCO-NP powders, with the exception of having a faster initial release. Moreover, suspensions of smaller-sized particles showed faster initial release, and lower minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations. Time-kill curves showed that within 12 hours, the suspension with the 151 nm particles had the most potent bactericidal activity, but later, the suspensions with larger-sized particles showed increased antibacterial activity. None of the three suspensions were cytotoxic at clinical dosage levels. At higher drug concentrations, all three suspensions showed similar concentration-dependent cytotoxicity. The suspension with the smallest-sized particle showed significantly more acute toxicity in mice, perhaps due to faster drug release. All three suspensions exhibited good stability at 4°C and at room temperature for at least 6 months. These results demonstrate that TMS-HCO-NP suspensions can be a promising formulation for tilmicosin, and that nanoparticle size can be an important consideration for formulation development.

  4. Mercury speciation and fine particle size distribution on combustion of Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering and State Key Joint Lab. of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control; Daukoru, Michael; Torkamani, Sarah; Biswas, Pratim [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Aerosol and Air Quality Research Lab.

    2013-07-01

    Coal combustion is the dominant anthropogenic mercury emission source of the world. Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) can remove almost all the particulate mercury (Hg{sub p}), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) can retain a large part of the gaseous oxidized mercury (Hg{sup 2+}). Only a small percentage of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) can be abated by the air pollution control devices (APCDs). Therefore, the mercury behavior across APCDs largely depends on the mercury speciation in the flue gas exhausting from the coal combustor. To better understand the formation process of three mercury species, i.e. Hg{sup 0}, Hg{sup 2+} and Hg{sub p}, in gaseous phase and fine particles, bench-scale measurements for the flue gas exhausting from combustion of different types of coal in a drop-tube furnace set-up, were carried out. It was observed that with the limitation of reaction kinetics, higher mercury concentration in flue gas will lead to lower Hg{sup 2+} proportion. The concentration of chlorine has the opposite effect, not as significantly as that of mercury though. With the chlorine concentration increasing, the proportion of Hg{sup 2+} increases. Combusting the finer coal powder results in the formation of more Hg{sup 2+}. Mineral composition of coal and coal particle size has a great impact on fine particle formation. Al in coal is in favor of finer particle formation, while Fe in coal can benefit the formation of larger particles. The coexistence of Al and Si can strengthen the particle coagulation process. This process can also be improved by the feeding of more or finer coal powder. The oxy-coal condition can make for both the mercury oxidation process and the metal oxidation in the fine particle formation process.

  5. Energy characteristics of finest coal particles surfaces versus their upgrading using flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerzy Sablik

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents selected results of investigations on energy properties of the fine coal particles, and methodological grounds for conducting such investigations. Using the discussed relationships, values of contact angle of coal particles with various degree of coalification in the range defined by the energy nonhomogeneity of the surfaces were computed. There have been determined the values of the contact angles of coal particles with hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces after coating with nonpolar and polar reagents. The energy state of the surfaces of coal particles in the feeds and products of industrial flotation were determined, which enabled to evaluate this process. 22 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Failure Investigation of a Cage Suspension Gear Chain used in Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Dutta, Shamik; Shukla, Awdhesh Kumar; Roy, Himadri

    2016-10-01

    This investigation is primarily aimed to examine the probable causes of in-service failure of cage suspension gear chain used in coal mines. Preliminary visual examination, dimensional measurement, chemical analysis, magnetic particle inspection and estimation of mechanical properties are necessary supplement to this investigation. Optical microscopic analysis along with scanning electron microscopy examinations are carried out to understand the metallurgical reasons for failure. The visual examination and magnetic particle investigations reveal presence of fissure cracks at weld joint for both un-failed and failed end link chain. The average hardness value has been found to increase gradually with the distance from the weld interface. The macro and microstructural examinations of the samples prepared from both failed and un-failed specimens depict presence of continuous as well as aligned linear inclusions randomly distributed along with decarburized layer at weld interface/fusion zone. Fractographic examination shows flat fracture covering major portion of cross-section, which is surrounded by a narrow annular metallic fracture surface having a texture different from that of the remaining surface. Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the fatigue crack growth rate in both weld region and base region of the un-failed gear chain material. Detailed stress analyses are also carried out to evaluate the stress generated along the chain periphery. Finally, it is concluded that presence of serious weld defect due to use of improper welding parameters/procedure caused failure of the end links of the investigated chain link.

  7. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D.; Polic, P. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Science, Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    Coal ash obtained from Nikola Tesla A power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. It is concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  8. Low-shear rheology and sedimentation stability of coal-oil dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutter, P. R.; Davies, J. M.; Jones, T. E.R.

    1984-10-15

    Stable coal-oil mixtures can be prepared by grinding coal particles in fuel oil. These products have been prepared by the British Petroleum Company plc and are referred to as Coal-Oil Dispersions (COD). One of the major problems associated with the production of DOD is the rapid assessment of the length of time the coal particles are likely to remain in suspension under a particular set of storage conditions. This paper describes a number of measurements of the low-shear rheology and sedimentation stability of a series of CODs prepared by grinding two types of coal in two different fuel oils. The results suggest that two types of COD are possible. One type exhibits complex rheological properties at low shear rates and does not produce a coal sediment, even after prolonged storage at 80/sup 0/C under dynamic conditions. The other exhibits near Newtonian behaviour and appears to form a sedimented layer of coal during storage.

  9. Formation of fine particles in co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel in a pulverized coal-fired power station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    showed an ultrafine mode centered at approximately 0.1 μm. Compared with coal combustion, co-combustion of coal and SRF increased the formation of submicron particles, especially ultrafine particles below 0.2 μm. The morphology of the particles indicated that supermicron particles were primarily formed...... by the melting of minerals. The ultrafine particles were generated through nucleation and coagulation of vaporized inorganic species, while for the particles in between supermicron and ultrafine particles, condensation of vaporized species or aggregation of nucleates on the existing spherical submicron particles...... appear to be an important formation mechanism. The elemental composition of the particles from coal combustion showed that S and Ca were significantly enriched in ultrafine particles and P was also enriched considerably. However, compared with supermicron particles, the contents of Al, Si and K were...

  10. Optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for coal powder analysis with different particle flow diameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Shunchun, E-mail: epscyao@scut.edu.cn [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power Laser Technology, Electronic Engineering Institute, Hefei 230037 (China); Xu, Jialong; Dong, Xuan; Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Jianping [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Lu, Jidong, E-mail: jdlu@scut.edu.cn [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2015-08-01

    The on-line measurement of coal is extremely useful for emission control and combustion process optimization in coal-fired plant. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was employed to directly analyze coal particle flow. A set of tapered tubes were proposed for beam-focusing the coal particle flow to different diameters. For optimizing the measurement of coal particle flow, the characteristics of laser-induced plasma, including optical breakdown, the relative standard deviation of repeated measurement, partial breakdown spectra ratio and line intensity, were carefully analyzed. The comparison of the plasma characteristics among coal particle flow with different diameters showed that air breakdown and the random change in plasma position relative to the collection optics could significantly influence on the line intensity and the reproducibility of measurement. It is demonstrated that the tapered tube with a diameter of 5.5 mm was particularly useful to enrich the coal particles in laser focus spot as well as to reduce the influence of air breakdown and random changes of plasma in the experiment. - Highlights: • Tapered tube was designed for beam-focusing the coal particle flow as well as enriching the particles in laser focus spot. • The characteristics of laser-induced plasma of coal particle flow were investigated carefully. • An appropriate diameter of coal particle flow was proven to benefit for improving the performance of LIBS measurement.

  11. Statistical examination of particle in a turbulent, non-dilute particle suspension flow experimental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, R.C.; Jones, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study of particles suspended in fully developed turbulent water flow in a vertical pipe was done. Three series of experiments were conducted to investigate the statistical behaviour of particles in nondilute turbulent suspension flow, for two particle densities and particle sizes, and for several particle volume loadings ranging from 0 to 1 percent. The mean free fall velocity of the particles was determined at these various particle volume loadings, and the phenomenon of cluster formation was observed. The precise volume loading which gives the maximum relative settling velocity was observed to depend on particle density and size. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Determining the radiative properties of pulverized-coal particles from experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menguec, M.P.

    1992-02-01

    A comprehensive coupled experimental-theoretical study has been performed to determine the effective radiative properties of pulverized-coal/char particles. The results obtained show that the ``effective`` scattering phase function of coal particles are highly forward scattering and show less sensitivity to the size than predicted from the Lorenz-Mie theory. The main reason for this is the presence of smaller size particles associated with each larger particle. Also, the coal/char particle clouds display more side scattering than predicted for the same size range spheres, indicating the irregular shape of the particles and fragmentation. In addition to these, it was observed that in the visible wavelength range the coal absorption is not gray, and slightly vary with the wavelength. These two experimental approaches followed in this study are unique in a sense that the physics of the problem are not approximated. The properties determined include all uncertainties related to the particle shape, size distribution, inhomogeneity and spectral complex index of refraction data. In order to obtain radiative property data over a wider wavelength spectrum, additional ex-situ experiments have been carried out using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometer. The spectral measurements were performed over the wavelength range of 2 to 22 {mu}m. These results were interpreted to obtain the ``effective`` efficiency factors of coal particles and the corresponding refractive index values. The results clearly show that the coal/char radiative properties display significant wavelength dependency in the infrared spectrum.

  13. Settling of isolated particles and of suspensions in a shear-thinning medium; Sedimentation de particules isolees et de suspensions en milieu rheofluidifiant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugan, S.

    2002-11-01

    After drawing up a balance sheet of current knowledge of settling of particles and suspensions in Newtonian and non Newtonian fluids, we introduce the characterisation of the fluid-particles system and especially the shear-thinning behavior of Xanthan solutions. This experimental study is organised into two parts. First of all, we study the settling behavior of a few particles falling along their line of centres. The conditions for particles aggregation with respect to the rheological properties of the suspending fluid are systematically reported. To that extent, rheological relaxation experiments are performed. Once aggregated, the particles velocities are much more important that the velocity of a single one. We show that a simple model, based on the Newtonian case, allows to predict the position and the velocity of each particle with respect to the initial separation distance between them. The second part of this work is devoted to the study of the settling behavior of spherical and monodisperse particles suspensions according to the particles volume fraction, the polymer concentration of the suspending fluid and the geometry of the sedimenting cell. From a model giving the particle volume fraction as a function of the luminous intensity transmitted by the suspension, we show that three regimes of different kinetics occur. During the second regime, the particle volume fraction decreases exponentially with time and the observed phenomena are very fast. Finally, we study the spatial structuration of the suspension and we link it to the topography of the sediment obtained at the end of the sedimentation. (author)

  14. Brownian Dynamics of a Suspension of Particles with Constrained Voronoi Cell Volumes

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, John P.; Walsh, Stuart D. C.; Koch, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Solvent-free polymer-grafted nanoparticle fluids consist of inorganic core particles fluidized by polymers tethered to their surfaces. The attachment of the suspending fluid to the particle surface creates a strong penalty for local variations in the fluid volume surrounding the particles. As a model of such a suspension we perform Brownian dynamics of an equilibrium system consisting of hard spheres which experience a many-particle potential proportional to the variance of the Voronoi volumes surrounding each particle (E = α(Vi-V0)2). The coefficient of proportionality α can be varied such that pure hard sphere dynamics is recovered as α → 0, while an incompressible array of hairy particles is obtained as α →. As α is increased the distribution of Voronoi volumes becomes narrower, the mean coordination number of the particle increases and the variance in the number of nearest neighbors decreases. The nearest neighbor peaks in the pair distribution function are suppressed and shifted to larger radial separations as the constraint acts to maintain relatively uniform interstitial regions. The structure factor of the model suspension satisfies S(k=0) → 0 as α → in accordance with expectation for a single component (particle plus tethered fluid) incompressible system. The tracer diffusivity of the particles is reduced by the volume constraint and goes to zero at φ 0.52, indicating an earlier glass transition than has been observed in hard sphere suspensions. The total pressure of the suspension grows in proportion to (αkBT)1/2 as the strength of the volume-constraint potential grows. This stress arises primarily from the interparticle potential forces, while the hard-sphere collisional contribution to the stress is suppressed by the volume constraint.

  15. Brownian Dynamics of a Suspension of Particles with Constrained Voronoi Cell Volumes

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, John P.

    2015-06-23

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Solvent-free polymer-grafted nanoparticle fluids consist of inorganic core particles fluidized by polymers tethered to their surfaces. The attachment of the suspending fluid to the particle surface creates a strong penalty for local variations in the fluid volume surrounding the particles. As a model of such a suspension we perform Brownian dynamics of an equilibrium system consisting of hard spheres which experience a many-particle potential proportional to the variance of the Voronoi volumes surrounding each particle (E = α(Vi-V0)2). The coefficient of proportionality α can be varied such that pure hard sphere dynamics is recovered as α → 0, while an incompressible array of hairy particles is obtained as α →. As α is increased the distribution of Voronoi volumes becomes narrower, the mean coordination number of the particle increases and the variance in the number of nearest neighbors decreases. The nearest neighbor peaks in the pair distribution function are suppressed and shifted to larger radial separations as the constraint acts to maintain relatively uniform interstitial regions. The structure factor of the model suspension satisfies S(k=0) → 0 as α → in accordance with expectation for a single component (particle plus tethered fluid) incompressible system. The tracer diffusivity of the particles is reduced by the volume constraint and goes to zero at φ 0.52, indicating an earlier glass transition than has been observed in hard sphere suspensions. The total pressure of the suspension grows in proportion to (αkBT)1/2 as the strength of the volume-constraint potential grows. This stress arises primarily from the interparticle potential forces, while the hard-sphere collisional contribution to the stress is suppressed by the volume constraint.

  16. Studies for the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures. Final report, August 1978-May 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsaris, G.D.; Glazman, Y.M.; Adams-Viola, M.

    1981-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures (COM) was developed. Aggregation of the coal particles was determined to control both the sedimentation and rheological properties of the COM. Sedimentation stability of COM prepared with coal, 80% < 200 mesh, is achieved by particle aggregation, which leads to the formation of a network of particles throughout the oil. The wettability of coal powders was evaluated by the Pickering emulsion test and a spherical agglomeration test to assess its effect on the stability of various COM formulations. Sedimentation stability of hydrophilic coal-oil-water mixtures (COWM) involves the formation of water bridges between the coal particles, while less stabilization of oleophilic COWM is achieved by the formation of an emulsion. Anionic SAA were least sensitive to the coal type and enhanced the aggregation stability of the suspension. The effect of cationic SAA, nonionic SAA and polymer additives depended upon the specific chemical structure of the SAA, the water content of the COM and the type of coal. The sedimentation stability of ultrafine COM was not directly due to the fineness of the powder but due to the formation of a network of flocculated particles.

  17. Deformation and friction of MoS2 particles in liquid suspensions used to lubricate sliding contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Rashmi R.; Biswas, Sanjay K.

    2010-01-01

    Tribology of a well known solid lubricant molybdenum disulphide is studied here in water and oil medium, over a large range of contact dimensions. Lateral force microscopy is used to identify the deformation modes; intra-crystalline slip, plastic grooving, fragmentation and fracture, of single particles. The medium and agglomeration were found to dictate the deformation mode. Steel on steel tribology lubricated by suspensions of these particles in liquid media was conducted over a range of contact pressure and sliding velocity. A scrutiny of the frictional data with the aid of Raman spectroscopy to identify the transfer film, suggested that the particle size, as it is at contact, is an important tribological parameter. Ultrasonication of the suspension and dispersion of the particle by surfactants were used to control the apriori particle size fed into the suspension. Correspondence of friction data of the gently sonicated suspension with that of the ultrasonicated suspension with dispersants indicated the importance of liquid ingestion by these particles as it controls their mode of deformation and consequent tribology.

  18. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, A; Djordjevic, D; Polic, P

    2001-04-01

    Coal ash obtained by coal combustion in the "Nikola Tesla A" power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. Considering concentrations of seven trace elements as well as five major elements in extracts from a total of 12 samples, it can be concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  19. Rheology of Victorian brown coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woskoboenko, F.; Siemon, S.R.; Creasy, D.E.

    1987-09-01

    Aqueous suspensions of finely ground raw brown coal from Victoria, Australia, have been tested in a Couette viscometer to evaluate their rheological properties. Shear rates covered the range 1-800s/sup -1/ and median particles were 6-41 ..mu..m. Concentrations up to 0.6 volume fraction were examined. The results were well represented by the two parameter Bingham model. It was found that the degree of non-Newtonian behaviour, as measured by yield stress, increased as the concentration was increased or the particle size decreased. The yield stress can be directly related to the volumetric solids concentration, particle size distribution and external specific area via a single, physically meaningful parameter - the mean distance separating the particles. The power law relationship between yield stress and inter-particle distance can be used to gauge the degree of flocculation of the system. As with non-interacting particle systems, the plastic viscosity of these suspensions increases in a logarithmic fashion as the concentration increases but is independent of the absolute particle size. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Uniform Suspension of the Clustered Triamcinolone Acetonide Particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Sugimoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. MaQaid (MaQ is a new triamcinolone acetonide commercialised in Japan to visualize the vitreous. Because MaQ is preservative-free, it has a lower risk of ocular toxicities. However, since MaQ is only available as a powder, it needs suspenssion. Suspension does not always result uniformally, which causes poor visibility. This study reports a new MaQ suspension for better visibility. Methods. After medium addition to a MaQ vial, various methods were used. These included the use of (1 vortex mixer, (2 two syringes and a three-way stopcock, and (3 ultrasonic washer. We calculated suspended MaQ concentration (. To evaluate the reproducibility, we estimated the coefficient of variance (CV, . We used this MaQ for pig eyes, and vitreous visualization was simulated. Subsequently, we used this MaQ suspension for humans. Results. MaQ suspensions were sucessfull, and the concentrations of single particles increased significantly (. The CV was 36.1% for the routine method and 9.03% ffor the new method. Administration of a suspended MaQ made it possible to clearly visualize the vitreous in both pig and human eyes. Conclusions. We devised new techniques for uniformal MaQ suspension. These new methods can compensate for the MaQ disadvantages and ensure a safety surgery.

  1. Volatile release and particle formation characteristics of injected pulverized coal in blast furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Yang, Tsung-Han

    2007-01-01

    Volatiles release and particle formation for two kinds of pulverized coals (a high volatile bituminous coal and a low volatile bituminous coal) in a drop tube furnace are investigated to account for the reactions of pulverized coal injected in blast furnaces. Two different sizes of feed particles are considered; one is 100-200 mesh and the other is 200-325 mesh. By evaluating the R-factor, the devolatilization extent of the larger feed particles is found to be relatively poor. However, the swelling behavior of individual or two agglomerated particles is pronounced, which is conducive to gasification of the chars in blast furnaces. In contrast, for the smaller feed particles, volatiles liberated from the coal particles can be improved in a significant way as a result of the amplified R-factor. This enhancement can facilitate the performance of gas phase combustion. Nevertheless, the residual char particles are characterized by agglomeration, implying that the reaction time of the char particles will be lengthened, thereby increasing the possibility of furnace instability. Double peak distributions in char particle size are observed in some cases. This possibly results from the interaction of the plastic state and the blowing effect at the particle surface. Considering the generation of tiny aerosols composed of soot particles and tar droplets, the results indicate that their production is highly sensitive to the volatile matter and elemental oxygen contained in the coal. Comparing the reactivity of the soot to that of the unburned char, the former is always lower than the latter. Consequently, the lower is the soot formation, the better is the blast furnace stability

  2. Effects of the finite particle size in turbulent wall-bounded flows of dense suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro; Picano, Francesco; Brandt, Luca; Breugem, Wim-Paul

    2018-05-01

    We use interface-resolved simulations to study finite-size effects in turbulent channel flow of neutrally-buoyant spheres. Two cases with particle sizes differing by a factor of 2, at the same solid volume fraction of 20% and bulk Reynolds number are considered. These are complemented with two reference single-phase flows: the unladen case, and the flow of a Newtonian fluid with the effective suspension viscosity of the same mixture in the laminar regime. As recently highlighted in Costa et al. (PRL 117, 134501), a particle-wall layer is responsible for deviations of the statistics from what is observed in the continuum limit where the suspension is modeled as a Newtonian fluid with an effective viscosity. Here we investigate the fluid and particle dynamics in this layer and in the bulk. In the particle-wall layer, the near wall inhomogeneity has an influence on the suspension micro-structure over a distance proportional to the particle size. In this layer, particles have a significant (apparent) slip velocity that is reflected in the distribution of wall shear stresses. This is characterized by extreme events (both much higher and much lower than the mean). Based on these observations we provide a scaling for the particle-to-fluid apparent slip velocity as a function of the flow parameters. We also extend the flow scaling laws in to second-order Eulerian statistics in the homogeneous suspension region away from the wall. Finite-size effects in the bulk of the channel become important for larger particles, while negligible for lower-order statistics and smaller particles. Finally, we study the particle dynamics along the wall-normal direction. Our results suggest that 1-point dispersion is dominated by particle-turbulence (and not particle-particle) interactions, while differences in 2-point dispersion and collisional dynamics are consistent with a picture of shear-driven interactions.

  3. A splitting integration scheme for the SPH simulation of concentrated particle suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xin; Ellero, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Simulating nearly contacting solid particles in suspension is a challenging task due to the diverging behavior of short-range lubrication forces, which pose a serious time-step limitation for explicit integration schemes. This general difficulty limits severely the total duration of simulations of concentrated suspensions. Inspired by the ideas developed in [S. Litvinov, M. Ellero, X.Y. Hu, N.A. Adams, J. Comput. Phys. 229 (2010) 5457-5464] for the simulation of highly dissipative fluids, we propose in this work a splitting integration scheme for the direct simulation of solid particles suspended in a Newtonian liquid. The scheme separates the contributions of different forces acting on the solid particles. In particular, intermediate- and long-range multi-body hydrodynamic forces, which are computed from the discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, are taken into account using an explicit integration; for short-range lubrication forces, velocities of pairwise interacting solid particles are updated implicitly by sweeping over all the neighboring pairs iteratively, until convergence in the solution is obtained. By using the splitting integration, simulations can be run stably and efficiently up to very large solid particle concentrations. Moreover, the proposed scheme is not limited to the SPH method presented here, but can be easily applied to other simulation techniques employed for particulate suspensions.

  4. Novel fragmentation model for pulverized coal particles gasification in low temperature air thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rastko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New system for start-up and flame support based on coal gasification by low temperature air thermal plasma is planned to supplement current heavy oil system in Serbian thermal power plants in order to decrease air pollutions emission and operational costs. Locally introduced plasma thermal energy heats up and ignites entrained coal particles, thus starting chain process which releases heat energy from gasified coal particles inside burner channel. Important stages during particle combustion, such as particle devolatilisation and char combustion, are described with satisfying accuracy in existing commercial CFD codes that are extensively used as powerful tool for pulverized coal combustion and gasification modeling. However, during plasma coal gasification, high plasma temperature induces strong thermal stresses inside interacting coal particles. These stresses lead to “thermal shock” and extensive particle fragmentation during which coal particles with initial size of 50-100 m disintegrate into fragments of at most 5-10 m. This intensifies volatile release by a factor 3-4 and substantially accelerates the oxidation of combustible matter. Particle fragmentation, due to its small size and thus limited influence on combustion process is commonly neglected in modelling. The main focus of this work is to suggest novel approach to pulverized coal gasification under high temperature conditions and to implement it into commercial comprehensive code ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. Proposed model was validated against experimental data obtained in newly built pilot scale D.C plasma burner test facility. Newly developed model showed very good agreement with experimental results with relative error less than 10%, while the standard built-in gasification model had error up to 25%.

  5. [Particle Size and Number Density Online Analysis for Particle Suspension with Polarization-Differentiation Elastic Light Scattering Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-kang; Fang, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The basic principle of polarization-differentiation elastic light scattering spectroscopy based techniques is that under the linear polarized light incidence, the singlely scattered light from the superficial biological tissue and diffusively scattered light from the deep tissue can be separated according to the difference of polarization characteristics. The novel point of the paper is to apply this method to the detection of particle suspension and, to realize the simultaneous measurement of its particle size and number density in its natural status. We design and build a coaxial cage optical system, and measure the backscatter signal at a specified angle from a polystyrene microsphere suspension. By controlling the polarization direction of incident light with a linear polarizer and adjusting the polarization direction of collected light with another linear polarizer, we obtain the parallel polarized elastic light scattering spectrum and cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum. The difference between the two is the differential polarized elastic light scattering spectrum which include only the single scattering information of the particles. We thus compare this spectrum to the Mie scattering calculation and extract the particle size. We then also analyze the cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum by applying the particle size already extracted. The analysis is based on the approximate expressions taking account of light diffusing, from which we are able to obtain the number density of the particle suspension. We compare our experimental outcomes with the manufacturer-provided values and further analyze the influence of the particle diameter standard deviation on the number density extraction, by which we finally verify the experimental method. The potential applications of the method include the on-line particle quality monitoring for particle manufacture as well as the fat and protein density detection of milk products.

  6. Hardening of particle/oil/water suspensions due to capillary bridges: Experimental yield stress and theoretical interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danov, Krassimir D; Georgiev, Mihail T; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Radulova, Gergana M; Gurkov, Theodor D; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Pelan, Eddie G

    2018-01-01

    Suspensions of colloid particles possess the remarkable property to solidify upon the addition of minimal amount of a second liquid that preferentially wets the particles. The hardening is due to the formation of capillary bridges (pendular rings), which connect the particles. Here, we review works on the mechanical properties of such suspensions and related works on the capillary-bridge force, and present new rheological data for the weakly studied concentration range 30-55 vol% particles. The mechanical strength of the solidified capillary suspensions, characterized by the yield stress Y, is measured at the elastic limit for various volume fractions of the particles and the preferentially wetting liquid. A quantitative theoretical model is developed, which relates Y with the maximum of the capillary-bridge force, projected on the shear plane. A semi-empirical expression for the mean number of capillary bridges per particle is proposed. The model agrees very well with the experimental data and gives a quantitative description of the yield stress, which increases with the rise of interfacial tension and with the volume fractions of particles and capillary bridges, but decreases with the rise of particle radius and contact angle. The quantitative description of capillary force is based on the exact theory and numerical calculation of the capillary bridge profile at various bridge volumes and contact angles. An analytical formula for Y is also derived. The comparison of the theoretical and experimental strain at the elastic limit reveals that the fluidization of the capillary suspension takes place only in a deformation zone of thickness up to several hundred particle diameters, which is adjacent to the rheometer's mobile plate. The reported experimental results refer to water-continuous suspension with hydrophobic particles and oily capillary bridges. The comparison of data for bridges from soybean oil and hexadecane surprisingly indicate that the yield strength is

  7. Suspension-firing of wood with coal ash addition: Probe measurements of ash deposit build-up at Avedøre Power Plant (AVV2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood-firing. Investigat...... to the gas phase as HCl(g). Effect of boiler operational parameters on gas emissions has also been investigated.......This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood...... and boiler load on ash deposition propensity was investigated. Results of ash deposition propensity showed increasing trend with increasing flue gas temperature. Video monitoring revealed that the deposits formed were not sticky and could be easily removed, and even at very high flue gas temperatures (> 1350...

  8. Magnetic separation from superparamagnetic particle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Ashok; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the magnetophoretic separation of magnetic microparticles from a non-dilute flow in a microfluidic channel and their subsequent field-induced aggregation under the influence of an externally applied magnetic force. This force induces dipolar interactions between the particles that aid in their separation from the flow. Existing analytical models for dilute suspensions cannot be extended to non-dilute suspensions in which interparticle magnetic interactions play an important role. We therefore conduct a parametric investigation of the mechanics of this problem in a microcapillary flow through simulations and experimental visualization. When a magnetic field is applied, the magnetic microparticles form an aggregate on the channel wall that is influenced by the competition between the holding magnetic force and the aggregate-depleting flow shear force. Microparticle collection in the aggregate increases linearly with increasing magnetic field strength and is characterized by distinct buildup and washaway phases. The collected microparticle volume fraction in an aggregate is found to depend on a single dimensional group that depends upon characteristic system parameters.

  9. Near-infrared turbidity of beta-FeOOH particle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdahl, P.; Espinoza, L.H.; Littlejohn, D.; Lucas, D.; Perry, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Near-infrared transmission spectroscopy can be complicated by the light scattering from heterogeneous materials. To examine an evolving system exhibiting such light scattering, transmission spectra are obtained during the hydrolysis of iron chloride solutions. At first, the resulting turbid suspension of cigar-shaped beta-FeOOH particles exhibits single-particle scattering, including a Rayleigh regime (attenuation proportional to the fourth power of the wavenumber). At later times, the scattering increases strongly as the particles aggregate, and becomes proportional to the wavenumber squared, consistent with scattering models which interpret the structure of aggregates in terms of a fractal dimension roughly equal to 2

  10. Sedimentation of athermal particles in clay suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotet, Xavier; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2015-03-01

    We discuss sedimentation of athermal particles in dense clay suspensions which appear liquid-like to glass-like. These studies are motivated by the physics important to a diverse range of problems including remediation of oil sands after the extraction of hydrocarbons, and formation of filter cakes in bore wells. We approach this problem by first considering collective sedimentation of athermal spherical particles in a viscous liquid in quasi-two dimensional and three dimensional containers. We examine the system using optical and x-ray tomography techniques which gives particle level information besides global information on the evolution of the volume fraction. Unlike sediments in the dilute limit - which can be modeled as isolated particles that sediment with a constant velocity and slow down exponentially as they approach the bottom of the container - we find interaction between the particles through the viscous fluids leads to qualitatively differences. We find significant avalanching behavior and cooperative motion as the grains collectively settle, and non-exponential increase in settling time. We discuss the effect of stirring caused by the sedimenting particles on their viscosity and consequently the sedimentation rates as a function of particle concentration. Supported by Petroleum Research Fund Grant PRF # 54045-ND9.

  11. Study of conditions of production and characterization of noble metal micro-particles suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malabre, Catherine

    1983-01-01

    As the production and identification of metal micro-particle suspensions are some aspects of issues related to nuclear fuel reprocessing, this research thesis reports the use of ruthenium, molybdenum, niobium, palladium and rhodium (fission metals) to generate such micro-particles. They are produced by erosion of two electrodes between which occurs an electric arc discharge in aqueous media. Different analytic methods are developed to determine the characteristics of so-produced colloidal solutions. A granulometry study is performed by transmission electronic microscopy, light quasi-elastic scattering, and turbidimetry associated to centrifugation. This has lead to the production of steady micro-particle suspensions which have been used in a first set of industrial trials [fr

  12. Scaling of the space-time correlation function of particle currents in a suspension of hard-sphere-like particles: exposing when the motion of particles is Brownian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Megen, W; Martinez, V A; Bryant, G

    2009-12-18

    The current correlation function is determined from dynamic light scattering measurements of a suspension of particles with hard spherelike interactions. For suspensions in thermodynamic equilibrium we find scaling of the space and time variables of the current correlation function. This finding supports the notion that the movement of suspended particles can be described in terms of uncorrelated Brownian encounters. However, in the metastable fluid, at volume fractions above freezing, this scaling fails.

  13. Residual Ash Formation during Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Through 50+ years, high quality research has been conducted in order to characterize ash and deposit formation in utility boilers fired with coal, biomass and waste fractions. The basic mechanism of fly ash formation in suspension fired coal boilers is well described, documented and may even...... be modeled relatively precisely. Concerning fly ash formation from biomass or waste fractions, the situation is not nearly as good. Lots of data are available from campaigns where different ash fractions, including sometimes also in-situ ash, have been collected and analyzed chemically and for particle size...... distribution. Thus, there is a good flair of the chemistry of fly ash formed in plants fired with biomass or waste fractions, either alone, or in conjunction with coal. But data on dedicated studies of the physical size development of fly ash, are almost non-existing for biomasses and waste fractions...

  14. Effect of particle size on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of alumina suspension in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rosado, José Carlos; L'hermite, Daniel; Levi, Yves

    2012-01-01

    The analysis by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was proposed for the detection and the quantification of different elements in water even when the analyte is composed of particles in suspension. We have studied the effect of particle size on the LIBS signal during liquid analysis. In our study we used different particle sizes (from 2 μm to 90 μm) of Al 2 O 3 in suspension in water. The results were compared to the signal obtained in the case of dissolved aluminum. In the case of particles, a linear correlation between the LIBS signal versus concentration was found but a significant decrease in the slope of the calibration curve was found when the particle size increased. Several hypotheses have been tested and only a partial ablation of the particles might explain this decrease in signal intensity. This effect probably does not occur at smaller particle size. We estimated 860 nm/pulse as ablated thickness from the top of the particle. A statistical analysis over all data obtained allowed us to calculate 100 μm as ablated water column depth. - Highlights: ► We have identified a decrease of calibration curve when particle size increases. ► Partial particle ablation has been identified as the origin of this effect. ► The ablation rate on Al 2 O 3 particles in suspension in water has been estimated. ► We can determine the deepness of the interaction volume into the liquid.

  15. Investigation of the efect of the coal particle sizes on the interfacial and rheological properties of coal-water slurry fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, K.D.; Deignan, P. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of particle size on coal-water slurry (CWS) surface tension properties. Two different coal powder samples of different size ranges were obtained through sieving of coal from the Upper Elkhorn Seam. The surfactant (anionic DDBS-soft, dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid) concentration varied from 0 to 1.0% in weight while the coal loading remained at 40% in weight for all the cases. A du Nouy ring tensiometer and a maximum bubble pressure tensiometer measured the static and dynamic surface tensions, respectively, The results show that both static and dynamic surface tensions tend to increase with decreasing coal particle sizes suspended in CWS fuels. Examination of the peak pressure, minimum pressure, surfactant diffusion time, and dead time were also made to correlate these microscopic pressure behavior with the macroscopic dynamic surface tension and to examine the accuracy of the experiment.

  16. CFD simulation of coal and straw co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Helle; Hvid, Søren L.; Larsen, Ejvind

    This paper presents the results of a major R&D program with the objective to develop CFD based tools to assess the impact of biomass co-firing in suspension fired pulverized coal power plants. The models have been developed through a series of Danish research projects with the overall objective...... to collect results from fundamental research and make it operational in boiler design through implementation in a Computational Fluid Dynamics based simulation tool. This paper summarizes the developments in modeling of; particle motion, particle conversion, ash deposition on heat transfer surfaces, and NOx...

  17. Viscosity of diluted suspensions of vegetal particles in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szydłowska Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity and rheological behaviour of sewage as well as sludge are essential while designing apparatuses and operations employed in the sewage treatment process and its processing. With reference to these substances, the bio-suspensions samples of three size fractions ((i 150÷212 μm, (ii 106÷150 μm and (iii below106 μm of dry grass in water with solid volume fraction 8%, 10% and 11% were prepared. After twenty four hours prior to their preparation time, the suspension samples underwent rheometeric measurements with the use of a rotational rheometer with coaxial cylinders. On the basis of the obtained results, flow curves were plotted and described with both the power model and Herschel-Bulkley model. Moreover, the viscosity of the studied substances was determined that allowed to conclude that the studied bio-suspensions display features of viscoelastic fluids. The experimentally established viscosity was compared to the calculated one according to Manley and Manson equation, recommended in the literature. It occurred that the measured viscosity values substantially exceed the calculation viscosity values, even by 105 times. The observations suggest that it stems from water imbibition of fibrous vegetal particles, which causes their swelling and decreases the amount of liquid phase in the suspension.

  18. A Momentum-Exchange/Fictitious Domain-Lattice Boltzmann Method for Solving Particle Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seok Yun; Yoon, Joon Yong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul Kyu [Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Myung Seob [Korea Intellectual Property Office(KIPO), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    This study presents a Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) coupled with a momentum-exchange approach/fictitious domain (MEA/FD) method for the simulation of particle suspensions. The method combines the advantages of the LB and the FD methods by using two unrelated meshes, namely, a Eulerian mesh for the flow domain and a Lagrangian mesh for the solid domain. The rigid body conditions are enforced by the momentum-exchange scheme in which the desired value of velocity is imposed directly in the particle inner domain by introducing a pseudo body force to satisfy the constraint of rigid body motion, which is the key idea of a fictitious domain (FD) method. The LB-MEA/FD method has been validated by simulating two different cases, and the results have been compared with those through other methods. The numerical evidence illustrated the capability and robustness of the present method for simulating particle suspensions.

  19. Developmental effects of aerosols and coal burning particles in zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, Alba; Drooge, Barend L. van; Casado, Marta; Prats, Eva; Serra, Montserrat; Ven, Leo T. van der; Kamstra, Jorke H.; Hamers, Timo; Hermsen, Sanne; Grimalt, Joan O.; Piña, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Embryo toxicity of particles generated by combustion processes is of special concern for human health. A significant part of these toxic effects is linked to the binding of some pollutants (like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs) to the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) and the activation of target genes, like the cytochrome P4501A. This activity was analyzed for ambient air and coal-combustion particle extracts in zebrafish embryos (the cyp1aDarT assay) and in two single-cell bioassays: the yeast-based YCM-RYA and the DR-luc (rat cells) assay. Observed AhR ligand activity of samples generally correlated to the predicted toxic effect according to their PAH composition, except for one of the coal combustion samples with an anomalously high activity in the cyp1aDarT assay. This sample induced deformities in zebrafish embryos. We concluded that the combination of morphological and molecular assays may detect embryonic toxic effects that cannot be predicted from chemical analyses or single-cell bioassays. -- Highlights: ► Samples from air particulated matter and coal waste gob showed embryo toxicity in zebrafish. ► PAHs composition of samples does not adequately predict the toxic effects in zebrafish. ► Active coal waste gob samples show maximal AhR-ligand activity and induce deformations in zebrafish embryos. -- Aerosols and coal burning particles showed a strong developmental toxicity in zebrafish, in a degree that cannot be directly predicted from chemical analyses or single-cell bioassays

  20. Coal emissions adverse human health effects associated with ultrafine/nano-particles role and resultant engineering controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcos L S; Navarro, Orlando G; Crissien, Tito J; Tutikian, Bernardo F; da Boit, Kátia; Teixeira, Elba C; Cabello, Juan J; Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana M; Silva, Luis F O

    2017-10-01

    There are multiple elements which enable coal geochemistry: (1) boiler and pollution control system design parameters, (2) temperature of flue gas at collection point, (3) feed coal and also other fuels like petroleum coke, tires and biomass geochemistry and (4) fuel feed particle size distribution homogeneity distribution, maintenance of pulverisers, etc. Even though there is a large number of hazardous element pollutants in the coal-processing industry, investigations on micrometer and nanometer-sized particles including their aqueous colloids formation reactions and their behaviour entering the environment are relatively few in numbers. X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/ (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS/ (selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS and granulometric distribution analysis were used as an integrated characterization techniques tool box to determine both geochemistry and nanomineralogy for coal fly ashes (CFAs) from Brazil´s largest coal power plant. Ultrafine/nano-particles size distribution from coal combustion emissions was estimated during the tests. In addition the iron and silicon content was determined as 54.6% of the total 390 different particles observed by electron bean, results aimed that these two particles represent major minerals in the environment particles normally. These data may help in future investigations to asses human health actions related with nano-particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G. [AirPol Inc., Teterboro, NJ (United States); Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  2. Effect of particle size on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of alumina suspension in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Rosado, Jose Carlos [CEA, DEN, SEARS, LANIE, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Univ. Paris Sud, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Public Health and Environment UMR 8079, 5 rue J.B. Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); National University of Engineering, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box 31-139, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Lima (Peru); L' hermite, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.lhermite@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, SEARS, LANIE, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Levi, Yves [Univ. Paris Sud, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Public Health and Environment UMR 8079, 5 rue J.B. Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2012-08-15

    The analysis by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was proposed for the detection and the quantification of different elements in water even when the analyte is composed of particles in suspension. We have studied the effect of particle size on the LIBS signal during liquid analysis. In our study we used different particle sizes (from 2 {mu}m to 90 {mu}m) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in suspension in water. The results were compared to the signal obtained in the case of dissolved aluminum. In the case of particles, a linear correlation between the LIBS signal versus concentration was found but a significant decrease in the slope of the calibration curve was found when the particle size increased. Several hypotheses have been tested and only a partial ablation of the particles might explain this decrease in signal intensity. This effect probably does not occur at smaller particle size. We estimated 860 nm/pulse as ablated thickness from the top of the particle. A statistical analysis over all data obtained allowed us to calculate 100 {mu}m as ablated water column depth. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have identified a decrease of calibration curve when particle size increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Partial particle ablation has been identified as the origin of this effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ablation rate on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in suspension in water has been estimated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We can determine the deepness of the interaction volume into the liquid.

  3. Soot, unburned carbon and ultrafine particle emissions from air- and oxy-coal flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, W.J.; Yu, Dunxi; Wendt, J.O.L.

    2010-01-01

    Oxy-coal combustion is one possible solution for the mitigation of greenhouse gases. In this process coal is burned in oxygen, rather than air, and the temperatures in the boiler are mitigated by recycling flue gases, so that the inlet mixture may contain either 27 % O 2 to match adiabatic flame temperatures, or 32 % O 2 to match gaseous radiation heat fluxes in the combustion chamber. However, a major issue for heat transfer from coal combustion is the radiative heat transmission from soot. For this research, air and oxy coal firing were compared regarding the emission of soot. A 100 kW down-fired laboratory combustor was used to determine effects of switching from air to oxy-firing on soot, unburned carbon and ultrafine particle emissions from practical pulverized coal flames. Of interest here were potential chemical effects of substitution of the N 2 in air by CO 2 in practical pulverized coal flames. The oxy-coal configuration investigated used once-through CO 2 , simulating cleaned flue gas recycle with all contaminants and water removed. Three coals were each burned in: a) air, b) 27 % O 2 / 73 % CO 2 , c) 32 % O 2 / 68 % CO 2 . Tests were conducted at (nominally) 3 %, 2 %, 1 % and 0 % O 2 in the exhaust (dry basis). For each condition, particulate samples were iso kinetically withdrawn far from the radiant zone, and analyzed using a photoacoustic analyzer (PA) for black carbon, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for ultrafine particles, and a total sample loss on ignition (LOI) method for unburned carbon in ash. Data suggest that at low stoichiometric ratios, ultrafine particles consist primarily of black carbon, which, for the bituminous coal, is produced in lesser amounts under oxy-fired conditions than under the air-fired condition, even when adiabatic flame temperatures are matched. However, significant changes in mineral matter vaporization were not observed unless the flames were hotter. These and other results are interpreted in the light of

  4. Momentum balance and stresses in a suspension of spherical particles in a plane Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Mona; Hammouti, Abdelkader; Wachs, Anthony

    2018-04-01

    Non-Brownian suspension of monodisperse spherical particles, with volume fractions ranging between ϕ = 0.05 and 0.38 and particle Reynolds numbers ranging between Rep = 0.002 and 20, in plane Couette shear flows is investigated using three-dimensional particle-resolved numerical simulations. We examine the effects of volume fraction and particle Reynolds number on the macroscopic and microscopic stresses in the fluid phase. The effective viscosity of the suspension is in a good agreement with the previous empirical and experimental studies. At Rep = 20, however, the effective viscosity increases significantly compared to the lower particle Reynolds number simulations in the Stokes flow regime. Examining the stresses over the depth of the Couette gap reveals that this increase in wall shear stresses at high particle Reynolds numbers is mainly due to the significantly higher particle phase stress contributions. Next, we examine the momentum balance in the fluid and particle phase for different regimes to assess the significance of particle/particle interaction and fluid and particle inertia. At the highest particle Reynolds number and volume fraction, the particle inertia plays a dominant role in the momentum balance and the fluid inertia is non-negligible, while the short-lived contact forces are negligible compared to these effects. For all other regimes, the fluid inertia is negligible, but the particle inertia and contact forces are important in the momentum balance. Reynolds stresses originated from velocity fluctuations do not contribute significantly to the suspension stresses in any of the regimes we have studied, while the reduction in the shear-induced particle rotation can be a reason for higher wall shear stress at Rep = 20. Finally, we study the kinematics of particles, including their velocity fluctuations, rotation, and diffusion over the depth of the Couette gap. The particle diffusion coefficients in the cross flow direction exhibit an abrupt

  5. Particles in wall-bounded turbulent flows deposition, re-suspension and agglomeration

    CERN Document Server

    Pozorski, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    The book presents an up-to-date review of turbulent two-phase flows with the dispersed phase, with an emphasis on the dynamics in the near-wall region. New insights to the flow physics are provided by direct numerical simuation and by fine experimental techniques. Also included are models of particle dynamics in wall-bounded turbulent flows, and a description of particle surface interactions including muti-layer deposition and re-suspension.

  6. Kinetic model for the mechanical response of suspensions of sponge-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütter, Markus; Faber, Timo J; Wyss, Hans M

    2012-01-01

    A dynamic two-scale model is developed that describes the stationary and transient mechanical behavior of concentrated suspensions made of highly porous particles. Particularly, we are interested in particles that not only deform elastically, but also can swell or shrink by taking up or expelling the viscous solvent from their interior, leading to rate-dependent deformability of the particles. The fine level of the model describes the evolution of particle centers and their current sizes, while the shapes are at present not taken into account. The versatility of the model permits inclusion of density- and temperature-dependent particle interactions, and hydrodynamic interactions, as well as to implement insight into the mechanism of swelling and shrinking. The coarse level of the model is given in terms of macroscopic hydrodynamics. The two levels are mutually coupled, since the flow changes the particle configuration, while in turn the configuration gives rise to stress contributions, that eventually determine the macroscopic mechanical properties of the suspension. Using a thermodynamic procedure for the model development, it is demonstrated that the driving forces for position change and for size change are derived from the same potential energy. The model is translated into a form that is suitable for particle-based Brownian dynamics simulations for performing rheological tests. Various possibilities for connection with experiments, e.g. rheological and structural, are discussed.

  7. Nanometer-scale sizing accuracy of particle suspensions on an unmodified cell phone using elastic light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J; Chu, Kaiqin; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    We report on the construction of a Fourier plane imaging system attached to a cell phone. By illuminating particle suspensions with a collimated beam from an inexpensive diode laser, angularly resolved scattering patterns are imaged by the phone's camera. Analyzing these patterns with Mie theory results in predictions of size distributions of the particles in suspension. Despite using consumer grade electronics, we extracted size distributions of sphere suspensions with better than 20 nm accuracy in determining the mean size. We also show results from milk, yeast, and blood cells. Performing these measurements on a portable device presents opportunities for field-testing of food quality, process monitoring, and medical diagnosis.

  8. Leaback of Pulsatile Flow of Particle Fluid Suspension Model of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaback of Pulsatile Flow of Particle Fluid Suspension Model of Blood Under Periodic Body Acceleration. ... The variation in body acceleration amplitude though affects the velocity profile in the capillary tubes, it has no effect on the leakback in the tubes. Leakback is mainly determined by the balance of the viscous drag and ...

  9. Dispersion of Sound in Dilute Suspensions with Nonlinear Particle Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Max

    2010-01-01

    The theory accounting for nonlinear particle relaxation (viscous and thermal) has been applied to the prediction of dispersion of sound in dilute suspensions. The results suggest that significant deviations exist for sound dispersion between the linear and nonlinear theories at large values of Omega(Tau)(sub d), where Omega is the circular frequency, and Tau(sub d) is the Stokesian particle relaxation time. It is revealed that the nonlinear effect on the dispersion coefficient due to viscous contribution is larger relative to that of thermal conduction

  10. PM1 particles at coal- and gas-fired power plant work areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jeffrey B; McCarthy, Sheila A; Mezei, Gabor; Sayes, Christie M

    2012-03-01

    With the increased interest in the possible adverse health effects attributed to inhalation of fine particle matter, this study was conducted to gather preliminary information about workplace exposures at coal- and gas-fired power plants to fine particles (PM(1); i.e. <1 μm) and ultrafine particles (i.e. <0.1 μm). Combustion of fossil fuel is known to produce fine particles, and due to their proximity and durations of exposure, power plant workers could be a group of individuals who experience high chronic exposures to these types of particles. The results of a series of real-time instrument measurements showed that concentrations of PM(1) were elevated in some locations in power plants. The highest concentrations were in locations near combustion sources, indicating that combustion materials were leaking from conventional fossil fuel-fired boilers or it was associated with emission plume downwash. Concentrations were the lowest inside air-conditioned control rooms where PM(1) were present at levels similar to or lower than upwind concentrations. Microscopic examinations indicate that PM(1) at the coal-fired plants are dominated by vitrified spheres, although there were also unusual elongated particles. Most of the PM(1) were attached to larger coal fly ash particles that may affect where and how they could be deposited in the lung.

  11. Immersion Freezing of Coal Combustion Ash Particles from the Texas Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, C. L.; Tobo, Y.; Mulamba, O.; Brooks, S. D.; Mirrielees, J.; Hiranuma, N.

    2017-12-01

    Coal combustion aerosol particles contribute to the concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere. Especially, immersion freezing can be considered as one of the most important mechanisms for INP formation in supercooled tropospheric clouds that exist at temperatures between 0°C and -38°C. The U.S. contains more than 550 operating coal-burning plants consuming 7.2 x 108 metric tons of coal (in 2016) to generate a total annual electricity of >2 billion MW-h, resulting in the emission of at least 4.9 x 105 metric tons of PM10 (particulate matter smaller than 10 µm in diameter). In Texas alone, 19 combustion plants generate 0.15 billion MW-h electricity and >2.4 x 104 metric tons of PM10. Here we present the immersion freezing behavior of combustion fly ash and bottom ash particles collected in the Texas Panhandle region. Two types of particulate samples, namely electron microscopy on both ash types will also be presented to relate the crystallographic and chemical properties to their ice nucleation abilities.

  12. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  13. Numerical Study of Suspension HVOF Spray and Particle Behavior Near Flat and Cylindrical Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadidi, M.; Yeganeh, A. Zabihi; Dolatabadi, A.

    2018-01-01

    In thermal spray processes, it is demonstrated that substrate shape and location have significant effects on particle in-flight behavior and coatings quality. In the present work, the suspension high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying process is modeled using a three-dimensional two-way coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. Flat and cylindrical substrates are placed at different standoff distances, and particles characteristics near the substrates and upon impact are studied. Suspension is a mixture of ethanol, ethylene glycol, and mullite solid powder (3Al2O3·2SiO2) in this study. Suspension droplets with predefined size distribution are injected into the combustion chamber, and the droplet breakup phenomenon is simulated using Taylor analogy breakup model. Furthermore, the eddy dissipation model is used to model the premixed combustion of oxygen-propylene, and non-premixed combustion of oxygen-ethanol and oxygen-ethylene glycol. To simulate the gas phase turbulence, the realizable k-ɛ model is applied. In addition, as soon as the breakup and combustion phenomena are completed, the solid/molten mullite particles are tracked through the domain. It is shown that as the standoff distance increases the particle temperature and velocity decrease and the particle trajectory deviation becomes more significant. The effect of stagnation region on the particle velocity and temperature is also discussed in detail. The catch rate, which is defined as the ratio of the mass of landed particles to injected particles, is calculated for different substrate shapes and standoff distances in this study. The numerical results presented here is consistent with the experimental data in the literature for the same operating conditions.

  14. Final Report: Model interacting particle systems for simulation and macroscopic description of particulate suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Mucha

    2007-08-30

    Suspensions of solid particles in liquids appear in numerous applications, from environmental settings like river silt, to industrial systems of solids transport and water treatment, and biological flows such as blood flow. Despite their importance, much remains unexplained about these complicated systems. Mucha's research aims to improve understanding of basic properties of suspensions through a program of simulating model interacting particle systems with critical evaluation of proposed continuum equations, in close collaboration with experimentalists. Natural to this approach, the original proposal centered around collaboration with studies already conducted in various experimental groups. However, as was detailed in the 2004 progress report, following the first year of this award, a number of the questions from the original proposal were necessarily redirected towards other specific goals because of changes in the research programs of the proposed experimental collaborators. Nevertheless, the modified project goals and the results that followed from those goals maintain close alignment with the main themes of the original proposal, improving efficient simulation and macroscopic modeling of sedimenting and colloidal suspensions. In particular, the main investigations covered under this award have included: (1) Sedimentation instabilities, including the sedimentation analogue of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (for heavy, particle-laden fluid over lighter, clear fluid). (2) Ageing dynamics of colloidal suspensions at concentrations above the glass transition, using simplified interactions. (3) Stochastic reconstruction of velocity-field dependence for particle image velocimetry (PIV). (4) Stochastic modeling of the near-wall bias in 'nano-PIV'. (5) Distributed Lagrange multiplier simulation of the 'internal splash' of a particle falling through a stable stratified interface. (6) Fundamental study of velocity fluctuations in sedimentation

  15. Coal devolatilization and char conversion under suspension fired conditions in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker Degn; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    have been carried out in an electrically heated entrained flow reactor that is designed to simulate the conditions in a suspension fired boiler. Coal devolatilized in N2 and CO2 atmospheres provided similar results regarding char morphology, char N2-BET surface area and volatile yield. This strongly......The aim of the present investigation is to examine differences between O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres during devolatilization and char conversion of a bituminous coal at conditions covering temperatures between 1173 K and 1673 K and inlet oxygen concentrations between 5 and 28 vol.%. The experiments...

  16. Modeling of filtration of 2-types particles suspension in a porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galaguz Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The filtration problem describes the process of concreting loose soil with a liquefied concrete solution. The filtration of 2-types particles suspension in a homogeneous porous medium with a size-exclusion particles retention mechanism is considered. The difference in the filtration coefficients of 2-types particles leads to the separation of the filtration domain into two zones, in one of which two types of particles are deposited and in another – only particles of one type are deposited. In this paper, the mobile boundary of two zones is calculated, and numerical solution of the problem is calculated.

  17. Numerical research of heat and mass transfer during low-temperature ignition of a coal particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Dmitrii O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical researches have been carried out to study the influence of air flow temperature and a fossil fuel particle rate on sufficient conditions of ignition in a “coal particle - air” system. Developed mathematical model takes into account interconnected processes of heat transfer in a coal particle and gas area, thermal decomposition of organic material, diffusion and gas-phase oxidation of volatiles, heating of a coke (carbon and its heterogeneous ignition. The effect of low-temperature (about 600 K ignition for a single coal particle is impossible even at variation of its rate (radius from 0.05 mm to 0.5 mm. Nevertheless this process is possible for group of particles (two, three, et al. situated at close-range from each other. The physical aspects of the problem are discussed.

  18. Optimizing the particle size of coal for CWM in view of fluidity. [Biomodal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Seiji; Nonaka, Michio; Okano, Yasuhiko; Inoue, Toshio

    1987-10-25

    As is well known, the viscosity of CWM is considerably influenced by the distribution of coal particle sizes and has bearing on particle packing density or porosity. A model for representing the viscosity of CWM in terms of particle porosity and specific surface was designed. Also, experimental verification was conducted for the method of optimizing particle size on a two-stage grinding system. The results are as follows: The viscosity of CWM is influenced not only by the porosity of coal particles, but also by the specific surface; also, it is correlated to the distance between suspended particles. At the two-stage grinding experiments, a particle size distribution leading to a low viscosity was obtained by mixing coarse and fine particles at 4:1. This has demonstrated that the use of an agitating mill for fine particles is of help. (11 figs, 2 tabs, 6 refs)

  19. Nanometer-scale sizing accuracy of particle suspensions on an unmodified cell phone using elastic light scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J Smith

    Full Text Available We report on the construction of a Fourier plane imaging system attached to a cell phone. By illuminating particle suspensions with a collimated beam from an inexpensive diode laser, angularly resolved scattering patterns are imaged by the phone's camera. Analyzing these patterns with Mie theory results in predictions of size distributions of the particles in suspension. Despite using consumer grade electronics, we extracted size distributions of sphere suspensions with better than 20 nm accuracy in determining the mean size. We also show results from milk, yeast, and blood cells. Performing these measurements on a portable device presents opportunities for field-testing of food quality, process monitoring, and medical diagnosis.

  20. Fine particles flotation of the Moatize coal/Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Amilton; de Brum, Irineu A. S.

    2017-11-01

    This study was done from a sample of coal mined at the Vale-Mozambique mine, located in Moatize district, Tete Province. The aim of this work is to analyze the reagent system in the flotation of coal fines belonging to the UCB layer. Among coal processing methods, flotation stands out as one of the most important for the concentration of this material, in particular in the treatment of fine particles. The total feed of the Vale-Mozambique processing plant is 8000 tph of coal, where 10% of this feed corresponds to the fine fraction that feeds the flotation circuit. The material used in this study had a particle size of 96% smaller than 0.25 mm. The reagents used in the flotation tests were Betacol and diesel oil as hydrophobizing agents and MIBC as frother. The range of Betacol concentrations in the first test phase was 200 g / t at 500 g / t, and in the second phase 200 g / t at 500 g / t of diesel oil and MIBC were kept constant at 300 g / t. The immediate analysis followed the Brazilian standards: NBR 8289, NBR 8293, NBR 8290, NBR 8299. The results showed that it is possible, from a feed with the ash content around 22.84%, to obtain products with levels below of 10% ash, with a mass recovery around 50%. The recovery of carbonaceous matter was also evaluated and presented positive results. Complementing this study, the effect of H2O recovery was evaluated and it was observed that for the concentrations of Betacol the recoveries ranged from 6 to 9%, and for diesel oil plus MIBC were 4 to 7%.

  1. Particle segregation in pneumatic conveying lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlinchey, D.; Marjanovic, P.; Cook, S.; Jones, M.G. [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Centre for Industrial Bulk Solids Handling

    2000-07-01

    This investigation studied segregation of particles during pneumatic transport from a theoretical and experimental perspective. Dilute phase or suspension flow and dense phase (non-suspension flow) were both considered. A computer model was generated based on the conservation equations to investigate dilute phase conditions; an initial qualitative investigation of material behaviour being conveyed in dense phase was made with plastic pellets and salt as a segregating mixture in a small test rig and the results from a full scale test rig conveying two grades of coal of different size distributions are discussed. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Effect of flexibility on the growth of concentration fluctuations in a suspension of sedimenting fibers: Particle simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikantan, Harishankar; Saintillan, David [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to study the stability of a sedimenting suspension of weakly flexible fibers. It is well known that a suspension of rigid rods sedimenting under gravity at low Reynolds number is unstable to concentration fluctuations owing to hydrodynamic interactions. Flexible fibers, however, reorient while settling and even weak flexibility can alter their collective dynamics. In our recent work [Manikantan et al., “The instability of a sedimenting suspension of weakly flexible fibres,” J. Fluid Mech. 756, 935–964 (2014)], we developed a mean-field theory to predict the linear stability of such a system. Here, we verify these predictions using accurate and efficient particle simulations based on a slender-body model. We also demonstrate the mechanisms by which flexibility-induced reorientation alters suspension microstructure, and through it, its stability. Specifically, we first show that the anisotropy of the base state in the case of a suspension of flexible fibers has a destabilizing effect compared to a suspension of rigid rods. Second, a conflicting effect of flexibility is also shown to suppress particle clustering and slow down the growth of the instability. The relative magnitude of filament flexibility and rotational Brownian motion dictates which effect dominates, and our simulations qualitatively follow theoretically predicted trends. The mechanism for either effects is tied to the flexibility-induced reorientation of particles, which we illustrate using velocity and orientation statistics from our simulations. Finally, we also show that, in the case of an initially homogeneous and isotropic suspension, flexibility always acts to suppress the growth of the instability.

  3. Effect of flexibility on the growth of concentration fluctuations in a suspension of sedimenting fibers: Particle simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manikantan, Harishankar; Saintillan, David

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to study the stability of a sedimenting suspension of weakly flexible fibers. It is well known that a suspension of rigid rods sedimenting under gravity at low Reynolds number is unstable to concentration fluctuations owing to hydrodynamic interactions. Flexible fibers, however, reorient while settling and even weak flexibility can alter their collective dynamics. In our recent work [Manikantan et al., “The instability of a sedimenting suspension of weakly flexible fibres,” J. Fluid Mech. 756, 935–964 (2014)], we developed a mean-field theory to predict the linear stability of such a system. Here, we verify these predictions using accurate and efficient particle simulations based on a slender-body model. We also demonstrate the mechanisms by which flexibility-induced reorientation alters suspension microstructure, and through it, its stability. Specifically, we first show that the anisotropy of the base state in the case of a suspension of flexible fibers has a destabilizing effect compared to a suspension of rigid rods. Second, a conflicting effect of flexibility is also shown to suppress particle clustering and slow down the growth of the instability. The relative magnitude of filament flexibility and rotational Brownian motion dictates which effect dominates, and our simulations qualitatively follow theoretically predicted trends. The mechanism for either effects is tied to the flexibility-induced reorientation of particles, which we illustrate using velocity and orientation statistics from our simulations. Finally, we also show that, in the case of an initially homogeneous and isotropic suspension, flexibility always acts to suppress the growth of the instability

  4. Co-firing of coal with biomass and waste in full-scale suspension-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Johansen, Kim; Frandsen, Flemming J.; Jensen, Peter A.; Jensen, Anker D. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of chemical and Biochemical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The energy policy in Denmark has for many years focused on lowering the net CO{sub 2} emission from heat and power production by replacing fossil fuels by renewable resources. This has been done by developing dedicated grate-fired boilers for biomass and waste fuels but also by developing coal-based suspension-fired boilers to accept still higher fractions of biomass or waste material as fuels. This last development has been challenging of many reasons, including pre-treatment of fuels, and solving potential emission and operational problems during the simultaneous development of supercritical steam cycles with steam temperatures close to 600 C, providing power efficiencies close to 50% (Hein KRG, Sustainable energy supply and environment protection - strategies, resources and technologies. In: Gupta R, Wall T, Hupa M, Wigley F, Tillman D, Frandsen FJ (eds) Proceedings of international conference on impact of fuel quality on power production and the environment, Banff Conference Centre, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 29 Sept-4 Oct, 2008). For 25 years the CHEC (Combustion and Harmful Emission Control) Research Centre at DTU Chemical Engineering, has attained a leading role in research, supporting power producing industry, plant owners and boiler manufacturers to optimize design and operation and minimize cost and environmental impact using alternative fuels in suspension fired boilers. Our contribution has been made via a combination of full-scale measuring campaigns, pilot-scale studies, lab-scale measurements and modeling tools. The research conducted has addressed many issues important for co-firing, i.e. fuel processing, ash induced boiler deposit formation and corrosion, boiler chamber fuel conversion and emission formation, influence on flue gas cleaning equipment and the utilization of residual products. This chapter provides an overview of research activities, aiming at increasing biomass shares during co-firing in suspension, conducted in close collaboration with

  5. Lattice Boltzmann methods for the simulation of heat transfer in particle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullough, J.W.S.; Leonardi, C.R.; Jones, B.D.; Aminossadati, S.M.; Williams, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a lattice Boltzmann heat transfer model for curved boundaries. • Thermodynamic coupling aims to ensure continuity of both temperature and heat flux. • Good correlation found in transient comparison of results to analytical solutions. • Illustration of the developed model applied to a moving particle test case. - Abstract: This study examines the use of a lattice Boltzmann method framework to study heat transfer behaviours within particle suspensions. This has been done through the use of an adapted interface condition to attempt to resolve the required continuity of temperature and flux at the boundary between the solid and fluid phases. The proposed method is tested against analytical solutions for layered media in both a 1D bar and a radial layout. These tests showed that the model was able to generate results with first order convergence towards the analytical outcomes. The model was then used to examine the behaviour of two moving particles travelling along a channel to illustrate its potential for resolving complex suspension flows.

  6. Single particle aerosol mass spectrometry of coal combustion particles associated with high lung cancer rates in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Senlin; Tan, Zhengying; Liu, Pinwei; Zhao, Hui; Liu, Dingyu; Yu, Shang; Cheng, Ping; Win, Myat Sandar; Hu, Jiwen; Tian, Linwei; Wu, Minghong; Yonemochi, Shinich; Wang, Qingyue

    2017-11-01

    Coal combustion particles (CCPs) are linked to the high incidence of lung cancer in Xuanwei and in Fuyuan, China, but studies on the chemical composition of the CCPs are still limited. Single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was recently developed to measure the chemical composition and size of single particles in real-time. In this study, SPAMS was used to measure individual combustion particles emitted from Xuanwei and Fuyuan coal samples and the results were compared with those by ICP-MS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The total of 38,372 particles mass-analyzed by SPAMS can be divided into 9 groups based on their chemical composition and their number percentages: carbonaceous, Na-rich, K-rich, Al-rich, Fe-rich, Si-rich, Ca-rich, heavy metal-bearing, and PAH-bearing particles. The carbonaceous and PAH-bearing particles are enriched in the size range below 0.56 μm, Fe-bearing particles range from 0.56 to 1.0 μm in size, and heavy metals such as Ti, V, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb have diameters below 1 μm. The TEM results show that the particles from Xuanwei and Fuyuan coal combustion can be classified into soot aggregates, Fe-rich particles, heavy metal containing particles, and mineral particles. Non-volatile particles detected by SPAMS could also be observed with TEM. The number percentages by SPAMS also correlate with the mass concentrations measured by ICP-MS. Our results could provide valuable insight for understanding high lung cancer incidence in the area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Particle-based characterisation of pulverised coals and chars for carbon burnout studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbins, J.R.; Seitz, M.H.; Kennedy, S.M.; Beeley, T.J.; Riley, G.S. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Mechanical Engineering Department

    1999-07-01

    The study of individual particle properties, as opposed to averaged behaviour of differing particles, was carried out for the combustion of coals and chars using optical microscopy and digital image processing. Chars from entrained flow reactors and corresponding pulverized fuel samples were characterized to examine possible char particle origins for real heterogeneous particles. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Oxy-fuel combustion of millimeter-sized coal char: Particle temperatures and NO formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Navascués, Leyre Gómez; Nielsen, Joachim Bachmann

    2013-01-01

    In this work, differences in particle temperature and NO yield during char oxidation in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres, respectively, have been examined. A laboratory scale fixed bed reactor, operated isothermally at 1073 K, was used for combustion of millimeter-sized lignite and bituminous coal char...... increased with mass loading, by as much as 700 K above the furnace set point. The formation of NO from lignite char was not influenced by the change from N2 to CO2 whereas the NO yield from bituminous coal char was considerably lower in O2/CO2 compared O2/N2. For both chars the conversion to NO decreased...... as the O2 concentration or the particle size increased. However, for the bituminous coal char, a peak in NO yield was observed at an intermediate particle size of 0.1–0.2 g. The differences in the effect of gas atmosphere, O2 concentration, and particle mass on the NO yield from oxidation of bituminous...

  9. Electrochemistry of carbonaceous materials; 2. Anodic electroactivity of coal slurries in 85% phosphoric acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomat, R.; Salmaso, R.; Zecchin, S. (CNR-Instituto di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparative, Padova (Italy))

    1992-04-01

    Current-potential curves of suspended coal (Sulcis basin, Sardinia, Italy) in 85% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} were taken on a platinum electrode at 100{degree}C. Anodic current in the potential range of 0-1.5 V versus saturated calomel electrode was due to some humic acid-type substances released by coal in the electrolyte. The leaching of organic matter increased with the lowering of the particle dimensions, and the related oxidation currents attained stable values even during slurry formation. Current-potential curves were still unchanged when coal was filtered off from the suspension. Previous washing of ground coal with diluted mineral acids, including H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, did not dissolve any significant amount of the substances responsible for the electrochemical activity of the coal sample examined. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  10. The production of high load coal-water mixtures on the base of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, Y.; Bruer, G.; Kolesnikova, S. [Research and Design Institute for Problems of Development of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (KATEKNilugol), Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The results of the {open_quotes}KATEKNIIugol{close_quotes} work on the problems of high load coal-water mixtures are given in this article. General principles of the mixture production, short characteristics of Kansk-Achinsk coals, the experimental results of the coal mixture production on a test-industrial scale, the suspension preparation on the base of coal mixtures, technical-economical indexes of tested coal pipeline variants based on Kansk-Achinsk coals are described.

  11. The Rheology of a Three Component System: COAL/WATER/#4 Oil Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Barbara Jean

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the rheology of a three component system, coal/water/#4 oil emulsions (COW), in which the third component, water, was present in a significant concentration, and to determine the applicability of existing theories from suspension rheology to the three component system studied. In a coal/water/oil emulsion, free coal particles adhere to the surface of the water droplets, preventing their coagulation, while the larger coal particles reside in the matrix of stabilized water droplets. The use of liquid fuels containing coal is a means of utilizing our nation's coal reserves while conserving oil. These fuels can be burned in conventional oil-fired furnaces. In this investigation, a high sulfur, high ash, bituminous coal was used, along with a heavy #4 oil to prepare the emulsions. The coal was ground to a log-normal distribution with an average particle size of 62 microns. A Haake RV3 concentric cylinder viscometer, with a ribbed measuring system, was used to determine the viscosity of the emulsions. A physical pendulum settling device measured the shift in center of mass of the COW as a function of time. The flow behavior of the fuel in pipes was also tested. In interpreting the data from the viscometer and the pipe flow experiments, a power law analysis was used in the region from 30 s('-1) to 200 s('-1). Extrapolation methods were used to obtain the low and high shear behavior of the emulsions. In the shear rate region found in boiler feed systems, COW are shear thinning with a flow behavior index of 0.7. The temperature dependent characteristic of the emulsions studied were similar and followed an Arrhenius type relationship. The viscosity of the COW decreases with increasing coal average particle size and is also a function of the width of the size distribution used. The type of coal used strongly influences the rheology of the fuel. The volatile content and the atomic oxygen to nitrogen ratio of the coal are the most

  12. Rheological study of two-dimensional very anisometric colloidal particle suspensions: from shear-induced orientation to viscous dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, A M; Baravian, C; Bezuglyy, V; Angilella, J R; Meneau, F; Bihannic, I; Michot, L J

    2013-04-30

    In the present study, we investigate the evolution with shear of the viscosity of aqueous suspensions of size-selected natural swelling clay minerals for volume fractions extending from isotropic liquids to weak nematic gels. Such suspensions are strongly shear-thinning, a feature that is systematically observed for suspensions of nonspherical particles and that is linked to their orientational properties. We then combined our rheological measurements with small-angle X-ray scattering experiments that, after appropriate treatment, provide the orientational field of the particles. Whatever the clay nature, particle size, and volume fraction, this orientational field was shown to depend only on a nondimensional Péclet number (Pe) defined for one isolated particle as the ratio between hydrodynamic energy and Brownian thermal energy. The measured orientational fields were then directly compared to those obtained for infinitely thin disks through a numerical computation of the Fokker-Plank equation. Even in cases where multiple hydrodynamic interactions dominate, qualitative agreement between both orientational fields is observed, especially at high Péclet number. We have then used an effective approach to assess the viscosity of these suspensions through the definition of an effective volume fraction. Using such an approach, we have been able to transform the relationship between viscosity and volume fraction (ηr = f(φ)) into a relationship that links viscosity with both flow and volume fraction (ηr = f(φ, Pe)).

  13. Heat and Mass Transfer at Hot Surface Ignition of Coal Particle

    OpenAIRE

    Glushkov Dmitrii O.; Kosintsev Andrey. G.; Shlegel Nikita E.; Vershinina Ksenia Yu.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental investigations of the characteristics of heat and mass transfer during the conductive heating of a coal particle. We have established the boundary conditions of combustion initiation, and the conditions of thermal decomposition and solid fuel particles decay, characterized by the temperature of a heat source, and the duration of the respective stages.

  14. Structural state diagram of concentrated suspensions of jammed soft particles in oscillatory shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabaz, Fardin; Cloitre, Michel; Bonnecaze, Roger T.

    2018-03-01

    In a recent study [Khabaz et al., Phys. Rev. Fluids 2, 093301 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.2.093301], we showed that jammed soft particle glasses (SPGs) crystallize and order in steady shear flow. Here we investigate the rheology and microstructures of these suspensions in oscillatory shear flow using particle-dynamics simulations. The microstructures in both types of flows are similar, but their evolutions are very different. In both cases the monodisperse and polydisperse suspensions form crystalline and layered structures, respectively, at high shear rates. The crystals obtained in the oscillatory shear flow show fewer defects compared to those in the steady shear. SPGs remain glassy for maximum oscillatory strains less than about the yield strain of the material. For maximum strains greater than the yield strain, microstructural and rheological transitions occur for SPGs. Polydisperse SPGs rearrange into a layered structure parallel to the flow-vorticity plane for sufficiently high maximum shear rates and maximum strains about 10 times greater than the yield strain. Monodisperse suspensions form a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure when the maximum shear rate is low and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure when the maximum shear rate is high. In steady shear, the transition from a glassy state to a layered one for polydisperse suspensions included a significant induction strain before the transformation. In oscillatory shear, the transformation begins to occur immediately and with different microstructural changes. A state diagram for suspensions in large amplitude oscillatory shear flow is found to be in close but not exact agreement with the state diagram for steady shear flow. For more modest amplitudes of around one to five times the yield strain, there is a transition from a glassy structure to FCC and HCP crystals, at low and high frequencies, respectively, for monodisperse suspensions. At moderate frequencies, the transition is from glassy to HCP via

  15. PASSIVE CONTROL OF PARTICLE DISPERSION IN A PARTICLE-LADEN CIRCULAR JET USING ELLIPTIC CO-ANNULAR FLOW: A MEANS FOR IMPROVING UTILIZATION AND EMISSION REDUCTIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL BURNER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahsan R. Choudhuri

    2003-06-01

    A passive control technology utilizing elliptic co-flow to control the particle flinging and particle dispersion in a particle (coal)-laden flow was investigated using experimental and numerical techniques. Preferential concentration of particles occurs in particle-laden jets used in pulverized coal burner and causes uncontrollable NO{sub x} formation due to inhomogeneous local stoichiometry. This particular project was aimed at characterizing the near-field flow behavior of elliptic coaxial jets. The knowledge gained from the project will serve as the basis of further investigation on fluid-particle interactions in an asymmetric coaxial jet flow-field and thus is important to improve the design of pulverized coal burners where non-homogeneity of particle concentration causes increased NO{sub x} formation.

  16. The application of the coal grain analysis method to coal liberation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, G.; Firth, B.; Adair, B. [CSIRO Earth Science & Resource Engineering Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    Emerging coal markets such as the use of coal for conversion to liquid fuels and its use in fuels cells and as coal water slurries in diesel engines require coal products with different coal quality specifications than those applicable to traditional coal markets of coke making and conventional power generation. As well as quantifying coals in terms of their chemical and physical properties, detailed knowledge of the mineral inclusions within the coal particles is required to identify coals that are suited to economically produce the low-ash value coals required for these markets. After mining and processing, some particles can consist of essentially pure components of a single maceral or mineral phase whilst others are composite particles that are comprised of varying amounts of macerals and minerals. The proportion of particles that are present as pure components or as composites will be a function of the characteristics of the coal and the particle size. In general, it is considered that size reduction will result in liberation and hence increased yield. The amount of liberation that occurs during crushing or grinding a coal is however coal specific. Particle characterization information provided by an optical microscopic-imaging method, Coal Grain Analysis, was used to identify coals that might benefit from additional crushing to improve recovery of clean coal by new density separation techniques and by flotation. As expected, the results of these studies suggest that the degree of liberation that is obtained is coal specific, and, hence, yield improvements are also coal specific. Hence a quantitative method of investigating this issue is required.

  17. Morphology of clusters of attractive dry and wet self-propelled spherical particle suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Francisco; Valeriani, Chantal; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio

    2017-01-25

    In order to assess the effect of hydrodynamics in the assembly of active attractive spheres, we simulate a semi-dilute suspension of attractive self-propelled spherical particles in a quasi-two dimensional geometry comparing the case with and without hydrodynamics interactions. To start with, independent of the presence of hydrodynamics, we observe that depending on the ratio between attraction and propulsion, particles either coarsen or aggregate forming finite-size clusters. Focusing on the clustering regime, we characterize two different cluster parameters, i.e. their morphology and orientational order, and compare the case when active particles behave either as pushers or pullers (always in the regime where inter-particle attractions compete with self-propulsion). Studying cluster phases for squirmers with respect to those obtained for active Brownian disks (indicated as ABPs), we have shown that hydrodynamics alone can sustain a cluster phase of active swimmers (pullers), while ABPs form cluster phases due to the competition between attraction and self-propulsion. The structural properties of the cluster phases of squirmers and ABPs are similar, although squirmers show sensitivity to active stresses. Active Brownian disks resemble weakly pusher squirmer suspensions in terms of cluster size distribution, structure of the radius of gyration on the cluster size and degree of cluster polarity.

  18. Effect of particle inertia and gravity on the turbulence in a suspension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, G.; Poesio, P.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical model is presented for the effect of particle inertia and gravity on the turbulence in a homogeneous suspension. It is an extension of the one-fluid model developed by L’vov, Ooms, and Pomyalov [Phys. Rev. E 67, 046314 (2003)] , in which the effect of gravity was not considered. In the

  19. Briquetting of coal fines and sawdust - effect of particle-size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, D.P.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B.K.; Honaker, R. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2009-07-01

    The coal industry usually discards fine-size (-150 microns) coal because of its high-moisture content and handling problems. One avenue for utilization is to either pelletize or briquette this material. However, industry has not adopted this route due in large part to significant drying and binder costs. In an effort to reduce these costs, compacting and briquetting studies were conducted to determine the effect of combining a coarse (1.18x0.15mm) spiral separator product with a fine coal flotation product (-150microns), with and without adding sawdust. Maximizing the packing density of the coal and wood waste mixture could potentially reduce the binder requirement by minimizing the void space as well as reducing shipping costs. Accordingly, work reported here focused on evaluating the impact of the particle-size distribution of different blends of fine and coarse coal, with and without sawdust and/or binder. The modified Proctor density of compacted blends along with the porosity and compressive strengths of briquettes made from each blend were determined. For the coal-only blends, the packing density was maximized by a relatively high (70% to 80%) coarse coal content. However, the packing density did not correlate with the compressive strength of the briquette that instead maximized with 100% fine flotation coal and continuously decreased as higher proportions of coarse coal were added. Similar compaction and compressive-strength results were obtained with mixtures of sawdust and varying proportions of coarse and fine coal. With the addition of a binder, the highest strengths were no longer obtained with 100% fine coal but instead maximized between 20% and 50% coarse coal addition depending on how long the briquettes were cured.

  20. Ignition of a floating droplet of organic coal-water fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakoryakov, V. E.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2016-06-01

    The results of experimental investigations are presented for the ignition of droplets (particles) of organic coal-water fuels (OCWFs) floating in a flow of an oxidizer using a special combustion chamber from high-temperature quartz glass. The temperature and the velocity of motion of the oxidizer vary in the ranges of 500-900 K and 0.5-3 m/s. The initial sizes (radii) of fuel droplets amounted to 0.3-1.5 mm. As the basic OCWF components, particles (of 80-100 µm in size) of brown coal "B2," water, mazut, and waste castor and compressor oils are used. With use of the system of high-velocity video registration, the conditions providing for floating of OCWF particles without initiation of burning and with the subsequent steady ignition are established. Four modes of OCWF-droplet ignition with different trajectories of their motion in the combustion chamber are singled out. The times of the OCWF-ignition delay in dependence on the size of fuel particles and oxidizer temperatures are determined. The deviations of the OCWF-ignition-delay times obtained under conditions of suspension of a droplet on the thermocouple junction and while floating in the oxidizer flow are established.

  1. Inertia-driven particle migration and mixing in a wall-bounded laminar suspension flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loisel, V.; Abbas, M., E-mail: micheline.abbas@ensiacet.fr; Masbernat, O. [Université de Toulouse INPT-UPS: Laboratoire de Génie Chimique and CNRS, Fédération de Recherche FERMaT, Toulouse (France); Climent, E. [Université de Toulouse INPT-UPS: Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse and CNRS, Fédération de Recherche FERMaT, Toulouse (France)

    2015-12-15

    Laminar pressure-driven suspension flows are studied in the situation of neutrally buoyant particles at finite Reynolds number. The numerical method is validated for homogeneous particle distribution (no lateral migration across the channel): the increase of particle slip velocities and particle stress with inertia and concentration is in agreement with former works in the literature. In the case of a two-phase channel flow with freely moving particles, migration towards the channel walls due to the Segré-Silberberg effect is observed, leading to the development of a non-uniform concentration profile in the wall-normal direction (the concentration peaks in the wall region and tends towards zero in the channel core). The particle accumulation in the region of highest shear favors the shear-induced particle interactions and agitation, the profile of which appears to be correlated to the concentration profile. A 1D model predicting particle agitation, based on the kinetic theory of granular flows in the quenched state regime when Stokes number St = O(1) and from numerical simulations when St < 1, fails to reproduce the agitation profile in the wall normal direction. Instead, the existence of secondary flows is clearly evidenced by long time simulations. These are composed of a succession of contra-rotating structures, correlated with the development of concentration waves in the transverse direction. The mechanism proposed to explain the onset of this transverse instability is based on the development of a lift force induced by spanwise gradient of the axial velocity fluctuations. The establishment of the concentration profile in the wall-normal direction therefore results from the combination of the mean flow Segré-Silberberg induced migration, which tends to stratify the suspension and secondary flows which tend to mix the particles over the channel cross section.

  2. Inertia-driven particle migration and mixing in a wall-bounded laminar suspension flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loisel, V.; Abbas, M.; Masbernat, O.; Climent, E.

    2015-01-01

    Laminar pressure-driven suspension flows are studied in the situation of neutrally buoyant particles at finite Reynolds number. The numerical method is validated for homogeneous particle distribution (no lateral migration across the channel): the increase of particle slip velocities and particle stress with inertia and concentration is in agreement with former works in the literature. In the case of a two-phase channel flow with freely moving particles, migration towards the channel walls due to the Segré-Silberberg effect is observed, leading to the development of a non-uniform concentration profile in the wall-normal direction (the concentration peaks in the wall region and tends towards zero in the channel core). The particle accumulation in the region of highest shear favors the shear-induced particle interactions and agitation, the profile of which appears to be correlated to the concentration profile. A 1D model predicting particle agitation, based on the kinetic theory of granular flows in the quenched state regime when Stokes number St = O(1) and from numerical simulations when St < 1, fails to reproduce the agitation profile in the wall normal direction. Instead, the existence of secondary flows is clearly evidenced by long time simulations. These are composed of a succession of contra-rotating structures, correlated with the development of concentration waves in the transverse direction. The mechanism proposed to explain the onset of this transverse instability is based on the development of a lift force induced by spanwise gradient of the axial velocity fluctuations. The establishment of the concentration profile in the wall-normal direction therefore results from the combination of the mean flow Segré-Silberberg induced migration, which tends to stratify the suspension and secondary flows which tend to mix the particles over the channel cross section

  3. Large scale Brownian dynamics of confined suspensions of rigid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Brennan; Balboa Usabiaga, Florencio; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Donev, Aleksandar

    2017-12-01

    We introduce methods for large-scale Brownian Dynamics (BD) simulation of many rigid particles of arbitrary shape suspended in a fluctuating fluid. Our method adds Brownian motion to the rigid multiblob method [F. Balboa Usabiaga et al., Commun. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci. 11(2), 217-296 (2016)] at a cost comparable to the cost of deterministic simulations. We demonstrate that we can efficiently generate deterministic and random displacements for many particles using preconditioned Krylov iterative methods, if kernel methods to efficiently compute the action of the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa (RPY) mobility matrix and its "square" root are available for the given boundary conditions. These kernel operations can be computed with near linear scaling for periodic domains using the positively split Ewald method. Here we study particles partially confined by gravity above a no-slip bottom wall using a graphical processing unit implementation of the mobility matrix-vector product, combined with a preconditioned Lanczos iteration for generating Brownian displacements. We address a major challenge in large-scale BD simulations, capturing the stochastic drift term that arises because of the configuration-dependent mobility. Unlike the widely used Fixman midpoint scheme, our methods utilize random finite differences and do not require the solution of resistance problems or the computation of the action of the inverse square root of the RPY mobility matrix. We construct two temporal schemes which are viable for large-scale simulations, an Euler-Maruyama traction scheme and a trapezoidal slip scheme, which minimize the number of mobility problems to be solved per time step while capturing the required stochastic drift terms. We validate and compare these schemes numerically by modeling suspensions of boomerang-shaped particles sedimented near a bottom wall. Using the trapezoidal scheme, we investigate the steady-state active motion in dense suspensions of confined microrollers, whose

  4. Considerable Variation of Antibacterial Activity of Cu Nanoparticles Suspensions Depending on the Storage Time, Dispersive Medium, and Particle Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Zakharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspensions of Cu nanoparticles are promising for creating the new class of alternative antimicrobial products. In this study we examined copper nanoparticles of various sizes obtained by the method of wire electric explosion: nanopowder average size 50 nm (Cu 50 and 100 nm (Cu 100. The paper presents the complex study of the influence of physicochemical properties such as particle size and concentration of the freshly prepared and 24-hour suspensions of Cu nanoparticles in distilled water and physiological solution upon their toxicity to bacteria E. coli M-17. Ionic solution of Cu2+ and sodium dichloroisocyanurate was used for comparison study. It has been shown that decrease in the nanoparticle size leads to changes in the correlation between toxicity and concentration as toxicity peaks are observed at low concentrations (0.0001⋯0.01 mg/L. It has been observed that antibacterial properties of Cu 50 nanoparticle suspensions are ceased after 24-hour storage, while for Cu 100 suspensions no correlation between antibacterial properties and storage time has been noted. Cu 100 nanoparticle suspensions at 10 mg/L concentration display higher toxicity at substituting physiological solution for water than Cu 50 suspensions. Dependence of the toxicity on the mean particle aggregates size in suspension was not revealed.

  5. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Collision between 2D Circular Particles Suspension in Couette Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhong Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Collision between 2D circular particles suspension in Couette flow is simulated by using multiple-relaxation-time based lattice Boltzmann and direct forcing/fictitious domain method in this paper. The patterns of particle collisions are simulated and analyzed in detail by changing the velocity of top and bottom walls in the Couette flow. It can be seen from the simulation results that, while the velocity is large enough, the number of collisions between particles will change little as this velocity varies.

  6. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Nanometric Alumina Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuanping [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Colloidal processing is an effective and reliable approach in the fabrication of the advanced ceramic products. Successful colloidal processing of fine ceramic powders requires accurate control of the rheological properties. The accurate control relies on the understanding the influences of various colloidal parameters on the rheological properties. Almost all research done on the rheology paid less attention to the interactions of particle and solvent. However, the interactions of the particles are usually built up through the media in which the particles are suspended. Therefore, interactions of the particle with the media, the adsorbed layers on the particle surface, and chemical and physical properties of media themselves must influence the rheology of the suspension, especially for the dense suspensions containing nanosized particles. Relatively little research work has been reported in this area. This thesis addresses the rheological properties of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions, and paying more attention to the interactions between particle and solvent, which in turn influence the particle-particle interactions. Dense nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions with low viscosity were achieved by environmentally-benign fructose additives. The rheology of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions and its variation with the particle volume fraction and concentration of fructose were explored by rheometry. The adsorptions of solute (fructose) and solvent (water) on the nanometric alumina particle surfaces were measured and analyzed by TG/DSC, TOC, and NMR techniques. The mobility of water molecules in the suspensions and its variation with particle volume fractions and fructose additive were determined by the 17O NMR relaxation method. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water and fructose solutions were investigated by AFM. The results indicated that a large number of water layers were physically bound on the particles

  7. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieślik Ewelina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures of bituminous coal with different types of solid waste (5, 10 and 15% of mass fraction were used. Solid waste types consisted of: printed, colored PE caps, fragmented cable trunking, fragmented car gaskets and shredded tires from trucks. During the incineration of a given mixture of municipal waste with bituminous coal, the velocity of exhaust gas was specified, the concentration and mass flow of fly ash were determined together with the physico-chemical parameters of the exhaust gas, the samples of emitted fly ash were taken as the test material. Particle size analysis of fly ash was performed using laser particle sizer Fritch Analysette 22. The PM10 share from all fly ashes from incineration of mixtures was about 100%. Differences were noted between PM2.5 and PM1.

  8. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślik, Ewelina; Konieczny, Tomasz; Bobik, Bartłomiej

    2018-01-01

    One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures of bituminous coal with different types of solid waste (5, 10 and 15% of mass fraction) were used. Solid waste types consisted of: printed, colored PE caps, fragmented cable trunking, fragmented car gaskets and shredded tires from trucks. During the incineration of a given mixture of municipal waste with bituminous coal, the velocity of exhaust gas was specified, the concentration and mass flow of fly ash were determined together with the physico-chemical parameters of the exhaust gas, the samples of emitted fly ash were taken as the test material. Particle size analysis of fly ash was performed using laser particle sizer Fritch Analysette 22. The PM10 share from all fly ashes from incineration of mixtures was about 100%. Differences were noted between PM2.5 and PM1.

  9. Mass spectra features of biomass burning boiler and coal burning boiler emitted particles by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; Li, Mei; Shi, Guoliang; Wang, Haiting; Ma, Xian; Wu, Jianhui; Shi, Xurong; Feng, Yinchang

    2017-11-15

    In this study, single particle mass spectra signatures of both coal burning boiler and biomass burning boiler emitted particles were studied. Particle samples were suspended in clean Resuspension Chamber, and analyzed by ELPI and SPAMS simultaneously. The size distribution of BBB (biomass burning boiler sample) and CBB (coal burning boiler sample) are different, as BBB peaks at smaller size, and CBB peaks at larger size. Mass spectra signatures of two samples were studied by analyzing the average mass spectrum of each particle cluster extracted by ART-2a in different size ranges. In conclusion, BBB sample mostly consists of OC and EC containing particles, and a small fraction of K-rich particles in the size range of 0.2-0.5μm. In 0.5-1.0μm, BBB sample consists of EC, OC, K-rich and Al_Silicate containing particles; CBB sample consists of EC, ECOC containing particles, while Al_Silicate (including Al_Ca_Ti_Silicate, Al_Ti_Silicate, Al_Silicate) containing particles got higher fractions as size increase. The similarity of single particle mass spectrum signatures between two samples were studied by analyzing the dot product, results indicated that part of the single particle mass spectra of two samples in the same size range are similar, which bring challenge to the future source apportionment activity by using single particle aerosol mass spectrometer. Results of this study will provide physicochemical information of important sources which contribute to particle pollution, and will support source apportionment activities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Osmotic consolidation of suspensions and gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.T.; Zukoski, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    An osmotic method for the consolidation of suspensions of ceramic particles is demonstrated. Concentrated solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) are separated from a suspension of ceramic particles by a semipermeable membrane, creating a gradient in solvent chemical potential. Solvent passes from the suspension into the polymer solution, lowering its free energy and consolidating the suspension. Dispersions of stable 8-nm hydrous zirconia particles were consolidated to over 47% by volume. Suspensions of α-alumina in three states of aggregation (dispersed, weakly flocculated, and strongly flocculated) were consolidated to densities greater than or equal to those produced in conventional pressure filtration. Moreover, the as-consolidated alumina bodies were partially drained of fluid during the osmotic consolidation process, producing cohesive partially dried bodies with improved handling characteristics

  11. Full-scale ash deposition measurements at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 during suspension-firing of wood with and without coal ash addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    The formation of deposits during suspension-firing of wood at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 (AVV2) was studied by using an advanced deposit probe system. The tests were conducted both with and without coal ash addition, and at two different locations with flue gas temperatures of 1250-1300 oC and 750...... with a high flue gas temperature of 1250-1300 oC, although the addition of coal fly ash increased the differential deposit formation rate (DDF-rate) and the ash deposition propensity, the deposit removal frequency were considerably increased and the major shedding mechanism was changed from soot...... corrosion. At the location with a low flue gas temperature of 750-800 oC, the addition of coal fly ash reduced the ash deposition propensity and caused the formed deposits being easily removable. Moreover, the KCl and KOH/K2CO3 found in the low-temperature deposits without coal ash addition disappeared when...

  12. Effects of bluff-body burner and coal particle size on NOx emissions and burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, L.S.; Cheng, J.F.; Zeng, H.C. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). National Coal Combustion Lab.

    1999-12-01

    Investigations on air staging have been carried out using various coals with different degrees of fineness and a variety of burners with a 92.9 kw h{sup -1} tunnel furnace burning pulverized coal. It has been observed that using the bluff-body burner can reduce both the unburned carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions in the case of air staging. The experimental results show that air-staging combustion has a more remarkable effect on NOx reduction for higher-volatile coal than for lower-volatile coal. The results also show that there is a strong influence of coal particle size on NOx emissions and unburned carbon in the fly ash in the case of air staging. 13 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Investigation of flow behaviour of coal particles in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H J; Sharma, V K; Kamudu, M Vidya; Prakash, S G; Krishanamoorthy, S; Anandam, G; Rao, P Seshubabu; Ramani, N V S; Singh, Gursharan; Sonde, R R

    2009-09-01

    Knowledge of residence time distribution (RTD), mean residence time (MRT) and degree of axial mixing of solid phase is required for efficient operation of coal gasification process. Radiotracer technique was used to measure the RTD of coal particles in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG). Two different radiotracers i.e. lanthanum-140 and gold-198 labeled coal particles (100 gm) were independently used as radiotracers. The radiotracer was instantaneously injected into the coal feed line and monitored at the ash extraction line at the bottom and gas outlet at the top of the gasifier using collimated scintillation detectors. The measured RTD data were treated and MRTs of coal/ash particles were determined. The treated data were simulated using tanks-in-series model. The simulation of RTD data indicated good degree of mixing with small fraction of the feed material bypassing/short-circuiting from the bottom of the gasifier. The results of the investigation were found useful for optimizing the design and operation of the FBG, and scale-up of the gasification process.

  14. Multiobjective Robust Design of the Double Wishbone Suspension System Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfu Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the suspension system is one of the most important factors in the vehicle design. For the double wishbone suspension system, the conventional deterministic optimization does not consider any deviations of design parameters, so design sensitivity analysis and robust optimization design are proposed. In this study, the design parameters of the robust optimization are the positions of the key points, and the random factors are the uncertainties in manufacturing. A simplified model of the double wishbone suspension is established by software ADAMS. The sensitivity analysis is utilized to determine main design variables. Then, the simulation experiment is arranged and the Latin hypercube design is adopted to find the initial points. The Kriging model is employed for fitting the mean and variance of the quality characteristics according to the simulation results. Further, a particle swarm optimization method based on simple PSO is applied and the tradeoff between the mean and deviation of performance is made to solve the robust optimization problem of the double wishbone suspension system.

  15. Multiobjective Robust Design of the Double Wishbone Suspension System Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuqun

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the suspension system is one of the most important factors in the vehicle design. For the double wishbone suspension system, the conventional deterministic optimization does not consider any deviations of design parameters, so design sensitivity analysis and robust optimization design are proposed. In this study, the design parameters of the robust optimization are the positions of the key points, and the random factors are the uncertainties in manufacturing. A simplified model of the double wishbone suspension is established by software ADAMS. The sensitivity analysis is utilized to determine main design variables. Then, the simulation experiment is arranged and the Latin hypercube design is adopted to find the initial points. The Kriging model is employed for fitting the mean and variance of the quality characteristics according to the simulation results. Further, a particle swarm optimization method based on simple PSO is applied and the tradeoff between the mean and deviation of performance is made to solve the robust optimization problem of the double wishbone suspension system. PMID:24683334

  16. Multiobjective robust design of the double wishbone suspension system based on particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xianfu; Lin, Yuqun

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the suspension system is one of the most important factors in the vehicle design. For the double wishbone suspension system, the conventional deterministic optimization does not consider any deviations of design parameters, so design sensitivity analysis and robust optimization design are proposed. In this study, the design parameters of the robust optimization are the positions of the key points, and the random factors are the uncertainties in manufacturing. A simplified model of the double wishbone suspension is established by software ADAMS. The sensitivity analysis is utilized to determine main design variables. Then, the simulation experiment is arranged and the Latin hypercube design is adopted to find the initial points. The Kriging model is employed for fitting the mean and variance of the quality characteristics according to the simulation results. Further, a particle swarm optimization method based on simple PSO is applied and the tradeoff between the mean and deviation of performance is made to solve the robust optimization problem of the double wishbone suspension system.

  17. Physical and combustion characteristics of biomass particles prepared by different milling processes for suspension firing in utility boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Momenikouchaksaraei, Maryam; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    close to suspension-fired boilers. The ignition, devolatilization and burnout times of the milled particles under different combustion conditions are analysed. A one-dimensional transient model, properly accounting for the particle-ambient flow interaction and appropriately addressing the key sub...

  18. Shear-induced changes of electrical conductivity in suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawshaw, John; Meeten, Gerald [Schlumberger Cambridge Research, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    The effect of shear on electrical conductivity (rheo-conduction) is studied to give information about particle behaviour in suspensions. Past work is reviewed, and expressions are derived for the rheo-conduction of a suspension of nonconducting spheroids in a conducting matrix for current flow, parallel and normal to the suspension flow direction. A simple apparatus to study rheo-conduction in pipe flow is described, and measurements of steady and time-dependent effects are reported for various suspensions of colloidal particles. Suspensions of anisometric rod- and platelike particles at low concentrations showed rheo-conductive changes of sign, magnitude and relaxation that were consistent with the particle shape, concentration and interactions. The rheo-conductive response decreased with increasing volume fraction for platelike kaolinite particles, attributed to orientational jamming. Spherical latex particles gave unexpected rheo-conductive changes consistent with shear disruption of a conductive network of particles. It is concluded that rheo-conduction measurements are a useful adjunct to conventional rheometry. (orig.)

  19. Free surface flow of a suspension of rigid particles in a non-Newtonian fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svec, Oldrich; Skocek, Jan; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A numerical framework capable of predicting the free surface flow of a suspension of rigid particles in a non-Newtonian fluid is described. The framework is a combination of the lattice Boltzmann method for fluid flow, the mass tracking algorithm for free surface representation, the immersed...

  20. Combustion Aerosols from Full-Scale Suspension-Firing of Wood Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Wu, Hao; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were to investigate the aerosol formation mechanisms during full-scale suspension firing of wood, and, to evaluate the effect of coal fly ash addition on the formation of aerosols under different ash load conditions. Tests with suspension firing of 100 % wood...

  1. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Bottom Shape on the Flow Field and Particle Suspension in a DTB Crystallizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the bottom shape on the flow field distribution and particle suspension in a DTB crystallizer was investigated by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD coupled with Two-Fluid Model (Eulerian model. Volume fractions of three sections were monitored on time, and effect on particle suspension could be obtained by analyzing the variation tendency of volume fraction. The results showed that the protruding part of a W type bottom could make the eddies smaller, leading to the increase of velocity in the vortex. Modulating the detailed structure of the W type bottom to make the bottom surface conform to the streamlines can reduce the loss of the kinetic energy of the flow fluid and obtain a larger flow velocity, which made it possible for the particles in the bottom to reach a better suspension state. Suitable shape parameters were also obtained; the concave and protruding surface diameter are 0.32 and 0.373 times of the cylindrical shell diameter, respectively. It is helpful to provide a theoretical guidance for optimization of DTB crystallizer.

  2. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  3. Rheological Modeling of Macro Viscous Flows of Granular Suspension of Regular and Irregular Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Pellegrino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to complex granular-fluid mixtures involved into geophysical flows, such as debris and hyper-concentrated flows. For such phenomena, the interstitial fluids play a role when they are in the viscous regime. Referring to experiments on granular-fluid mixture carried out with pressure imposed annular shear cell, we study the rheological behaviour of dense mixture involving both spheres and irregular-shaped particles. For the case of viscous suspensions with irregular grains, a significant scatter of data from the trend observed for mixtures with spherical particles was evident. In effect, the shape of the particles likely plays a fundamental role in the flow dynamics, and the constitutive laws proposed by the frictional theory for the spheres are no longer valid. Starting from the frictional approach successfully applied to suspension of spheres, we demonstrate that also in case of irregular particles the mixture rheology may be fully characterized by the two relationships involving friction coefficient µ and volume concentration Ф as a function of the dimensionless viscous number Iv. To this goal, we provided a new consistent general model, referring to the volume fraction law and friction law, which accounts for the particle shape. In this way, the fitting parameters reduce just to the static friction angle µ1, and the two parameters, k and fs related to the grain shape. The resulting general model may apply to steady fully developed flows of saturated granular fluid mixture in the viscous regime, no matter of granular characteristics.

  4. Near-infrared turbidity of β-FeOOH particle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdahl, P.; Espinoza, L. H.; Littlejohn, D.; Lucas, D.; Perry, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Near-infrared transmission spectroscopy can be complicated by the light scattering from heterogeneous materials. For the examination of an evolving system exhibiting such light scattering, transmission spectra near wavenumber ν=10 4 cm -1 were obtained during the hydrolysis of FeCl 3 solutions. At first, the resulting turbid suspension of cigar-shaped β-FeOOH particles exhibits single-particle scattering, including a Rayleigh regime (attenuation∝ν 4 ). At later times, the scattering increases strongly as the particles aggregate, and becomes proportional to ν α , with α≅2, consistent with scattering models that interpret the structure of aggregates in terms of a fractal dimension d f roughly equal to 2. In all cases investigated, the attenuation due to scattering is spectrally smooth and increases monotonically with wavenumber. It can be written in the simple form ν α with 1≤α≤4. While over limited spectral ranges α may be taken independent of ν, over wide ranges it decreases with increasing ν. This behavior is consistent with the theoretical limits of α=4 at ν=0, and α=0 at ν=∞. Overall, the results suggest that a useful form for simulating scattering backgrounds in near-infrared spectroscopy is Aν α , with A and α fitted constants. (c) 2000 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  5. The effect of temperature on the crystallization of α-Fe2O3 particles from dense β-FeOOH suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zic, Mark; Ristic, Mira; Music, Svetozar

    2010-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the crystallization of α-Fe 2 O 3 particles from dense β-FeOOH suspensions was monitored by 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Dense suspensions of very long laterally arranged β-FeOOH fibrils were obtained at 90 deg. C. Crystallization at 120 deg. C between 18 and 72 h yielded monodisperse α-Fe 2 O 3 particles of a shape close to that of double spheres with ring. The double spheres with ring showed two narrow particle size distributions. In these particles a substructure was detected, i.e., the spheres consisted of the linear chains of interconnected α-Fe 2 O 3 subparticles. With further rise in the crystallization temperature the increase in α-Fe 2 O 3 particles and porosity became pronounced. Obviously, the aggregation mechanism played an important role in the formation of α-Fe 2 O 3 particles.

  6. Sulfur retention by ash during coal combustion. Part I. A model of char particle combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORISLAV GRUBOR

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A model for the combustion of porous char particles as a basis for modeling the process of sulfur retention by ash during coal combustion is developed in this paper. The model belongs to the microscopic intrinsic models and describes the dynamic behavior of a porous char particle during comustion, taking into account temporal and spatial changes of all important physical properties of the char particle and various combustion parameters. The parametric analysis of the enhanced model shows that the model represents a good basis for the development of a model for the process of sulfur retention by ash during coal combustion. The model enables the prediction of the values of all parameters necessary for the introduction of reactions between sulfur compounds and mineral components in ash, primarily calcium oxide.

  7. Boundary Effects and Shear Thickening of Colloidal Suspensions: A study based on measurement of Suspension Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, M. Tharanga D.

    Microstructure is key to understanding rheological behaviors of flowing particulate suspensions. During the past decade, Stokesian Dynamics simulations have been the dominant method of determining suspension microstructure. Structure results obtained numerically reveal that an anisotropic structure is formed under high Peclet (Pe) number conditions. Researchers have used various experimental techniques such as small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and light scattering methods to validate microstructure. This work outlines an experimental technique based on confocal microscopy to study microstructure of a colloidal suspension in an index-matched fluid flowing in a microchannel. High resolution scans determining individual particle locations in suspensions 30-50 vol % yield quantitative results of the local microstructure in the form of the pair distribution function, g(r). From these experimentally determined g(r), the effect of shear rate, quantified by the Peclet number as a ratio of shear and Brownian stress, on the suspension viscosity and normal stress follow that seen in macroscopic rheological measurements and simulations. It is generally believed that shear thickening behavior of colloidal suspensions is driven by the formation of hydroclusters. From measurements of particle locations, hydroclusters are identified. The number of hydroclusters grows exponentially with increasing Pe, and the onset of shear thickening is driven by the increase in formation of clusters having 5-8 particles. At higher Pe, we notice the emergence of 12 or more particle clusters. The internal structure of these hydroclusters has been investigated, and there is some evidence that particles internal to hydroclusters preferentially align along the 45° and 135° axis. Beyond observations of bulk suspension behavior, the influence of boundaries on suspension microstructure is also investigated. Experiments were performed for suspensions flowing over smooth walls, made of glass

  8. Experimental studies on the group ignition of a cloud of coal particles: Volume 2, Pyrolysis and ignition modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annamalai, K.; Ryan, W.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objectives of this work are to formulate a model to simulate transient coal pyrolysis, ignition, and combustion of a cloud of coal particles and to compare results of the program with those reported in the literature elsewhere.

  9. Bulk and interfacial stresses in suspensions of soft and hard colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truzzolillo, D; Roger, V; Dupas, C; Cipelletti, L; Mora, S

    2015-01-01

    We explore the influence of particle softness and internal structure on both the bulk and interfacial rheological properties of colloidal suspensions. We probe bulk stresses by conventional rheology, by measuring the flow curves, shear stress versus strain rate, for suspensions of soft, deformable microgel particles and suspensions of near hard-sphere-like silica particles. A similar behaviour is seen for both kinds of particles in suspensions at concentrations up to the random close packing volume fraction, in agreement with recent theoretical predictions for sub-micron colloids. Transient interfacial stresses are measured by analyzing the patterns formed by the interface between the suspensions and their solvent, due to a generalized Saffman–Taylor hydrodynamic instability. At odds with the bulk behaviour, we find that microgels and hard particle suspensions exhibit vastly different interfacial stress properties. We propose that this surprising behaviour results mainly from the difference in particle internal structure (polymeric network for microgels versus compact solid for the silica particles), rather than softness alone. (paper)

  10. Capillary Structured Suspensions from in Situ Hydrophobized Calcium Carbonate Particles Suspended in a Polar Liquid Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunstan, Timothy S.; Das, Anupam A.K.; Starck, Pierre; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Paunov, Vesselin N.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate that capillary suspensions can be formed from hydrophilic calcium carbonate particles suspended in a polar continuous media and connected by capillary bridges formed of minute amounts of an immiscible secondary liquid phase. This was achieved in two different polar continuous phases,

  11. Viscosity of aqueous and cyanate ester suspensions containing alumina nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, Katherine [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The viscosities of both aqueous and cyanate ester monomer (BECy) based suspensions of alumina nanoparticle were studied. The applications for these suspensions are different: aqueous suspensions of alumina nanoparticles are used in the production of technical ceramics made by slip casting or tape casting, and the BECy based suspensions are being developed for use in an injection-type composite repair resin. In the case of aqueous suspensions, it is advantageous to achieve a high solids content with low viscosity in order to produce a high quality product. The addition of a dispersant is useful so that higher solids content suspensions can be used with lower viscosities. For BECy suspensions, the addition of nanoparticles to the BECy resin is expected to enhance the mechanical properties of the cured composite. The addition of saccharides to aqueous suspensions leads to viscosity reduction. Through DSC measurements it was found that the saccharide molecules formed a solution with water and this resulted in lowering the melting temperature of the free water according to classic freezing point depression. Saccharides also lowered the melting temperature of the bound water, but this followed a different rule. The shear thinning and melting behaviors of the suspensions were used to develop a model based on fractal-type agglomeration. It is believed that the structure of the particle flocs in these suspensions changes with the addition of saccharides which leads to the resultant viscosity decrease. The viscosity of the BECy suspensions increased with solids content, and the viscosity increase was greater than predicted by the classical Einstein equation for dilute suspensions. Instead, the Mooney equation fits the viscosity behavior well from 0-20 vol% solids. The viscosity reduction achieved at high particle loadings by the addition of benzoic acid was also investigated by NMR. It appears that the benzoic acid interacts with the surface of the alumina particle which may

  12. Phagocytosis in phosphate chromium (III) suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Arencibia, Jorge; Fano Machín, Yoiz; Cruz-Morales, Ahmed; Tamayo Fuente, Radamés; Morín-Zorrilla, José

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis in vivo and in vitro of a suspension of chromic phosphate (III) labeled with 51 Cr and 32 P is studied. The radioactive particles dispersed in a media of 2 % gelatin in acetate buffer pH 4-4.5 have a predominant size of 0.8 μm and 5 μm. According with biodistribution experiments in rats after 30 minutes near the 80 % of radioactivity is registered in the liver, probably associated with phagocytosis of the particles by liver Kupffer cells. Is also showed that the suspension particles are phagocytized in vitro by mouse peritoneal macrophages. This facts indicate that the studied suspension have appropriate characteristics to be used in radiosynoviorthesis according to the principal action mechanism described for this procedure, particles phagocytosis by cells present in the inflamed synovium. (author)

  13. The behavior of ash species in suspension fired biomass boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt

    While fluid bed and grate fired boilers initially was the choice of boilers used for power production from both wood and herbaceous biomass, in recent years suspension fired boilers have been increasingly used for biomass based power production. In Denmark several large pulverized fuel boilers have...... been converted from coal to biomass combustion in the last 15 years. This have included co-firing of coal and straw, up to 100% firing of wood or straw andthe use of coal ash as an additive to remedy problems with wood firing. In parallel to the commercialization of the pulverized biomass firing...... technology a long range of research studies have been conducted, to improve our understanding of the influence and behavior of biomass ash species in suspension fired boilers. The fuel ash plays a key role with respect tooptimal boiler operation and influences phenomena’s as boiler chamber deposit formation...

  14. Relationship between Particle Size Distribution of Low-Rank Pulverized Coal and Power Plant Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajive Ganguli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of particle size distribution (PSD of pulverized, low rank high volatile content Alaska coal on combustion related power plant performance was studied in a series of field scale tests. Performance was gauged through efficiency (ratio of megawatt generated to energy consumed as coal, emissions (SO2, NOx, CO, and carbon content of ash (fly ash and bottom ash. The study revealed that the tested coal could be burned at a grind as coarse as 50% passing 76 microns, with no deleterious impact on power generation and emissions. The PSD’s tested in this study were in the range of 41 to 81 percent passing 76 microns. There was negligible correlation between PSD and the followings factors: efficiency, SO2, NOx, and CO. Additionally, two tests where stack mercury (Hg data was collected, did not demonstrate any real difference in Hg emissions with PSD. The results from the field tests positively impacts pulverized coal power plants that burn low rank high volatile content coals (such as Powder River Basin coal. These plants can potentially reduce in-plant load by grinding the coal less (without impacting plant performance on emissions and efficiency and thereby, increasing their marketability.

  15. Investigations concerning the mechanism of action of brown-coal coke particles in aerobic biological waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, W.

    1990-01-01

    At the start of this work experience with the use of brown coal coke in the activated sludge process was lacking entirely. It therefore was necessary to carry through preliminary experiments in order to practically test the effect of Grown-coal coke. In two technical-scale experiments and a pilot test, very good results were obtained with the application of brown-coal coke to activated sludge. These, and previously published results, permitted to evolve moodel concepts of the mechanism of action of coal, especially brown coal coke, in activated sludge. According to these concepts the coal particles act as buffers and a temporary adsorbent of oxygen and waste water constituents. This in turn stimulates the colonization of the surface with microorganisms. In order to corroborate these model concepts, the - adsorption and desorption of solved oxygen to coal in a watery medium and - the effect of coal over a longer period of time were investigated. The results in essence confirm the model concepts. (UWa) [de

  16. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-08-15

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO2 control, NOx control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research has yielded data on trace metal partitioning for MSS by itself, with natural gas assist, for coal plus MSS combustion together, and for coal alone. We have re-evaluated the inhalation health effects of ash aerosol from combustion of MSS both by itself and also together with coal. We have concluded that ash from the co-combustion of MSS and coal is very much worse from an inhalation health point of view, than ash from either MSS by itself or coal by itself. The reason is that ZnO is not the ''bad actor'' as had been suspected before, but the culprit is, rather, sulfated Zn. The MSS supplies the Zn and the coal supplies the sulfur, and so it is the combination of coal and MSS that makes that process environmentally bad. If MSS is to be burned, it should be burned without coal, in the absence of sulfur.

  17. Differential pulmonary inflammation and in vitro cytotoxicity of size-fractionated fly ash particles from pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ian Gilmour; Silvia O' Connor; Colin A.J. Dick; C. Andrew Miller; William P. Linak [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory

    2004-03-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse health effects in humans. Pulmonary inflammatory responses were examined in CD1 mice after intratracheal instillation of 25 or 100 {mu}g of ultrafine ({lt}0.2 {mu}m), fine ({lt}2.5 {mu}m), and coarse ({gt}2.5 {mu}m) coal fly ash from a combusted Montana subbituminous coal, and of fine and coarse fractions from a combusted western Kentucky bituminous coal. After 18 hr, the lungs were lavaged and the bronchoalveolar fluid was assessed for cellular influx, biochemical markers, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The responses were compared with saline and endotoxin as negative and positive controls, respectively. On an equal mass basis, the ultrafine particles from combusted Montana coal induced a higher degree of neutrophil inflammation and cytokine levels than did the fine or coarse PM. The western Kentucky fine PM caused a moderate degree of inflammation and protein levels in bronchoalveolar fluid that were higher than the Montana fine PM. Coarse PM did not produce any significant effects. In vitro experiments with rat alveolar macrophages showed that of the particles tested, only the Montana ultrafine displayed significant cytotoxicity. It is concluded that fly ash toxicity is inversely related with particle size and is associated with increased sulfur and trace element content. 42 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Particle-scale structure in frozen colloidal suspensions from small-angle x-ray scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Spannuth, Melissa

    2011-02-01

    During directional solidification of the solvent in a colloidal suspension, the colloidal particles segregate from the growing solid, forming high-particle-density regions with structure on a hierarchy of length scales ranging from that of the particle-scale packing to the large-scale spacing between these regions. Previous work has concentrated mostly on the medium- to large-length scale structure, as it is the most accessible and thought to be more technologically relevant. However, the packing of the colloids at the particle scale is an important component not only in theoretical descriptions of the segregation process, but also to the utility of freeze-cast materials for new applications. Here we present the results of experiments in which we investigated this structure across a wide range of length scales using a combination of small-angle x-ray scattering and direct optical imaging. As expected, during freezing the particles were concentrated into regions between ice dendrites forming a microscopic pattern of high- and low-particle-density regions. X-ray scattering indicates that the particles in the high-density regions were so closely packed as to be touching. However, the arrangement of the particles does not conform to that predicted by standard interparticle pair potentials, suggesting that the particle packing induced by freezing differs from that formed during equilibrium densification processes. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  19. Particle-scale structure in frozen colloidal suspensions from small-angle x-ray scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Spannuth, Melissa; Mochrie, S. G. J.; Peppin, S. S. L.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    During directional solidification of the solvent in a colloidal suspension, the colloidal particles segregate from the growing solid, forming high-particle-density regions with structure on a hierarchy of length scales ranging from that of the particle-scale packing to the large-scale spacing between these regions. Previous work has concentrated mostly on the medium- to large-length scale structure, as it is the most accessible and thought to be more technologically relevant. However, the packing of the colloids at the particle scale is an important component not only in theoretical descriptions of the segregation process, but also to the utility of freeze-cast materials for new applications. Here we present the results of experiments in which we investigated this structure across a wide range of length scales using a combination of small-angle x-ray scattering and direct optical imaging. As expected, during freezing the particles were concentrated into regions between ice dendrites forming a microscopic pattern of high- and low-particle-density regions. X-ray scattering indicates that the particles in the high-density regions were so closely packed as to be touching. However, the arrangement of the particles does not conform to that predicted by standard interparticle pair potentials, suggesting that the particle packing induced by freezing differs from that formed during equilibrium densification processes. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  20. Bottom concentrations Determination of particle material in suspension in Medellin City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverri Londono, Carlos Alberto

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is at achieving a better understanding of background concentrations of particle materials in suspension (pst) in Medellin. This will allow certain actions and programs for watching and controlling air pollution in this city. Metals analyzed in particle material were: calcium, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, nickel and lead. Chromium and nickel were not detected in any station and lead was detected in one station only. It is observed that all metals have a large dispersion, excepting total iron in La America and magnesium in point 2 at Belencito, which demonstrates the high temporal variability of these metals in these places. also It is observed that metals do not have a homogenous variation in their breathable fraction (encountered in pm-10) in relation to the total metals (encountered in PST) which is indication of the different sources contribution to the metals concentration and, in general, of PST and PM - 10

  1. Detection of Coal Fires: A Case Study Conducted on Indian Coal Seams Using Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    India produces majority of its electricity from coal but a huge quantity of coal burns every day due to coal fires and also poses a threat to the environment as severe pollutants. In the present study we had demonstrated the usage of Neural Network based approach with an integrated Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) inversion technique. The Self Potential (SP) data set is used for the early detection of coal fires. The study was conducted over the East Basuria colliery, Jharia Coal Field, Jharkhand, India. The causative source was modelled as an inclined sheet like anomaly and the synthetic data was generated. Neural Network scheme consists of an input layer, hidden layers and an output layer. The input layer corresponds to the SP data and the output layer is the estimated depth of the coal fire. A synthetic dataset was modelled with some of the known parameters such as depth, conductivity, inclination angle, half width etc. associated with causative body and gives a very low misfit error of 0.0032%. Therefore, the method was found accurate in predicting the depth of the source body. The technique was applied to the real data set and the model was trained until a very good correlation of determination `R2' value of 0.98 is obtained. The depth of the source body was found to be 12.34m with a misfit error percentage of 0.242%. The inversion results were compared with the lithologs obtained from a nearby well which corresponds to the L3 coal seam. The depth of the coal fire had exactly matched with the half width of the anomaly which suggests that the fire is widely spread. The inclination angle of the anomaly was 135.510 which resembles the development of the geometrically complex fracture planes. These fractures may be developed due to anisotropic weakness of the ground which acts as passage for the air. As a result coal fires spreads along these fracture planes. The results obtained from the Neural Network was compared with PSO inversion results and were found in

  2. Fouling deposition characteristic by variation of coal particle size and deposition temperature in DTF (Drop Tube Furnace)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkung, Hueon; Jeon, Youngshin; Kim, Hyungtaek [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Energy Systems Research; Xu, Li-hua [IAE, Suwon (Korea, Republic of). Plant Engineering Center

    2013-07-01

    One of the major operation obstacles in gasification process is ash deposition phenomenon. In this investigation, experiment was carried out to examine coal fouling characteristics using a laminar DTF (Drop Tube Furnace) with variation of operating condition such as different coal size, and probe surface temperature. Four different samples of pulverized coal were injected into DTF under various conditions. The ash particles are deposited on probe by impacting and agglomerating action. Fouling grains are made of eutectic compound, which is made by reacting with acid minerals and alkali minerals, in EPMA (Electron Probe Micro-Analysis). And agglomeration area of fouling at top layer is wide more than it of middle and bottom layer. The major mineral factors of fouling phenomenon are Fe, Ca, and Mg. The deposition quantity of fouling increases with increasing particle size, high alkali mineral (Fe, Ca, and Mg) contents, and ash deposition temperature.

  3. Ash fusion temperatures and the transformations of coal ash particles to slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.K.; Wall, T.F.; Creelman, R.A.; Gupta, R.P. [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). CRC for Black Coal Utilisation

    1998-07-01

    A mechanistic study is detailed in which coal ash is heated with its shrinkage measured continuously up to a temperature of 1600{degree}C. The temperature corresponding to the rapid rate of shrinkage correspond to the formation of eutectics identified on phase diagrams. Samples were therefore heated to these temperatures, cooled rapidly and examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to identify the associated chemical and physical changes. The progressive changes in the range of chemical composition (from SEM), the extent of undissolved ash particles and porosity were then quantified and related to homogenisation, viscosity and ash fusion mechanisms. Alternate ash fusion temperatures based on different levels of shrinkage have also been suggested to characterise the ash deposition tendency of the coals. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Bidisperse and polydisperse suspension rheology at large solid fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pednekar, Sidhant [Benjamin Levich Institute and Department of Chemical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, New York 10031; Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352; Morris, Jeffrey F. [Benjamin Levich Institute and Department of Chemical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, New York 10031

    2018-03-01

    At the same solid volume fraction, bidisperse and polydisperse suspensions display lower viscosities, and weaker normal stress response, compared to monodisperse suspensions. The reduction of viscosity associated with size distribution can be explained by an increase of the maximum flowable, or jamming, solid fraction. In this work, concentrated or "dense" suspensions are simulated under strong shearing, where thermal motion and repulsive forces are negligible, but we allow for particle contact with a mild frictional interaction with interparticle friction coefficient of 0.2. Aspects of bidisperse suspension rheology are first revisited to establish that the approach reproduces established trends; the study of bidisperse suspensions at size ratios of large to small particle radii (2 to 4) shows that a minimum in the viscosity occurs for zeta slightly above 0.5, where zeta=phi_{large}/phi is the fraction of the total solid volume occupied by the large particles. The simple shear flows of polydisperse suspensions with truncated normal and log normal size distributions, and bidisperse suspensions which are statistically equivalent with these polydisperse cases up to third moment of the size distribution, are simulated and the rheologies are extracted. Prior work shows that such distributions with equivalent low-order moments have similar phi_{m}, and the rheological behaviors of normal, log normal and bidisperse cases are shown to be in close agreement for a wide range of standard deviation in particle size, with standard correlations which are functionally dependent on phi/phi_{m} providing excellent agreement with the rheology found in simulation. The close agreement of both viscosity and normal stress response between bi- and polydisperse suspensions demonstrates the controlling in influence of the maximum packing fraction in noncolloidal suspensions. Microstructural investigations and the stress distribution according to particle size are also presented.

  5. Distribution of trace elements in selected pulverized coals as a function of particle size and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, C.L.; Zeng, T.; Che, J.; Ames, M.R.; Sarofim, A.F.; Olmez, I.; Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Mroczkowski, S.; Palmer, C.; Finkelman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in coal have diverse modes of occurrence that will greatly influence their behavior in many coal utilization processes. Mode of occurrence is important in determining the partitioning during coal cleaning by conventional processes, the susceptibility to oxidation upon exposure to air, as well as the changes in physical properties upon heating. In this study, three complementary methods were used to determine the concentrations and chemical states of trace elements in pulverized samples of four US coals: Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, Elkhorn and Hazard, and Wyodak coals. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to measure the absolute concentration of elements in the parent coals and in the size- and density-fractionated samples. Chemical leaching and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to provide information on the form of occurrence of an element in the parent coals. The composition differences between size-segregated coal samples of different density mainly reflect the large density difference between minerals, especially pyrite, and the organic portion of the coal. The heavy density fractions are therefore enriched in pyrite and the elements associated with pyrite, as also shown by the leaching and XAFS methods. Nearly all the As is associated with pyrite in the three bituminous coals studied. The sub-bituminous coal has a very low content of pyrite and arsenic; in this coal arsenic appears to be primarily organically associated. Selenium is mainly associated with pyrite in the bituminous coal samples. In two bituminous coal samples, zinc is mostly in the form of ZnS or associated with pyrite, whereas it appears to be associated with other minerals in the other two coals. Zinc is also the only trace element studied that is significantly more concentrated in the smaller (45 to 63 ??m) coal particles.

  6. Treating effluents; recovering coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, F B; Bury, E

    1920-02-18

    Liquor obtained by scrubbing coal gas with sea-water or fresh water, and containing or having added to it finely-divided carbonaceous material in suspension, is subjected to a froth-flotation process to recover the carbonaceous matter and organic materials in the froth, and render the remaining liquor innocuous. Liquor obtained by scrubbing distillation gases, such as coal gas, may be used as a frothing-agent in a froth flotation process for the recovery of carbonaceous substances such as coal from materials containing them, thereby producing a froth containing the coal, etc., and also the organic materials from the liquor. In some cases the effluent may be diluted with sea-water, and, in recovering carbonaceous shales, there may be added to the liquor a small proportion of paraffin oil.

  7. Effects of intraparticle heat and mass transfer during devolatilization of a single coal particle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bliek, A.; Poelje, W.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; van Beckum, F.P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to elucidate the influence of intraparticle mass and heat transfer phenomena on the overall rate and product yields during devolatilization of a single coal particle in an inert atmosphere. To this end a mathematical model has been formulated which covers

  8. Chemical resistance of core-shell particles (PS/PMMA) polymerized by seeded suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Luiz Fernando Belchior; Machado, Ricardo Antonio Francisco, E-mail: ricardo.machado@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Gonçalves, Odinei Hess [Universidade Técnológica Federal do Paraná(UTFPR), Campo Mourão, PR (Brazil); Marangoni, Cintia [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Blumenau, SC (Brazil); Motz, Günter [Lehrstuhl Keramische Werkstoffe, Universität Bayreuth (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Core-shell particles were produced on seeded suspension polymerization by using polystyrene (PS) as polymer core, or seed, and methyl methacrylate (MMA) as the shell forming monomer. Two synthesis routes were evaluated by varying the PS seed conversion before MMA addition. The main purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of synthesis routes on the morphology and chemical resistance of the resulting particles. {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy showed that the use of PS seeds with lower conversion led to the formation of higher amount of poly(styrene-co-MMA). The copolymer acted as a compatibilizer, decreasing the interfacial energy between both homopolymers. As a consequence, a larger amount of reduced PMMA cluster were formed, as was revealed by TEM measurements. Samples in this system showed enhanced resistance to cyclohexane attack compared with pure PS, with a PS extraction of only 37% after 54 hours test. (author)

  9. Chemical resistance of core-shell particles (PS/PMMA polymerized by seeded suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Belchior Ribeiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Core-shell particles were produced on seeded suspension polymerization by using polystyrene (PS as polymer core, or seed, and methyl methacrylate (MMA as the shell forming monomer. Two synthesis routes were evaluated by varying the PS seed conversion before MMA addition. The main purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of synthesis routes on the morphology and chemical resistance of the resulting particles. 1H NMR spectroscopy showed that the use of PS seeds with lower conversion led to the formation of higher amount of poly(styrene-co-MMA. The copolymer acted as a compatibilizer, decreasing the interfacial energy between both homopolymers. As a consequence, a larger amount of reduced PMMA cluster were formed, as was revealed by TEM measurements. Samples in this system showed enhanced resistance to cyclohexane attack compared with pure PS, with a PS extraction of only 37% after 54 hours test.

  10. Effective viscosity of 2D suspensions - Confinement effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyla, Philippe; Priem, Stephane; Vincent, Doyeux; Farutin, Alexander; Ismail, Mourad

    2014-11-01

    We study the rheology of a sheared 2D suspension of non-Brownian disks in presence of walls. Although, it is of course possible today with modern computers and powerful algorithms to perform direct numerical simulations that fully account for multiparticle 3D interactions, the analysis of the simple case of a 2D suspension, provides valuable insights and helps to understand 3D results. For instance, we examine the role of particle-wall and particle-particle interactions in determining the rheology of confined sheared suspensions. In addition we evaluate the intrinsic viscosity as well as the contribution of hydrodynamic interactions to the dissipation as a function of a wide range of confinements. Thanks to the direct visualisation of the whole 2D Stokes flow, we are able to give a clear interpretation about the rheology of semi-dilute confined suspensions.

  11. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    OpenAIRE

    Guazzelli , Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing) and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava). Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liq...

  12. Investigating high-concentration monoclonal antibody powder suspension in nonaqueous suspension vehicles for subcutaneous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Mayumi; Armstrong, Nick; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2012-12-01

    Developing high-concentration monoclonal antibody (mAb) liquid formulations for subcutaneous (s.c.) administration is challenging because increased viscosity makes injection difficult. To overcome this obstacle, we investigated a nonaqueous powder suspension approach. Three IgG1 mAbs were spray dried and suspended at different concentrations in Miglyol® 840, benzyl benzoate, or ethyl lactate. Suspensions were characterized for viscosity, particle size, and syringeability; physical stability was visually inspected. Suspensions generally outperformed liquid solutions for injectability despite higher viscosity at the same mAb concentrations. Powder formulations and properties had little effect on viscosity or injectability. Ethyl lactate suspensions had lowest viscosity (Miglyol® 840 improved overall performance in high mAb concentration suspensions. This study demonstrated the viability of high mAb concentration (>300 mg/mL) in suspension formulations for s.c. administration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A transgenic plant cell-suspension system for expression of epitopes on chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthamilselvan, Thangarasu; Lee, Chin-Wei; Cho, Yu-Hsin; Wu, Feng-Chao; Hu, Chung-Chi; Liang, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Na-Sheng; Hsu, Yau-Heiu

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel strategy to produce vaccine antigens using a plant cell-suspension culture system in lieu of the conventional bacterial or animal cell-culture systems. We generated transgenic cell-suspension cultures from Nicotiana benthamiana leaves carrying wild-type or chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) expression constructs encoding the viral protein 1 (VP1) epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Antigens accumulated to high levels in BdT38 and BdT19 transgenic cell lines co-expressing silencing suppressor protein P38 or P19. BaMV chimeric virus particles (CVPs) were subsequently purified from the respective cell lines (1.5 and 2.1 mg CVPs/20 g fresh weight of suspended biomass, respectively), and the resulting CVPs displayed VP1 epitope on the surfaces. Guinea pigs vaccinated with purified CVPs produced humoral antibodies. This study represents an important advance in the large-scale production of immunopeptide vaccines in a cost-effective manner using a plant cell-suspension culture system. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Chain Dynamics in Magnetorheological Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, A. P.; Furst, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) suspensions are composed of colloidal particles which acquire dipole moments when subjected to an external magnetic field. At sufficient field strengths and concentrations, the dipolar particles rapidly aggregate to form long chains. Subsequent lateral cross-linking of the dipolar chains is responsible for a rapid liquid-to-solid-like rheological transition. The unique, magnetically-activated rheological properties of MR suspensions make them ideal for interfacing mechanical systems to electronic controls. Additionally, the ability to experimentally probe colloidal suspensions interacting through tunable anisotropic potentials is of fundamental interest. Our current experimental work has focused on understanding the fluctuations of dipolar chains. It has been proposed by Halsey and Toor (HT) that the strong Landau-Peierls thermal fluctuations of dipolar chains could be responsible for long-range attractions between chains. Such interactions will govern the long-time relaxation of MR suspensions. We have synthesized monodisperse neutrally buoyant MR suspensions by density matching stabilized ferrofluid emulsion droplets with D2O. This allows us to probe the dynamics of the dipolar chains using light scattering without gravitational, interfacial, and polydispersity effects to resolve the short-wavelength dynamics of the dipolar chains. We used diffusing wave spectroscopy to measure these dynamics. The particle displacements at short times that show an independence to the field strength, but at long times exhibit a constrained, sub-diffusive motion that slows as the dipole strength is increased. The experiments are in good qualitative agreement with Brownian dynamics simulations of dipolar chains. Although there have been several important and detailed studies of the structure and interactions in MR suspensions, there has not been conclusive evidence that supports or contradicts the HT model prediction that long-range interactions exist between

  15. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    OpenAIRE

    Guazzelli Élisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing) and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava). Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liquid and by mechanical co...

  16. Weakly sheared active suspensions: hydrodynamics, stability, and rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhenlu

    2011-03-01

    We present a kinetic model for flowing active suspensions and analyze the behavior of a suspension subjected to a weak steady shear. Asymptotic solutions are sought in Deborah number expansions. At the leading order, we explore the steady states and perform their stability analysis. We predict the rheology of active systems including an activity thickening or thinning behavior of the apparent viscosity and a negative apparent viscosity depending on the particle type, flow alignment, and the anchoring conditions, which can be tested on bacterial suspensions. We find remarkable dualities that show that flow-aligning rodlike contractile (extensile) particles are dynamically and rheologically equivalent to flow-aligning discoid extensile (contractile) particles for both tangential and homeotropic anchoring conditions. Another key prediction of this work is the role of the concentration of active suspensions in controlling the rheological behavior: the apparent viscosity may decrease with the increase of the concentration.

  17. Modeling char conversion under suspension fired conditions in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this investigation has been to model combustion under suspension fired conditions in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 mixtures. Experiments used for model validation have been carried out in an electrically heated Entrained Flow Reactor (EFR) at temperatures between 1173 K and 1673 K with inlet O2...... concentrations between 5 and 28 vol.%. The COal COmbustion MOdel, COCOMO, includes the three char morphologies: cenospheric char, network char and dense char each divided between six discrete particle sizes. Both combustion and gasification with CO2 are accounted for and reaction rates include thermal char...

  18. Influence of the shape of soaring particle based on coal-water slurry containing petrochemicals on ignition characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin Timur R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the laws of stable ignition of organic coal-water slurry containing petrochemicals (CWSP. The CWSP is based on the filter cake of coal and scavenge oil. The experiments are performed for individual CWSP particles soaring in a special set-up. The temperature and velocity of an oxidizer flow are varied between 500-1200 K, and 0.5-3 m/s. The dimensions (longitudinal and transverse of particles range are from 0.5 mm to 5 mm. The study indicates how the shape of a fuel particle (sphere, ellipsoid, and polyhedron influences its ignition characteristics (delay time, minimum temperature, modes, stages. Based on the experimental results, the paper explains why the surface configuration of particles influences the conditions of heat transfer with an oxidizer. The results obtained for soaring particles are compared with the results for fixed CWSP particles having different surface configurations (sphere, ellipsoid, and polyhedron. In general, the study may contribute to the expansion of the fuel resource base. The experimental data may be used for the development of the technologies of burning CWSP prepared by recycling traditional fuels. As a result of this study, several recommendations for the practical application of research results are made.

  19. Armoring confined bubbles in concentrated colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxian; Khodaparast, Sepideh; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Encapsulation of a bubble with microparticles is known to significantly improve the stability of the bubble. This phenomenon has recently gained increasing attention due to its application in a variety of technologies such as foam stabilization, drug encapsulation and colloidosomes. Nevertheless, the production of such colloidal armored bubble with controlled size and particle coverage ratio is still a great challenge industrially. We study the coating process of a long air bubble by microparticles in a circular tube filled with a concentrated microparticles colloidal suspension. As the bubble proceeds in the suspension of particles, a monolayer of micro-particles forms on the interface of the bubble, which eventually results in a fully armored bubble. We investigate the phenomenon that triggers and controls the evolution of the particle accumulation on the bubble interface. Moreover, we examine the effects of the mean flow velocity, the size of the colloids and concentration of the suspension on the dynamics of the armored bubble. The results of this study can potentially be applied to production of particle-encapsulated bubbles, surface-cleaning techniques, and gas-assisted injection molding.

  20. Towards a better understanding of biomass suspension co-firing impacts via investigating a coal flame and a biomass flame in a swirl-stabilized burner flow reactor under same conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    increases the residence time of coal particles. Both the factors favor a complete burnout of the coal particles. The higher volatile yields of the straw produce more off-gas, requiring more O2 for the fast gas phase combustion and causing the off-gas to proceed to a much larger volume in the reactor prior...... to mixing with oxidizer. For the pulverized straw particles of a few hundred microns in diameters, the intra-particle conversion is found to be a secondary issue at most in their combustion. The simulations also show that a simple switch of the straw injection mode can not improve the burnout of the straw...

  1. Picobubble column flotation of fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Tao; Samuel Yu; Xiaohua Zhou; R.Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Department of Mining Engineering

    2008-01-15

    Froth flotation is widely used in the coal industry to clean -28 mesh (0.6 mm) or -100 mesh (0.15 mm) fine coal. A successful recovery of particles by flotation depends on efficient particle-bubble collision and attachment with minimal subsequent particle detachment from bubble. Flotation is effective in a narrow size range, nominally 10-100 {mu}m, beyond which the flotation efficiency drops sharply. A fundamental analysis has shown that use of picobubbles can significantly improve the flotation recovery of particles by increasing the probability of collision and attachment and reducing the probability of detachment. A specially designed column with a picobubble generator has been developed for enhanced recovery of fine coal particles. Picobubbles were produced based on the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. Experimental results have shown that the use of picobubbles in a 5-cm diameter column flotation increased the combustible recovery of a highly floatable coal by up to 10% and that of a poorly floatable coal by up to 40%, depending on the feed rate, collector dosage, and other flotation conditions. 14 refs.

  2. Low Reynolds number suspension gravity currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sandeep; Salin, Dominique; Talon, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    The extension of a gravity current in a lock-exchange problem, proceeds as square root of time in the viscous-buoyancy phase, where there is a balance between gravitational and viscous forces. In the presence of particles however, this scenario is drastically altered, because sedimentation reduces the motive gravitational force and introduces a finite distance and time at which the gravity current halts. We investigate the spreading of low Reynolds number suspension gravity currents using a novel approach based on the Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method. The suspension is modeled as a continuous medium with a concentration-dependent viscosity. The settling of particles is simulated using a drift flux function approach that enables us to capture sudden discontinuities in particle concentration that travel as kinematic shock waves. Thereafter a numerical investigation of lock-exchange flows between pure fluids of unequal viscosity, reveals the existence of wall layers which reduce the spreading rate substantially compared to the lubrication theory prediction. In suspension gravity currents, we observe that the settling of particles leads to the formation of two additional fronts: a horizontal front near the top that descends vertically and a sediment layer at the bottom which aggrandises due to deposition of particles. Three phases are identified in the spreading process: the final corresponding to the mutual approach of the two horizontal fronts while the laterally advancing front halts indicating that the suspension current stops even before all the particles have settled. The first two regimes represent a constant and a decreasing spreading rate respectively. Finally we conduct experiments to substantiate the conclusions of our numerical and theoretical investigation.

  3. Pressure Prediction of Coal Slurry Transportation Pipeline Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Kernel Function Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-cun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For coal slurry pipeline blockage prediction problem, through the analysis of actual scene, it is determined that the pressure prediction from each measuring point is the premise of pipeline blockage prediction. Kernel function of support vector machine is introduced into extreme learning machine, the parameters are optimized by particle swarm algorithm, and blockage prediction method based on particle swarm optimization kernel function extreme learning machine (PSOKELM is put forward. The actual test data from HuangLing coal gangue power plant are used for simulation experiments and compared with support vector machine prediction model optimized by particle swarm algorithm (PSOSVM and kernel function extreme learning machine prediction model (KELM. The results prove that mean square error (MSE for the prediction model based on PSOKELM is 0.0038 and the correlation coefficient is 0.9955, which is superior to prediction model based on PSOSVM in speed and accuracy and superior to KELM prediction model in accuracy.

  4. Structure and rheology of nanoparticle–polymer suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Srivastava, Samanvaya

    2012-01-01

    Structure and rheology of oligomer-tethered nanoparticles suspended in low molecular weight polymeric host are investigated at various particle sizes and loadings. Strong curvature effects introduced by the small size of the nanoparticle cores are found to be important for understanding both the phase stability and rheology of the materials. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate that PEG-SiO 2/PEG suspensions are more stable against phase separation and aggregation than expected from theory for interacting brushes. SAXS and rheology measurements also reveal that at high particle loadings, the stabilizing oligomer brush is significantly compressed and produces jamming in the suspensions. The jamming transition is accompanied by what appears to be a unique evolution in the transient suspension rheology, along with large increments in the zero-shear, Newtonian viscosity. The linear and nonlinear flow responses of the jammed suspensions are discussed in the framework of the Soft Glassy Rheology (SGR) model, which is shown to predict many features that are consistent with experimental observations, including a two-step relaxation following flow cessation and a facile method for determining the shear-thinning coefficient from linear viscoelastic measurements. Finally, we show that the small sizes of the particles have a significant effect on inter-particle interactions and rheology, leading to stronger deviations from expectations based on planar brushes and hard-sphere suspension theories. In particular, we find that in the high volume fraction limit, tethered nanoparticles interact in their host polymer through short-range forces, which are more analogous to those between soft particles than between spherical polymer brushes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Picobubble enhanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Y.J.; Liu, J.T.; Yu, S.; Tao, D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Froth flotation is widely used in the coal industry to clean -28 mesh fine coal. A successful recovery of particles by flotation depends on efficient particle-bubble collision and attachment with minimal subsequent particle detachment from bubble. Flotation is effective in a narrow size range beyond which the flotation efficiency drops drastically. It is now known that the low flotation recovery of particles in the finest size fractions is mainly due to a low probability of bubble-particle collision while the main reason for poor coarse particle flotation recovery is the high probability of detachment. A fundamental analysis has shown that use of picobubbles can significantly improve the flotation recovery of particles in a wide range of size by increasing the probability of collision and attachment and reducing the probability of detachment. A specially designed column with a picobubble generator has been developed for enhanced recovery of fine coal particles. Picobubbles were produced based on the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. They are characterized by a size distribution that is mostly below 1 {mu}m and adhere preferentially to the hydrophobic surfaces. The presence of picobubbles increases the probability of collision and attachment and decreases the probability of detachment, thus enhancing flotation recovery. Experimental results with the Coalberg seam coal in West Virginia, U.S.A. have shown that the use of picobubbles in a 2 in. column flotation increased fine coal recovery by 10-30%, depending on the feed rate, collector dosage, and other flotation conditions. Picobubbles also acted as a secondary collector and reduced the collector dosage by one third to one half.

  6. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The authors have examined the pyrolysis of Argonne samples of Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coal in argon, undecane, Tetralin, and water. The effects of the pyrolysis on individual particles of coal were monitored visually in a cell with diamond windows capable of operation to temperature and pressures in excess of 500{degrees}C and 3000 psi. The changes in the particles from ambient to 460{degrees}C were recorded in real time on video tape, and images were then taken from the tape record and analyzed. The study showed that in argon both coals developed tars at 350{degrees}-370{degrees}C. The tars then quickly evaporated, leaving core particles remarkably similar in size and shape to the initial particles. These observations suggest that coal does not melt nor become fully liquid when heated. Nor does the softened coal undergo crosslinking to generate coke. Rather the simple loss of volatiles leaves behind the core residue as coke. Contrary to the common view, there appears to be no link between the bond-breaking processes yielding tar and the interaction of the coal with H-donors leading to liquefaction. Water as a medium was surprising in its effect. Both coals began to shrink at 300{degrees}-350{degrees}C, with the effect appearing to be more of an erosion rather than a uniform loss of substance as seen in Tetralin. The Wyodak continued to shrink to 460{degrees}C to about half its initial size. With the Illinois No. 6 coal, however, the process reversed at around 420{degrees}C, and the particles appeared to grow with the evolution of a tar, continuing to 460{degrees}C. The authors submit that this final observation is evidence for hydrothermal synthesis of hydrocarbons at these conditions.

  7. Multiphase modeling of settling and suspension in anaerobic digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Liang; Ma, Jingwei; Frear, Craig; Zhao, Quanbao; Dillon, Robert; Li, Xiujin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Develop biowaste fluid dynamics for collision, aggregation and breakup of clusters. • Explore the mechanisms of settling and suspension in anaerobic digester. • Biowaste particles tended to have fluid properties. • Aided with CFD simulation, the scale-up effect was reduced. - Abstract: Effective suspension and settling are critical for controlling biomass retention in a bioreactor. In this paper, a multi-fluid model with kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF) was established to describe these phenomena in the biowaste particles flow in anaerobic digesters. Solid retention time (SRT) was added as a parameter into anaerobic digestion No.1 (ADM1) model to evaluate its effect on the biogas productivity. The model was experimentally validated in a liquid–gas–solid column reactor with gas and solid volume fraction and granular temperature as the major variables. The wastewater residence time distribution was also determined through modeling and measurement to evaluate the mixing pattern in the pilot column reactor. The effect of restitution coefficient on flow behavior of biowaste particles, particles settling and suspension were predicted. Settling and suspension processes of anaerobic digesters were simulated for lab and pilot-scale reactors with comparisons made for reactor configuration and geometry model, respectively. This study demonstrated that the multi-fluid model with KTGF could provide better understanding of impact of suspension and settling upon retaining biomass particles in the anaerobic digesters

  8. Effect of multiphase radiation on coal combustion in a pulverized coal jet flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Bifen; Roy, Somesh P.; Zhao, Xinyu; Modest, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    The accurate modeling of coal combustion requires detailed radiative heat transfer models for both gaseous combustion products and solid coal particles. A multiphase Monte Carlo ray tracing (MCRT) radiation solver is developed in this work to simulate a laboratory-scale pulverized coal flame. The MCRT solver considers radiative interactions between coal particles and three major combustion products (CO 2 , H 2 O, and CO). A line-by-line spectral database for the gas phase and a size-dependent nongray correlation for the solid phase are employed to account for the nongray effects. The flame structure is significantly altered by considering nongray radiation and the lift-off height of the flame increases by approximately 35%, compared to the simulation without radiation. Radiation is also found to affect the evolution of coal particles considerably as it takes over as the dominant mode of heat transfer for medium-to-large coal particles downstream of the flame. To investigate the respective effects of spectral models for the gas and solid phases, a Planck-mean-based gray gas model and a size-independent gray particle model are applied in a frozen-field analysis of a steady-state snapshot of the flame. The gray gas approximation considerably underestimates the radiative source terms for both the gas phase and the solid phase. The gray coal approximation also leads to under-prediction of the particle emission and absorption. However, the level of under-prediction is not as significant as that resulting from the employment of the gray gas model. Finally, the effect of the spectral property of ash on radiation is also investigated and found to be insignificant for the present target flame. - Highlights: • A Monte Carlo–based nongray radiation solver is developed to study effects of radiation. • Radiation alters the lift-off height, and the distribution of temperature andspecies for the target flame. • Radiation alters the heat transfer mechanism of medium

  9. Physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from coal-fired power plant, automobile and ship engine and charcoal kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwajin

    2015-04-01

    Similarities and differences in physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plant, charcoal kiln, automobile and ship engine were major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physico-chemical analysis. Light absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure and composition. From coal-fired power plant, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that the complete combustion was occurred releasing carbonaceous species out at high temperature (1200-1300 °C). Both automobile and ship exhausts from diesel combustions show typical features of soot: concentric circles comprised of closely-packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO) combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing different morphology of particles other than soot, e.g., spherical shape of char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Even for the soot aggregates, particles from HFO burning have different chemical compositions; carbon is dominated but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na(1%), and Mg(1%) are contained, respectively which were not found from particles of automobile emission. This indicates that chemical compositions and burning conditions are significant to determine the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass burning, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystallite structure are observed and they are generally formed by the condensation of low volatile species at low

  10. Waste pyritic coal as a raw material for energetic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasiorek, J. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Poznan (Poland). Dept. of Research and Technology

    1997-11-01

    Results are presented of large laboratory studies on coal desulphurisation with foam flotation method improved by application of bioadsorption of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria to the modification of superficial properties of pyrite particulates from hydrophobic to hydrophillic ones. Results of coal desulfurization with and without bioadsorption have been compared. Bioadsorption improved pyritic sulfur removal by 30% (for coal from `Sierza mine`, coal size 0.3 to 0.102 mm, S pyritic content 1.69%) after 6-week adaptation of bacteria and 30 min of bioadsorption. Bacteria concentration in 5% water suspension of coal reached 22 {mu}g of biomass cm{sup -3}. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Dressing coals, shales, and the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, H

    1938-12-28

    A process for dressing coals, shales, and like carbonaceous substances with the use of floating and sinking phenomena caused by differences in the specific gravities of the substances to be separated in the dressing operation is characterized by the use as the dressing medium of an aqueous suspension of clay and finely ground pyrite or iron ore cinder, or finely ground easily pulverizable iron ore, such as earthy or granular limonite. The aqueous suspension has a low viscosity and a specific gravity between 1.35 and 1.70.

  12. Unifying Suspension and Granular flows near Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGiuli Eric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of dense flows of hard particles are singular as one approaches the jamming threshold where flow ceases, both for granular flows dominated by inertia, and for over-damped suspensions. Concomitantly, the lengthscale characterizing velocity correlations appears to diverge at jamming. Here we review a theoretical framework that gives a scaling description of stationary flows of frictionless particles. Our analysis applies both to suspensions and inertial flows of hard particles. We report numerical results in support of the theory, and show the phase diagram that results when friction is added, delineating the regime of validity of the frictionless theory.

  13. Comparison of particle size measurements of some aqueous suspensions by laser polarimetry and dynamic light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirikov, S N

    2016-01-01

    The results of the size distributions measurements of the particles of aqueous suspensions of ZnO, CuO, TiO 2 , and BaTiO 3 by methods of laser polarimetry and dynamic light scattering are considered. These measurements are compared with the results obtained by electron microscopy. It is shown that a laser polarimetry method gives more accurate results for size parameter values more than 1-2. (paper)

  14. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    In this literature report is provided a status for the present knowledge level on ash properties when co-firing coal and biomass. The fly ash formed in boilers using co-firing of coal and straw do have a large influence on ash deposit formation, boiler corrosion, fly ash utilization and operation...

  15. Two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of structures of a suspension comprised of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in uniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiaoling; Min Yong; Ma Tianyu; Luo Wei; Yan Mi

    2009-01-01

    The structures of suspensions comprised of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in magnetic fields are studied using two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations. The magnetic interaction among magnetic particles, magnetic field strength, and concentrations of both magnetic and nonmagnetic particles are considered as key influencing factors in the present work. The results show that chain-like clusters of magnetic particles are formed along the field direction. The size of the clusters increases with increasing magnetic interaction between magnetic particles, while it keeps nearly unchanged as the field strength increases. As the concentration of magnetic particles increases, both the number and size of the clusters increase. Moreover, nonmagnetic particles are found to hinder the migration of magnetic ones. As the concentration of nonmagnetic particles increases, the hindrance on migration of magnetic particles is enhanced

  16. Nitration of benzo[a]pyrene adsorbed on coal fly ash particles by nitrogen dioxide: role of thermal activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristovich, Robert L; Dutta, Prabir K

    2005-09-15

    Nitration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) adsorbed on the surface of thermally activated coal fly ash and model aluminosilicate particles led to the formation of nitrobenzo[a]pyrenes as verified by extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was utilized to follow the nitration reaction on the surface of zeolite Y. Nitrobenzo[a]pyrene formation was observed along with the formation of nitrous acid and nitrate species. The formation of the BaP radical cation was also observed on thermally activated aluminosilicate particles by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. On the basis of GC/MS, DRIFTS, and ESR spectroscopy results, a mechanism of nitration involving intermediate BaP radical cations generated on thermally activated aluminosilicate particles is proposed. These observations have led to the hypothesis that nitration of adsorbed polyaromatic hydrocarbons on coal fly ash by reaction with nitrogen oxides can occur in the smokestack, but with the aging of the fly ash particles, the extent of the nitration reaction will be diminished.

  17. Globally aligned states and hydrodynamic traffic jams in confined suspensions of active asymmetric particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefauve, Adrien; Saintillan, David

    2014-02-01

    Strongly confined active liquids are subject to unique hydrodynamic interactions due to momentum screening and lubricated friction by the confining walls. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that two-dimensional dilute suspensions of fore-aft asymmetric polar swimmers in a Hele-Shaw geometry can exhibit a rich variety of novel phase behaviors depending on particle shape, including coherent polarized density waves with global alignment, persistent counterrotating vortices, density shocks and rarefaction waves. We also explain these phenomena using a linear stability analysis and a nonlinear traffic flow model, both derived from a mean-field kinetic theory.

  18. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    Appendix C: Paper in Fuel 87 (2008) 3304-3312: A kinetic study of gaseous potassium capture by coal minerals in a high temperature fixed-bed reactor......Appendix C: Paper in Fuel 87 (2008) 3304-3312: A kinetic study of gaseous potassium capture by coal minerals in a high temperature fixed-bed reactor...

  19. Suspension hydration of tricalcium silicate at constant pH. I. Variation of particle size and tricalcium silicate content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCurdy, K.G.; Stein, H.N.

    1973-01-01

    Calcium and silicate ion concentrations during suspension hydration of C3S indicate that at pH 11.5 an equilibrium is established between one of the hydrates and the solution during about 80 minutes. The concentrations found in this period are indipendent of the particle size of the C3S and (within

  20. Heat and mass transfer in particulate suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2013-01-01

    Heat and Mass Transfer in Particulate Suspensions is a critical review of the subject of heat and mass transfer related to particulate Suspensions, which include both fluid-particles and fluid-droplet Suspensions. Fundamentals, recent advances and industrial applications are examined. The subject of particulate heat and mass transfer is currently driven by two significant applications: energy transformations –primarily combustion – and heat transfer equipment. The first includes particle and droplet combustion processes in engineering Suspensions as diverse as the Fluidized Bed Reactors (FBR’s) and Internal Combustion Engines (ICE’s). On the heat transfer side, cooling with nanofluids, which include nanoparticles, has attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade both from the fundamental and the applied side and has produced several scientific publications. A monograph that combines the fundamentals of heat transfer with particulates as well as the modern applications of the subject would be...

  1. Fracture in Kaolinite clay suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosgodagan Acharige, Sebastien; Jerolmack, Douglas J.; Arratia, Paulo E.

    2017-11-01

    Clay minerals are involved in many natural (landslides, river channels) and industrial processes (ceramics, cosmetics, oil recovery). They are plate shaped charged colloids and exhibit different flow properties than simpler colloids when suspended in a liquid such as thixotropy and shear-banding. kaolinite platelets are non-swelling, meaning that the stacks formed by the platelets do not have water layers, and thus the suspension does not have a sol-gel transition. However, it has been shown that kaolinite suspensions possesses a non-zero yield stress even at low concentrations, indicating that the particles arrange themselves in a structure through attractive interactions. Here, we experimentally investigate the sedimentation of kaolinite suspensions in a Hele-Shaw cell. The sedimentation of these dilute suspensions can display solid behavior like fracture, revealed in cross-polarized light, which is linked to the failure of the weakly-bonded structure (typical yield stress 10-2 Pa). By changing the interaction potential of the particles (by sonication or introducing salts), we show through these sedimentation experiments, how the fracture pattern can be avoided. Research was sponsored by the Army Research Laboratory and was accomplished under Grant Number 569074.

  2. Emissions from carpet combustion in a pilot-scale rotary kiln: comparison with coal and particle-board combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie Lucero Konopa; James A. Mulholland; Matthew J. Realff; Paul M. Lemieux [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-08-15

    The use of post-consumer carpet as a potential fuel substitute in cement kilns and other high-temperature processes is being considered to address the problem of huge volumes of carpet waste and the opportunity of waste-to-energy recovery. Carpet represents a high volume waste stream, provides high energy value, and contains other recoverable materials for the production of cement. This research studied the emission characteristics of burning 0.46-kg charges of chopped nylon carpet squares, pulverized coal, and particle-board pellets in a pilot-scale natural gas-fired rotary kiln. Carpet was tested with different amounts of water added. Emissions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons and temperatures were continuously monitored. It was found that carpet burned faster and more completely than coal and particle board, with a rapid volatile release that resulted in large and variable transient emission peaks. NO emissions from carpet combustion ranged from 0.06 to 0.15 g/MJ and were inversely related to CO emissions. Carpet combustion yielded higher NO emissions than coal and particleboard combustion, consistent with its higher nitrogen content. S{sub 2} emissions were highest for coal combustion, consistent with its higher sulfur content than carpet or particle board. Adding water to carpet slowed its burn time and reduced variability in the emission transients, reducing the CO peak but increasing NO emissions. Results of this study indicate that carpet waste can be used as an effective alternative fuel, with the caveats that it might be necessary to wet carpet or chop it finely to avoid excessive transient puff emissions due to its high volatility compared with other solid fuels, and that controlled mixing of combustion air might be used to control NO emissions from nylon carpet. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Predicting the viscosity of digesta from the physical characteristics of particle suspensions using existing rheological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardacre, Allan K; Lentle, Roger G; Yap, Sia-Yen; Monro, John A

    2018-05-01

    The measurement of the viscosity of digesta is complicated by settling and compositional changes that accompany digestion. The current work determined whether the apparent and relative viscosities ( η a and η r ) of digesta could be accurately determined from the actual and maximum solid volume fractions ( ϕ and ϕ max , respectively) using the Maron-Pierce equation. The rheological properties of digesta from the small intestine of six pigs were determined at a shear rate of 1 s -1 at 37°C. A series of suspensions of plant fibre in a Newtonian liquid (70% aqueous fructose) were made at viscosities similar to pig digesta by adjusting ϕ The relationships between the apparent and relative viscosities ( η a and η r ) and the plant fibre properties; aspect ratio (AR) and ϕ and ϕ max were then determined for digesta and the suspensions. The ARs for the digesta and plant fibre particles were determined using image analysis of scanning electron micrographs and η a from rheometric flow curves at 37°C, ϕ from image analysis and gas pycnometry, and ϕ max from AR and suspension viscosity. The η r of pig digesta and the test suspensions calculated using the Maron-Pierce equation were, with the exception of two outliers, in proportion with η a determined using a rheometer, indicating that η r could be successfully predicted from the Maron-Pierce equation. © 2018 The Author(s).

  4. Pt based PEMFC catalysts prepared from colloidal particle suspensions--a toolbox for model studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speder, Jozsef; Altmann, Lena; Roefzaad, Melanie; Bäumer, Marcus; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Mortensen, Kell; Arenz, Matthias

    2013-03-14

    A colloidal synthesis approach is presented that allows systematic studies of the properties of supported proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts. The applied synthesis route is based on the preparation of monodisperse nanoparticles in the absence of strong binding organic stabilizing agents. No temperature post-treatment of the catalyst is required rendering the synthesis route ideally suitable for comparative studies. We report work concerning a series of catalysts based on the same colloidal Pt nanoparticle (NP) suspension, but with different high surface area (HSA) carbon supports. It is shown that for the prepared catalysts the carbon support has no catalytic co-function, but carbon pre-treatment leads to enhanced sticking of the Pt NPs on the support. An unwanted side effect, however, is NP agglomeration during synthesis. By contrast, enhanced NP sticking without agglomeration can be accomplished by the addition of an ionomer to the NP suspension. The catalytic activity of the prepared catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction is comparable to industrial catalysts and no influence of the particle size is found in the range of 2-5 nm.

  5. Coal-oil assisted flotation for the gold recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, S.; Seyrankaya, A.; Cilingir, Y. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2005-09-01

    Using coal-oil agglomeration method for free or native gold recovery has been a research subject for many researchers over the years. In this study, a new approach 'coal-oil assisted gold flotation' was used to recover gold particles. The coal-oil-gold agglomeration process considers the preferential wetting of coal and gold particles. The method takes advantage of the greater hydrophobicity and oleophilicity of coal and gold compared to that the most gangue materials. Unlike the previous studies about coal-oil-gold agglomeration, this method uses a very small amount of coal and agglomerating agents. Some experiments were conducted on synthetic gold ore samples to reveal the reaction of the coal-oil assisted gold flotation process against the size and the number of gold particles in the feed. It was observed that there is no significant difference in process gold recoveries for feeds assaying different Au. Although there was a slight decrease for coarse gold particles, the process seems to be effective for the recovery of gold grains as coarse as 300 {mu} m. The decrease in the finest size ({lt} 53 {mu} m) is considered to be the decrease in the collision efficiency between the agglomerates and the finest gold particles. The effect of changing coal quantity for constant ore and oil amounts was also investigated. The experiments showed that the process gives very similar results for both artificial and natural ore samples; the best results have been obtained by using 30/1 coal-oil ratio.

  6. Degradability of aged aquatic suspensions of C60 nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, B.; Buendia, Inmaculada M.; Baun, Anders

    2011-01-01

    While studies of the potential human and environmental effects of C60 and its derivatives are emerging in the scientific literature, the environmental fate of C60 is still largely unknown. In this study, aged aqueous suspensions of C60 (nC60) were investigated in the respirometric OECD test...... for ready biodegradability. Two suspensions of nC60 were prepared by stirring and aged under indirect exposure to sunlight for 36 months, which resulted in relatively stable suspensions with a dark-brown colour. The suspended nC60 could not be extracted into toluene and indicating that the particles were...... no longer present as underivatised nC60 but had undergone a transformation. TEM images and particle tracking analysis showed that the suspension consisted of particle aggregates with a size of 156 nm (SD=54nm) and 139nm (Sd=49), respectively, but also contained smaller aggregates. Samples of the nC60...

  7. Rheological properties of hydrate suspensions in asphaltenic crude oils; Proprietes rheologiques de suspensions d'hydrate dans des bruts asphalteniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques de Toledo Camargo, R.

    2001-03-01

    The development of offshore oil exploitation under increasing water depths has forced oil companies to increase their understanding of gas hydrate formation and transportation in multiphase flow lines in which a liquid hydrocarbon phase is present. This work deals with the flow behaviour of hydrate suspensions in which a liquid hydrocarbon is the continuous phase. Three different liquid hydrocarbons are used: an asphaltenic crude oil, a condensate completely free of asphaltenes and a mixture between the asphaltenic oil and heptane. The rheological characterisation of hydrate suspensions is the main tool employed. Two original experimental devices are used: a PVT cell adapted to operate as a Couette type rheometer and a semi-industrial flow loop. Hydrate suspensions using the asphaltenic oil showed shear-thinning behaviour and thixotropy. This behaviour is typically found in flocculated systems, in which the particles attract each other forming flocs of aggregated particles at low shear rates. The suspensions using the condensate showed Newtonian behaviour. Their relative viscosities were high, which suggests that an aggregation process between hydrate particles takes. place during hydrate formation. Finally, hydrate suspensions using the mixture asphaltenic oil-heptane showed shear-thinning behaviour, thixotropy and high relative viscosity. From these results it can be inferred that, after the achievement of the hydrate formation process, the attractive forces between hydrate particles are weak. making unlikely pipeline obstruction by an aggregation process. Nevertheless, during the hydrate formation, these attractive forces can be sufficiently high. It seems that the hydrate surface wettability is an important parameter in this phenomena. (author)

  8. Use of coal-oil agglomerates for particulate gold recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvez, J.P.S.; Kim, M.J.; Wong, P.L.M.; Tran, T. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry

    1998-09-01

    The underlying principles by which gold is recovered by coal-oil agglomerates was investigated. The effects of various parameters such as oil:coal ratios, agglomerate:ore ratios, pH and coal particle size on gold recovery were evaluated using synthetic gold bearing samples, bituminous coal, and diesel oil and kerosene. The effects of sulfides on gold recovery and the depth of gold particle penetration within the agglomerates were also investigated. Results showed that gold recovery was increased by increasing agglomerate:ore ratio, decreasing oil:coal ratio and decreasing coal particle size. There was no significant difference in gold recoveries at pH range of 4-12 and at up to 5% sulfides in the feed.

  9. Startup of electrophoresis in a suspension of colloidal spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chia C; Keh, Huan J

    2015-12-01

    The transient electrophoretic response of a homogeneous suspension of spherical particles to the step application of an electric field is analyzed. The electric double layer encompassing each particle is assumed to be thin but finite, and the effect of dynamic electroosmosis within it is incorporated. The momentum equation for the fluid outside the double layers is solved through the use of a unit cell model. Closed-form formulas for the time-evolving electrophoretic and settling velocities of the particles in the Laplace transform are obtained in terms of the electrokinetic radius, relative mass density, and volume fraction of the particles. The time scale for the development of electrophoresis and sedimentation is significantly smaller for a suspension with a higher particle volume fraction or a smaller particle-to-fluid density ratio, and the electrophoretic mobility at any instant increases with an increase in the electrokinetic particle radius. The transient electrophoretic mobility is a decreasing function of the particle volume fraction if the particle-to-fluid density ratio is relatively small, but it may increase with an increase in the particle volume fraction if this density ratio is relatively large. The particle interaction effect in a suspension on the transient electrophoresis is much weaker than that on the transient sedimentation of the particles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Engineering a new class of thermal spray nano-based microstructures from agglomerated nanostructured particles, suspensions and solutions: an invited review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchais, P.; Montavon, G.; Lima, R. S.; Marple, B. R.

    2011-03-01

    From the pioneering works of McPherson in 1973 who identified nanometre-sized features in thermal spray conventional alumina coatings (using sprayed particles in the tens of micrometres size range) to the most recent and most advanced work aimed at manufacturing nanostructured coatings from nanometre-sized feedstock particles, the thermal spray community has been involved with nanometre-sized features and feedstock for more than 30 years. Both the development of feedstock (especially through cryo-milling, and processes able to manufacture coatings structured at the sub-micrometre or nanometre sizes, such as micrometre-sized agglomerates made of nanometre-sized particles for feedstock) and the emergence of thermal spray processes such as suspension and liquid precursor thermal spray techniques have been driven by the need to manufacture coatings with enhanced properties. These techniques result in two different types of coatings: on the one hand, those with a so-called bimodal structure having nanometre-sized zones embedded within micrometre ones, for which the spray process is similar to that of conventional coatings and on the other hand, sub-micrometre or nanostructured coatings achieved by suspension or solution spraying. Compared with suspension spraying, solution precursor spraying uses molecularly mixed precursors as liquids, avoiding a separate processing route for the preparation of powders and enabling the synthesis of a wide range of oxide powders and coatings. Such coatings are intended for use in various applications ranging from improved thermal barrier layers and wear-resistant surfaces to thin solid electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cell systems, among other numerous applications. Meanwhile these processes are more complex to operate since they are more sensitive to parameter variations compared with conventional thermal spray processes. Progress in this area has resulted from the unique combination of modelling activities, the evolution of

  11. Solubility of iron from combustion source particles in acidic media linked to iron speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hongbo; Lin, Jun; Shang, Guangfeng; Dong, Wenbo; Grassian, Vichi H; Carmichael, Gregory R; Li, Yan; Chen, Jianmin

    2012-10-16

    In this study, iron solubility from six combustion source particles was investigated in acidic media. For comparison, a Chinese loess (CL) dust was also included. The solubility experiments confirmed that iron solubility was highly variable and dependent on particle sources. Under dark and light conditions, the combustion source particles dissolved faster and to a greater extent relative to CL. Oil fly ash (FA) yielded the highest soluble iron as compared to the other samples. Total iron solubility fractions measured in the dark after 12 h ranged between 2.9 and 74.1% of the initial iron content for the combustion-derived particles (Oil FA > biomass burning particles (BP) > coal FA). Ferrous iron represented the dominant soluble form of Fe in the suspensions of straw BP and corn BP, while total dissolved Fe presented mainly as ferric iron in the cases of oil FA, coal FA, and CL. Mössbauer measurements and TEM analysis revealed that Fe in oil FA was commonly presented as nanosized Fe(3)O(4) aggregates and Fe/S-rich particles. Highly labile source of Fe in corn BP could be originated from amorphous Fe form mixed internally with K-rich particles. However, Fe in coal FA was dominated by the more insoluble forms of both Fe-bearing aluminosilicate glass and Fe oxides. The data presented herein showed that iron speciation varies by source and is an important factor controlling iron solubility from these anthropogenic emissions in acidic solutions, suggesting that the variability of iron solubility from combustion-derived particles is related to the inherent character and origin of the aerosols themselves. Such information can be useful in improving our understanding on iron solubility from combustion aerosols when they undergo acidic processing during atmospheric transport.

  12. Clean Coal Technology III: 10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption final project performance and economics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.

    1995-08-01

    The 10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) program is a government and industry co-funded technology development. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the performance of the GSA system in treating a 10 MW slipstream of flue gas resulting from the combustion of a high sulfur coal. This project involves design, fabrication, construction and testing of the GSA system. The Project Performance and Economics Report provides the nonproprietary information for the ``10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Project`` installed at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Power Station, Center for Emissions Research (CER) at Paducah, Kentucky. The program demonstrated that the GSA flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) technology is capable of achieving high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (greater than 90%), while maintaining particulate emissions below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), without any negative environmental impact (section 6). A 28-day test demonstrated the reliability and operability of the GSA system during continuous operation. The test results and detailed discussions of the test data can be obtained from TVA`s Final Report (Appendix A). The Air Toxics Report (Appendix B), prepared by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EERC) characterizes air toxic emissions of selected hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from the GSA process. The results of this testing show that the GSA system can substantially reduce the emission of these HAP. With its lower capital costs and maintenance costs (section 7), as compared to conventional semi-dry scrubbers, the GSA technology commands a high potential for further commercialization in the United States. For detailed information refer to The Economic Evaluation Report (Appendix C) prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors.

  13. Bio-inspired particle separator design based on the food retention mechanism by suspension-feeding fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Tien-Chieh; Piedrahita, Raul H; Cheer, Angela

    2012-01-01

    A new particle separator is designed using a crossflow filtration mechanism inspired by suspension-feeding fish in this study. To construct the model of the bio-inspired particle separator, computational fluid dynamics techniques are used, and parameters related to separator shape, fluid flow and particle properties that might affect the performance in removing particles from the flow, are varied and tested. The goal is to induce a flow rotation which enhances the separation of particles from the flow, reduce the particle-laden flow that exits via a collection zone at the lower/posterior end of the separator, while at the same time increase the concentration of particles in that flow. Based on preliminary particle removal efficiency tests, an exiting flow through the collection zone of about 8% of the influent flow rate is selected for all the performance tests of the separator including trials with particles carried by air flow instead of water. Under this condition, the simulation results yield similar particle removal efficiencies in water and air but with different particle properties. Particle removal efficiencies (percentage of influent particles that exit through the collection zone) were determined for particles ranging in size from 1 to 1500 µm with a density between 1000 and 1150 kg m −3 in water and 2 and 19 mm and 68 and 2150 kg m −3 in air. As an example, removal efficiencies are 66% and 64% for 707 µm diameter particles with a density of 1040 kg m −3 in water and for 2 mm particles with a density of 68 kg m −3 in air, respectively. No significant performance difference is found by geometrically scaling the inlet diameter of the separator up or down in the range from 2.5 to 10 cm. (paper)

  14. Acute respiratory effects of the inhalation of coal-dust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, M

    1962-01-01

    Volunteers were exposed to 8 to 50 mg/m/sup 3/ (< 7 ..mu..m) coal dust clouds from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Controls showed a 10% decrease in airway resistance (R/sub a/) during this time. Those exposed to 8 or 9 mg/m/sup 3/ showed no change in R/sub a/, whereas those exposed to 19, 33, or 50 mg/m/sup 3/ showed increases in R/sub a/ that were correlated with the weight of particles between 3.6 and 7 ..mu..m. There was large individual variation. Increased respiratory rate and dyspnea were measured at heaviest loading. R/sub a/ decreased, but not to normal values, 1 hr after the exposure.

  15. Method of cutting steeply falling coal beds. [Bacteria, which only grow on methane, are injected into the coal bed and form low viscosity polysaccharides: as a result the coal collapses into the haulage gallery and is hauled away

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gretsinger, B Ye; Chernyshenko, D V; Levin, A D; Malashenko, Yu R; Shinkovskiy, V A; Shurova, Z P; Volkov, V I

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to reduce outlays for collapse and output of coal by creating artificial cavities of sliding along the coal bed in the surrounding rocks. This goal is achieved because in the well drilled in the bed for the entire height of the level, a suspension of cells of methane-oxidizing microorganisms is injected. The methane-oxidizing microorganisms used are, for example, the thermophilic culture Methylococcus thermophilus of strains ShP which grow at 45-65/sup 0/ C, or the mesophilic culture Methanomonas rubna of strains 15 Sh growing at 20-37/sup 0/ C. As a result of the vital activity of these cultures, polysaccharides are formed with viscosity of 5-7 and 3-4 St respectively. The mine pressure disrupts the blocks between the wells, and the outline section of the steeply dropping coal bed, being destroyed, slides on the products of vital activity of the microorganisms to the haulage gallery. Then the coal drops on cross cuts to the field gallery through which it is transported. Studies established that the only coal substrate which is suitable for growth of these microorganism cultures is methane. The synthesis of one g of absolutely dry substance of these microorganism requires 1.78 g of methane and 4.7 g of oxygen. The cultures are resistant to hydrostatic pressure from 20 to 150 atm and short-term pressure of gradient drops which occur during injection of the cellular suspension into the coal bed. They are filtered through the coal with preservation of the oxidizing and reproductive properties and are cultivated on the methane contained in the bed and form considerable number of exopolysaccarides. The polysaccarides weaken the bond between the bed and the surrounding rocks and serve as a unique lubricant promoting the sliding towards the haulage gallery of the coal blocks destroyed by mine pressure.

  16. Relation between particle size and properties of some bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.D.; Cheng, M.; Goulet, J.-C.; Furimsky, E. (CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Laboratories)

    1990-02-01

    Coal fractions of different size distributions exhibited different H/C ratio, ash and sulphur contents, and surface structures. This was confirmed using two low-sulphur and two high-sulphur bituminous coals. The effect was much less pronounced for low-sulphur coals than for high-sulphur coals. A significant difference in properties was noted between the two high-sulphur coals in spite of similar basic compositional parameters. This was confirmed by the fractal dimensionality factor D of Illinois No. 6 coal, which exceeded the theoretical value. 14 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Improving the stability of coal slurries: Quarterly progress report for the period Sep. 15, 1986-Dec. 15, 1986. [Adsorption of gum tragacanth on coal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    The last quarterly progress report focused on the adsorption study of the polystyrene latex spheres with gum tragacanth (GT), and the adsorption mechanism was found to be hydrophobic rather than electrostatic. Also, the effect of the amount of GT adsorbed, the bulk concentration of GT, incubation time and pH on the stability factor was examined, and the results indicated that the conformation of GT on the surface of latex spheres plays an important role in the stabilization. This report presents the results of the coal-water slurries, mainly focusing on the adsorption study of GT by changing pH and ionic strength. It was found from the experiment in which the ionic strength was changed that the adsorption of GT on the coal particles is hindered by the coulombic repulsion between GT and coal. In addition, the experiment in which pH was changed also indicated that the adsorption mechanism is electrostatic in nature. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Particle-capture mechanisms in suspension-feeding invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2010-01-01

    A large number of suspension-feeding animals (e.g. bivalves, polychaetes, ascidians, bryozoans, crustaceans, sponges, echinoderms, cnidarians) have specialized in grazing on not only the 2 to 200 µm phytoplankton but frequently also the 0.5 to 2 µm free-living bacteria in the aquatic environment,...

  19. Report on Seminar on Clean Coal Technology '93; Clean coal technology kokusai seminar hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The program of the above clean coal technology (CCT) event is composed of 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Research on CCT in America (study of coal structure under electron microscope), and 3) Research on CCT in Australia (high intensity combustion of ultrafine coal particles in a clean way). Remarks under item 1) are mentioned below. As for SO{sub 2} emissions base unit, Japan's is 1 at its coal-fired thermal power station while that of America is 7.8. As for the level of SO{sub 2}/NOx reduction attributable to coal utilization technologies, it rises in the order of flue gas desulfurizer-aided pulverized coal combustion, normal pressure fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation/fuel cell. As for the level of CO2 reduction attributable to power generation efficiency improvement, provided that Japan's average power generation efficiency is 39% and if China's efficiency which is now 28% is improved to be similar to that of Japan, there will be a 40% reduction in CO2 emissions. Under item 2) which involves America's CCT program, reference is made to efforts at eliminating unnecessary part from the catalytic process and at reducing surplus air, to the export of CCT technology, and so forth. Under item 3), it is stated that coal cleaning may govern reaction efficiency in a process of burning coal particles for gasification. (NEDO)

  20. The identification of unusual microscopic features in coal and their derived chars: Influence on coal fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentim, B. [Centro de Geologia da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Lemos de Sousa, M.J. [Centro de Geologia da Universidade do Porto, Praca de Gomes Teixeira, 4099-002 Porto (Portugal); Abelha, P.; Boavida, D.; Gulyurtlu, I. [Departamento de Engenharia Energetica e Controlo Ambiental (DEECA), Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovacao (INETI), Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, Edif. J, 1649-038, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-06-06

    During the petrographic study of seven feed coals from different origins, it was found that these coals presented microfeatures such as: material size, shape, weathering, thermally affected particles and contamination. After devolatilization under fluidized bed conditions, some chars presented the consequences of the above mentioned microfeatures, i.e., unreacted coal, unswelled particles, coatings and microstratification. Since the amounts of the microfeatures observed were low (less than 1%), the present study is essentially observational/descriptional. However, it seems very likely, from the observations that were made, that the occurrence of one or more of these microfeatures in coal, depending on their kind and abundance, may have significant effect on the coal devolatilization. (author)

  1. Tribology of swollen starch granule suspensions from maize and potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Selway, Nichola; Shelat, Kinnari J; Dhital, Sushil; Stokes, Jason R; Gidley, Michael J

    2017-01-02

    The tribological properties of suspensions of cooked swollen starch granules are characterised for systems based on maize starch and potato starch. These systems are known as granule 'ghosts' due to the release (and removal) of polymer from their structure during cooking. Maize starch ghosts are less swollen than potato starch ghosts, resulting in a higher packing concentration and greater mechanical stability. In a soft-tribological contact, maize ghost suspensions reduce friction compared to the solvent (water), generate bell-shaped tribological profiles characteristic of particle entrainment and show a marked concentration dependence, whereas potato ghost suspensions exhibit lubrication behaviour similar to water. Microscopy analysis of the samples following tribological testing suggests that this is due to the rapid break-up of potato ghosts under the shear and rolling conditions within the tribological contact. A reduction in the small deformation moduli (associated with a weak gel structure) is also observed when the potato ghost suspensions are subjected to steady shear using parallel plate rheometry; both microscopy and particle size analysis show that this is accompanied by the partial shear-induced breakage of ghost particles. This interplay between particle microstructure and the resultant rheological and lubrication dynamics of starch ghost suspensions contributes to an enhanced mechanistic understanding of textural and other functional properties of cooked starches in food and other applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Imaging the Microscopic Structure of Shear Thinning and Thickening Colloidal Suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, X.

    2011-09-01

    The viscosity of colloidal suspensions varies with shear rate, an important effect encountered in many natural and industrial processes. Although this non-Newtonian behavior is believed to arise from the arrangement of suspended particles and their mutual interactions, microscopic particle dynamics are difficult to measure. By combining fast confocal microscopy with simultaneous force measurements, we systematically investigate a suspension\\'s structure as it transitions through regimes of different flow signatures. Our measurements of the microscopic single-particle dynamics show that shear thinning results from the decreased relative contribution of entropic forces and that shear thickening arises from particle clustering induced by hydrodynamic lubrication forces. This combination of techniques illustrates an approach that complements current methods for determining the microscopic origins of non-Newtonian flow behavior in complex fluids.

  3. Engineering a new class of thermal spray nano-based microstructures from agglomerated nanostructured particles, suspensions and solutions: an invited review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchais, P; Montavon, G; Lima, R S; Marple, B R

    2011-01-01

    From the pioneering works of McPherson in 1973 who identified nanometre-sized features in thermal spray conventional alumina coatings (using sprayed particles in the tens of micrometres size range) to the most recent and most advanced work aimed at manufacturing nanostructured coatings from nanometre-sized feedstock particles, the thermal spray community has been involved with nanometre-sized features and feedstock for more than 30 years. Both the development of feedstock (especially through cryo-milling, and processes able to manufacture coatings structured at the sub-micrometre or nanometre sizes, such as micrometre-sized agglomerates made of nanometre-sized particles for feedstock) and the emergence of thermal spray processes such as suspension and liquid precursor thermal spray techniques have been driven by the need to manufacture coatings with enhanced properties. These techniques result in two different types of coatings: on the one hand, those with a so-called bimodal structure having nanometre-sized zones embedded within micrometre ones, for which the spray process is similar to that of conventional coatings and on the other hand, sub-micrometre or nanostructured coatings achieved by suspension or solution spraying. Compared with suspension spraying, solution precursor spraying uses molecularly mixed precursors as liquids, avoiding a separate processing route for the preparation of powders and enabling the synthesis of a wide range of oxide powders and coatings. Such coatings are intended for use in various applications ranging from improved thermal barrier layers and wear-resistant surfaces to thin solid electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cell systems, among other numerous applications. Meanwhile these processes are more complex to operate since they are more sensitive to parameter variations compared with conventional thermal spray processes. Progress in this area has resulted from the unique combination of modelling activities, the evolution of

  4. Revisiting Coiled Flocculator Performance for Particle Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-08

    This work summarizes recent studies evaluating the torsion and curvature parameters in the flocculation efficiency using a hydraulic plug-flow flocculator named as Flocs Generator Reactor (FGR). Colloidal Fe(OH)3 and coal particles were used as suspension models and a cationic polyacrylamide was used for the flocculation. The effectiveness of the aggregation process (in the distinct curvature and torsion parameters and hydrodynamic conditions) was evaluated by the settling rate of the Fe(OH)3 flocs and flocs size by photographic analysis. Due to curvature, a secondary flow is induced and the profiles of the flow quantities differ from those for a straight pipe. Results showed that the difference in the flocculator design influences the Fe(OH)3 flocs size and settling rates, reaching values about 13 and 4 mh-1, for the coiled and straight pipes respectively. Coal flocs generation also showed to be dependent on the flocculator design and shear rate. Results showed that turbulent kinetic energy increases due to curvature when the torsion parameter is kept constant (pitch close to zero) enhancing the flocs formation.

  5. Sedimentation and gravitational instability of Escherichia coli Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salin, Dominique; Douarche, Carine

    2017-11-01

    The successive runs and tumbles of Escherichia coli bacteria provide an active matter suspension of rod-like particles with a large swimming, Brownian like, diffusion. As opposed to inactive elongated particles, this diffusion prevents clustering of the particles and hence instability in the gravity field. We measure the time dependent E . coli concentration profile during their sedimentation. After some hours, due to the dioxygen consumption, a motile / non-motile front forms leading to a Rayleigh-Taylor type gravitational instability. Analysing both sedimentation and instability in the framework of active particle suspensions, we can measure the relevant bacteria hydrodynamic characteristics such as its single particle sedimentation velocity and its hindrance volume. Comparing these quantities to the ones of equivalent passive particles (ellipsoid, rod) we tentatively infer the effective shape and size of the bacteria involved in its buoyancy induced advection and diffusion. Laboratoire FAST University Paris Saclay France.

  6. A dynamic mathematical model for microbial removal of pyritic sulfur from coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, F; Weissman, J G

    1984-06-01

    A dynamic mathematical model has been developed to describe microbial desulfurization of coal by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The model considers adsorption and desorption of cells on coal particles and microbial oxidation of pyritic sulfur on particle surfaces. The influence of certain parameters, such as microbial growth rate constants, adsorption-description constants, pulp density, coal particle size, initial cell and solid phase substrate concentration on the maximum rate of pyritic sulfur removal, have been elucidated. The maximum rate of pyritic sulfur removal was strongly dependent upon the number of attached cells per coal particle. At sufficiently high initial cell concentrations, the surfaces of coal particles are nearly saturated by the cells and the maximum leaching rate is limited either by total external surface area of coal particles or by the concentration of pyritic sulfur in the coal phase. The maximum volumetric rate of pyritic sulfur removal (mg S/h cm(3) mixture) increases with the pulp density of coal and reaches a saturation level at high pulp densities (e.g. 45%). The maximum rate also increases with decreasing particle diameter in a hyperbolic form. Increases in adsorption coefficient or decreases in the desorption coefficient also result in considerable improvements in this rate. The model can be applied to other systems consisting of suspended solid substrate particles in liquid medium with microbial oxidation occurring on the particle surfaces (e.g., bacterial ore leaching). The results obtained from this model are in good agreement with published experimental data on microbial desulfurization of coal and bacterial ore leaching.

  7. Liquid crystalline phases in suspensions of pigments in non-polar solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susanne; Richardson, Robert M.; Eremin, Alexey

    We will discuss colloid suspensions of pigments and compare their electro-optic properties with those of traditional dyed low molecular weight liquid crystal systems. There are several potential advantages of colloidal suspensions over low molecular weight liquid crystal systems: a very high contrast because of the high orientational order parameter of suspensions of rod shaped nano-particles, the excellent light fastness of pigments as compared to dyes and high colour saturations resulting from the high loading of the colour stuff. Although a weak `single-particle' electro-optic response can be observed in dilute suspensions, the response is very much enhanced when the concentration of the particles is sufficient to lead to a nematic phase. Excellent stability of suspensions is beneficial for experimental observation and reproducibility, but it is a fundamental necessity for display applications. We therefore discuss a method to achieve long term stability of dispersed pigments and the reasons for its success. Small angle X-ray scattering was used to determine the orientational order parameter of the suspensions as a function of concentration and the dynamic response to an applied electric field. Optical properties were investigated for a wide range of pigment concentrations. Electro-optical phenomena, such as field-induced birefringence and switching, were characterised. In addition, mixtures of pigment suspensions with small amounts of ferrofluids show promise as future magneto-optical materials.

  8. Picobubble enhanced column flotation of fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, D.; Yu, S.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The purpose is to study the effectiveness of picobubbles in the column flotation of -28 mesh fine coal particles. A flotation column with a picobubble generator was developed and tested for enhancing the recovery of ultrafine coal particles. The picobubble generator was designed using the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. A metallurgical and a steam coal were tested in the apparatus. The results show that the use of picobubbles in a 2in. flotation column increased the recovery of fine coal by 10 to 30%. The recovery rate varied with feed rate, collector dosage, and other column conditions. 40 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Uranium trace and alpha activity characterization of coal and fly ash using particle track etch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    Uranium is extensively found in carbonaceous components of sedimentary rocks and is considered to be accumulated in coals during the coalification process through the geological times. Burning of coal is mainly responsible for a manifold increase in the concentration of radioactive nuclides in atmosphere precipitates. Fly ash being an incombustible residue and formed from 90% of the inorganic material in coal, escapes into the atmosphere and constitutes a potential hazard. Also its use as one of the pozzolanic materials in the products of concrete, bricks etc and filling of ground cavities is even more hazardous because of the wall radioactivity, besides emission and diffusion of radon. This paper reports a simple method called Particle Track Etch (PTE) technique, for trace determination of uranium content in coal and fly ash samples by making use of low cost and versatile plastic detectors known as Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs). Total alpha activity has also been estimated using these SSNTDs. The values of uranium concentration in coal samples are found to range from 1.1 to 3.6 ppm (uniform component) and 33 to 46 ppm (non-uniform part) whereas in fly ash, it varies from 8 to 11 ppm (uniform) and 55 to 71 ppm in non-uniform range. It is also observed that the alpha activity is a function of uranium concentration for most of the natural samples of coal studied except for mixtures of fly ash samples where relationship is found to be on higher side. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Microstructural Dynamics and Rheology of Suspensions of Rigid Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jason E.; Snook, Braden

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics and rheology of suspensions of rigid, non-Brownian fibers in Newtonian fluids are reviewed. Experiments, theories, and computer simulations are considered, with an emphasis on suspensions at semidilute and concentrated conditions. In these suspensions, interactions between the particles strongly influence the microstructure and rheological properties of the suspension. The interactions can arise from hydrodynamic disturbances, giving multibody interactions at long ranges and pairwise lubrication forces over short distances. For concentrated suspensions, additional interactions due to excluded volume (contacts) and adhesive forces are addressed. The relative importance of the various interactions as a function of fiber concentration is assessed.

  11. Coal combustion aerothermochemistry research. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, A.B.; Gat, N.; Denison, M.R.; Cohen, L.M.

    1980-12-15

    On the basis of extensive aerothermochemistry analyses, laboratory investigations, and combustor tests, significant headway has been made toward improving the understanding of combustion phenomena and scaling of high swirl pulverized coal combustors. A special attempt has been made to address the gap between scientific data available on combustion and hardware design and scaling needs. Both experimental and theoretical investigations were conducted to improve the predictive capability of combustor scaling laws. The scaling laws derived apply to volume and wall burning of pulverized coal in a slagging high-swirl combustor. They incorporate the findings of this investigation as follows: laser pyrolysis of coal at 10/sup 6/ K/sec and 2500K; effect of coal particle shape on aerodynamic drag and combustion; effect of swirl on heat transfer; coal burnout and slag capture for 20 MW/sub T/ combustor tests for fine and coarse coals; burning particle trajectories and slag capture; particle size and aerodynamic size; volatilization extent and burnout fraction; and preheat level. As a result of this work, the following has been gained: an increased understanding of basic burning mechanisms in high-swirl combustors and an improved model for predicting combustor performance which is intended to impact hardware design and scaling in the near term.

  12. Improvement of suspension stability and electrophoresis of nanodiamond powder by fluorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; Wang, Y.H. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Material Science and Technology, College of Material Science and Engineering, Hebei Street, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zang, J.B., E-mail: diamondzjb@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Material Science and Technology, College of Material Science and Engineering, Hebei Street, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China) and State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Bian, L.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Material Science and Technology, College of Material Science and Engineering, Hebei Street, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2012-02-01

    Fluorinated nanodiamond (F-ND) was prepared by annealing ND in fluorine gas. The fluorine gas was periodically fed to ensure uniform exposure of every diamond nanoparticle in homogenous reactive ambience. The characteristics of the F-ND particles were investigated by the following methods: Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the fluorine atoms were chemically adsorbed on the surface of the ND particles and consequently formed C-F bonds. Fluorine of 6.4 wt.% was detected on the F-ND surface. The aggregated ND particles were disintegrated by the fluorination and the size of aggregated ND was reduced from approximately several hundred nanometers to about 40 nm. The stability of the F-ND suspension in distilled water or ethanol was higher than that of the pristine ND suspension. The anodic electrophoretic deposition of the F-ND particles was derived using ethanol suspension, indicating that the F-ND particles were negatively charged.

  13. Burnout of pulverized biomass particles in large scale boiler - Single particle model approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, Jaakko; Aho, Martti; Moilanen, Antero [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Box 1603, 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Soerensen, Lasse Holst [ReaTech/ReAddit, Frederiksborgsveij 399, Niels Bohr, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Clausen, Soennik [Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Berg, Mogens [ENERGI E2 A/S, A.C. Meyers Vaenge 9, DK-2450 Copenhagen SV (Denmark)

    2010-05-15

    Burning of coal and biomass particles are studied and compared by measurements in an entrained flow reactor and by modelling. The results are applied to study the burning of pulverized biomass in a large scale utility boiler originally planned for coal. A simplified single particle approach, where the particle combustion model is coupled with one-dimensional equation of motion of the particle, is applied for the calculation of the burnout in the boiler. The particle size of biomass can be much larger than that of coal to reach complete burnout due to lower density and greater reactivity. The burner location and the trajectories of the particles might be optimised to maximise the residence time and burnout. (author)

  14. Anomalous intrinsic viscosity of octadecylamine-functionalised carbon nanotubes in suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, K J; Scott, K

    2013-06-28

    Single walled carbon nanotubes, SWCNTs, are used as a model cylinder of nanoscopic dimensions for testing rheological theories of how addition of cylindrical particles affects the viscosity of a suspension of such particles. Using the rate of growth of the accompanying induced linear dichroism following application of an applied electric field, the dynamics of carbon nanotube alignment is studied in suspensions of octadecylamine functionalised single walled carbon nanotubes, ODA-SWCNTs, in 1,2 dichloroethane. From such measurements the viscosity of the suspension is measured as the concentration of the suspension is varied. While working within the dilute limit the viscosity is found to increase linearly with concentration and the intrinsic viscosity of the suspension is found to be 8000. This anomalously high intrinsic viscosity is compared with the predictions of various models for a rigid cylinder and found to be incompatible with any of the current models. Some suggestions are made as to the way this ODA-SWCNT result may be eventually accommodated within other models.

  15. Ash fusion temperatures and the transformations of coal ash particles to slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.; Wall, T.F.; Creelman, R.A.; Gupta, R. [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    A mechanistic study is detailed in which coal ash is heated with its shrinkage measured continuously up to a temperature of 1600{degrees}C. The temperatures corresponding to the rapid rate of shrinkage are shown to correspond to the formation of eutectics identified on phase diagrams. Samples were therefore heated to these temperatures, cooled rapidly and examined with an SEM to identify the associated chemical and physical changes. The progressive changes in the range of chemical analysis (from SEM), the extent of undissolved ash particles and porosity were then quantified and related to homogenization, viscosity and ash fusion mechanisms.

  16. Ash fusion temperatures and the transformations of coal ash particles to slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, T.F.; Creelman, R.A.; Gupta, R.; Gupta, S. [Univ. of Newcastle (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    A mechanistic study is detailed in which coal ash is heated with the shrinkage and electrical resistance measured continuously up to a temperature of 1600{degrees}C. The temperatures corresponding to rapid rates of shrinkage are shown to correspond to the formation of eutectics identified on phase diagrams. Samples where therefore heated to these temperatures, cooled rapidly and examined with an SEM to identify the associated chemical and physical changes. The progressive changes in the range of chemical analysis (from SEM), the extent of undissolved ash particles and porosity are then quantified and related to the shrinkage events and standard ash fusion temperatures.

  17. A simple route to prepare stable hydroxyapatite nanoparticles suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yingchao; Wang Xinyu; Li Shipu

    2009-01-01

    A simple ultrasound assisted precipitation method with addition of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is proposed to prepare stable hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles suspension from the mixture of Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 solution and Ca(OH) 2 solution. The product was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM, HRTEM and particle size, and zeta potential analyzer. TEM observation shows that the suspension is composed of 10-20 nm x 20-50 nm short rod-like and 10-30 nm similar spherical HAP nanoparticles. The number-averaged particle size of stable suspension is about 30 nm between 11.6 and 110.5 nm and the zeta potential is -60.9 mV. The increase of stability of HAP nanoparticles suspension mainly depends on the electrostatic effect and steric effect of GAGs. The HAP nanoparticles can be easily transported into the cancer cells and exhibit good potential as gene or drug carrier system.

  18. Measurement and control of electrostatic charges on solids in a gaseous suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieh, S.; Nguyen, T.

    1985-10-01

    Measurements of mean particle charges and charge distributions on Medium Volatile Bituminous (MVB) coals and Lignite A (LIGA) coals in a 51 mm ID grounded copper pipe loop have been made with the upgraded Faraday cage system. Both negative and positive charges were found for coals in all experiments. The dual polarities of charges are believed to be due to the nonuniform materials and chemical composition contained in coals. As expected, increasing velocity or decreasing air humidity has a significant effect to increase the mean particle charge and the standard deviation of distribution. Charge elimination by the addition of coal fines has been explored. Effective suppression of particle charges was achieved by adding 0.1% by mass of minus 1 micron coal dust into the pipe flow. A neutralization mechanism was proposed to interpret the measured results. The results of charge control obtained to date has been significant and encouraging. More work is needed to validate the proposed mechanism.

  19. Interactions in YBa2Cu3O7-x aqueous suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusoulier, Laurent; Cloots, Rudi; Vertruyen, Benedicte; Garcia-Fierro, Jose L.; Moreno, Rodrigo; Ferrari, Begona

    2009-01-01

    Surface charging mechanism of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) particles in water has been investigated in order to understand their colloidal behaviour and stabilise concentrated suspensions. A broad study relating the suspension parameters (pH and zeta potential) vs. the conditions of the suspension performance (atmosphere and time) has been shown and discussed. The zeta potential values remain positive in all the pH range for the highest powder concentration studied (10 g l -1 ), evidencing a large influence of the solid content in the particle charge. The chemistry of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x in water has been studied through the chemical analysis of the supernatant by inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and the surface analysis of the particles by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The presence of BaCO 3 , CuO, and the hydrolysed Ba species, such as Ba(OH) 2 and Ba(OH) + , at the particles surface has been evaluated as a function of the powder concentration. Based on these analyses, the dependence of the colloidal behaviour of YBCO on the presence of Ba soluble species has been determined. A stabilisation mechanism for YBCO particles in aqueous suspension focus on the powders deleterious minimization was proposed.

  20. Glass transition and aging in dense suspensions of thermosensitive microgel particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnomo, E.H; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Vanapalli Veera, V.S.A.R.; Vanapalli, Srinivas; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2008-01-01

    We report a thermosensitive microgel suspension that can be tuned reversibly between the glass state at low temperature and the liquid state at high temperature. Unlike hard spheres, we find that the glass transition for these suspensions is governed by both the volume fraction and the softness of

  1. Characterizing viscoelasticity of unhydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage extract suspensions: Towards development of injectable therapeutics formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Brian; Mahajan, Gautam; Kothapalli, Chandrasekhar

    2017-08-01

    Exogenous delivery of cartilage extract is being explored as a promising candidate for knee arthritis treatment as it biomimics native cartilage tissue characteristics. In this study, we report on the rheological characterization of aqueous suspensions constituted from a powdered form of unhydrolyzed chicken sternum extract. The effect of particle size (as-received vs. milled), suspension fluid (water vs. PBS), and temperature (37°C vs. 4°C), on the viscoelastic properties of the sternum extract based particulate suspensions were evaluated. Results showed that these suspensions exhibit shear-thinning characteristics as shear rate (γ̇) increases, while viscosity (η), storage (G'), and loss (G″) moduli of the suspensions increased with increasing particulate loading (ϕ: 2.5-10wt%). Reducing the as-received particle size by milling decreased G', G, and η of the suspensions and increased the influence of ϕ on these properties, possibly due to improved particle packing. Replacing water with PBS had no significant effect on the rheological properties, but temperature reduction from 37°C to 4°C increased G', G", and η of the suspensions and lowered the impact of powder loading on viscoelastic properties. The suspension's time-dependent response was typical of viscoelastic materials, characterized by an asymptotical approach to a final stress (stress relaxation) or strain (creep). Results were fit to a power-law model for creep, a general relaxation model for exponential decay in stress, Carreau-Yasuda models for flow curves, and a two-parameter Liu model to identify the maximum powder loading (ϕ m ). Among the various forces involved in particle-particle interactions within these suspensions, electrostatic forces appeared to dominate the most. Such characterization of the viscoelastic nature of these suspensions would help in formulating stable injectable cartilage extract based therapeutics for in vivo applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. Effect of the grinding behaviour of coal blends on coal utilisation for combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubiera, F.; Arenillas, A.; Fuente, E.; Pis, J.J. [Inst. Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain); Miles, N. [School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering, Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    Grinding of a high volatile bituminous coal was performed in three comminution devices: Raymond Mill (RM), Rolls Crusher (RC) and Ball Mill (BM). The pulverised samples were sieved to obtain four particle size fractions, and temperature-programmed combustion (TPC) was used for the evaluation of their combustion behaviour. In addition, three coals of different hardness and rank were mixed in various proportions in order to compare the combustibility characteristics of the binary coal blends with those of the individual coals. The effect of coal blending on grindability was also studied. It was found that grindability was non-additive especially when coals of very different hardgrove grindability index (HGI) were blended. The combustion studies also suggested that there exists an interaction between individual coals when they are burnt as a blend. (orig.)

  3. Experimental studies on the group ignition of a cloud of coal particles: Volume 2, Pyrolysis and ignition modeling. Final report, August 15, 1988--October 15, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annamalai, K.; Ryan, W.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objectives of this work are to formulate a model to simulate transient coal pyrolysis, ignition, and combustion of a cloud of coal particles and to compare results of the program with those reported in the literature elsewhere.

  4. Study on the Inference Factors of Huangling Coking Coal Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Meili; Yang, Zongyi; Fan, Jinwen

    2018-01-01

    In order to reasonably and efficiently utilize Huangling coking coal resource, coal particle, heating rate, holding time, pyrolysis temperature and others factors were dicussed for the influence of those factor on Huangling coking coal pyrolysis products. Several kinds of coal blending for coking experiments were carried out with different kinds of coal such as Huangling coking coal, Xida coal with high ash low sufur, Xinghuo fat coal with hign sulfur, Zhongxingyi coking coal with high sulfur, Hucun lean coal, mixed meager and lean coal. The results shown that the optimal coal particle size distribution was 0.5~1.5mm, the optimal heating rate was 8°C/min, the optimal holding time was 15min, the optimal pyrolysis temperature was 800°C for Huangling coking coal pyrolysis, the tar yield increased from 4.7% to 11.2%. The maximum tar yield of coal blending for coking under the best single factor experiment condition was 10.65% when the proportio of Huangling coking coal was 52%.

  5. Study of the aeraulic re-suspension applied to the dust issue in the future ITER tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondeau, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In ITER, a loss of vacuum accident is likely to re-suspend particles produced and deposited on the torus walls. The thesis purpose is to provide reliable experimental data to develop and validate a re-suspension model, taking into account the low pressure and predicting the amount of particles mobilized during such event. Experiments were carried out as a function of key parameters - particle diameter, friction velocity and density of the atmosphere - entering in the re-suspension mechanism. The size distribution of tungsten particles produced in tokamaks shows diameters from 0.1 to 10 μm. The experimental data of tungsten particle monolayer deposits re-suspension are in good agreement with the Rock'n Roll model when the particles are only mobilised by the fluid. However, a mobilisation of fine particles by clustering, no taken into account in re-suspension models, was highlighted. My experiments have also revealed the importance of the multilayers deposit structure (porosity and thickness) in the re-suspension mechanism with, here again, a mobilisation by particle clustering. The effect of low pressure in the re-suspension mechanism was studied between 10 and 1,000 mbar and shows a friction reduction in the airflow forces at low pressure. Finally, measurements of the MES phenomenon kinetics highlighted three distinct regions with a short-term effect, a long-term effect and a transition region which must be taken into account in a MES calculation. (author)

  6. Inkjet printable nanosilver suspensions for enhanced sintering quality in rapid manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, John G; Creehan, Kevin D; Kuhn, Howard A

    2007-01-01

    Inkjet printable nanosilver suspensions were prepared by dispersing 30 nm silver particles into a water-based binder system to enhance the sintering quality in rapid manufacturing. During three-dimensional printing (3DP), the nanosilver suspensions were inkjet printed onto repetitively spread microsilver powder for selective joining. Since the nanosilver particles in the suspensions can be sintered at relatively low temperatures to bond the neighbouring microsilver powder, they were used to provide the continuous bonding strength of the manufacturing parts during the heat-up procedure of the sintering operation. Comparative study shows that the silver parts printed using the nanosilver suspension were significantly enhanced in sintering quality than those printed using the binder system, especially when the silver parts had thin or small features with high aspect ratios

  7. Velocity and size distribution measurement of suspension droplets using PDPA technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Shahin; Akbarnozari, Ali; Moreau, Christian; Dolatabadi, Ali

    2015-11-01

    The creation of fine and uniform droplets from a bulk of liquid is a vital process in a variety of engineering applications, such as atomization in suspension plasma spray (SPS) in which the submicron coating materials are injected to the plasma gas through the suspension droplets. The size and velocity of these droplets has a great impact on the interaction of the suspension with the gas flow emanating from a plasma torch and can consequently affect the mechanical and chemical properties of the resultant coatings. In the current study, an aqueous suspension of small glass particles (2-8 μm) was atomized by utilizing an effervescent atomizer of 1 mm orifice diameter which involves bubbling gas (air) directly into the liquid stream. The gas to liquid ratio (GLR) was kept constant at 6% throughout this study. The mass concentration of glass particles varied in the range between 0.5 to 5% in order to investigate the effect of suspension viscosity and surface tension on the droplet characteristics, such as velocity and size distributions. These characteristics were simultaneously measured by using a non-intrusive optical technique, Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry (PDPA), which is based on the light signal scattered from the droplets moving in a measurement volume. The velocity and size distribution of suspension droplets were finally compared to those of distilled water under identical conditions. The results showed a different atomization behaviors due to the reduction in surface tension of the suspension spray.

  8. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Effect of Coal Rank on Burn-off Time in Pulverized Coal Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Nozawa, Sohei; Wada, Nozomi; Matsushita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Omori, Motohira; Harada, Tatsuro

    2012-01-01

    Thermogravimetry (TG) for two different coal ranks, Loy Yang coal and Newlands coal, was carried out in an atmospheric air environment. Detailed parameters of the heterogeneous oxidation reaction for each coal rank were estimated by analyzing the TG results. Heat and mass transfer of a single pulverized coal particle that was heated at a constant temperature were numerically simulated. In this calculation, the decrease in the mass ratio caused by the oxidation reaction was considered. The num...

  9. Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomass–coal blends in pneumatic conveying pipelines using electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Xiangchen; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yong; Shao, Jiaqing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative data about the dynamic behaviour of pulverized coal and biomass–coal blends in fuel injection pipelines allow power plant operators to detect variations in fuel supply and oscillations in the flow at an early stage, enable them to balance fuel distribution between fuel feeding pipes and ultimately to achieve higher combustion efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion algorithms are combined to provide a non-intrusive solution to the measurement of fuel particle velocity, relative solid concentration and flow stability under pneumatic conveying conditions. Electrostatic sensor arrays with circular and arc-shaped electrodes are integrated in the same sensing head to measure ‘averaged’ and ‘localized’ characteristics of pulverized fuel flow. Data fusion techniques are applied to optimize and integrate the results from the sensor arrays. Experimental tests were conducted on the horizontal section of a 150 mm bore pneumatic conveyor circulating pulverized coal and sawdust under various flow conditions. Test results suggest that pure coal particles travel faster and carry more electrostatic charge than biomass–coal blends. As more biomass particles are added to the flow, the overall velocity of the flow reduces, the electrostatic charge level on particles decreases and the flow becomes less stable compared to the pure coal flow. (paper)

  10. Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomass-coal blends in pneumatic conveying pipelines using electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiangchen; Yan, Yong; Shao, Jiaqing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Chao

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative data about the dynamic behaviour of pulverized coal and biomass-coal blends in fuel injection pipelines allow power plant operators to detect variations in fuel supply and oscillations in the flow at an early stage, enable them to balance fuel distribution between fuel feeding pipes and ultimately to achieve higher combustion efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion algorithms are combined to provide a non-intrusive solution to the measurement of fuel particle velocity, relative solid concentration and flow stability under pneumatic conveying conditions. Electrostatic sensor arrays with circular and arc-shaped electrodes are integrated in the same sensing head to measure ‘averaged’ and ‘localized’ characteristics of pulverized fuel flow. Data fusion techniques are applied to optimize and integrate the results from the sensor arrays. Experimental tests were conducted on the horizontal section of a 150 mm bore pneumatic conveyor circulating pulverized coal and sawdust under various flow conditions. Test results suggest that pure coal particles travel faster and carry more electrostatic charge than biomass-coal blends. As more biomass particles are added to the flow, the overall velocity of the flow reduces, the electrostatic charge level on particles decreases and the flow becomes less stable compared to the pure coal flow.

  11. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  12. Measurement of the effective refractive index of a turbid colloidal suspension using light refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Coronado, A; Garcia-Valenzuela, A; Sanchez-Perez, C; Barrera, R G

    2005-01-01

    We propose and analyse a simple method to measure simultaneously the real and imaginary parts of the effective refractive index of a turbid suspension of particles. The method is based on measurements of the angle of refraction and transmittance of a laser beam that traverses a hollow glass prism filled with a colloidal suspension. We provide a comprehensive assessment of the method. It can offer high sensitivity while still being simple to interpret. We present results of experiments using an optically turbid suspension of polystyrene particles and compare them with theoretical predictions. We also report experimental evidence showing that the refractive behaviour of the diffuse component of light coming from a suspension depends on the volume fraction of the colloidal particles

  13. Model-assisted measurements of suspension-feeding flow velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Clos, Kevin T; Jones, Ian T; Carrier, Tyler J; Brady, Damian C; Jumars, Peter A

    2017-06-01

    Benthic marine suspension feeders provide an important link between benthic and pelagic ecosystems. The strength of this link is determined by suspension-feeding rates. Many studies have measured suspension-feeding rates using indirect clearance-rate methods, which are based on the depletion of suspended particles. Direct methods that measure the flow of water itself are less common, but they can be more broadly applied because, unlike indirect methods, direct methods are not affected by properties of the cleared particles. We present pumping rates for three species of suspension feeders, the clams Mya arenaria and Mercenaria mercenaria and the tunicate Ciona intestinalis , measured using a direct method based on particle image velocimetry (PIV). Past uses of PIV in suspension-feeding studies have been limited by strong laser reflections that interfere with velocity measurements proximate to the siphon. We used a new approach based on fitting PIV-based velocity profile measurements to theoretical profiles from computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models, which allowed us to calculate inhalant siphon Reynolds numbers ( Re ). We used these inhalant Re and measurements of siphon diameters to calculate exhalant Re , pumping rates, and mean inlet and outlet velocities. For the three species studied, inhalant Re ranged from 8 to 520, and exhalant Re ranged from 15 to 1073. Volumetric pumping rates ranged from 1.7 to 7.4 l h -1 for M . arenaria , 0.3 to 3.6 l h -1 for M . m ercenaria and 0.07 to 0.97 l h -1 for C . intestinalis We also used CFD models based on measured pumping rates to calculate capture regions, which reveal the spatial extent of pumped water. Combining PIV data with CFD models may be a valuable approach for future suspension-feeding studies. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. (ed.); Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexingt

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles What determines their composition Whether or not particles deposit How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  15. Fluidized bed combustion of single coal char particles at high CO{sub 2} concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, F.; Chirone, R. [CNR, Naples (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Combustion of single coal char particles was studied at 850{sup o}C in a lab-scale fluidized bed at high CO{sub 2} concentration, typical of oxyfiring conditions. The burning rate of the particles was followed as a function of time by continuously measuring the outlet CO and O{sub 2} concentrations. Some preliminary evaluations on the significance of homogeneous CO oxidation in the reactor and of carbon gasification by CO{sub 2} in the char were also carried out. Results showed that the carbon burning rate increases with oxygen concentration and char particle size. The particle temperature is approximately equal to that of the bed up to an oxygen concentration of 2%, but it is considerably higher for larger oxygen concentrations. Both CO{sub 2} gasification of char and homogeneous CO oxidation are not negligible. The gasification reaction rate is slow and it is likely to be controlled by intrinsic kinetics. During purely gasification conditions the extent of carbon loss due to particle attrition by abrasion (estimated from the carbon mass balance) appears to be much more important than under combustion conditions.

  16. EXPERIMENTS AND COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF PULVERIZED-COAL IGNITION; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel Owusu-Ofori; John C. Chen

    1999-01-01

    Under typical conditions of pulverized-coal combustion, which is characterized by fine particles heated at very high rates, there is currently a lack of certainty regarding the ignition mechanism of bituminous and lower rank coals as well as the ignition rate of reaction. furthermore, there have been no previous studies aimed at examining these factors under various experimental conditions, such as particle size, oxygen concentration, and heating rate. Finally, there is a need to improve current mathematical models of ignition to realistically and accurately depict the particle-to-particle variations that exist within a coal sample. Such a model is needed to extract useful reaction parameters from ignition studies, and to interpret ignition data in a more meaningful way. The authors propose to examine fundamental aspects of coal ignition through (1) experiments to determine the ignition temperature of various coals by direct measurement, and (2) modeling of the ignition process to derive rate constants and to provide a more insightful interpretation of data from ignition experiments. The authors propose to use a novel laser-based ignition experiment to achieve their first objective. Laser-ignition experiments offer the distinct advantage of easy optical access to the particles because of the absence of a furnace or radiating walls, and thus permit direct observation and particle temperature measurement. The ignition temperature of different coals under various experimental conditions can therefore be easily determined by direct measurement using two-color pyrometry. The ignition rate-constants, when the ignition occurs heterogeneously, and the particle heating rates will both be determined from analyses based on these measurements

  17. Further Investigations on Simultaneous Ultrasonic Coal Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Gokhan Ozkan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the flotation performance of a representative hard coal slime sample (d80 particle size of minus 0.2 mm obtained from the Prosper-Haniel coal preparation plant located in Bottrop, Germany. Flotation was carried out with a newly designed flotation cell refurbished from an old ultrasonic cleaning bath (2.5 L volume equipped with a single frequency (35 kHz and two different power levels (80–160 W and a sub-aeration-type flotation machine operating at a stable impeller speed (1200 rpm and air rate (2.5 L/min. The reagent combination for conventional and simultaneous ultrasonic coal flotation tests was Ekofol-440 at variable dosages (40–300 g/t with controlling water temperature (20–25 °C at natural pH (6.5–7.0. The batch coal flotation results were analyzed by comparing the combustible recovery (% and separation efficiency (% values, taking mass yield and ash concentrations of the froths and tailings into account. It was found that simultaneous ultrasonic coal flotation increased yield and recovery values of the floated products with lower ash values than the conventional flotation despite using similar reagent dosages. Furthermore, particle size distribution of the ultrasonically treated and untreated coals was measured. Finely distributed coal particles seemed to be agglomerated during the ultrasonic treatment, while ash-forming slimes were removed by hydrodynamic cavitation.

  18. Discontinuous Shear Thickening and Dilatancy: Frictional Effects in Viscous Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Shear thickening in concentrated suspensions has been well-known for quite a long time, yet a firm consensus on the basis for very abrupt or ``discontinuous'' shear thickening (DST) seen in suspensions of large solid fraction, ϕ, has not been reached. This work addresses the DST phenomenon, and proposes a simulation method based in the Stokesian Dynamics algorithm to explore the role of various forces between the particles, including hydrodynamic, conservative potential, and frictional interactions. This work shows that allowance for friction between spherical particles suspended in a viscous liquid causes a significant reduction in the jamming solid fraction of the mixture, ϕmax, taken as the maximum fraction at which the suspension will flow. A consequence of this is a shifting of the singularity in the effective viscosity, η, to smaller ϕmax, and the frictional suspension has a larger viscosity than does the frictionless suspension of the same solid fraction, as is clear from the standard empirical modeling of η (ϕ) =(1 - ϕ /ϕmax) - α , α ~ 2 . When a counterbalancing repulsive force between the particles, representative for example of charge-induced repulsion, is incorporated in the dynamics, the mixture undergoes a transition from frictionless to frictional interactions, and from low to high effective viscosity, at a critical shear rate. Comparison with experimental data shows remarkable agreement in the features of DST captured by the method. The basic algorithm and results of both rate-controlled and stress-controlled simulations will be presented. Like the shear stress, the magnitude of the normal stress exerted by the suspended particles also increases abruptly at the critical shear rate, consistent with the long-standing notion that dilatancy and shear-thickening are synonymous. We will show that considering all shear thickening materials as dilatant is a misconception, but demonstrate the validity of the connection of dilatancy with DST in

  19. Enhancement of stability of various nZVI suspensions used in groundwater remediation with environmentally friendly organic stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Doris; Wagner, Stephan; Velimirović, Milica; Laumann, Susanne; Micić, Vesna; Hofmann, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    The use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles for in situ remediation of polluted soil and groundwater has been shown as one of the most promising techniques [1]. The success of this technology depends on the mobility, reactivity, and longevity of nZVI particles. The mobility of nZVI particles depends on the properties of the single particles, stability of the particle suspension, and the aquifer material [1,2]. In order to enhance the mobility of nZVI, the mobility-decisive properties of the nZVI particles in suspension such as concentration, size distribution, surface charge, and sedimentation rate have to be investigated and optimized. Previous studies showed that pristine nZVI particles aggregate rapidly in water, reducing the particles radius of influence after injection [3]. In order to prevent aggregation and sedimentation of the nZVI particles, and consequently improve the stability of nZVI suspension and therefore the mobility of the nZVI particles, surface stabilizers can be used to provide electrostatic repulsion and steric or electrosteric stabilization [3,4]. The objective of this lab-scale study is to investigate the potential for enhancing the stability of different nZVI suspensions by means of environmentally friendly organic stabilizers, including carboxymethyl cellulose, pectin, alginate, xanthan, and guar gum. The different nZVI particles used included pristine and polyacrylic acid-coated nZVI particles provided in suspension (Nanofer 25 and Nanofer 25S, respectively, NANOIRON s.r.o., Czech Republic), air-stable nZVI particles (Nanofer Star, (NANOIRON s.r.o., Czech Republic), and milled iron flakes (UVR-FIA, Germany). In order to study the enhancement of nZVI stability (1 g L-1 total iron) different concentrations of organic stabilizers (1-20 wt.%) were applied in these nZVI suspensions. Each nZVI suspension was freshly prepared and treated for 10 minutes with Ultra-Turrax (15 000 rpm) and 10 minutes ultrasonic bath prior to

  20. Treatment of waste water containing solid particles (coal-ash-water suspensions) from 500 MW blocks of brown coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenstern, H

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a technological scheme and details on efficiency of the waste water cleaning installation in the 4 x 500 MW Boxberg III brown coal power plant. The power plant waste water contains between 0.1 and 100 kg of solids per m/sup 3/ of waste water; it requires cleaning to the environmental standard of up to 30 mg/l. The water cleaning installation consists of a coarse grain settling tank 30.7 m long, four one chamber thickeners with a 22 m diameter each, using aluminium sulfate as flocculent, and a water purification basin. The coarse grain settling tank is furnished with a continuously working chain scraper for removal of up to 100 m/sup 3//d of sludge from the bottom of the tank. Technological parameters of the settling tank are provided. Details of the tank's water cleaning performance are compared to the coarse grain settling tank at the Hagenwerder power plant. A list of the percentage of grain sizes removed from waste waters at both power plants is given. It is concluded that 85% of solids are removed from the Boxberg III waste water at the first water purification stage with a coarse grain settling tank and that use of continuously working chain scrapers is successful for removal of sludge with high water content and with a high content of fines in the grain size below 0.1 mm.

  1. DC electrophoresis and viscosity of realistic salt-free concentrated suspensions: non-equilibrium dissociation-association processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Reina, Emilio; Carrique, Félix; Lechuga, Luis

    2014-03-01

    Most of the suspensions usually found in industrial applications are concentrated, aqueous and in contact with the atmospheric CO2. The case of suspensions with a high concentration of added salt is relatively well understood and has been considered in many studies. In this work we are concerned with the case of concentrated suspensions that have no ions different than: (1) those stemming from the charged colloidal particles (the added counterions, that counterbalance their surface charge); (2) the H(+) and OH(-) ions from water dissociation, and (3) the ions generated by the atmospheric CO2 contamination. We call this kind of systems "realistic salt-free suspensions". We show some theoretical results about the electrophoretic mobility of a colloidal particle and the electroviscous effect of realistic salt-free concentrated suspensions. The theoretical framework is based on a cell model that accounts for particle-particle interactions in concentrated suspensions, which has been successfully applied to many different phenomena in concentrated suspensions. On the other hand, the water dissociation and CO2 contamination can be described following two different levels of approximation: (a) by local equilibrium mass-action equations, because it is supposed that the reactions are so fast that chemical equilibrium is attained everywhere in the suspension, or (b) by non-equilibrium dissociation-association kinetic equations, because it is considered that some reactions are not rapid enough to ensure local chemical equilibrium. Both approaches give rise to different results in the range from dilute to semidilute suspensions, causing possible discrepancies when comparing standard theories and experiments concerning transport properties of realistic salt-free suspensions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. System and technique for ultrasonic characterization of settling suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Margaret S [Richland, WA; Panetta, Paul D [Richland, WA; Bamberger, Judith A [Richland, WA; Pappas, Richard A [Richland, WA

    2006-11-28

    A system for determining properties of settling suspensions includes a settling container, a mixer, and devices for ultrasonic interrogation transverse to the settling direction. A computer system controls operation of the mixer and the interrogation devices and records the response to the interrogating as a function of settling time, which is then used to determine suspension properties. Attenuation versus settling time for dilute suspensions, such as dilute wood pulp suspension, exhibits a peak at different settling times for suspensions having different properties, and the location of this peak is used as one mechanism for characterizing suspensions. Alternatively or in addition, a plurality of ultrasound receivers are arranged at different angles to a common transmitter to receive scattering responses at a variety of angles during particle settling. Angular differences in scattering as a function of settling time are also used to characterize the suspension.

  3. New particle formation in the fresh flue-gas plume from a coal-fired power plant: effect of flue-gas cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylläri, Fanni; Asmi, Eija; Anttila, Tatu; Saukko, Erkka; Vakkari, Ville; Pirjola, Liisa; Hillamo, Risto; Laurila, Tuomas; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Lihavainen, Heikki; O'Connor, Ewan; Niemelä, Ville; Keskinen, Jorma; Dal Maso, Miikka; Rönkkö, Topi

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric emissions, including particle number and size distribution, from a 726 MWth coal-fired power plant were studied experimentally from a power plant stack and flue-gas plume dispersing in the atmosphere. Experiments were conducted under two different flue-gas cleaning conditions. The results were utilized in a plume dispersion and dilution model taking into account particle formation precursor (H2SO4 resulted from the oxidation of emitted SO2) and assessment related to nucleation rates. The experiments showed that the primary emissions of particles and SO2 were effectively reduced by flue-gas desulfurization and fabric filters, especially the emissions of particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter. Primary pollutant concentrations reached background levels in 200-300 s. However, the atmospheric measurements indicated that new particles larger than 2.5 nm are formed in the flue-gas plume, even in the very early phases of atmospheric ageing. The effective number emission of nucleated particles were several orders of magnitude higher than the primary particle emission. Modelling studies indicate that regardless of continuing dilution of the flue gas, nucleation precursor (H2SO4 from SO2 oxidation) concentrations remain relatively constant. In addition, results indicate that flue-gas nucleation is more efficient than predicted by atmospheric aerosol modelling. In particular, the observation of the new particle formation with rather low flue-gas SO2 concentrations changes the current understanding of the air quality effects of coal combustion. The results can be used to evaluate optimal ways to achieve better air quality, particularly in polluted areas like India and China.

  4. On changes in bed-material particles from a 550 MWth CFB boiler burning coal, bark and peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesna Barisic; Mikko Hupa [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Turku (Finland). Combustion and Materials Chemistry

    2007-02-15

    This paper presents our observations on coating build up, morphology and the elemental composition of bed-material particles collected from a 550 MWth CFB boiler burning coal, bark and peat fuel/fuel mixture. The special focus was on the changes of the elemental composition of coating layer on bed-material particles when different fuels were burned. The results were obtained using a scanning electron microscope coupled with an energy depressive X-ray analyser (SEM/EDX). The results clearly show that properties of bed-material particles are a result of complex interaction between the fuels burned previously, and the fuels used at the time of sampling. Short communication. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Innovative Coal Solids-Flow Monitoring and Measurement Using Phase-Doppler and Mie Scattering Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Seong Lee

    2010-01-19

    Fuel flow to individual burners is complicated and difficult to determine on coal fired boilers, since coal solids were transported in a gas suspension that is governed by the complex physics of two-phase flow. The objectives of the project were the measurements of suspended coal solids-flows in the simulated test conditions. Various extractive methods were performed manually and can give only a snapshot result of fuel distribution. In order to measure particle diameter & velocity, laser based phase-Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were carefully applied. Statistical methods were used to analyze particle characteristics to see which factors have significant effect. The transparent duct model was carefully designed and fabricated for the laser-based-instrumentation of solids-flow monitoring (LISM). The experiments were conducted with two different kinds of particles with four different particle diameters. The particle types were organic particles and saw dust particles with the diameter range of 75-150 micron, 150-250 micron, 250-355 micron and 355-425 micron. The densities of the particles were measured to see how the densities affected the test results. Also the experiment was conducted with humid particles and fog particles. To generate humid particles, the humidifier was used. A pipe was connected to the humidifier to lead the particle flow to the intersection of the laser beam. The test results of the particle diameter indicated that, the mean diameter of humid particles was between 6.1703 microns and 6.6947 microns when the humid particle flow was low. When the humid particle flow was high, the mean diameter was between 6.6728 microns and 7.1872 microns. The test results of the particle mean velocity indicated that the mean velocity was between 1.3394 m/sec and 1.4556 m/sec at low humid particle flow. When the humid particle flow was high, the mean velocity was between 1.5694 m/sec and 1.7856 m/sec. The Air Flow Module, TQ

  6. Technological and economic aspects of coal biodesulfurisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J

    1998-01-01

    The sulfur found in coal is either part of the molecular coal structure (organically bound sulfur), is contained in minerals such as pyrite (FeS2), or occurs in minor quantities in the form of sulfate and elemental sulfur. When pyrite crystals are finely distributed within the coal matrix, mechanical cleaning can only remove part of the pyrite. It can, however, be removed by microbial action requiring only mild conditions. The process involves simple equipment, almost no chemicals, but relatively long reaction times, and treatment of iron sulfate containing process water. Different process configurations are possible, depending on the coal particle size. Coal with particle sizes of less than 0.5 mm is preferably desulfurised in slurry reactors, while lump coal (> 0.5 mm) should be treated in heaps. Investment and operating costs are estimated for different process configurations on an industrial scale. Concerning the organically bound sulfur in coal there is up to now no promising biochemical pathway for the degradation and/or desulfurisation of such compounds.

  7. Effective temperatures and the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation for particle suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Carlos I; Santamaría-Holek, I; Pérez-Madrid, A

    2015-09-14

    The short- and long-time breakdown of the classical Stokes-Einstein relation for colloidal suspensions at arbitrary volume fractions is explained here by examining the role that confinement and attractive interactions play in the intra- and inter-cage dynamics executed by the colloidal particles. We show that the measured short-time diffusion coefficient is larger than the one predicted by the classical Stokes-Einstein relation due to a non-equilibrated energy transfer between kinetic and configuration degrees of freedom. This transfer can be incorporated in an effective kinetic temperature that is higher than the temperature of the heat bath. We propose a Generalized Stokes-Einstein relation (GSER) in which the effective temperature replaces the temperature of the heat bath. This relation then allows to obtain the diffusion coefficient once the viscosity and the effective temperature are known. On the other hand, the temporary cluster formation induced by confinement and attractive interactions of hydrodynamic nature makes the long-time diffusion coefficient to be smaller than the corresponding one obtained from the classical Stokes-Einstein relation. Then, the use of the GSER allows to obtain an effective temperature that is smaller than the temperature of the heat bath. Additionally, we provide a simple expression based on a differential effective medium theory that allows to calculate the diffusion coefficient at short and long times. Comparison of our results with experiments and simulations for suspensions of hard and porous spheres shows an excellent agreement in all cases.

  8. Rheological properties of purified illite clays in glycerol/water suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenkova, I.; Malers, J.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.

    2015-04-01

    There are many studies about rheological properties of clay-water suspensions, but no published investigations about clay-glycerol suspensions. In this work apparent viscosity of previously purified illite containing clay fraction clay minerals were almost totally removed by centrifugation. All obtained suspensions behaved as shear-thinning fluids with multiple times higher viscosity than pure glycerol/water solutions. Reduction of clay fraction concentration by 5% decreased the apparent viscosity of 50% glycerol/water suspensions approximately 5 times. There was basically no difference in apparent viscosity between all four 50% glycerol/water suspensions, but in 90% glycerol/water suspensions samples from Iecava deposit showed slightly higher apparent viscosity, which could be affected by the particle size distribution.

  9. Effect of frothing and collecting agents for flotation behavior of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, S.; Sheikh, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    Coal flotation is a complex process involving several phases (particles, oil droplets and air bubbles). These phases simultaneously interact with each other and with other species such as the molecules of a promoting reagent and dissolved ions in water. The physical and chemical interactions determine the outcome of the flotation process. Although the interactions between the oil droplets and coal particles are actually favored, stabilization of the oil droplets by small amounts of fine hydrophobic particles may lead to decrease in selectivity and an increased in oil consumption. These problems could be remedied by use of promoters that modify the coal surface for suitable particle-particle, droplet-particle and particle-bubble contact while emulsifying the oil droplets. In this paper, a detailed description of the coal flotation, their physical and chemical interactions with each other in the flotation pulp, the major parameters (% volatiles, % fixed carbon and heating value) that affect these interactions and how these interactions, in turn, influence the flotation process are discussed. (author)

  10. Fine coal cleaning via the micro-mag process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Mark S.; Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    A method of cleaning particulate coal which is fed with a dense medium slurry as an inlet feed to a cyclone separator. The coal particle size distribution is in the range of from about 37 microns to about 600 microns. The dense medium comprises water and ferromagnetic particles that have a relative density in the range of from about 4.0 to about 7.0. The ferromagnetic particles of the dense medium have particle sizes of less than about 15 microns and at least a majority of the particle sizes are less than about 5 microns. In the cyclone, the particulate coal and dense-medium slurry is separated into a low gravity product stream and a high gravity produce stream wherein the differential in relative density between the two streams is not greater than about 0.2. The low gravity and high gravity streams are treated to recover the ferromagnetic particles therefrom.

  11. The Effect of pH and Time on The Stability of Superparamagnetic Maghemite Nanoparticle Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin Irwan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles have been synthesized using a chemical co-precipitation method. The morphology and particle size is characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and magnetic characterization using Alternating Gradient Magnetometry (AGM. The stability of the maghemite nanoparticles suspension were studied at different pH and time of storage. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS and Zeta Potential were conducted to determine the stability of the suspensions. TEM observation showed that the particles size is 9.6 nm and have spherical morphology. The particles showed superparamagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization 25.5 emu/g. The suspensions are stable in the acidic condition at pH 4 and alkaline condition at pH 10. The suspensions remain stable after 4 weeks of storage.

  12. The release of mineral matter and associated phosphorus as a function of the particle size coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claassens, V. [Sasol Technology Research & Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Syngas & Coal Technologies

    2009-05-15

    The presence of phosphorus in carbon reductants is a major concern in the metallurgical industry. The behaviour of the phosphorus and mineral matter content (reported as ash) as a function of particle size was investigated. The primary aim of this study was to determine the reduction in phosphorus and mineral matter that occurred as the particle size decreased. A secondary aim was to determine how the phosphorus was distributed in the feed coal and to where it reported during floc-flotation. Results showed that the ash content decreased more rapidly than the phosphorus content as the mean particle size was reduced. It remains unclear why P-rejection is only half as effective as mineral matter rejection. Detailed liberation analysis of P-containing minerals is required to possibly explain this phenomenon.

  13. Interrelating the breakage and composition of mined and drill core coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terril Edward

    Particle size distribution of coal is important if the coal is to be beneficiated, or if a coal sales contract includes particle size specifications. An exploration bore core sample of coal ought to be reduced from its original cylindrical form to a particle size distribution and particle composition that reflects, insofar as possible, a process stream of raw coal it represents. Often, coal cores are reduced with a laboratory crushing machine, the product of which does not match the raw coal size distribution. This study proceeds from work in coal bore core reduction by Australian investigators. In this study, as differentiated from the Australian work, drop-shatter impact breakage followed by dry batch tumbling in steel cylinder rotated about its transverse axis are employed to characterize the core material in terms of first-order and zeroth-order breakage rate constants, which are indices of the propensity of the coal to degrade during excavation and handling. Initial drop-shatter and dry tumbling calibrations were done with synthetic cores composed of controlled low-strength concrete incorporating fly ash (as a partial substitute for Portland cement) in order to reduce material variables and conserve difficult-to-obtain coal cores. Cores of three different coalbeds--Illinois No. 6, Upper Freeport, and Pocahontas No. 5 were subjected to drop-shatter and dry batch tumbling tests to determine breakage response. First-order breakage, characterized by a first-order breakage index for each coal, occurred in the drop-shatter tests. First- and zeroth-order breakage occurred in dry batch tumbling; disappearance of coarse particles and creation of fine particles occurred in a systematic way that could be represented mathematically. Certain of the coal cores available for testing were dry and friable. Comparison of coal preparation plant feed with a crushed bore core and a bore core prepared by drop-shatter and tumbling (all from the same Illinois No.6 coal mining

  14. Asymptotics of the filtration problem for suspension in porous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmina Ludmila Ivanovna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical-geometric model of the suspension filtering in the porous media is considered. Suspended solid particles of the same size move with suspension flow through the porous media - a solid body with pores - channels of constant cross section. It is assumed that the particles pass freely through the pores of large diameter and are stuck at the inlet of pores that are smaller than the particle size. It is considered that one particle can clog only one small pore and vice versa. The particles stuck in the pores remain motionless and form a deposit. The concentrations of suspended and retained particles satisfy a quasilinear hyperbolic system of partial differential equations of the first order, obtained as a result of macro-averaging of micro-stochastic diffusion equations. Initially the porous media contains no particles and both concentrations are equal to zero; the suspension supplied to the porous media inlet has a constant concentration of suspended particles. The flow of particles moves in the porous media with a constant speed, before the wave front the concentrations of suspended and retained particles are zero. Assuming that the filtration coefficient is small we construct an asymptotic solution of the filtration problem over the concentration front. The terms of the asymptotic expansions satisfy linear partial differential equations of the first order and are determined successively in an explicit form. It is shown that in the simplest case the asymptotics found matches the known asymptotic expansion of the solution near the concentration front.

  15. Grindability and combustion behavior of coal and torrefied biomass blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, M V; García, R; Pevida, C; Rubiera, F

    2015-09-01

    Biomass samples (pine, black poplar and chestnut woodchips) were torrefied to improve their grindability before being combusted in blends with coal. Torrefaction temperatures between 240 and 300 °C and residence times between 11 and 43 min were studied. The grindability of the torrefied biomass, evaluated from the particle size distribution of the ground sample, significantly improved compared to raw biomass. Higher temperatures increased the proportion of smaller-sized particles after grinding. Torrefied chestnut woodchips (280 °C, 22 min) showed the best grinding properties. This sample was blended with coal (5-55 wt.% biomass). The addition of torrefied biomass to coal up to 15 wt.% did not significantly increase the proportion of large-sized particles after grinding. No relevant differences in the burnout value were detected between the coal and coal/torrefied biomass blends due to the high reactivity of the coal. NO and SO2 emissions decreased as the percentage of torrefied biomass in the blend with coal increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Polymorphism in Bacterial Flagella Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, Walter J.

    Bacterial flagella are a type of biological polymer studied for its role in bacterial motility and the polymorphic transitions undertaken to facilitate the run and tumble behavior. The naturally rigid, helical shape of flagella gives rise to novel colloidal dynamics and material properties. This thesis studies methods in which the shape of bacterial flagella can be controlled using in vitro methods and the changes the shape of the flagella have on both single particle dynamics and bulk material properties. We observe individual flagellum in both the dilute and semidilute regimes to observe the effects of solvent condition on the shape of the filament as well as the effect the filament morphology has on reptation through a network of flagella. In addition, we present rheological measurements showing how the shape of filaments effects the bulk material properties of flagellar suspensions. We find that the individual particle dynamics in suspensions of flagella can vary with geometry from needing to reptate linearly via rotation for helical filaments to the prevention of long range diffusion for block copolymer filaments. Similarly, for bulk material properties of flagella suspensions, helical geometries show a dramatic enhancement in elasticity over straight filaments while block copolymers form an elastic gel without the aid of crosslinking agents.

  17. Metastable and unstable cellular solidification of colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Sylvain; Maire, Eric; Bernard-Granger, Guillaume; Lasalle, Audrey; Bogner, Agnès; Gauthier, Catherine; Leloup, Jérôme; Guizard, Christian

    2009-12-01

    Colloidal particles are often seen as big atoms that can be directly observed in real space. They are therefore becoming increasingly important as model systems to study processes of interest in condensed-matter physics such as melting, freezing and glass transitions. The solidification of colloidal suspensions has long been a puzzling phenomenon with many unexplained features. Here, we demonstrate and rationalize the existence of instability and metastability domains in cellular solidification of colloidal suspensions, by direct in situ high-resolution X-ray radiography and tomography observations. We explain such interface instabilities by a partial Brownian diffusion of the particles leading to constitutional supercooling situations. Processing under unstable conditions leads to localized and global kinetic instabilities of the solid/liquid interface, affecting the crystal morphology and particle redistribution behaviour.

  18. Determining the ash content of coal flotation tailings using an MPOF optical ash meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, T; Sliwa, J

    1982-01-01

    The block layout, a description of the design and principles of operation of an automatic optical, continuous action MPOF type ash meter are presented. The difference in the optical properties of coal and rock is used in the ash meter. The identification of the ash content is conducted on the basis of the spectral characteristics of reflection of a finely dispersed aqueous coal and rock suspension.

  19. Three-dimensional simulation of flow and combustion for pulverised coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, B.Y.; Zulli, P.; Rogers, H.; Mathieson, J.G.; Yu, A.B. [BlueScope Steel Research, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of pulverised coal injection has been developed for simulating coal flow and combustion in the tuyere and raceway of a blast furnace. The model has been used to simulate previously reported combustion tests, which feature an inclined co-axial lance with an annular cooling gas. The predicted coal burnout agrees well with that measured for three coals with volatile contents and particle size ranging between 20.2-36.4% and particle sizes 1-200 {mu}m. Many important phenomena including flow asymmetry, recirculating flow and particle dispersion in the combustion chamber have been predicted. The current model can reproduce the experimental observations including the effects on burnout of coal flowrate and the introduction of methane for lance cooling.

  20. On Determination of the Equation of State of Colloidal Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirorattanakul, Krittanon; Huang, Hao; Uhl, Christopher; Ou-Yang, Daniel

    Colloidal suspensions are the main ingredients for a variety of materials in our daily life, e.g., milk, salad dressing, skin lotions and paint for wall coatings. Material properties of these systems require an understanding of the equation of state of these materials. Our project aims to experimentally determine the equation of state of colloidal suspensions by microfluidics, dielectrophoresis (DEP) and optical imaging. We use fluorescent polystyrene latexes as a model system for this study. Placing semi-permeable membranes between microfluidics channels, which made from PDMS, we control the particle concentration and ionic strengths of the suspension. We use osmotic equilibrium equation to analyze the particle concentration distribution in a potential force field created by DEP. We use confocal optical imaging to measure the spatial distribution of the particle concentration. We compare the results of our experimental study with data obtained by computer simulation of osmotic equilibrium of interacting colloids. NSF DMR-0923299, Emulsion Polymer Institute, Department of Physics, Bioengineering Program of Lehigh University.

  1. Intrinsic reaction kinetics of coal char combustion by direct measurement of ignition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ryang-Gyoon; Jeon, Chung-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    A wire heating reactor that can use a synchronized experimental method was developed to obtain the intrinsic kinetics of large coal char particles ranging in size from 0.4 to 1 mm. This synchronization system consists of three parts: a thermocouple wire for both heating and direct measurement of the particle temperature, a photodetector sensor for determining ignition/burnout points by measuring the intensity of luminous emission from burning particles, and a high-speed camera–long-distance microscope for observing and recording the movement of luminous zone directly. Coal char ignition was found to begin at a spot on the particle's external surface and then moved across the entire particle. Moreover, the ignition point determined according to the minimum of dT/dt is a spot point and not a full growth point. The ignition temperature of the spot point rises as the particle diameter increases. A spot ignition model, which describes the ignition in terms of the internal conduction and external/internal oxygen diffusion, was then developed to evaluate the intrinsic kinetics and predict the ignition temperature of the coal char. Internal conduction was found to be important in large coal char particles because its effect becomes greater than that of oxygen diffusion as the particle diameter increases. In addition, the intrinsic kinetics of coal char obtained from the spot ignition model for two types of coal does not differ significantly from the results of previous investigators. -- Highlights: • A novel technique was used to measure the coal char particle temperature. • The ignition point determined from a dT/dt minimum is a spot ignition point. • A spot ignition model was suggested to analyze the intrinsic reaction kinetics of coal char. • Internal conduction has to be considered in order to evaluate the intrinsic kinetics for larger particle (above 1 mm)

  2. High frequency sonar variability in littoral environments: Irregular particles and bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Simon D.; Leighton, Timothy G.; White, Paul R.

    2002-11-01

    Littoral environments may be characterized by high concentrations of suspended particles. Such suspensions contribute to attenuation through visco-inertial absorption and scattering and may therefore be partially responsible for the observed variability in high frequency sonar performance in littoral environments. Microbubbles which are prevalent in littoral waters also contribute to volume attenuation through radiation, viscous and thermal damping and cause dispersion. The attenuation due to a polydisperse suspension of particles with depth-dependent concentration has been included in a sonar model. The effects of a depth-dependent, polydisperse population of microbubbles on attenuation, sound speed and volume reverberation are also included. Marine suspensions are characterized by nonspherical particles, often plate-like clay particles. Measurements of absorption in dilute suspensions of nonspherical particles have shown disagreement with predictions of spherical particle models. These measurements have been reanalyzed using three techniques for particle sizing: laser diffraction, gravitational sedimentation, and centrifugal sedimentation, highlighting the difficulty of characterizing polydisperse suspensions of irregular particles. The measurements have been compared with predictions of a model for suspensions of oblate spheroids. Excellent agreement is obtained between this model and the measurements for kaolin particles, without requiring any a priori knowledge of the measurements.

  3. Self-Suspended Suspensions of Covalently Grafted Hairy Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2015-03-17

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Dispersions of small particles in liquids have been studied continuously for almost two centuries for their ability to simultaneously advance understanding of physical properties of fluids and their widespread use in applications. In both settings, the suspending (liquid) and suspended (solid) phases are normally distinct and uncoupled on long length and time scales. In this study, we report on the synthesis and physical properties of a novel family of covalently grafted nanoparticles that exist as self-suspended suspensions with high particle loadings. In such suspensions, we find that the grafted polymer chains exhibit unusual multiscale structural transitions and enhanced conformational stability on subnanometer and nanometer length scales. On mesoscopic length scales, the suspensions display exceptional homogeneity and colloidal stability. We attribute this feature to steric repulsions between grafted chains and the space-filling constraint on the tethered chains in the single-component self-suspended materials, which inhibits phase segregation. On macroscopic length scales, the suspensions exist as neat fluids that exhibit soft glassy rheology and, counterintuitively, enhanced elasticity with increasing temperature. This feature is discussed in terms of increased interpenetration of the grafted chains and jamming of the nanoparticles. (Chemical Presented).

  4. Comparison of the compressive yield response of aggregated suspensions: Pressure filtration, centrifugation, and osmotic consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.T.; Melant, R.M.; Zukoski, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    The compressive rheological responses of suspensions containing flocculated kaolin, alumina (average particle sizes of 0.2 and 0.5 microm), and hydrous zirconia (average particle sizes of 8, 57, and 139 nm) particles have been measured using three different techniques: pressure filtration, volume fraction profile during centrifugation, and sediment height during centrifugation at multiple spinning speeds. While the volume fraction profile technique appears to be experimentally most robust, equivalent responses are found using the different techniques, indicating that the compressive yield stress is a material property of a given suspension. The compressive yield stress of each suspension increases rapidly with volume fraction but cannot be generally described using simple power-law or exponential fits. The compressive yield stress also increases with the inverse square of particle size. The packing behavior of the suspensions undergoing osmotic consolidation is compared with the mechanical compressive yield response. Some suspensions exhibited the same packing behavior as in the mechanical techniques, while others consistently packed to higher densities during osmotic consolidation. Although equivalent osmotic and mechanical loads do not always result in the same volume fractions, the similar increases in volume fraction with applied driving force suggest that both the osmotic and mechanical techniques are controlled by the force needed to rearrange the particle network

  5. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  6. Compounding rifampin suspensions with improved injectability for nasogastric enteral feeding tube administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Melgardt M; Vogel, Laura; Bogenschutz, Monica C; Fingerhut, Bonnie J; D'Silva, Joseph B; Moore, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Often medications that have to be administered to patients via a nasogastric enteral feeding tubes are only available as tablets and capsules with no suitable commercial liquid alternatives. In such situations, pharmacists and nurses have to compound the tablets and capsule contents into liquid suspension formulations for dosing. The risk of occlusion of the enteral tubes during administration is reduced by employing liquid suspensions that are composed of small and uniform particles, not subject to rapid rates of settling, resistant to caking, and easily and uniformly re-suspended upon agitation. Present techniques often employ a manual process, such as a mortar and pestle, to accomplish the particle size reduction and subsequent incorporation into a suitable liquid diluent. A new compounding device has been invented that employs an automated wet-milling process in a single-use disposable plastic container to compound the suspensions. The two processes were compared using Rifampin capsules and various liquid diluents. A prototype version of the new device was employed in the experiments. The physical characteristics of the compounded suspensions were evaluated by determining sedimentation rate, sedimentation volume, and particle size and shape using laser light scattering, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The use characteristic of the compounded suspensions was evaluated using a nasogastric tube inject ability test. The results indicated that suspensions prepared using the new device were more resistant to sedimentation and caking and were easier to re-disperse into a uniform mixture by gentle shaking. The results were a consequence of the particles generated by the new device which were found to be smaller and more uniform in shape and size. The suspensions prepared using the new device did not cause blockage of the enteral feeding tubes in comparison to those prepared using a mortar and pastle. In conclusion, the results indicate

  7. Investigation of combustion and gasification mechanically activated coal fuel of various degrees of metamorphism on the 5-MW heat setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butakov Evgenii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of mechanochemical activation of combustion and gasification of coals is of unquestionable scientific and technical interest; an increase in chemical activity of coals at their mechanically activated grinding is associated with an increase in the rate of reaction of the coal substance. To study the combustion and gasification process, the reactor model with tangential scroll input of coal-air suspension and cylindrical reaction chamber was used at the 5-MW thermal power plant. The experiments were carried out with coals of G and SS grades of the Kuznetsk deposit. Coal, ground after the boiler’s standard mill, is fed by a feeder to the disintegrator; then, it enters the scroll inlet of the reactor burner with transport air. The suspension is ignited by a gas igniting device with the power of 50 kW. In experiments on combustion and gasification of fine coal performed at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1300°C and air excess α = 0.5-0.7, the data on concentrations of CO and H2 were obtained: for coal of grade G, concentration of H2 was 6.3% and concentration of CO was 15.3%; for coal of SS grade, concentration of H2 was 9.5% and concentration of CO was 15.6%.

  8. Viscosity and sedimentation behaviors of the magnetorheological suspensions with oleic acid/dimer acid as surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jianjian; Yan, Hua; Hu, Zhide; Ding, Ding

    2016-11-01

    This work deals with the role of polar interactions on the viscosity and sedimentation behaviors of magnetorheological suspensions with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in oil carriers. The oleic acid and dimer acid were employed to make an adjustment of the hydrophobicity of iron particles, in the interest of performing a comparative evaluation of the contributions of the surface polarity. The viscosity tests show that the adsorbed surfactant layer may impose a hindrance to the movement of iron particles in the oil medium. The polar attractions between dimer acid covered particles gave rise to a considerable increase in viscosity, indicating flocculation structure developed in the suspensions. The observed plateau-like region in the vicinity of 0.1 s{sup −1} for MRF containing dimer acid is possibly due to the flocculation provoked by the carboxylic polar attraction, in which the structure is stable against fragmentation. Moreover, a quick recovery of the viscosity and a higher viscosity-temperature index also suggest the existence of particle-particle polar interaction in the suspensions containing dimer acid. The sedimentation measurements reveal that the steric repulsion of oleic acid plays a limited role in the stability of suspensions only if a large quantity of surfactant was used. The sedimentation results observed in the dimer acid covered particles confirm that loose and open flocculation was formed and enhanced sedimentation stability. - Highlights: • Surfactants were employed to make adjustments of the hydrophobicity of particles. • Polar attractions between particles increased the viscosity considerably. • Loose and open flocculation was formed in CI/DA suspension. • The steric repulsion of oleic acid played a limited role in the stability.

  9. Slagging behavior of upgraded brown coal and bituminous coal in 145 MW practical coal combustion boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Katsuya; Pak, Haeyang; Takubo, Yoji [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Kobe (Japan). Mechanical Engineering Research Lab.; Tada, Toshiya [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Takasago (Japan). Coal and Energy Technology Dept.; Ueki, Yasuaki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Energy Science Div.; Yoshiie, Ryo; Naruse, Ichiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Science and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate behaviors of ash deposition during combustion of Upgraded Brown Coal (UBC) and bituminous coal in a 145 MW practical coal combustion boiler. A blended coal consisting 20 wt% of the UBC and 80 wt% of the bituminous coal was burned for the combustion tests. Before the actual ash deposition tests, the molten slag fractions of ash calculated by chemical equilibrium calculations under the combustion condition was adopted as one of the indices to estimate the tendency of ash deposition. The calculation results showed that the molten slag fraction for UBC ash reached approximately 90% at 1,523 K. However, that for the blended coal ash became about 50%. These calculation results mean that blending the UBC with a bituminous coal played a role in decreasing the molten slag fraction. Next, the ash deposition tests were conducted, using a practical pulverized coal combustion boiler. A water-cooled stainless-steel tube was inserted in locations at 1,523 K in the boiler to measure the amount of ash deposits. The results showed that the mass of deposited ash for the blended coal increased and shape of the deposited ash particles on the tube became large and spherical. This is because the molten slag fraction in ash for the blended coal at 1,523 K increased and the surface of deposited ash became sticky. However, the mass of the deposited ash for the blended coal did not greatly increase and no slagging problems occurred for 8 days of boiler operation under the present blending conditions. Therefore, appropriate blending of the UBC with a bituminous coal enables the UBC to be used with a low ash melting point without any ash deposition problems in a practical boiler.

  10. Erosion of common structural materials and the degradation of suspended particles in flowing suspension of graphite powder in carbon dioxide gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garton, D.A.; Hawes, R.I.; Rose, P.W.

    1968-06-01

    Experiments have been performed to examine the erosion of common materials of construction by a flowing suspension of graphite powder in carbon dioxide gas and the degradation of the graphite powder in the suspension. The suspension was circulated through a stainless steel loop at a pressure of 200 p.s.i.g. and bulk fluid temperature of 100-150 deg. C. No change in the weight of pins of mild steel, stainless steel and zircaloy, which were placed across the flow stream in a region where the velocity approached 100 ft./sec, could be detected after 350 hours of circulation. Examination of micro-photographs of the cross sections of the specimens showed no change in the structure of the metals. Considerable erosion of graphite pins producing a 6% decrease in the weight was observed under similar conditions. Detailed spectrographic analysis of the suspended powder taken at various times during the experiment showed no noticeable increase in the impurity content which could be attributed to erosion of the test specimens. A considerable increase in the tungsten, tin and cobalt concentration was observed and this is attributed to wear of the pump seal surfaces. The mean particle size of the suspended graphite powder was observed to decrease rapidly from 5 microns to 3 microns after only a few hours of circulation in the loop. After this initial period there was little further change in the particle size, the mean diameter being 2.85 microns after 167 hours of circulation. (author)

  11. Improved understanding of the acoustophoretic focusing of dense suspensions in a microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, S.; Sen, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    We provide improved understanding of acoustophoretic focusing of a dense suspension (volume fraction φ >10 % ) in a microchannel subjected to an acoustic standing wave using a proposed theoretical model and experiments. The model is based on the theory of interacting continua and utilizes a momentum transport equation for the mixture, continuity equation, and transport equation for the solid phase. The model demonstrates the interplay between acoustic radiation and shear-induced diffusion (SID) forces that is critical in the focusing of dense suspensions. The shear-induced particle migration model of Leighton and Acrivos, coupled with the acoustic radiation force, is employed to simulate the continuum behavior of particles. In the literature, various closures for the diffusion coefficient Dφ* are available for rigid spheres at high concentrations and nonspherical deformable particles [e.g., red blood cells (RBCs)] at low concentrations. Here we propose a closure for Dφ* for dense suspension of RBCs and validate the proposed model with experimental data. While the available closures for Dφ* fail to predict the acoustic focusing of a dense suspension of nonspherical deformable particles like RBCs, the predictions of the proposed model match experimental data within 15%. Both the model and experiments reveal a competition between acoustic radiation and SID forces that gives rise to an equilibrium width w* of a focused stream of particles at some distance Leq* along the flow direction. Using different shear rates, acoustic energy densities, and particle concentrations, we show that the equilibrium width is governed by Péclet number Pe and Strouhal number Stas w*=1.4(PeSt) -0.5 while the length required to obtain the equilibrium-focused width depends on St as Leq*=3.8 /(St)0.6 . The proposed model and correlations would find significance in the design of microchannels for acoustic focusing of dense suspensions such as undiluted blood.

  12. Transverse gradient diffusion in a polydisperse dilute suspension of magnetic spheres during sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, F R; Couto, H L G

    2008-01-01

    In this work we investigate the pair interaction of magnetic particles in a dilute polydisperse sedimenting suspension. The suspension is composed of magnetic spherical forms of different radii and densities immersed in a Newtonian fluid, settling due to the gravity. When in close contact, the particles may exert on each other a magnetic force due to a permanent magnetization. We restrict our attention to dispersions of micromagnetic composite with negligible Brownian motion. The calculations of the relative particle trajectories are based on direct computations of the hydrodynamic interactions among rigid spheres in the regime of low particle Reynolds number. Depending on the relative importance of the interparticle forces and gravity, the collisions may result in aggregation or simply in a breaking of the particle relative trajectory time reversibility. After summing over all possible encounters, the transverse self-diffusion and down-gradient diffusion coefficients that describe the cross-flow migration of the particles are calculated. Our calculation shows first evidence and the significance of the diffusion process arising from magnetic interactions in dilute non-Brownian suspensions

  13. Transverse gradient diffusion in a polydisperse dilute suspension of magnetic spheres during sedimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, F R; Couto, H L G [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade de Brasilia, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Grupo de Mecanica dos Fluidos de Escoamentos Complexos-VORTEX, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], E-mail: frcunha@unb.br

    2008-05-21

    In this work we investigate the pair interaction of magnetic particles in a dilute polydisperse sedimenting suspension. The suspension is composed of magnetic spherical forms of different radii and densities immersed in a Newtonian fluid, settling due to the gravity. When in close contact, the particles may exert on each other a magnetic force due to a permanent magnetization. We restrict our attention to dispersions of micromagnetic composite with negligible Brownian motion. The calculations of the relative particle trajectories are based on direct computations of the hydrodynamic interactions among rigid spheres in the regime of low particle Reynolds number. Depending on the relative importance of the interparticle forces and gravity, the collisions may result in aggregation or simply in a breaking of the particle relative trajectory time reversibility. After summing over all possible encounters, the transverse self-diffusion and down-gradient diffusion coefficients that describe the cross-flow migration of the particles are calculated. Our calculation shows first evidence and the significance of the diffusion process arising from magnetic interactions in dilute non-Brownian suspensions.

  14. Yield stress of alumina-zirconia suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, V.; Pradip; Malghan, S.G.

    1996-01-01

    The yield stress of concentrated suspensions of alumina, zirconia, and mixed alumina-zirconia powders was measured by the vane technique as a function of solids loading, relative amounts of alumina and zirconia, and pH. At the isoelectric point (IEP), the yield stress varied as the fourth power of the solids loading. The relative ratio of alumina and zirconia particles was important in determining the yield stress of the suspension at the IEP. The yield stress of single and mixed suspensions showed a marked variation with pH. The maximum value occurred at or near the IEP of the suspension. The effect of electrical double-layer forces on the yield stress can be described on the basis of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. A normalized yield stress--that is, the ratio of the yield stress at a given pH to the yield stress at the IEP predicted by this model--showed good correlation with experimental data

  15. Non linear thermal radiation effect on Williamson fluid with particle-liquid suspension past a stretching surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ganesh Kumar

    Full Text Available A mathematical analysis of two-phase boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a Williamson fluid with fluid particle suspension over a stretching sheet has been carried out in this paper. The region of temperature jump and nonlinear thermal radiation is considered in the energy transfer process. The principal equations of boundary layer flow and temperature transmission are reformed to a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations under suitable similarity transformations. The transfigured equalities are solved numerically with the help of RKF-45 order method. The effect of influencing parameters on velocity and temperature transfer of fluid is examined and deliberated by plotted graphs and tabulated values. Significances of the mass concentration of dust particle parameter play a key role in controlling flow and thermal behavior of non-Newtonian fluids. Further, the temperature and concern boundary layer girth are declines for increasing values of Williamson parameter. Keywords: Two-phase flow, Williamson fluid, Nonlinear thermal radiation, Magnetic field, Temperature jump

  16. Effective delivery of sonication energy to fast settling and agglomerating nanomaterial suspensions for cellular studies: Implications for stability, particle kinetics, dosimetry and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel M; Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Demokritou, Philip

    2018-04-01

    Typical in vitro assays used for high throughput toxicological screening and measuring nano-bio interactions are conducted by pipetting suspensions of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) dispersed in nutrient-rich culture media directly onto cells. In order to achieve fairly monodisperse and stable suspensions of small agglomerates, ultrasonic energy is usually applied to break apart large agglomerates that can form upon suspension in liquid. Lack of standardized protocols and methods for delivering sonication energy can introduce variability in the ENM suspension properties ( e.g . agglomerate size, polydispersity, suspension stability over time), and holds significant implications for in vitro dosimetry, toxicity, and other nano-bio interactions. Careful assessment of particle transformations during dispersion preparation and sonication is therefore critical for accurate interpretation of in vitro toxicity studies. In this short communication, the difficulties of preparing stable suspensions of rapidly settling ENMs are presented. Furthermore, methods to optimize the delivery of the critical sonication energy required to break large agglomerates and prepare stable, fairly monodispersed suspensions of fast settling ENMs are presented. A methodology for the efficient delivery of sonication energy in a discrete manner is presented and validated using various rapidly agglomerating and settling ENMs. The implications of continuous vs. discrete sonication on average hydrodynamic diameter, and polydispersity was also assessed for both fast and slow settling ENMs. For the rapidly agglomerating and settling ENMs (Ag15%/SiO 2 , Ag and CeO 2 ), the proposed discrete sonication achieved a significant reduction in the agglomerate diameter and polydispersity. In contrast, the relatively slow agglomerating and settling Fe 2 O 3 suspension did not exhibit statistically significant differences in average hydrodynamic diameter or polydispersity between the continuous and discrete

  17. Effective viscous flow properties for fiber suspensions under concentrated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    The effective longitudinal and transverse shear viscosities are derived for an aligned fiber suspension. The solutions are valid under very concentrated conditions for a hexagonal arrangement of the single size fibers. The results compliment the classical dilute suspension forms at the other extreme of concentration. Empirical forms are constructed to cover the full range of volume fraction of the fiber phase. Also, single size spherical particle suspensions are given a similar treatment to that of the fiber case

  18. In situ characterization of organo-modified and unmodified montmorillonite aqueous suspensions by UV-visible spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alin, Jonas; Rubino, Maria; Auras, Rafael

    2015-10-15

    UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy (Tyndall spectra) was applied and tested for its ability to measure organo-modified and unmodified montmorillonite (MMT) clays in aqueous suspensions. A full factorial design of experiments was used to study the influence of pH, NaCl and clay concentrations on the average particle size of the clay agglomerates. The methodology was evaluated by observing results that were consistent with previous research about the unmodified clay's behavior in aqueous suspensions. The results from this evaluation corresponded to accepted theories about the unmodified clay's behavior, indicating that the methodology is precise enough to distinguish the effects of the studied factors on these clay suspensions. The effect of clay concentration was related to the amount of ions per clay particle for the unmodified clay, but was not significant for the organo-modified MMT. The average particle size of the organo-modified MMT in suspension was significantly larger than that of the unmodified clay. Size of the organo-modified MMT agglomerates in suspension decreased in the presence of NaCl and at both high and low pH; this behavior was opposite to that of the unmodified clay. These results demonstrate that the UV-Vis methodology is well-suited for characterizing clay particle size in aqueous suspensions. The technique also is simple, rapid, and low-cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-06-01

    A two dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and nonreactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. The model, referred to as 93-PCGC-2 is applicable to cylindrical, axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using a discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. A new coal-general devolatilization submodel (FG-DVC) with coal swelling and char reactivity submodels has been added.

  20. Inhaled corticosteroid metered-dose inhalers: how do variations in technique for solutions versus suspensions affect drug distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Christie A; Tsourounis, Candy

    2013-03-01

    To assess the literature that evaluates how variations in metered-dose inhaler (MDI) technique affect lung distribution for inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) formulated as MDI suspensions and solutions. PubMed (up to November 2012) and Cochrane Library (up to November 2012) were searched using the terms metered-dose inhalers, HFA 134a, Asthma/*drug therapy, and inhaled corticosteroids. In addition, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. All articles in English from the data sources that assessed MDI technique comparing total lung distribution (TLD) of MDI solutions or suspensions formulated with ICSs were included in the review. Five relevant studies were identified. Five controlled studies compared how variations in MDI technique affect TLD for ICS MDI solutions with suspensions. MDI solutions resulted in greater TLD compared with larger particle MDI suspensions. Delayed or early inspiration upon device actuation of MDI solutions resulted in less TLD than coordinated actuation, but with a 3- to 4-times greater TLD than MDI suspensions inhaled using a standard technique. A sixth study evaluated inspiratory flow rates (IFR) for small, medium, and large particles. Rapid and slow IFRs resulted in similar TLD for small particles, while far fewer particles reached the airways with medium and large particles at rapid, rather than slow, IFRs. Based on the literature evaluated, standard MDI technique should be used for ICS suspensions. ICS MDI solutions can provide a higher average TLD than larger-particle ICS suspensions using standard technique, discoordinated inspiration and medication actuation timing, or rapid and slow IFRs. ICS MDI solutions allow for a more forgiving technique, which makes them uniquely suitable options for patients with asthma who have difficultly with MDI technique.

  1. Particle-level simulations of flocculation in a fiber suspension flowing through a diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrić Jelena S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate flocculation in dilute suspensions of rigid, straight fibers in a decelerating flow field of a diffuser. We carry out numerical studies using a particle-level simulation technique that takes into account the fiber inertia and the non-creeping fiber-flow interactions. The fluid flow is governed by the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the standard k-omega eddy-viscosity turbulence model. A one-way coupling between the fibers and the flow is considered with a stochastic model for the fiber dispersion due to turbulence. The fibers interact through short-range attractive forces that cause them to aggregate into flocs when fiber-fiber collisions occur. We show that ballistic deflection of fibers greatly increases the flocculation in the diffuser. The inlet fiber kinematics and the fiber inertia are the main parameters that affect fiber flocculation in the prediffuser region.

  2. Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds inVitis vinifera cell suspension cultures: Study on hydroxycinnamoyl CoA:ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, S; Lofty, S; Fleuriet, A; Ramos, T; Macheix, J J

    1989-02-01

    In cell suspensions cultures from grape berry pulp (Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay fréaux)hydroxycinnamoyl CoA ligase (CoAL) displayed maximum activity (100 %) forp-coumaric acid and then, in decreasing order, for ferulic acid (81.3 %) and caffeic acid (60.4 %). No activity was detected with sinapic and cinnamic acids. The changes in CoAL activity during the growth cycle of the culture displayed two peaks : the highest (6 h after subculturing) was linked with a strong increase in protein caused by dilution ; the second was weaker and occurred on the 7th day of culture.Grape cell suspension accumulated mainly peonidin (Pn) and cyanidin (Cy) glucosides (Pn 3-glucoside, Cy 3-glucoside, Pn 3-acetylglucoside, Pn 3-caffeylglucoside, Pn 3-p-coumarylglucoside, and Cy 3-p-coumarylglucoside). Maximum accumulation of anthocyanins was associated with the exponential growth phase of the culture and might be the result of the substantial increase in CoAL activity resulting from the effect of dilution. The second enzyme activity peak was probably oriented towards the acylation of anthocyanins since the percentage of acylated forms increased with time after subculturing.

  3. Clogging in constricted suspension flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Alvaro; Lhuissier, Henri; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kähler, Christian J.

    2018-02-01

    The flow of a charged-stabilized suspension through a single constricted channel is studied experimentally by tracking the particles individually. Surprisingly, the behavior is found to be qualitatively similar to that of inertial dry granular systems: For small values of the neck-to-particle size ratio (D /d reported for granular systems and agree for moderate particle volume fraction (ϕ ≈20 % ) with a simple stochastic model for the number of particles at the neck. For larger neck sizes (D /d >3 ), even at the largest ϕ (≈60 %) achievable in the experiments, an uninterrupted particle flow is observed, which resembles that of an hourglass. This particularly small value of D /d (≃3 ) at the transition to a practically uninterrupted flow is attributed to the low effective friction between the particles, achieved by the particle's functionalization and lubrication.

  4. Large-eddy simulation of swirling pulverized-coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, L.Y.; Luo, Y.H. [Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. (China). School of Mechanical Engineering; Zhou, L.X.; Xu, C.S. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Engineering Mechanics

    2013-07-01

    A Eulerian-Lagrangian large-eddy simulation (LES) with a Smagorinsky-Lilly sub-grid scale stress model, presumed-PDF fast chemistry and EBU gas combustion models, particle devolatilization and particle combustion models are used to study the turbulence and flame structures of swirling pulverized-coal combustion. The LES statistical results are validated by the measurement results. The instantaneous LES results show that the coherent structures for pulverized coal combustion is stronger than that for swirling gas combustion. The particles are concentrated in the periphery of the coherent structures. The flame is located at the high vorticity and high particle concentration zone.

  5. Fluidised bed gasification of low grade South African coals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, BC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available gasifiers. Fluidised bed Entrained flow Coal particle size 0.5 mm – 5 mm 0 – 0.5 mm Coal moisture Dry Dry/slurry Coal type Non-caking coals Any coal Ash in coal < 60% < 30% Gasification agents Air/steam/oxygen Steam/oxygen Gasification... properties important for fluidised bed gasification are: square4 Coal reactivity in atmospheres of CO2 and H2O square4 Caking index and free swelling index (FSI) square4 Ash fusion temperature (AFT) 5.1 Coal reactivity The gasifcation reactions (1...

  6. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both the ash and sulfur contents of run-of-mine coals. The extent of cleaning depends on the liberation characteristics of the coal, which generally improve with reducing particle size. however, since most of the advanced technologies are wet processes, the clean coal product must be dewatered before it can be transported and burned in conventional boilers. This additional treatment step significantly increases the processing cost and makes the industrial applicability of these advanced technologies much less attractive. In order to avoid problems associated with fine coal dewatering, researchers at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a novel triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process that can remove mineral matter from dry coal. In this technique, finely pulverized coal is brought into contact with a material (such as copper) having a work function intermediate to that of the carbonaceous material and associated mineral matter. Carbonaceous particles having a relatively low work function become positively charged, while particles of mineral matter having significantly higher work functions become negatively charged. once the particles become selectively charged, a separation can be achieved by passing the particle stream through an electrically charged field. Details related to the triboelectrostatic charging phenomenon have been discussed elsewhere (Inculet, 1984).

  7. Cements and concentrated model suspensions. Flow, jamming and flocculation; Ciments et suspensions concentrees modeles. Ecoulement, encombrement et floculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lootens, D

    2004-10-15

    Here we report about the rheological behavior of very concentrated dispersions -or pastes- of granular or colloidal particles of cement or of monodisperse spherical silica particles. The model system of silica particles is used in order to control the physical chemistry properties of the suspension. Our research project is centered on two points which are focusing on the slurries properties: (i) the first one is the study of the structuring process by the coagulation at rest and its relation with setting. We use special tools (ultrasonic, confocal) to follow and understand the evolution from coagulation to the setting of cement (ii) the second is the study of the dynamic structuring phenomena, under shear, typical of the concentrated suspensions and named jamming. The flow can enter into a shear-thickening and, possibly jamming regime. The onset of this regime is shown to involve giant fluctuations of stress, assigned to the formation and breakup of direct frictional contact chains. The surface state of the particles is a determining factor in this transition. The studies of the normal stress and microscopic observation give good reasons to believe that solid friction is involved in the jamming transition. (author)

  8. Experimental investigations on drying behaviour of Bulgarian brown coal in steam fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschsieweke, F.; Koenig, J.

    1999-01-01

    The main targets were: to investigate the parameters for optimizing the drying process as steam pressure, fluidization velocity and particle size; to identify the cost of drying and combustion processes considering the necessity of milling the coal (raw or dried). Test series with Bulgarian brown coal from Maritsa-East has been made. Two fractions with different particle size was got: A from 0 to 1.6 mm (0.5 mm average) and B, resp. 1.6 to 6.3 (1.7 mm). The particle size is depending on the coal moisture. The fluidized bed process with the both fractions was performed at variations of the following parameters: steam velocity (0.07 to 1.7 m/s); raw coal feed rate (4 to 16 kg/h); raw moisture (18 to 43 wt %) and pressure (1.3 and 5 bar). Also the shrinking behaviour of the coal in different pore sizes was tested. Comparing pore size of the oven dried coal to the fluidized bed dried coal, significantly higher inner surface for the oven dried coal was established. To indicate the pore size of raw coal samples were made by freeze drying. Ice expanding should cause higher inner surface compared to oven drying method but no significant difference was established. A significant increase of heat transfer of the particles from A fraction (300 to 350 W/m 2 K0 compared to B (200 to 230 W/m 2 K) was determined. The heat transfer coefficient increased at increasing of the raw coal feed rate, mostly significant for A, due to higher particle contact. In conclusion: the particle convective mechanism is predominant for the heat transfer; development of pressurized fluidized bed drying is not of interest and the question about the total expenditure for crushing and milling remains open

  9. Effect of polycarboxylate ether comb-type polymer on viscosity and interfacial properties of kaolinite clay suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Lu, Qingye; Xu, Zhenghe; Liu, Qingxia; Zeng, Hongbo

    2012-07-15

    The interactions between kaolinite clay particles and a comb-type polymer (polycarboxylate ether or PCE), so-called PCE super-plasticizer, were investigated through viscosity and surface forces measurements by a rheometer and a Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA). The addition of PCE shows a strong impact on the viscosity of concentrated kaolinite suspensions in alkaline solutions (pH=8.3) but a weak effect under acidic conditions (pH=3.4). In acidic solutions, the high viscosity measured is attributed to the strong electrostatic interaction between negatively charged basal planes and positively charged edge surfaces of clay particles. Under the alkaline condition, the suspension viscosity was found to first increase significantly and then decrease with increasing PCE dosages. The results from surface forces measurement show that PCE molecules at low dosages can bridge the kaolinite particles in the concentrated suspensions via hydrogen bonding, leading to the formation of a kaolinite-PCE "network" and hence an increased suspension viscosity. At high PCE dosages, clay particles are fully covered by PCE molecules, leading to a more dispersed kaolinite suspensions and hence lower suspension viscosity due to steric repulsion between the adsorbed PCE molecules. The insights derived from measuring viscosity and interfacial properties of kaolinite suspensions containing varying amount of comb-type super-plasticizer PCE at different pH provide the foundation for many engineering applications and optimizing industrial processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure and rheology of nanoparticle–polymer suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Srivastava, Samanvaya; Shin, Jung Hwan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    separation and aggregation than expected from theory for interacting brushes. SAXS and rheology measurements also reveal that at high particle loadings, the stabilizing oligomer brush is significantly compressed and produces jamming in the suspensions

  11. Homogenization for rigid suspensions with random velocity-dependent interfacial forces

    KAUST Repository

    Gorb, Yuliya

    2014-12-01

    We study suspensions of solid particles in a viscous incompressible fluid in the presence of random velocity-dependent interfacial forces. The flow at a small Reynolds number is modeled by the Stokes equations, coupled with the motion of rigid particles arranged in a periodic array. The objective is to perform homogenization for the given suspension and obtain an equivalent description of a homogeneous (effective) medium, the macroscopic effect of the interfacial forces and the effective viscosity are determined using the analysis on a periodicity cell. In particular, the solutions uωε to a family of problems corresponding to the size of microstructure ε and describing suspensions of rigid particles with random surface forces imposed on the interface, converge H1-weakly as ε→0 a.s. to a solution of a Stokes homogenized problem, with velocity dependent body forces. A corrector to a homogenized solution that yields a strong H1-convergence is also determined. The main technical construction is built upon the Γ-convergence theory. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Nanodiamond particles forming photonic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grichko, Varvara; Tyler, Talmage; Grishko, Victor I; Shenderova, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Colloid suspensions of irregularly shaped, highly charged detonation nanodiamond particles are found to have unexpected optical properties, similar to those of photonic crystals. This finding is all the more surprising since the particles used in this work are far more polydisperse than those typically forming photonic crystals. Intensely iridescent structures have been fabricated using the centrifugation of aqueous suspensions of nanodiamonds

  13. Nanodiamond particles forming photonic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grichko, Varvara; Tyler, Talmage; Grishko, Victor I; Shenderova, Olga [International Technology Center, 8100 Brownleigh Drive, Suite 120, Raleigh, NC 27617 (United States)], E-mail: oshenderova@itc-inc.org

    2008-06-04

    Colloid suspensions of irregularly shaped, highly charged detonation nanodiamond particles are found to have unexpected optical properties, similar to those of photonic crystals. This finding is all the more surprising since the particles used in this work are far more polydisperse than those typically forming photonic crystals. Intensely iridescent structures have been fabricated using the centrifugation of aqueous suspensions of nanodiamonds.

  14. Ultrafine ash aerosols from coal combustion: Characterization and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William P. Linak; Jong-Ik Yoo; Shirley J. Wasson; Weiyan Zhu; Jost O.L. Wendt; Frank E. Huggins; Yuanzhi Chen; Naresh Shah; Gerald P. Huffman; M. Ian Gilmour [US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Risk Management Research Laboratory

    2007-07-01

    Ultrafine coal fly-ash particles withdiameters less than 0.5 {mu}m typically comprise less than 1% of the total fly-ash mass. This paper reports research focused on both characterization and health effects of primary ultrafine coal ash aerosols alone. Ultrafine, fine, and coarse ash particles were segregated and collected from a coal burned in a 20 kW laboratory combustor and two additional coals burned in an externally heated drop tube furnace. Extracted samples from both combustors were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence(WD-XRF) spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Pulmonary inflammation was characterized by albumin concentrations in mouse lung lavage fluid after instillation of collected particles in saline solutions and a single direct inhalation exposure. Results indicate that coal ultrafine ash sometimes contains significant amounts of carbon, probably soot originating from coal tar volatiles, depending on coal type and combustion device. Surprisingly, XAFS results revealed the presence of chromium and thiophenic sulfur in the ultrafine ash particles. The instillation results suggested potential lung injury, the severity of which could be correlated with the carbon (soot) content of the ultrafines. This increased toxicity is consistent with theories in which the presence of carbon mediates transition metal (i.e., Fe) complexes, as revealed in this work by TEM and XAFS spectroscopy, promoting reactive oxygenspecies, oxidation-reduction cycling, and oxidative stress. 24 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Acid-base properties of the surface of the α-Al2O3 suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryazanov, M. A.; Dudkin, B. N.

    2009-12-01

    The distribution of the acid-base centers on the surface of α-Al2O3 suspension particles was studied by potentiometric titration, and the corresponding p K spectra were constructed. It was inferred that the double electric layer created by the supporting electrolyte substantially affected the screening of the acid-base centers on the particle surface of the suspension.

  16. Viscosity and sedimentation behaviors of the magnetorheological suspensions with oleic acid/dimer acid as surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianjian; Yan, Hua; Hu, Zhide; Ding, Ding

    2016-11-01

    This work deals with the role of polar interactions on the viscosity and sedimentation behaviors of magnetorheological suspensions with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in oil carriers. The oleic acid and dimer acid were employed to make an adjustment of the hydrophobicity of iron particles, in the interest of performing a comparative evaluation of the contributions of the surface polarity. The viscosity tests show that the adsorbed surfactant layer may impose a hindrance to the movement of iron particles in the oil medium. The polar attractions between dimer acid covered particles gave rise to a considerable increase in viscosity, indicating flocculation structure developed in the suspensions. The observed plateau-like region in the vicinity of 0.1 s-1 for MRF containing dimer acid is possibly due to the flocculation provoked by the carboxylic polar attraction, in which the structure is stable against fragmentation. Moreover, a quick recovery of the viscosity and a higher viscosity-temperature index also suggest the existence of particle-particle polar interaction in the suspensions containing dimer acid. The sedimentation measurements reveal that the steric repulsion of oleic acid plays a limited role in the stability of suspensions only if a large quantity of surfactant was used. The sedimentation results observed in the dimer acid covered particles confirm that loose and open flocculation was formed and enhanced sedimentation stability.

  17. Extending the Modelling Framework for Gas-Particle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    , with very good results. Single particle combustion has been tested using a number of different particle combustion models applied to coal and straw particles. Comparing the results of these calculations to measurements on straw burnout, the results indicate that for straw, existing heterogeneous combustion...... models perform well, and may be used in high temperature ranges. Finally, the particle tracking and combustion model is applied to an existing coal and straw co- fuelled burner. The results indicate that again, the straw follows very different trajectories than the coal particles, and also that burnout...

  18. Coal cleaning: A viable strategy for reduced carbon emissions and improved environment in China?

    OpenAIRE

    Glomsrød, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: China is a dominant energy consumer in a global context and current energy forecasts emphasise that China’s future energy consumption also will rely heavily on coal. The coal use is the major source of the greenhouse gas CO2 and particles causing serious health damage. This paper looks into the question if coal washing might work as low cost strategy for both CO2 and particle emission reductions. Coal washing removes dirt and rock from raw coal, resulting in a coal pr...

  19. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Reginald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2014-09-01

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co-produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  20. Coal Mine Dust Desquamative Chronic Interstitial Pneumonia: A Precursor of Dust-Related Diffuse Fibrosis and of Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav M Jelic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diseases associated with coal mine dust continue to affect coal miners. Elucidation of initial pathological changes as a precursor of coal dust-related diffuse fibrosis and emphysema, may have a role in treatment and prevention. Objective: To identify the precursor of dust-related diffuse fibrosis and emphysema. Methods: Birefringent silica/silicate particles were counted by standard microscope under polarized light in the alveolar macrophages and fibrous tissue in 25 consecutive autopsy cases of complicated coal worker's pneumoconiosis and in 21 patients with tobacco-related respiratory bronchiolitis. Results: Coal miners had 331 birefringent particles/high power field while smokers had 4 (p<0.001. Every coal miner had intra-alveolar macrophages with silica/silicate particles and interstitial fibrosis ranging from minimal to extreme. All coal miners, including those who never smoked, had emphysema. Fibrotic septa of centrilobular emphysema contained numerous silica/silicate particles while only a few were present in adjacent normal lung tissue. In coal miners who smoked, tobacco-associated interstitial fibrosis was replaced by fibrosis caused by silica/silicate particles. Conclusion: The presence of silica/silicate particles and anthracotic pigment-laden macrophages inside the alveoli with various degrees of interstitial fibrosis indicated a new disease: coal mine dust desquamative chronic interstitial pneumonia, a precursor of both dust-related diffuse fibrosis and emphysema. In studied coal miners, fibrosis caused by smoking is insignificant in comparison with fibrosis caused by silica/silicate particles. Counting birefringent particles in the macrophages from bronchioalveolar lavage may help detect coal mine dust desquamative chronic interstitial pneumonia, and may initiate early therapy and preventive measures.

  1. Effects of aspect ratio and concentration on rheology of epoxy suspensions containing model plate-like nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K. L.; Takahara, A. [International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Hawkins, S.; Sue, H.-J., E-mail: hjsue@tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Miyamoto, M. [Kaneka US Materials Research Center, Kaneka America Holdings, Inc., College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Hexagonal 2-dimensional α-zirconium phosphate crystals were prepared with lateral diameters ranging from 110 nm to 1.5 μm to investigate the effect of particle size on suspension rheology. The nanoplatelets were exfoliated to individual sheets with monodisperse thickness and dispersed in a Newtonian epoxy fluid. The steady shear response of dilute and semi-dilute suspensions was measured and compared to expressions obtained from theory for infinitely dilute suspensions. For suspensions containing the smaller nanoplatelets, aspect ratio ∼160, the low shear rate viscosity and transition to shear thinning behavior were well described by theory for loadings up to 0.5 vol. %. The agreement was improved by assuming a moderate polydispersity in lateral diameter, ∼30%–50%, which is consistent with experimental observation. For the higher aspect ratio nanoplatelets, good agreement between theory and experiment was observed only at high shear rates. At lower shear rate, theory consistently over-predicted viscosity, which was attributed to a progressive shift to non-isotropic initial conditions with increasing particle size. The results suggest that at a fixed Peclet number, there is an increasing tendency for the nanoplatelets to form transient, local stacks as particle size increases. The largest particles, aspect ratio ∼2200, showed unusual shear thinning and thickening behaviors that were attributed to particle flexibility. The findings demonstrate the surprising utility of theory for infinitely dilute suspensions to interpret, and in some cases quantitatively describe, the non-Newtonian viscosity of real suspensions containing high aspect ratio plate-like particles. A simple framework is proposed to interpret deviations from ideal behavior based on the local and collective behavior of the suspended nanoplatelets.

  2. Qualitative analysis of controlled release ciprofloxacin/carbopol 934 mucoadhesive suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashree Sahoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive polymeric (carbopol 934 suspension of ciprofloxacin was prepared by ultrasonication and optimized with the aim of developing an oral controlled release gastro-retentive dosage form. The qualitative analysis of the formulation was performed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses. FTIR (400 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1 region and Raman (140 to 2400 cm-1 region Spectroscopic studies were carried out and the spectra were used for interpretation. XRD data of pure drug, polymer and the formulation were obtained using a powder diffractometer scanned from a Bragg′s angle (2q of 10° to 70°. The dispersion of the particle was observed using SEM techniques. The particle size distribution and aspect ratio of particles in the polymeric suspension were obtained from SEM image analysis. The results from FTIR and Raman spectroscopic analyses suggested that, in formulation, the carboxylic groups of ciprofloxacin and hydroxyl groups of C934 undergo a chemical interaction leading to esterification and hydrogen bonding. The XRD data suggested that the retention of crystalline nature of ciprofloxacin in the formulation would lead to increase in stability and drug loading; decrease in solubility; and delay in release of the drug from polymeric suspension with better bioavailability and penetration capacity. The SEM image analysis indicated that, in the formulation maximum particles were having aspect ratio from 2 to 4 and standard deviation was very less which provided supporting evidences for homogeneous, uniformly dispersed, stable controlled release ciprofloxacin suspension which would be pharmaceutically acceptable.

  3. Coal Mine Dust Desquamative Chronic Interstitial Pneumonia: A Precursor of Dust-Related Diffuse Fibrosis and of Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Estalilla, Oscar C; Sawyer-Kaplan, Phyllis R; Plata, Milton J; Powers, Jeremy T; Emmett, Mary; Kuenstner, John T

    2017-07-01

    Diseases associated with coal mine dust continue to affect coal miners. Elucidation of initial pathological changes as a precursor of coal dust-related diffuse fibrosis and emphysema, may have a role in treatment and prevention. To identify the precursor of dust-related diffuse fibrosis and emphysema. Birefringent silica/silicate particles were counted by standard microscope under polarized light in the alveolar macrophages and fibrous tissue in 25 consecutive autopsy cases of complicated coal worker's pneumoconiosis and in 21 patients with tobacco-related respiratory bronchiolitis. Coal miners had 331 birefringent particles/high power field while smokers had 4 (pcoal miner had intra-alveolar macrophages with silica/silicate particles and interstitial fibrosis ranging from minimal to extreme. All coal miners, including those who never smoked, had emphysema. Fibrotic septa of centrilobular emphysema contained numerous silica/silicate particles while only a few were present in adjacent normal lung tissue. In coal miners who smoked, tobacco-associated interstitial fibrosis was replaced by fibrosis caused by silica/silicate particles. The presence of silica/silicate particles and anthracotic pigment-laden macrophages inside the alveoli with various degrees of interstitial fibrosis indicated a new disease: coal mine dust desquamative chronic interstitial pneumonia, a precursor of both dust-related diffuse fibrosis and emphysema. In studied coal miners, fibrosis caused by smoking is insignificant in comparison with fibrosis caused by silica/silicate particles. Counting birefringent particles in the macrophages from bronchioalveolar lavage may help detect coal mine dust desquamative chronic interstitial pneumonia, and may initiate early therapy and preventive measures.

  4. ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. James Davis

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. In this experimental and analytical study the authors elucidate the transport processes that control the rate of concentrated colloidal particle removal, demonstrate the process on a laboratory scale, and develop the scale-up laws needed to design commercial-scale processes. The authors are also addressing the fundamental problems associated with particle-particle interactions (electrical and hydrodynamic), the effects of particle concentration on the applied electric field, the electrochemical reactions that occur at the electrodes, and the prediction of power requirements.

  5. Coal cleaning: a viable strategy for reduced carbon emissions and improved environment in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomsroed, Solveig; Wei Taoyuan

    2005-01-01

    China is a dominant energy consumer in global context and current energy forecasts emphasise that China's future energy consumption also will rely heavily on coal. The coal use is the major source of the greenhouse gas CO 2 and particles causing serious health damage. This paper looks into the question if coal washing might work as low cost strategy for both CO 2 and particle emission reductions. Coal washing removes dirt and rock from raw coal, resulting in a coal product with higher thermal energy and less air pollutants. Coal cleaning capacity has so far not been developed in line with the market potential. In this paper an emerging market for cleaned coal is studied within a CGE model for China. The macro approach catches the repercussions of coal cleaning through increased energy efficiency, lower coal transportation costs and crowding out effect of investments in coal washing plants. Coal cleaning stimulates economic growth and reduces particle emissions, but total energy use, coal use and CO 2 emissions increase through a rebound effect supported by the vast reserve of underemployed labourers. A carbon tax on fossil fuel combustion has a limited effect on total emissions. The reason is a coal leakage to tax exempted processing industries

  6. First experimental results of particle re-suspension in a low pressure wind tunnel applied to the issue of dust in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondeau, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.rondeau@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SCA, Gif-sur-Yvette 91192 (France); Merrison, Jonathan; Iversen, Jens Jacob [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for Storage Ring Facilities, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Peillon, Samuel; Sabroux, Jean-Christophe; Lemaitre, Pascal; Gensdarmes, François [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN-RES/SCA, Gif-sur-Yvette 91192 (France); Chassefière, Eric [Laboratoire Géosciences Paris Sud (GEOPS), UMR 8148, Université Paris Sud, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The first experimental data of dust re-suspension performed by controlled airflow (in terms of airflow velocity and fluid density). • The effect of the surrounding pressure in the re-suspension mechanism. • The friction (shear velocity) reduction at low pressure in the transient regime (Knudsen number close to one). • The importance of the adhesion forces between particles in dust mobilization by clustering. • The fact that the existing re-suspension models of the relevant literature do not take into account this clustering phenomenon. - Abstract: During the normal operating condition of the future ITER tokamak, a massive production of dust in the toroidal vacuum vessel is expected. This dust, originating from the erosion of tungsten and beryllium internal walls of the torus by the plasma, would be mobilized to some extent during a loss of vacuum accident (LOVA). For safety reasons, it is essential to quantify the re-suspended dust fraction during such an event. Here, we provide preliminary experimental data of dust re-suspension obtained in the wind tunnel of the European Space Agency (ESA) at low pressures (300, 130 and 10 mbar). The experimentations were performed with multilayer deposits. We used two powders with a median diameter at 15.5 μm and 21.8 μm. A negative influence of the low pressure in the re-suspension mechanism is observed. For example, given a re-suspension fraction of 10%, increasing friction shear velocities are derived for decreasing absolute pressures: 300 mbar/0.66 m s{sup −1}; 130 mbar/1.08 m s{sup −1}; and 10 mbar/1.84 m s{sup −1}. In addition, we highlight the friction reduction for Kundsen numbers greater than 0.1 by an analysis of the airflow forces.

  7. Geometrical analysis of suspension flows near jamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyart, Matthieu

    2012-02-01

    The viscosity of suspensions was computed early on by Einstein and Batchelor in the dilute regime. At high density however, their rheology remains mystifying. As the packing fraction increases, steric hindrance becomes dominant and particles move under stress in a more and more coordinated way. Eventually, the viscosity diverges as the suspension jams into an amorphous solid. Such a jamming transition is reminiscent of critical points: the rheology displays scaling and a diverging length scale. Jamming bear similarities with the glass transition where steric hindrance is enhanced under cooling, and where the dynamics is also observed to become more and more collective as it slows down. In all these examples, understanding the nature of the collective dynamics and the associated rheology remains a challenge. Recent progress has been made however on a related problem, the unjamming transition where a solid made of repulsive soft particles is isotropically decompressed toward vanishing pressure. In this situation various properties of the amorphous solid, such as elasticity, transport or force propagation, display scaling with the distance to threshold. Theoretically these observations can be shown to stem from the presence of soft modes in the vibrational spectrum, a result that can be extended to thermal colloidal glasses as well. Here we focus on particles driven by shear at zero temperature. We show that if hydrodynamical interactions are neglected an analogy can be made between the rheology of such a suspension and the elasticity of simple networks, building a link between the jamming and the unjamming transition. This analogy enables us to unify in a common framework key aspects of the elasticity of amorphous solids with the rheology of dense suspensions, and to relate features of the latter to the geometry of configurations visited under flow.

  8. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (USA)); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA)); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  9. Characterization and supply of coal-based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    Contract objectives are as follows: Develop fuel specifications to serve combustor requirements. Select coals having appropriate compositional and quality characteristics as well as an economically attractive reserve base; Provide quality assurance for both the parent coals and the fuel forms; and deliver premium coal-based fuels to combustor developers as needed for their contract work. Progress is discussed, particulary in slurry fuel preparation and particle size distribution.

  10. Investigation of a separation process involving liquid-water-coal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jr, D V; Burry, W

    1987-01-01

    A liquid-liquid-solid separation procedure wherein a water-oil-coal-mineral matter slurry is allowed to come to equilibrium through mechanical agitation has for many years been applied to the separation of coal from mineral matter. The product is a black cottage cheese-like mass of agglomerated coal particles and oil suspended in the excess water which supports the dispersed mineral matter particles. A liquid bridge model which was proposed by earlier investigators is reviewed critically and used to estimate the free energy per unit area of the separation of coals of different ranks. Observations of the kinetics of the process suggest that the simple liquid bridge model is insufficient, probably due to the heterogeneous surfaces of the coal. An alternative model is proposed. 14 references.

  11. Characterization of coal and char reactivity as a function of burn-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biede, O.; Swane Lund, J. [DTU, Dept. of Energy Engineering (Denmark); Holst Soerensen, L. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Peck, R.E. [Arizona State University (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Four coal types have been tested under varying burning conditions in three high-temperature experimental facilities: A 1.3 MW test furnace, an entrained flow reactor and a down-fired tube furnace with a flat flame burner have been used to produce char samples. More than one hundred partly burned samples with burn-off from 30% to 99% have been collected from the experimental facilities, and analyzed in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) giving, besides the proximate data, a char burning profile of each individual sample, using a linear TGA-temperature ramp of 3 deg. C/minute. The burning profile derived by this procedure agrees well with reactivity profiles derived at a constant temperature. It is shown that small particle burn faster than large particles, and that small particles in general are more reactive than large particles. Particles burn faster when the oxygen partial pressure is increased, and apparently the oxygen partial pressure influences the combustion rate differently for different coal types. Except for one coal type, that apparently behaves differently in different burning environments, the ranking with respect to reactivity among the coals remains consistent at both high and at low temperatures. It is further shown how samples from one coal type varies more in behavior than samples from the other coal types, indicating a larger inhomogeneity of this coal. In general the reactivity of collected samples decrease with high-temperature burn-off. (au) 20 refs.

  12. Oxidation and carbonisation of coals: a case study of coal fire affected coals from the Wuda coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Jolanta; Meyer, Uwe; Ma, Jianwei; Chen-Brauchler, Dai

    2010-05-01

    At the coalfield of Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China) extensive underground coal fires cause widespread thermal and oxidative effects in coal seams. Within phase B of the Coal Fire Research Project of the Sino-German Initiative, methods for innovative fire-extinguishing technologies were investigated in multifaceted research approaches. Extensive investigations of oxidative and thermally affected coal seams in coal fire zone 18 were conducted in 2008 prior to application of new fire-extinguishing methods. We present results from the outcrop of coal seam No. 4 in the fire zone 18. The coal of seam No. 4 is of Early Permian age and belongs stratigraphically to the Shanxi Formation. The unaffected coal displays a high volatile bituminous A rank with a background value of random vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.90 to 0.96 % Rr. Coal channel samples were coallected at actively extracted coal faces along multiple profiles with surface temperatures ranging from about 50° to 600°C. Microscopic examinations revealed a variety of products of coal exposure to the fire. Within coal samples, a marked rise in vitrinite reflectance from background values to 5.55% Rr (6.00 % Rmax) is encountered. In addition, a number of coal samples showed suppressed vitrinite reflectances ranging between 0.82 to 0.88% Rr. Further, seemingly heat unaffected coal samples display intensive development of oxidations rims at coal grain edges and cracks as well as shrinkage cracks and formation of iron oxides/hydroxides. Instead, thermally affected coal samples with higher coalification grade are further characterised by development of macropores (devolatilisation pores) in vitrinitic streaks, transformation of liptinite to meta-liptinite and micrinite as well as by natural coke particles of mostly porous nature and fine to coarse grained anisotropic mosaic. Coal petrographic investigations confirmed a hypothesis that both, oxidations as well as low temperature carbonisation govern the thermal

  13. A novel method for determination of particle size distribution in-process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaoru, Tiberiu A.; Li, Mingzhong; Wilkinson, Derek

    2009-07-01

    The pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industries are strongly concerned with the manufacture of high value-added speciality products, often in solid form. On-line measurement of solid particle size is vital for reliable control of product properties. The established techniques, such as laser diffraction or spectral extinction, require dilution of the process suspension when measuring from typical manufacturing streams because of their high concentration. Dilution to facilitate measurement can result in changes of both size and form of particles, especially during production processes such as crystallisation. In spectral extinction, the degree of light scattering and absorption by a suspension is measured. However, for concentrated suspensions the interpretation of light extinction measurements is difficult because of multiple scattering and inter-particle interaction effects and at higher concentrations extinction is essentially total so the technique can no longer be applied. At the same time, scattering by a dispersion also causes a change of phase which affects the real component of the suspension's effective refractive index which is a function of particle size and particle and dispersant refractive indices. In this work, a novel prototype instrument has been developed to measure particle size distribution in concentrated suspensions in-process by measuring suspension refractive index at incidence angles near the onset of total internal reflection. Using this technique, the light beam does not pass through the suspension being measured so suspension turbidity does not impair the measurement.

  14. Inter-particle Interactions in Composites of Antiferromagnetic Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Cathrine; Mørup, Steen

    2003-01-01

    -Fe2O3 and Fe-57-doped NiO particles. The effect of NiO particles on alpha-FeA particles was a shorter relaxation time and an induced Morin transition, which usually is absent in alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Spectra of alpha-Fe2O3 particles, prepared by drying suspensions with added Co2+ and Ni2+ ions......We have prepared mixtures of alpha-Fe2O3, CoO, and NiO nanoparticles by drying aqueous suspensions of the particles. The magnetic properties were studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy. The measurements showed that interactions with CoO particles suppress the superparamagnetic relaxation of both alpha......, showed that the suspension medium can affect the magnetic properties of the alpha-FeA particles significantly, but not in the same way as the CoO or NiO nanoparticles. Therefore, a strong inter-particle exchange interaction between particles of different materials seems to be responsible for the magnetic...

  15. Research on pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of super fine and conventional pulverized coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chaoqun; Jiang Xiumin; Wei Lihong; Wang Hui

    2007-01-01

    Based on isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and kinetic equations, the optimization toolbox of MATLAB was applied to study the effects of particle size and heating rate on the pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics and to obtain the mechanism function and kinetic parameters of Yuanbaoshan coal at four different particle sizes and heating rates. The pyrolysis characteristics of the samples were analyzed using thermogravimetric (TG) curves and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves. The results show that the coal pyrolysis process is strongly affected by heating rate and particle size. As the heating rate increases, the temperature of volatile matter initiation increases, the total volatile matter evolved decreases and the DTG peak shifts toward higher temperature. As the particle size decreases, the temperature of volatile matter initiation of the coal sample decreases and the maximum rate of mass loss increases. In the pyrolysis of coal, the activation energies of the samples were found to increase with growing particle size and decreasing heating rate for both of the devolatilization temperature stages. In the lower temperature stage, the coal samples show a great difference in mechanism function at different particle sizes and heating rates

  16. Development of a Fabrication Process Using Suspension Plasma Spray for Titanium Oxide Photovoltaic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsian Sagr Hadi A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the high costs of conventional materials, and to reduce the power necessary for the deposition of titanium dioxide, titanium tetrabutoxide has been developed in the form of a suspension of TiO2 using water instead of expensive ethanol. To avoid sedimentation of hydroxide particles in the suspension, mechanical milling of the suspension was conducted in order to create diffusion in colloidal suspension before using it as feedstock. Consequently, through the creation of a colloidal suspension, coating deposition was able to be conducted without sedimentation of the hydroxide particles in the suspension during the deposition process. Though an amorphous as-deposited coating was able to be deposited, through post heat treatment at 630 °C for 60 min, the chemical structure became anatase rich. In addition, it was confirmed that the post heat treated anatase rich coating had enough photo-catalytic activity to decolor methylene-blue droplets. From these results, this technique was found to have high potential in the low cost photo-catalytic titanium coating production process.

  17. NO emission characteristics of superfine pulverized coal combustion in the O2/CO2 atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiaxun; Gao, Shan; Jiang, Xiumin; Shen, Jun; Zhang, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Superfine pulverized coal combustion in O 2 /CO 2 atmosphere is a new promising technology. • NO emissions of superfine pulverized coal combustion in O 2 /CO 2 mixture were focused. • Coal particle sizes have significant effects on NO emissions in O 2 /CO 2 combustion. - Abstract: The combination of O 2 /CO 2 combustion and superfine pulverized coal combustion technology can make full use of their respective merits, and solve certain inherent disadvantages of each technology. The technology of superfine pulverized coal combustion in the O 2 /CO 2 atmosphere is easy and feasible to be retrofitted with few reconstructions on the existing devices. It will become a useful and promising method in the future. In this paper, a one-dimensional drop-tube furnace system was adopted to study the NO emission characteristics of superfine pulverized coal combustion in the O 2 /CO 2 atmosphere. The effects of coal particle size, coal quality, furnace temperature, stoichiometric ratio, etc. were analyzed. It is important to note that coal particle sizes have significant influence on NO emissions in the O 2 /CO 2 combustion. For the homogeneous NO reduction, smaller coal particles can inhibit the homogeneous NO formations under fuel-rich combustion conditions, while it becomes disadvantageous for fuel-lean combustion. However, under any conditions, heterogeneous reduction is always more significant for smaller coal particle sizes, which have smoother pore surfaces and simpler pore structures. The results from this fundamental research will provide technical support for better understanding and developing this new combustion process

  18. Preparation of conjugated polymer suspensions by using ultrasonic atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Kazuya, E-mail: tada@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Onoda, Mitsuyoshi

    2010-11-30

    The electrophoretic deposition is a method useful to prepare conjugated polymer films for electronic devices. This method provides high material recovery rate on the substrate from the suspension, in contrast to the conventional spin-coating in which most of the material placed on the substrate is blown away. Although manual reprecipitation technique successfully yields suspensions of various conjugated polymers including polyfluorene derivatives, it is favorable to control the preparation process of suspensions. In this context, this paper reports preliminary results on the preparation of suspension of conjugated polymer by using an ultrasonic atomizer. While the resultant films do not show particular difference due to the preparation methods of the suspension, the electric current profiles during the electrophoretic deposition suggests that the ultrasonic atomization of polymer solution prior to be mixed with poor solvent results in smaller and less uniform colloidal particles than the conventional manual pouring method.

  19. Froth flotation as a promising method of coal preparation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, A.R. de; Almeida, S L.M. de; Santos, A.T. dos

    1979-01-01

    Run-of-mine coal and pre-washed coal from Santa Catarina, Brazil, were characterized using washability curves, and by particle analysis after crushing. Bench-scale froth flotation tests were then conducted with the pre-washed coal, using kerosene and diesel oil as the collectors and pine oil as the frother. The influence of starch (as depressor) on flotation was also studied. The effects of feed particle size; pH; collector, frother and depressor additions; and flotation time were investigated. A 9.5% ash content coal was obtained with a mass recovery of about 29%. (17 refs.)

  20. Use of new ceramic linings in coal preparation plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorchenko, V.E.; Rudenko, V.A.; Bondarev, A.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    This article evaluates several materials used as liners in coal preparation equipment. The evaluations concentrate on liners used under conditions of intensive temperature fluctuations, e.g. liners of coal chutes for coal transport from coal dryers. Two aspects of wear are analyzed: abrasion by friction and effects of temperature fluctuations. Abrasive wear is tested using magnetite suspension with a density of 400 g/l. Tests show that abrasive wear of liners on an alumina basis is 3 times lower than abrasive wear of high quality steel, from 13 to 24 times lower than that of iron and from 6 to 8 times lower than that of steels used in coal preparation plants. Effects of temperature fluctuations from 20 to 840 C on abrasive wear of liners of steels, iron, slag glass ceramics, mullite-corundum material and corundum is shown in a table. The test show that mullite-corundum material on the basis of alumina is characterized by a high resistance to abrasive wear after 30 cycles of temperature increase from 20 to 840 C and decrease to 20 C. Using mullite-corundum as liners of equipment and installations operating under conditions of temperature fluctuations is recommended.

  1. Burnout behaviour of bituminous coals in air-staged combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluger, F.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Process Engineering and Power Plant (IVD)

    2001-07-01

    In order to determine the influence on burnout by the combustion conditions and the coal preparation, three bituminous coals sold on the world market, from three different locations in Poland, South Africa, and Australia, were studied more closely. For this purpose, the coals were ground in two different particle size ranges, which, besides the influence of the combustion conditions, such a temperature, residence time, and stoichiometry, made it possible to also investigate the impact on burnout by the coal preparation. The experiments were carried out in an electrically heated entrained-flow reactor with a thermal input of 8.5 kW. The parameters for the experiments are wall temperature (1000-1350{degree}C), air ratio (0.6-1.15) and two particle sizes (70% {lt} 75 {mu}m, 90% {lt} 75 {mu}m). The results show that in general, for increasing temperatures, the burnout quality will improve. For the Australian Illawara coal, another outcome is increased NOx emissions. Lowering the air ratio in the reduction zone leads to less NOx emission but to increased unburnt matter in ash. For the smaller particle size fraction, the analysis of the different particle sizes shows an improvement of the burnout without a change in NOx emissions. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Heat recovery from flue gas of coal fired installations with reduced pollutant emission - the Zittau process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H; Strauss, R; Hofmann, K -D; Suder, M; Hultsch, T; Wetzel, W; Gabrysch, H; Jung, J [Technische Hochschule, Zittau (German Democratic Republic)

    1989-01-01

    Explains the Zittau technology of combined flue gas heat recovery and flue gas desulfurization in small brown coal fired power plants. Steam generators to be equipped with this technology have 6.5 or 10 t/h steam capacity and are intended for combustion of low-grade brown coal (8.2 MJ/kg). An industrial 6.5 t/h prototype steam generator is in operation and it achieves 95% SO{sub 2} removal from flue gas with 5600 to 7800 mg SO{sub 2} per m{sup 3} of dry flue gas. The Zittau technology is available in 3 variants: with maximum waste heat recovery, with partial waste heat recovery or without waste heat recovery and only wet flue gas scrubbing. Two flowsheets of flue gas and suspension circulation are provided. The first variant recovers 25.7% of nominal heat capacity (1.1 thermal MW from a 4.2 MW steam generator with 6.5 t/h steam capacity), which amounts to economizing 2,400 t/a brown coal equivalent over 4,000 annual operating hours. The second variant recovers 6.5% of waste heat, requiring less investment by installing smaller heat exchangers than used in the first variant. All three variants have contact spray separators, suction units and suspension preparation equipment. Flue gas suspension scrubbing is carried out with fly ash produced by the steam generator. This ash is capable of absorbing 50 to 70% of flue gas SO{sub 2}. Supply of additional ash from other plants achieve a further 25% SO{sub 2} removal; a higher desulfurization degree is obtained by adding limestone to suspensions. 5 refs.

  3. The molecular aggregation of pyronin Y in natural bentonite clay suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meral, Kadem; Yilmaz, Nuray; Kaya, Mehmet; Tabak, Ahmet; Onganer, Yavuz

    2011-01-01

    The molecular aggregation and spectroscopic properties of Pyronin Y (PyY) in the suspension containing natural bentonite clay were studied using molecular absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. Interaction between the clay particles and the cationic dye compounds in aqueous solution resulted in significant changes in spectral properties of PyY compared to its molecular behavior in deionized water at the same concentration. These changes were due to the formation of dimer and aggregate of PyY in the clay suspension as well as the presence of the dye monomer. The H-type aggregates of PyY in the clay suspension were identified by the observation of a blue-shifted absorption band of the dye compared to that of its monomer. In spite of diluted dye concentrations, the H-aggregate of PyY in the clay suspension was formed. The intensive aggregation in the clay suspension attributed to the localized high dye concentration on the negatively charged clay surfaces. Adsorption sites of PyY on the clay particles were discussed by deconvulated absorption and excitation spectra. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies revealed that the fluorescence intensity of PyY in the clay suspension is decreased by H-aggregates drastically. Moreover, the presence of H-aggregates in the clay suspension resulted in the decrease of fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield of PyY compared to those in deionized water. - Highlights: → Molecular behavior of PyY adsorbed on clay surface was followed spectroscopically. → H-aggregates of PyY in the clay suspension were formed at very low dye concentrations. → The intensive H-aggregate structure drastically reduced the fluorescence intensity of PyY. → The fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield of PyY in the clay suspension was discussed.

  4. Tricalcium Phosphate Containing Sodium Hexametaphosphate as Polymer Suspension Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rahbar Shamskar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tricalcium phosphate as hydroxyapatite is used as a suspension stabilizer in styrene polymerization process. Particle size of TCP plays an essential role in the particles’ size distribution and geometrical form of polystyrene products. As the particle size of TCP is reduced, there will be much better chance to engulf the styrene particles. The higher the number of TCP particles surrounding each styrene particle, the lesser will be their tendency to form a large particle after collision. Therefore, there will be higher percentages of spherical polystyrene with small particle size and narrower size distribution in the product. Experimental results have indicated that the addition of sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP to the reaction mixture of lime and phosphoric acid, after drying the product by spray dryer, lead to decrease the size of TCP particles from ca. 5 μm (without SHMP to ca. 1.5 μm (with SHMP. In this study, the role of TCP containing SHMP as polymer suspension stabilizer and consequently the beads size of polystyrene is investigated in laboratory scale. The results show that despite addition of SHMP to the reaction mixture of lime and phosphoric acid decreases the TCP particles size and the mean bead size of the product of polystyrene become larger than the product prepared by TCP without SHMP.

  5. The rates of production of CO and CO2 from the combustion of pulverized coal particles in a shock tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commissaris, F.A.C.M.; Banine, V.Y.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.; Veefkind, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents some results of experiments on coal combustion in a shock tube, as well as a time-dependent model of the boundary layer of a single, burning char particle under similar conditions. The partial pressure of O2 in a shock tube was varied between 0 and 10 bar, with gas temperatures

  6. Occurrence of trace elements in respirable coal dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Inhalation of fine particles of coal dust contributes significantly to the occurrence of the disease, pneumoconiosis, prevailing in coal mining community. It is not presently known whether only the coal dust or specific chemical compounds or synergistic effects of several compounds associated with respirable coal dust is responsible for the disease, pneumoconiosis. The present paper describes the quantitative determination of ten minor and trace elements in respirable coal dust particles by atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. The respirable coal dust samples are collected at the mine atmosphere during drilling in coal scams by using Messrs. Casella's Hexlet apparatus specially designed and fitted with horizontal elutriator to collect the respirable coal dust fraction simulating as near as possible to the lung's retention of the coal miners. After destruction of organic matter by wet oxidation and filtering off clay and silica, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni were determined directly in the resulting solution by atomic absorption spectrophotometric procedures. The results show that the trace metals are more acute in lower range of size spectrum. Correlation coefficient, enrichment factor and linear regression values and their inverse relationship between the slope and EF values suggest that, in general, the trace metals in respirable particulates are likely to be from coal derived source if their concentrations are likewise high in the coal. The trace metal analytical data of respirable particulates fitted well to the linear regressive equation. The results of the studies are of importance as it may throw some light on the respirable lung disease 'pneumoconiosis' which are predominant in coal mining community. (author). 13 refs., 6 tabs

  7. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    The properties of the ash from co-firing of coal and straw have a large influence on boiler operation, flue gas cleaning equipment and appropriate utilization of the fly ash. A study on the fuel composition and local conditions influence on fly ash properties has been done by making entrained flo...

  8. Numerical study of heat and mass transfer in inertial suspensions in pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi Ardekani, Mehdi; Brandt, Luca

    2017-11-01

    Controlling heat and mass transfer in particulate suspensions has many important applications such as packed and fluidized bed reactors and industrial dryers. In this work, we study the heat and mass transfer within a suspension of spherical particles in a laminar pipe flow, using the immersed boundary method (IBM) to account for the solid fluid interactions and a volume of fluid (VoF) method to resolve temperature equation both inside and outside of the particles. Tracers that follow the fluid streamlines are considered to investigate mass transfer within the suspension. Different particle volume fractions 5, 15, 30 and 40% are simulated for different pipe to particle diameter ratios: 5, 10 and 15. The preliminary results quantify the heat and mass transfer enhancement with respect to a single-phase laminar pipe flow. We show in particular that the heat transfer from the wall saturates for volume fractions more than 30%, however at high particle Reynolds numbers (small diameter ratios) the heat transfer continues to increase. Regarding the dispersion of tracer particles we show that the diffusivity of tracers increases with volume fraction in radial and stream-wise directions however it goes through a peak at 15% in the azimuthal direction. European Research Council, Grant No. ERC-2013-CoG- 616186, TRITOS; SNIC (the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing).

  9. Preparation and encapsulation of white/yellow dual colored suspensions for electrophoretic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingjing; Li, Xiaoxu; Feng, Yaqing; Zhang, Bao

    2014-11-01

    C.I. Pigment Yellow 181 (PY181) composite particles encapsulated by polyethylene (PE) were prepared by dispersion polymerization method, and C.I. Pigment Yellow 110 (PY110) composite particles encapsulated by polystyrene (PS) with mini-emulsion polymerization method were achieved, respectively. The modified pigments were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Compared with the PE-coated PY 181 pigments, the PS-coated PY-110 particles had a narrow particle size distribution, regular spherical and average particle size of 450 nm. Suspension 1 and suspension 3 were prepared by the two composite particles dispersed in isopar M. A chromatic electrophoretic display cell consisting of yellow particles was successfully fabricated using dispersions of yellow ink particles in a mixed dielectric solvent with white particles as contrast. The response behavior and the contrast ratio to the electric voltage were also examined. The contrast ratio of pigments modified by polystyrene was 1.48, as well as the response time was 2 s, which were better than those of pigments modified by polyethylene.

  10. Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B. [BlueScope Steel Research Laboratories, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Lu; Chengyun, Xin; Xinyu, Liu

    2018-04-01

    Liquid nitrogen has been working as an important medium in fire extinguishing and prevention, due to its efficiency in oxygen exclusion and heat removal. Such a technique is especially crucial for coal industry in China. We built a tunnel model with a temperature monitor system (with 36 thermocouples installed) to experimentally study heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in non-homogeneous coal porous media (CPM), and expected to optimize parameters of liquid nitrogen injection in engineering applications. Results indicate that injection location and amount of liquid nitrogen, together with air leakage, significantly affect temperature distribution in CPM, and non-equilibrium heat inside and outside of coal particles. The injection position of liquid nitrogen determines locations of the lowest CPM temperature and liquid nitrogen residual. In the deeper coal bed, coal particles take longer time to reach thermal equilibrium between their surface and inside. Air leakage accelerates temperature increase at the bottom of the coal bed, which is a major reason leading to fire prevention inefficiency. Measurement fluctuation of CPM temperature may be caused by incomplete contact of coal particles with liquid nitrogen flowing in the coal bed. Moreover, the secondary temperature drop (STD) happens and grows with the more injection of liquid nitrogen, and the STD phenomenon is explained through temperature distributions at different locations.

  12. The secondary release of mercury in coal fly ash-based flue-gas mercury removal technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingfeng; Duan, Chenlong; Lei, Mingzhe; Zhu, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    The secondary release of mercury from coal fly ash is a negative by-product from coal-fired power plants, and requires effective control to reduce environmental pollution. Analysing particle size distribution and composition of the coal fly ash produced by different mercury removing technologies indicates that the particles are generally less than 0.5 mm in size and are composed mainly of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3. The relationships between mercury concentration in the coal fly ash, its particle size, and loss of ignition were studied using different mercury removing approaches. The research indicates that the coal fly ash's mercury levels are significantly higher after injecting activated carbon or brominating activated carbon when compared to regular cooperating-pollution control technology. This is particularly true for particle size ranges of >0.125, 0.075-0.125, and 0.05-0.075 mm. Leaching experiments revealed the secondary release of mercury in discarded coal fly ash. The concentration of mercury in the coal fly ash increases as the quantity of injecting activated carbon or brominating activated carbon increases. The leached concentrations of mercury increase as the particle size of the coal fly ash increases. Therefore, the secondary release of mercury can be controlled by adding suitable activated carbon or brominating activated carbon when disposing of coal fly ash. Adding CaBr2 before coal combustion in the boiler also helps control the secondary release of mercury, by increasing the Hg(2+) concentration in the leachate. This work provides a theoretical foundation for controlling and removing mercury in coal fly ash disposal.

  13. Experimental Investigation into the Combustion Characteristics on the Co-firing of Biomass with Coal as a Function of Particle Size and Blending Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lkhagvadorj, Sh; Kim, Sang In; Lim, Ho; Kim, Seung Mo; Jeon, Chung Hwan [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byoung Hwa [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Co-firing of biomass with coal is a promising combustion technology in a coal-fired power plant. However, it still requires verifications to apply co-firing in an actual boiler. In this study, data from the Thermogravimetric analyzer(TGA) and Drop tube furnace(DTF) were used to obtain the combustion characteristics of biomass when co-firing with coal. The combustion characteristics were verified using experimental results including reactivity from the TGA and Unburned carbon(UBC) data from the DTF. The experiment also analyzed with the variation of the biomass blending ratio and biomass particle size. It was determined that increasing the biomass blending ratio resulted in incomplete chemical reactions due to insufficient oxygen levels because of the rapid initial combustion characteristics of the biomass. Thus, the optimum blending condition of the biomass based on the results of this study was found to be 5 while oxygen enrichment reduced the increase of UBC that occurred during combustion of blended biomass and coal.

  14. Intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of cubes

    KAUST Repository

    Mallavajula, Rajesh K.

    2013-11-06

    We report on the viscosity of a dilute suspension of cube-shaped particles. Irrespective of the particle size, size distribution, and surface chemistry, we find empirically that cubes manifest an intrinsic viscosity [η]=3.1±0.2, which is substantially higher than the well-known value for spheres, [η]=2.5. The orientation-dependent intrinsic viscosity of cubic particles is determined theoretically using a finite-element solution of the Stokes equations. For isotropically oriented cubes, these calculations show [η]=3.1, in excellent agreement with our experimental observations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Nanofluid Suspensions in a Geothermal Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hui Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that using nanofluids as heat carrier fluids enhances the conductive and convective heat transfer of geothermal heat exchangers. In this paper, we study the stability of nanofluids in a geothermal exchanger by numerically simulating nanoparticle sedimentation during a shut-down process. The nanofluid suspension is modeled as a non-linear complex fluid; the nanoparticle migration is modeled by a particle flux model, which includes the effects of Brownian motion, gravity, turbulent eddy diffusivity, etc. The numerical results indicate that when the fluid is static, the nanoparticle accumulation appears to be near the bottom borehole after many hours of sedimentation. The accumulated particles can be removed by the fluid flow at a relatively high velocity. These observations indicate good suspension stability of the nanofluids, ensuring the operational reliability of the heat exchanger. The numerical results also indicate that a pulsed flow and optimized geometry of the bottom borehole can potentially improve the suspension stability of the nanofluids further.

  16. Characterization of Ni-YSZ anodes for solid oxide fuel cells fabricated by suspension plasma spraying with axial feedstock injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Craig; Kuhn, Joel; Kesler, Olivera

    2013-12-01

    Composite Ni-Y0.15Zr0.85O1.925 anodes were fabricated by axial-injection suspension plasma spraying in open atmosphere conditions. The composition of the anode is controllable by adjustment of the plasma gas composition, stand-off distance, and suspension feed rate. The total porosity is controllable through the addition of carbon black to the suspension as a sacrificial pore-forming material as well as by adjustment of the suspension feed rate. The size of the NiO particles in suspension affects both the composition and total porosity, with larger NiO particles leading to increased Ni content and porosity in the deposited coatings. The surface roughness increases with a decrease of the in-flight droplet momentum, which results from both smaller NiO particles in suspension and the addition of low density pore-forming materials. A solid oxide fuel cell was fabricated with both electrodes and electrolyte fabricated by axial-injection plasma spraying. Peak power densities of 0.718 W cm-2 and 1.13 W cm-2 at 750 °C and 850 °C, respectively, were achieved.

  17. Dramatic effect of fluid chemistry on cornstarch suspensions : Linking particle interactions to macroscopic rheology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyarte Galvez, Loreto; de Beer, Sissi; van der Meer, Devaraj; Pons, Adeline

    2017-01-01

    Suspensions of cornstarch in water exhibit strong dynamic shear-thickening. We show that partly replacing water by ethanol strongly alters the suspension rheology. We perform steady and non-steady rheology measurements combined with atomic force microscopy to investigate the role of fluid chemistry

  18. On the influence of the hydrodynamic interactions on the aggregation rate of magnetic spheres in a dilute suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, F.R.; Couto, H.L.G.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetostatic attraction may lead to formation of aggregates in stable colloidal magnetic suspensions and magneto-rheological suspensions. The aggregation problem of magnetic composites under differential sedimentation is a key problem in the control of the instability of non-Brownian suspensions. Against these attractive forces are the electrostatic repulsion and the hydrodynamic interactions acting as stabilizing effects to the suspension. This work concerns an investigation of the pairwise interaction of magnetic particles in a dilute sedimenting suspension. We focus attention on suspensions where the Peclet number is large (negligible Brownian motion) and where the Reynolds number (negligible inertia) is small. The suspension is composed of magnetic micro-spheres of different radius and density immersed in a Newtonian fluid moving under the action of gravity. The theoretical calculations are based on direct computations of the hydrodynamic and the magnetic interactions among the rigid spheres in the regime of low particle Reynolds number. From the limiting trajectory in which aggregation occurs, we calculate the collision efficiency, representing the dimensionless rate at which aggregates are formed. The numerical results show clear evidence that the hydrodynamic interactions are of fundamental relevance in the process of magnetic particle aggregation. We compare the stabilizing effects between electrostatic repulsion and hydrodynamic interactions.

  19. On the influence of the hydrodynamic interactions on the aggregation rate of magnetic spheres in a dilute suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, F.R., E-mail: frcunha@unb.b [Universidade de Brasilia, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Depto. de Engenharia Mecanica, Grupo de Mecanica dos Fluidos de Escoamentos Complexos - VORTEX, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Couto, H.L.G. [Universidade de Brasilia, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Depto. de Engenharia Mecanica, Grupo de Mecanica dos Fluidos de Escoamentos Complexos - VORTEX, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Magnetostatic attraction may lead to formation of aggregates in stable colloidal magnetic suspensions and magneto-rheological suspensions. The aggregation problem of magnetic composites under differential sedimentation is a key problem in the control of the instability of non-Brownian suspensions. Against these attractive forces are the electrostatic repulsion and the hydrodynamic interactions acting as stabilizing effects to the suspension. This work concerns an investigation of the pairwise interaction of magnetic particles in a dilute sedimenting suspension. We focus attention on suspensions where the Peclet number is large (negligible Brownian motion) and where the Reynolds number (negligible inertia) is small. The suspension is composed of magnetic micro-spheres of different radius and density immersed in a Newtonian fluid moving under the action of gravity. The theoretical calculations are based on direct computations of the hydrodynamic and the magnetic interactions among the rigid spheres in the regime of low particle Reynolds number. From the limiting trajectory in which aggregation occurs, we calculate the collision efficiency, representing the dimensionless rate at which aggregates are formed. The numerical results show clear evidence that the hydrodynamic interactions are of fundamental relevance in the process of magnetic particle aggregation. We compare the stabilizing effects between electrostatic repulsion and hydrodynamic interactions.

  20. Capillary interactions in nano-particle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossev, D.P.; Warren, G.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the structures formed by colloidal particles suspended in solvents at volume fractions below 10% and interacting through capillary bridges. Such systems resemble colloidal gas of sticky nano-spheres that form pearl-necklace like chains that, in turn, induce strong viscoelasticity due to the formation of 3-D fractal network. The capillary force dominates the electrostatic and Van der Waals forces in solutions and can bridge multiple particles depending of the volume of the capillary bridge. We have investigated the morphology of the structures formed at different fractions of the bridging fluid. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is used to study nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10 nm in polar and non-polar organic solvents at ambient temperatures. SANS intensity as a function of the scattering vector is analyzed as a product of a form factor, that depends on the particle shape, and a structure factor, that characterizes the interparticle inter reactions. The interaction of particles in polar solvents is considered to be through electrostatic repulsion and the data is successfully fitted by Hayter-Penfold mean spherical approximation (HPMSA). Computer simulations of a pearl necklace-like chain of spheres is conducted to explain the structure factor when capillary bridges are present. Alternatively, we have analyzed the slope of the intensity at low scattering vector in a double logarithmic plot to determine the dimension of the fractal structures formed by the particles at different volume fraction of the bridging fluid. We have also studied the properties of the capillary bridge between a pair of particles. The significance of this study is to explore the possibility of using capillary force as a tool to engineer new colloidal structures and materials in solutions and to optimize their viscoelastic properties. (author)

  1. Graphite suspension in carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.

    1965-01-01

    Since 1963 the Atomic Division of SNECMA has been conducting, under a contract with the CEA, an experimental work with a two-component fluid comprised of carbon dioxide and small graphite particles. The primary purpose was the determination of basic engineering information pertaining to the stability and the flowability of the suspension. The final form of the experimental loop consists mainly of the following items: a light-phase compressor, a heavy-phase pump, an electrical-resistance type heater section, a cooling heat exchanger, a hairpin loop, a transparent test section and a separator. During the course of the testing, it was observed that the fluid could be circulated quite easily in a broad range of variation of the suspension density and velocity - density from 30 to 170 kg/m 3 and velocity from 2 to 24 m/s. The system could be restarted and circulation maintained without any difficulty, even with the heavy-phase pump alone. The graphite did not have a tendency to pack or agglomerate during operation. No graphite deposition was observed on the wall of the tubing. A long period run (250 hours) has shown the evolution of the particle dimensions. Starting with graphite of surface area around 20 m 2 /g (graphite particles about 1 μ), the powder surface area reaches an asymptotic value of 300 m 2 /g (all the particles less than 0.3 μ). Moisture effect on flow stability, flow distribution between two parallel channels, pressure drop in straight tubes, recompression ratio in diffusers were also investigated. (author) [fr

  2. Effect of mechanical and chemical clay removals by hydrocyclone and dispersants on coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oats, W.J.; Ozdemir, O.; Nguyen, A.V. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). School of Chemical Engineering

    2010-04-15

    Fine minerals, mostly clays, are known to have a detrimental effect on coal flotation. This paper focuses on the effect of mechanical and chemical removals of fine minerals by hydrocyclone and dispersants on coal flotation. The experimental results showed that the flotation recovery slightly increased from medium acidic to medium alkaline ranges. The flotation experiments carried out with dispersants at different dosages showed that the dispersants did not enhance the flotation recovery significantly. However, the removal of the fine fraction from the feed using a hydrocyclone significantly increased the flotation recovery. The bubble-particle attachment tests also indicated that the attachment time between an air bubble and the coal particles increased in the presence of clay particles. These attachment time results clearly showed that the clay particles adversely affected the flotation of coal particles by covering the coal surfaces which reduced the efficiency of bubble-coal attachment. An analysis based on the colloid stability theory showed that the clay coating was governed by the van der Waals attraction and that the double-layer interaction played a secondary role. It was also concluded that the best way to increase the flotation recovery in the presence of clays was to remove these fine minerals by mechanical means such as hydrocylones.

  3. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Burl E.; Henry, Raymond M.; Trivett, Gordon S.; Albaugh, Edgar W.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and magnetorheological properties of carbonyl iron suspension with superparamagnetic nanoparticles as an additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, Siti Asma’ Nikmat; Mohd Samin, Pakharuddin; Idris, Ani; Rahman, Azura Hanis A; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are suspensions of micron-sized particles dispersed in carrier fluid. Due to high density magnetic particles, MR fluids are facing the problem with the instability of the suspension caused by high settling rate. Recently, researches have been conducted on the advantages of using the mixture of magnetic nanoparticles and microparticles, called bidisperse MR fluids. However, even though the sedimentation stability is improved, there is a reduction in dynamic yield stress when the nanoparticle is introduced. In this work, the investigation of magnetic iron nanoparticles (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) as an additive to magnetic carbonyl iron (CI) suspension has been proposed so as to improve the sedimentation stability and redispersibility, but at the same time enhance the MR performance. The results indicated that the addition of nanoparticles reduced the sedimentation rate, improved redispersibility and enhanced the rheological performance of MR fluids as the particle fill the voids between the microparticles and strengthened the interparticle chains contributing to well-arranged particle structures. (paper)

  5. Computer Simulation Study of Collective Phenomena in Dense Suspensions of Red Blood Cells under Shear

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, Timm

    2012-01-01

    The rheology of dense red blood cell suspensions is investigated via computer simulations based on the lattice Boltzmann, the immersed boundary, and the finite element methods. The red blood cells are treated as extended and deformable particles immersed in the ambient fluid. In the first part of the work, the numerical model and strategies for stress evaluation are discussed. In the second part, the behavior of the suspensions in simple shear flow is studied for different volume fractions, particle deformabilities, and shear rates. Shear thinning behavior is recovered. The existence of a shear-induced transition from a tumbling to a tank-treading motion is demonstrated. The transition can be parameterized by a single quantity, namely the effective capillary number. It is the ratio of the suspension stress and the characteristic particle membrane stress. At the transition point, a strong increase in the orientational order of the red blood cells and a significant decrease of the particle diffusivity are obser...

  6. Effect of solvent composition on dispersing ability of reaction sialon suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Oliveira, Marta; Ferreira, José M F

    2003-03-15

    This work focuses on the optimization of the rheological behavior of suspensions considering different solvent compositions. The effects of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)/ethanol (E) solvent mixtures on reaction sialon suspensions were investigated by measuring sedimentation behavior, adsorption of dispersant, and flow behavior. It was shown that both the flow behavior and the sedimentation behavior strongly depended on selection of solvent composition. Using 3 wt% KD1 as dispersant, well-dispersed colloidal suspensions could be obtained in MEK-rich solvents. The suspensions with 60 vol% MEK/40 vol% E as solvent could be fitted to the Bingham model with very low yield stress, while suspensions with pure MEK or ethanol-rich mixtures as solvent showed pseudo plastic behavior with relatively high yield stress values. A model was proposed to explain the different flow behaviors of suspensions considering the different configurations of dispersant at particles' surfaces.

  7. Aqueous suspensions of natural swelling clay minerals. 2. Rheological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paineau, Erwan; Michot, Laurent J; Bihannic, Isabelle; Baravian, Christophe

    2011-06-21

    We report in this article a comprehensive investigation of the viscoelastic behavior of different natural colloidal clay minerals in aqueous solution. Rheological experiments were carried out under both dynamic and steady-state conditions, allowing us to derive the elasticity and yield stress. Both parameters can be renormalized for all sizes, ionic strength, and type of clay using in a first approach only the volume of the particles. However, applying such a treatment to various clays of similar shapes and sizes yields differences that can be linked to the repulsion strength and charge location in the swelling clays. The stronger the repulsive interactions, the better the orientation of clay particles in flows. In addition, a master linear relationship between the elasticity and yield stress whose value corresponds to a critical deformation of 0.1 was evidenced. Such a relationship may be general for any colloidal suspension of anisometric particles as revealed by the analysis of various experimental data obtained on either disk-shaped or lath- and rod-shaped particles. The particle size dependence of the sol-gel transition was also investigated in detail. To understand why suspensions of larger particles gel at a higher volume fraction, we propose a very simplified view based on the statistical hydrodynamic trapping of a particle by an another one in its neighborhood upon translation and during a short period of time. We show that the key parameter describing this hydrodynamic trapping varies as the cube of the average diameter and captures most features of the sol-gel transition. Finally, we pointed out that in the high shear limit the suspension viscosity is still closely related to electrostatic interactions and follows the same trends as the viscoelastic properties. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Modeling of magnetic particle suspensions for simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Satoh, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of the book is to highlight the modeling of magnetic particles with different shapes and magnetic properties, to provide graduate students and young researchers information on the theoretical aspects and actual techniques for the treatment of magnetic particles in particle-based simulations. In simulation, we focus on the Monte Carlo, molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics, lattice Boltzmann and stochastic rotation dynamics (multi-particle collision dynamics) methods. The latter two simulation methods can simulate both the particle motion and the ambient flow field simultaneously. In general, specialized knowledge can only be obtained in an effective manner under the supervision of an expert. The present book is written to play such a role for readers who wish to develop the skill of modeling magnetic particles and develop a computer simulation program using their own ability. This book is therefore a self-learning book for graduate students and young researchers. Armed with this knowledge,...

  9. Polystyrene Core-Silica Shell Particles with Defined Nanoarchitectures as a Versatile Platform for Suspension Array Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Dominik; Gawlitza, Kornelia; Rurack, Knut

    2016-04-19

    The need for rapid and high-throughput screening in analytical laboratories has led to significant growth in interest in suspension array technologies (SATs), especially with regard to cytometric assays targeting a low to medium number of analytes. Such SAT or bead-based assays rely on spherical objects that constitute the analytical platform. Usually, functionalized polymer or silica (SiO2) microbeads are used which each have distinct advantages and drawbacks. In this paper, we present a straightforward synthetic route to highly monodisperse SiO2-coated polystyrene core-shell (CS) beads for SAT with controllable architectures from smooth to raspberry- and multilayer-like shells by varying the molecular weight of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), which was used as the stabilizer of the cores. The combination of both organic polymer core and a structurally controlled inorganic SiO2 shell in one hybrid particle holds great promises for flexible next-generation design of the spherical platform. The particles were characterized by electron microscopy (SEM, T-SEM, and TEM), thermogravimetry, flow cytometry, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption, offering comprehensive information on the composition, size, structure, and surface area. All particles show ideal cytometric detection patterns and facile handling due to the hybrid structure. The beads are endowed with straightforward modification possibilities through the defined SiO2 shells. We successfully implemented the particles in fluorometric SAT model assays, illustrating the benefits of tailored surface area which is readily available for small-molecule anchoring. Very promising assay performance was shown for DNA hybridization assays with quantification limits down to 8 fmol.

  10. Research on Improving Low Rank Coal Caking Ability by Moderate Hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng

    2017-12-01

    The hydrogenation test of low metamorphic coal was carried out by using a continuous hydrogen reactor at the temperature of (350-400)°C and the initial hydrogen pressure of 3 ~ 6Mpa. The purpose of the experiment was to increase the caking property, and the heating time was controlled from 30 to 50min. The test results show that the mild hydrogenation test, no adhesion of low metamorphic coal can be transformed into a product having adhesion, oxygen elements in coal have good removal, the calorific value of the product has been improved significantly and coal particles during pyrolysis, swelling, catalyst, hydrogenation, structural changes and the combined effects of particles a new component formed between financial and is a major cause of coal caking enhancement and lithofacies change, coal blending test showed that the product can be used effectively in the coking industry.

  11. Correlation between structure and rheological properties of suspension of nanosized powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabellion, J.; Clasen, R. [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Dept. of Powder Technology; Reinshagen, J.; Oberacker, R.; Hoffmann, M.J. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Ceramics in Mechanical Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Since the properties of a ceramic green body and compact produced thereof are strongly influenced by the properties of the suspension used, controlling structure and properties of a suspension is a very important issue in ceramic manufacturing. Macroscopically, the rheological properties of a suspension are the key parameters that influence the behaviour during the shaping process. The rheological behaviour of aqueous suspensions of nanosized fumed silica (DEGUSSA, Aerosil OX50) with different amounts of OX50 (10 to 50 wt.%) was measured over a pH-range from 1 to 13 by means of rotational viscosimetry. A distinct maximum of the viscosity was observed for a pH of about 7 to 8, independent of the solid content of the suspensions. Since the rheological behaviour of the suspensions could not be explained by the {zeta}-Potential measured for OX50, the suspensions were investigated by means of so-called cryo-SEM characterization. A droplet of the suspension is quench-frozen in subcooled nitrogen (-210 C), prepared and the water is sublimed at -90 C. Thus it was possible to visualize the agglomerate structure of the primary OX50-particles within the suspensions. (orig.)

  12. Study of dust re-suspension at low pressure in a dedicated wind-tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Anthony; Sabroux, Jean-Christophe; Chassefière, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The atmosphere of several telluric planets or satellites are dusty. Such is the case of Earth, Venus, Mars and Titan, each bearing different aeolian processes linked principally to the kinematic viscosity of the near-surface atmosphere. Studies of the Martian atmosphere are particularly relevant for the understanding of the dust re-suspension phenomena at low pressure (7 mbar). It turns out that operation of fusion reactors of the tokamak design produces significant amount of dust through the erosion of plasma-facing components. Such dust is a key issue, both regarding the performance and the safety of a fusion reactor such as ITER, under construction in Cadarache, France. Indeed, to evaluate the explosion risk in the ITER fusion reactor, it is essential to quantify the re-suspended dust fraction as a function of the dust inventory that can be potentially mobilized during a loss of vacuum accident (LOVA), with air or water vapour ingress. A complete accident sequence will encompass dust re-suspension from near-vacuum up to atmospheric pressure. Here, we present experimental results of particles re-suspension fractions measured at 1000, 600 and 300 mbar in the IRSN BISE (BlowIng facility for airborne releaSE) wind tunnel. Both dust monolayer deposits and multilayer deposits were investigated. In order to obtain experimental re-suspension data of dust monolayer deposits, we used an optical microscope allowing to measure the re-suspended particles fraction by size intervals of 1 µm. The deposits were made up of tungsten particles on a tungsten surface (an ubiquitous plasma facing component) and alumina particles on a glass plate, as a surrogate. A comparison of the results with the so-called Rock'nRoll dust re-suspension model (Reeks and Hall, 2001) is presented and discussed. The multilayer deposits were made in a vacuum sedimentation chamber allowing to obtain uniform deposits in terms of thickness. The re-suspension experimental data of such deposits were obtained

  13. Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shan-Wen [Steel and Aluminum Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 812 (China); Chen, Wei-Hsin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China); Lucas, John A. [School of Engineering of the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals departing from the general trend. One of the coals with the fuel ratio of 6.22 has shown its merit in combustion, implying that the blending ratio of the coal in PCI operation can be raised for a higher coke replacement ratio. The experiments also suggested that increasing blast temperature was an efficient countermeasure for promoting the combustibility of the injected coals. Higher fuel burnout could be achieved when the particle size of coal was reduced from 60-100 to 100-200 mesh. However, once the size of the tested coals was in the range of 200 and 325 mesh, the burnout could not be improved further, resulting from the agglomeration of fine particles. Considering coal blend reactions, the blending ratio of coals in PCI may be adjusted by the individual coal burnout rather than by the fuel ratio. (author)

  14. Study of shear thickening behavior in colloidal suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Maleki Jirsaraee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the shear thickening behavior of the nano silica suspension (silica nanoparticles 12 nm in size suspended in ethylene glycol under steady shear. The critical shear rate for transition into shear thickening phase was determined at different concentrations and temperatures. The effect of temperature and concentration was studied on the shear thickening behavior. In silica suspension, it was observed that all the samples had a transition into shear thickening phase and also by increasing the temperature, critical shear rate increased and viscosity decreased. Our observations showed that movement in silica suspension was Brownian and temperature could cause a delay in transition into shear thickening phase. Yet, we observed that increasing the concentration would decrease critical shear rate and increase viscosity. Increasing temperature increased Brownian forces and increasing concentration increased hydrodynamic forces, confirming the contrast between these two forces for transition into shear thickening phase for the suspensions containing nano particles

  15. Effective Diffusion Coefficients in Coal Chars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Jensen, Anker

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of effective diffusion coefficients in char particles is important when interpreting experimental reactivity measurements and modeling char combustion or NO and N2O reduction. In this work, NO and N2O reaction with a bituminous coal char was studied in a fixed-bed quartz glass reactor....... In the case of strong pore diffusion limitations, the error in the interpretation of experimental results using the mean pore radius could be a factor of 5 on the intrinsic rate constant. For an average coal char reacting with oxygen at 1300 K, this would be the case for particle sizes larger than about 50...

  16. Superconducting lead particles produced by chemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariss, T. L.; Nixon, W. E.; Bucelot, T. J.; Deaver, B. S., Jr.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1982-09-01

    The superconductivity of extremely small lead particles has been studied as a function of size, surface condition, and connectivity using chemical techniques to produce particles of well-controlled size and shape suspended in insulating media. Approximately monodisperse suspensions of equiaxed, rod, and lath-shaped particles of lead halides and other lead compounds suspended in gelatin, polyacrylamide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose, and hydroxyethyl cellulose have been produced. These particles have been reduced to pseudomorphs of lead in the liquid phase or the suspensions have been coated on substrates and dried before reduction. Reducing solutions containing aminoiminomethanesulfinic acid are effective with particles of lead halides, lead phosphate, lead sulfate, and lead tartrate. Suspensions of smaller discrete lead particles have also been produced by direct reduction of solutions of soluble lead salts containing suitable polymers, chelating, and stabilizing agents. Dispersions with mean particle dimensions between 3 nm and 5 μm, and a narrow size-frequency distribution, have been produced. The superconductivity of the particles has been characterized by measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The larger particles have a transition temperature of 7.2 K, the same as bulk lead; however, for particles of characteristic dimensions less than 20 nm, the transition temperature is lower by ˜0.1 K.

  17. Superconducting lead particles produced by chemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fariss, T.L.; Nixon, W.E.; Bucelot, T.J.; Deaver, B.S. Jr.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The superconductivity of extremely small lead particles has been studied as a function of size, surface condition, and connectivity using chemical techniques to produce particles of well-controlled size and shape suspended in insulating media. Approximately monodisperse suspensions of equiaxed, rod, and lath-shaped particles of lead halides and other lead compounds suspended in gelatin, polyacrylamide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose, and hydroxyethyl cellulose have been produced. These particles have been reduced to pseudomorphs of lead in the liquid phase or the suspensions have been coated on substrates and dried before reduction. Reducing solutions containing aminoiminomethanesulfinic acid are effective with particles of lead halides, lead phosphate, lead sulfate, and lead tartrate. Suspensions of smaller discrete lead particles have also been produced by direct reduction of solutions of soluble lead salts containing suitable polymers, chelating, and stabilizing agents. Dispersions with mean particle dimensions between 3 nm and 5 μm, and a narrow size-frequency distribution, have been produced. The superconductivity of the particles has been characterized by measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The larger particles have a transition temperature of 7.2 K, the same as bulk lead; however, for particles of characteristic dimensions less than 20 nm, the transition temperature is lower by approx.0.1 K

  18. Ignition behaviour of different rank coals in an entrained flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Faundez; A. Arenillas; F. Rubiera; X. Garcia; A.L. Gordon; J.J. Pis [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR), Oviedo (Spain)

    2005-12-01

    An experimental study to determine the temperature and mechanism of coal ignition was carried out by using an entrained flow reactor (EFR) at relatively high coal feed rates (0.5 g min{sup -1}). Seven coals ranging in rank from subbituminous to semianthracite, were tested and the evolved gases (O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO) were measured continuously. The ignition temperature was evaluated from the gas evolution profiles, and it was found to be inversely correlated to the reactivity of the coal, as reflected by the increasing values of the ignition temperature in the sequence: subbituminous, high volatile bituminous, low volatile bituminous and semianthracite coals. The mechanism of ignition varied from a heterogeneous mechanism for subbituminous, low volatile bituminous and semianthracite coals, to a homogeneous mechanism for high volatile bituminous coals. A thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) was also used to evaluate coal ignition behaviour. Both methods, TGA and EFR, were in agreement as regards the mechanism of coal ignition. From the SEM micrographs of the coal particles retrieved from the cyclone, it was possible to observe the external appearance of the particles before, during and after ignition. The micrographs confirmed the mechanism deduced from the gas profiles. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Size Effect on Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Coal-Rock Damage Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Zhijie; Wang, Xiao; Chen, Lianjun; Lin, Guan; Zhang, Hualei

    2017-01-01

    Coal-gas outburst, rock burst, and other mine dynamic disasters are closely related to the instability and failure of coal-rock. Coal-rock is the assemblies of mineral particles of varying sizes and shapes bonded together by cementing materials. The damage and rupture process of coal-rock is accompanied by acoustic emission (AE), which can be used as an effective means to monitor and predict the instability of coal-rock body. In this manuscript, considering the size effect of coal-rock, the i...

  20. Co-firing straw with coal in a swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner: modelling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling study of co-firing wheat straw with coal in a 150 kW swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner flow reactor, in which the pulverized straw particles (mean diameter of 451μm) and coal particles (mean diameter of 110.4μm...... conversion. It is found that for pulverized biomass particles of a few hundred microns in diameter the intra-particle heat and mass transfer is a secondary issue at most in their conversion, and the global four-step mechanism of Jones and Lindstedt may be better used in modelling volatiles combustion......-lean core zone; whilst the coal particles are significantly affected by secondary air jet and swirled into the oxygen-rich outer radius with increased residence time (in average, 8.1s for coal particles vs. 5.2s for straw particles in the 3m high reactor). Therefore, a remarkable difference in the overall...

  1. Combustion zone investigation in fuel flexible suspension fired boilers, Experimental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander; Hvid, Søren Lovmand

    velocities for coal-straw flame were mapped by Laser Doppler velocimetry (LDA) in 235 points. High speed IR-camera with water-cooled endoscope optics has been used to grab images of particle flow patterns and dispersion in flames. The IR-camera was also used with a grating spectrometer to measure gas...... velocity measurements for the coal-straw flame show that the simple gas flow field expected for a single burner is smeared out shortly after start of flame due to interaction with other burners....... and to cut measurement costs. All measurements were carried out on a Mitsui-Babcock Low-NOx wall burner at Studstrup power plant, unit 4, Denmark in October and November 2009. Measurements on a pure coal (reference), coal-straw and coal-wood flame have been obtained. Special attention was paid to the coal...

  2. Viscosity, thermal diffusivity and Prandtl number of nanoparticle suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Buxuan; ZHOU Leping; PENG Xiaofeng

    2004-01-01

    Using our reported experimental data of effective thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and viscosity for CuO nanoparticle suspensions, the corresponding thermal diffusivity and Prandtl number are calculated. With the hard sphere model and considering effects of particle clustering and surface adsorption, the increase of viscosity for nanoparticle suspension observed is explained. It is shown that the effective thermal conductivity will be strongly affected by the formation and correlated spatial distribution of nanoparticle clusters when compared to viscosity in hosting liquid.

  3. Nano-mineralogical investigation of coal and fly ashes from coal-based captive power plant (India): An introduction of occupational health hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcos L.S.; Marostega, Fabiane; Taffarel, Silvio R.; Saikia, Binoy K.; Waanders, Frans B.; DaBoit, Kátia; Baruah, Bimala P.

    2014-01-01

    Coal derived nano-particles has been received much concern recently around the world for their adverse effects on human health and the environment during their utilization. In this investigation the mineral matter present in some industrially important Indian coals and their ash samples are addressed. Coal and fly ash samples from the coal-based captive power plant in Meghalaya (India) were collected for different characterization and nano-mineralogy studies. An integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/(Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS analysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to know their extent of risks to the human health when present in coal and fly ash. The study has revealed that the coals contain mainly clay minerals, whilst glass fragments, spinel, quartz, and other minerals in lesser quantities were found to be present in the coal fly ash. Fly ash carbons were present as chars. Indian coal fly ash also found to contain nanominerals and ultrafine particles. The coal-fired power plants are observed to be the largest anthropogenic source of Hg emitted to the atmosphere and expected to increase its production in near future years. The Multi Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (MWCNTs) are detected in our fly ashes, which contains residual carbonaceous matter responsible for the Hg capture/encapsulation. This detailed investigation on the inter-relationship between the minerals present in the samples and their ash components will also be useful for fulfilling the clean coal technology principles. - Highlights: • We research changes in the level of ultrafine and nanoparticles about coal–ash quality. • Increasing dates will increase human health quality in this Indian coal area. • Welfare effects depend on ex-ante or ex-post assumptions about

  4. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical

  5. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of shear-induced particle migration in plane Couette-Poiseuille flow: Local ordering of suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Byoungjin; Kwon, Ilyoung; Jung, Hyun Wook; Hyun, Jae Chun

    2017-12-01

    The shear-induced migration of concentrated non-Brownian monodisperse suspensions in combined plane Couette-Poiseuille (C-P) flows is studied using a lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulations are mainly performed for a particle volume fraction of ϕbulk = 0.4 and H/a = 44.3, 23.3, where H and a denote the channel height and radius of suspended particles, respectively. The simulation method is validated in two simple flows, plane Poiseuille and plane Couette flows. In the Poiseuille flow, particles migrate to the mid-plane of the channel where the local concentration is close to the limit of random-close-packing, and a random structure is also observed at the plane. In the Couette flow, the particle distribution remains in the initial uniform distribution. In the combined C-P flows, the behaviors of migration are categorized into three groups, namely, Poiseuille-dominant, Couette-dominant, and intermediate regimes, based on the value of a characteristic force, G, where G denotes the relative magnitude of the body force (P) against the wall-driving force (C). With respect to the Poiseuille-dominant regime, the location of the maximum concentration is shifted from the mid-plane to the lower wall moving in the same direction as the external body force, when G decreases. With respect to the Couette-dominant regime, the behavior is similar to that of a simple shear flow with the exception that a slightly higher concentration of particles is observed near the lower wall. However, with respect to the intermediate value of G, several layers of highly ordered particles are unexpectedly observed near the lower wall where the plane of maximum concentration is located. The locally ordered structure is mainly due to the lateral migration of particles and wall confinement. The suspended particles migrate toward a vanishingly small shear rate at the wall, and they are consequently layered into highly ordered two-dimensional structures at the high local volume fraction.

  6. Size, velocity, and concentration in suspension measurements of spherical droplets and cylindrical jets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofri, F; Bergougnoux, L; Firpo, J L; Misguich-Ripault, J

    1999-07-20

    The principle of an optical technique for simultaneous velocity, size, and concentration in suspension measurements of spherical droplets and cylindrical jets is proposed. This technique is based on phase Doppler anemometry working in the dual burst technique configuration. The particle size and velocity are deduced from the reflected signal phase and frequency, whereas the amplitude ratio between the refracted and the reflected signals is used for measuring the concentration of small scatterers inside the particles. Numerical simulations, based on geometrical optics and a Monte Carlo model, and an experimental validation test on cylindrical jets made of various suspensions, are used to validate the principle of the proposed technique. It is believed that this new technique could be useful in investigating processes in which liquid suspensions are sprayed for surface coating, drying, or combustion applications.

  7. Coal flotation - bench-scale study. Flotacao de carvao estudo em escala de bancada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, A.R. de; Almeida, S L.M. de; Santos, A.T. dos

    1979-01-01

    Run-of-mine coal and pre-washed coal from Santa Catarina, Brazil, were characterized using washability curves and by particle size analysis after crushing. Bench-scale froth flotation tests were then conducted with the pre-washed coal. Kerosene and diesel oil were used as the collectors, and pine oil as the frother. The influence of starch (as depressor) on flotation was also studied. The effects of feed particle size, pH, collector addition, frother addition, depressor addition and flotation time were investigated. A 9.5% ash content coal could be obtained with a mass recovery of about 29%. (17 refs.)

  8. Brownian dynamics simulations of an order-disorder transition in sheared sterically stabilized colloidal suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigos, A.A.; Wilemski, G.

    1992-01-01

    The shear thinning behavior of a sterically stabilized nonaqueous colloidal suspension was investigated using nonequilibrium Brownian dynamics simulations of systems with 108 and 256 particles. At a volume fraction of 0.4, the suspension is thixotropic: it has a reversible shear thinning transition from a disordered state to an ordered, lamellar state with triangularly packed strings of particles. The time scale for the transition is set by the free particle diffusion constant. For the smaller system, the transition occurs gradually with increasing shear rate. For the larger system, the transition is sharp and discontinuous shear thinning is found. 34 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  9. Burnout prediction using advance image analysis coal characterization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Lester; Dave Watts; Michael Cloke [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The link between petrographic composition and burnout has been investigated previously by the authors. However, these predictions were based on 'bulk' properties of the coal, including the proportion of each maceral or the reflectance of the macerals in the whole sample. Combustion studies relating burnout with microlithotype analysis, or similar, remain less common partly because the technique is more complex than maceral analysis. Despite this, it is likely that any burnout prediction based on petrographic characteristics will become more accurate if it includes information about the maceral associations and the size of each particle. Chars from 13 coals, 106-125 micron size fractions, were prepared using a Drop Tube Furnace (DTF) at 1300{degree}C and 200 millisecond and 1% Oxygen. These chars were then refired in the DTF at 1300{degree}C 5% oxygen and residence times of 200, 400 and 600 milliseconds. The progressive burnout of each char was compared with the characteristics of the initial coals. This paper presents an extension of previous studies in that it relates combustion behaviour to coals that have been characterized on a particle by particle basis using advanced image analysis techniques. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Burning characteristics and gaseous/solid emissions of blends of pulverized coal with waste tire-derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A.; Courtemanche, B.; Carlson, J.B. [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

    1998-10-01

    The combustion behaviour and the emissions from blends of a pulverized bituminous coal and ground waste automobile tires were investigated. Combustion took place under steady flow conditions, in an electrically-heated drop-tube furnace in air at a gas temperature of 1150{degree}C and a particle heating rate of approximate to 10{sup 5}{degree}C/s. Combustion observations were conducted with simultaneous pyrometry and cinematography. Interparticle flame interactions were visually observed in the near-stoichiometric and fuel-rich regions. Volatile flame interactions were apparent at a lower phi for tire crumb particles than for coal particles and became progressively more intense with increasing phi until at sufficiently high phi`s large group flames formed for tire particles. As particle flame interactions increased, average maximum temperatures in the flame decreased. Coal particles resisted the formation of group flames, even at high phi`s. Such observations correlated with the trends observed for the PAH emissions of the two fuels, those of tire crumb being much higher than those of coal Some stratification in the combustion of blends of particles of the two fuels was observed. This kept the PAH emissions lower levels than expected. NO{sub x} emissions from tires were much lower than those of coal, while those of the blends were close to the weighted average emissions. SO{sub 2} emissions from the blends were close to the weighted average emissions of the two fuels. Blending coal with tire reduced the CO{sub 2} emissions of coal but increased the CO emissions. Particulate emissions (soot and ash), measured in the range of 0.4 to 8{mu}m, increased with phi. Generally, tire produced more mass of submicron particulates than coal. Particulate emissions of blends of the two fuels were close to those expected based on weighted average of the two fuels.

  11. Electrorheological suspensions of laponite in oil: rheometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, K P S; Méheust, Y; Schjelderupsen, Børge; Fossum, J O

    2008-03-04

    We have studied the effect of an external direct current (DC) electric field ( approximately 1 kV/mm) on the rheological properties of colloidal suspensions consisting of aggregates of laponite particles in a silicone oil. Microscopy observations show that, under application of an electric field greater than a triggering electric field Ec approximately 0.6 kV/mm, laponite aggregates assemble into chain- and/or columnlike structures in the oil. Without an applied electric field, the steady-state shear behavior of such suspensions is Newtonian-like. Under application of an electric field larger than Ec, it changes dramatically as a result of the changes in the microstructure: a significant yield stress is measured, and under continuous shear the fluid is shear-thinning. The rheological properties, in particular the dynamic and static shear stress, were studied as a function of particle volume fraction for various strengths (including null) of the applied electric field. The flow curves at constant shear rate can be scaled with respect to both the particle fraction and electric field strength onto a master curve. This scaling is consistent with simple scaling arguments. The shape of the master curve accounts for the system's complexity; it approaches a standard power-law model at high Mason numbers. Both dynamic and static yield stresses are observed to depend on the particle fraction Phi and electric field E as PhibetaEalpha, with alpha approximately 1.85 and beta approximately 1 and 1.70 for the dynamic and static yield stresses, respectively. The yield stress was also determined as the critical stress at which there occurs a bifurcation in the rheological behavior of suspensions that are submitted to a constant shear stress; a scaling law with alpha approximately 1.84 and beta approximately 1.70 was obtained. The effectiveness of the latter technique confirms that such electrorheological (ER) fluids can be studied in the framework of thixotropic fluids. The method

  12. Co-combustion of peanut hull and coal blends: Artificial neural networks modeling, particle swarm optimization and Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukada, Musa

    2016-09-01

    Co-combustion of coal and peanut hull (PH) were investigated using artificial neural networks (ANN), particle swarm optimization, and Monte Carlo simulation as a function of blend ratio, heating rate, and temperature. The best prediction was reached by ANN61 multi-layer perception model with a R(2) of 0.99994. Blend ratio of 90 to 10 (PH to coal, wt%), temperature of 305°C, and heating rate of 49°Cmin(-1) were determined as the optimum input values and yield of 87.4% was obtained under PSO optimized conditions. The validation experiments resulted in yields of 87.5%±0.2 after three replications. Monte Carlo simulations were used for the probabilistic assessments of stochastic variability and uncertainty associated with explanatory variables of co-combustion process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A review on effluent generation in coal mines and its treatment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, R.; Karmakar, N.C.; Gupta, S. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India)

    2008-07-01

    The waste water of coal washeries, coal handling plants, workshops and overburden runoff of a coal mine contains a high concentration of suspended fine particles which usually remain after treatment in sedimentation tanks. The study on the performance characteristics of different coagulants shows that the turbidity removal efficiency depends much on the characteristics of the effluent and combined coagulants perform better than individuals. The various sources of generation of effluent and their treatment methods are discussed. It is suggested that the mine owners should consider the mine effluent as a rich source of both fine particles of coal and precious water. The coal particles are of high grade and may be used in coke preparation and water may be reused in mine to avoid the extra cost for water. The effluent treatment methods are required to be studied properly, so that less consumption of chemicals will be possible. If polyelectrolyte is used along with the other coagulants, the clarification performance will be improved. The best combination of chemicals are selected and practiced in mines. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. The marriage of gas turbines and coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajura, R.A.; Webb, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on developing gas turbine systems that can use coal or a coal-based fuel ensures that the United States will have cost-effective environmentally sound options for supplying future power generation needs. Power generation systems that marry coal or a coal-based fuel to a gas turbine? Some matchmakers would consider this an unlikely marriage. Historically, most gas turbines have been operated only on premium fuels, primarily natural gas or distillate oil. The perceived problems from using coal or coal-based fuels in turbines are: Erosion and deposition: Coal ash particles in the hot combustion gases passing through the expander turbine could erode or deposit on the turbine blades. Corrosion: Coal combustion will release alkali compounds form the coal ash. Alkali in the hot gases passing through the expander turbine can cause corrosion of high-temperature metallic surfaces. Emissions: coal contains higher levels of ash, fuel-bound sulfur and nitrogen compounds, and trace contaminants than premium fuels. Meeting stringent environmental regulations for particulates, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and trace contaminants will be difficult. Economics: Coal-based systems are expensive to build. The difference in price between coal and premium fuels must be large enough to justify the higher capital cost

  15. Active and Nonlinear Microrheology of Dense Colloidal Suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Harrer, Christian Josef

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated active and nonlinear microrheology of dense colloidal suspensions, i.e., the forced motion of a singled-out tracer particle by an external force, both in the framework of MCT and via event-driven Brownian Dynamics simulations.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Coal Dust Wettability Based on Surface Contact Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wettability is one of the key chemical properties of coal dust, which is very important to dedusting. In this paper, the theory of liquid wetting solid was presented firstly; then, taking the gas coal of Xinglongzhuang coal mine in China as an example, by determination of critical surface tension of coal piece, it can be concluded that only when the surface tension of surfactant solution is less than 45 mN/m can the coal sample be fully wetted. Due to the effect of particle dispersity, compared with the contact angle of milled coal particle, not all the contact angles of screened coal powder with different sizes have a tendency to increase. Furthermore, by the experiments of coal samples’ specific surface areas and porosities, it can be achieved that the volume of single-point total pore decreases with the gradual decreasing of coal’s porosity, while the ultramicropores’ dispersities and multipoint BET specific surface areas increase. Besides, by a series of contact angle experiments with different surfactants, it can be found that with the increasing of porosity and the decreasing of volume percentage of ultramicropore, the contact angle tends to reduce gradually and the coal dust is much easier to get wetted.

  17. On the hindered settling of suspensions of mud and mud-sand mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, P.J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions are present in many natural environments. When the concentration becomes large enough, particles start to interfere with each other and their settling velocity reduces. This is called hindered settling. As a result of the reduced settling velocity, particles remain in

  18. Particulate behavior in a controlled-profile pulverized coal-fired reactor: A study of coupled turbulent particle dispersion and thermal radiation transport. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, M.; Webb, B.W.

    1996-06-01

    To aid in the evaluation and development of advanced coal-combustion models, comprehensive experimental data sets are needed containing information on both the condensed and gas phases. To address this need a series of test were initiated on a 300 kW laboratory-scale, coal-fired reactor at a single test condition using several types of instrumentation. Data collected on the reactor during the course of the test includes: gas, particle, and wall temperature profiles; radiant, total, and convective heat fluxes to the walls; particle size and velocity profiles; transmission measurements; and gas species concentrations. Solid sampling was also performed to determine carbon and total burnout. Along with the extensive experimental measurements, the particle dispersion and radiation submodels in the ACERC comprehensive 2D code were studied in detail and compared to past experimental measurements taken in the CPR. In addition to the presentation and discussion of the experimental data set, a detailed description of the measurement techniques used in collecting the data, including a discussion of the error associated with each type of measurement, is given.

  19. Examination of flame length for burning pulverized coal in laminar flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Dong; Kim, Gyu Bo; Chang, Young June; Song, Ju Hun; Jeon, Chung Hwan [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Because there has been a recent increase in the use of low calorific coal compared to standard coal, it is crucial to control the char flame length governing the burning life-time of coal in a coal-fired utility boiler. The main objective of this study is to develop a simplified model that can theoretically predict the flame length for burning coal in a laboratory-scale entrained laminar flow reactor (LFR) system. The char burning behavior was experimentally observed when sub-bituminous pulverized coal was fed into the LFR under burning conditions similar to those in a real boiler: a heating rate of 1000 K/s, an oxygen molar fraction of 7.7 %, and reacting flue gas temperatures ranging from 1500 to 2000 K. By using the theoretical model developed in this study, the effect of particle size on the coal flame length was exclusively addressed. In this model, the effect of particle mass was eliminated to compare with the experimental result performed under a constant mass feeding of coal. Overall, the computed results for the coal flame length were in good agreement with the experimental data, particularly when the external oxygen diffusion effect was considered in the model

  20. Examination of flame length for burning pulverized coal in laminar flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Dong; Kim, Gyu Bo; Chang, Young June; Song, Ju Hun; Jeon, Chung Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Because there has been a recent increase in the use of low calorific coal compared to standard coal, it is crucial to control the char flame length governing the burning life-time of coal in a coal-fired utility boiler. The main objective of this study is to develop a simplified model that can theoretically predict the flame length for burning coal in a laboratory-scale entrained laminar flow reactor (LFR) system. The char burning behavior was experimentally observed when sub-bituminous pulverized coal was fed into the LFR under burning conditions similar to those in a real boiler: a heating rate of 1000 K/s, an oxygen molar fraction of 7.7 %, and reacting flue gas temperatures ranging from 1500 to 2000 K. By using the theoretical model developed in this study, the effect of particle size on the coal flame length was exclusively addressed. In this model, the effect of particle mass was eliminated to compare with the experimental result performed under a constant mass feeding of coal. Overall, the computed results for the coal flame length were in good agreement with the experimental data, particularly when the external oxygen diffusion effect was considered in the model

  1. A study of the effect of certain formulation variables on the mucoadhesive properties of per oral sucralfate suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrozsi, Douglas Joseph

    1999-10-01

    The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of formulation variables on the ability of a suspension of the material sucralfate to be triggered to gel by components of the gastrointestinal fluid and in so doing, act as an in situ gelling mucoadhesive liquid. The particle size and type of sucralfate raw material, suspension pH, ionic strength, and presence of the humectant suspension aid glycerin were studied. Sucralfate materials were prepared in sizes ranging from under 50 nanometers up to 60 microns. Included were conventional powders, and a gel form prepared by controlled precipitation from acid solution. Sucralfate zero point of charge was determined by titration to be pH 4.8--4.9 for powder, and 5--5.3 for gel. The gel was found to exist as aggregates of a relatively uniform, spherical, nanoparticulate colloidal sol with particle size in the range of 50 to 400 nanometers. The aggregates could be disrupted by high pressure homogenization so that individual colloidal particles could be detected in water dispersion. Rheologic and mucoadhesion evaluations of suspensions were conducted. Models were established for in vitro mucoadhesion by rheologic synergism with mucin, and for mucosal coating and retention on rat esophagus ex vivo. Experiments with marketed sucralfate suspensions indicated that rheologic synergism with gastric mucin correlated with ex vivo mucoretention and agreed directionally with published human mucoretention. Aqueous suspension viscosity was found to be increased by KCl, by increasing sucralfate concentration, and for the gel by adjusting pH near the zero point of charge. Viscosity also increased with decreasing sucralfate particle size but rheologic synergism did not correlate with particle size. Glycerin increased rheologic synergism with mucin. Suspension viscosity and rheologic synergism were much greater under all conditions for sucralfate gel suspensions than for sucralfate powder suspensions. Disruption of gel

  2. Gastric cancer in coal miners: an hypothesis of coal mine dust causation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, T M; Whong, W Z; Ames, R G

    1983-10-01

    An hypothesis is proposed to explain the elevated incidence of gastric cancer among coal miners. Inhaled coal mine dust, especially the larger particles, is cleared from the lung and tracheobronchial tree by mucociliary function, swallowed, and introduced into the stomach. Organic and/or inorganic materials in the dust can undergo intra-gastric nitrosation and/or interaction with exogenous chemicals to form carcinogenic compounds which in turn may lead to precancerous lesions, which may subsequently develop into gastric cancer. This sequence of events, however, depends upon occupational exposures as well as life-style features and individual genetic predisposition.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 particles for non-cubic transparent ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaraju, D.; Durairajan, A.; Balaji, D.; Moorthy Babu, S.

    2013-02-01

    Monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 (KGW) particles were synthesized using polymeric metal complex sol-gel synthesis method. The derived particles were made as colloidal suspension form for better rotation of particles to have optimum response for applied magnetic field. The KGW fine particle suspension was prepared using electrostatic repulsion by electrolyte polymer. Prepared suspension was kept at 2 T and particles were settled using electrophoretic sedimentation using pH adjustment. The derived sediment was dried at 100 °C and the properties were characterized using XRD.

  4. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.

    1991-12-30

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the kinetics-assisted design, synthesis and characterization of fme-pardcle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. The goal is to develop a fundamental understanding of coal catalysis and catalysts that will, in turn, allow for the specification of a novel optimal catalyst for coal liquefaction.

  5. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a coal slurry from waste streams using Illinois coal that is ideally suited for a gasification feed. The principle items to be studied are (1) methods of concentrating pyrite and decreasing other ash forming minerals into a high grade gasification feed using froth flotation and gravity separation techniques; (2) chemical and particle size analyses of coal slurries; (3) determination of how that slurry can be densified and to what degree of densification is optimum from the pumpability and combustibility analyses; and (4) reactivity studies.

  6. Fuel briquettes from brown coals of Yakutia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.A. Nikolaeva; V.G. Latyshev; O.N. Burenina [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Oil and Gas Problems

    2009-04-15

    Experimental data on the development of technology for the manufacture of briquetted fuel from brown coals with the use of various petroleum binders are presented. The influence of the moisture content, the coal particle-size composition, the binder type and concentration, the compacting pressure, and heat treatment regimes on the mechanical properties of the materials was studied. The optimal compositions and optimal values of the engineering parameters for the production of graded briquetted fuel from brown coals of the Kangalassy deposit in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) were established.

  7. Coal pyrolysis and char burnout under conventional and oxy-fuel conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Makhadmeh, L.; Maier, J.; Scheffknecht, G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    2009-07-01

    Coal utilization processes such as combustion or gasification generally involve several steps i.e., the devolatilization of organic materials, homogeneous reactions of volatile matter with the reactant gases, and heterogeneous reactions of the solid (char) with the reactant gases. Most of the reported work about coal pyrolysis and char burnout were performed at low temperatures under environmental conditions related to the air firing process with single particle tests. In this work, coal combustion under oxy-fuel conditions is investigated by studying coal pyrolysis and char combustion separately in practical scales, with the emphasis on improving the understanding of the effect of a CO{sub 2}-rich gas environment on coal pyrolysis and char burnout. Two coals, Klein Kopje a medium volatile bituminous coal and a low-rank coal, Lausitz coal were used. Coal pyrolysis in CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} environments were performed for both coals at different temperatures in an entrained flow reactor. Overall mass release, pyrolysis gas concentrations, and char characterization were performed. For char characterization ultimate analysis, particle size, and BET surface area were measured. Chars for both coals were collected at 1150 C in both CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} environments. Char combustion was performed in a once-through 20 kW test facility in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} atmospheres. Besides coal quality, oxygen partial pressure was chosen as a variable to study the effect of the gas environment on char burnout. In general, it is found that the CO{sub 2} environment and coal rank have a significant effect on coal pyrolysis and char burnout. (orig.)

  8. Average stress in a Stokes suspension of disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    The ensemble-average velocity and pressure in an unbounded quasi-random suspension of disks (or aligned cylinders) are calculated in terms of average multipoles allowing for the possibility of spatial nonuniformities in the system. An expression for the stress due to the suspended particles is

  9. Suspension feeding in adult Nephrops norvegicus (L.) and Homarus gammarus (L.) (decapoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Lars-Ove; Pihl Baden, Susanne; Ulmestrand, Mats

    Suspension feeding in adults of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (40-74 g) and the European lobster Homarus gammarus (280-350 g) was tested in experiments offering planktonic food items of different sizes from 200 to 600 μm and measuring the clearing capacity. Both lobster species were found to effectively clear water of food particles comprising nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina of about 600 μm in size. These were reduced to 50% of the initial concentration within 5 h and to 90% within 12 h. When N. norvegicus was offered food particles averaging 200 μm, a significant reduction in average size occurred, indicating that the minimum retention size is around 200 μm. Fluorescently dyed Artemia salina were recovered in the stomach and intestine of lobsters proving that the filtered particles are passed to the digestive tract. Results from other experiments, using the blood pigment (haemocyanin) concentration as an index of nutritional state, indicated that the lobsters can get some nutritional advantage from suspension feeding. Suspension feeding in larger decapods has not been described previously, so the significance of this finding is discussed with respect to changes in behavioural and ecological role.

  10. Characterization of a coal tailing deposit for zero waste mine in the Brazilian coal field of Santa Catarina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral Filho, J.R.; Schneider, I.A.H.; Tubino, R.M.C.; Brum de, I.A.S.; Miltzarek, G.; Sampaio, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Coal tailings deposits in Brazil are occupying large areas of land while also generating acid mine drainage (AMD) that includes heavy metals. This paper described an analytical study of a typical coal tailings deposit. The study objective was to separate low density, intermediate density, and high density fractions for future reuse. Particle size analysis, disymmetric studies, X-ray diffraction, and tests conducted to determine ash, total sulphur, and acid bases were conducted in order to characterize the coal tailings samples. Results of the study demonstrated a size distribution of 67 percent coarse, 14 percent fine, and 19 percent ultra-fine particles. The gravimetric concentration method was used to recover 34.2 percent of the total deposit for future energy use. Approximately 9.2 percent of the remaining deposit was a pyrite concentrate. The acid generating potential of the remaining materials was reduced by approximately 60 percent. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  11. Fluid Dynamics of Pressurized, Entrained Coal Gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Pressurized, entrained gasification is a promising new technology for the clean and efficient combustion of coal. Its principle is to operate a coal gasifier at a high inlet gas velocity to increase the inflow of reactants, and at an elevated pressure to raise the overall efficiency of the process. Unfortunately, because of the extraordinary difficulties involved in performing measurements in hot, pressurized, high-velocity pilot plants, its fluid dynamics are largely unknown. Thus the designer cannot predict with certainty crucial phenomena like erosion, heat transfer and solid capture. In this context, we are conducting a study of the fluid dynamics of Pressurized Entrained Coal Gasifiers (PECGs). The idea is to simulate the flows in generic industrial PECGs using dimensional similitude. To this end, we employ a unique entrained gas-solid flow facility with the flexibility to recycle--rather than discard--gases other than air. By matching five dimensionless parameters, suspensions in mixtures of helium, carbon dioxide and sulfur hexafluoride simulate the effects of pressure and scale-upon the fluid dynamics of PECGs. Because it operates under cold, atmospheric conditions, the laboratory facility is ideal for detailed measurements

  12. Rockburst Disaster Prediction of Isolated Coal Pillar by Electromagnetic Radiation Based on Frictional Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongbin; Yin, Yanchun; Xiao, Fukun; Tan, Yunliang; Zou, Jianchao

    2014-01-01

    Based on the understanding that charges generated during coal cracking are due to coal particle friction, a microstructure model was developed by considering four different variation laws of friction coefficient. Firstly, the frictional energy release of coal sample during uniaxial compressive tests was investigated and discussed. Then electromagnetic radiation method was used to predict the potential rockburst disaster in isolated coal pillar mining face, Muchengjian Colliery. The results indicate that the friction coefficient of coal particles decreases linearly with the increase of axial loading force. In predicting the strain-type rockburst, the high stress state of coal must be closely monitored. Field monitoring shows that electromagnetic radiation signal became abnormal before the occurrence of rockburst during isolated coal pillar mining. Furthermore, rockburst tends to occur at the early and ending stages of isolated coal pillar extraction. Mine-site investigation shows the occurrence zone of rockburst is consistent with the prediction, proving the reliability of the electromagnetic radiation method to predict strain-type rockburst disaster. PMID:25054186

  13. Rockburst Disaster Prediction of Isolated Coal Pillar by Electromagnetic Radiation Based on Frictional Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongbin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the understanding that charges generated during coal cracking are due to coal particle friction, a microstructure model was developed by considering four different variation laws of friction coefficient. Firstly, the frictional energy release of coal sample during uniaxial compressive tests was investigated and discussed. Then electromagnetic radiation method was used to predict the potential rockburst disaster in isolated coal pillar mining face, Muchengjian Colliery. The results indicate that the friction coefficient of coal particles decreases linearly with the increase of axial loading force. In predicting the strain-type rockburst, the high stress state of coal must be closely monitored. Field monitoring shows that electromagnetic radiation signal became abnormal before the occurrence of rockburst during isolated coal pillar mining. Furthermore, rockburst tends to occur at the early and ending stages of isolated coal pillar extraction. Mine-site investigation shows the occurrence zone of rockburst is consistent with the prediction, proving the reliability of the electromagnetic radiation method to predict strain-type rockburst disaster.

  14. Simulations of magnetorheological suspensions in Poiseuille flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, Yannis; Klingenberg, Daniel J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Madison, WI (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Particle-level simulations are conducted to study magnetorheological fluids in plane Poiseuille flow. The importance of the boundary conditions for the particles at the channel walls is examined by considering two extreme cases: no friction and infinite coefficient of friction. The inclusion of friction produces Bingham fluid behavior, as commonly observed experimentally for MR suspensions. Lamellar structures, similar to those reported for electrorheological fluids in shear flow, are observed in the post-yield region for both particle boundary conditions. The formation of these lamellae is accompanied by an increase in the bulk fluid velocity. The slip boundary condition produces higher fluid velocities and thicker lamellar structures. (orig.)

  15. Sedimentation in Particulate Aqueous Suspensions as studied by means of Dielectric Time Domain Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Bjoernar Hauknes

    1997-12-31

    Many problems in offshore oil production and multiphase transport are related to surface and colloid chemistry. This thesis applies dielectric spectroscopy as an experimental technique to study the behaviour of particle suspensions in polar media. The thesis opens with an introduction to suspensions and time domain dielectric spectroscopy. It then investigates the dielectric properties of silica and alumina dispersed in polar solvents. It is found that theoretical models can be used to calculate the volume fraction disperse phase in the suspension and that the particle sedimentation depends on the wetting of the particles, charge on the particle surface and viscosity of the solvent, and that this dependency can be measured by time domain dielectric spectroscopy. When the surface properties of silica and alumina particles were modified by coating them with a non-ionic polymer and a non-ionic surfactant, then different degrees of packing in the sedimented phase at the bottom of the sedimentation vessel occurred. Chemometrical methods on the synthesis of monodisperse silica particles were used to investigate what factors influence the particle size. It turned out that it is insufficient to consider only main variables when discussing the results of the synthesis. By introducing interaction terms, the author could explain the variation in the size of particles synthesized. The difference in the sedimentation rate of monodisperse silica particles upon variation of volume fraction particles, pH, salinity, amount of silanol groups at the particle surface and temperature was studied. The cross interactions play an important role and a model explaining the variation in sedimentation is introduced. Finally, magnetic particles dispersed in water and in an external magnetic field were used to study the impact on the sedimentation due to the induced flocculation. 209 refs., 90 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. A 2D suspension of active agents: the role of fluid mediated interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behmadi, Hojjat; Najafi, Ali; Fazli, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Taking into account both the Vicsek short-range ordering and the far-field hydrodynamic interactions mediated by the ambient fluid, we investigate the role of long-range interactions in the ordering phenomena in a quasi 2-dimensional active suspension. By studying the number fluctuations, the velocity correlation functions and cluster size distribution function, we show that depending on the number density of swimmers and the strength of noise, the hydrodynamic interactions can have significant effects in a suspension. For a fixed value of noise, at larger density of particles, long-range interactions enhance the particle pairing and cluster formation in the system. (paper)

  17. Characterization of a new Hencken burner with a transition from a reducing-to-oxidizing environment for fundamental coal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeosun, Adewale; Huang, Qian; Li, Tianxiang; Gopan, Akshay; Wang, Xuebin; Li, Shuiqing; Axelbaum, Richard L.

    2018-02-01

    In pulverized coal burners, coal particles usually transition from a locally reducing environment to an oxidizing environment. The locally reducing environment in the near-burner region is due to a dense region of coal particles undergoing devolatilization. Following this region, the particles move into an oxidizing environment. This "reducing-to-oxidizing" transition can influence combustion processes such as ignition, particulate formation, and char burnout. To understand these processes at a fundamental level, a system is required that mimics such a transition. Hence, we have developed and characterized a two-stage Hencken burner to evaluate the effect of the reducing-to-oxidizing transition and particle-to-particle interaction (which characterizes dense region of coal particles) on ignition and ultrafine aerosol formation. The two-stage Hencken burner allows coal particles to experience a reducing environment followed by a transition to an oxidizing environment. This work presents the results of the design and characterization of the new two-stage Hencken burner and its new coal feeder. In a unique approach to the operation of the flat-flame of the Hencken burner, the flame configurations are operated as either a normal flame or inverse flame. Gas temperatures and oxygen concentrations for the Hencken burner are measured in reducing-to-oxidizing and oxidizing environments. The results show that stable flames with well-controlled conditions, relatively uniform temperatures, and species concentrations can be achieved in both flame configurations. This new Hencken burner provides an effective system for evaluating the effect of the reducing-to-oxidizing transition and particle-to-particle interaction on early-stage processes of coal combustion such as ignition and ultrafine particle formation.

  18. Comparison of techniques for the determination of conversion during suspension polymerization reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of conversion during suspension polymerization reactions is not an easy task due to the heterogeneity of the reaction medium and the tendency of particles to agglomerate rapidly when stirring is stopped. Usually, bulk polymerization in ampoules is employed to study the kinetics of suspension polymerization reactions. In this work, a comparison of different techniques for the determination of conversion during suspension polymerization reactions is presented. Results showed a good agreement between the conversion obtained by gravimetry during styrene suspension polymerization and on-line conversion monitoring data using fiber-optic based Raman Spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the polymerization rate of styrene bulk polymerization carried out in ampoules was higher than the real reaction rate of styrene suspension polymerization due to slightly higher reaction temperatures. Simulation results using the experimental temperature data in a mathematical model confirmed these results.

  19. Pattern formation by dewetting and evaporating sedimenting suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibi, M.; Moller, P.; Fall, A.; Rafaï, S.; Bonn, D.

    2012-01-01

    Pattern formation from drying droplets containing sedimenting particles and dewetting of thin films of such suspensions was studied. The dewetting causes the formation of finger-like patterns near the contact line which leave behind a deposit of branches. We find that the strikingly low speed of

  20. How Confinement-Induced Structures Alter the Contribution of Hydrodynamic and Short-Ranged Repulsion Forces to the Viscosity of Colloidal Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Ramaswamy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Confined systems ranging from the atomic to the granular are ubiquitous in nature. Experiments and simulations of such atomic and granular systems have shown a complex relationship between the microstructural arrangements under confinement, the short-ranged particle stresses, and flow fields. Understanding the same correlation between structure and rheology in the colloidal regime is important due to the significance of such suspensions in industrial applications. Moreover, colloidal suspensions exhibit a wide range of structures under confinement that could considerably modify such force balances and the resulting viscosity. Here, we use a combination of experiments and simulations to elucidate how confinement-induced structures alter the relative contributions of hydrodynamic and short-range repulsive forces to produce up to a tenfold change in the viscosity. In the experiments we use a custom-built confocal rheoscope to image the particle configurations of a colloidal suspension while simultaneously measuring its stress response. We find that as the gap decreases below 15 particle diameters, the viscosity first decreases from its bulk value, shows fluctuations with the gap, and then sharply increases for gaps below 3 particle diameters. These trends in the viscosity are shown to strongly correlate with the suspension microstructure. Further, we compare our experimental results to those from two different simulations techniques, which enables us to determine the relative contributions of hydrodynamic and short-range repulsive stresses to the suspension rheology. The first method uses the lubrication approximation to find the hydrodynamic stress and includes a short-range repulsive force between the particles while the second is a Stokesian dynamics simulation that calculates the full hydrodynamic stress in the suspension. We find that the decrease in the viscosity at moderate confinements has a significant contribution from both the

  1. Microchip Coulter particle counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik Darling; Blankenstein, Gert; Branebjerg, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a micro device employing the Coulter principle for counting and sizing of living cells and particles in liquid suspension. The microchip Coulter particle counter (μCPC) has been employed in a planar silicon structure covered with glass, which enables detailed observation during...

  2. Modeling of the flame propagation in coal-dust- methane air mixture in an enclosed sphere volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krainov, A Yu; Moiseeva, K M

    2016-01-01

    The results of the numerical simulation of the flame front propagation in coal-dust- methane-air mixture in an enclosed volume with the ignition source in the center of the volume are presented. The mathematical model is based on a dual-velocity two-phase model of the reacting gas-dispersion medium. The system of equations includes the mass-conversation equation, the impulse-conversation equation, the total energy-conversation equation of the gas and particles taking into account the thermal conductivity and chemical reactions in the gas and on the particle surface, mass-conversation equation of the mixture gas components considering the diffusion and the burn-out and the particle burn-out equation. The influence of the coal particle mass on the pressure in the volume after the mixture burn out and on the burn-out time has been investigated. It has been shown that the burning rate of the coal-dust methane air mixtures depends on the coal particle size. (paper)

  3. Coal-char combustion in a fluidised bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrotra, S.P.; Pande, M. [Indian Institute of Technolgy, Kanpur (India)

    2001-12-01

    Combustion of bituminous coal chars ranging from 0.8 mm to 1.8 mm has been studied in a fluidised bed reactor at temperatures ranging from 500 to 850{sup o}C. The fluidised bed consists of inert sand particles of average size of 0.5 mm and reactive coal char particles. A heat balance has been worked out to calculate the rate of combustion of char from measured incremental changes in the bed temperature during combustion. Investigations on partially burnt particles suggest that the ash layer which builds up around the burning core of char particles is non-flaking and the particles burn in a shrinking core manner. Analysis of rate data indicates that the rate of combustion is controlled by chemical reaction kinetics, though diffusion of oxygen through the bundary layer begins to influence the overall reaction kinetics at higher temperatures. The burnt out time varies linearly with particle size. Activation energy for the chemical reaction control regime is found to be around 68 kJ/mole.

  4. Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process; Kanshiki sentaku to coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Z; Morikawa, M; Fujii, Y [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Because the wet process has a problem such as waste water treatment, coal cleaning in the dry process was discussed. When a fluidized bed (using glass beads and calcium carbonate) is utilized instead of the heavy liquid, the fluidized bed will have apparent density as the liquid does, whereas the relative relationship therewith determines whether a substance having been put into the fluidized bed will float or sink. This is utilized for coals. In addition, two powder constituents of A and B may be wanted to be separated using the fluidized extraction process (similar to the liquid-liquid extraction process). In such a case, a fluidized bed in which both constituents are mixed is added with a third constituent C (which will not mix with A, but mix well with B), where the constituents are separated into A and (B + C), and the (B + C) constituent is separated further by using a sieve. If coal has the coal content mixed with ash content and pulverized, it turns into particle groups which have distributions in grain size and density. Groups having higher density may contain more ash, and those having lower density less ash. In addition, the ash content depends also on the grain size. The ash content may be classified by using simultaneously wind classification (for density and grain size) and a sieve (for grain size). This inference may be expanded to consideration of constructing a multi-stage fluidized bed classification tower. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Method for processing coal-enrichment waste with solid and volatile fuel inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanova, A. V.; Zhirgalova, T. B.; Osintsev, K. V.

    2017-10-01

    The method relates to the field of industrial heat and power engineering. It can be used in coal preparation plants for processing coal waste. This new way is realized to produce a loose ash residue directed to the production of silicate products and fuel gas in rotary kilns. The proposed method is associated with industrial processing of brown coal beneficiation waste. Waste is obtained by flotation separation of rock particles up to 13 mm in size from coal particles. They have in their composition both solid and volatile fuel inclusions (components). Due to the high humidity and significant rock content, low heat of combustion, these wastes are not used on energy boilers, they are stored in dumps polluting the environment.

  6. Direct measurement of wall slip and slip layer thickness of non-Brownian hard-sphere suspensions in rectangular channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesinghausen, Steffen; Weiffen, Rene; Schmid, Hans-Joachim

    2016-09-01

    Wall slip is a long-known phenomenon in the field of rheology. Nevertheless, the origin and the evolution are not completely clear yet. Regarding suspensions, the effect becomes even more complicated, because different mechanisms like pure slip or slip due to particle migration have to be taken into account. Furthermore, suspensions themselves show many flow anomalies and the isolation of slip is complicated. In order to develop working physical models, further insight is necessary. In this work, we measured experimentally the wall slip velocities of different highly filled suspensions in a rectangular slit die directly with respect to the particle concentration and the particle size. The slip velocities were obtained using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. The suspensions consisting of a castor oil-cinnamon oil blend and PMMA particles were matched in terms of refractive indexes to appear transparent. Hereby, possible optical path lengths larger than 15 mm were achieved. The slip velocities were found to be in a quadratic relation to the wall shear stress. Furthermore, the overall flow rate as well as the particle concentration has a direct influence on the slip. Concerning the shear stress, there seem to be two regions of slip with different physical characteristics. Furthermore, we estimated the slip layer thickness directly from the velocity profiles and propose a new interpretation. The PIV technique is used to investigate the viscosity and implicit the concentration profile in the slit die. It is shown that the particle migration process is quite fast.

  7. Pyrolysis of superfine pulverized coal. Part 3. Mechanisms of nitrogen-containing species formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiaxun; Jiang, Xiumin; Shen, Jun; Zhang, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • NH 3 and NO formation mechanisms during superfine pulverized coal pyrolysis are investigated. • Influences of temperature, heating rate, particle size, atmosphere, and acid wash on the NH 3 and NO formation are analyzed. • Transformations of nitrogen-containing structures in coal/char during pyrolysis are recognized through XPS observation. • Relationships among nitrogen-containing gaseous species during pyrolysis are discussed. - Abstract: With more stringent regulations being implemented, elucidating the formation mechanisms of nitrogen-containing species during the initial pyrolysis step becomes important for developing new NO x control strategies. However, there is a lack of agreement on the origins of NO x precursors during coal pyrolysis, in spite of extensive investigations. Hence, it is important to achieve a more precise knowledge of the formation mechanisms of nitrogen-contain species during coal pyrolysis. In this paper, pyrolysis experiments of superfine pulverized coal were performed in a fixed bed at low heating rates. The influences of temperature, coal type, particle size and atmosphere on the NH 3 and NO evolution were discussed. There is a central theme to develop knowledge of the relationship between particle sizes and evolving behaviors of nitrogen-containing species. Furthermore, the catalytic role of inherent minerals in coal was proved to be effective on the partitioning of nitrogen during coal pyrolysis. In addition, the conversion pathways of heteroaromatic nitrogen structures in coal/char during pyrolysis were recognized through the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Large quantities of pyridinic and quanternary nitrogen functionalities were formed during the thermal degradation. Finally, the relationships among the nitrogen-containing gaseous species during coal pyrolysis were discussed. In brief, a comprehensive picture of the volatile-nitrogen partitioning during coal pyrolysis is obtained in this

  8. Voltammetry of metallic powder suspensions on mercury electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korshunov, A.; Heyrovský, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2006), s. 423-426 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA MPO 1H-PK/42 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : metallic particles * oxide layers * suspensions * mercury electrodes * particulate electrolysis Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2006

  9. Nanodispersed Suspensions of Zeolite Catalysts for Converting Dimethyl Ether into Olefins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnichenko, N. V.; Yashina, O. V.; Ezhova, N. N.; Bondarenko, G. N.; Khadzhiev, S. N.

    2018-01-01

    Nanodispersed suspensions that are effective in DME conversion and stable in the reaction zone in a three-phase system (slurry reactor) are obtained from MFI zeolite commercial samples (TsVM, IK-17-1, and CBV) in liquid media via ultrasonic treatment (UST). It is found that the dispersion medium, in which ultrasound affects zeolite commercial sample, has a large influence on particle size in the suspension. UST in the aqueous medium produces zeolite nanoparticles smaller than 50 nm, while larger particles of MFI zeolite samples form in silicone or hydrocarbon oils. Spectral and adsorption data show that when zeolites undergo UST in an aqueous medium, the acid sites are redistributed on the zeolite surface and the specific surface area of the mesopores increases. Preliminary UST in aqueous media of zeolite commercial samples (TsVM, IK-17-1, and CBV) affects the catalytic properties of MFI zeolite nanodispersed suspensions. The selectivity of samples when paraffins and olefins form is largely due to superacid sites consisting of OH groups of hydroxonium ion H3O+.

  10. Investigation of factors influencing the attrition breakage of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholzer, V.; van der Walt, J. [North West University, Mmabatho (South Africa). School of Chemical & Minerals Engineering

    2009-04-15

    The presence of fines (particles smaller than 6 mm in diameter) causes hydrodynamic problems in gasifiers and therefore it is of great importance to minimize the amount of fine coal in the feed. This serves as motivation for understanding coal's breakage mechanisms, which could lead to the ability to predict the generation of fines. The aim of this project was to simulate the pulsating effect of the conveyor belt in order to investigate factors influencing the breakage. Results indicated that an increased initial particle size had an increasing effect in the amount of fines generated. Weathering had an insignificant effect on the breakage of coal. To conclude, a breakage model was developed to describe the rate of breakage out of the top size when a combination of two breakage modes is present.

  11. Health impacts of coal: facts and fallacies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelman, R.B. [University of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Coal has contributed enormously to the advance of civilization by providing an abundant, inexpensive, and convenient source of energy. Concurrent with its contributions, coal has extracted a high cost in terms of environmental damage and human health impacts. Unfortunately, the links between coal use and human health are distorted by a great deal of ignorance and misinformation. This paper discusses the facts and fallacies of the direct health impacts caused by coal. These include health problems caused by arsenic, fluorine, mercury and selenium released in coal use in the residential sector. The trace element iodine however may help prevent iodine deficiency disorder. Lignite in the ground in some Balkan areas has been associated with a urinary tract cancer known as Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN). Uncontrolled burning coal seams and coal waste piles contribute to global warming and to respiratory problems. The 10-fold enrichment of trace elements in fly ash and the fine particles released from power plants could present a health threat but where good pollution control technology and disposal practices are applied the health threat is probably minimal. Radioactivity levels in coal are thought to be too low to cause concern. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 1, sections 1--5: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. [ed.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles? What determines their composition? Whether or not particles deposit? How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes? remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  13. Tribocharging in electrostatic beneficiation of coal: Effects of surface composition on work function as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigwell, S.; Mazumder, M.K.; Pellissier, R.

    2001-01-01

    The cleaning of coal by electrostatic beneficiation is based on tribocharging characteristics of pulverized coal particles with diameter smaller than 120 μm. The tribocharging process should be such that the organic coal particles must charge with a polarity opposite to that of the sulfur and the mineral containing particles so that coal can be separated from minerals by using a charge separator. However, the charge distribution of electrostatically separated coal particles indicates that coal exhibits bipolar charging. A significant fraction of the coal particles charges negatively which appears to be in conflict with expectations in that the organic coal particles should charge positively, and the mineral particles, present as impurities such as pyrite, charge negatively when tribocharged against copper. The relative work functions of the particles (coal and mineral) and that of the metal surface (copper or stainless steel) used for tribocharging predict these expected results. However, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) measurements in air on specimens of three different coal species, showed the work function to be approximately 5.4 eV, which is higher than a reported measured work function of 3.93 eV. Studies by UPS and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on copper, stainless steel, aluminum, and other commonly used tribocharging materials such as nylon and polytetrafluorethylene, as well as pure pyrite, showed that the work function varied considerably as a function of surface composition. Therefore, the reason for the bipolar charging of the coal particles may be the too small differences in work functions between coal powder and copper used as the charging material. The choice of a material for impaction triboelectric charging for coal or mineral separation should therefore depend upon the actual work function as modified by the ambient conditions such as moisture content and the oxidation of the surface

  14. Partitioning behaviour of natural radionuclides during combustion of coal in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Tiwari, M.; Bhangare, R.C.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    All fossil fuels contain low levels of naturally occurring radioactive substances. The environmental impact of radionuclide-containing waste products from coal combustion is an important issue. These radionuclides vaporize in the hot portions of the coal combustor and then return to the solid phase in cooler downstream zones. Indian coal used in power plants generally has high ash yield (35-45%) and is of low quality. In the burning process of coal, minerals undergo thermal decomposition, fusion, disintegration, and agglomeration. A major portion of elements in the boiler enter into slag or bottom ash, and the rest of the inorganic materials find their way into the flue gas, in fly ash or vapor. Fly and bottom ash are significant sources of exposure to these radionuclides. In the present study, coal and ash samples collected from six thermal power stations were analyzed to determine their natural radioactivity content and the partitioning behavior of these radionuclides was carried out by tracing their activities in fly and bottom ashes. The partitioning of radionuclides is strongly dependent on the size of associated ash particle. Polonium-210 was mostly associated with the finest fraction and showed large variation with particle size whereas 232 Th showed least dependence on the particle size. The high activities of all radionuclides in fly ashes than that of bottom ashes thus may be due to strong affinity of the nuclides towards the finer particle fractions. All the radionuclide distribution favored small particle sizes

  15. Granular-front formation in free-surface flow of concentrated suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Alessandro; Cabrera, Miguel; Wittel, Falk K.; Kaitna, Roland; Mendoza, Miller; Wu, Wei; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2015-11-01

    A granular front emerges whenever the free-surface flow of a concentrated suspension spontaneously alters its internal structure, exhibiting a higher concentration of particles close to its front. This is a common and yet unexplained phenomenon, which is usually believed to be the result of fluid convection in combination with particle size segregation. However, suspensions composed of uniformly sized particles also develop a granular front. Within a large rotating drum, a stationary recirculating avalanche is generated. The flowing material is a mixture of a viscoplastic fluid obtained from a kaolin-water dispersion with spherical ceramic particles denser than the fluid. The goal is to mimic the composition of many common granular-fluid materials, such as fresh concrete or debris flow. In these materials, granular and fluid phases have the natural tendency to separate due to particle settling. However, through the shearing caused by the rotation of the drum, a reorganization of the phases is induced, leading to the formation of a granular front. By tuning the particle concentration and the drum velocity, it is possible to control this phenomenon. The setting is reproduced in a numerical environment, where the fluid is solved by a lattice-Boltzmann method, and the particles are explicitly represented using the discrete element method. The simulations confirm the findings of the experiments, and provide insight into the internal mechanisms. Comparing the time scale of particle settling with the one of particle recirculation, a nondimensional number is defined, and is found to be effective in predicting the formation of a granular front.

  16. Colloidal approach to dispersion and enhanced deaggregation of aqueous ferrite suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandanas, Michael Patrick M.

    The role of solution and surface chemistry on deaggregation of calcined ferrites during attrition (stirred-media) milling of aqueous suspensions were investigated. Suspensions of commercially calcined Fe2O 3 powder (d50 ˜ 5.0 mum) were milled at different solid loadings and suspension pH. The drift of suspension pH, from pH 2.5 to pH 7.0, during solid loading experiments accounted for the observed reagglomeration with milling time. The observed deaggregation rates during pH stat milling, in the acidic region, can be related to (i) elevated solubility and (ii) enhanced dispersion via surface charge. Proton adsorption density during pH stat milling at different pH values is also comparable to existing potentiometric titration plots and can be related to deaggregation rates. A passivation-dispersion approach for dispersing manganese zinc ferrite (MnxZn(1 - x)Fe2O4) powder is presented. Addition of oxalic acid can help control dissolution reactions from particle surfaces and is subsequently dispersed with polyethyleneimine (PEI). Fully dissociated oxalic acid (pK1 = 1.2, pK2 = 4.3) solutions reacted with MnxZn(1 - x)Fe 2O4 leads to the formation of a uniform negative charge on the particle surface, resulting from the sparingly soluble salt formed on the surface. The resulting rheological data for passivation/dispersion of relatively high solid MnxZn(1 - x)Fe2O 4 suspensions (˜80 w/o, (˜40 v/o)) demonstrate improved colloid stability with improved rheological properties. Using the passivation dispersion scheme developed, deaggregation of commercially calcined MnxZn(1 - x)Fe2O4 powders during attrition milling was investigated. Reagglomeration is apparent when using a typical treatment, 2 w/w of a sulfonated based naphthalene condensate, during deaggregation of the calcined MnxZn(1 - x)Fe 2O4. However, is not observed for select oxalate/PEI treatments. The determined ideal treatment is 2 w/w oxalate and 3 w/w PEI based on the particle size and rheological

  17. Application of Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans in coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amini, E.; Hosseini, T.R.; Oliazadeh, M.; Kolahdoozan, M. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    Bioflotation is a potential method for removing pyritic sulphur from coal. Sodium cyanide is a well-known depressant for pyrite in flotation of sulphide minerals; however, for coal this reagent is unacceptable from the environmental point of view. This study investigates an alternate to sodium cyanide, Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans, a nonharmful bacterial reagent as a pyrite depressant. The flotation behavior of pyrite and other gangue particles using the sodium cyanide and the Ferrooxidans is compared by applying the general first-order flotation model. The kinetic parameters extracted from the model demonstrated that the modified flotation rate of pyrite was reduced, and the selectivity between coal and gangue was improved using the bacteria. These results indicate that Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans has potential in removing pyritic sulfur from coal.

  18. Elastic Modulus at High Frequency of Polymerically Stabilized Suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nommensen, P.A.; Duits, Michael H.G.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mellema, J.

    2000-01-01

    The elastic moduli of polymerically stabilized suspensions consisting of colloidal silica particles coated with endgrafted PDMS (Mn = 80 000) in heptane, were measured as a function of concentration. And the elastic modulus at high frequency G'.. was quantitatively described by model calculations

  19. Drying kinetics characteristic of Indonesia lignite coal (IBC) using lab scale fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, TaeJin; Jeon, DoMan; Namkung, Hueon; Jang, DongHa; Jeon, Youngshin; Kim, Hyungtaek [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Energy Systems Research

    2013-07-01

    Recent instability of energy market arouse a lot of interest about coal which has a tremendous amount of proven coal reserves worldwide. South Korea hold the second rank by importing 80 million tons of coal in 2007 following by Japan. Among various coals, there is disused coal. It's called Low Rank Coal (LRC). Drying process has to be preceded before being utilized as power plant. In this study, drying kinetics of LRC is induced by using a fixed bed reactor. The drying kinetics was deduced from particle size, the inlet gas temperature, the drying time, the gas velocity, and the L/D ratio. The consideration on Reynold's number was taken for correction of gas velocity, particle size, and the L/D ratio was taken for correction packing height of coal. It can be found that active drying of free water and phase boundary reaction is suitable mechanism through the fixed bed reactor experiments.

  20. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  1. Mineralogy and characterization of deposited particles of the aero sediments collected in the vicinity of power plants and the open pit coal mine: Kolubara (Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Željko; Logar, Mihovil; Rosić, Aleksandra

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, particular attention was paid to the presence of aerosol solid particles, which occurred mainly as a result of exploitation and coal combustion in the thermal power plants of the Kolubara basin. Not all of the particles created by this type of anthropogenic pollution have an equal impact on human health, but it largely depends on their size and shape. The mineralogical composition and particle size distribution in the samples of aero sediments were defined. The samples were collected close to the power plant and open pit coal mine, in the winter and summer period during the year 2007. The sampling was performed by using precipitators placed in eight locations within the territory of the Lazarevac municipality. In order to characterize the sedimentary particles, several methods were applied: microscopy, SEM-EDX and X-ray powder diffraction. The concentration of aero sediments was also determined during the test period. Variety in the mineralogical composition and particle size depends on the position of the measuring sites, geology of the locations, the annual period of collecting as well as possible interactions. By applying the mentioned methods, the presence of inhalational and respiratory particles variously distributed in the winter and in the summer period was established. The most common minerals are quartz and feldspar. The presence of gypsum, clay minerals, calcite and dolomite as secondary minerals was determined, as well as the participation of organic and inorganic amorphic matter. The presence of quartz as a toxic mineral has a particular impact on human health.

  2. Characterization of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) Variant Activation by Coal Fly Ash Particles and Associations with Altered Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) Expression and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering-Rice, Cassandra E; Stockmann, Chris; Romero, Erin G; Lu, Zhenyu; Shapiro, Darien; Stone, Bryan L; Fassl, Bernhard; Nkoy, Flory; Uchida, Derek A; Ward, Robert M; Veranth, John M; Reilly, Christopher A

    2016-11-25

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are activated by environmental particulate materials. We hypothesized that polymorphic variants of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) would be uniquely responsive to insoluble coal fly ash compared with the prototypical soluble agonist capsaicin. Furthermore, these changes would manifest as differences in lung cell responses to these agonists and perhaps correlate with changes in asthma symptom control. The TRPV1-I315M and -T469I variants were more responsive to capsaicin and coal fly ash. The I585V variant was less responsive to coal fly ash particles due to reduced translation of protein and an apparent role for Ile-585 in activation by particles. In HEK-293 cells, I585V had an inhibitory effect on wild-type TRPV1 expression, activation, and internalization/agonist-induced desensitization. In normal human bronchial epithelial cells, IL-8 secretion in response to coal fly ash treatment was reduced for cells heterozygous for TRPV1-I585V. Finally, both the I315M and I585V variants were associated with worse asthma symptom control with the effects of I315M manifesting in mild asthma and those of the I585V variant manifesting in severe, steroid-insensitive individuals. This effect may be due in part to increased transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) expression by lung epithelial cells expressing the TRPV1-I585V variant. These findings suggest that specific molecular interactions control TRPV1 activation by particles, differential activation, and desensitization of TRPV1 by particles and/or other agonists, and cellular changes in the expression of TRPA1 as a result of I585V expression could contribute to variations in asthma symptom control. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Transmission and fractionation of micro-sized particle suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brans, G.B.P.W.; Dinther, van A.M.C.; Odum, B.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    In processes aimed at the fractionation of a multi-component feed stream, transmission of particles through the membrane is at least as important as retention of larger particles. In this paper, we describe the mechanisms of transmission of mono-disperse latex particles through a polymer membrane.

  4. Administrative license suspension: Does length of suspension matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, James C; Scherer, Michael

    2017-08-18

    Administrative license revocation (ALR) laws, which provide that the license of a driver with a blood alcohol concentration at or over the illegal limit is subject to an immediate suspension by the state department of motor vehicles, are an example of a traffic law in which the sanction rapidly follows the offense. The power of ALR laws has been attributed to how swiftly the sanction is applied, but does the length of suspension matter? Our objectives were to (a) determine the relationship of the ALR suspension length to the prevalence of drinking drivers relative to sober drivers in fatal crashes and (b) estimate the extent to which the relationship is associated to the general deterrent effect compared to the specific deterrent effect of the law. Data comparing the impact of ALR law implementation and ALR law suspension periods were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques on the ratio of drinking drivers to nondrinking drivers in fatal crashes from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). States with an ALR law with a short suspension period (1-30 days) had a significantly lower drinking driver ratio than states with no ALR law. States with a suspension period of 91-180 days had significantly lower ratios than states with shorter suspension periods, while the three states with suspension lengths of 181 days or longer had significantly lower ratios than states with shorter suspension periods. The implementation of any ALR law was associated with a 13.1% decrease in the drinking/nondrinking driver fatal crash ratio but only a 1.8% decrease in the intoxicated/nonintoxicated fatal crash ratio. The ALR laws and suspension lengths had a significant general deterrent effect, but no specific deterrent effect. States might want to keep (or adopt) ALR laws for their general deterrent effects and pursue alternatives for specific deterrent effects. States with short ALR suspension periods should consider lengthening them to 91 days or longer.

  5. Dispersion of phyllosilicates in aqueous suspensions: role of the nature and amount of surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houta, Nadia; Lecomte-Nana, Gisèle-Laure; Tessier-Doyen, Nicolas; Peyratout, Claire

    2014-07-01

    The present work aims at investigating the effect of pH values and additives on the dispersion of two 1:1 dioctahedral phyllosilicates in the presence of water. Two model clays are used for this purpose, BIP kaolin and NZCC halloysite, presenting the same surface chemistry but different morphologies. The effect of sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium silicate and sodium carbonate is discussed. Kaolin and halloysite powders were first characterized using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, suspensions containing 8 mass% of each clay were prepared with or without additives. Experimental measurements regarding the pH values, the zeta potential and the rheological behavior were performed to determine the most suitable additive. Results show that the conformation of halloysite particles changes regarding pH values of suspensions and is strongly related to the surface charges of these particles. At their natural pH values, halloysite and kaolin suspensions exhibit zeta potentials equal to -50 and -20 mV respectively. This trend indicates that halloysite-based suspensions are well dispersed compared to kaolin-based suspensions. Sodium hexametaphosphate is the most suitable dispersant for both clays. The rheological characterization regarding further applications in casting process indicates a shear-thinning behavior for all studied compositions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between the physical stability of flurbiprofen suspension and the interaction of HPMC/SDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS has improved the physical stability of flurbiprofen (FBP suspension, which was suspended by 0.2% (w/v hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC, K4M. Therefore, the physical stability of FBP suspensions and the interaction of HPMC/SDS were studied, and a certain association between them was revealed. The anti-solvent precipitation method was used to prepare suspensions. The apparent drug concentration from different sites was evaluated to get the dispersion of drug actually. The process of flocculation and deflocculation with the addition of SDS was caught by analyzing the morphology of the suspended particles. The physical stability of the FBP suspensions was characterized mainly by measuring the re-dispersion time, the zeta potential and particle size. Meanwhile, conductivity measurements were carried out to obtain the characteristic concentrations of SDS in HPMC/SDS system. The viscosities, the abilities for improving the solubility and wettability of FBP in the separate and mixed HPMC/SDS solutions were also contrasted respectively. The suspensions prepared with HPMC/SDS possessed better physical stability. The suspensions were uniform when the concentration of SDS was between the critical adsorption concentration (CAC and the polymer saturation point (PSP. After PSP, the uniformity became worse and worse until the SDS was enough to form a deflocculation state. Besides, the re-dispersion time of FBP suspensions was longest when the concentration of SDS around CAC and shorter by shorter after the critical micelle concentration (CMC. The article provided a new sight on the relation between the interaction of excipient matrix and pharmaceutical preparations.

  7. Colloidal behavior of aqueous montmorillonite suspensions in the presence of non-ionic polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareche, M.; Azri, N.; Allal, A.; Zeraibi, N.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we characterized at first, the rheological behavior of the bentonite suspensions and the aqueous solutions of polyethylene oxide (PEO), then we were investigated the influence of this polymer in a water-based drilling fluid model (6% of bentonite suspension). The objective is to exhibit how the non ionic polymer with molecular weight 6×103 g/mol. of varying concentration mass (0.7%, 1%, 2% et 3%) significantly alter the rheological properties (yield stress, viscosity, loss and elastic modulus) of the bentonite suspensions. The rheological measurements made in simple shear and in dynamic on the mixture (water-bentonite-PEO), showed rheological properties of bentonite suspensions both in the presence and absence of non-ionic polymer. The PEO presents an affinity for the bentonite particles slowing down their kinetic aggregation. The analysis by X-rays diffraction also allowed understanding the structure of this mixture. It had revealed the intercalation between of the clay platelets on one hand, and the links bridges assured by the chains of polymer between bentonite particles beyond a critical concentration in PEO on the other hand. The Herschel- Bulkley rheological model is used for the correlation of our experimental results.

  8. Colloidal behavior of aqueous montmorillonite suspensions in the presence of non-ionic polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareche, M; Azri, N; Zeraibi, N; Allal, A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we characterized at first, the rheological behavior of the bentonite suspensions and the aqueous solutions of polyethylene oxide (PEO), then we were investigated the influence of this polymer in a water-based drilling fluid model (6% of bentonite suspension). The objective is to exhibit how the non ionic polymer with molecular weight 6×10 3 g/mol. of varying concentration mass (0.7%, 1%, 2% et 3%) significantly alter the rheological properties (yield stress, viscosity, loss and elastic modulus) of the bentonite suspensions. The rheological measurements made in simple shear and in dynamic on the mixture (water-bentonite-PEO), showed rheological properties of bentonite suspensions both in the presence and absence of non-ionic polymer. The PEO presents an affinity for the bentonite particles slowing down their kinetic aggregation. The analysis by X-rays diffraction also allowed understanding the structure of this mixture. It had revealed the intercalation between of the clay platelets on one hand, and the links bridges assured by the chains of polymer between bentonite particles beyond a critical concentration in PEO on the other hand. The Herschel- Bulkley rheological model is used for the correlation of our experimental results. (paper)

  9. Bifurcation from stable holes to replicating holes in vibrated dense suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebata, H; Sano, M

    2013-11-01

    In vertically vibrated starch suspensions, we observe bifurcations from stable holes to replicating holes. Above a certain acceleration, finite-amplitude deformations of the vibrated surface continue to grow until void penetrates fluid layers, and a hole forms. We studied experimentally and theoretically the parameter dependence of the holes and their stabilities. In suspensions of small dispersed particles, the circular shapes of the holes are stable. However, we find that larger particles or lower surface tension of water destabilize the circular shapes; this indicates the importance of capillary forces acting on the dispersed particles. Around the critical acceleration for bifurcation, holes show intermittent large deformations as a precursor to hole replication. We applied a phenomenological model for deformable domains, which is used in reaction-diffusion systems. The model can explain the basic dynamics of the holes, such as intermittent behavior, probability distribution functions of deformation, and time intervals of replication. Results from the phenomenological model match the linear growth rate below criticality that was estimated from experimental data.

  10. ASYMPTOTICS OF a PARTICLES TRANSPORT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmina Ludmila Ivanovna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject: a groundwater filtration affects the strength and stability of underground and hydro-technical constructions. Research objectives: the study of one-dimensional problem of displacement of suspension by the flow of pure water in a porous medium. Materials and methods: when filtering a suspension some particles pass through the porous medium, and some of them are stuck in the pores. It is assumed that size distributions of the solid particles and the pores overlap. In this case, the main mechanism of particle retention is a size-exclusion: the particles pass freely through the large pores and get stuck at the inlet of the tiny pores that are smaller than the particle diameter. The concentrations of suspended and retained particles satisfy two quasi-linear differential equations of the first order. To solve the filtration problem, methods of nonlinear asymptotic analysis are used. Results: in a mathematical model of filtration of suspensions, which takes into account the dependence of the porosity and permeability of the porous medium on concentration of retained particles, the boundary between two phases is moving with variable velocity. The asymptotic solution to the problem is constructed for a small filtration coefficient. The theorem of existence of the asymptotics is proved. Analytical expressions for the principal asymptotic terms are presented for the case of linear coefficients and initial conditions. The asymptotics of the boundary of two phases is given in explicit form. Conclusions: the filtration problem under study can be solved analytically.

  11. Particle size determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A specification is given for an apparatus to provide a completely automatic testing cycle to determine the proportion of particles of less than a predetermined size in one of a number of fluid suspensions. Monitoring of the particle concentration during part of the process can be carried out by an x-ray source and detector. (U.K.)

  12. Coal and potash flotation enhancement using a clay binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, D.; Chen, G.L.; Zhou, X.H.; Zhao, C.; Fan, M.M.; Aron, M.; Wright, J. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The adverse effects of clay particles on coal and mineral processing operations such as gravity separation, flotation, filtration and thickening are well known in the mining industry. In particular, the presence of ultra-fine clay particles deteriorates froth flotation performance, which has been attributed to slime coatings that inhibit bubble attachment and to adsorption of the frother and/or collector by the clay particles. The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a clay binding agent developed by Georgia-Pacific Resins, Inc. in enhancing coal and mineral flotation performance. Mechanical flotation tests were carried out using coal and potash samples. Process parameters investigated included slurry solids percentage, impeller rotation speed, binder dosage, etc. Flotation results show that the use of GP reagents significantly enhanced flotation efficiency under different conditions. The required binder dosage and conditioning time were about 0.45 kg/t and 0.5 to 1 minute, respectively. More significant improvements in process performance were observed at higher solids percentage and higher impeller rotation speed.

  13. Modes of occurrence of potentially hazardous elements in coal: levels of confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The modes of occurrence of the potentially hazardous elements in coal will be of significance in any attempt to reduce their mobilization due to coal combustion. Antimony and selenium may be present in solid solution in pyrite, as minute accessory sulfides dispersed throughout the organic matrix, or in organic association. Because of these modes of occurrence it is anticipated that less than 50% of these elements will be routinely removed by conventional coal cleaning procedures. Arsenic and mercury occur primarily in late-stage coarse-grained pyrite therefore physical coal cleaning procedures should be successful in removing substantial proportions of these elements. Cadmium occurs in sphalerite and lead in galena. Both of these minerals exhibit a wide range of particle sizes and textural relations. Depending on the particle size and textural relations, physical coal cleaning may remove as little as 25% of these elements or as much as 75%. Manganese in bituminous coal occurs in carbonates, especially siderite. Physical coal cleaning should remove a substantial proportion of this element. More information is needed to elucidate the modes of occurrence of beryllium, chromium, cobalt, and nickel. ?? 1994.

  14. Reduced emissions from inexpensive high-sulphur coal briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Wachter, E.A.; Wade, J.; Wilson, D.L.; Haas, J.W.; Ahmad, N.; Siltain, F.; Raza, M.Z.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne emissions were measured during the combustion of Pakistani high-sulphur coal, cold briquetted with lime and clay; comparison was made to emissions from raw coal and traditional fuels burnt in a native, mud-lined Angethi stove. Compared to raw coal, the amended coal gave fourfold reduced emission of respirable-size particles (RSP) and threefold reduced total releases of SO 2 . In domestic cooking, substitution of the amended coal briquettes for traditional fuels will not worsen indoor air quality with respect to CO, SO 2 , NO x , and RSP. The high peak amounts of CO (100--250 ppm), SO 2 (2--5 ppm), and NO x (1--5 ppm) were limited to the early phase of burning. The high thermal value of the coal briquettes together with a simple briquetting technology, make this fuel an attractive energy alternative in countries that are underdeveloped, developing, or experiencing major restructuring

  15. Origins of microstructural transformations in charged vesicle suspensions: the crowding hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Mansi; Ramachandran, Arun; Murch, Bruce P; Leal, L Gary

    2014-09-02

    It is observed that charged unilamellar vesicles in a suspension can spontaneously deflate and subsequently transition to form bilamellar vesicles, even in the absence of externally applied triggers such as salt or temperature gradients. We provide strong evidence that the driving force for this deflation-induced transition is the repulsive electrostatic pressure between charged vesicles in concentrated suspensions, above a critical effective volume fraction. We use volume fraction measurements and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy imaging to quantitatively follow both the macroscopic and microstructural time-evolution of cationic diC18:1 DEEDMAC vesicle suspensions at different surfactant and salt concentrations. A simple model is developed to estimate the extent of deflation of unilamellar vesicles caused by electrostatic interactions with neighboring vesicles. It is determined that when the effective volume fraction of the suspension exceeds a critical value, charged vesicles in a suspension can experience "crowding" due to overlap of their electrical double layers, which can result in deflation and subsequent microstructural transformations to reduce the effective volume fraction of the suspension. Ordinarily in polydisperse colloidal suspensions, particles interacting via a repulsive potential transform into a glassy state above a critical volume fraction. The behavior of charged vesicle suspensions reported in this paper thus represents a new mechanism for the relaxation of repulsive interactions in crowded situations.

  16. Characteristic Study of Shenmu Bituminous Coal Combustion with Online TG-MS-FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guanfu

    2018-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of Shenmu bituminous pulverized coal (SBC) were comprehensively investigated with a combined TG-MS-FTIR system by considering the effect of particle size, heating rate and total flowrate. The combustion products were accurately quantified by normalization and numerical analysis of MS results. The results indicate that the decrease of the particle size, heating rate and total flowrate result in lower ignition and burnout temperatures. The activation energy tends to be lower with smaller particle size, lower heating rate and total flowrate. The MS and FTIR results demonstrate that lower concentrations of different products, such as NO, NO2, HCN, CH4 and SO2 were produced with smaller particle size, slower heating rate and lower total flowrate. The decrease of particle size would lead to more contact area with oxygen and slower heating rate could provide more sufficient time for the diffusion. High total flowrate would reduce the oxygen adsorbability on the coal particle surface and shorten the residence time of oxygen, which makes the ignition difficult to occur. This work will guide to understand the combustion kinetics of pulverized coals and be beneficial to control the formation of pollutants.

  17. A parametric comparative study of electrocoagulation and coagulation using ultrafine quartz suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Mehtap Gülsün; Hoşten, Cetin; Demirci, Sahinde

    2009-11-15

    This paper attempts to compare electrocoagulation using aluminum anodes and stainless steel cathodes with conventional coagulation by aluminum sulfate dosing on aqueous suspensions of ultrafine quartz. Several key parameters affecting the efficiency of electrocoagulation and coagulation were investigated with laboratory scale experiments in search of optimal parameter values. Optimal values of the parameters were determined on the basis of the efficiency of turbidity removal from ultrafine quartz suspensions. The parameters investigated in the study were suspension pH, electrical potential, current density, electrocoagulation time, and aluminum dosage. A comparison between electrocoagulation and coagulation was made on the basis of total dissolved aluminum, revealing that electrocoagulation and coagulation were equally effective at the same aluminum dosage for the removal of quartz particles from suspensions. Coagulation, however, was more effective in a wider pH range (pH 6-9) than electrocoagulation which yielded optimum effectiveness in a relatively narrower pH range around 9, where, in both methods, these pH values corresponded to near-zero zeta potentials of quartz particles. Furthermore, experimental results confirmed that electrocoagulation could display some pH buffering capacity. The kinetics of electrocoagulation was very fast (<10 min) in approaching a residual turbidity, which could be modeled with a second-order rate equation.

  18. Silica particles and method of preparation thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The invention is in the field of silica products. More in particular, the invention is in the field of amorphous silica particles. The invention is directed to amorphous silica particles and related products including clusters of said silica particles, a suspension of said silica particles, and an

  19. Optimization of hydrogen and syngas production from PKS gasification by using coal bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Yusup, Suzana; Inayat, Abrar; Patrick, David Onoja; Pratama, Angga; Ammar, Muhamamd

    2017-10-01

    Catalytic steam gasification of palm kernel shell is investigated to optimize operating parameters for hydrogen and syngas production using TGA-MS setup. RSM is used for experimental design and evaluating the effect of temperature, particle size, CaO/biomass ratio, and coal bottom ash wt% on hydrogen and syngas. Hydrogen production appears highly sensitive to all factors, especially temperature and coal bottom ash wt%. In case of syngas, the order of parametric influence is: CaO/biomass>coal bottom ash wt%>temperature>particle size. The significant catalytic effect of coal bottom ash is due to the presence of Fe 2 O 3 , MgO, Al 2 O 3 , and CaO. A temperature of 692°C, coal bottom ash wt% of 0.07, CaO/biomass of 1.42, and particle size of 0.75mm are the optimum conditions for augmented yield of hydrogen and syngas. The production of hydrogen and syngas is 1.5% higher in the pilot scale gasifier as compared to TGA-MS setup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Harmonic decomposition of magneto-optical signal from suspensions of superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Cody; Syed, Maarij; Takemura, Yasushi

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are widely used in biomedical applications. Characterizing dilute suspensions of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in bio-relevant media is particularly valuable for magnetic particle imaging, hyperthermia, drug delivery, etc. Here, we study dilute aqueous suspensions of single-domain magnetite nanoparticles using an AC Faraday rotation (FR) setup. The setup uses an oscillating magnetic field (800 Hz) which generates a multi-harmonic response. Each harmonic is collected and analyzed using the Fourier components of the theoretical signal determined by a Langevin-like magnetization. With this procedure, we determine the average magnetic moment per particle μ , particle number density n, and Verdet constant of the sample. The fitted values of μ and n are shown to be consistent across each harmonic. Additionally, we present the results of these parameters as n is varied. The large values of μ reveal the possibility of clustering as reported in other literature. This suggests that μ is representative of the average magnetic moment per cluster of nanoparticles. Multiple factors, including the external magnetic field, surfactant degradation, and laser absorption, can contribute to dynamic and long-term aggregation leading to FR signals that represent space- and time-averaged sample parameters. Using this powerful analysis procedure, future studies are aimed at determining the clustering mechanisms in this AC system and characterizing SPION suspensions at different frequencies and viscosities.

  1. Conversion of metallurgical coke and coal using a Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) moving bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Siwei; Bayham, Samuel; Zeng, Liang; McGiveron, Omar; Chung, Elena; Majumder, Ankita; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Accumulated more than 300 operation hours were accomplished for the moving bed reducer reactor. • Different reactor operation variables were investigated with optimal conditions identified. • High conversions of sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were achieved without flow problems. • Co-current and counter-current contact modes were tested and their applicability was discussed. - Abstract: The CLC process has the potential to be a transformative commercial technology for a carbon-constrained economy. The Ohio State University Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process directly converts coal, eliminating the need for a coal gasifier oran air separation unit (ASU). Compared to other solid-fuel CLC processes, the CDCL process is unique in that it consists of a countercurrent moving bed reducer reactor. In the proposed process, coal is injected into the middle of the moving bed, whereby the coal quickly heats up and devolatilizes, splitting the reactor roughly into two sections with no axial mixing. The top section consists of gaseous fuel produced from the coal volatiles, and the bottom section consists of the coal char mixed with the oxygen carrier. A bench-scale moving bed reactor was used to study the coal conversion with CO 2 as the enhancing gas. Initial tests using metallurgical cokefines as feedstock were conducted to test the effects of operational variables in the bottom section of the moving bed reducer, e.g., reactor temperature, oxygen carrier to char ratio, enhancer gas CO 2 flow rate, and oxygen carrier flow rates. Experiments directly using coal as the feedstock were subsequently carried out based on these test results. Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and Illinois #6 coal were tested as representative sub-bituminous and bituminous coals, respectively. Nearly complete coal conversion was achieved using composite iron oxide particles as the oxygen carriers without any flow problems. The operational results demonstrated that a

  2. Deposit Formation in a 150 MWe Utility PF-Boiler during Co-combustion of Coal and Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karin Hedebo; Frandsen, Flemming; Hansen, P. F. B.

    2000-01-01

    A conventional pc-fired boiler at the Danish energy company I/S Midtkraft has been converted to coal-straw co-combustion, and a 2 year demonstration program was initiated in January 1996, addressing several aspects of coal-straw co-combustion. Deposition trials were performed as part of the demon......A conventional pc-fired boiler at the Danish energy company I/S Midtkraft has been converted to coal-straw co-combustion, and a 2 year demonstration program was initiated in January 1996, addressing several aspects of coal-straw co-combustion. Deposition trials were performed as part...... problematic deposits. Go-firing straw also caused a change in the structure of the upstream deposits. During coal combustion an ordered, "finger" structure of the larger particles with small particles between was observed, whereas during co-combustion a more random deposition of the larger particles among...... arise when burning other coals, particularly coals with a high S or alkali metal content or a low content of ash. The behavior of K, Ca, S, and Cl was evaluated by use of thermodynamic calculations. The thermodynamically stable species agree with the observed behavior in the experiments, i.e. formation...

  3. Hindrance Velocity Model for Phase Segregation in Suspensions of Poly-dispersed Randomly Oriented Spheroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroughi, S. A.; Huber, C.

    2015-12-01

    Crystal settling and bubbles migration in magmas have significant effects on the physical and chemical evolution of magmas. The rate of phase segregation is controlled by the force balance that governs the migration of particles suspended in the melt. The relative velocity of a single particle or bubble in a quiescent infinite fluid (melt) is well characterized; however, the interplay between particles or bubbles in suspensions and emulsions and its effect on their settling/rising velocity remains poorly quantified. We propose a theoretical model for the hindered velocity of non-Brownian emulsions of nondeformable droplets, and suspensions of spherical solid particles in the creeping flow regime. The model is based on three sets of hydrodynamic corrections: two on the drag coefficient experienced by each particle to account for both return flow and Smoluchowski effects and a correction on the mixture rheology to account for nonlocal interactions between particles. The model is then extended for mono-disperse non-spherical solid particles that are randomly oriented. The non-spherical particles are idealized as spheroids and characterized by their aspect ratio. The poly-disperse nature of natural suspensions is then taken into consideration by introducing an effective volume fraction of particles for each class of mono-disperse particles sizes. Our model is tested against new and published experimental data over a wide range of particle volume fraction and viscosity ratios between the constituents of dispersions. We find an excellent agreement between our model and experiments. We also show two significant applications for our model: (1) We demonstrate that hindered settling can increase mineral residence time by up to an order of magnitude in convecting magma chambers. (2) We provide a model to correct for particle interactions in the conventional hydrometer test to estimate the particle size distribution in soils. Our model offers a greatly improved agreement with

  4. Microbiological desulfurization and conversion of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, D.R.; Stoner, D.L.; Dugan, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Bio processing of coal is a young and emerging technology. Until the early 1980's it consisted primarily of coal depyritization using Thiobacillus ferro oxidans to either oxidize pyritic sulfur or to alter particle wettability or floatation properties by binding to exposed pyrite inclusions. Since then, other major avenues of research have been pursued. One of these is the microbiologically mediated liquefaction of coal. Initial work indicated that microorganisms were able to transform low rank coal into a black liquid that was later identified as water solubilized by alkaline substances produced by the microbes and could be enhanced by the removal of multi valent cations from coal. Current work at the INEL involves of the identification and characterization of microorganisms that are able to alter the structure of polymeric desulfurization of coal. This work initially focused on the ability of microorganisms to oxidatively remove organic sulfur from model compounds that were representative of those sulfur containing moieties identified as being in coals (e.g., dibenzo thiophene). The work also focused on those organisms that were could remove the organic sulfur without degrading the carbon structure. While some organisms that are able to perform such these reactions will effectively remove organo sulfur from coal. These concerns stem from steric hindrance considerations and the thermodynamically unfavourable nature of reaction. Current work at the INEL involves the isolation and biochemical characterization of microorganisms that are able to desulfurize and solubilized coals that have high organic sulfur contents. (author)

  5. A model of the enhancement of coal combustion using high intensity acoustic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuzkurt, S.; Ha, M.Y.; Koopmann, G.H.; Scaroni, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper a model for the enhancement of coal combustion in the presence of high intensity acoustics is developed. A high intensity acoustic field induces an oscillating velocity over pulverized coal particles otherwise entrained in the main gas stream, resulting in increased heat and mass transfer. The augmented heat and mass transfer coefficients, expressed as space- and time-averaged Nusselt and Sherwood numbers for the oscillating flow, were implemented in an existing computer code (PCGC-2) capable of predicting various aspects of pulverized coal combustion and gasification. Increases in the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers of about 45, 60 and 82.5% at sound pressure levels of 160, 165, and 170 dB for 100 μm coal particles were obtained due to increases in the acoustic slop velocity associated with the increased sound pressure levels. The main effect of the acoustic field was observed during the char combustion phase in a diffusionally controlled situation. A decrease in the char burnout length (time) of 15.7% at 160 dB and 30.2% at 170 dB was obtained compared to the case with no sound for the 100 μm coal particles

  6. On the Accelerated Settling of Fine Particles in a Bidisperse Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid L. Minkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimation of increasing the volume average sedimentation velocity of fine particles in bidisperse suspension due to their capturing in the circulation zone formed in the laminar flow of incompressible viscous fluid around the spherical coarse particle is proposed. The estimation is important for an explanation of the nonmonotonic shape of the separation curve observed for hydrocyclones. The volume average sedimentation velocity is evaluated on the basis of a cellular model. The characteristic dimensions of the circulation zone are obtained on the basis of a numerical solution of Navier-Stokes equations. Furthermore, these calculations are used for modelling the fast sedimentation of fine particles during their cosedimentation in bidisperse suspension. It was found that the acceleration of sedimentation of fine particles is determined by the concentration of coarse particles in bidisperse suspension, and the sedimentation velocity of fine fraction is proportional to the square of the coarse and fine particle diameter ratio. The limitations of the proposed model are ascertained.

  7. Integration of uniform design and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization to the robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system under different wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Chang; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a systematic method, integrating the uniform design (UD) of experiments and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), to solve the problem of a robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system. Based on the new nonlinear creep model derived from combining Hertz contact theory, Kalker's linear theory and a heuristic nonlinear creep model, the modeling and dynamic analysis of a 24 degree-of-freedom railway vehicle system were investigated. The Lyapunov indirect method was used to examine the effects of suspension parameters, wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii on critical hunting speeds. Generally, the critical hunting speeds of a vehicle system resulting from worn wheels with different wheel rolling radii are lower than those of a vehicle system having original wheels without different wheel rolling radii. Because of worn wheels, the critical hunting speed of a running railway vehicle substantially declines over the long term. For safety reasons, it is necessary to design the suspension system parameters to increase the robustness of the system and decrease the sensitive of wheel noises. By applying UD and QPSO, the nominal-the-best signal-to-noise ratio of the system was increased from -48.17 to -34.05 dB. The rate of improvement was 29.31%. This study has demonstrated that the integration of UD and QPSO can successfully reveal the optimal solution of suspension parameters for solving the robust design problem of a railway vehicle suspension system.

  8. Effect of Nano-ZnO Particle Suspension on Growth of Mung (Vigna radiata and Gram (Cicer arietinum Seedlings Using Plant Agar Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Mahajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates an effect of nano-ZnO particles on the growth of plant seedlings of mung (Vigna radiate and gram (Cicer arietinum. The study was carried out in plant agar media to prevent precipitation of water-insoluble nanoparticles in the test units. Various concentrations of nano-ZnO particles in suspension form were introduced to the agar media, and their effect on the root and shoot growth of the seedlings was examined. The main experimental approach, using correlative light and scanning electron microscopy provided evidence of adsorption of nanoparticles on the root surface. Absorption of nanoparticles by seedlings root was also detected by inductive coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. It was found that at certain optimum concentration, the seedlings displayed good growth over control, and beyond that, retardation in growth was observed.

  9. A New, General Strategy for Fabricating Highly Concentrated and Viscoplastic Suspensions Based on a Structural Approach To Modulate Interparticle Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Shunsuke; Kamada, Fuminori; Kobashi, Kazufumi; Futaba, Don N; Hata, Kenji

    2018-01-24

    We report a general strategy to fabricate highly concentrated, viscoplastic and stable suspensions by designing the particle surface structure to control the interparticle attractive forces. Unlike conventional methods, where the choice of solvent is critical in balancing interparticle interactions, suspensions showing excellent stability and viscoplastic properties were made using various solvents. We demonstrated this approach using highly sparse agglomerates of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the particles. Our results revealed that the essential feature of the CNT aggl