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Sample records for coal mining spoil

  1. Coal mine spoil-water interaction: Ⅱ. Weathering concentrated metals in surface coal mine spoils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党志; 万国江; 李德忍

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of metals are lower in coal shales collected from recently exposed surface mine wastes than in shales collected from spoils exposed to surface weathering for 45 a. In this period, the character of the spoils changes dramatically as a result of the accelerated breakdown of the freshly exposed minestones. Since the metals are held as unstable sulfides, it is suggested that enrichment may be caused by absorption of metals by colloid of iron or formation of organic complex compound with organic carbon existing in the remnant structure of coal mine spoil. This process may contribute to the triggering of soil contamination thresholds on coal-lands already heavily loaded with metals.

  2. Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juwarkar, A.A.; Jambhulkar, H.P. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

    2008-07-15

    Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), at 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.

  3. Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Jambhulkar, Hemlata P

    2008-07-01

    Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), @ 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.

  4. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  5. Prediction of the acid generating potential of coal mining spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterroso, C.; Macias, F. [Universidad de Santiago, Santiago (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola

    1998-07-01

    The sulfide oxidation impact on mined land reclamation makes it necessary for mine spoils to be classified according to their acidifying potential. In this paper predictions were made of the acid generating potential of sulfide-containing spoils from the Puentes lignite mine (Galicia, NW Spain), and the limits of sulfur contents allowable for their storage in aerobic conditions, were established. Using samples of fresh spoils, analyses were made of the content and speciation of sulfur, pH was measured after oxidation of the sample with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (pH of oxidation = pH{sub OX}), and titration of the oxidation extract with 0.1N NaOH to pH = 7 was carried out (Net Acid Production = NAP). The total sulfur content (S{sub T}) varied between {lt} 0.01% and {gt} 3%, with pyritic-S being the most common form ({gt} 80%). pH{sub OX} varied between 1.6 and 6.4 and NAP between 1.2 and 85.0 Kg-CaCO{sub 3}t{sup -1}. A high correlation was found between the NAP and the S{sub T}(r-0.98, p{lt} 0.001). Spoils with S{sub T} {gt} 0.15% cause high risks of mine-soil acidification, and create the need for large doses of CaCO{sub 3} to be used on final surface of the mine dump. Use of fly ash, produced from the combustion of lignite, as an alternative to commercial lime is more effective in the control of acidity generated by spoils with high S{sub T}. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Occurrence and activity of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms in alkaline coal strip mine spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, G J; McFeters, G A; Temple, K L

    1981-03-01

    Spoils samples collected from a coal strip mine in southeastern Montana were examined for populations and activities of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Spoils examined were of three types: (a) acidic pyrite-rich waste coal, (b) oxidation halo material, and (c) alkaline material, which was the most widespread type. Bacterial numbers, sulfur oxidation, and(14)CO2 uptake activity declined to low levels in the summer when spoils were dry. Even in wetter spring months pyritic spoils contained relatively low numbers of acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, probably indicative of water stress since the same spoils incubated with excess water or dilute mineral salts showed considerably greater bacterial numbers and activity. Certain wells in coal and spoils aquifers contained substantial populations of iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria. However, these wells were always of alkaline or neutral pH, indicating that bacterial pyrite oxidation occurred where groundwaters contacted either replaced spoils or coal that contained pyrite or other metal sulfides. Bacterial activity may contribute to trace metal and sulfate leaching in the area.

  7. Environmental impact assessment and selenium transformation in coal mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.

    1991-06-01

    This quarterly report addresses the continued field investigation of a selected coal mining site in Oklahoma. Table 1 (appendix) portrays all the data (field measurements) taken at the Henryetta experimental site. An analysis of this data would be useful in providing information for potential Se migration from a coal mining site and the distribution of Se in a soil profile of land reclaimed to its pristine state. Also addressed is the methodology developed (1) for SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} adsorption on selected soils, (2) leachate migration through a cell column using soil samples from the Henryetta reclamation site, and (3) chemical transformation of SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} under harsh chemical and conditions.

  8. Sources of salinity near a coal mine spoil pile, north-central Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, R A; Otton, J K; Johnson, C A

    2001-01-01

    A small (1 km2) salt-affected stream drainage on the High Plains north of Denver, Colorado was sampled to determine the near-surface dispersion of soluble salts and metals from low-sulfur coal mining waste (spoil). Surface waters collected along the 0.8-km stream reach, and aqueous leachates of spoil and naturally saline local soil, were analyzed for chemical constituents and sulfur isotopes. In this semiarid setting with abundant carbonate-bearing surficial sediments, the limited, mildly acidic drainage from the spoil pile is quickly neutralized, restricting the mobility of many elements. However, some spoil-derived constituents were clearly traceable within the upper 0.4 km of the stream reach. Spoil leachates and surface water near the spoil pile have distinctive compositions of major anions and cations, and elevated levels of dissolved nitrate compared with downstream waters. Spoil-derived sulfate was traceable because it has generally positive values of delta34S that contrasted with generally negative values of delta34S in soil leachates and evaporite salts from the surrounding area. Spatial-chemical sampling of surface water showed an abrupt increase in dissolved U, Se, B, Li, and Mn in the lower 0.4 km of the stream reach where shallow ground water from surrounding irrigated fields contributed to surface flow. The downstream evolution of surface water chemistry and sulfur isotopic composition is consistent with mixing between spoil-affected upstream water and irrigation-return water. The methods described should be applicable at other sites in similar settings where the environmental effect of low-sulfur coal mining waste must be assessed and where access to samples of shallow ground water is limited.

  9. Soil quality and carbon sequestration in a reclaimed coal mine spoil of Jharia coalfield, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Masto, Reginald; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Revegetation of coal mine spoil helps in carbon storage and the success of remediation depend on the selection of appropriate tree species. A study was conducted at the coalmine overburden dumps of Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, India to evaluate the impact of revegetation on the overall soil quality and carbon sequestration. Morphological parameters (tree height, diameter at breast height, tree biomass, wood specific gravity) of the dominant tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo and Leucaena leucocephala) growing on the mine spoil was recorded. Mine spoil samples were collected under the canopy cover of different tree species and analyzed for soil physical, chemical, and biological parameters. In general reclaimed sites had better soil quality than the reference site. For instance, D. sissoo and C. siamea improved soil pH (+28.5%, +27.9%), EC (+15.65%, +19%), cation exchange capacity (+58.7%, +52.3%), organic carbon (+67.5%, +79.5%), N (+97.2%, +75.7%), P (+98.2%, +76.9%), K (+31.8%, +37.4%), microbial biomass carbon (+143%, +164%) and dehydrogenase activity (+228%, +262%) as compared to the unreclaimed reference coal mine site. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) decreased significantly in the reclaimed site than the reference spoil, C. siamea was found to be more promising for PAH degradation. The overall impact of tree species on the quality of reclaimed mine spoil cannot be assessed by individual soil parameters, as most of the parameters are interlinked and difficult to interpret. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more meaningful assessment of reclamation potential of tree species. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity were the most critical properties controlling growth of tree

  10. Breeding habitat of sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus on spoil heaps after coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šálek, Miroslav; Hendrychová, Markéta; Řehoř, Michal

    2010-03-01

    Natural succession of spoil heaps after brown coal mining leads to the development of rich plant and invertebrate communities and therefore has been considered a proper alternative to conventional reclamation practice. Little is known, however, about the effects of these alternative approaches on vertebrate predators. This study analyses nest-site choice of the sparrowhawk, Accipiter nisus on afforested spoil heaps in the brown coal basin of north-west Bohemia, Czech Republic. Nest places of sparrowhawks, numbers of their main prey (small birds) and habitat attributes were investigated in 2007 and 2008 on 28 individual spoil heaps that were either reclaimed by silviculture or spontaneously afforested. Our results revealed preferences of breeding sparrowhawks for spontaneously developed birch growths with diverse mosaics of tree clumps, open patches and edge structures, all providing for opportunities to hunt. In addition, the proximity of large forests positively influenced nest-site choice of sparrowhawks. Although small birds were more abundant on Successions than Reclamations, our results did not suggest that numbers of this main prey were of higher importance for the sparrowhawks than habitat components of prey availability. These results highlight the importance of spontaneous succession as a rehabilitation alternative in post-mining landscapes.

  11. Development of Soil Characteristics and Plant Communities On Reclaimed and Unreclaimed Spoil Heaps After Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudlín, Ondřej; Řehák, Zdeněk; Cudlín, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare soil characteristics, plant communities and the rate of selected ecosystem function performance on reclaimed and unreclaimed plots (left for spontaneous succession) of different age on spoil heaps. Twelve spoil heaps (three circle plots of radius 12.5 m) near the town Kladno in north-west direction from Prague, created after deep coal mining, were compared. Five mixed soil samples from organo-mineral horizons in each plot were analysed for total content of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, active soil pH (pHH2O) was determined. Plant diversity was determined by vegetation releves. The biodiversity value of the habitat according to the Habitat Valuation Method was assessed and the rate of evapotranspiration function by the Method of Valuation Functions and Services of Ecosystems in the Czech Republic were determined. The higher organo-mineral layers and higher amount of total nitrogen content were found on the older reclaimed and unreclaimed plots than in younger plots. The number of plant species and the total contents of carbon and nitrogen were significantly higher at the unreclaimed plots compared to reclaimed plots. The biodiversity values and evapotranspiration function rate were also higher on unreclaimed plots. From this perspective, it is possible to recommend using of spontaneous succession, together with routine reclamation methods to restore habitats after coal mining. Despite the relatively high age of vegetation in some of selected plots (90 years), both the reclaimed and unreclaimed plots have not reached the stage of potential vegetation near to natural climax. Slow development of vegetation was probably due to unsuitable substrate of spoil heaps and a lack of plant and tree species of natural forest habitats in this area. However, it is probable that vegetation communities on observed spoil heaps in both type of management (reclaimed and unreclaimed) will achieve the stage of natural climax and they

  12. Effect of Soil Ameliorators on Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities that Colonize Seedlings of Pinus densiflora in Abandoned Coal Mine Spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Lee, Chang-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the effect of soil ameliorators on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in coal mine spoils was investigated. Organic fertilizers and slaked lime were applied as soil ameliorators in 3 abandoned coal mine spoils. One year after the initial treatment, roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings were collected and the number of ECM species, colonization rate, and species diversity were assessed. The results showed that the soil ameliorators significantly increased ECM colonization on the roots of P. densiflora. The results suggest that soil ameliorators can have a positive effect on ECM fungi in terms of growth of host plants and show the potential use of soil ameliorator treatment for revegetation with ECM-colonized pine seedlings in the coal mine spoils.

  13. Impact of plantation on ecosystem development in disturbed coal mine overburden spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Mishra, T.K.; Singh, A.K.; Jain, A. [Tropical Forest Research Inst., Jabalpur (India)

    2004-07-15

    Eleven nitrogen fixing and one non-nitrogen fixing tree species were planted in coal mine overburden spoils of Bisrampur colliery at Surguja district, Chattisgarh, India in 1993. Their growth performance at one, two, four, six and eight years was recorded. It was observed that after eight years of planting, Acacia mangium performed very well in respect to all the growth parameters followed by A. holoserecia, Dalbergia sissoo, Albiziaprocera, Pithecellobium dulce, Acacia auriculiformis and Gmelina arborea. Acacia nilotica showed very poor performance. The number of natural colonisers increased with increasing age of the planted species. Nutrient status of the spoils also increased gradually with the increase in age of the plants. Organic carbon increased greatly and, as a result, activities of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi accelerated. This study indicated that the spoil environment, which is extremely harsh just after mining, could be improved gradually and the ecosystem restored by planting suitable species. Therefore, for early development of the ecosystem, afforestation with suitable leguminous species is recommended.

  14. Geochemical assessments and classification of coal mine spoils for better understanding of potential salinity issues at closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hee; Li, Xiaofang; Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas; Kirsch, Bernie

    2013-06-01

    Coal mining wastes in the form of spoils, rejects and tailings deposited on a mine lease can cause various environmental issues including contamination by toxic metals, acid mine drainage and salinity. Dissolution of salt from saline mine spoil, in particular, during rainfall events may result in local or regional dispersion of salts through leaching or in the accumulation of dissolved salts in soil pore water and inhibition of plant growth. The salinity in coal mine environments is from the geogenic salt accumulations and weathering of spoils upon surface exposure. The salts are mainly sulfates and chlorides of calcium, magnesium and sodium. The objective of the research is to investigate and assess the source and mobility of salts and trace elements in various spoil types, thereby predicting the leaching behavior of the salts and trace elements from spoils which have similar geochemical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis, total digestion, sequential extraction and column experiments were conducted to achieve the objectives. Sodium and chloride concentrations best represented salinity of the spoils, which might originate from halite. Electrical conductivity, sodium and chloride concentrations in the leachate decreased sharply with increasing leaching cycles. Leaching of trace elements was not significant in the studied area. Geochemical classification of spoil/waste defined for rehabilitation purposes was useful to predict potential salinity, which corresponded with the classification from cluster analysis based on leaching data of major elements. Certain spoil groups showed high potential salinity by releasing high sodium and chloride concentrations. Therefore, the leaching characteristics of sites having saline susceptible spoils require monitoring, and suitable remediation technologies have to be applied.

  15. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  16. Guide for calculating the stability of mine berms and spoil bank slopes in the Maritsa-Iztok coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiev, G.; Todorova, M.; Doneva, V.; Novachkov, N.; Nedyalkov, N.; Mitev, A.; Rachev, R.

    1984-08-01

    Major landslides are described which occurred in the basin between 1963 and 1970 during overburden removal and formation of spoil banks. Guidelines for the prevention of landslides were developed on the basis of large scale studies of geomechanics, geostatic calculations and geodetic observations of slope behavior; no further landslide has occurred since 1970. Cohesion coefficients, angle of internal friction and shear properties were determined for each material occurring in the clayey and sandy overburden and for the coal (ash content 15-55%). Slope stability of working benches and spoil banks at the Troyanovo mines was then calculated. 8 references.

  17. Rehabilitation of semi-arid coal mine spoil bank soils with mine residues and farm organic by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.; Bosch-Serra, A.; Estudillos, G.; Poch, R.M. [University of Lleida, Lleida (Spain). Dept. of Environmental & Soil Science

    2009-07-01

    A method of rehabilitating coal mine soils was studied under the conditions of a semi-arid climate, lack of topsoil but availability of farm by-products in NE Spain. The objectives of the research were to assess a new method in order to achieve a suitable substrate for the establishment of native vegetation, to evaluate environmental impacts associated with the reclamation process, and to determine the time necessary to integrate the treated area into the surrounding environment. Eight plots (10 x 35 m{sup 2}) were established in September 1997. Substrate combinations of two types of mine spoil (coal dust and coarse-sized material), two levels of pig slurry (39 and 94 Mg ha{sup -1}dry-wt), and cereal straw (0 and 15 Mg ha{sup -1}) were applied. Monitoring of select physical and chemical soil properties and vegetation characteristics was performed from 1997 until 2005. The bulk density and the saturated hydraulic conductivity measured did not limit plant development and water availability. Initial substrate salinity (1.37 S m{sup -1}) decreased with time and in the long term did not limit plant colonization to salinity-adapted species. Initial nitrate concentration was 298 mg kg{sup -1}, but was reduced significantly to acceptable values in 3 years (55 mg kg{sup -1}) and the measured pH (7.6) was maintained at the level of initial spoil values. Vegetation cover reached up to 90%. In the treated area, spontaneous vegetation cover (15 to 70%) colonized the nonsown areas widely. In the medium term, vegetation cover tended to be higher in plots with a thicker layer of coal dust material and the higher slurry rate. Soil rehabilitation and environmental reintegration, taking into account soil and vegetation indicators, was possible in the studied area with low cost inputs using residual materials from mining activities and animal husbandry by-products.

  18. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to the development of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in three types of coal mine spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zhao, Renxin; Fu, Ruiying; Bi, Na; Wang, Lixin; Zhao, Wenjing; Guo, Jiangyuan; Zhang, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Coal mine spoils are usually unfavorable for plant growth and have different properties according to dumping years, weathering degree, and the occurrence of spontaneous combustion. The establishment of plant cover in mine spoils can be facilitated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the importance of AMF in plant adaptation to different mine spoils and the potential role of AMF for revegetation practices. We investigated the effects of Glomus aggregatum, Rhizophagus intraradices (syn. Glomus intraradices), and Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae) on the growth, nutritional status, and metal uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in recent discharged (S1), weathered (S2), and spontaneous combusted (S3) coal mine spoils. Symbiotic associations were successfully established between AMF and maize in three substrates. Mycorrhizal colonization effectively promoted plant growth by significantly increasing the uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), adjusting C:N:P stoichiometry and alleviating toxic effects of heavy metals. G. aggregatum, R. intraradices, and F. mosseae exhibited different mycorrhizal effects in response to mine spoil types. F. mosseae was the most effective in the development of maize in S1 and may be the most appropriate for revegetation of this substrate, while R. intraradices played the most beneficial role in S2 and S3. Our results suggest that inoculation with AMF can enhance plant adaptation to different types of coal mine spoils and play a positive role in the revegetation of coal mine spoil banks.

  19. Dump stability and soil fertility of a coal mine spoil in Indian dry tropical environment: a long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Nimisha; Singh, Raj Shekhar; Chaulya, Swadesh K

    2012-10-01

    Plant available nitrogen, belowground (root) biomass, soil nitrogen (N) mineralization and microbial biomass N (MBN) were studied for 12 years at the interval of 2 years (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 years) and mine dump stability at the intervals of 6 years (0, 6 and 12 years) after re-vegetation on coal mine spoil site. Plant available nitrogen in revegetated mine spoil ranged from 4.51 to 6.59 μg g(-1), net N-mineralization from 1.87 to 13.85 μg g(-1) month(-1), MBN from 10 to 22.63 μg g(-1), and root biomass from 28 to 566 g(-2). Mining activity has caused a change in soil characteristics including plant available nutrients like nitrate-N, ammonium-N and phosphate-P by 70, 67, and 76 %, respectively, N-mineralization by 93 %, root biomass values by 97 % and MBN values by 91 % compared to forest ecosystems. Revegetation of mine spoil produced increase in root biomass values by 1.3, 7.6 and 17.2 times, mineral N values by 1.22, 1.43 and 1.79 times, N-mineralization values by 1.8, 5.2 and 12.6 times and MBN values by 1.6, 2.0, and 3.4 times in 2, 6 and 12 years, respectively. Below ground biomass was highly co-related with microbial biomass and plant available nutrients. N-mineralization, plant available nutrients and the clay content were positively correlated with age of revegetation (P soil fertility status in mine spoil, where plant biomass and microbial biomass provide major contributions in ecological redevelopment of the mine spoil.

  20. Geochemistry of batch-extract waters derived from spoil material collected at the Cordero coal mine, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Batch-mixing experiments to evaluate postmining water quality at the Cordero Mine were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1984 to 1985. Contact of groundwater from the spoil aquifer with fresh spoil material caused only small changes in major-element concentrations and in pH, unless sulfide oxidation or contact with soluble salts, such as epsomite, occurred. In contrast, large changes in major-element concentration resulted when water from the coal aquifer contacted the spoil material. Only three of seven reaction models considered to explain the water quality changes during the batch-mixing experiments were consistent with the thermodynamic and mineralogical data. The three models used to account for the observed water quality changes derived potassium from potassium feldspar; magnesium from chlorite or epsomite or both; sodium from cation exchange and halite; chloride from halite; silica from potassium feldspar and chlorite; sulfate from gypsum, or epsomite or both, and carbon from carbon dioxide. In general, water quality samples obtained from the batch-mixing experiments using water from the coal aquifer had smaller major-ion concentrations than the actual water quality in the spoil aquifer. These differences can be explained by the limited amount of efflorescent salt dissolution and volume of water used in the experiments. Correction ratios calculated for these experiments may be applied to batch-mixing experiments at other mines in the area, to predict postmining water quality. (USGS)

  1. Load Bearing and Deformation Characteristics of Granular Spoils under Unconfined Compressive Loading for Coal Mine Backfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The load bearing capacity and deformation response of granular spoils under uniaxial compression are numerically and experimentally investigated, aiming to shed light on the performance of back filled waste spoils while controlling ground subsidence after coal extraction. In numerical study, the particles are assembled in PFC commercial code in light of the digitized real shape of spoils with image technique, which is proved to be consistent with the physical test. The results from numerical and laboratory experiments showed that the complete compressive process of spoils tended to have spatial and temporal characteristics. The load-strain curves of investigated specimens could be divided into three stages (stage I, rearranging stage; stage II, breaking stage; stage III, consolidating stage and three zones (I, rearranging zone; II, interlocking zone; III, consolidated zone from outside to inside. During stage I, the load increasing rate of smaller spoils is relatively low, but it increases faster than larger ones in stages II and III. In addition, spoils with Talbot’s gradation are greater than single gradations. The magnitude of the density in consolidated zone is maximum, indicating that it is the main part holding the overlying strata weight.

  2. Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as urban solid waste dump; Utilizacion de Escombreras de Carbon como Vertedero Controlado de Residuos Solidos Urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the coordinated project DISPOSAL OF SOLID RESIDUES FROM COAL it is included the project Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as Urban Solid Waste Dump. The main target of this project consisted of determining the viability of using coal mining spoil heaps, as controlled dubbish dump of urban solid wastes. The working plan to achieve this objective was composed of the following stages: 1. Urban solid wastes characterization. 2. Methodology to be followed for the selection of coal mining spoil heaps as controlled dump of urban solid wastes. 2.1 Classification and preliminary assessment of the possibility of using spoil heaps as urban solid waste dumps (APT/NON APT). 2.2 Realization of geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies applied to the spoil heaps classified as APT. 2.3 Analysis of the compatibility of the mining activity with the urban solid wastes dumped on the spoil heap. 2.4 Analysis of the use of coal mining wastes in the rubbish dump operative life. 3. Extraction of conclusions. The works were focused in the Leon province. As result of the researches we obtained the following results and conclusions: In the areas studied, only two emplacements are optima to dump urban solid wastes; spoil heap n. 13. Roguera Mine (Cinera-Matallana) and the open pit mine n. 4, Las Chaviadas, in Villablino. The active spoil heap use as controlled rubbish dump can cause, if not managed adequately, several coperating and occupational problems to the mine and to the company that manages the urban solid wastes. The abandoned spoil heap utilisation is difficult due to the problems that would arise when conditioning the site to be use as rubbish dump. The use of abandoned open pit mines, as controlled rubbish dump is feasible if geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies support it. It's possible the use of the coal mining wastes in the different operatives phases of the controlled rubbish dump. The evaluation methodology

  3. Selenium Adsorption onto Iron Oxide Layers beneath Coal-Mine Overburden Spoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Joseph J; Ziemkiewicz, Paul F

    2013-09-01

    A field experimental study to determine the feasibility of sequestering dissolved selenium (Se) leached from coal-mine waste rock used an iron (Fe)-oxide amendment obtained from a mine-drainage treatment wetland. Thirty lysimeters (4.9 × 7.3 m), each containing 57.7 t (1.2-1.8 m thickness) of mine-run carbonaceous shale overburden, were installed at the Hobet mine in southeastern West Virginia. The fine-grained Fe-oxide was determined to be primarily metal oxides (91.5% ferric and 4.37% aluminous), with minor (mine water can sequester Se by adsorption on surfaces of goethite and possibly also ferrihydrite. This process is demonstrated to substantially reduce dissolved Se in leachate and improve compliance with regulatory discharge limits. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Environmental impact assessment and selenium transformation in coal mine spoils. Seventh quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.

    1991-06-01

    This quarterly report addresses the continued field investigation of a selected coal mining site in Oklahoma. Table 1 (appendix) portrays all the data (field measurements) taken at the Henryetta experimental site. An analysis of this data would be useful in providing information for potential Se migration from a coal mining site and the distribution of Se in a soil profile of land reclaimed to its pristine state. Also addressed is the methodology developed (1) for SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} adsorption on selected soils, (2) leachate migration through a cell column using soil samples from the Henryetta reclamation site, and (3) chemical transformation of SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} under harsh chemical and conditions.

  5. The kinetics of sulfides oxidation in the coal mine spoils of the Upper Silesian coal basin. Pilot scale test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witczak, S.; Postawa, A. (University of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow (Poland). Department of Hydrogeology, Engineering and Mining Geology)

    1993-01-01

    Presents results of six years of pilot-scale geochemical tests into sulfide oxidation. Environmental impacts of oxidized sulfides contained in coal mine waste are investigated. Materials and methods used for investigations are described. Kinetics of sulfides oxidation and the effect of ambient temperature and precipitation are studied. High sulfate contents were found in the leachate of a 1.5 m high column of coal mine waste. Values of pH changed during the test from 2.64 to 4.4 in the end without any visible changes in sulfide oxidation rate. Total amount of reactive sulfides at the beginning of tests was estimated at 0.192 wt % of sulfide sulfur. Half-decomposition time was found to be 2,735 days. It is concluded that the detrimental effect of the mine waste tested can have an environmental impact for about 33 years. 6 refs.

  6. Associations of dominant plant species with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi during vegetation development on coal mine spoil banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydlova, J.; Vosatka, M. [Academy of Science. Pruhonice (Czech Republic). Inst. of Botany

    2001-07-01

    Among plants colonizing mine spoil banks in Northern Bohemia the first colonizers, mainly ruderal annuals from Chenopodiaceae and Brassicaceae were found not to be associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These species cultivated in pots with soil from four sites in different succession stages of the spoil bank did not respond to the presence of native or non-native AMF. All grass species studied (Elytrigia repens, Calamagrostis epigejos and Arrhenatherum elatius) were found moderately colonized in the field. Carduus acanthoides was found to be highly colonized in the field; however, it did not show growth response to AMF in the pot experiment. The AMF native in four sites on the spoil banks showed high infectivity but low effectiveness in association with colonizing plants compared to the non-native isolate G. fistulosum BEG23. In general, dependence on AMF in the cultivation experiment was rather low, regardless of the fact that plants were found to be associated with AMF either in the field or in pots. Occurrence and effectiveness of mycorrhizal associations might relate primarily to the mycotrophic status of each plant species rather than to the age of the spoil bank sites studied.

  7. Phytoremediation of spoil coal dumps in Western Donbass (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkina, Iryna; Kharytonov, Mykola; Wiche, Oliver; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    At the moment, in Ukraine about 150 thousand hectares of fertile land are occupied by spoil dumps. Moreover, this figure increases every year. According to the technology used about 1500 m3 of adjacent stratum is dumped at the surface per every 1000 tons of coal mined. Apart from land amortization, waste dumps drastically change the natural landscape and pollute air, soil and water sources as the result of water and wind erosion, as well as self-ignition processes. A serious concern exists with respect to the Western Donbass coal mining region in Ukraine, where the coal extraction is made by the subsurface way and solid wastes are represented by both spoil dumps and wastes after coal processing. Sulphides, mostly pyrite (up to 4% of waste material), are widely distributed in the waste heaps freshly removed due to coal mining in Western Donbass.The oxidation of pyrite with the presence of oxygen and water is accompanied by a sharp drop in the pH from the surface layer to the spoil dumps(from 5.2-6.2 to 3.9-4.2 in soil substrates with chernozen and from 8.3-8.4 to 6.7-7.2 in soil substrates with red-brown clay, stabilizing in dump material in both cases at 2.9-3.2). Low pH generates the transformation of a number of toxic metals and other elementspresent in waste rock (e.g. Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Mo, Co, As, Cd, Bi, Pb, U) into mobile forms. To stabilize and reduce metal mobility the most resistant plants that occur naturally in specified ecosystems can be used. On coal spoil dumpsin Western Donbas the dominant species are Bromopsis inermis, subdominant Artemisia austriaca; widespread are also Festucas pp., Lathyrus tuberosus, Inula sp., Calamagrostis epigeios, Lotus ucrainicus, and Vicias pp. Identification of plants tolerant to target metals is a key issue in phytotechnology for soil restoration. It is hypothesized that naturally occurring plants growing on coal spoil dumps can be candidates for phytostabilization, phytoextraction (phytoaccumulation) and phytomining

  8. Possibilities for production of medicinal aromatic plants on the spoil bank of the Pljevlja coal mine. Mogucnost gajenja ljekovitog i aromaticnog bilja na jalovistu rudnika uglja - Pljevlja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memic, M.; Bajovic, L. (Rudnik Uglja Pljevlja (Yugoslavia))

    1990-01-01

    Presents results obtained from experimental recultivation of the Potrlica surface coal mine spoil bank (810 m elevation, continental climate) during 1986-1990. Two experimental fields - Potrlica-I (600 m[sup 2]) and Potrlica-II (300 m[sup 2]) - were prepared by spreading a 10-20 cm thick layer of low-quality soil over the marly waste of the spoil bank. Soil composition was: 2.10% and 74% Ca, 4.5% and 0.70% humus, l3.5% and 5.5% P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and 23.0% and 6.0% K[sub 2]O in Potrlica-I and II respectively. Soil pH values were 7.2 and 7.60; 500 kg/ha NPK (15:15:15) were spread. Seventeen species of aromatic and medicinal plants were grown. After four years the plants were classified into 3 groups (thriving, satisfactory and non-thriving). It was found that the following plants can yield satisfactory crops and profits: valeriana officinalis, hyssopus officinalis, artemis dracunculus, cynaris scolimus, foenculum vulgare and malva silvestris. Unsatisfactory results were obtained with melisa officinalis, coriandrum sativum, pimpinela anisum and angelica archangelica. Experiments will be continued.

  9. Occurrence and attempted mitigation of carbon dioxide in a home constructed on reclaimed coal-mine spoil, Pike County, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Bret A.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years carbon dioxide intrusion has become recognized as a potentially serious health threat where homes are constructed on or near reclaimed surface coal mines. When carbon dioxide invades the living space of a home, it can collect near the floor, displace the oxygen there, and produce an oxygen-deficient environment. In this investigation, several lines of inquiry were pursued to determine the environmental factors that most influence carbon dioxide intrusion at a Pike County, Ind., home where this phenomenon is known to occur. It was found that carbon dioxide intrusion events at the home are most closely tied to rapid drops in barometric pressure and rainfall. Other researchers have shown that windy conditions and periods of cold weather also can contribute to soil-gas intrusion to structures. From this, a conceptual model was developed to illustrate the influence of these four meteorological conditions. Additionally, three mitigation methods-block-wall depressurization, block-wall and sub-slab depressurization, and block-wall and sub-slab pressurization-were applied successively to the study-site home, and environmental data were collected to evaluate the effectiveness of each mitigation method. In each case, it was found that these methods did not ensure a safe environment when meteorological conditions were favorable for carbon dioxide intrusion.

  10. Soil genesis of mine spoil, Navajo Mine, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, B.A. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Stutz, H.C. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Estrada, O.J. [BHP - Utah International Inc., Fruitland, NM (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Documenting mine spoil genesis has been limited in the Western States. Few areas have {open_quotes}before{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}after{close_quotes} type data and for some mines older reclamation areas are limited. Soil samples were collected from 8-11 year old reclaimed spoil as part of a rooting depth study completed in June 1987 at the Navajo Mine. Samples were collected in 25 cm increments to depths of at least 200 cm and most often to 350 cm at a total of fifteen different reclamation plots. The spoil was composed of various amounts of shale and sandstone. The sites represented different topographic positions (swale/backslope), reclamation ages (8 to 11 years), slopes (0-15%), and topdressing treatments (with and without).

  11. Chemical and isotopic tracing of underground water in relation with leaching of mine spoils, Nord-Pas-de-Calais Coal Basin (France); Tracage chimique et isotopique des eaux souterraines en relation avec les eaux de lixiviation de terrils, bassin minier du Nord-Pas-de-Calais (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denimal, S.; Tribovillard, N.; Meilliez, F. [Lille-1 Univ., Lab. de Sedimentologie et Geodynamique, UMR 8577, 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France); Barbecot, F.; Dever, L. [Paris-11 Univ., Lab. d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie Isotopique, UMR 8616, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2001-07-01

    Coal mining activity in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (Northern France) has generated many mine spoils. The oxidation of the pyrite content of such coal shales and their leaching can be a source of sulfate pollution for the underlying chalk aquifer, i.e. the main drinking water resource of the region. Two sites of study have been retained: one in the free water table zone and the other in the confined water table zone. Samples from both mine spoils have been analyzed with respect to their carbon and sulfur content and a superficial leaching of these elements has been evidenced. Water has been sampled in piezometers and boreholes close to the mine spoils and also along natural flux lines. The use of sulfur isotopes as markers of the different sulfate sources has confirmed the spoils source but has permitted to identify another source in the second site which is the Tertiary gypsum-bearing Ostricourt sands. This study has shown also that in the confined water table zone, part of the exported sulfates is reduced. This bacterial reduction of sulfates is due to a joint leaching of both carbon and sulfur in the mine spoils. A self-purification phenomenon occurs when the chalk aquifer is confined beneath the Cenozoic cover. (J.S.)

  12. Mine spoil prairies expand critical habitat for endangered and threatened amphibian and reptile species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannoo, Michael J.; Kinney, Vanessa C.; Heemeyer, Jennifer L.; Engbrecht, Nathan J.; Gallant, Alisa L.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Coal extraction has been occurring in the Midwestern United States for over a century. Despite the pre-mining history of the landscape as woodlands, spent surface coalfields are often reclaimed to grasslands. We assessed amphibian and reptile species on a large tract of coal spoil prairie and found 13 species of amphibians (nine frog and four salamander species) and 19 species of reptiles (one lizard, five turtle, and 13 snake species). Two state-endangered and three state species of special concern were documented. The amphibian diversity at our study site was comparable to the diversity found at a large restored prairie situated 175 km north, within the historic prairie peninsula.

  13. Effects of indigenous woody plantations on total nutrients of mine spoil in Singrauli Coalfield, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. N. Singh; D. H. Zeng

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on high-density young plantations of three native trees (Albizia lebbeck, Albizia. procera and Tectona grandis) and one native woody grass species (Dendrocalamus strictus) to examine their influence on total nutrient concentrations of coal mine spoil during early phase of plantation establishment. Soil samples were analyzed for total organic carbon (SOC), Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and phosphorus (TP) at spoil depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm under 4- and 5-year-old plantations of all species. A significant effect on concentrations of total SOC, TKN and TP were observed due to plantation age, species and soil depth. However, corresponding concentrations (SOC, TKN and TP) were substantially lower at spoil profile of 10-20 cm. In comparison, plantation of A. lebbeck showed greater SOC and nutrient concentrations followed by D. strictus, A. procera and T. grandis, respectively. Therefore, present study clearly indicates attributing qualities of plantation towards improving redeveloping soil of mine spoil varied with species.

  14. Material of Burned Coal Wastes Spoil Heaps As Source of Mullite for Ceramic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daněk Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning or burnt out mine spoil heaps may be potential sources of materials not only for building purposes, but they may also be used in the ceramic industry. Decay of the coal mass contained in the mine spoil heaps often leads to self-ignition. As a consequence of spontaneous mine fire, which may approach 1600 °C, the surrounding waste rock undergoes thermal conversion. The temperature conditions inside the burning spoil heaps are analogous to the production conditions of refractory opening materials and fillers in rotary furnaces. The article deals with an analysis of anthropogenic porcelanites in terms of their phase composition and their possible application in the ceramic industry. The material under analysis underwent X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence to identify its chemistry and mineralogy. The article also proposes an enrichment method for the given material, through which a higher proportion of its useful component, mullite, may be obtained. Applying this method, approximately 60 % relatively pure separated raw material suitable for the ceramic industry may be obtained from the original material.

  15. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  16. Shrub and tree establishment on coal spoils in northern High Plains, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjugstad, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Trickle irrigation, during establishment, increased survival two-fold for seven species of shrubs and trees planted on coal-mine spoil in the semiarid area of northeastern Wyoming. Increased survival of irrigated plants persisted for five years after initiation of this study, which included two growing and winter seasons after cessation of which included two growing and winter seasons after cessation of irrigation. Species included green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens), American plum (Prunus americana), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum). 9 references, 3 tables.

  17. Shrub and tree establishment on coal spoils in northern High Plains - USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjugstad, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Trickle irrigation, during establishment, increased survival two fold for seven species of shrubs and trees planted on coal mine spoil in the semiarid area of northeastern Wyoming, USA. Increased survival of irrigated plants persisted for five years after initiation of this study, which included two growing and winter seasons after cessation of irrigation. Species included green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), silver buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens), American plum (Prunus americana), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum). 28 references.

  18. Experimental Study on Mine Spoils During Superficial Geochemistry Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一先; 白正华

    2002-01-01

    Based on the mineral and chemical compositions of spoils taken from the Shilu Cu-Mo deposit and Hetai gold deposit, the leaching and batch experiments were made on spoils taken from these two deposits using the leaching column designed by the authors. The experimental results showed that it is not always true that the mine drainage is acidic. Its acidity depends on acid-buffering capacity of gangue, host rock and its alteration mineral assemblage. The composition of the drainage water is related with the interaction between superficial or underground water and solid materials in the spoils, including minerals, hydroxides and amorphous substances. The leaching extent of the element is related with its occurrence form in the deposit. The preferential flow results in leaching-out of heavy metals in large amounts. So it is important to prevent the generating of preferential flow in the system. The results will provide very important grounds for the comprehensive management of land and ecological rehabilitation of the mine site.

  19. Reestablishing natural succession on acidic mine spoils at high elevations: long-term ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray W. Brown; Michael C. Amacher; Walter F. Mueggler; Janice Kotuby-Amacher

    2003-01-01

    Methods for restoring native plant communities on acidic mine spoils at high elevations were evaluated in a "demonstration area" in the New World Mining District of southern Montana. Research plots installed in 1976 were assessed for 22 years and compared with adjacent native reference plant communities. A 1.5-acre (0.61-ha) area of mine spoils was shaped and...

  20. Reclaimed spoil heap from an open-cast mine: analysis of meadow communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, J.; Hakl, J.; Steklova, J.; Ceska, J.; Dvorakova, E. [Czech University for Life Science Prague, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-01

    An evaluation of the vegetation on the reclaimed spoil heap of material deposited from the overlaying rock of an open-cast brown coal mine. The application of standard geobotanical research methods with statistical data analysis. Under the present management conditions desirable meadow taxa keep their constancy: the reduction of ruderal and weed species is evident, though statistically insignificant. For the variability of species composition over time, and in particular by the location of releves taken, the strong influence of substrate heterogeneity i.e. (in addition to exposure, humidity etc.) is inferred.

  1. Cultivation of high-biomass crops on coal mine spoil banks: Can microbial inoculation compensate for high doses of organic matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryndler, M.; Sudova, R.; Puschel, D.; Rydlova, J.; Janouskova, M.; Vosatka, M. [Academy of Science Czech Republic, Pruhonice (Czech Republic)

    2008-09-15

    Two greenhouse experiments were focused on the application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in planting of high-biomass crops on reclaimed spoil banks. In the first experiment, we tested the effects of different organic amendments on growth of alfalfa and on the introduced microorganisms. While growth of plants was supported in substrate with compost amendment, mycorrhizal colonization was suppressed. Lignocellulose papermill waste had no negative effects on AMF, but did not positively affect growth of plants. The mixture of these two amendments was found to be optimal in both respects, plant growth and mycorrhizal development. Decreasing doses of this mixture amendment were used in the second experiment, where the effects of microbial inoculation (assumed to compensate for reduced doses of organic matter) on growth of two high-biomass crops, hemp and reed canarygrass, were studied. Plant growth response to microbial inoculation was either positive or negative, depending on the dose of the applied amendment and plant species.

  2. Cultivation of high-biomass crops on coal mine spoil banks: can microbial inoculation compensate for high doses of organic matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryndler, Milan; Sudová, Radka; Püschel, David; Rydlová, Jana; Janousková, Martina; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2008-09-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were focused on the application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in planting of high-biomass crops on reclaimed spoil banks. In the first experiment, we tested the effects of different organic amendments on growth of alfalfa and on the introduced microorganisms. While growth of plants was supported in substrate with compost amendment, mycorrhizal colonization was suppressed. Lignocellulose papermill waste had no negative effects on AMF, but did not positively affect growth of plants. The mixture of these two amendments was found to be optimal in both respects, plant growth and mycorrhizal development. Decreasing doses of this mixture amendment were used in the second experiment, where the effects of microbial inoculation (assumed to compensate for reduced doses of organic matter) on growth of two high-biomass crops, hemp and reed canarygrass, were studied. Plant growth response to microbial inoculation was either positive or negative, depending on the dose of the applied amendment and plant species.

  3. Experimental Study on Mine Spoils During Superficial Geochemical Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一先; 白正华

    2002-01-01

    Based on the mineral and chemical compositions of spoils taken from the Shilu Cu-Mo deposit and Hetai gold deposit ,the leaching and batch experiments were made on spoils taken from these two deposits using the leaching column designed by the authors.The experimental results showed that it is not always true that the imine drainage is acidic.Its acidity depends on acid-buffering capacity of gangue,host rock and its alteration mineral assemblage.The composi-tion of the drainage water is related with the interaction between superficial or underground water and solid materials in the spoils,including minerals,hydroxides and amorphous substances.The leaching extent of the element is related with its occurrence form in the deposit.The prefer-ential flow results in leaching-out of heavy metals in large amounts.So it is important to prevent the generating of preferential flow in the system.The results will provide very important grounds for the comprehensive management of land and ecological rehabilitation of the mine site.

  4. Coal Mines, Active - Longwall Mining Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  5. Coal mining: coal in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Arguelles Martinez, A.; Lugue Cabal, V.

    1984-01-01

    The Survey of Spanish Coal Resources published by the Centre for Energy Studies in 1979 is without doubt the most serious and full study on this subject. The coal boom of the last few years and the important role it will play in the future, as well as the wealth of new information which has come to light in the research carried out in Spanish coalfields by both the public and private sector, prompted the General Mine Management of the Ministry of Industry and Energy to commission IGME to review and update the previous Survey of Spanish Coal Resources of November 1981.

  6. 草原煤矸石堆放的生态环境问题及其治理措施综述%Research review on controlling measures and eco-environmental problems caused by disorderly discharging coal-mine spoils in grassland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟; 赵仁鑫; 孙文惠; 包玉英; 王立新; 高伟男; 薛石磊

    2012-01-01

    Inner Mongolia is rich in coal resources and in turn has brought about enormous economic benefits for the country as well as to the local people. However, disorderly discharge of coal gangue and other mining wastes has also caused serious eco-environmental problems, such as the shrinking of grassland, air pollution, water and soil degradation, in addition to the destruction of the beautiful natural landscape. It comes from this great worry that this paper has dedicated itself to a review of the environmental problems in this way. Compared the advantages and disadvantages of physical, chemical and biological methods, available for controlling coal mine spoils, it is possible to find that physical methods can potentially be used to improve the environment of plant growth and the survival rate of plants, though it may call for the increase of investment to limit its detriment to the substrate. Chemical methods can also be used to improve the substrate and vegetation of the grassland effectively, however, it may involve a great more complication and more constraining factors and even cause further land and resource contamination. Therefore, it is recommended to take an integrated approach to reduce the cost and at the same time bring about significant ecological, economic and social benefits. It is just starting from this point of view that we have made in this paper a practical analysis of the possibility to grow arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to promote the ecological reconstruction of coal mine spoils. The reason for our recommendation is that at present, the plant has already shown great promise in helping the ecological restoration of mining areas. It can help to enhance the soil fertility, improve the soil structure and increase its biological activity. In addition, it can also contribute to the maintenance of plant biodiversity as well as ecosystem structure and function. In one word, it has a great potentiality for practical application in the remediation

  7. Coal Mines, Abandoned - Digitized Mined Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. The maps to these coal mines are stored at many various public and private locations (if they still...

  8. Coal Mines Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Guhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

  9. Phytoextraction from mine spoils: insights from New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losfeld, Guillaume; Mathieu, Romain; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno; Jaffré, Tanguy; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Increasing pressure on mineral resources has drawn research efforts into innovative supply and recycling. Metal-rich biomass produced in phytoextraction recently proved an interesting starting material for green chemistry. It allows the production of new catalysts, referred to as ecocatalysts. Ecocatalysts provide increased yields in chemical production and increased regio- and chemo-selectivity, which result in high added value. This new approach to using metal-rich biomass could spur the development of phytoextraction, a technique considered promising for long, yet without credible economic outlets. In this regard, metallophyte biodiversity hotspots, such as New Caledonia, are of particular interest for biomass supply. Potential phytoextraction from mine spoils using two species endemic to New Caledonia is discussed here. Geissois pruinosa, a hypernickelophore, and Grevillea exul, a Mn accumulator, were selected for these original experiments. The results presented here 20 months after plantation of young trees from a nursery show the interest of the approach. Mean Ni concentrations of up to 1513 mg kg(-1) are reported in G. pruinosa, as well as 2000 mg kg(-1) Mn in G. exul. Concentrations of Ni and Mn in the leaves of each species appear to be correlated with leaf age. Plantation of these species may also ensure mine reclamation, and experiments were conducted with the principles of ecological restoration in mind adding a further dimension to the approach.

  10. Reforestation of bauxite mine spoils with Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Krishnakumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Open cast mining for bauxite at Yercaud hills (India resulted indegradation of forest ecosystem and production of large quantities of waste rocks (called mine spoils. To ameliorate mine spoils, topsoil is used to spread over before the planting of tree species, conventional method as the topsoil has a good structure, water holding capacity and beneficial microbes like Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi essential for plant growth.However, the use of top soil is expensive and in this study bauxite mine spoils were reforestated with AM fungi instead of it. The beneficial microbes AM fungi (Glomus aggregatum Schenck & Smith, G. fasciculatum(Thatcher Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske, G. geosporum(Nicol. & Gerd. Walker were isolated, cultured and inoculated into the seedlings of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. and grown in bauxite mine spoils as potting medium under nursery conditions. Then, the biomass improved seedlings of E. tereticornis with inoculation of AM fungi were directly transplanted at bauxite mine spoils. After transplantation of the seedlings at bauxite mine spoils, the growth and survival rate were monitored for two years. The AM fungi inoculated seedlings of E. tereticornis showed 95% survival over the control seedlings and their growth was also significantlyhigher. Tissue nutrients (N, P, K were also found higher inAM fungi inoculated E. tereticornis than un inoculated control seedlings.

  11. Vetiver Grass: a potential tool for phytoremediation of iron ore mine site spoil dump

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Mukherjee; Khanindra Pathak

    2015-01-01

    The impact of mining has lead to the generation of a large amount of spoil dumps that has become dangerous to human health, wildlife and biodiversity. Thus it is essential that the post mining areas and waste land generated need to be rapidly vegetated. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty) is a tropical plant which grows naturally in various soil conditions and is well known for its ability to resist DNA damage while growing on typically polluted soil conditions. The spoil dum...

  12. Acidification - neutralization processes in a lignite mine spoil amended with fly ash or limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seoane, S.; Leiros, M.C. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola

    2001-08-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the long-term effects of amending sulfide-rich lignite mine spoil with fly ash (originating from a coal-fired power station and largely comprised of aluminosilicates) and/or agricultural limestone. The experiment was carried out with soil moisture maintained at field capacity or alternate cycles of wetting and drying. Results obtained suggest that the principal acidification processes were oxidation of sulfide and formation of hydroxysulfate (FeOHSO{sub 4}), whereas the main neutralization processes were weathering of aluminosilicates in fly ash-treated samples. The highest dose of limestone rapidly raised the pH of the spoil, but this increase was not maintained throughout the one-year experiment. In contrast, fly ash-treated samples showed a more sustained increase in pH, attributable to the gradual weathering of aluminosilicates. The best results (i.e., good short- and long-term neutralization) were obtained in samples treated with both fly ash and limestone. The low liming capacity of the fly ash (47.85 cmol kg{sup -1}) means that it must be used in large quantities, an advantage in achieving the further aim of disposing of the fly ash. 33 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Seventh symposium on coal mine drainage research. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Seventh Symposium on Coal Mine Drainage Research, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Seventeen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include chemical reactions of pyrite oxidation and acid formation in spoil banks, abandoned mines, etc., formation of small acid lakes from the drainage and their neutralization by natural and other neutralization measures, trace elements in acid mine drainage, ground water contamination, limnology, effects of surface mined ground reclamation and neutralization, water purification and treatment, mining and coal preparation plant waste disposal, ash and fly ash disposal (to minimize leaching from the wastes), runoff from large coal storage stockpiles during storms (prevention of environmental effects by collection and neutralization by passing through an ash pond). (LTN)

  14. Automation in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thring, M.W.

    1983-08-01

    A study of the 21st century energy situation shows that coal must be the principal fuel, gradually followed by the renewable fuels which require fossil fuel to make and build the equipment. As oil runs out a substitute liquid fuel will have to be made from coal and from biomass because oil is uniquely suitable for road, sea and air transport and for agriculture. Coal can be mined without men going underground by directed drilling and by Telechirics - hands at a distance. In Telechiric mining, the coal would be won by conventional mining machinery but the human miners would erect, operate, maintain and repair this machinery by sitting in a control room on the surface and controlling telechirs which could move about the mine and would have mechanical hands which would respond exactly to every movement of the human master's hands. He would have touch and force feedback and three dimensional vision so good that he could use his trained craft skill of hands and eyes as though he were down the mine.

  15. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  16. Impact of surface coal mining and reclamation on the hydrogeology at Iowa Coal Project Demonstration Mine No. 1, Mahaska County, Iowa. [MS thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stangl, D.W.

    1979-07-01

    The groundwater effects of surface mining at ICP No. 1 can be classified primarily as water quality and water quantity effects. The water quantity effects are: the loss of groundwater saturation in spoil materials that were initially removed from over the coal and later replaced; the dewatering of high permeability geologic strata up gradient of mining area; the increase in porosity and possibly permeability in refilled spoil materials; and the change in groundwater gradients in mined areas and near the sediment pond. The water quality effects are: the generation of slightly mineralized enclaves near the sediment pond and spoil accumulations; the generation of thin zones of highly mineralized water near the base of reclaimed spoil probably due mostly to remnant acid mine water; and reduction of water quality in coal seams as a result of dewatering at the time of mining and subsequent oxidation of their pyrite content. Most effects of water quantity loss in and around the mine are not permanent. Water quality disturbances of the fringe areas of reclaimed mine areas will be very slow in attenuating because of the slow groundwater flow through these materials. Adulterated groundwaters in high permeability areas such as the flood plain alluvium will be more quickly attenuated than those in the mine spoil areas, but these enclaves also have the potential to effect much larger areas due to more rapid groundwater movement. Reduced pH and alkalinity were observed in very restricted areas near the east side of the sediment pond.

  17. Vetiver Grass: a potential tool for phytoremediation of iron ore mine site spoil dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mukherjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of mining has lead to the generation of a large amount of spoil dumps that has become dangerous to human health, wildlife and biodiversity. Thus it is essential that the post mining areas and waste land generated need to be rapidly vegetated. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L. Roberty is a tropical plant which grows naturally in various soil conditions and is well known for its ability to resist DNA damage while growing on typically polluted soil conditions. The spoil dumps from the iron mine site is unstable and inhospitable for plant growth due to presence of various toxic heavy metals like - Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd etc. Vetiver system is an efficient bio-engineering tool for reclaiming such spoil dumps. There are 12 known species of Vetiver grass, and many hundreds of different cultivars that are exploited by users depending on need. In the present study we selected the polyploid infertile variety of vetiver and carried pot experiments. Vetiver plants grown on the iron ore mine spoil dump show distinct differences in their growth with fewer numbers of tillers, reduced chlorophyll content, upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and increased proline content. To investigate the level of DNA damage incurred and change in the genetic stability Comet assay and RAPD analysis were performed. Results confirmed that Vetiver grass can serve as a model species for phytoremediating the iron ore mine spoil dumps.

  18. Coal mining in socioeconomic aspect

    OpenAIRE

    ZALOZNOVA YU. S.

    2014-01-01

    The article investigate the correlation of economic and social factors in the development of coal mining on example of vertically integrated companies with both domestic and foreign assets. The effect of socioeconomic aspects which have led to the American paradox of coal is studied to understand the essence of the coal mining industry at the present stage of the global economic management.

  19. Accumulation of some metals by legumes and their extractability from acid mine spoils. [USA - Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A M University, Normal, AL (USA). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the growth (dry matter yield) of selected legume cover crops; phytoaccumulation of metals such as Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Al; the extractability of heavy metals from three different Alabama acid mine spoils. The spoils were amended based on soil test recommended levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg prior to plant growth. Metals were extracted by three extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl) and values correlated with their accumulation by the selected legumes. Among the cover crops, kobe lespedeza {ital Lespedeza striata} (Thung.) Hook and Arn, sericea lespedeza {ital Lespedeza cuneata} (Dum.) G. Don, and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) did not survive the stressful conditions of the spoils. However, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) followed by Bragg' soybean {ital Glycine max} (L.) Merr. generally produced the highest dry matter yield while accumulating the largest quantity of metals, except Al, from spoils. The extractability of most metals from the spoils was generally in the order of: 0.1 MHCl {gt} DTPA. Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract Ni, whereas DTPA extracted all the metals in a small amount relative to HCl and Mehlich 1. All the extractants were quite effective in removing plant-available Zn from the spoils. In general, the extractants' ability to predict plant-available metals depended on the crop species, spoil type, and extractant used. 28 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Inorganic carbon and fossil organic carbon are source of bias for quantification of sequestered carbon in mine spoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindušková, Olga; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Carbon sequestration in mine soils has been studied as a possibility to mitigate the rising atmospheric CO2 levels and to improve mine soil quality (Vindu\\vsková and Frouz, 2013). Moreover, these soils offer an unique opportunity to study soil carbon dynamics using the chronosequence approach (using a set of sites of different age on similar parent material). However, quantification of sequestered carbon in mine soils is often complicated by fossil organic carbon (e.g., from coal or kerogen) or inorganic carbon present in the spoil. We present a methodology for quantification of both of these common constituents of mine soils. Our recommendations are based on experiments done on post-mining soils in Sokolov basin, Czech Republic. Here, fossil organic carbon is present mainly as kerogen Type I and II and represents 2-6 wt.% C in these soils. Inorganic carbon in these soils is present mainly as siderite (FeCO3), calcite (CaCO3), and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2). All of these carbonates are often found in the overburden of coal seams thus being a common constituent of post-mining soils in the world. Vindu\\vsková O, Frouz J, 2013. Soil carbon accumulation after open-cast coal and oil shale mining in Northern Hemisphere: a quantitative review. ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, 69: 1685-1698. Vindu\\vsková O, Dvořáček V, Prohasková A, Frouz J. 2014. Distinguishing recent and fossil organic matter - A critical step in evaluation of post-mining soil development - using near infrared spectroscopy. ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING. 73: 643-648. Vindu\\vsková O, Sebag D, Cailleau G, Brus J, Frouz J. 2015. Methodological comparison for quantitative analysis of fossil and recently derived carbon in mine soils with high content of aliphatic kerogen. ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY, 89-90:14-22.

  1. Succession on regraded placer mine spoil in Alaska, USA, in relation to initial site characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the rate and pattern of natural succession on regraded placer mine spoil in relation to initial substrate characteristics. The study site was the Glen Creek watershed of the Kantishna mining area of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. After regrading, twelve 0.01-ha plots were established and substrate characteristics were measured. Natural plant succession was evaluated after five growing seasons. Three successional patterns were identified on the basis of plant community characteristics using cluster analysis, and were related to substrate characteristics. First, a riparian plant community with vigorous Salix alaxensis and Alnus crispa grew rapidly on topsoil that had been spread over the regraded spoil. Second, a similar plant community with less vigorous S. alaxensis developed more slowly on unprocessed spoil and spoil amended with a small amount of topsoil. Third, processed spoil remained almost bare of vegetation, although S. alaxensis was able to establish and persist in a stunted growth form. In contrast, Alnus crispa had difficulty establishing on processed spoil, but the few established seedlings grew well. Several substrate variables, including the proportion of silt and clay vs. sand, total nitrogen, and water retention capacity, were good predictors of the rate and pattern of succession. Total nitrogen was the best single predictor for the number of vigorous S. alaxensis.

  2. The effect of selenium on spoil suitability as root zone material at Navajo Mine, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, J.R.; Buchanan, B.A. [Buchanan Consultants, Ltd., Farmington, NM (United States); Ramsey, T.C. [BHP-Minerals, Fruitland, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The root zone suitability limits for spoil Se at Navajo Mine in northwest New Mexico are currently 0.8 ppm total Se and 0.15 ppm hot-water soluble Se. These criteria were largely developed by the Office of Surface Mining using data from the Northern Great Plains. Applying these values, approximately 23% of the spoil volume and 47% of the spoil area sampled at Navajo Mine from 1985 to December 1993 were determined to be unsuitable as root zone material. Secondary Se accumulator plants (Atriplex canescens) growing in both undisturbed and reclaimed areas were randomly sampled for selenium from 1985 to December 1993. In most cases the undisturbed soil and reclaimed spoil at these plant sampling sites were sampled for both total and hot-water soluble Se. Selenium values for Atriplex canescens samples collected on the undisturbed sites averaged 0.64 ppm and ranged from 0.20 ppm to 2.5 ppm. Selenium values for the plants growing on spoil ranged from 0.02 ppm to 7.75 ppm and averaged 1.07 ppm. Total and hot-water Se values for spoil averaged 0.66 ppm and 0.06 ppm respectively, and ranged from 0.0 to 14.2 for total Se and 0.0 ppm to 0.72 ppm for hot-water soluble Se. The plant Se values were poorly correlated to both total and hot-water soluble Se values for both soil and spoil. Therefore, predicting suitable guidelines using normal regression techniques was ineffective. Based on background Se levels in native soils, and levels found on reclaimed areas with Atriplex canescens, it is suggested that a total Se level of 2.0 ppm and a hot-water soluble Se level of 0.25 ppm should be used to represent the suitability limits for Se at Navajo Mine. If these Se values are used, it is estimated that less than 1% of the spoil volume would be unsuitable. This volume of spoil seems to be a more accurate estimate of the amount of spoil with unsuitable levels of Se than the estimated 23% using the current guidelines.

  3. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coblentz, B. [MSU Ag Communications (United States)

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  4. Coal Mine Methane in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  5. Heavy metal concentration in forage grasses and extractability from some acid mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A and M University, Normal (United States). Department of Plant and Soil Science)

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted on several forage grasses, bermudagrass ([ital Cynodon dactylon]), creeping red fescue ([ital Festuca rubra]), Kentucky 31-tall fescue ([ital Festuca arundinacea]), oat ([ital Avena sativa]), orchardgrass ([ital Dactylis glomerata]), perennial ryegrass ([ital Lolium perenne]), sorghum ([ital Sorghum bicolor]), triticale (X. [ital triticosecale Wittmack]), and winter wheat ([ital Triticum aestivum]) grown on three Alabama acid mine spoils to study heavy metal accumulation, dry matter yield and spoil metal extractability by three chemical extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl). Heavy metals removed by these extractants were correlated with their accumulation by several forage grasses. Among the forages tested, creeping red fescue did not survive the stressful conditions of any of the spoils, while orchard grass and Kentucky 31-tall fescue did not grow in Mulberry spoil. Sorghum followed by bermudagrass generally produced the highest dry matter yield. However, the high yielding bermudagrass was most effective in accumulating high tissue levels of Mn and Zn from all spoils (compared to the other grasses) but did not remove Ni. On the average, higher levels of metals were extracted from spoils in the order of 0.1 M HCl[gt] Mehlich 1[gt] DTPA. However, DTPA extracted all the metals from spoils while Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract detectable levels of Ni. All of the extractants were quite effective in determining plant available Zn from the spoils. For the other metals, the effective determination of plant availability depended on the crop, the extractant, and the metal in concert. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  6. A strategic conservation assessment of heathland and associated habitats on the coal spoils of South Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The coal spoils of the South Wales Valleys provide a unique environment for a range of habitats some of which are restricted to the harsh, bare spoil environment such as the unusual and distinctive lichen-rich heaths and areas of open flower-rich vegetation. Previous work has shown that coal spoil habitats do not fit well with the National Vegetation Classification (NVC). Coal waste sites were examined in the Country Boroughs of Caerphilly, Merthyr Tydfil, Rhondda Cynon Taff and Torfaen. The results have shown that none of the NVC communities present on the site are especially rare or restricted to coal waste. The communities noted reflect the geographic locality and range of soil moisture conditions found in the areas sampled and may be expected to occur elsewhere. The presence of U1 is of note however in being also characteristic of certain Breckland communities where lichen heaths develop. The study has however shown similarities between the lower plant floras of the coal waste sites and those of other anthropogenic habitats such as the Breckland Heaths and the Greenham Common airfields. Survey has indicated that botanically the 'best' coal waste sites are those which include topographical complexity, areas of bare ground, edifice complexity and lack of nutrient application. These four characteristics lead to the likelihood of a fifth, i.e. the presence of one or more of an assemblage of conspicuous and characteristic coal-waste plant species. From this data, a 'traffic-light' botanical assessment tool has been derived which allows a preliminary assessment of sites into those of low, medium and high conservation interest respectively by workers with some ecological expertise but without the need for detailed NVC or lower plant identification skills.

  7. Solid speciation and availability of nickel and chromium in Ni mining spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raous, Sophie; Garnier, Jérémie; Sterckeman, Thibaul; Echevarria, Guillaume; Becquer, Thierry; Thomas, Fabien

    2010-05-01

    Nickel mining of ultramafic laterites generates different types of wastes, topsoils and ores that are too poor in Ni to be currently processed. These are mixed and stored on heaps which could be a potential source of Ni and Cr pollution. Chemical reactivity of the main metal bearing phases present in the mining spoils of Goiás (Brasil) was investigated. Principally a silicated 'saprolite' material and a Fe-oxide rich limonitic material were isolated from the wastes. Their total Ni and Cr content are high, respectively for Ni and Cr : 7,170 and 54,970 mg kg-1 in limonite and 12,200 and 12,650 mg kg-1 in saprolite. The main metal-bearing minerals, identified and localized using XRD, TEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy and Mossbaüer spectrometry are well-crystallized minerals: goethite (75%), hematite (13%) and chromite in limonite and ferruginous smectite, talc and chromite in saprolite. Single and sequential extractions showed that the amounts of 1M KCl exchangeable Ni and Cr reached respectively 7.1% and 0.03% of total contents in saprolite. Moreover, Cr(VI) extraction by KH2PO4 showed that more than 2% (980 mg kg-1) of total Cr was under this labile toxic form in limonite. This study allowed us to determine the main reactions controlling the Ni and Cr mobility in the spoils i.e. Ni2+ cationic exchange in saprolitic spoil and CrO32- surface complexation in limonitic spoil. This study allowed us to demonstrate the need of chemical rehabilitation of mining wastes in order to avoid the dispersion of the high contents of Ni and Cr available. It constitutes the system definition needed to predict the Cr and Ni mobility in ultramafic mining spoils.

  8. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COAL WORKERS' HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases Coal mining-related respiratory ...

  9. Geochemical processes in ground water resulting from surface mining of coal at the Big Sky and West Decker Mine areas, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A potential hydrologic effect of surface mining of coal in southeastern Montana is a change in the quality of ground water. Dissolved-solids concen- trations in water in spoils aquifers generally are larger than concentrations in water in the coal aquifers they replaced; however, laboratory experiments have indicated that concentrations can decrease if ground water flows from coal-mine spoils to coal. This study was conducted to determine if decreases in concentrations occur onsite and, if so, which geochemical processes caused the decreases. Solid-phase core samples of spoils, unmined over- burden, and coal, and ground-water samples were collected from 16 observation wells at two mine areas. In the Big Sky Mine area, changes in ground- water chemistry along a flow path from an upgradient coal aquifer to a spoils aquifer probably were a result of dedolomitization. Dissolved-solids concentrations were unchanged as water flowed from a spoils aquifer to a downgradient coal aquifer. In the West Decker Mine area, dissolved-solids concentrations apparently decreased from about 4,100 to 2,100 milligrams per liter as water moved along an inferred flow path from a spoils aquifer to a downgradient coal aquifer. Geochemical models were used to analyze changes in water chemistry on the basis of results of solid-phase and aqueous geochemical characteristics. Geochemical processes postulated to result in the apparent decrease in dissolved-solids concentrations along this inferred flow path include bacterial reduction of sulfate, reverse cation exchange within the coal, and precipitation of carbonate and iron-sulfide minerals.

  10. Mining lore : Bankhead, mining for coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, A.

    2007-09-15

    Bankhead, Alberta was one of the first communities to be established because of mining. It was founded in 1903 by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) on Cascade Mountain in the Bow River Valley of Banff National Park. In 1904, Mine No. 80 was opened by the Pacific Coal Company to fuel CPR's steam engines. In order to avoid flooding the mine, the decision was made to mine up the steep seams instead of down. The mine entered full production in 1905. This article described the working conditions and pay scale for the mine workers, noting that there was not much in terms of safety equipment. There were many accidents and 15 men lost their lives at the mine. During the mine's 20-year operation, miners went on strike 6 times. The last strike marked the closure of the mine in June 1922 and the end of industry in national parks. CPR was ordered to clear out and move the mining equipment as well as the houses, buildings and essentially the entire town. During its peak production, Mine No. 80 produced about a half million tons of coal. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  11. Limiting factors for reforestation of mine spoils from Galicia (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, F.A.; Covelo, E.F.; Andrade, M.L. [University of Vigo, Vigo (Spain)

    2005-02-01

    Mined areas are a continuing source of heavy metals and acidity that move off site in response to erosion. Revegetation of the mine tailings could limit the spread of these heavy metals and acidity. This study was conducted to evaluate, at four tailings on opencast mines of Galicia (Touro: copper mine; and Meirama: lignite mine, NW Spain), the chemical and physical soil quality indicators and limiting edaphic factors concerning forest production. Selected zones were: (1) The tailings formed by the waste materials from the depleted Touro mine; (2) the decantation site of deposited sludge coming from the copper extraction in the flotation stage; (3) and (4) tailings of 3 and 10 years old of the Meirama lignite mine. The main physical limitations of the mine soils are the low effective depth ({lt} 50cm), high stoniness ({gt} 30 percent) and high porosity ({gt} 60 percent); which make them vulnerable to soil erosion and seriously interferes with the forest production. Soils coming from the decantation site of copper mine do not have physical limitations. The main chemical limitations of mine soils are their acidity (pH from 3.62 to 5.71), and aluminium saturation ({gt} 60 per cent in copper mine soils, and {gt} 20 per cent in lignite mine soils), low CECe (from 5.34 to 9.47 cmol{sub +}) kg{sup -1}), organic carbon (from 0.47 to 7.52 mg kg{sup -1}) and Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} contents, and imbalance between exchange bases. Lime and organic amendments are the most important factors in providing a suitable medium for plant growth.

  12. Colonization of spoil benches of an opencast lignite mine in northwest Spain by amphibians and reptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, P. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Faculty of Biology

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the colonization by reptiles and amphibians of the spoil benches of the Meirama opencast lignite mine in northwest Spain over 10 years, following the start of the revegetation process. At Meirama, spoil benches are initially fertilized and hydroseeded with a pasture mix, but are subject to little subsequent management and are gradually colonized by scrub vegetation characteristic of the region. Herpetofauna censuses were carried out yearly on a single 2 ha plot over 6 years following hydroseeding, and in a single year on ten 2 ha plots which had been hydroseeded between 0 and 10 years previously. In addition, censuses were carried out on three undisturbed `control` plots close to the mine. Fifteen species (nine amphibians and six reptiles) were detected in one or more of the spoil-bench plots. Recolonization was particularly rapid after the first 2-3 years post-hydroseeding, and was closely related to habitat development due to revegetation and natural succession. Species composition was most similar to that in control plots in the oldest (ten-year-old) spoil plots.

  13. The machinations in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, C.

    1996-12-31

    The book presents a view of coal mining as seen by the author over a career of more than 40 years working in several coalfields in the UK and also undertaking consultancies and visits to coal mines in several other counties. It takes the format of episodes reported by the author of events and discussions with the people involved. There are three strands running through the book. Firstly, there is the biography of a family within the mining industry in the United Kingdom. The second strand of the book reflects the progress in mechanisation within the nationalised coal industry. Thirdly, the book traces the changes in the structural organisation of the British coal industry. The book captures the social side of the mining communities.

  14. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingliang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  15. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  16. Distribution pattern and limiting factors of vegetation in coal waste pile of Xinzhuangzi coal mine in Huainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Zhao-xia; WANG Shun-chang; WANG Xing-ming

    2012-01-01

    In China,coal mine spoils have traditionally been dumped in cone-shaped heaps that have the potential to pollute air,soil and water environments.The coal waste pile occupies lots of arable land and endangers the ecological system in the coal mine district.Vegetation restoration is an efficient approach for controlling the environment pollution of coal waste pile,and is also a topic of current interest in restoration ecology and degradation system ecology.This study focused on the distribution pattern and limiting factors of vegetation in coal waste pile of Xinzhuangzi Coal Mine in Huainan.The results show that two stable plant communities (Synodon dactylon+Erigeron bonariensis.L+Setaria viridis community and Humulus scanden+Erigeron bonariensis.L community) exist at the bottom of the pile.Synodon dactylon and Erigeron bonariensis.L have much higher values of summed dominance ratio,which denote that these two species can be used for restoration of coal waste piles.The high levels of pH (8.77) and salinity,low levels of total P and total K in coal mine spoil can be the limiting factors for the residence and growth of vegetation.

  17. Seismic techniques in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, A.K.; Savidis, G.M.; Belleza, G.V.

    1982-01-01

    This research project is funded by the NERDDC (predominantly) and the Faculty of Applied Science, University of N.S.W. It concerns the study of the extent and degree of peripheral fracturing in pillars in underground coal mines. The peripheral fracturing directly influences the strength of a pillar, which is designed to support the overlying rock mass. The results of this study are expected to facilitate the design of stable pillars which would not be unnecessary large. Thus, the study could lead to the reduction of the unmined coal left in pillars without sacrificing safety in underground coal mines.

  18. Heavy metal concentrations in redeveloping soil of mine spoil under plantations of certain native woody species in dry tropical environment, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anand N. Singh; ZEHG De-hui; CHEN Fu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Total concentration of heavy metals(Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Mn and Zn) was estimated in the redeveloping soil of mine spoil under 5-yr old plantations of four woody species namely: Albizia lebbeck, Albizia procera, Tectona grandis and Dendrocalamus strictus.The data recorded in the present study were compared with other unplanted coal mine spoil colliery, which was around to the study site and adjoining area of dry tropical forest. Among all the heavy metals, the maximum concentration was found for Fe and minimum for Cd.However, among all four species, total concentrations of these heavy metals were recorded maximally in the plantation plots of T. grandis except for Fe, while minimally in A. lebbeck except for Zn, whereas, the maximum concentration of Fe and Zn was in the plantation plots of D. strictus and A. procera. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences due to species for all the heavy metals except Cu.Among four species, A. lebbeck, A. procera and D. strictus showed more efficient for reducing heavy metal concentrations whereas T. grandis was not more effective to reduce heavy metal concentrations in redeveloping soil of mine spoil.

  19. Legalising small coal mines in Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa Bula, D.

    2000-07-01

    It was estimated that in 1996 some 97% of the coal mines in Colombia comprised small-scale operations. This paper discusses the legal framework of the Colombian mining sector, the regulatory framework of small-scale mining, the illegal mining issue, and the Colombian approach to illegal coal mining. 1 fig., 13 tabs.

  20. Economic Limit of Coal Mining Closedown in Restructuring Coal Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    One of the key points in restructuring the coal industry is to close some deficient coal mines which haveneither economic result nor social benefit. Based on the relationship among production, cost, and profit, differenteconomic limits for closing coal mines in different cases were put forward. The relationship between the profit andclosedown cost of deficient coal mines was analyzed and an overall economic limit for closing a deficient coal minewas also proposed.

  1. Environmental research - development of the material balance of oak tree ecosystems on quaternary spoil bank substrates of coal mines; Umweltforschung - Entwicklung des Stoffhaushaltes von Eichenoekosystemen auf quartaeren Kippsubstraten des Braunkohlenbergbaues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzur, J.; Knoche, D.

    2000-07-01

    Investigations have shown that even the very first forest generation on spoil banks already have high vitality. However, it is well known that pioneering terrestrial ecosystems have a high water and material turnover dynamics which will quickly influence the soil at that site but is not an indication of the development of a stable ecosystem. Long-term measurements were therefore made in oak forest ecosystems on quaternary spoil bank sands in order to achieve a quantification (Boxberg: Q. rubra L., 2 years; Kleinleipisch: Q. rubra L., 21 years; Annahuetter: Q. rubra L., 63 years). The results were compared with a virgin soil reference site (Neusorgefeld: Q. rubra L., 41 years). [German] Seit Jahrzehnten praegen Braunkohlentagebaue das Landschaftsbild und den Wasserhaushalt der Niederlausitz. Bislang wurden ca. 770 km{sup 2} ueberwiegend forstlich genutzter Flaechen devastiert und auf 2.100 km{sup 2} rund 9,5 Mrd. m{sup 3} statischer Grundwasservorraete entnommen. Im Zuge der seit 1990 drastisch verringerten Kohlefoerderung und forcierten Bergbausanierung erreicht die Rekultivierungsflaeche zwischenzeitlich rund 450 km{sup 2}, wobei die forstliche Folgenutzung mit 60% der Flaeche dominiert. Zahlreiche wachstumskundliche Untersuchungen belegen, dass sich bereits in der ersten Waldgeneration auf Kippe wuechsige und vitale Bestaende etablieren. Vegetations- und ertragskundliche Parameter wie z.B. Artenzusammensetzung, Naehrstoffversorgung, laufender Zuwachs oder Vorratshaltung sind jedoch per se noch keine hinreichenden Kriterien zur Einschaetzung der Entwicklungsdynamik und damit des angestrebten Rekultivierungserfolgs. Bekannterweise zeichnen sich im Aufbau befindliche terrestrische Oekosysteme generell durch eine ausgepraegte Wasser- und Stoffdynamik aus, welche im Zuge bodengenetischer Prozesse meist eine rasche Standortveraenderung bewirkt. Da das Standortpotential zum Rekultivierungszeitpunkt nicht prognostiziert werden kann, ist offen, ob sich bereits in der

  2. Direct-seeding of commercial trees on surface-mine spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tackett, E.M.; Graves, D.H.

    1979-12-01

    Three large-seeded tree species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra), pin oak (Quercus palustris), and bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) and one small-seeded species Paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), were spot-seeded and European alder (Alnus glutinosa) was broadcast-seeded on eastern Kentucky surface mine spoil. Treatments included four mulches-hydromulch, shredded bark, shredded bark and poultry manure, and Real Earth (composted municipal waste and sewage sludge), two fertilizer treatments and two rates of grass/legume ground cover seed sown in competition with the tree species. Germination, growth and survival were evaluated after the first growing season. All three oak species germinated and grew well while both small-seeded species failed to become established from seed. Germination was affected by aspect, mulching, fertilizing and competition. Spoil moisture appeared to be indirectly responsible for most of the responses. The variables tested had little effect on the first years growth of the species tested.

  3. Selecting colliery spoil from Puentes mine for the purpose of tip restoration. Restauracion de al escumbrera de la Mina de Puentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Bueno, A.; Val Caballero, C.; Macias Vazquez, F.; Monterroso Martinez, C. (ENDESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1990-12-01

    Presents the results of a study conducted into the physical and chemical properties of material from coal faces at Puentes mine in the La Coruna region of Spain. The main objective was to study waste material with a view to selecting the type most suitable to act as the covering layer for colliery spoil tips. The selection method employed has created tips with a top layer suitable for planting. The article also describes the methods used in the restoration work. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  4. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Qingliang Chang; Jianhang Chen; Huaqiang Zhou; Jianbiao Bai

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology a...

  5. UK coal mining engineering capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    The document outlines the current position of underground coal mining in the UK and identifies the key suppliers of equipment and services, in the following sections: longwall face machinery; roadway drivage; seismic exploration; ventilation; methane drainage; underground transport; electrical and control systems; underground safety; research and development; consultancy services; coal associations. A directory of 43 companies organizations and academic institutions is included. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Major new Colombian coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.

    1998-09-01

    Amcoal with partners Rio Tinto and Glencore, is developing a new large coal export operation in Colombia, following an agreement last year to combine the Cerrejon Centrale and Oreganal coal properties. Three major groups have been awarded a contract to develop the Cerrejon Sur block. Five new mining concessions in the Guajira region south of El Cerrejon will be developed. Colombia has proven and inferred coal reserves amounting to more than 20,000 Mt and hopes to be producing 50 Mt/y by 2005. 1 tab., 1 map.

  7. Hydrogeological and environmental impact of coal mining, Jharia coalfield, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.D. (Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Applied Geology)

    The Jharia coalfield is the most important and active mining region in India, it experiences groundwater inflow and affects groundwater levels in overlying aquifers, and it provides the basis for a conceptual model of the hydrogeological impacts of coal mining. The several sandstone aquifers of the overburden are separated by aquitards that limit vertical hydraulic connection, but the inflow responds to seasonal events and seems to be linked to shallow groundwater behaviour. The mine drainage behaviour suggests a hydraulic connection between the mine and the shallower groundwater system. The greatest declines are directly above the panels, with an immediate response to coal mining. The inflow is localized by natural and induced fracture zones and is mostly into recent workings. The groundwater behaviour is controlled by hydraulic property changes caused by mine-induced fracturing. The hydrological and chemical qualities of the shallow groundwater regime in 13 mining collieries in Mukunda Block have been investigated. Water samples were collected from 30 shallow monitoring dug wells. Rainfall, runoff, and infiltration rates have been calculated in the area. The water-quality plottings were used to interpret the distribution of individual chemical parameters and in predicting the water quality. The underground mine water has been classified as: (1) unconfined groundwater in the calcareous siltstone and sandstone - its composition in Na, Ca, SO{sub 4} and Na-MgHCO{sub 3} with moderate total dissolved solids (TDS)200-1480 ppm; (2) the deep groundwater originating from the coal seams and associated sediments in the near-surface environments - this is a Na-HCO{sub 3} water with higher TDS; and (3) spoil dump waters are essentially Na-HCO{sub 3} with high TDS. This article presents some hydrologic results and conclusions relating to the hydrogeological and environmental impacts of the coal mining in the Jharia coalfield. 19 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Cover layers to the growth of trees and shrobs over a sulfide spoil from gold mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rodrigues de Assis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work was done at a gold mine company in Paracatu, MG, Brazil, and was conducted from March 2000 to November 2005. The substrate (spoil studied was a phillite rock which contains sulfides such as pyrite and arsenopyrite. This study aimed to evaluate the survival and growth of plant species on different combinations of substrate layers over the spoil. These layers were a cover layer and a sealing layer, both deposited over the spoil. The treatment 1 had saprolite (B1 in the sealing layer (SL and B1 with liming (B1L in the cover layer (CL. The treatment 2 had B1 in SL and B1L + soil with liming (SoL in the CL. The treatment 3 had B1 + SoL in the SL and B1L in the CL. The treatment 4 had B1 + SoL in the SL and B1L + SoL in the CL. The plant species used were Acacia farnesiana, A. holosericea, A. polyphylla, Albizia lebbeck, Clitoria fairchildiana, Flemingia sp., Mimosa artemisiana, M. bimucronata e Enterolobium contortisiliquum. Forty and 57 months after planting, collardiameter, height, and living plants were evaluated. The greatest survival rate was oobservedintreatmentwith B horizon of an Oxisoil in both layers, with 80 %. In general, M. bimucronata and A. farnesiana species showed the highest survival rate. The arsenic-content by Mehlich 3 in the cover layer ranged from 0.00 to 14.69 mg dm- 3 among treatments. The experimental results suggest that layers combinations above the sulfide substrate allow the rapid revegetation of the spoil.

  9. Fibre Optics In Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul

    1984-08-01

    Coal mines have a number of unique problems which affect the use of fibre optic technology. These include a potentially explosive atmosphere due to the evolution of methane from coal, and a dirty environment with no cleaning facilities readily available. Equipment being developed by MRDE to allow the exploitation of optical fibres underground includes: A hybrid electrical/fibre optic connector for the flexible power trailing cable of the coal-face shearer; An Intrinsically Safe (IS) pulsed laser transmitter using Frequency Shift Key (FSK) data modulation; An IS Avalanche Photo Diode Receiver suitable for pulsed & continuous wave optical signals; A mine shaft and roadway cable/ connector system incorporating low loss butt-splices and preterminated demountable connectors.

  10. 30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.20 Requirements for all coal mines. (a) The operator of each underground coal mine shall make available two certified mine...

  11. Nutrient capital sequestration in pioneer plant communities on surface-mine spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Four pioneer plant communities on a surface-mine spoil were compared in terms of biomass production and nutrient capital sequestration. A chenopodium album-dominated community (Treatment 4) produced the greatest amount of biomass. Next were a community derived from a forest topsoil seed bank spread over mine spoil (Treatment 2), a seed bank community with common reclamation species seeded into it (Treatment 3), and a mix of grasses and Lespedeza commonly used in reclamation (Treatment 1). Amounts of nutrients sequestered in vegetation were not strictly proportional to biomass. Community nutrient contents were largely influenced by community biomass and the nutrient uptake characteristics of the species with most biomass. Significant changes in soil chemistry were found after one growing season. Addition of the reclamation mix of grasses and Lespedeza to the seed bank resulted in significantly fewer established native species. Native species lost their normal dominance and exhibited stunted growth and phenological delay in Treatment 3. Nutrient content niche, nutrient content niche share, and niche breadth (Levins; B) were calculated for important species in each community. Native species generally had reduced niche breadths and niche shares when reclamation species were added to the community. Community content niche, the sums of species content niches, varied between different types of pioneer communities.

  12. First Mexican coal mine recovery after mine fire, Esmeralda Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillan, M.A. [Minerales Monclova, SA de CV, Palau Coahuila (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The fire started on 8 May 1998 in the development section from methane released into the mine through a roof-bolt hole. The flames spread quickly as the coal was ignited. After eight hours the Safety Department decided to seal the vertical ventilation shafts and the slopes. The quality of coal in the Esmeralda Mine is very high quality, and Minerales Monclova (MIMOSA) decided to recover the facilities. However, the Esmeralda Mine coals have a very high gas content of 12 m{sup 3}/t. During the next 2.5 months, MIMOSA staff and specialists observed and analysed the gas behaviour supported by a chromatograph. With the results of the observations and analyses, MIMOSA in consultation with the specialists developed a recovery plan based on flooding the area in which fire might have propagated and in which rekindling was highly probable. At the same time MIMOSA trained rescue teams. By 20 August 1998, the mine command centre had re-opened the slopes seal. Using a 'Step-by-Step' system, the rescue team began the recovery process by employing cross-cuts and using an auxiliary fan to establish the ventilation circuit. The MIMOSA team advanced into the mine as far as allowed by the water level and was able to recover the main fan. The official mine recovery date was 30 November 1998. Esmeralda Mine was back in operation in December 1998. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  13. The influence of different vegetation patches on the spatial distribution of nests and the epigeic activity of ants (Lasius niger) on a spoil dump after brown coal mining (Czech Republic)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holec, M.; Frouz, J.; Pokorny, R. [Academy of Science Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Inst. of Soil Biology

    2006-07-15

    A study was carried out during 2001 on mine tailings in NW Bohemia aimed at describing the spatial patterns of nests distribution and epigeic activity of ants in relation to the vegetation mosaic. Lasius niger was the most abundant species of ant and its nest mounds were significantly more numerous in patches with sparse vegetation than inside dense Calamagrostis epigejos vegetation; this was particularly true for small and medium-sized nests. Small and medium nests also occurred more frequently near the edges of a given patch than in the center. Large and medium nests were randomly distributed in the area, whereas small nests had an aggregated distribution. Pitfall trapping reveal significantly higher activity of L. niger workers in tall and dense vegetation stands in comparison with low and sparse vegetation. This pattern was particularly pronounced during the peak of foraging activity in summer and was not so significant in spring or autumn. We expect that ants preferentially forage in shaded habitats during the summer months when bare soil may be too hot. The results indicated that nesting and foraging may differ in their microclimatic requirements and the formation of vegetation mosaics may be important to changes in the ant population during succession.

  14. Efficacy of Designer Biochars with or without Lime Application for Remediating Heavy Metals in Mine Spoil Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigua, Gilbert C.; Novak, Jeffrey; Johnson, Mark; Ippolito, James; Spokas, Kurt; Ducey, Thomas; Trippe, Kristin

    2017-04-01

    A multitude of research investigations have confirmed that biochars can increase soil carbon sequestration, improve critical plant nutrient concentrations, and improve the fertility, chemical, and physical properties of degraded agricultural soils. Recently, biochars ability to sequester metals has caught the attention of the mine reclamation sector. It is proposed that biochar is a suitable amendment to remediate heavy metals in mine spoils, as well as improve chemical conditions for enhanced plant growth. Better plant growth will improve phytostabilization, increase containment of metal-laden sediment, while also reducing potential metal uptake by plants. As such, utilization of a biochar with appropriate chemical and physical characteristics is crucial for effective binding of heavy metals while also improving plant growth conditions in mine spoils. Using two different mine spoils, we conducted laboratory and greenhouse experiments to determine the ability of designer biochar with or without lime application to favorably improve soil pH, reduce heavy metal bioavailability, and improve grass (e.g., wild blue rye) plant nutrient uptake. Preliminary results showed that our designer biochars did increase pH of acid mine spoils significantly (pplant nutrients (e.g., phosphorus, potassium and calcium), and significantly (pnickel, zinc, manganese, copper and cadmium) in the soils.

  15. Mining-Induced Coal Permeability Change Under Different Mining Layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zetian; Zhang, Ru; Xie, Heping; Gao, Mingzhong; Xie, Jing

    2016-09-01

    To comprehensively understand the mining-induced coal permeability change, a series of laboratory unloading experiments are conducted based on a simplifying assumption of the actual mining-induced stress evolution processes of three typical longwall mining layouts in China, i.e., non-pillar mining (NM), top-coal caving mining (TCM) and protective coal-seam mining (PCM). A theoretical expression of the mining-induced permeability change ratio (MPCR) is derived and validated by laboratory experiments and in situ observations. The mining-induced coal permeability variation under the three typical mining layouts is quantitatively analyzed using the MPCR based on the test results. The experimental results show that the mining-induced stress evolution processes of different mining layouts do have an influence on the mechanical behavior and evolution of MPCR of coal. The coal mass in the PCM simulation has the lowest stress concentration but the highest peak MPCR (approximately 4000 %), whereas the opposite trends are observed for the coal mass under NM. The results of the coal mass under TCM fall between those for PCM and NM. The evolution of the MPCR of coal under different layouts can be divided into three sections, i.e., stable increasing section, accelerated increasing section and reducing section, but the evolution processes are slightly different for the different mining layouts. A coal bed gas intensive extraction region is recommended based on the MPCR distribution of coal seams obtained by simplifying assumptions and the laboratory testing results. The presented results are also compared with existing conventional triaxial compression test results to fully comprehend the effect of actual mining-induced stress evolution on coal property tests.

  16. Fifth symposium on surface mining and reclamation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Fifth Symposium on Surface Mining and Reclamation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Twenty-six papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include spoil bank revegetation, use of aerial photography, reclamation for row crop production, hydrology, computer programs related to this work, subirrigated alluvial valley floors, reclamation on steep slopes, mountain top removal, surface mine road design, successional processes involved in reclamation, land use planning, etc. (LTN)

  17. Effects of organic enrichment of mine spoil on growth and nutrient uptake in oak seedlings inoculated with selected ectomycorrhizal fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunt, P.H.; Hedger, J.N. [University of Wales, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom). Inst. of Biological Science

    2003-06-01

    Poor growth of Quercus robur L. (oak) trees has been reported on mine sites where overburden and subsoil have been used in the reinstatement of surface layers. This stunting has been attributed to a lack of macronutrients and to an adverse soil environment for root growth and mycorrhizal development. Growth, mineral nutrition, and ectomycorrhizal colonization of Q. robur seedlings were studied in an experiment carried out under controlled growing conditions in which mine spoil material was enriched with a leaf litter mulch. Enrichment of mine spoil material was found to produce a significant increase in growth and foliar N concentrations of oak seedlings. Inoculation with three taxa of ectomycorrhizal fungi did not benefit seedlings when mine spoil was the only substrate, possibly due to the poor physical properties of the unamended spoil and lack of nutrients. Inoculation with two taxa, Laccaria laccata and Hebeloma crustuliniforme, isolated from 3-year-old trees produced a significant stimulation of growth in the organically enriched treatment, which was believed to be due to greater uptake of mineralized N. However, Cortinarius anomalus isolated from fruit bodies associated with a 15-year-old tree did not increase biomass. The presence of organic matter was found to result in a significant stimulation of mycorrhizal infection by both inoculum and contaminant mycobionts. Recommendations are made for improving the establishment and growth of oak seedlings on reinstated sites.

  18. Algae and cyanobacteria colonizing toxic soils on coal-mining dumps

    OpenAIRE

    HRČKOVÁ, Kristýna

    2008-01-01

    Species composition of soil algal and cyanobacterial communities was investigated in thirteen sites of different toxicity of spoil material on dumps in the Sokolov mining area (Czech Republic). The adaptation ability of various algal and cyanobacterial species to live in toxic environment and the effect of different amendments (wooden coal, organic matter, dolomitic limestone) of toxic soils were tested both in laboratory and field experiments. According to results, species composition corres...

  19. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_MINE_UNDERGROUND_IN: Underground Coal Mines in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — COAL_UND, the predecessor of COAL_MINE_UNDERGROUND_IN, is a polygon-based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the location and extent of underground coal mines in the...

  20. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_MINE_ENTRIES_IN: Underground Coal Mine Entrances in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SW_COAL_ENTRY, the predecessor of COAL_MINE_ENTRIES_IN, is a point- based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the locations of underground coal mine entrances in the...

  1. Potential effects of surface coal mining on the hydrology of the Bloomfield coal tract, Dawson County, eastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    The Bloomfield coal tract in Dawson County, Montana, contains about 420 million tons of recoverable coal reserves within the Pust coal bed. About 136 million tons of coal within the tract is Federally owned, of which 98 million tons has been identified for potential lease sale. A hydrologic study has been conducted in the potential lease area to describe existing hydrologic systems and to assess potential impacts of surface coal mining on local water resources. Shallow ground-water resources in the tract are limited to sandstone and coal aquifers in the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene age). These shallow aquifers have small values of hydraulic conductivity; yields to wells generally range from 1 to 10 gallons per minute. Water from shallow sandstone and coal aquifers is used primarily for livestock watering and domestic supply. Chemical analyses indicate that water from most shallow aquifers is dominated by calcium and magnesium cations and sulfate and bicarbonate anions. Surface-water resources in the tract consist primarily of small reservoirs used for livestock watering. All streams in the tract are ephemeral, making them unreliable as a source of livestock water. Mining of the Pust coal bed would cause certain impacts on local water resources. About 15 stock and domestic wells and 13 small stock reservoirs would be destroyed by mining. Shallow coal and sandstone aquifers would be permanently removed from parts of the tract. Leaching of soluble salts from mine spoils may cause a long-term degradation of the quality of water in shallow aquifers in or near the coal tract. Impacts on the local water resources could be mitigated by development of alternative ground-water supplies from deeper aquifers in the Fort Union and in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek and Fox Hills Formations. Reservoirs destroyed by mining could be reconstructed during mine reclamation. (USGS)

  2. Seismic techniques in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, A.K.; Belleza, G.V.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the peripheral fracture zones in coal pillars left for support in underground mines. The fracture zones are caused by the redistribution of stresses in strata resulting from the process of excavation and blasting if it is used. The extent and degree of these fracture zones, in turn, have a direct influence on the ability of pillars to provide stable support to the overlying strata. Seismic methods such as refraction, uphole, and collinear techniques outlined in previous reports are being used to investigate the extent and degree of the peripheral fracture zones. Some of the work that has been carried out and is described in this report, relates to the study of peripheral fracture zones in coal pillars using seismic techniques.

  3. Coal Mine Methane in Russia [Russian Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  4. Rockburst disasters in coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manchao HE

    2006-01-01

    The ruckburst of granite from Kailuan coal mine was reproduced by a new triaxial experimental system. The experimental results show that the rockburst process can be divided into four stages including calm period, grain ejection, sheet cracking and entire collapse. The rockburst intensity is classified by the ratio of maximum principal stress to uniaxial compressive strength. Three types of rockburst for the granite have been defined as delayed rockburst, normal rockburst, and instantaneous rockburst, according to the duration from suddenly unloading to rockburst occurring. Primary mechanism for the granite was studied.

  5. Edaphic restoration of the spoil banks of lignite mines in Galicia. Recuperacion edafica de los escombreras de minas de lignito en Galicia. Caracterizacion de los materiales esteriles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiros de la Pena, M.C.; Gil Sotres, F.; Carballas Fernandez, M.; Codesido Lopez, C.; Gonzalez Sangregorio, M.V.; Seoane Lavandeira, S.; Guitian Ojea, F. (Univ. of Santiago, La Coruna (Spain). Fac. Farm., Lab. Edafol.)

    1989-01-01

    We report physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of four lignite spoils from the mines at Meirama and As Pontes (La Coruna, NW Spain). The low acidity, zero pyrite content and balanced texture of the Meirama spoils suggest that their recovery as viable soil will not be difficult, whereas recovery of the As Pontes spoils (P1 and P2) is hindered by their low pH, high total acidity and the presence of pyrites. The greatest contribution to total acidity is the residual fraction in P1 and the soluble and exchange fractions in P2. Different recovery strategies should be used for these two spoils. 2 figs., 10 tabs., 20 refs.

  6. 76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... addressing Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. This... Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. MSHA conducted hearings on October 18, October...

  7. A systematic investigation into the extraction of aluminum from coal spoil through kaolinite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, X C; Si, P; Yu, J G

    2008-11-15

    This research has applied kaolin and active carbon (AC) to the investigation of the recovery of aluminum from coal spoil (CS). The kaolin, AC-containing kaolin mixture, and CS have been calcined at 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900 degrees C for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. The transformation of kaolinite and aluminum extraction that occurred in each calcined sample have been characterized using XRD, TG, IR, and hydrochloric acid leaching methods. The dehydroxylation of kaolinite and the decomposition of metakaolin were influenced by thermal treatment temperature and time. The metakaolin had kept a portion of OH- in its structure until it was calcined at a temperature of 800 degrees C. Under 60 min treatment, new SiO2 phase was able to be formed at 500 degrees C, kaolinite was totally converted to metakaolin at 600 degrees C, and the SiO2 rejoined the reaction at 800 degrees C. The decompositions of CS were similar to those of kaolin mixture containing 20 wt % AC (MKC). The combustion of combustible matter accelerated the decomposition of kaolinite in the CS and MKC. Higher AC content led to lower aluminum extraction. The treatment at 600 degrees C was optimal for both CS and MKC.

  8. Lead tolerance and accumulation in Hirschfeldia incana, a Mediterranean Brassicaceae from metalliferous mine spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguy, Florence; Fahr, Mouna; Moulin, Patricia; Brugel, Anaïs; Laplaze, Laurent; Mzibri, Mohamed El; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Doumas, Patrick; Smouni, Abdelaziz

    2013-01-01

    Lead is a heavy metal of particular concern with respect to environmental quality and health. The lack of plant species that accumulate and tolerate Pb is a limiting factor to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in Pb tolerance. In this study we identified Hirschfeldia incana, a Brassicaceae collected from metalliferous mine spoils in Morocco, as a Pb accumulator plant. H. incana exhibited high Pb accumulation in mine soils and in hydroponic cultures. Major Pb accumulation occurred in the roots and a part of Pb translocated from the roots to the shoots, even to the siliques. These findings demonstrated that H. incana is a Pb accumulator species. The expression of several candidate genes after Pb-exposure was measured by quantitative PCR and two of them, HiHMA4 and HiMT2a, coding respectively for a P1B-type ATPase and a metallothionein, were particularly induced by Pb-exposure in both roots and leaves. The functional characterization of HiHMA4 and HiMT2a was achieved using Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutants. Pb content and primary root growth analysis confirmed the role of these two genes in Pb tolerance and accumulation. H. incana could be considered as a good experimental model to identify genes involved in lead tolerance and accumulation in plants.

  9. Lead tolerance and accumulation in Hirschfeldia incana, a Mediterranean Brassicaceae from metalliferous mine spoils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Auguy

    Full Text Available Lead is a heavy metal of particular concern with respect to environmental quality and health. The lack of plant species that accumulate and tolerate Pb is a limiting factor to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in Pb tolerance. In this study we identified Hirschfeldia incana, a Brassicaceae collected from metalliferous mine spoils in Morocco, as a Pb accumulator plant. H. incana exhibited high Pb accumulation in mine soils and in hydroponic cultures. Major Pb accumulation occurred in the roots and a part of Pb translocated from the roots to the shoots, even to the siliques. These findings demonstrated that H. incana is a Pb accumulator species. The expression of several candidate genes after Pb-exposure was measured by quantitative PCR and two of them, HiHMA4 and HiMT2a, coding respectively for a P1B-type ATPase and a metallothionein, were particularly induced by Pb-exposure in both roots and leaves. The functional characterization of HiHMA4 and HiMT2a was achieved using Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutants. Pb content and primary root growth analysis confirmed the role of these two genes in Pb tolerance and accumulation. H. incana could be considered as a good experimental model to identify genes involved in lead tolerance and accumulation in plants.

  10. Impact of Coal Mining on Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. On the unstable earth, the unresting mankind constantly uses a variety of resources for daily lives. Coal is recognized to have been the main source of energy in India for many decades and contributes to nearly 27 % of the world’s commercial energy requirement. Coal is mainly mined using two methods- surface or ‘opencast’ and underground mining. The geological condition determines the method of mining. Coal mining is usually associated with the degradation of natural resources and the destruction of habitat. This causes invasive species to occupy the area, thus posing a threat to biodiversity. Huge quantities of waste material are produced by several mining activities in the coal mining region. If proper care is not taken for waste disposal, mining will degrade the surrounding environment. The method of waste disposal affects land, water and air and in turns the quality of life of the people in the adjacent areas. This paper throws lights on the burning issues of coal mines and its impact on the environment.

  11. The coal mining practice of reducing water proof coal pillars in Panxie mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Wang, W.; Peng, W.; Feng, Z.; Shu, K. [Anhui Polytechnical University, Maanshan (China). College of Chemical Engineering and Environment

    2002-04-01

    By summarizing the successful mining practice of reducing waterproof coal pillars in Panxie Mining Area in the past ten years, the hydrogeological feature of Panxie Mining Area, overburden failure law, the mechanism of reducing waterproof coal pillars and the main safety measures during the period of safe extraction are discussed. 3 tabs.

  12. Origin and influence of coal mine drainage on streams of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Degradation of water quality related to oxidation of iron disulfide minerals associated with coal is a naturally occurring process that has been observed since the late seventeenth century, many years before commencement of commercial coal mining in the United States. Disturbing coal strata during mining operations accelerates this natural deterioration of water quality by exposing greater surface areas of reactive minerals to the weathering effects of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Degraded water quality in the temperate eastern half of the United States is readily detected because of the low mineralization of natural water. Maps are presented showing areas in the eastern United States where concentrations of chemical constituents in water affected by coal mining (pH, dissolved sulfate, total iron, total manganese) exceed background values and indicate effects of coal mining. Areas in the East most affected by mine drainage are in western Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, western Maryland, West Virginia, southern Illinois, western Kentucky, northern Missouri, and southern Iowa. Effects of coal mining on water quality in the more arid western half of the United States are more difficult to detect because of the high degree of mineralization of natural water. Normal background concentrations of constituents are not useful in evaluating effects of coal mine drainage on streams in the more arid West. Three approaches to reduce the effects of coal mining on water quality are: (1) exclusion of oxygenated water from reactive minerals, (2) neutralization of the acid produced, (3) retardation of acid-producing bacteria population in spoil material, by application of detergents that do not produce byproducts requiring disposal. These approaches can be used to help prevent further degradation of water quality in streams by future mining. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  13. Injury experience in coal mining, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  14. Injury experience in coal mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, R.B.; Hugler, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  15. The innovational mining technology of fully mechanized mining on thin coal seam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, G.; Sun, Q.; Song, H. [China Ocean University, Qingdao (China)

    2007-03-15

    The paper describes the innovational fully mechanized mining technology practised on thin coal seams in Tianchen coal mine. This mining technology combined fully mechanized mining and orthodox working face mining. The technology is suitable for mining of particularly thin coal seams. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  17. Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, B.P.; Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Thumma, B.R.; Mott, J.J. [CSIRO, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures

    1997-07-01

    This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Assessment of Robinia pseudoacacia cultivations as a restoration strategy for reclaimed mine spoil heaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachodimos, Kostas; Papatheodorou, Efimia M; Diamantopoulos, John; Monokrousos, Nikolaos

    2013-08-01

    Reforestation with black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is considered a successful technique that is often used for the reclamation of open-cast mine areas. An alternative reclamation technique could be the natural regeneration of vegetation with spontaneous grass species. In this study, we compared the concentrations of chemical and biochemical variables in soil samples taken under black locust canopy to those from sites covered by spontaneous grass vegetation (control samples) in a time sequence of spoil deposition (0-10 years), in order to assess which of the two reclamation techniques yields higher soil quality. Soil quality refers here to the ability of soils to function ecologically. This has a special interest since the main question for the restored soils is their capacity to perform a range of ecological functions under stress or disturbance. Furthermore, we aimed at identifying the effect of vegetation type on soil ecological succession. The effect of vegetation type on primary succession becomes apparent after 2 years of reclamation. R. pseudoacacia as a nitrogen-fixing plant enriched soil with organic and inorganic nitrogen and organic matter to a greater extent than the natural grasses. It also increased the amount of soil microbial biomass and the activity of alkaline phosphatase. However, the fact that black locust failed to enhance dehydrogenase activity and actually decreased the activity of urease, activities that represent specialized niche functions and therefore, are more vulnerable to stress or disturbance, suggests that the development of an indigenous grass community in combination with organic supplements might often be more appropriate for the reclamation of similar kinds of mine areas.

  19. Injury experience in coal mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

  20. Informationization of coal enterprises and digital mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-jun; WANG Xiao-lu; MA Li; ZHAO An-xin

    2008-01-01

    Analyzed the main problems which were found in current conditions and prob-lems of informationization in coal enterprises. It clarified how to achieve informationizationin coal mine and put forward a general configuration of informationization construction inwhich informationization in coal enterprises was divided into two parts: informationizationof safety production and informationization of management. Planned a platform of inte-grated management of informationization in coal enterprises. Ultimately, it has broughtforward that an overall integrated digital mine is the way to achieve the goal of informa-tionization in coal enterprises, which can promote the application of automation, digitaliza-tion, networking, informaitionization to intellectualization. At the same time, the competi-tiveness of enterprises can be improved entirely, and new type of coal industry can besupported by information technology.

  1. Informationization of coal enterprises and digital mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jian-jun; Wang, Xiao-lu; Ma, Li; Zhao, An-xin [Xi' an University of Science and Technology, Xi' an (China). School of Communication and Information Engineering

    2008-09-15

    The main problems which were found in current conditions and problems of informationization in coal enterprises in China were analysed. The paper clarified how to achieve informationization in coal mining and put forward a general configuration of informationization construction in which informationization in coal enterprises was divided into two parts: informationization of safety production and informationization of management. A platform of integrated management of informationization in coal enterprises was planned. Ultimately, it was considered that an overall integrated digital mine is the way to achieve the goal of informatonization in coal enterprises, which can promote the application of automation, digitalization, networking, informaitionization to intellectualization. At the same time, the competitiveness of enterprises can be improved entirely and a new type of coal industry can be supported by information technology. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Stability tables for opencast mining of coal and sedimentary deposits in inclined seams. Abacos de estabilidad para mineria de carbon y sedimentaria a cielo abierto con capas inclinadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, F.J.; Granda, J.R.; Sarti, A.

    1985-01-01

    The six chapters of the book cover the following aspects of strata control in surface mining: design of opencast coal sites; parameters for the geomechanical design of opencast sites; methods for calculating slope stability; calculating the stability of spoil tips with a fractured cement base; calculation of stripping ratios; and stability tables.

  3. Selecting colliery spoil from Puentes mine for the purpose of tip restoration. Influencia de la seleccion de los esteriles de la Mina Puentes en la restauracion de la escombrera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Bueno, A.; Macias Vazquez, F.; Monterroso Martinez, C.; Val Caballero, C.

    1990-12-01

    Presents the results of a study conducted into the physical and chemical properties of material from coal faces at Puentes Mine in the La Coruna region of Spain. The main objective was to study waste material with a view to selecting the type most suitable to act as the covering layer for colliery spoil tips. The selection method employed has created tips with a top layer suitable for planting. The article also describes the methods used in the restoration work. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. 78 FR 58264 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for information...) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension gives interested parties additional... for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period had been scheduled to close on October 7, 2013....

  5. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 153... 30 CFR Part 75 RIN 1219-AB84 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and... alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit...

  6. 78 FR 73471 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for information...) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension gives interested parties additional... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period was originally scheduled to close on October...

  7. Evaluating the risk of coal bursts in underground coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Christopher⇑; Gauna Michael

    2016-01-01

    Coal bursts involve the sudden, violent ejection of coal or rock into the mine workings. They are almost always accompanied by a loud noise, like an explosion, and ground vibration. Bursts are a particular haz-ard for miners because they typically occur without warning. Despite decades of research, the sources and mechanics of these events are not well understood, and therefore they are difficult to predict and control. Experience has shown, however, that certain geologic and mining factors are associated with an increased likelihood of a coal burst. A coal burst risk assessment consists of evaluating the degree to which these risk factors are present, and then identifying appropriate control measures to mitigate the hazard. This paper summarizes the U.S. and international experience with coal bursts, and describes the known risk factors in detail. It includes a framework that can be used to guide the risk assessment process.

  8. Effects of coal strip mining on stream water quality and biology, southwestern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuste, L.A.; Meyer, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    Strip mining for coal in southwestern Washington may be affecting the water quality of streams. To investigate these possible effects, five streams were selected for study of water quality in each of the two coal bearing areas: the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, and Kelso-Castle Rock coal area. In the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, three of the streams have drainage basins in which mines are active. Water in streams that drain unmined basins is typical of western Washington streams and is characterized as a mixed water because calcium, magnesium, sodium, and bicarbonate ions predominate. A change in anionic composition from bicarbonate to sulfate in streams draining mined areas was not sufficient to change the general water composition and thus make the streams acidic. The largest downstream changes in water quality in both mined and unmined drainage basins were observed during summer low-flow conditions, when minimal dilution, increased water temperatures, and low dissolved oxygen concentrations occurred. High dissolved solids were found in the mined drainage basins during this period. High concentrations of iron, manganese, and zinc were present in the bottom sediments of the mined basins. Moderate concentrations of chromium, cobalt, copper, and zinc were also found in the bottom sediments of a few unmined basins. Streams with substrates of gravel-cobble or gravel-coarse sand had the most diverse benthic fauna and a higher number of ubiquitous taxa than streams with sand-silt substrates, which had the most dissimilar fauna. Mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies were rare at the site most affected by mining. The erosion potential of a basin appears to be related to the average basin slope and the amount of forested areas. Strip mining for coal in steep basins may lead to massive movements of unconsolidated spoils after vegetal cover is removed if the land disturbed is graded to pre-mining slopes. (Lantz-PTT)

  9. Prevention of explosion in coal mine and management of coal mine gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FURUKAWA Hirofumi; LI Bingrui; TOMITA Shinji

    2009-01-01

    There are many problems in terms of safe coal production and the sound de-velopment of the coal industry. Accompanying the intensification and increasing efficiency of coal production and the conducting of mining operations at deeper and more remote areas of mines, the efficient recovery and utilization of Coal Mine Methane (CMM) is an important issue in improving and stabilizing the productivity in the coal mining industry with high levels of gas, where the incidence of gas outbursts is increasing. We plan to study various aspects of the development of production technology and characteristics of the mine site. This is to establish the technology for highly efficient coproduction coal and gas operation rate. As a result, the productivity at the coal mine face will increase due to the reduction in gas emissions in the mining face. Effective use of recovered gas can be ex-pected to reduce global warming by reducing the amount of coal mine methane gas emis-sion in the air.

  10. Metal extraction by Alyssum serpyllifolium ssp. lusitanicum on mine-spoil soils from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, P S; Monterroso, C

    2005-01-05

    The efficiency of Alyssum serpyllifolium ssp. lusitanicum (Brassicaceae) for use in phytoextraction of polymetallic contaminated soils was evaluated. A. serpyllifolium was grown on two mine-spoil soils (MS1 and MS2): MS1 is contaminated with Cr (283 mg kg(-1)) and MS2 is moderately contaminated with Cr (263 mg kg(-1)), Cu (264 mg kg(-1)), Pb (1433 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (377 mg kg(-1)). Soils were limed to about pH 6.0 (MS1/Ca and MS2/Ca) or limed and amended with NPK fertilisers (MS1/NPK and MS2/NPK). Biomass was reduced on MS2/Ca due to Cu phytotoxicity. Fertilisation increased biomass by 10-fold on MS1/NPK, but root growth was reduced by 7-fold compared with MS1/Ca. Plants accumulated Mn, Ni and Zn in shoots, and both metal content and transportation were generally greater in MS2 than in MS1. Zinc bioaccumulation factors (BF, shoot([metal])/soil([metal])) were significantly greater in MS2 than in MS1. However, metal yields were greatest in plants grown on MS1/NPK. Concentrations of EDTA-, NH(4)Cl- and Mehlich 3 (M3)-extractable Mn and Zn were greater after plant growth. Concentrations of M3-extractable Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn were increased at the rhizosphere. Sequential extractions showed changes in the metal distribution among different soil fractions after growth. This could reflect the buffering capacity of these soils or the plants' ability to mobilise metals from less plant-available soil pools. Results suggest that A. serpyllifolium could be suitable for phytoextraction uses in polymetallic-contaminated soils, provided Cu concentrations were not phytotoxic. However, further optimisation of growth and metal extraction are required.

  11. Coal mines around Accrington and Blackburn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadin, J.

    1999-12-01

    A companion to an earlier book on 'The coal-mines of East Lancashire', this volume covers coal mining in the townships of Church, Accrington, Oswaldthistle, Baxenden, Blackburn and Lower and Over Darmen, which are to the west. After a short history of the mining companies George Hargreaves & Co., and Simpson & Young, the book gives short historical accounts of all known coalmines, arranged in alphabetical order. It gives copious accounts of accidents and injuries in the pits, to both men and young children. The text and plates give an interesting insight into an area where coal mining goes back at least to the 15th century. Large scale extraction began at the turn of the 19th century. Many articles are reproduced from the local newspapers. An index of personnel names mentioned is included. 19 refs., 30 figs., 23 plates.

  12. 30 CFR 49.40 - Requirements for large coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for large coal mines. 49.40 Section 49.40 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.40 Requirements for large...

  13. 30 CFR 49.30 - Requirements for small coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for small coal mines. 49.30 Section 49.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.30 Requirements for small...

  14. Disaster prediction of coal mine gas based on data mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Liang-shan; FU Gui-xiang

    2008-01-01

    The technique of data mining was provided to predict gas disaster in view of thecharacteristics of coal mine gas disaster and feature knowledge based on gas disaster.The rough set theory was used to establish data mining model of gas disaster prediction,and rough set attributes relations was discussed in prediction model of gas disaster tosupplement the shortages of rough intensive reduction method by using information en-tropy criteria. The effectiveness and practicality of data mining technology in the predictionof gas disaster is confirmed through practical application.

  15. Extent of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines and Surface Mines in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (friminedu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the areal extent of abandoned underground coal mines and surface mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  16. 78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 75 RIN 1219-AB84 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal... training for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of... in underground coal mines. On January 13, 2009, the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA)...

  17. Biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in surface mine spoil restoration stands in Poland – first time recorded, rare, and red-listed species

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Lidia Kałucka; Andrzej M. Jagodziński; Mirosław Nowiński

    2016-01-01

    Results of mycological research conducted in the years 2001–2013 in the restoration stands growing on reclaimed mine spoils are presented. Four opencast lignite mine spoil heaps in Poland were examined: Pątnów-Jóźwin, Adamów, Mt Kamieńsk, and Turów. The paper focuses on 71 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi: recorded for the first time in the country (16 taxa), currently red-listed (23 taxa), known from few localities only (32 taxa). Notes on their ecology and habitats are provided, as well as ...

  18. NAFTA opportunities: Bituminous coal and lignite mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) secures and improves market access in Mexico and Canada for the United States bituminous coal and lignite mining sector. Canada is one of the United States' largest export markets for bituminous coal and lignite, with exports of $486.7 million in 1992. Conversely, the Mexican market is one of the smallest export markets for U.S. producers with exports of $1.8 million in 1992. Together, however, Canada and Mexico represent approximately 15 percent of total U.S. coal exports. The report presents a sectoral analysis.

  19. New wave seeks Indonesian coal mining concessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symon, A.

    1996-03-01

    A further wave of new mine exploration and development is on the horizon in Indonesia with 40 companies seeking major new concessions. Successful companies will enjoy a more attractive regulatory framework than their predecessors. The Indonesian Government is recasting the terms of the agreements under which it allows private domestic and foreign invested companies to operate large scale operations in order to encourage more investment in the industry. The Government`s intent to encourage expansion of the industry reflects looming pressure to provide sufficient coal to meet ambitious power plant expansion plans, while being able to maintain coal`s now important role as an export earner. In 1995, steam coal exports reached 40 billion tonnes, and contributed more than 1 billion dollars to Indonesia`s trade accounts. With Indonesia facing a widening current account deficit - combined with high foreign debt - the coal industry is playing a not insignificant role in helping to stabilise Indonesia`s external accounts. 1 tab.

  20. PPLICATION OF COAL MINING WASTE IN THE PRODUCTION OF STRUCTURAL CERAMICS USING AN ECOLOGICALLY FRIENDLY AND RESOURCE SAVING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaysman Yakov Iosifovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article states that the use of spoil heaps (coal mining waste in the production of structural ceramics is expedient. It shows the reduction of negative ecological effects during the life cycle when coal mining waste is used in the initial blend for the production of structural ceramics. It shows that the development of the recommendations for the use of coal mining waste in the production of structural ceramics is an urgent issue as far as the use of coal mining waste in the production of structural ceramics can lead both to the achievement of resource saving and positive ecological effect and to the undesirable decrease of the basic physical and mechanical properties of the final products when the structure of the mix is inappropriate. In order to develop these recommendations the authors have examined the microstructure, mineral composition and physical and mechanical properties of structural ceramics produced with the use of coal mining waste, which effect the consumer properties of the target material. As a result of the research the authors have made the conclusions about the nature and degree of impact of coal mining waste quantity on the physical and mechanical properties of construction ceramics. The comparison of the data received during the measurement of the basic physical and mechanical properties of construction ceramics with the results of the research of microstructure, elemental and mineral composition of the samples has shown their correlation.

  1. The control of coal mine gas and coordinated exploitation of coal bed methane in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-zhong

    2009-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the coalfield geology and the distribution of coal bed methane (CBM) in China, the geological conditions for exploiting the CBM and drain-ing the coal mine gas were analyzed, as well as the characteristics of CBM production. By comparing the current situation of CBM exploitation in China with that in the United States, the current technology and characteristics of the CBM exploitation in China were summa-rized and the major technical problems of coal mine gas control and CBM exploitation analyzed. It was emphasized that the CBM exploitation in China should adopt the coal mine gas drainage method coordinated with coal mine exploitation as the main model. It was proposed that coal mine gas control should be coordinated with coal mine gas ex-ploitation. The technical countermeasure should be integrating the exploitation of coal and CBM and draining gas before coal mining.

  2. Geotechnical applications of geophysics in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatherly, P. [CMTE/CSIRO Exploration and Mining, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    In coal mining, geophysical techniques have an established application in determining the location of seam boundaries ahead of the face so that underground mines can be planned to avoid any geological structures that might disrupt production. Geophysics can also be used in geotechnical studies to determine the in situ properties of the rock mass and the response of the rock mass to the mining. The use of geophysical logs and microseismic monitoring in these geotechnical applications are discussed in this paper. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Need for Clean Coal Mining in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining contributes largely towards economic development of the nation although it has a great impact on the human health. It also has an impact on a socio-cultural aspect of workers and people residing in and around coal mining areas. Thus a holistic approach to taking up with mining activities, keeping in mind the concerns over adjoining habitats and ecosystem, is the need of the hour. This requires identification of various sites where minerals exist, of various factors ranging from an appropriate angle of the slope of overburden dumps to safe disposal drains, of safe techniques to various silt control structures etc. In India, coal companies are now working towards “clean coal” strategies which aim to reduce environmental impacts. The reduced ash contents of the washed coal increase thermal efficiency of combustion which, in turn, makes a direct impact on reducing emissions of pollutants. However, the coal washing requires extra water and it can turn towards a pollution free society.

  4. Management present situation and countermeasures of coal mines safety in production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu-dong; YU Chang-wu

    2008-01-01

    Analyzed of the present situation of Chinese coal mines safety in production and the reasons for coal mining accident, and realized the coal mines safety in production,which should increase the legal safeguards of coal mine safety in production, and safety input, established the comprehensive coal mine safety evaluation system, comprehensively enhance quality of coal mine workers, established and improved early warning mechanism of safety production of coal mine.

  5. Radon concentration measurements in bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisne, Abdullah; Okten, Gündüz; Celebi, Nilgün

    2005-01-01

    Radon measurements were carried out in Kozlu, Karadon and Uzülmez underground coal mines of Zonguldak bituminous coal basin in Turkey. Passive-time integrating method, which is the most widely used technique for the measurement of radon concentration in air, was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39) in the study area. The radon concentration measurements were performed on a total of 42 points in those three mines. The annual exposure, the annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk, which are the important parameters for the health of workers, were estimated based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas, which is calculated using UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 models. The radon concentrations at several coal production faces are higher than the action level of 1000 Bq m(-3). It is suggested that the ventilation rates should be rearranged to reduce the radon concentration.

  6. Pneumatic automation systems in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmatkov, N.A.; Kiklevich, Yu.N.

    1981-04-01

    Giprougleavtomatizatsiya, Avtomatgormash, Dongiprouglemash, VNIIGD and other plants develop 30 new pneumatic systems for mine machines and equipment control each year. The plants produce about 200 types of pneumatic systems. Major pneumatic systems for face systems, machines and equipment are reviewed: Sirena system for remote control of ANShch and AShchM face systems for steep coal seams, UPS control systems for pump stations, PAUZA control system for stowing machines, remote control system of B100-200 drilling machines, PUSK control system for coal cutter loaders with pneumatic drive (A-70, Temp), PUVSh control system for ventilation barriers activated from moving electric locomotives, PAZ control system for skip hoist loading. Specifications of the systems are given. Economic benefit produced by the pneumatic control systems are evaluated (from 1,500 to 40,000 rubles/year). Using the systems increases productivity of face machines and other machines used in black coal mines by 5 to 30%.

  7. A Modified Coal Mine Roof Rating Classification System to Design Support Requirements in Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Abbas; Lee, Yongha; Medina, Mario Andres Guardado

    2017-10-01

    The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) classification system has been applied in a number of coal mines worldwide including Australia. However, the current system cannot be used directly to design support measures in underground mines. Two case studies, the Eliza Hill project in Australia and Tabas coal mine in Iran were analyzed to assess the impact of various rock properties and gallery geometry on stability and to modify the CMRR classification system. Having considered the CMRR system as a working classification system, applicable information and related coal mine data were selected from the two case records. The CMRR value was evaluated and analysed by undertaking correlation between CMRR and factor of safety, followed by a parametric study based on various rock properties and gallery geometries. To improve the applicability of the current system, the CMRR system was then modified by adding additional parameters, namely, the width of roof span and the density of overburden rock. Consequently, based on the modified CMRR system (mCMRR) roof support requirements were recommended to select the suitable rock bolting system including length and spacing of rock bolt. Numerical modelling were then undertaken to verify the support requirements recommended. The support requirements recommended by the mCMRR were found to be relatively identical with numerical analysis results. Support systems proposed by mCMRR can assist mining engineers to assess the stability of underground coal mines or verify the results of other design tools.

  8. A Modified Coal Mine Roof Rating Classification System to Design Support Requirements in Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Abbas; Lee, Yongha; Medina, Mario Andres Guardado

    2017-01-01

    The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) classification system has been applied in a number of coal mines worldwide including Australia. However, the current system cannot be used directly to design support measures in underground mines. Two case studies, the Eliza Hill project in Australia and Tabas coal mine in Iran were analyzed to assess the impact of various rock properties and gallery geometry on stability and to modify the CMRR classification system. Having considered the CMRR system as a working classification system, applicable information and related coal mine data were selected from the two case records. The CMRR value was evaluated and analysed by undertaking correlation between CMRR and factor of safety, followed by a parametric study based on various rock properties and gallery geometries. To improve the applicability of the current system, the CMRR system was then modified by adding additional parameters, namely, the width of roof span and the density of overburden rock. Consequently, based on the modified CMRR system (mCMRR) roof support requirements were recommended to select the suitable rock bolting system including length and spacing of rock bolt. Numerical modelling were then undertaken to verify the support requirements recommended. The support requirements recommended by the mCMRR were found to be relatively identical with numerical analysis results. Support systems proposed by mCMRR can assist mining engineers to assess the stability of underground coal mines or verify the results of other design tools.

  9. Comprehensive evaluation system of coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, D.; Wang, Y. [University of Science and Technology of Suzhou, Suzhou (China). Dept. of City and Environment

    2005-01-01

    In order to ensure the sustainable and effective coal mining under buildings, railways and water bodies and reduce the influence on the ground establishment and the ecological environments, from the view of technology, economics, resources and society, the three-underground mining was evaluated and the comprehensive evaluating system was constructed. The evaluation of the three-underground mining was carried out with combination of qualitative with quantitative analysis, macro with micro discussion, the technical and the economic analysis and theory with practice. Such subjects as engineering economy, science of mining subsidence, fuzzy maths, operational research, theory of information and theory of system were adopted. The results can provide the theoretical basis and practical guidance for decision-making and related policy about three-underground mining. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Noise exposures in US coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, J.P.; Valoski, M.P.; Crivaro, M.A.

    1994-05-01

    Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) inspectors conduct full-shift environmental noise surveys to determine the occupational noise levels to which coal miners are exposed. These noise surveys are performed to determine compliance with the noise standard promulgated under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. Data from over 60,000 full-shift noise surveys conducted from fiscal year 1986 through 1992 were entered into a computer data base to facilitate analysis. This paper presents the mean and standard deviation of over 60,000 full-shift noise dose measurements for various underground and surface coal mining occupations. Additionally, it compares and contrasts the levels with historical noise exposure measurements for selected coal mining occupations that were published in the 1970`s. The findings were that the percentage of miners surveyed that were subjected to noise exposures above 100%, neglecting personal hearing protectors, were 26.5% and 21.6% for surface and underground mining, respectively. Generally, the trend is that the noise exposures for selected occupations have decreased since the 1970`s.

  11. Insects in relation to black locust culture on surface-mine spoil in Kentucky, with emphasis on the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zell. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoeny, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    This research evaluated the impacts of herbivorous insects, emphasizing the locust twig borer, Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zeller, on black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L., coppice production on a coal surface-mine spoil site in southeastern Kentucky. The natural history of E. insiticiana was also studied. The locust twig borer was a persistent and damaging pest in first-year coppice, which provided suitable larval habitat throughout the growing season. The locust leafminer, Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), fed minimally on first-year coppice foliage except during 1983, when trees were severely drought-stressed. Soil-applied granular carbofuran significantly reduced infestations. Lindane stem treatments were not effective, but entire-tree applications did reduce herbivory. Stump sprouts with reduced levels of herbivory grew significantly taller than controls at both spacings in 1983, but only at the more dense spacing in 1984. Blacklight trap collections revealed two generations/year, and adults were present from early May until late August. Four species of hymenopterous and two species of dipterous parasitoids were recovered from E. insiticiana larvae.

  12. Biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in surface mine spoil restoration stands in Poland – first time recorded, rare, and red-listed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Lidia Kałucka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of mycological research conducted in the years 2001–2013 in the restoration stands growing on reclaimed mine spoils are presented. Four opencast lignite mine spoil heaps in Poland were examined: Pątnów-Jóźwin, Adamów, Mt Kamieńsk, and Turów. The paper focuses on 71 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi: recorded for the first time in the country (16 taxa, currently red-listed (23 taxa, known from few localities only (32 taxa. Notes on their ecology and habitats are provided, as well as their distribution in Europe and in Poland. Restoration tree stands, established as part of the reclamation process of mine spoils, form a unique habitat for many rare and interesting fungal taxa. Among them are pioneer species, species known mainly from Northern Europe or mountainous locations, highly specialized and narrow-niche taxa, and many threatened species. Afforested mine spoils contribute significantly to the fungal biodiversity, both at a local and at a larger scale.

  13. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, U.J.; Kim, J.A.; Kim, S.S. [Coal Industry Promotion Board, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, W.K.; Yoon, S.H.; Choi, J.K. [Ssangyong Information and Communication Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  14. Influence of Mining Thickness on the Rationality of Upward Mining in Coal Seam Group

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of mining thickness on the rationality of upward mining in coal seam group. Numerical simulation and theoretical analysis were performed to investigate the influence of the mining thicknesses of initial mining seam on the destruction and pressure relief effect of the upper coal seam in a high-gas coal seam group. The mechanical model of the roof failure based on the mining thickness was established by assuming that the gob formed after a...

  15. Research on coal structure indices to coal and gas outbursts in Pingdingshan Mine Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭德勇; 宋广太; 库明欣

    2002-01-01

    According to the feature that coal and gas outbursts is controlled by coal structure in Pingdingshan mine area, based on the study of the distribution law of disturbed coal in Mine Area and the macroscopic characteristics of coal structure, the characteristics and genesis to micro-pore of disturbed coal, the relationship between the type of coal structure and gas parameter, and the structural feature of coal at outbursts sites are mainly explored in this paper. Further, the steps and methods are put forward that coal structure indices applied to forecast coal and gas outbursts.

  16. Water resources and effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Hanging Woman Creek basin, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater resources of the Hanging Woman Creek basin, Montana include Holocene and Pleistocene alluvial aquifers and sandstone , coal, and clinker aquifers in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Surface water resources are composed of Hanging Woman Creek, its tributaries, and small stock ponds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater ranged from 200 to 11,00 mg/L. Generally, concentrations were largest in alluvial aquifers and smallest in clinker aquifers. Near its mouth, Hanging Woman Creek had a median concentration of about 1,800 mg/L. Mining of the 20-foot to 35-foot-thick Anderson coal bed and 3-foot to 16-foot thick Dietz coal bed could increase dissolved-solids concentrations in shallow aquifers and in Hanging Woman Creek because of leaching of soluble minerals from mine spoils. Analysis of saturated-paste extracts from 158 overburden samples indicated that water moving through mine spoils would have a median increase in dissolved-solids concentration of about 3,700 mg/L, resulting in an additional dissolved-solids load to Hanging Woman Creek of about 3.0 tons/day. Hanging Woman Creek near Birney could have an annual post-mining dissolved-solids load of 3,415 tons at median discharge, a 47% increase from pre-mining conditions load. Post-mining concentrations of dissolved solids, at median discharge, could range from 2,380 mg/L in March to 3,940 mg/L in August, compared to mean pre-mining concentrations that ranged from 1,700 mg/L in July, November, and December to 2,060 mg/L in May. Post-mining concentrations and loads in Hanging Woman Creek would be smaller if a smaller area were mined. (USGS)

  17. Seismic surveying for coal mine planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, B. [CMTE/CSIRO Exploration and Mining, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    More and more coal in Australia is extracted by underground mining methods especially by longwall mining. These methods can be particularly sensitive to relatively small-scale structural discontinuities and variations in roof and floor rock character. Traditionally, information on these features has been obtained through drilling. However, this is an expensive process and its relevance is limited to the immediate neighbourhood of the boreholes. Seismic surveying, especially by 3D seismic, is an alternative tool for geological structure delineation. It is one of the most effective geophysical methods available for identification of geological structures such as faults, folds, washouts, seam splits and thickness changes which are normally associated with potential mining hazards. Seismic data even can be used for stratigraphic identification. The information extracted from seismic data can be integrated into mine planning and design. In this paper, computer aided interpretation techniques for maximising the information from seismic data are demonstrated and the ability of seismic reflection methods to resolve localised geological features illustrated. Both synthetic and real seismic data obtained in recent 2D and 3D seismic surveys from Australian coal mines are used. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Guide for surface coal mine reclamation plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of the guide is to provide a framework for Nova Scotia's coal mining community to consult during reclamation planning and environmental assessment. The guide describe the best management practices for application to surface mine reclamation. Principles of reclamation, standard submission requirements for a reclamation plan, planning for reclamation, landscape design, and revegetation, and methods for site preparation, monitoring, and maintenance are discussed. Backfilling, flooded excavation management, and other options are outlined. The reclamation plan must consider decommissioning of equipment and infrastructure, water retention and treatment ponds, acid rock drainage control and monitoring, site monitoring, watercourse management, and public safety. A glossary is included.

  19. Long-term effects of aided phytostabilisation of trace elements on microbial biomass and activity, enzyme activities, and composition of microbial community in the Jales contaminated mine spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renella, Giancarlo; Landi, Loretta; Ascher, Judith; Ceccherini, Maria Teresa; Pietramellara, Giacomo; Mench, Michel; Nannipieri, Paolo

    2008-04-01

    We studied the effectiveness of remediation on microbial endpoints, namely microbial biomass and activity, microbial and plant species richness, of an As-contaminated mine spoil, amended with compost (C) alone and in combination with beringite (B) or zerovalent iron grit (Z), to increase organic matter content and reduce trace elements mobility, and to allow Holcus lanatus and Pinus pinaster growth. Untreated spoil showed the lowest microbial biomass and activity and hydrolase activities, and H. lanatus as sole plant species, whereas the presented aided phytostabilisation option, especially CBZ treatment, significantly increased microbial biomass and activity and allowed colonisation by several plant species, comparable to those of an uncontaminated sandy soil. Microbial species richness was only increased in spoils amended with C alone. No clear correlation occurred between trace element mobility and microbial parameters and plant species richness. Our results indicate that the choice of indicators of soil remediation practices is a bottleneck.

  20. Development history of coal mine and advanced mining technology; Tanko no rekishi to saitan gijutsu no shinpo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohara, H. [Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-20

    Japanese coal mine was get a full supply for the construction of the modernize nation in Meiji and the reconstruction of the industry after the second world war. This perfection was completed by the full coal resources and the advanced coal mining technology. But, japanese recent coal seam is too deep for the economical mining. And yet, advanced coal mining technology of japan is necessary for the coal mine of the developing country. (author)

  1. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-05

    This project evolved from a 1995, DOE-NETL competitive solicitation for practical CMM capture and utilization concepts. Appalachian Pacific was one of three companies selected to proceed with the construction and operation of a cost-shared demonstration plant. In the course of trying to proceed with this demonstration plant, AP examined several liquefaction technologies, discussed obtaining rights to coal mine methane with a number of coal companies, explored marketing potential with a wide variety of customers in many sections of the United States, studied in great detail the impact of a carbon credit exchange, and developed a suite of analytical tools with which to evaluate possible project options. In the end, the newness of the product, reluctance on the part of the coal companies to venture away from time tested practices, difficulty with obtaining financing, the failure of a carbon credit market to develop and the emergence of shale derived gas production prevented a demonstration plant from being built.

  2. Depth to Coal Mining in the Colorado Front Range (frimndpthu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the depth to (overburden above) abandoned underground coal mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  3. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that

  4. PROBLEMS AND COUNTERMEASURES OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN COAL MINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立杰; 傅贵辰

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems about the environmental pollution of the coal mines in China and analyses the main reasons which caused the pollution of coal mining areas and puts forward the view that we should get rid of our traditional concepts about social development and take the paths of sustained development. This paper also gives the suggestion that strict rules and laws for the protection of environment of the coal mining ares should be set up and favourabh policies be worked out to promote the improvement of coal mining area's environment.

  5. Radon Emission from Coal Mines of Kuzbass Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portola, V. A.; Torosyan, E. S.; Antufeyev, V. K.

    2016-04-01

    The article represents the results of a research in radionuclides concentration in coal and rocks of Kuzbass mines as well as radon concentration in operative mines and mined-out spaces. It is proved that radon concentration in mines is considerably higher than in the atmosphere and it rises drastically in the mined-out spaces. It is found out that radon is carried out from mines by ventilation flows and from open pits, generating anomalous concentrations over self-ignition areas.

  6. Field performance of Alnus cordata Loisel (Italian alder) inoculated with Frankia and VA-mycorrhizal strains in mine-spoil afforestation plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumini, E.; Bosco, M.; Puppi, G.; Isopi, R.; Frattegiani, M.; Burseti, E.; Favili, F.

    1994-05-01

    Mixed stands of {ital Alnus cordata}, {ital Eleagnus} spp. and broad leaf timber trees have been successfully used for reclamation of mine spoils in surface mined areas of central Italy. Trials showed that the use of mycorrhizal planting stock may improve the establishment of plants on mine spoils. Alder seeds were sown in pots filled with peat moss and lignite mine spoils and Fungal strains {ital Glomus mosscae} and {ital G. fasciculatum} were inoculated into the pots. A Frankia strain isolated from {ital A. cordata} was also tested. Plants were then outplanted after measuring shoot height and collar diameter. The planting was done in mid-January among commercial trees ({ital Quercus robur}, {ital Fraxinus oxyphilla}, and {ital Prunus avium}). Plants became highly nodulated in the pots. Mycorrhizal infection was about 30% on inoculate plants but did not occur on uninoculated plants. Aboveground biomass at out-planting was significantly greater in the Frankia inoculated plants. There was generally more N in plant leaves in the inoculate plants than in the uninoculated ones. Plant survival in the field after one winter was 83% on average. One year after planting, the inoculated plants were significantly bigger as were the Frankia inoculated plants. The combination of Frankia and Glomus was very effective (contrary to other studies).

  7. Experimental study on the variation law of coal temperature during excavation in coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Shan PAN; Lian-Man XU; Zhong-Hua LI; Guo-Zhen LI

    2013-01-01

    By testing the temperature of the coal and the stress of the working surface,we got the variation law of coal temperature and coal stress during the excavation.The result shows that the activities of mining affect the coal temperature,the fluctuation of coal temperature and the coal stress is synchronous.During the smooth change of crustal stress,the coal temperature basically keeps unchanged,when the dynamic phenomenon appears,the coal temperature changes,as well the coal stress.Therefore,we can use the online coal temperature monitoring system to test the coal temperature of the working surface continuously,and it can provide basic information for forecasting coal mine power disaster before it happens.

  8. 30 CFR 49.50 - Certification of coal mine rescue teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... have experience working in an underground coal mine 49.12(c) (4) Team is available within 1-hour ground... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification of coal mine rescue teams. 49.50... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.50 Certification of coal...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1907 Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. (a) As...

  10. Seismic techniques in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, A.K.; Belleza, G.V.

    1985-03-01

    This report describes a study of the peripheral fractured zones in coal pillars by the seismic refraction method and a version of the uphole method. The study, conducted at three collieries in New South Wales, investigated the depths of such fractured zones and the degrees of fracturing therein. The equipment consisted of a sledgehammer, 3-component borehole geophone assemblies, and a 12-channel oscillographic recorder with the facility of stacking multiple repetitions of given signals. The application of the refraction method was more complicated than the uphole method. However, the refraction method provided the depths of a fracture zone along the length of the spread, as opposed to the depth at a single location by the uphole method. The depths of the fractured zones obtained from the refraction method were less than the corresponding ones from the uphole method, the latter being closer to the findings of other investigators. The determined depths of the fractured zones in pillars were less than those in continuous ribsides. The depths of fractured zones and the degree of fracturing therein seemed to have some relationship with the depth of the seam from the surface.

  11. Microbial ecology of coal mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. E.; Miller, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Baseline microbial and ecological studies of samples obtained from two abandoned coal mine refuse sites in the State of Illinois indicate that the unfavorable nature of refuse materials can be a very limiting factor for survival and growth of organisms. Despite the ''foothold'' obtained by some microorganisms, especially acidophilic fungi and some acidotolerant algae, the refuse materials should be amended or ameliorated to raise the pH, provide needed nutrients, especially nitrogen, and provide biodegradable organic matter, both for physical and biological purposes. Finally, the role of microbial populations, responses, and interactions in acid mine wastes must be put into larger perspective. Acid mine drainage amounts to over 4 million tons per year of acidity from active and abandoned mines. Microorganisms appear to be significantly responsible for this problem, but they also can play a beneficial and significant role in the amelioration or alleviation of this detrimental effect as abandoned mines are reclaimed and returned to useful productivity.

  12. Study of Coal Mine Ventilation System Optimization based on Ventsim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing Gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the situation of too large coal mine ventilation resistance in the Majiagou coal mine. According to Majiagou coal mine late production plans, it measures resistance comprehensively, analyses the resistance distributions and the problems exist in the ventilation systems and comes up with targeted optimization programs. By studying the ventilation system model, as well as adjusting the system parameters, Ventsim software is applied to study ventilation system in Majiagou coal mine. Design of mine ventilation is proved practical in the mine ventilation system optimizations, thus Ventsim software can not only be used in the ventilation network calculation and merry-demand simulation and dynamic of wind flow, but also can be used to assist in the short-term and long-term planning for ventilation system, it is of a certain significance of guidance to find the problems in the mine management and optimizations of the ventilation network.

  13. Research on combined coal mining technology under highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Wenjun

    2017-05-01

    Based on the 3107 working face of a mine in Shanxi province, using the theoretical calculation and field measurement methods, explored a coal mining technology by combining use of the caving method and the roadway filling method, to solve the coal mining problems under the highway, under the premise that not change the mining layout of the coal mine. The results show that it is feasible to solve the problem of coal mining under the highway by using the combined mining technology. The surface subsidence can be controlled at the range of 282 to 312mm and 278 85mm, in parallel to and vertical to the working face direction, respectively, by using this technology; and the maximum slope of the surface deformation was controlled at 1.52mm/m, and all of the deformation variables are controlled under the requirement of the regulation

  14. From Mining to Post-Mining: The Sustainable Development Strategy of the German Hard Coal Mining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmann, J.; Efremenkov, A. B.; Khoreshok, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    By the end of the 1950s, the German coal mining industry produced 150 million tons of hard coal per year in 170 collieries with 600,000 employees. At that time, 70% of the primary energy demand of the Federal Republic of Germany was covered by domestic coal. Since the advance of oil, later of natural gas, in the world energy market and with the growth of world coal trade, domestic coal stood under a long-term restructuring pressure. This decision required a new strategy for the coal mining industry. Now German coal mining will be strictly finalized and will be prepared for the post-mining era. Within a sustainability strategy the long-term impacts of mining activities before and after the mine closures concerning the environmental, economic and social dimensions will be analyzed systematically and forward-looking.

  15. Regional gas drainage techniques in Chinese coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haifeng; Cheng Yuanping; Wang Lei

    2012-01-01

    China's rapid economic development has increased the demand for coal.These results in Chinese coal mines being extended to deeper levels.The eastern Chinese,more economical developed,regions have a long history of coal mining and many coal mines have now started deep mining at a depth from 800 to 1500 m.This increase in mining depth,geostresses,pressures,and gas content of the coal seam complicates geologic construction conditions.Lower permeability and softer coal contribute to increasing numbers of coal and gas outburst,and gas explosion,disasters.A search on effective methods of preventing gas disasters has been provided funds from the Chinese government since 1998.The National Engineering Research Center of Coal Gas Control and the Huainan and Huaibei Mining Group have conducted theoretical and experimental research on a regional gas extraction technology.The results included two important findings.First,grouped coal seams allow adoption of a method where a first,key protective layer is mined to protect upper and lower coal seams by increasing permeability from 400 to 3000 times.Desorption of gas and gas extraction in the protected coal seam of up to 60%,or more,may be achieved in this way.Second,a single seam may be protected by using a dense network of extraction boreholes consisting of cross and along-bed holes.Combined with this is increased use of water that increases extraction of coal seam gas by up to 50%.Engineering practice showed that regional gas drainage technology eliminates regional coal and gas outburst and also enables mining under low gas conditions.These research results have been adopted into the national safety codes of production technology.This paper systematically introduces the principles of the technology,the engineering methods and techniques,and the parameters of regional gas drainage.Engineering applications are discussed.

  16. Regional gas drainage techniques in Chinese coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Haifeng; Cheng; Yuanping; Wang; Lei

    2012-01-01

    China's rapid economic development has increased the demand for coal.These results in Chinese coal mines being extended to deeper levels.The eastern Chinese,more economical developed,regions have a long history of coal mining and many coal mines have now started deep mining at a depth from 800 to 1500 m.This increase in mining depth,geostresses,pressures,and gas content of the coal seam complicates geologic construction conditions.Lower permeability and softer coal contribute to increasing numbers of coal and gas outburst,and gas explosion,disasters.A search on effective methods of preventing gas disasters has been provided funds from the Chinese government since 1998.The National Engineering Research Center of Coal Gas Control and the Huainan and Huaibei Mining Group have conducted theoretical and experimental research on a regional gas extraction technology.The results included two important findings.First,grouped coal seams allow adoption of a method where a first,key protective layer is mined to protect upper and lower coal seams by increasing permeability from 400 to 3000 times.Desorption of gas and gas extraction in the protected coal seam of up to 60%,or more,may be achieved in this way.Second,a single seam may be protected by using a dense network of extraction boreholes consisting of cross and along-bed holes.Combined with this is increased use of water that increases extraction of coal seam gas by up to 50%.Engineering practice showed that regional gas drainage technology eliminates regional coal and gas outburst and also enables mining under low gas conditions.These research results have been adopted into the national safety codes of production technology.This paper systematically introduces the principles of the technology,the engineering methods and techniques,and the parameters of regional gas drainage.Engineering applications are discussed.

  17. Study on ascending mining roadway layout of close distance coal seams in deep mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yong-kui; MO Ji

    2007-01-01

    To solve the problems appeared in mining process of No.2 seam, the ascending stress-releasing mining method was adopted. Studying on the reasonable layout of actual mining roadway in upper coal seams is the precondition of successful ascending mining.By using "device of leak measuring by blocking up double ends", it detected the height of overburden water flowing fractured zone originated from sub-coal seams mining. Thus it proved that the actual mining roadway of No.2 upper ascending seam was located in the smooth sagging zone. On the basis of analyzing the stress-releasing effect of sub-coal seams mining to upper coal seams by using RFPA software, it analyzed the stability of up-face coal seams and the reasonable location of starting cut in up-face coal seams. It also analyzed the reasonable gateway location in upper coal seams, which ensured the crossheading in upper coal seams out of the effect of sub-coal work face mining by using theory of underground pressure. Meanwhile, the reasonable pillars dimensions in upper coal seams by building the structure mechanics model of stope were researched. It can make the roadway driven along next goaf to be located in low stress zone, and be beneficial to keeping roads stable owing to less stress of surrounding rock. Finally, it tested the rationality of the layout method of roads in upper coal seams by engineering field measurement in 3221 working face.

  18. Research on safety management shell in coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-xia(李红霞); TIAN Shui-cheng(田水承); YU Zhong-ming(郁钟铭); CHEN Yong-gang(陈勇刚)

    2004-01-01

    Based on the shell (jieke) theory investigation of accident prevention in coal mine, submited a new definition of safety management shell, and analyzed causes on the lack of accident prevention, then pointed that the strength of research and practice of safety management is necessary to format enduring safety in coal mine.

  19. R&D and Technological Change in Coal Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joe G.

    This report examines the issue of research and development (R and D) as well as technological changes in coal mining, focusing primarily on deep coal mining from 1970 to the present. First, a conceptual framework for classification of R and D as well as technological change is developed. A review of the literature that gives a mixed impression of…

  20. Influence of Mining Thickness on the Rationality of Upward Mining in Coal Seam Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the influence of mining thickness on the rationality of upward mining in coal seam group. Numerical simulation and theoretical analysis were performed to investigate the influence of the mining thicknesses of initial mining seam on the destruction and pressure relief effect of the upper coal seam in a high-gas coal seam group. The mechanical model of the roof failure based on the mining thickness was established by assuming that the gob formed after adjacent panels have fully been caved is the infinite plane. On the basis of this model, an equation was derived to calculate the roof failure height of the panel. Considering the geological conditions of No. 9 and No. 12 coal seams of Zhaogezhuang Coal Mine, economic effectiveness, and proposed techniques, we concluded that the top layer (4 m of the No. 12 coal seam should be mined first. The top layer of the No. 9 coal seam should be subsequently mined. The topcaving technique was applied to the exploitation of the lower layer of the No. 12 coal seam. Practically monitored data revealed that the deformation and failure of the No. 2699 panel roadway was small and controllable, the amount of gas emission was reduced significantly, and the effect of upward mining was active. The results of this study provide theory basics for mine designing, and it is the provision of a reference for safe and efficient coal exploitation under similar conditions.

  1. Distribution of ground stress on Puhe Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zhibiao; Jiang Yulin; Pang Jiewen; Liu Jiawei

    2013-01-01

    Puhe Coal Mine is a typical Tertiary coal in Shenbei mining area.With an increase in mining depth,tectonic stress field becomes more complex,leading to increased deformation and failure of the soft rock roadway.Stress becomes an important factor of mine safety and stability.This paper analyzes the distribution of the regional tectonic field,and determines the distribution of situ stress measurement through measuring the ground stress field in the main mining area level of Puhe Coal Mine using stress relief method.The acquired in situ stress data at different locations and depths provide a reference for the rational arrangement of the stop and mine roadway supporting design,which are of great significance for the efficient safety production of the mine.

  2. Knowledge modeling of coal mining equipments based on ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baolong; Wang, Xiangqian; Li, Huizong; Jiang, Miaomiao

    2017-06-01

    The problems of information redundancy and sharing are universe in coal mining equipment management. In order to improve the using efficiency of knowledge of coal mining equipments, this paper proposed a new method of knowledge modeling based on ontology. On the basis of analyzing the structures and internal relations of coal mining equipment knowledge, taking OWL as ontology construct language, the ontology model of coal mining equipment knowledge is built with the help of Protégé 4.3 software tools. The knowledge description method will lay the foundation for the high effective knowledge management and sharing, which is very significant for improving the production management level of coal mining enterprises.

  3. Gas drainage management systems for modern coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creedy, D.; Lunarzewski, L. [Wardell Armstrong, Newcastle-under-Lyme (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Gas emission and outburst problems remain one of the major difficulties facing the world coal mining industry. Methane emission in coal mines adversely affects the efficiency of coal production and mine safety conditions. Risk can be reduced by gas drainage. The methane thus recovered is a potentially valuable energy source which if used can produce both financial and environmental benefits. The generic gas control methods of gas drainage and ventilation are common to most coal mining countries but the detailed technologies applied differ according to the geological, mining and economic conditions, and also with the magnitudes of coal production. However, the critical element of all gas drainage management systems is the management organisation which ensures allocation of responsibility and provides a systematic framework for effective application of the most appropriate technology. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Development of a Rapid Assessment Method for Quantifying Carbon Sequestration on Reclaimed Coal Mine Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, S.; Barton, C. D.; Karathanasis, A. D.

    2005-12-01

    Projected climate change resulting from elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide has given rise to various strategies designed to sequester carbon in various terrestrial ecosystems. Reclaimed coal mine soils present one such potential carbon sink where traditional reclamation objectives can complement carbon sequestration. However, quantifying new carbon (carbon that has been added to soil through recent biological processes) on reclaimed mine soils have proven to be difficult due to carbonates and coal particles present in the reclaimed coal mine spoils. Visible coal particles can be removed, but the microscopic coal dust particles remain. Additionally, with the advent of carbon trading on the stock market, rapid quantification of newly sequestered carbon has proven to be elusive. The focus of this project is to assess the potential of thermogravimetric analysis as a rapid, simple and direct method for differentiating and quantifying new carbon from old carbon (carbon of geologic origin) on reclaimed coal mine sites and provide a standard procedure for determining carbon sequestered in soil sinks. Thermogravimetry is a physico-chemical technique where the weight change is measured and recorded during the incremental heating of the soil sample over a temperature range of 25 to 1000 ° C. Grass litter and limestone were used as representative organic and inorganic carbon fractions, while coal was used to differentiate the old and new carbon within the organic fraction. Recoveries of mixtures at the 95 % confidence interval were found to be 94.49 ± 4.23 % (coal) , 93.67 ± 2.11 % (litter) , and 108.88 ± 2.88 % (limestone) respectively. Each of the above components appeared as distinct separate peaks on the thermograph, with litter appearing between 260 to 390 ° C, coal 425 to 480 ° C, and limestone 640 to 740 ° C. Overlapping peaks for the organic carbon represented by the grass litter may be indicative of cellulose and lignin fractions. Ongoing work in this area is

  5. Investigation of relationship between barometric pressure and coal and gas outburst events in underground coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yönet, Sinem; Esen, Olgun; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outburst is a serious risk which occurs during the mine production. This accident results both ejection of high volumes of gas and high amount of coal into the mine production area, and death of mining workers for many years in Turkey. Outburst of gas, coal and rock can be defined as sudden release of coal and rock accompanied by large quantities of gas into the working face or other mine workings. It is a phenomena that influenced by geological structure such as folds, joints of rocks or coal seams, is also still investigated for many years. Zonguldak Coal Basin is the main part of the Upper Carboniferous bituminous coal basin of Turkey. Much of the bituminous coal mining has thus been concentrated in the Zonguldak Basin which is located on the Black Sea coast. The coal field has been disturbed by tectonic activity, first by Hercynian and later by Alpine orogenesis resulting in folding and faulting of strata. This formation has a complex structural geology which consists mostly fault zones, anticlinal and syncline strata and because of this a large amount of methane gases are adsorbed or accumulated in strata or in coal fractures, pores and micropores. There are 5 Collieries exists in Zonguldak Coalfield and coal and gas outbursts were occurred only in two collieries such as Karadon and Kozlu Mines. In addition at a number of 90 coal and gas outburst events were experienced in these collieries. Based on the analysis of data, oscillation at barometric pressure and temperature values at the location of Kozlu and Karadon Mines were seen when coal and gas outburst events were occurred. In this study, barometric pressure and temperature changes are investigated at Kozlu and Karadon Mines. Also the relationship between the variation at temperature with barometric pressure and coal and gas outbursts are evaluated. It can be understand that this investigation depends to field observations and macroscopic considerations and on the purpose of predicting the

  6. Variability of production in the Tito brown coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, S. (Institut za Rudarska Istrazivanja, Tuzla (Yugoslavia))

    1987-05-01

    Examines daily production fluctuations in the Banovici coal basin from 1978-1985, where 2,800-4,100 workers produced 2-2.3x10{sup 6} t/a from underground and surface mines. The underground mine used mechanized longwall mining, surface mines employed shovel excavators, draglines, dumpers and belt conveyors. Statistical data showed large variations (+/- 2.5%, from 4,630 to 7,792 t/day) in daily coal production; evaluation showed close correlations for surface and underground mines. Highest production was achieved on Saturdays and Sundays, lowest on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. It is suggested that these variations may be due to maintenance work in the coal preparation plant, which was usually carried out on Mondays and Fridays. A stereogram of coal and overburden output for both types of mine and detailed statistical computations are included. 7 refs.

  7. Aluminum-Tolerant Pisolithus Ectomycorrhizas Confer Increased Growth, Mineral Nutrition, and Metal Tolerance to Eucalyptus in Acidic Mine Spoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Egerton-Warburton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM may increase the tolerance of their host plants to Al toxicity by immobilizing Al in fungal tissues and/or improving plant mineral nutrition. Although these benefits have been demonstrated in in vitro (pure culture or short-term nutrient solution (hydroponic experiments, fewer studies have examined these benefits in the field. This study examined the growth, mineral nutrition, and Al levels in two Eucalyptus species inoculated with three Pisolithus ecotypes that varied in Al tolerance (in vitro and grown in mine spoil in the greenhouse and field. All three ecotypes of Pisolithus improved Eucalyptus growth and increased host plant tolerance to Al in comparison to noninoculated plants. However, large variations in plant growth and mineral nutrition were detected among the Pisolithus-inoculated plants; these differences were largely explained by the functional properties of the Pisolithus inoculum. Seedlings inoculated with the most Al-tolerant Pisolithus inoculum showed significantly higher levels of N, P, Ca, Mg, and K and lower levels of Al than seedlings inoculated with Al-sensitive ecotypes of Pisolithus. These findings indicate an agreement between the fungal tolerance to Al in vitro and performance in symbiosis, indicating that both ECM-mediated mineral nutrient acquisition and Al accumulation are important in increasing the host plant Al tolerance.

  8. Decontamination of coal mine effluent generated at the Rajrappa coal mine using phytoremediation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Kalpana C; Lal, B; Banerjee, T K

    2017-06-03

    Toxicity of the effluent generated at the Rajrappa coal mine complex under the Central Coalfields Limited (CCL, a subsidiary of Coal India Limited) in Jharkhand, India was investigated. The concentrations (mg L(-1)) of all the toxic metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Cd) in the coal mine effluent were above the safe limit suggested by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 2003). Among these, Fe showed the highest concentration (18.21 ± 3.865), while Cr had the lowest effluent concentration (0.15 ± 0.014). Efforts were also made to detoxify the effluent using two species of aquatic macrophytes namely "'Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes." After 10 days of phytoremediation, S. molesta removed Pb (96.96%) > Ni (97.01%) > Cu (96.77%) > Zn (96.38%) > Mn (96.22%) > Fe (94.12%) > Cr (92.85%) > Cd (80.99%), and P. stratiotes removed Pb (96.21%) > Fe (94.34%) > Ni (92.53%) > Mn (85.24%) > Zn (79.51%) > Cr (78.57%) > Cu (74.19%) > Cd (72.72%). The impact of coal mine exposure on chlorophyll content showed a significant decrease of 42.49% and 24.54% from control values in S. molesta and P. stratiotes, respectively, perhaps due to the damage inflicted by the toxic metals, leading to the decay of plant tissues.

  9. Black Walnut on Kansas Strip Mine Spoils: Some Observations 25 Years after Pruning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex L. Shigo; Nelson F. Rogers; E. Allen, Jr. McGinnes; David T. Funk

    1978-01-01

    Dissections of 14 slow-growing black walnut trees on a strip-mine site revealed that bands of discolored heartwood were associated with pruned and nonpruned branch stubs. Ring shakes were associated with a few pruned and nonpruned stubs, especially with groups of stubs at the same position on the stem. The advantage of early pruning was that even the defects that...

  10. Numerical Study on 4-1 Coal Seam of Xiaoming Mine in Ascending Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Tianwei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits.

  11. Numerical study on 4-1 coal seam of Xiaoming mine in ascending mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tianwei; Zhang, Hongwei; Li, Sheng; Han, Jun; Song, Weihua; Batugin, A C; Tang, Guoshui

    2015-01-01

    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits.

  12. Numerical Study on 4-1 Coal Seam of Xiaoming Mine in Ascending Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianwei, Lan; Hongwei, Zhang; Sheng, Li; Weihua, Song; Batugin, A. C.; Guoshui, Tang

    2015-01-01

    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits. PMID:25866840

  13. Accumulation of Zinc, Cadmium, and Lead in Four Populations of Sedum alfredii Growing on Lead/Zinc Mine Spoils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Mei Deng; Jin-Chuan Deng; Jin-Tian Li; Jun Zhang; Min Hu; Zhou Lin; Bin Liao

    2008-01-01

    Sedum alfredii Hance is a newly reported zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator native to China. In this study,four populations of S. alfredii were collected from Yejiwei (YJW), Jinchuantang (JCT) and Qiaokou (QK) lead (Pb)/Zn mines located in Hunan Province as well as Quzhou (QZ) Pb/Zn mine located in Zhejiang Province for exploring the intraspecies difference of this plant in metal accumulation. Although they grew in the Pb/Zn spoils with relatively similar levels of Zn,Cd and Pb, remarkable differences among the four populations in tissue heavy metal concentrations were observed. The shoot Zn concentration of QZ population (11 116 mg/kg) was highest and nearly five times higher than that of the JCT population (1930 mg/kg). Furthermore, the shoot Cd concentration observed in the QZ population (1 090 mg/kg) was also highest and 144 times higher than that found in the JCT population (7.5 mg/kg). As for Pb concentrations In the shoot of different populations, a fourfold difference between the highest and the lowest was also found. Such difference on metal accumulation was opulation-specific and may be significantly explained by differences in the soil properties such as pH, organic matter (OM), and electrical conductivity (EC). Taking biomass and metal concentration in plants into consideration, the QZ, YJW and QK populations may have high potential for Zn phytoremediation, the QZ population may have the highest potential in Cd phytoremediation, and the QK population may be the most useful in Pb phytoremediation.

  14. Feasibility study of highwall mining in north surface mine of Yima Coal Corporation,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoming Cheng; Sijing Wang; Meifeng Cai

    2003-01-01

    Yima Coal Corporation is considering to adopt highwall mining method with auger machine to recover coal from north surface pit that has reached final highwall position. The major geomechanical issues associated with auger mining are highwall and pillar stability. Based on the field investigation and laboratory test results of mechanical parameters, numerical modeling is carried out to assess the stability of highwall and pillar. Field measurements of highwall deformation have been used to validate and ensure the confidence for the development of realistic models. The results of numerical modeling show that the mining method is feasible for mining the seam of 10 m thickness in north surface coal mine.

  15. 30 CFR 75.1107-11 - Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment employed in low coal. 75.1107-11 Section 75.1107-11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES... § 75.1107-11 Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. On...

  16. STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DIVERSITY COAL MASS STRUCTURE AND LITHOTYPE OF COAL IN MULTI-COAL SEAM MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴基文; 赵志根; 陈资平

    1999-01-01

    Through site observation and indoor measurements in XieJiaji No.2 Coal Mine in Huainen and Luling Coal Mine in Huaibei, it is discovered that the fragmentation degree are different in different coal seams in same mining district and even in sublevels of the same coal seam, the coal mass structures exist much difference. By analyzing the relationship between the constitution of coal matters and the epigenesis breakage of coal. This paper points out that the internal factor which causes the diversity of the coal mass structure comes from the diversity in the contents of telocollinite and desmocollinite in the vitrinite. The contenet of desmocollinite is higher than that of telocollinite in intact coal seam (sublevel) but the former is less than the later in breaking sublevel, the diversity of constituent content more affects the epigenetic fragmentation degree of coal seam. The content of desrnocollinite proves lower than that of telocollinite in the broken coal seam. The new understanding has directing, and reference for the study of coal petrology, coal mine gas geology and coal methane.

  17. Development trends of machines and equipment for mine haulage in black coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, C.; Gorol, S.; Janik, E.; Kotlarski, S.; Kowal, J.; Zeifert, S.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses development of equipment for mine haulage in underground black coal mines in Poland. Equipment type, selected aspects of its design, specifications, productivity and reliability are evaluated. The following equipment types are reviewed: chain conveyors (Rybnik-73, Samson, Supersamson, Supergrot), belt conveyors (Gwarek), mine cars (Granby mine cars with a capacity of 5.1 m/sup 3/), mine locomotives (with electric batteries, electric or pneumatic motors or diesel engines), equipment for railway track repair and maintenance, automatic systems for traffic control in underground mines, coal hoppers, coal handling systems for coal hoppers. Equipment developed in Poland since 1970 is discussed. Recommendations for research programs on haulage equipment and coal hoppers are made. 8 refs.

  18. The safety mining theory studying for coal resource in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-chun; SUN Hong-xing; PENG Hong-jun

    2006-01-01

    The coal resource has an important role in the energy development strategy in China. Because the coal resources are a kind of non-renewable resources, a kind of exhausting resource, which is limited in quantity, and the exploitation of the recourses are not economized now, so how to realize the sustainable development for coal resource in China is very important. In this paper, two parts were researched to optimize the coal mining. In order to optimize the mining order of different mining areas, the fuzzy logic evaluation was used to build the evaluation system. The economic control theory model was built to realize the proper period to explore the coal recourses for the same mining areas.

  19. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota, E-mail: dburchart@gig.eu; Fugiel, Agata, E-mail: afugiel@gig.eu; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna, E-mail: kczaplicka@gig.eu; Turek, Marian, E-mail: mturek@gig.eu

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500 years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. - Highlights: • A computational LCA model for assessment of coal mining operations • Identification of

  20. Vegetation of spoil banks as a reclamation and soil formation factor in the North Bohemian brown coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhart, J.; Volf, F.

    1983-01-01

    Vegetation at spoil banks significantly influences soil formation process and positively influences land reclamation. During the initial stage vegetation is most intensive at places with optimum water conditions at slopes and at the top of spoil banks in zones of water accumulation. During the first, second and the third year waste rock weathering causes more intensive plant growth. The following plants are most active at spoil banks in North Bohemia: Atriplex nitens, Chenopodium album, Tripleurospermum maritimum, Polygonum aviculare, Senecio viscosus, Tussilago farfara, Acetosella vulgaris and Carduus acanthoides. Three to five years after a spoil bank was formed perennial plants made up the prevailing part of the vegetation. The following plants play a significant role at this stage: Artemisia vulgaris, Cirsium arvense, Calamagrostis epigeios, Tanacetum vulgaris, Elytrigia repens, Melandrium album, Sambucus nigra, Achillea millefolium and Cardaria draba. At this stage grass vegetation also starts: e.g. Dactylis glomerata, Arrhenatherum elatius, Poa pratensis or Festuca pratensis. When a spoil bank already covered by perennial vegetation is reclaimed and the initial vegetation is covered by wastes during levelling, the secondary vegetation should not be treated as a continuation of the initial process but as an independent one. Plants used during the secondary phase of spoil bank reclamation should be characterized by a well developed root system and high humus production. Plants used for land reclamation are characterized. (15 refs.)

  1. Coal mining GPS subsidence monitoring technology and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jian; Peng Xiangguo; Xu Chang hui

    2011-01-01

    We proved theoretically that geodetic height,measured with Global Positioning System (GPS),can be applied directly to monitor coal mine subsidence.Based on a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model,we built a regional geoid model with a Gaussian Radial Basis Function (RBF) and the technical scheme for GPS coal mine subsidence monitoring is presented to provide subsidence information for updating the regional Digital Elevation Model (DEM).The theory proposed was applied to monitor mining subsidence in an Inner Mongolia coal mine in China.The scheme established an accurate GPS reference network and a comprehensive leveling conjunction provided the normal height of all GPS control points.According to the case study,the SVM model to establish geoid-model is better than a polynomial fit or a Genetic Algorithm based Back Propagation (GA-BP) neural network.GPS-RTK measurements of coal mine subsidence information can be quickly acquired for updating the DEM.

  2. Analysis on safety production in coal mines Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Liu-an; ZHANG Wen-yong

    2006-01-01

    Based on the rigorous situation of safety production in coal mines, the paper analyzed the statistical data of recent accidents indexes in Henan's coal mines. Using investigation and comparison analysis methods, a specified analysis on mining conditions, technical facility level, safety input and vocational quality of workers in Henan's coal mines was conducted. The result indicates that there have been existing such main safety production problems as weak safety management, low-level facilities, inadequate safety input and poor vocational quality and so on. Finally it proposes such reference solutions as to establish and perfect coal mining supervision and management system, to increase safety investment into techniques and facilities and to strengthen workers' safety education and introduction of more high-level professional talents.

  3. The Influence of Surface Coal Mining on Runoff Processes and Stream Chemistry in the Elk Valley, British Colubmbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Wellen, C. C.; Shatilla, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Surface mining is a common method of accessing coal. In high-elevation environments, vegetation and soils are typically removed prior to the blasting of overburden rock, thereby allowing access to mineable ore. Following this, the removed overburden rock is deposited in adjacent valleys as waste rock spoils. Previous research has identified that areas downstream of surface coal mining have impaired water quality, yet there is limited information about the interaction of hydrology and geochemistry across a range of mining conditions, particularly at the headwater scale. Here, we provide an analysis of an extensive long-term data set of geochemistry and flows across a gradient of coal mining in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. This work is part of a broader R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that water from waste rock piles has an ionic profile distinct from unimpacted catchments. While the concentration of geochemicals increased with the degree of mine impact, the control of hydrological transport capacity over geochemical export did not vary with degree of mine impact. Geochemical export in mine-influenced catchments was limited more strongly by transport capacity than supply, implying that more water moving through the waste rock mobilized more geochemicals. Placement of waste rock within the catchment (headwaters or outlet) did not affect chemical concentrations but did alter the timing with which chemically distinct water mixed. This work advances on results reported earlier using empirical models of selenium loading and further highlights the importance of limiting water inputs into waste rock piles.

  4. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 816.87 Section 816.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine...

  5. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 817.87 Section 817.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine...

  6. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  7. Study on the forecast method for underground coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ji-ping; REN Hui; REN Lan-zhu; WANG Kun

    2006-01-01

    At present, coal mine fires were for ecasted with some temperature, smog, CO,CO2, etc, however, this method can't meet the requirements for safe production of coal mines in monitoring accuracy and validity. Overcoming these problems of foregone monitoring methods, using multi-parameters which include fire image, smog, CO, CO2, O2, etc,the paper put forward a synthetical analysis monitor with advanced technology of neural network. The research and application of this method has significance in theory and practical value for coal mine fire forecast.

  8. The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

    2009-06-01

    The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

  9. Restoration Practices Used on Post Mining Sites and Industrial Deposits in the Czech Republic with an Example of Natural Restoration of Granodiorite Quarries and Spoil Heaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuman Tomáš

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mining of minerals that have significant impact on landscape and landscape functions affects 1% of the land surface worldwide. In the Czech Republic the extent of mining sites is estimated to be more than 800 km2 and according to the state legislation the land affected by mining should be reclaimed. There are several approaches to land restoration, which are shortly reviewed in this article, from pure technical approach to one adopting natural processes. The review shows increasing appeal of scientist and conservationist to use natural processes e.g. natural or directed succession as an alternative method of post-mining sites or industrial deposits restoration due to growing evidence of conservational value of such sites in human dominated landscapes. The natural processes used for land restoration are often argued to be slow therefore the rate of spontaneous vegetation succession was assessed in stone quarries and on spoil heaps using a sequence of panchromatic aerial images. The results showed that natural processes act fast and vegetation can reach 100% cover within 10-15 years in granodiorite quarries and on spoil heaps.

  10. Predicting release and aquatic effects of total dissolved solids from Appalachian USA coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. L. Daniels; C. E. Zipper; Z. W. Orndorff

    2014-01-01

    Appalachian USA coal mines have been implicated as major stressors to aquatic life in headwater streams via discharge of total dissolved solids (TDS). This paper summarizes column leaching studies of spoils (n [ 50) and refuse and TDS effects on local water quality and biotic response. The initial pH of most materials is near-neutral. Initial specific conductance (SC) values range from 500–1,000 to [3,000 ls/cm, but 2/3 of materials drop below 500 ls/cm after several pore volumes of leaching. Studies of mining-influenced streams have found altered aquatic life, relative to natural conditions with no mining influence, at SC ranging from*200 to*700 ls/cm with depressed aquatic life consistently associated with elevated TDS;mechanisms causing such effects are under investigation. We suggest that active mine operations should be modified to place high TDS producing materials in ways that reduce contact with percolating drainage waters.

  11. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment.

  12. Mycorrhizal status of plants in two successional stages on spoil heaps from fireloam mining in Lower Silesia (SW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kasowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycorrhizal status of two plant communities representing an initial stage (1-2 year-old and a 8-9-year-old stage of succession on spoil heaps from fireloam mining in Lower Silesia, Poland, was determined. In the initial stage, the mycorrhizal structures were not observed in 39% of the investigated species; they were members of the Polygonaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae families. The relative cover of non-mycorrhizal plants exceeded 50% and the major role was played by the Polygonum aviculare population, which predominated the whole community. Mycorrhizal species (arbuscular mycorrhizae contributed to 61 % of the composition of the initial phyto-coenosis. The most numerous taxa were those with 20-40% of the root length colonized, with a small number of arbuscules (0.2-3.1% of the root length containig arbuscules and no vesicles. In the advanced stage of succession, mycorrhizal plants definitely dominated and the major role was played by the Tussilago farfara population. Compared with the initial stage, the later one also harboured more plants with mycorrhizas occupied >40% of the root length, as well as containing numerous arbuscules (>20% of the root length and vesicles. The non-mycorrhizal species, i.e., Equisetum arvense and Poa compressa, represented 11 % o': the community composition and their relative cover amounted to 3%. Despite the relatively frequent occurrence of the arbuscular mycorrhizae in the initial stage of succession, the qualitative properties of the colonization indicated a low effectiveness of symbiosis. This could be caused by the lack of adaptation of the fungal symbiont to the edaphic conditions which were changed after disturbance.

  13. Application of 3D Visual Techniques in Daliuta Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    3D visualization is one of major problems in "Digital Mine" theory and its technological research field. Through the observation of 3D geological models, spatial structural information, connected with the information of production management hidden in geological data, could be detected. In order to meet the requirement of more efficient coal exploration, a case study of geological characters of the Daliuta Coal Mine is presented in which 3D visual models of the ground surface and geologic bodies are established on the basis of data models and data structures of 3D geology modeling. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) Through analysis and organization of spatial discrete data, the drillhole database is designed with the data of the Daliuta mine; the connections amomg drillhole data are realized and displayed in a 3D environment. (2) Combining real data of the Daliuta mine, drillhole visualization is realized in a 3D environment by using the CoalMiner system. (3) The ground surface modeling of the Daliuta coal mine adopted a surface-data model and a TIN data structure. (4) 3D models of coal seams and rock formations of the Daliuta mine are established, which provide a method for the simulation of complex surfaces of geologic bodies. In the end, the models are applied to the Daliuta coal mine and the result shows that better geological effects are obtained.

  14. Roof Rockmass Characterization in an Illinois Underground Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osouli, Abdolreza; Shafii, Iman

    2016-08-01

    Among all United States underground coal fields, those in Illinois have the highest rate of roof fall events due to their weak and severely moisture sensitive roof rock units. Rockmass characterization is the key initial step in designing safe and economical roof control measures in underground coal mines. In this study, a performance-based roof rockmass characterization is investigated. The geologic conditions as well as underground mine geographic specifications, roof fall analysis, mining method, utilized supplemental roof control measures, and geotechnical properties of roof rock units were considered to link the roof performance to rockmass characterization. The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) rockmass characterization method was used to evaluate the roof conditions and roof support design for an underground coal mine located in the Illinois Coal Basin. The results of several mine visit mappings, laboratory test results, and geotechnical issues and concerns are presented and discussed. The roof support designs are analyzed based on the rockmass characterization and are compared with the observed performance. This study shows that (1) CMRR index is a reasonable method for characterizing roof rockmass; (2) moisture sensitivity and bedding strengths in the horizontal direction are essential parameters for roof support design in mines with weak roof conditions; and (3) the applicability of the analysis of roof bolt system for roof support design of the studied mine is questionable.

  15. Developing a model of strategic management of coal mining enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komissarova Maria Anatolievna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In article problems of strategic management of the companies of ugledo-happening branch reveal, and the model of strategic management of the coal-mining enterprise taking into account their branch specificity is offered to consideration.

  16. Coal Mining Machinery Development As An Ecological Factor Of Progressive Technologies Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremenkov, A. B.; Khoreshok, A. A.; Zhironkin, S. A.; Myaskov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    At present, a significant amount of energy spent for the work of mining machines and coal mining equipment on coal mines and open pits goes to the coal grinding in the process of its extraction in mining faces. Meanwhile, the increase of small fractions in mined coal does not only reduce the profitability of its production, but also causes a further negative impact on the environment and degrades labor conditions for miners. The countermeasure to the specified processes is possible with the help of coal mining equipment development. However, against the background of the technological decrease of coal mine equipment applied in Russia the negative impact on the environment is getting reinforced.

  17. Ground engineering principles and practices for underground coal mining

    CERN Document Server

    Galvin, J M

    2016-01-01

    This book teaches readers ground engineering principles and related mining and risk management practices associated with underground coal mining. It establishes the basic elements of risk management and the fundamental principles of ground behaviour and then applies these to the essential building blocks of any underground coal mining system, comprising excavations, pillars, and interactions between workings. Readers will also learn about types of ground support and reinforcement systems and their operating mechanisms. These elements provide the platform whereby the principles can be applied to mining practice and risk management, directed primarily to bord and pillar mining, pillar extraction, longwall mining, sub-surface and surface subsidence, and operational hazards. The text concludes by presenting the framework of risk-based ground control management systems for achieving safe workplaces and efficient mining operations. In addition, a comprehensive reference list provides additional sources of informati...

  18. Monitoring light hydrocarbons in Brazilian coal mines and in confined coal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rosangela [Pos-Graduation Program in Materials Engineering and Technology, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Pires, Marcal [Pos-Graduation Program in Materials Engineering and Technology, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Faculty of Chemistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Azevedo, Carla M.N. [Faculty of Chemistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Fagundes, Leandro [P and D Consultoria (Brazil); Garavaglia, Luciane; Gomes, Cleber J.B. [SATC, Associacao Beneficente da Industria Carbonifera de Santa Catarina, CTCL, Technological Center of Clean Coal (Brazil)

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring light hydrocarbons (LHCs) in coal mines, particularly methane, is important not only because of their implications for global climate change but also for economic and safety reasons. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of LHCs in coal mine air samples and desorbed from confined coal may contribute to a better understanding of coal seam characteristics. The paucity of information about the levels of methane in Brazilian underground coal mines can be attributed to their difficult access and a lack of adequate procedures for correct gas sampling. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply standard gas chromatography procedures to determine LHC levels in the air of coal mines and in confined coal from five mines under operation, three underground (A, B, C) and two surface (D, E) mines, in southern Brazil. The results indicate methane (C{sub 1}) levels varying from 3 ppm to 27% in the atmosphere of the underground mines. Mine A presented high levels of all LHCs analyzed (C{sub 1} to C{sub 5}), while only C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} were detected in mine B, and hydrocarbons ranging from C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} were found in mine C. On the other hand, surface mines presented narrow concentration range for C{sub 1} (3 ppm to 470 ppm) and C{sub 2}-C{sub 3}, with higher levels observed for puncture explosive points. Among LHCs, methane is desorbed in higher concentrations from confined coals and the presence of C{sub 2} was detected in all samples while C{sub 3}-C{sub 5} were only observed in coals from underground mines. These data are consistent with those obtained from the air gas samples collected in the mines under study. Geological events such as faulting and intrusions can accelerate the release of gas or the trapping of large amounts of previously released methane. The LHC emissions from coal mines were found to be highly variable, indicating the need for a comprehensive survey of Brazilian coal mine emissions. (author)

  19. Improving surface stability of elevated spoil landforms using natural landform analogy and geological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Bevan; Burgess, Jon; Esterle, Joan; Erskine, Peter; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale open cut mining in the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia has undergone an evolutionary process over the period of a few decades, transitioning from shallow mining depths, limited spoil elevation and pasture based rehabilitation to increased mining depths, escalating pre-stripping, elevated mesa-like landforms and native woody species rehabilitation. As a consequence of this development, the stabilisation of recent constructed landforms has to be assured through means other than the establishment of vegetative cover. Recent developments are the specific selection and partitioning of resilient fragmental spoil types for the construction of final landform surface. They can also be used as cladding resources for stabilizing steep erosive batters and this has been identified as a practical methodology that has the potential to significantly improve rehabilitation outcomes. Examples of improvements are an increase of the surface rock cover, roughness and infiltration and reducing inherent erodibility and runoff and velocity of surface flow. However, a thorough understanding of the properties and behavior of individual spoil materials disturbed during mining is required. Relevant information from published literature on the geological origins, lithology and weathering characteristics of individual strata within the Bowen Basin Coal Measures located in Queensland, Australia (and younger overlying weathered strata) has been studied, and related both to natural landforms and to the surface stability of major strata types when disturbed by mining. The resulting spoil classification developed from this study is based primarily on inherent geological characteristics and weathering behaviour of identifiable lithologic components, and as such describes the expected fragmental resilience likely within disturbed materials at Bowen Basin coal mines. The proposed classification system allows the allocation of spoil types to use categories which have application in pre-mine

  20. Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deborah Kosmack

    2008-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., in conjunction with MEGTEC Systems, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, designed, built, and operated a commercial-size thermal flow reversal reactor (TFRR) to evaluate its suitability to oxidize coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM). Coal mining, and particularly coal mine ventilation air, is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions, a greenhouse gas. Ventilation air volumes are large and the concentration of methane in the ventilation air is low; thus making it difficult to use or abate these emissions. This test program was conducted with simulated coal mine VAM in advance of deploying the technology on active coal mine ventilation fans. The demonstration project team installed and operated a 30,000 cfm MEGTEC VOCSIDIZER oxidation system on an inactive coal mine in West Liberty, WV. The performance of the unit was monitored and evaluated during months of unmanned operation at mostly constant conditions. The operating and maintenance history and how it impacts the implementation of the technology on mine fans were investigated. Emission tests showed very low levels of all criteria pollutants at the stack. Parametric studies showed that the equipment can successfully operate at the design specification limits. The results verified the ability of the TFRR to oxidize {ge}95% of the low and variable concentration of methane in the ventilation air. This technology provides new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the reduction of methane emissions from coal mine ventilation air. A large commercial-size installation (180,000 cfm) on a single typical mine ventilation bleeder fan would reduce methane emissions by 11,000 to 22,100 short tons per year (the equivalent of 183,000 to 366,000 metric tonnes carbon dioxide).

  1. Roadway failure and support in a coal seam underlying a previously mined coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yinlong; Wang Lianguo; Zhang Bei

    2012-01-01

    The influence of an upper,mined coal seam on the stability of rock surrounding a roadway in a lower coal seam is examined.The technical problems of roadway control are discussed based on the geological conditions existing in the Liyazhuang Mine No.2 coal seam.The stress distribution and floor failure in the lower works after mining the upper coal is studied through numerical simulations.The failure mechanism of the roof and walls of a roadway located in the lower coal seam is described.The predicted deformation and failure of the roadway for different distances between the two coal seams are used to design two ways of supporting the lower structure.One is a combined support consisting of anchors with a joist steel tent and a combined anchor truss.A field test of the design was performed to good effect.The results have significance for the design of supports for roadways located in similar conditions.

  2. Ecological relationships of fauna and flora on a pre-law coal surface-mined area in Perry County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Pre-law coal surface-mined lands in Pyramid State Park, Perry County, Illinois, were examined 1976-1980 to determine changes in fauna and flora from that on the area in 1954-1960. Vegetative development on naturally revegetated spoils reflected diverse habitat conditions with interspersion of cover types; some of oldest spoils displayed inhibited succession while others exhibited early flood plain forest development. Ground and overstory species richness and overstory density increased since mid 1950's and ground cover domination by therophytes in 1954-1956 shifted to phanerophytes and hemicryptophytes in 1976-1978. Thirty vegetative compositional and structural parameters indicated that ground cover was limited by subcanopy rather than large scattered trees. Aquatic vegetation communities developed but hydrosphere was not well represented; emergent vegetation was limited by morphology of basins. Although isolated sites exhibited deleterious conditions, vegetation was not generally inhibited by physico-chemical factors. The 29 mammals reflected an increase in species richness. Abundance of early successional forms decreased while occupants of shrub/forest increased. Past habitat enhancement influenced wildlife distribution; and plantations attracted woodland fauna. Leveled spoil crests, valleys and clearings with fescue retarded succession and provided open areas and edges for others.

  3. 75 FR 20918 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 18 and 75 RIN 1219-AB34 High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines Correction In rule document 2010-7309 beginning on page...

  4. The assessment of mine rebound and decanting in deeper coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, P.D.; Dennis, I. [Inst. for Groundwater Studies, Bloemfontein (South Africa)

    2010-07-01

    This groundwater and monitoring study of 7 interlinked deep coal collieries in South Africa was conducted to develop analytical and numerical decant models of individual collieries suitable for integration into a single large model. The model will be used to prevent acid mine drainage after mining activities have stopped. The models considered interconnectivity between the mines, the geology of the overburden, the type of mining conducted at each mine, the topography and depth of the mining activities, and the piezometric levels of the mines and involved aquifers. The overburden formations in the studied region consisted of sandstone, shale, interbedded siltstone, mudstone and coal seams. Removal of the coal seams has resulted in the caving of the overlying strata into mined voids. The mining disruptions have resulted in subsidence and recharges of between 5 and 7 percent. The conceptual decant model predicted that piezometric levels of the mine will rise with the storage coefficient value of the mine. The flux from the overlying aquifers will decrease as water levels even out. Any polluted water will need to overcome 4 bar of pressure to to decant. Excess water above the weathered zone in the mines will seep out as normal unpolluted springs at lower points. Results of the numerical modelling study showed that it is unlikely that the collieries will decant, as the piezometric level of the mines will rise with the storage coefficient value of the mine. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  5. 77 FR 58170 - Proposed Renewal of Existing Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... (Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for public... (facsimile). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Fire protection standards for underground coal mines....1100 requires that each coal mine be provided with suitable firefighting equipment adapted for the...

  6. Tube bundle system: for monitoring of coal mine atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, R Karl; Marchewka, W; Mohamed, K; Addis, J; Karnack, F

    2013-05-01

    A tube bundle system (TBS) is a mechanical system for continuously drawing gas samples through tubes from multiple monitoring points located in an underground coal mine. The gas samples are drawn via vacuum pump to the surface and are typically analyzed for oxygen, methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Results of the gas analyses are displayed and recorded for further analysis. Trends in the composition of the mine atmosphere, such as increasing methane or carbon monoxide concentration, can be detected early, permitting rapid intervention that prevents problems, such as a potentially explosive atmosphere behind seals, fire or spontaneous combustion. TBS is a well-developed technology and has been used in coal mines around the world for more than 50 years. Most longwall coal mines in Australia deploy a TBS, usually with 30 to 40 monitoring points as part of their atmospheric monitoring. The primary uses of a TBS are detecting spontaneous combustion and maintaining sealed areas inert. The TBS might also provide mine atmosphere gas composition data after a catastrophe occurs in an underground mine, if the sampling tubes are not damaged. TBSs are not an alternative to statutory gas and ventilation airflow monitoring by electronic sensors or people; rather, they are an option to consider in an overall mine atmosphere monitoring strategy. This paper describes the hardware, software and operation of a TBS and presents one example of typical data from a longwall coal mine.

  7. Mine soils associated with open-cast coal mining in Spain: a review; Suelos mineros asociados a la mineria de carbon a cielo abierto en Espana: una revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz-Gonzalez, J. C.

    2011-07-01

    The different situations that may be found after the closure of coal mines range from the simple abandonment of pits and spoil tips to areas where reclamation work has led to the creation of artificial soils on a reconstituted surface composed of layers of rock and soil or both types of material. Soils of this type are known as mine soils, amongst which those generated by coal mining have been studied most extensively, both to assess their potential for reclamation and to learn more about their pedogenetic evolution. We present here a review of some of the more important works devoted to this subject. We have found evidence to show that in Spain, just as in other countries, the physical and chemical properties of these anthropogenic soils are changing rapidly and so the mine-soil profiles described can be considered as belonging to very young soils still undergoing incipient but rapid development. We have also found that an analysis of information obtained from the soil parameters of surface samples and its interpretation is of great practical use in restoration processes. Nevertheless, the sampling and description of soil profiles has proved to be of much greater interest, allowing us to reach a clearer understanding of the internal processes and properties that are unique to these types of anthropogenic soil. (Author) 64 refs.

  8. Introduction to South African coal mining and exploration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jeffrey, L

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available into Nos. 4 A, 4 Upper, 4 Lower by mudstone/siltstone; economically important; lower quality than No. 2 Seam • No. 3 Seam 0.5 m; high quality; generally uneconomic • No. 2 Seam 4.5–20 m; up to 6 quality zones; most economically important for export...-and-pillar operations (40%), while stoping (4%) and longwall mining (3%) make up the balance.  the importance of coal mining in south Africa Coal is South Africa’s most plentiful and cheapest source of energy. The coal has a low to moderate heat value and high ash...

  9. Mining geophysical methods in service of up-to-date mining and the safety mines at the Oroszlany Coal Mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csokas, J.; Dobroka, M.; Gyulai, A.; Ormos, T.

    1987-01-01

    The geoelectric sounding method used for detecting tectonic disturbances is described and the coal quality maps obtained with the aid of this method are presented. The determination of calorific value distribution of the coal seams and the tomographic determination of seismic absorptions in practice are also discussed. A brief survey is presented on the geothermic measurement method used for detecting underground water courses. Examples are enumerated from the Oroszlany Coal Mines. The new instruments for geoelectric sounding, for rock surface temperature measurement and underground temperature measurements are described.

  10. Coal mine methane in the Sabinas Sub-Basin, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentzis, T. [CDX Canada Co., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The general geology and stratigraphy of Mexico's Sabinas sub-basin was described with reference to its coal properties and gas content. Field derived data regarding cleating and reservoir pressure was presented along with gas analysis, adsorption isotherms, coal mineralogy and coal maturity. Mine methane emission data was presented along with a description of the application of in-seam methane drainage and reservoir simulation. It was concluded that the Sabinas sub-basin contains gassy coals in the Upper Cretaceous Olmos Formation, based on both historical evidence and desorption testing. The coals are at shallow depth (less than 500 m), are well cleated and have high natural fracture permeability. The double seam coal is under-pressured, and most likely under-saturated but it has high diffusivity. Sabinas coals are reported to be dry, with free gas in the cleat/fracture system and absence of mineralization. In-seam horizontal drilling prior to longwall mining resulted in a significant reduction of gas content and an increase in coal production. The Sabinas sub-basin is suitable for full-scale coalbed methane development using in-seam horizontal drilling technology. A comparison with the Maverick Basin in Texas showed that there are both similarities and differences between the Sabinas sub-basin coals in Mexico and the Maverick Basin coals in Texas. figs.

  11. RECULTIVATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF COAL MINING IN KOLUBARA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica M Ristović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal plays a fundamental role in global development, but the coal mining industry exerts impact on the environment, society and economy. Kolubara Coal Company produces about 30 million tonnes of coal, and digs about 70 million m3 of overburden per year. The main result of surface coal is certainly taking agricultural land, so that surface mines, which affect large areas in Kolubara, about 100 hectars a year, causing a number of problems related to the recultivation of degraded area after coal extraction. The lignite extraction through the method of opencast mining in Kolubara is about 60 years old. The previous exploitation usage is characterised by the fact that the disposal of overburden is made non-selectively, whereas the surface solum is not being preserved. The recultivation is carried out in parallel with overburden excavation. It is necessary to preserve the fertile solum through selective excavation in order to bring the soil back to its previous purpose - agricultural production. The objective of this paper is mainly to point out the need for the further expansion of the utilisation of fossil fuels, which in turn reduces the emission of CO2, and thus reduces or prevents global climate changes on Earth. In addition to that, bringing back deteriorated terrains to their previous purpose - agricultural production, or the afforestation - contributes to the maintenance of ecological balance in nature, which then makes coal mining sustainable.

  12. Study on durability of concrete in coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-shun; JIN Zu-quan; SUN Wei; GUAN Xue-mao

    2004-01-01

    There are sulfate and chloride ions corrosion and carbonation to concrete in coal mine. Based on taking test of accelerated carbonation, corrosion of 3.5% weight of NaCl solution and 5% weight of Na2SO4 solution of coal mine concretes, durability of concretes which include spray concrete of C20, high performance concretes of C30 and C50and effect of fly ash on durability have been studied. Results suggest that the coal mineral high performance concretes show good resistance capacities of carbonation, sulfate and chloride corrosion to meet the coal mine construction. And the higher the strength grade is,the better the resistance capacity of corrosion of carbonation is, chloride and sulfate.Moreover, fly ash improves resistance capacity of high performance concrete(HPC) to chloride and sulfate but decreases the resistance capacity of C30's to carbonation and average dynamic modulus.

  13. Simulating the Various Subsystems of a Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Okolnishnikov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of simulation models of various subsystems of a coal mine was developed with the help of a new visual interactive simulation system of technological processes. This paper contains a brief description of this simulation system and its possibilities. The main possibilities provided by the simulation system are: the quick construction of models from library elements, 3D representation, and the communication of models with actual control systems. These simulation models were developed for the simulation of various subsystems of a coal mine: underground conveyor network subsystems, pumping subsystems and coal face subsystems. These simulation models were developed with the goal to be used as a quality and reliability assurance tool for new process control systems in coal mining.

  14. Underground coal gasification - the acceptable face of coal mining?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryburgh, P.

    2009-11-15

    There is growing interest in underground coal gasification, whereby energy is accessed from coal in a cleaner way than traditional combustion methods. The paper looks at the benefits of UCG. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Squeezing Failure in a Coal Mine Roadway due to Mining-Induced Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fuqiang; Stead, Doug; Kang, Hongpu

    2015-07-01

    Squeezing failure is a common failure mechanism experienced in underground coal mine roadways due mainly to mining-induced stresses, which are much higher than the strength of rock mass surrounding an entry. In this study, numerical simulation was carried out to investigate the mechanisms of roadway squeezing using a novel UDEC Trigon approach. A numerical roadway model was created based on a case study at the Zhangcun coal mine in China. Coal extraction using the longwall mining method was simulated in the model with calculation of the mining-induced stresses. The process of roadway squeezing under severe mining-induced stresses was realistically captured in the model. Deformation phenomena observed in field, including roof sag, wall convexity and failed rock bolts are realistically produced in the UDEC Trigon model.

  16. Application of fuzzy logic for determining of coal mine mechanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOSSEINI SAA; ATAEI M; HOSSEINI S M; AKHYANI M

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental task of mining engineers is to produce more coal at a given level of labour input and material costs,for optimum quality and maximum efficiency.To achieve these goals,it is necessary to automate and mechanize mining operations.Mechanization is an objective that can result in significant cost reduction and higher levels of profitability for underground mines.To analyze the potential of mechanization,some important factors such as seam inclination and thickness,geological disturbances,seam floor conditions and roof conditions should be considered.In this study we have used fuzzy logic,membership functions and created fuzzy rule-based methods and considered the ultimate objective:mechanization of mining.As a case study,the mechanization of the Tazare coal seams in Shahroud area of Iran was investigated.The results show a low potential for mechanization in most of the Tazare coal seams.

  17. Data transferring network of the Titovi Rudnici coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatunic, E.

    1985-07-01

    Gives a general survey of modern information and communication systems, highlighting the Yugoslav JUPAK system. Also considered is the need for the application of a modern information and communications system in the Titovi Rudnici coal mines and its integration with the national JUPAK system. The center of communications and information for all Bosnian coal mines should be Sarajevo. The center should be linked by a 460 MHz radio communication system with local transformers at Tuzla, Banja Luka, Mostar and Zenica. The largest, in Tuzla, should start with 256 links for local industrial, mining and commercial concerns. Details of the JUPAK data transfer network (the ERIPAC and EDX-P systems) are presented. The management of the Titovi Rudnici coal mines has not yet chosen an information system. 3 refs.

  18. Coal mine workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP): in vitro study of the release of organic compounds from coal mine dust in the presence of physiological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, H M

    1997-01-01

    Solvents like dichloromethane generally are used to yield exhausted extraction amounts of the organic compounds in coals. Leaching of coal mine dust by dichloromethane yields extracts with comparable amounts of alkanes, aromatics, and phenolic compounds. Dominantly phenolic compounds are leached from coal mine dust by aqueous solutions saturated in lecithin because of their high water solubility. High concentrations of phenolic compounds can be extracted from coal mine dust generated from low-rank coals. Phenolic compounds leached by fluids adapted to physiological conditions correlate with high cytotoxicities of the dust from low-rank coals. Adaptation of leaching fluids to physiological conditions allows a more realistic estimation of experiments. Coal mine dust with varying coal content of different ranks can be seen as a parameter reinforcing the cytotoxic potential of coal mine dust.

  19. Comparison of Methane Drainage Methods Used in Polish Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Borowski, Marek; Obracaj, Dariusz; Swolkień, Justyna; Korzec, Marek

    2014-10-01

    Methane drainage is used in Polish coal mines in order to reduce mine methane emissions as well as to keep methane concentration in mine workings at safe levels. This article describes methods of methane drainage during mining used in Polish coal mines. The first method involves drilling boreholes from tailgate roadway to an unstressed zone in roof or floor layers of a mined seam. It is the main method used in Polish mining, where both the location of drilled boreholes as well as their parameters are dependent on mining and ventilation systems of longwalls. The second method is based on drilling overlying drainage galleries in seams situated under or over the mined seam. This article compares these methods with regard to their effectiveness under mining conditions in Polish mines. High effectiveness of methane drainage of longwalls with different ventilation and methane drainage systems has been proven. The highest effectiveness of methane drainage has been observed for the system with overlying drainage gallery and with the parallel tailgate roadways. In case of classic U ventilation system of longwall panel, boreholes drilled from the tailgate roadway behind the longwall front are lost.

  20. Coal Fields - MO 2015 Closed Non-coal Mine Shafts (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set contains the locations and descriptions of abandoned non-coal mine shafts in Missouri closed by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (DNR),...

  1. Study of "3-Step Mining" Subsidence Control in Coal Mining Under Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Guang-li; ZHA Jian-feng; WU Bin; JIA Xin-guo

    2007-01-01

    Mining subsidence damage is the main factor of restricting coal mining under buildings. To control or ease effectively the degree of mining subsidence and deformation is essential to resolve this problem. Through analyzing both advantages and disadvantages of some technologies such as mining with stowing, partial extraction and grouting in separated beds of overburden, we used the principle of load replacement and propose a "3-step mining" method, a new pattern of controlling mining subsidence, which consists of: strip mining, i.e. grouting to fill and consolidate the caving zone and retained strip pillar mining. The mechanism of controlling mining subsidence by using the "3-step mining" pattern is analyzed. The effect of the control is numerically simulated. The preliminary analysis shows that the "3-step mining" can effectively control ground subsidence and deformation. By using this method, the ground subsidence factor can be controlled to a value of about 0.25. Coal recovery can reach 80%-90%. Coal mining without removing surface buildings can be realized and the economic loss resulting from ground subsidence can be greatly reduced.

  2. Environmentally Benign Coal Mining: Target One Billion Tonne Coal Production by CIL by 2019-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh1,2 and

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the most abundant fuel resource in India. Coal is the major source of energy and is the principal contributor for the industrial growth of the developing nation like India. Coal is a bridge component in a current, balanced energy group. It is connection for the future as a vital low cost energy solution for achieving sustainability challenges for competing with the developed countries. The largest consumer of coal in India is power sector, and the industrial sector is coming next to power sector. The major consumption of coal in India is in steel plant, cement plant and brick-manufacturing units.52%of primary energy is coal dependent1.About 66% of India's power generation is based upon coal production1. While coal is considered the most significant element for the growth of country, it faces major and massive social and environmental issues. Environmental worries are the most important parameter for the coal industry’s future. In comparison to the other fossil fuels, coal is more pollution causing and less energy efficient. Coal has an important role in fulfillment of current needs. 212.10 Million Tonnes of coal was imported in the financial year 2014-152.The coal demand will be increasing due to increase in electricity demand of the country. Coal India being the largest producer of coal in India has to plan accordingly to fulfill the coal demand of country. A road map for enhancement of coal production up to 1 Billion of coal by 2019-2020 has been prepared by Coal India3. Due to coal mining the key environmental impacts are on air, water, land, forest, biodiversity, and climate etc. The biggest challenge is to put on the innovative technologies in the most efficient and environmentally friendly manner and to solve social issues by taking care of the implementation of rehabilitation and resettlement (R&R.Thrust is now to promote inclusive growth of mining areas by adequate corporate social responsibilities (CSR activities4,5. Thus the

  3. 78 FR 35974 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Rescue Teams; Arrangements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Rescue Teams... protecting the safety and health of miners. 30 CFR Part 49, Mine Rescue Teams, Subpart B--Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines, sets standards related to the availability of mine rescue teams;...

  4. Influence of different mining layouts on the mechanical properties of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie; Heping; Zhao; Xiaoping; Liu; Jianfeng; Zhang; Ru; Xue; Dongjie

    2012-01-01

    Non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining are the most popular mining methods in coal exploitation,and the different mining layouts will change the stress state and failure mechanism of coal in front of the working face.In this paper,mining-induced mechanical behaviors under three mining layouts have been simulated in the laboratory to investigate the effects of mining layouts on the deformation and strength of coal.Furthermore,the coal failure mechanism under different mining layouts is analyzed microscopically.The experimental results indicate that the stage characteristics of the coal deformation are obvious.Under the serial action of non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining layouts,the values of radial deformation,volume strain and Poisson's ratio increase,while the peak strength and deformation modulus decrease at the same buried depth,and the peak strength under non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining is about 3.0,2.5 and 2.0 times of the initial confining pressure,respectively.The results also indicate that the trend of the coal deformation decreases with the increase of the buried depth under the same mining layout,while the strength and deformation modulus increase,and the failure mechanism under three mining layouts is dominated with shear/tensile failure.

  5. Influence Of different mining layouts on the mechanical properties of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Heping; Zhao Xiaoping; Liu Jianfeng; Zhang Ru; Xue Dongjie

    2012-01-01

    Non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining are the most popular mining methods in coal exploitation,and the different mining layouts will change the stress state and failure mechanism of coal in front of the working face.In this paper,mining-induced mechanical behaviors under three mining layouts have been simulated in the laboratory to investigate the effects of mining layouts on the deformation and strength of coal.Furthermore,the coal failure mechanism under different mining layouts is analyzed microscopically.The experimental results indicate that the stage characteristics of the coal deformation are obvious.Under the serial action of non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining layouts,the values of radial deformation,volume strain and Poisson's ratio increase,while the peak strength and deformation modulus decrease at the same buried depth,and the peak strength under non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining is about 3.0,2.5 and 2.0 times of the initial confining pressure,respectively.The results also indicate that the trend of the coal deformation decreases with the increase of the buried depth under the same mining layout,while the strength and deformation modulus increase,and the failure mechanism under three mining layouts is dominated with shear/tensile failure.

  6. Environmental problems in a coal mining area affected by coal fires --A case study in Ruqigou Coalfield, Ningxia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ruqigou Coalfield, being one of the most important coal mining areas in China, has suffered coal fire problems for more than one hundred years. Due to coal fires, about 4.513 million tons coal resources has been lost each year, and apart from a large volume of CO2 delivered into air, environmental problems such as land degradation, land pollution and air pollution are also produced. Air pollution, as one related to coal fires, is the most dangerous problems for local people and has already led to vegetation pollution in this area. Land degradation is mainly induced with occurrence of land subsidence, fissures with due to coal mining/coal fires, and debris slide/flow. With development of opencast coal mining, a large volume of waste was produced, which is the major source of land pollution. All these environmental problems are associated with coal mining or coal fires and their comprehensive effects are deterioration of environment.

  7. Private sector coal mining in South Wales 1991-96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, H.C. [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom). HM Inspectorate of Mines, Wales and West England District

    1997-09-01

    The paper reviews the significant changes that have taken place in private sector coal mines, in South Wales, over a five year period, together with details of individual mine activity. Due consideration is given to health and safety initiative raised at the quarterly held meetings of the Joint Advisory Committee formed by the Mines Inspectorate in 1990. Privatisation, during this period, brought The Coal Authority into being and the new arrangements are briefly reviewed. The role of the Mines Inspectorate is clearly outlined in terms of investigating accidents and incidents, reviewing The Employers` Lability (Compulsory Insurance) Act 1969, formalising lines of communication with the industry and highlighting both its advisory and enforcement roles. The paper was presented to the Wales Branch of the Institution of Mining Engineers, held in Llandarcy, Wales on 5 December 1996. Discussions held after the lecture are included. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Influence of Geological Structure on Coal and Gas Outburst Occurrences in Turkish Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Olgun; Özer, Samet Can; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are sudden and violent releases of gas and in company with coal that result from a complex function of geology, stress regime with gas pressure and gas content of the coal seam. The phenomena is referred to as instantaneous outbursts and have occurred in virtually all the major coal producing countries and have been the cause of major disasters in the world mining industry. All structures from faults to joints and cleats may supply gas or lead to it draining away. Most geological structures influence the way in which gas can drain within coal seams. From among all the geological factors two groups can be distinguished: parameters characterising directly the occurrence and geometry of the coal seams; parameters characterising the tectonic disturbances of the coal seams and neighbouring rocks. Also dykes may act as gas barriers. When the production of the coal seam is advanced in mine working areas, these barriers are failed mostly in the weak and mylonitized zones. Geology also plays a very important role in the outburst process. Coal seams of complex geological structure including faults, folds, and fractured rocks are liable to outbursts if coal seams and neighbouring rocks have high gas content level. The purpose of the study is to enlighten the coal industry in Turkey to improving mine safety in underground coal production and decrease of coal and gas outburst events due to increasing depth of mining process. In Turkey; the years between 1969 and 2013, the number of 90 coal and gas outbursts took place in Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin in both Kozlu and Karadon Collieries. In this study the liability to coal and gas outburst of the coal seams are investigated by measuring the strength of coal and the rock pressure. The correlation between these measurements and the event locations shows that the geological structures resulted in 52 events out of 90 events; 19 events close to the fault zones, 25 events thorough the fault zones and 8 events in

  9. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 2. Interior Coal Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricoski, M. L.; Daniels, L. K.; Sobek, A. A.

    1979-08-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Interior Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references, including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographies. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  10. Mine soil characterization in the coal mine dumps of As Pontes (NW Spain) during its reclamation; Caracterizacion de los suelos de la escombrera de la mina Puentes (La Coruna) en proceso de restauracion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterroso, C.; Alvarez, E.; Macias, F. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    1993-12-31

    Acidity, nutrient availability and potential toxicity in the coal mine dump of As Pontes (NW Spain) are evaluated. Then, cationic exchange capacity, actual and potential acidity and available heavy metals (DPTA extracted) are analyzed. Results show a wide variability of the spoil materials. Sulfur level in the spoils explains the different actual and potential acidity conditions. Cationic exchange capacity is low ({lt} 10 cmol (+) kg{sup -1}) but is similar to the contiguous natural soils DPTA-extracted metals display following sequence: Fe {much_gt} Mn {much_gt} Cu {gt} Ni {ge} Zn {ge} Pb {gt} Co {much_gt} Cd and the system acidity explains its mobilization. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Utilizing coal remaining resources and post-mining land use planning based on GIS-based optimization method : study case at PT Adaro coal mine in South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Anis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining activities may cause a series of environmental and socio-economic issues in communities around the mining area. Mining can become an obstacle to environmental sustainability and a major hidden danger to the security of the local ecology. Therefore, the coal mining industry should follow some specific principles and factors in achieving sustainable development. These factors include geological conditions, land use, mining technology, environmental sustainability policies and government regulations, socio-economic factors, as well as sustainability optimization for post-mining land use. Resources of the remains of the coal which is defined as the last remaining condition of the resources and reserves of coal when the coal companies have already completed the life of the mine or the expiration of the licensing contract (in accordance with government permission. This research uses approch of knowledge-driven GIS based methods mainly Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Fuzzy logic for utilizing coal remaining resources and post-mining land use planning. The mining area selected for this study belongs to a PKP2B (Work Agreement for Coal Mining company named Adaro Indonesia (PT Adaro. The result shows that geologically the existing formation is dominated by Coal Bearing Formation (Warukin Formation which allows the presence of remains coal resource potential after the lifetime of mine, and the suitability of rubber plantation for the optimization of land use in all mining sites and also in some disposal places in conservation areas and protected forests.

  12. Present situation and developing trend of coal mine automation and communication technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sui-yan

    2008-01-01

    Introduced developing process of coal mine automation and communicationtechnology, analyzed present features and characteristics of coal mine automation andcommunication technology, and put forward a few key technical problems needed to besolved.

  13. Study on regional stratagem for coal mine disasters control and prevention in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Bao-hong; LEI Yi

    2009-01-01

    The regional strategy study was aimed at coal mine disaster control and pre-vention, which deepens and enriches the macro-strategy of coal mine disaster control and prevention, and provides an important support for the rapid and healthy development of the regional coal industry. The country was divided into 4 regions: Northeast, North, South and Xinqing. In view of the regional status of coal mine disasters, the regulation and de-velopment trend of regional coal mine disasters were analyzed, the outstanding problems and key factors were identified, and the general thoughts on regional coal mine disaster control and prevention were put forward.

  14. The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines.

  15. Computerized estimation of coal reserves of underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solymosi, F.; Kiss, J.

    1988-01-01

    No standardized methodology for long term planning exists in Hungary in the coal industry. A computerized method of coal reserve estimation based on normatives is described. The method has been applied in the Maza-South-Varalja-South region (Transdanubia, South Hungary). The applicability of the method is outlined and the error limit that was missing in coal reserve estimations is suggested to be introduced.

  16. Analysis of production capacity in coal mining operations. [Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csicsay, A.; Moharos, J.

    1985-01-01

    The longwall mining machines in coal mines are extremely expensive. In the intensive periods of development most of the investments were expended to this machinery but their productivity was found to stay below expectations. After the assessment of the reasons the solution for this problem was sought and new measures were introduced. The analysis covered the survey of the losses and the service times experienced in 19 heavily mechanized longwall mines representing over half of this type in Hungary. Propositions to reduce time and financial losses and to improve the efficiency of mining machines are presented.

  17. Exploration drilling for pre-mining gas drainage in coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubina, E. A.; Brylin, V. I.; Lukyanov, V. G.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2015-02-01

    High natural gas content in coal seams and low gas drainage efficiency are the basic issues to be addressed in order to ensure coal mining safety. A great number of wells being drilled within various gas drainage techniques significantly increase the costs of coal mining and do not reduce the gas content levels within the coal beds up to the required parameters in a short period of time. The integrated approach toward exploration well spacing applied at the stage of project development could make it possible to consider coal seam data to provide more effective gas drainage not only ahead of mining but also during further gas content reduction and commercial production of methane. The comparative analysis of a closely spaced grid of exploration program compiled in accordance with the recommendations on applying mineral reserves classification and inferred resources of coal and shale coal deposits and currently effective stimulation radius proves the necessity and possibility to consider exploration well data for gas drainage. Pre-mining gas drainage could ensure the safety of mining operations.

  18. Systems to limit coal dust and methane explosions in coal mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, JJL

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the need for enhanced precautionary measures to safeguard mine workers in collieries from the consequences of methane ignitions in a heading, the coal mining industry has expressed the desire for the development and testing of active...

  19. The environment of coal mining areas and the economic evaluation of the land reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志宏; 肖兴田; 何志强

    2001-01-01

    The environment impact of the coal resources mining was analyzed. The method of economic evaluation for the coal mining was established to analyze land destruction. The opportunity cost method was used to quantitatively analyze and estimate the economic loss of the land destruction by coal mining. At the same time, the dump land reclamation of the Yuanbaoshan. Open Pit was taken as an example to evaluate environmental and economical benefit with the method of economic evaluation for the coal mining areas land reclamation.

  20. Back-and-forth mining for hard and thick coal seams-research about the mining technology for fully mechanized caving working face of Datong Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhi-xin; YU Hong; YU Bin; SONG Hua-ling

    2005-01-01

    The article introduced the key technology, mining process, and back-and-forth mining method for the caving working face of hard-thick coal seams in Datcng mine, and researched this innovations process, optimized the systemic design and working face outplay, tried to perfect the caving mining technology of hard-thick coal seams further.

  1. FUZZY MATHEMATICAL EVALUATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURE BUILDINGS' DAMAGE GRADE CAUSED BY COAL MINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连传杰; 刘立民; 高闯

    1999-01-01

    Coal mining under buildings certainly causes surface movement and deformation, therefore, it brings about deformation even fracture for buildings. It is an important task to evaluate correctly the buildings' damage grade caused by coal mining. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, considering some factors of buildings' fracture, has been applied to analyze the masonry structure buildings' damage grade after coal mining in this paper. It provides a scientific basis for buildings' reinforcement before mining and maintenance or compensation after mining.

  2. Coal mine gas monitoring system based on wireless sensor network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; WANG Ru-lin; WANG Xue-min; SHEN Chuan-he

    2007-01-01

    Based on the nowadays'condition.it is urgent that the gas detection cable communication system must be replaced by the wireless communication systems.The wireless sensors distributed in the environment can achieve the intelligent gas monitoring system.Apply with multilayer data fuse to design working tactics,and import the artificial neural networks to analyze detecting result.The wireless sensors system communicates with the controI center through the optical fiber cable.All the gas sensor nodes distributed in coal mine are combined into an intelligent,flexible structure wireless network system.forming coal mine gas monitoring system based on wireless sensor network.

  3. Study of monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining area by D-InSAR technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Liang; LI Wen-jie; TAN Yang

    2008-01-01

    Along with the increasing demand for coal and the great importance attached to mine safety, gaining the information of mine surface distortion timely has already become an urgent need to guarantee the safety of mine production. D-InSAR technology is a new measure which can provide the information of surface distortion in mining areas at centi-meter level through the processing of SAR image gained from radar satellite. In addition, this technology has the advantage of monitoring large areas with no weather limit. Intro-duced the basic principle and data processing steps of D-InSAR systematically and ac-quired the differential interferometry based on case study data. The advantages of D-InSAR and it's usability in monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining areas were proved.

  4. Study of monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining area by D-InSAR technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Liang; LI Wen-jie; TAN Yang

    2008-01-01

    Along with the increasing demand for coal and the great importance attached to mine safety,gaining the information of mine surface distortion timely has already become an urgent need to guarantee the safety of mine production.D-InSAR technology is a new measure which can provide the information of surface distortion in mining areas at centimeter level through the processing of SAR image gained from radar satellite.In addition,this technology has the advantage of monitoring large areas with no weather limit.Introduced the basic principle and data processing steps of D-InSAR systematically and acquired the differential interferometry based on case study data.The advantages of D-InSAR and it's usability in monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining areas were proved.

  5. Arc Export File Of Permitted and Mined Out Coal Areas of the Gulf Coast Coal-Bearing (gulfmines.e00)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains permitted coal mines and mined out areas in the Gulf Coast coal-bearing geology prior to 1998. The data included in the coverage are mine...

  6. Use of booster fans in underground coal mining to advantage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Habibi A; Gillies A D S

    2011-01-01

    A booster fan is an underground main fan which is installed in series with a main surface fan and used to boost the air pressure of the ventilation to overcome mine resistance.Currently booster fans are used in several major coal mining countries including the United Kingdom,Australia,Poland and China.In the United States booster fans are prohibited in coal mines although they are used in several metal and non-metal mines.A study has been undertaken to examine alternatives for ventilating an underground room and pillar coal mine system.A feasibility study of a hypothetical situation has shown that current ventilation facilities are incapable of fulfilling mine air requirements in the future due to increased seam methane levels.A current ventilation network model has been prepared and projected to a mine five years plan.“Ventsim visual” software simulations of different possible ventilation options have been conducted in which varying methane levels are found at working faces.The software can also undertake financial simulations and project present value total costs for the options under study.Several scenarios for improving the ventilation situation such as improving main surface fans,adding intake shafts,adding exhaust shafts and utilizing booster fans have been examined.After taking into account the total capital and operating costs for the five years mine plan the booster fan scenarios are recommended as being the best alternatives for further serious consideration by the mine.The optimum option is a properly sized and installed booster fan system that can be used to create safe work conditions,maintain adequate air quantity with lowest cost,generate a reduction in energy consumption and decrease mine system air leakage.

  7. Washability analysis of high sulfur coal gangue from a Coal mine in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yun; DAI Wen-zhi; ZHANG Qin; NIE Guang-hua; CHENG Jiang-guo; TUO Bi-yang; MAO Song; NIU Fang-yin

    2007-01-01

    Fulfill the screen test and float-and-sink analysis for high sulfur coal gangue from a Guizhou coal mine,analyzed the washability of its tail coal.Seen from the results:most of sulfur in sample is pyrite,the Sulfur content of different particle classification shall be reduced with the decreasing of size and specific gravity,most of sulfur distributed in the coal particles with large-size and high specific gravity.Part of sulfur may be eliminated through special gravity separation,however,most of inorganic sulfur should be removed with the combination of floatation process.

  8. A Study of Rockburst Hazard Evaluation Method in Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing of coal mining depth, the mining conditions are deteriorating, and dynamic hazard is becoming more likely to happen. This paper analyzes the relations and differences between rockburst in the coal mine and rockburst in the metal mine. It divides coal mine rockburst into two types including static loading type during roadway excavation process and dynamic loading type during mining face advancing. It proposes the correlation between the formation process of rockburst and the evolution of overlying strata spatial structure of the stope, criterion of rockburst occurrence, new classification, and predictive evaluation method for rockburst hazard that rockburst damage evaluation (RDE = released energy capacity (REC/absorbed energy capacity (AEC. Based on the relationship between RDE value and its corresponding level of rockburst hazard, the rockburst hazard can be divided into five types and evaluation index of each type can be achieved. Then the ongoing rockburst damage level can be classified in one of the five types, and the relative parameters, such as hazard extent, controlling measures also can be achieved. This new quantitative method could not only assess the impacting direction of rockburst occurrence, but also verify the effect of preventive measures for rockburst.

  9. Coal-mine production history from 1984 through 1995 in the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area (cpmphg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage containing 12 years (1984 through 1995) of coal mining history in the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area. This layer was derived...

  10. Mapping collapsed columns in coal mines utilizing Microtremor Survey Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, P.F.; Li, C.J.; Ling, S.Q.; Zhang, Y.B.; Hou, Z.; Sun, Y.J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2009-07-15

    Collapsed columns post one of the deadly safety risks to coal miners. Therefore, how to effectively map collapsed columns has become an urgent business matter for improving coal mine safety and coal production. This article documents the first application of the microtremor survey method to map geological hazards in the coal mining areas. Our results demonstrated the usefulness and effectiveness of the method, primarily due to the sensitivity of shear waves to the low-velocity collapsed columns. In the 2002 working region within the Shanxi Lu'an Zhangcun coal mine area, both the S-wave velocity structure inverted using the simple-point inversion method and the apparent S-wave velocity section obtained using the 2D microtremor profiling method clearly display the known collapsed columns. The collapsed column positions displayed in the 2D microtremor section are consistent with those seen from the tunnel, having a boundary error approximately 10 m. The microtremor method has been proved a very effective and useful geophysical tool to improve coal mining safety, because of the following characteristics: (1) high resolution, (2) no need of using the artificial source, (3) convenient and low-cost field data acquisition, and (4) little effect from local cultural structures. The microtremor survey method is also technically superior to any other geophysical method in detecting or mapping these low or high S-wave velocity anomalies. Therefore, it has a bright future in many geological and geophysical applications, such as investigation of coal seam structures and collapsed columns underneath villages.

  11. Geohydrology and water chemistry of abandoned uranium mines and radiochemistry of spoil-material leachate, Monument Valley and Cameron areas, Arizona and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longsworth, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium mines in the Monument Valley area were established predominately in channel-fill deposits within the Shinarump Member of the Chinle Formation. The Shinarump Member yields ground water to wells and may yield water to the Moonlight and Radium Hill mines. In the study area near Cameron, uranium was mined from channel-fill deposits within the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation. Units of the Petrified Forest Member do not yield ground water to wells in the area, but fractures in the lower part of the Petrified Forest Member are probable pathways for upward flow of water from the Shinarump Member. Most of the mines receive water from surface inflow of rainfall runoff, but ground water also may be transmitted to open pits and drill holes in the subsurface through fractures or along faults in the Petrified Forest Member. Uranium-238 activities in shallow ground water from mines ranged from 150 to 14,000 picocuries per liter. Radionuclide activities in well and spring water were less than in shallow ground water near mines; however, in some samples, radionuclide activities in wells and springs were greater than activities in pit water. Uranium concentrations in leachate samples ranged from 20 to 7,700 micrograms per liter. Batch tests were done with material that was 2.00 millimeters and smaller. The radiochemistry of leachate from coarser material was not determined, and the specific rate and magnitude of radionuclide leaching depends on site-specific conditions that include the amounts of oxygen and organic material present, temperature, spoil mineralogy, and local ground-water composition.

  12. Closed-loop prevention and control research of coal mine safety management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing-dong; ZHAO Yun-xia; ZHAO Xing-qiang; LU Ying

    2009-01-01

    According to the current problems of safety management processes in coal mine enterprises, we introduced barrel theory to coal mine safety management, con-structed the closed-loop structure of a coal mine safety management system, and pointed out that efficient safety management lies in three factors: safety quality of all of the staff in coal mine enterprises, weak links in security management systems, and co-operation among departments. After conducting detailed analysis of these three factors, we proposed concrete ways of preventing and controlling potential safety hazards during the process of coal mine production.

  13. Study on coal mines accidents based on the grey relational analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuai; ZHANG Jin-long

    2008-01-01

    The subject investigated the system of people-machine-environment in coal mines. The coal mines working process was researched and the theory of grey system was applied to analyze coal mines safety accidents and those relevant factors. This re-search reveals that this analysis method is easy and highly available and the result is of great credibility, which can not only provide theoretical supports to the quantitative study of coal mines safety accident, but offer basis for coal mines companies' safety management.

  14. Pollution extents of organic substances from a coal gangue dump of Jiulong Coal Mine, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y Z; Fan, J S; Qin, P; Niu, H Y

    2009-02-01

    This paper addresses the distribution and occurrence of harmful organic substances in coal gangue dump from Jiulong Coal Mine and its influence on the environment. The samples were taken from the coal gangue dump and coal waste water stream and analyzed by organic geochemical methods. The results indicate that the coal gangues contain abundant harmful organic substances like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The TOC and sulfur contents of the samples are much higher than those of the background sample except Sample JL7. The contents of organic bulk parameters are relatively high. Ten carcinogenic PAHs were identified and these harmful organic substances have influenced the surrounding area. Along the waste water stream, organic substances pollute at least 1,800 m far from the coal gangue dump.

  15. Pollution extents of organic substances from a coal gangue dump of Jiulong Coal Mine, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.Z.; Fan, J.S.; Qin, P.; Niu, H.Y. [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China)

    2009-02-15

    This paper addresses the distribution and occurrence of harmful organic substances in coal gangue dump from Jiulong Coal Mine and its influence on the environment. The samples were taken from the coal gangue dump and coal waste water stream and analyzed by organic geochemical methods. The results indicate that the coal gangues contain abundant harmful organic substances like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The TOC and sulfur contents of the samples are much higher than those of the background sample except Sample JL7. The contents of organic bulk parameters are relatively high. Ten carcinogenic PAHs were identified and these harmful organic substances have influenced the surrounding area. Along the waste water stream, organic substances pollute at least 1,800 m far from the coal gangue dump.

  16. Improvements in electric power supply in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minovskii, Yu.P.; Nabokov, Eh.P.; Savel' ev, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews measures taken by major coal producing countries to increase output levels. Discusses research carried out into advance design of equipment in FRG, UK, USA and France and proposes establishment of central automatic control of electric power supply system in Soviet mines, improvement in underground power supply equipment, increase in reliability, stabilization of standby capacity in low voltage circuits, maintenance-free electrical equipment, and efficient spare part storage in underground workings. States that introduction of the proposed system (details are given) will ensure that Soviet mines will eventually reach the development level of foreign mines. 2 refs.

  17. Trends of the American coal mining industry and technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, M.J. [Joy Mining Machinery (USA)

    2000-03-01

    An overview is presented of the USA's coal mining industry, emphasising energy trends and driving forces. The focus of the drive for increased productivity has shifted to technology. Several pieces of high-tech mining equipment produced by Joy Mining Machinery is described. They include: the Joy 12CM27 continuous miner, the Multibolter, the Flexible Conveyor Train, Joy longwall roof supports, Joy armored face conveyors, Joy shearing machines, and Joy Network Architecture (JNA) system for underground machine control and diagnostics. 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Ecological consequences of minestone deposition from open coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davcheva-Ilcheva, N.G. (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Applied Mineralogy)

    1993-01-01

    Describes the largest Bulgarian coal mining field Maritza-Iztok (240 km[sup 2], 700,000 town population). Natural resources and the ecosystem are described. Petrographical composition of the coal deposit is given. Ecological problems that result from mining activity and methods adopted to solve them are presented. The coalfield provides Bulgaria with 74% of its coal, 30% of its electricity and 100% of its briquets. Coal mining waste from the Maritza-Iztok mine amounts to 79.9% of the country's waste. For waste deposition and other purposes, 160 km[sup 2] of land have been expropriated and another 165 km[sup 2] will be expropriated. About 33 km[sup 2] of damaged areas have been recultivated. Dust and noise emissions are considered. Ecological conditions of the region worsen each year by emission from a power station, chemical enterprises and a cement plant. Recommendations are made on how to solve the ecological problems. 2 refs.

  19. 75 FR 17511 - Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... frequency ranges and signal strengths encountered in coal mines from power stations, electric motors and... indication of the flow rate and specifies the calibration of the flow rate indicator. It updates existing... equipped with a flow restriction indicator. This new requirement reflects technology incorporated in the...

  20. Mycobacterium marinum Infection After Exposure to Coal Mine Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, Moises A; Ribes, Julie A; Lohr, Kristine M; Evans, Martin E

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium marinum infection has been historically associated with exposure to aquariums, swimming pools, fish, or other marine fauna. We present a case of M marinum left wrist tenosynovitis and elbow bursitis associated with a puncture injury and exposure to coal mine water in Illinois.

  1. STUDY ON HARD ROOF ROCKBURST IN COAL MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘一山; 陈德军; 章梦涛

    1997-01-01

    Based on practical observation in Mentougou Mine, a general law of roof rockburst is put forward. The destabilization theory of roof rockburst has been established. The general laws of microquake premonition and earth sound in roof rockburst is advanced. The relationship between roof rockburst and rockburst of coal body is studied.

  2. Research on the Factors of Fatigue of Coal Mine Workers and Its Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing-Gang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available China is the largest coal producer in the world, it play a important role in the international field of coal production, but due to the frequent occurrence of coal mining accidents, it cause a enormous damage to the state's manpower and material resources. This article on research of the cause of the coal mining accident, it describes the fatigue of the coal mine workers assignment is the main cause of the accident and the threat to the safety of workers, and points out the important factors in ergonomics. MMEC theory is introduced and using for reference MMEC theory, finding out influence the cause of the coal mine worker fatigue, and combined with the relevant laws and regulations system to control and reduce the proposed method of coal mine worker fatigue to reduce and prevent the occurrence of coal mine accidents have some guidance Significance.

  3. Polish legal regulations considering recovery of secondary materials from coal mining dumping grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawor Łukasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is presented temporary situation of coal mining dumping grounds in Poland – their inventarization, localization and environmental impacts. The coal mining dumping grounds in Poland are situated in three coal basins: Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Lower Silesian Coal Basin and Lublin Coal Basin. In all mentioned areas occur ca. 270 coal mining waste dumps, covering surface of over 4400 ha. The main environmental impacts connected with dumping grounds are fire hazards, water pollution and a danger of slope sliding. The question of recovery of coal from disposed wastes with regard to legal regulations is discussed. There are presented technical methods of coal recovery considering environmental protection issues. There is a necessity and technical possibility of recovery of coal from the coal-mining waste dumps. The coal recovery reduces hazards of self-ignition and fires of the dump. It is also economically justified. The analysis of required regulations in legal system in Poland for safe exploitation of secondary materials from coal mining dumps is done. Socio-economic aspects of recovery of coal are discussed. The valid legal regulations in Poland regulate the issues connected with coal mining dumping grounds in a very general way. It is necessary to prepare supplements to the legal provisions or new regulations concerning post-mining dumping grounds.

  4. New Respirable Dust Suppression Systems for Coal Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yao-she; FAN Gao-xian; DAI Jun-wei; SONG Xiao-bo

    2007-01-01

    Dust suppression in coal mines is a worldwide problem which has not been solved effectively. The application of negative pressure secondary dust removal (NPSDR) is a breakthrough in the coal mine safety field. In this paper, NPSDR technology and ultrasonic dust suppression systems are introduced. High pressure water is supplied to the NPSDR device which is mounted on the shearer. A negative pressure field is formed in the device. At the same time, the dusty air around the shearer drum will be sucked into, and purged from, the NPSDR device by the negative pressure field. An ultrasonic dust suppression system uses water and compressed air to produce micron sized droplets which suppress respirable coal dust effectively. The NPSDR technology can be used for shearer dust suppression while ultrasonic dust suppression can be applied in areas such as the transportation positions. These dust suppression methods have the following advantages: high efficiency, wide applicability, simple structure, high reliability and low cost.

  5. Productivity Improvement in Underground Coal Mines - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Prasad Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of productivity has become an important goal for today's coal industry in the race to increase price competitiveness. The challenge now lying ahead for the coal industry is to identify areas of waste, meet the market price and maintain a healthy profit. The only way to achieve this is to reduce production costs by improving productivity, efficiency and the effectiveness of the equipment. This paper aims to identify the various factors and problems affecting the productivity of underground coal mines adopting the bord and pillar method of mining and to propose suitable measures for improving them. The various key factors affecting productivity, namely the cycle of operations, manpower deployment, machine efficiency, material handling and management of manpower are discussed. In addition, the problem of side discharge loader (SDL cable handling resulting in the wastage of precious manpower resources and SDL breakdown have also been identified and resolved in this paper.

  6. Test studies of gas flow in rock and coal surrounding a mined coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Youchang

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the variation rule of abutment pressure at the mining working face in a single coal seam and the mechanical behavior of surrounding rock during stoping is presented.Consideration of the elastic and plastic deformation zones that develop during the mining process allowed the determination of a relationship between horizontal stress and vertical stress.Based on this,a confined pressure unloading test was conducted by the use of the "gas-containing coal thermo-fluid-solid coupling 3-axis servo seepage" experimental apparatus.Thus,gas flow patterns in the elastic and plastic zones were derived from an experimental point of view.Darcy's law and the Klinkenberg effect were used to derive a gas flow equation for the elastic and plastic stress fields.The study of gas flow phenomena at the working face during coal mining is of great importance for the study of gas migration and enrichment oatterns.

  7. The South Manchurian Railway Company and the Mining Industry: The Case of the Fushun Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-yu Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the Japanese victory over Czarist Russia in the Russo-Japanese War and the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth in 1905, the southernmost section of the southern branch of the China Far East Railway (Changchun–Port Arthur was transferred to Japanese control. A new, semi-privately held company, the South Manchuria Railway Company (SMR, Mantetsu, was established with 85.6 percent capitalization by the Japanese government and foreign bonds to operate the railroad and to develop settlements (including highways, public health facilities, educational institutions, and industries (coal mines, harbor facilities, electrical power plants, shale oil plants, chemical plants, and restaurants along its route. SMR nonetheless emphasized railway and mining investment. The centerpiece of its mining interests was the Fushun Coal Mine. Starting in 1917, SMR began to prosper, with most profits coming from its coal mines, and it soon spun off subsidiary companies. In this sense, although the factors that influenced development of the Fushun Coal Mine in each period were different, this development still shows continuity of the business management.

  8. Planning of the reforestation at abandoned coal mines using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y.; Oh, S.; Park, H.; Kwon, H.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents a prototype of decision support system for planning the reforestation at abandoned coal mines. The characteristics of deforested zone due to mine development were analyzed and categorized to define the schema of GIS database. Multiple criteria (i.e. forest-climate zone, mining method, visibility, managerial condition, slope gradient, reforestation purpose) were considered to classify the deforested zone and to assign unique IDs to the key index fields in tables. ArcMap, ArcObjects and Visual Basic.NET were used to implement the system. The application to the Samcheok coal block in Korea shows that the system could present a rational solution to select suitable trees for the reforestation and can also provide cost evaluation tools to support the environmental planning work.

  9. Abandoned coal mine tunnels: Future heating/power Supply centers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Pingjia; Chen Ning

    2011-01-01

    We have studied three plans for re-use of the abandoned mine roadway tunnels as an energy center.These are the thermostat plan,the thermal accumulator plan,and the CAES plan.Calculations show that the thermostat plan can provide over 15,000 m2 of building air-conditioning/heating load for each kilometer of roadway,but electric power is needed to run the system.Numerical research proved that the accumulation of hot water in the roadway for seasonal heating purposes (a temperature swing from 90 to 54 ℃) is a viable possibility.The CAES plan proposes using the discarded coal mine tunnel as a peaking power station with an energy storage density over 7000 kJ/m3.It can be concluded that presently abandoned coal mines could be reformed into future energy centers for a city.

  10. Effect of coal slurry on the corrosion of coal-mine equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qi; Xie Jingxuan; Zhao Wei; Bai Shasha; Zhong Shiteng; Chu Zhenfeng

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion of coal mine equipment immersed in coal slurry is addressed.The corrosion of low carbon steel samples immersed in coal slurries of different concentrations (80,130,and 180g/L) prepared from coals of different rank (long-flame coal,meager lean coal,and anthracite) and different granularity (0.25-0.5 mm,0.074-0.25 mm,and less than 0.074 mm particle size) was studied by the electrochemical method of polarization curve measurement,controlled potential sweeping,and continuous scanning.The results show that the corrosion rate in an anthracite slurry,where the coal has high coalification,is far greater than corrosion in a long-flame or a meager lean coal slurry.Furthermore the corrosion current,polarization current,and corrosion rate of low carbon steel become larger,and the polarizability becomes smaller,as the coal particle size decreases.The same trend is seen as the concentration of the coal slurry increases.

  11. Study on Environment Characteristics for Mining Management at East Pit 3 West Banko Coal Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Neny Rochyani; Eddy Ibrahim; M. Faizal; Ngudiantoro Ngudiantoro

    2014-01-01

    The management on mining environment is closely related to the environmental characteristics and the condition of mining itself.  In East PIT 3 West Banko Coal Mine Tanjung Enim mine drainage system has been developed which refers to the open pit method employed by the company. The observation and analysis showed that the sludge settling ponds have been constructed as well as adequate catchment area. To discharge water into the channel at 0.3016 m 3 / sec can still be accommodated due to the ...

  12. The need for a global robotic response to coal mine rescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessureault, Sean

    2011-02-15

    The author writes about the the lack of effective robotic response specifically designed for mine rescue which would improve worker safety and diminish the risk of international embarrassment by governments and industry. An international consortium is needed in which the major coal mining countries and companies contribute to the development, deployment and maintenance of a global robotic coal mine rescue system. This robotic system should be designed to allow transportation, deployment and maintenance of a global robotic coal mine rescue, the author writes.

  13. Impact of Mining Activities on the Air Quality in The Village Nearby a Coal Strip Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorná, Petra; Hovorka, Jan; Brejcha, Jan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the presented study was to estimate a share of atmospheric aerosol emitted by coal strip mine on PM10 or PM1-10, mass concentration of aerosol particles values by a nephelometer in the mine. Also, 24 hour aerosol samples for five size fractions were sampled by a personal cascade impactor sampler and viewed by scanning electron microscopy - SEM. Meteorological parameters were also recorded. Average contribution of coarse aerosol, PM1-10, to PM10 was 70% (119 +59 μgm-3) in the mine and 20% (12 + 10 μgm-3) in the village. The SEM revealed solely soil particles in the mine samples but bioaerosol, ash and aggregates of ultrafine particles in the village samples. Databases of hourly elemental and mass concentrations from the two localities were analysed by EPA PMF 5.0. There were revealed following sources/average contribution to local PM10: wood burning/34%, resuspended dust/30%, coal combustion/22%, industry/11% and gypsum/3% in the village while resuspended dust/43%, coal combustion/37%, gypsum/16% and mining technologies/4% in the mine. Based on factor chemical profiles, the mine was found to contribute to PM1-10 and PM10 in the village by 6% and 20%, respectively.

  14. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Inventory Sites 201601

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  15. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Points Feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  16. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Polygons Feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  17. Improving underground ventilation conditions in coal mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, CF

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available projects could be initiated by miningtek in co-operation with different mines. This report deals with the findings of this project and also deals with the future of research within Miningtek with regard to underground ventilation....

  18. Land cover transformation in two post-mining landscapes subjected to different ages of reclamation since dumping of spoils

    OpenAIRE

    Antwi, Effah K; Boakye-Danquah, John; Asabere, Stephen B; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Wiegleb, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Transformation of natural land cover (LC) into modified LC has become inevitable due to growing human needs. Nevertheless, landscape transformational patterns during reclamation of mine damaged lands remain vague. Our hypothesis was that post-mining landscapes with different ages since dumping become more diverse in LC transformation over time. The aim was to study the impact of landscape reclamation on land cover changes (LCC) in two post-mining landscapes. Land cover maps of 1988, 1991, 199...

  19. Effect of mining and utilizing bone coal on environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The average air -ray dose rates measured from the field, road, bone coal, bone coal cinder and bone coalcinder bricks in the three bone coal mines in westZhejiang Province, are 3.8 102,4.1 102, 7.1 102, 4.0 102and 7.1 102 nGy/h, respectively. The mean contents of238U, 226Ra,232Th and 40K in the bone coal of the three bone coalmines are 2.0 103, 2.1 103, 3.9 101 and6.1 102 Bq/kg, respectively, in the bone coal cinder(BCC)are 1.6 103, 1.6 103, 2.3 101and 4.5 102 Bq/kg, respectively, and in the bone coalcinder brick(BCCB) are 1.2 103, 1.2 103,2.4 101 and 4.0 102 Bq/kg, respectively, and those in thereference soil are 3.4 102, 1.0 102, 4.9 101and 4.9 102 Bq/kg, respectively. Theannual mean of effective dose equivalentfor public living in house buildings made with BCCB near thethree mines is 6.8 mSv.

  20. Prevention and forecasting of rock burst hazards in coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Lin-ming; LU Cai-ping; MU Zong-long; GAO Ming-shi

    2009-01-01

    Rock bursts signify extreme behavior in coal mine strata and severely threaten the safety of the lives of miners, as well as the effectiveness and productivity of miners. In our study, an elastic-plastic-brittle model for the deformation and failure of coal/rock was established through theoretical analyses, laboratory experiments and field testing, simulation and other means, which perfectly predict sudden and delayed rock bursts. Based on electromagnetic emission (EME), acoustic emission (AE) and microseism (MS) effects in the process from deformation until impact rupture of coal-rock combination samples, a multi-parameter identification of premonitory technology was formed, largely depending on these three forms of emission. Thus a system of classification for forecasting rock bursts in space and time was established. We have presented the intensity weakening theory for rock bursts and a strong-soft-strong (3S) structural model for controlling the impact on rock surrounding roadways, with the objective of laying a theoretical foundation and establishing references for parameters for the weakening control of rock bursts. For the purpose of prevention, key technical parameters of directional hydraulic fracturing are revealed. Based on these results, as well as those from deep-hole controlled blasting in coal seams and rock, integrated control techniques were established and anti-impact hydraulic props, suitable for roadways subject to hazards from rockbursts have also been developed. These technologies have been widely used in most coal mines in China, subject to these hazards and have achieved remarkable economic and social benefits.

  1. Planning for reliable coal quality delivery considering geological variability: A case study in polish lignite mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naworyta, W.; Sypniowski, S.; Benndorf, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of coal quality control in coal mines is to supply power plants daily with extracted raw material within certain coal quality constraints. On the example of a selected part of a lignite deposit, the problem of quality control for the runof-mine lignite stream is discussed. The main goal is t

  2. Planning for reliable coal quality delivery considering geological variability: A case study in polish lignite mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naworyta, W.; Sypniowski, S.; Benndorf, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of coal quality control in coal mines is to supply power plants daily with extracted raw material within certain coal quality constraints. On the example of a selected part of a lignite deposit, the problem of quality control for the runof-mine lignite stream is discussed. The main goal is

  3. Study on land use changes of the coal mining area based on TM image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wen-bo; YAO Jing; KANG Ting-jun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the two temporal TM images of 1995 and 2001 of one coal mining area, analyzed the variety information of the coal mining area. Relative registration were done with the two images firstly, then cut out the study area for experimental data, classified the coal mining area using supervised classification in ERDAS, the coal mining area will be divided into five categories as water body, agricultural land, construction land, coal mining area and other land. Make land use change matrix, the result shows that in the six years of 1995 to 2001, the change of the utilize of the land is greatly, the main represent is showed as follows: the area of water body, agricultural land and coal mining land had continually increased, on the contrary, construction area and other decreased. The percentage speed of the construction land is the biggest, the value reach -1.08%. The main reasons is that with the exploitation of the coal mine and the reclaim of the land, the exploitation of the coal mining land make the agricultural land and construction area convert into coal mining land, on the other hand with the backfill of the subsided waterlogged land and the reclaim of the subsided land make the coal mining land convert into agricultural land.

  4. Resource requirements and economics of the coal-mining process: a comparative analysis of mines in selected countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astakhov, A.; Gruebler, A.

    1984-06-01

    This report examines the natural resource requirements and economics of the resource extraction process, taking coal-mining activities as an example. Coal was chosen for the study because it is receiving growing attention as the fossile energy resource with the largest potential to contribute to the world's long-term energy supply. The computerized description of the extraction process is stored in the Coal Mines Data Base (CMDB) which was developed within the framework of this study. The data base currently holds information on 70 mines located in different countries. The analytic approach used is the first of its kind to compare resource requirements and economics of coal mines under such a broad range of geological and socioeconomic conditions. A general model of the factors influencing resource inputs and impacts of the coal-mining process is presented. Then for each of the main mining methods (opencast, conventional underground, and hydraulic underground) the principal geological and technological factors influencing the resource requirements, economics, and environmental impacts, as well as the comparative advantages and disadvantages of each mining method, are discussed. For the three main mining methods the resource requirements (including manpower, energy, materials, and land) and the economics (including construction investments and operating costs) are then quantified and their cost structures (i.e. requirements for the different operations at a mine) are examined in detail using data from coal mines in the USA, the USSR, and other selected coal-producing countries (Australia, Austria, and France).

  5. 29 CFR 570.60 - Occupations in connection with mining, other than coal (Order 9).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground. (2) Work in the operation and maintenance of living quarters. (3) Work outside the mine in... sections of railroad track located in those areas of open-cut metal mines where mining and haulage... mining, other than coal shall mean all work performed underground in mines and quarries; on the surface...

  6. Coal Mine Roadway Stability in Soft Rock: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Baotang

    2014-11-01

    Roadway instability has always been a major concern in deep underground coal mines where the surrounding rock strata and coal seams are weak and the in situ stresses are high. Under the high overburden and tectonic stresses, roadways could collapse or experience excessive deformation, which not only endangers mining personnel but could also reduce the functionality of the roadway and halt production. This paper describes a case study on the stability of roadways in an underground coal mine in Shanxi Province, China. The mine was using a longwall method to extract coal at a depth of approximately 350 m. Both the coal seam and surrounding rock strata were extremely weak and vulnerable to weathering. Large roadway deformation and severe roadway instabilities had been experienced in the past, hence, an investigation of the roadway failure mechanism and new support designs were needed. This study started with an in situ stress measurement programme to determine the stress orientation and magnitude in the mine. It was found that the major horizontal stress was more than twice the vertical stress in the East-West direction, perpendicular to the gateroads of the longwall panel. The high horizontal stresses and low strength of coal and surrounding rock strata were the main causes of roadway instabilities. Detailed numerical modeling was conducted to evaluate the roadway stability and deformation under different roof support scenarios. Based on the modeling results, a new roadway support design was proposed, which included an optimal cable/bolt arrangement, full length grouting, and high pre-tensioning of bolts and cables. It was expected the new design could reduce the roadway deformation by 50 %. A field experiment using the new support design was carried out by the mine in a 100 m long roadway section. Detailed extensometry and stress monitorings were conducted in the experimental roadway section as well as sections using the old support design. The experimental section

  7. Environmental Reconnaissance of Shivee-Ovoo Coal Mine, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battogtokh, B.; Woo, N. C.; Nemer, B.

    2011-12-01

    Mining sector is one of most rapidly developing industries in Mongolia for the last several decades. However, environmental monitoring and protection measures have been left out. An exploratory investigation was conducted to evaluate potential impacts of the mining activities on the soil and water environment at the Shivee-Ovoo surface coal mine. Water samples were collected from the mine dewatering boreholes, discharge lakes and drinking water sources around the mine area. High levels of electrical conductivity, ranging from 325μS/cm to 2,909μS/cm, indicate significant contents of dissolved solids in water. In general, Mg, Fe, F and EC levels in drinking water exceed the level of Mongolian and WHO guidelines for drinking water, and they appear to result from water-rock interaction along the groundwater flow paths. Hierarchical cluster analysis implies that the waters from the mine area and those from public water-supply wells be originated from the same aquifer. However, the water from the spring, dug well and artesian well are grouped separately, indicating different geological effects due to the shallow groundwater system with relatively short period of water-rock interaction. Groundwater dewatering for open-pit mine excavation causes significant water-level decline, and subsequently, the residents nearby areas happen to be provided with water from the deeper aquifer, which has with higher dissolved solids probably through longer period of water-rock interaction. Soil samples were collected from the top, middle and lower soil layers of excavation bench, mine-waste dump sites, topsoil and subsoil from nearby area of the mine. To evaluate potential of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD), samples were analyzed for chemical composition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results show 0.36% of sulfur in only one sample, collected from waste dumping site of low quality coal. Since sulfur component were not detected in other samples, there appear no apparent threat of

  8. Longwall coal mining operations computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roxborough, F.F.

    1982-01-01

    This research thesis provides the mining analyst with an effective means of experimentation with any mining layout. SIMCAL is a generalised simulation program suitable for investigating different models. The models are constructed by arranging elements called activities, equipment items, memories and branches. The branches allow any number of activities to occur simultaneously and therefore allow the construction of a model even for the most complex real world system. Reports of the analysis are produced in tabular form and can be generated on a shift to shift basis together with graphical displays. After describing the ideas and procedures inherent in SIMCAL, a bord and pillar model was constructed and tested. The same problem was also tested in simulation program COALSIM. The two programs were compared and the existing differences explained. An initial model for a longwall method of mining is discussed and several interesting variations of modelling possibilities listed. The complete listing of the main program SIMCAL and the plotting program SIMPLOT are supplied.

  9. The adjusting mining technology of combining fully mechanized with individual prop, rotating, hilt, irregular form, and double unit face on thin coal seam of Tianchen Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hua-ling; WEN Guo-feng; LI Jin-ke

    2008-01-01

    Analyzed the situations and characteristics of thin coal seam mining and its mining technologies, and introduced the mining innovation technology used by Tianchen Coal Mine of Zhaozhuang Coal Company of China. This innovation technology combined the fully mechanized mining with individual props, and the working face of mining is over length, irregular form and double units. The rotational adjusting mining technology on thin coal seam is also practiced in this new mining technology. The detail technologies, such as outlays of working face and ways, mining methods, equipments of cutting, transporting and sporting, have been introduced. So that, using the synthetic and creative mining tech-nologies, Tianchen Coal Mine solves the mining problems of thin coal seam successfully.

  10. Research on New Method of Full-Seam Mining for Gently Inclined Thick Coal Seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵景礼; 郭志飙; 柳慧鹏; 赵立军

    2002-01-01

    The recovery ratio of top-coal caving mining plays a key role in the development of this mining method. For the proposes to raise the recovery ratio and considering heading advance and roadway maintenance, a new method of full - seam mining for gently inclined thick coal seams is put forward on the basis of a theoretic research and engineering practice.

  11. 75 FR 64411 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... the CMDPSU or CPDM and the sampled work shift is less than 8 hours, the value of t used for... Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety and...

  12. Characterization of deep ground geothermal field in Jiahe Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi; Guo Dongming; He Manchao; Jiang Yaodong; Yang Qing

    2011-01-01

    Research into the characteristics of geothermal fields is important for the control of heat damage in mines.Based on measured geothermal data of boreholes from -200 m to -1200 m in a Jiahe Coal Mine,we demonstrate non-linear but increasing relations of both geo-temperatures and geothermal gradients with increases depth.Numerically,we fitted the relationship between geo-temperatures and depth,a first-order exponential decay curve,formulated as:T(h) - -4.975 + 23.08 × exp(-h/1736.1 ).

  13. Straight hole drilling machines for coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonin, VV; Kokoulin, DI; Alekseev, SE; Kubanychbek, B.

    2017-02-01

    The authors prove the demand for drilling machines capable of making long straight holes in rocks with the strength up to 120 MPa. The paper describes the designed, manufactured and tested down-the-hole hammers for rotary–percussion drilling of long straight directional holes. The hammers have been delivered to Berezovskaya Mine for further trial and commercial operation.

  14. Rating system for coal mine roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Canbulat, I

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available and in most cases restricted in use to the mine on which they were developed. This project attempted to overcome the problem by evaluating and documenting all the existing systems that are used in South Africa and others that have been developed in other...

  15. Giant pumps reclaim Chinese coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramp, S.

    1987-04-01

    Briefly describes the Fangezhuang Mine disaster in 1984, when miners pierced a wall into a flooded underground cavern, releasing tonnes of water into the pit. The German manufacturer KSB was asked to supply 18 submersible pumps to dewater the flooded workings. The pumps were specially built to handle the aggressive, solid-laden floodwater. The pump design is described. 1 fig.

  16. Capital investment at North Bohemian Brown Coal Mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavrecka, S.

    1987-03-01

    Various categories of investment are discussed to be undertaken by North Bohemian Brown Coal Mines: State Plan projects, such as new extraction capacity at Most and Vrsany mines; other construction work, such as schools and recreation facilities, housing construction; underground mine workings; equipment and machinery not included in other categories; restoration work, such as the Ervenicky road/rail/water corridor; work to remove obstacles hindering future mining operations. Investments are briefly summarizes since the beginning of the 5th Five Year Plan as being concerned mainly with the shift in emphasis from underground mining to surface mining at 8 large-scale mines (Merkur, Brezno, Vrsany, Sverma, VCSA, Most, VMG, Chabrovice). An analysis of investment procedures conducted in 1980 is briefly discussed, the results of which had 4 main themes: investment control systems should be strengthened, communications between general directorate and individual departments should be improved, links between specialist institutes should be improved and these recommendations should be built into the organizational structure.

  17. Mechanism of Reinforcement on Inwall of Coal Mine Shaft Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory of elasticity, the analytic solution of temperature stress on shaft wall of coal mine with reinforcement on inwall is deduced. It is shown that with the increment of reinforcement stress Pa, the radial compressive stress &sigmar become larger, the vertical compressive stress &sigmaz become less, while the circumferential stress &sigma &theta changed from compressive stress to tensile stress. The stability of shaft wall enhanced with vertical stress reduced by reinforcement on inwall of shaft wall. Compressive steel plate could be used to reinforce the inwall, characterized with low-cost, short time and construction easy. While the intelligent equipment should be developed further to provide everlasting and greater reinforcement on in wall of coal mine shaft wall.

  18. Characteristics of in situ stress field at Qingshui coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiaojie; Pang Jiewen; Lou Haopeng; Fan Lipeng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics of geological structure at Qingshui coal mine were analyzed. And the hollow inclusion strain cell overcoring method was used to obtain the in situ stress. The effect of in situ stress on the stability of soft rock roadway was analyzed. The results show that the maximum principal stress is in the horizontal direction with a northeast orientation and has a value of about 1.2–1.9 times larger than gravity; the right side of roadway roof and floor is easily subject to serious deformation and failure, and the in situ stress is found to be a major factor. This paper presents important information for developing countermeasures against the large deformation of the soft rock roadway at Qingshui coal mine.

  19. Training implications of reform in the Australian coal mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, J. (NSW Coal Association, Sydney, NSW (Australia))

    1992-01-01

    In 1989 the Australian coal mining industry reached an agreement with the unions to restructure the industry improving efficiency and cost effectiveness. Part of this agreement was the provision of structured and accredited training for employees. The Australian coal mining industry has adopted the National Training Reform Agenda and a new system of competency-based training is currently being implemented across Australia. The aims of the new system are: (1) to improve the level and flexibility of skills in the workforce; to better meet the needs of industry; and to facilitate the progressive introduction of a competency based approach to training. Competency based training places the emphasis on what a person can do in the workplace after training rather than the quantity of training (e.g measured by cost or time spent). The paper describes the new training programme and the development of competency standards.

  20. Mechanism of Reinforcement on Inwall of Coal Mine Shaft Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Jinlong Liu; Luwang Chen; Jili Wang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theory of elasticity, the analytic solution of temperature stress on shaft wall of coal mine with reinforcement on inwall is deduced. It is shown that with the increment of reinforcement stress Pa, the radial compressive stress &sigmar become larger, the vertical compressive stress &sigmaz become less, while the circumferential stress &sigma &theta changed from compressive stress to tensile stress. The stability of shaft wall enhanced with vertical stress reduced by reinforcement...

  1. Inertisation of sealed coal mine panels using microbial organisms.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Creedy, DP

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available . A biological control solution would appear to be suited to the combination of relatively low methane emissions and favourable climatic conditions in South African bord-and-pillar workings. Various methods could be used for applying microbial... areas Worked-out bord and pillar sections in South African coal mines are usually sealed on abandonment to increase the availability of air for new working faces where high standards of ventilation are essential for both gas and dust dilution...

  2. 76 FR 54163 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... full width of an entry. A commenter on the RFI stated that current proximity detection system designs... coal or rock. Some current proximity detection systems on continuous mining machines are installed to stop machine tram movement and the conveyor swing function when the system is activated while...

  3. Development of population structure and spatial distribution patterns of a restored forest during 17-year succession (1993-2010) in Pingshuo opencast mine spoil, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongqiu; Wang, Lianhua; Bai, Zhongke; Pan, Ziguan; Wang, Yun

    2015-07-01

    Afforestation of native tree species is often recommended for ecological restoration in mining areas, but the understanding of the ecological processes of restored vegetation is quite limited. In order to provide insight of the ecological processes of restored vegetation, in this study, we investigate the development of the population structure and spatial distribution patterns of restored Robinia pseudoacacia (ROPS) and Pinus tabuliformis (PITA) mixed forests during the 17 years of the mine spoil period of the Pingshuo opencast mine, Shanxi Province, China. After a 17-year succession, apart from the two planted species, Ulmus pumila (ULPU), as an invasive species, settled in the plot along with a large number of small diameter at breast height (DBH) size. In total, there are 10,062 living individual plants, much more than that at the plantation (5105), and ROPS had become the dominant species with a section area with a breast height of 9.40 m(2) hm(-2) and a mean DBH of 6.72 cm, much higher than both PITA and ULPU. The DBH size classes of all the total species showed inverted J-shaped distributions, which may have been a result of the large number of small regenerated ULPU trees. The DBH size classes of both ROPS and PITA showed peak-type structures with individuals mainly gathering in the moderate DBH size class, indicating a relatively healthy DBH size class structure. Meanwhile, invasive ULPU were distributed in a clear L shape, concentrating on the small DBH size class, indicating a relatively low survival rate for adult trees. Both ROPS and PITA species survival in the plantation showed uniform and aggregated distribution at small scales and random with scales increasing. ULPU showed a strong aggregation at small scales as well as random with scales increasing. Both the population structure and spatial distribution indicated that ROPS dominates and will continue to dominate the community in the future succession, which should be continuously monitored.

  4. Stability of Roadway in Upper Seam of Deep Multiple Rich Gas Coal Seams through Ascending Stress-relief Mining

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The first mining of a protective coal seam through ascending stress-relief mining is one of the most effective techniques for eliminating the risk of coal and gas outburst during the exploitation of multiple coal seams containing high rich gas. However, the difficulty of controlling roadway stability in the upper protected coal seam above the goaf increases greatly after ascending mining. Based on the geological conditions in Guqiao Coal Mine in China, a numerical simulation model is establis...

  5. 77 FR 50165 - Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Administration. Title: Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities ] and Surface Work... Safety and Health Administration Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration,...

  6. Coal Mine Accidents in Bangladesh: Its Causes and Remedial Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. MINHAJ UDDIN MONIR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Barapukuria coal mine (BCM is located at Dinajpur district, NW Bangladesh. Total area is about 6.68 km2 and coal was encountered at a depth ranging between 118 and 509 m. Six major coal seams (seam I to seam VI were identified at BCM, of which, thickest one is the seam-VI (~36 m. The estimated coal reserves is about 390 million tons and of this, nearly 64 million tons of coal is extractable. The annual production of coal is about 1 million ton. In this study several parameters were used to explore minimization of accidents and improvement of coal production in BCM. Considering the geological, hydrological and other technical parameters, longwall mining method is applied for extraction of coal. Longwall retreating mining method is also applied for extraction of coal from single face with the operational area protected by self-advancing hydraulic powered roof support (HPRS system. These supports are moved forward causing the roof behind them to form an extensive abandoned area named goaf, which may lead to collapse with air blast. Coal in BCM is extracted from seam VI, using a multislice Longwall top coal caving method. Average ventilated air composition is ~20.94% oxygen, ~79.00% nitrogen, ~0.04% carbon monoxide, and minor water steam with huge dust. Production of coal was completed from 12 Longwall faces of 1st slice from seam VI. During production period several accidents and troubles within BCM have occurred. Poisonous gases such as carbon monoxide were detected during/after development of 1110 Longwall face, which increases up to 6000 ppm, therefore, sealed-off the face with mining equipments. During the development of belt gate roadway of 1101 Longwall face, maximum temperature and humidity increases up to 37 oC and 100%, respectively. Miners of BCM experienced some difficulties to work in that adverse environment. Air return roadway temperature was always 40 to 41oC in 1101 Longwall face during production period, faces temperature 46o

  7. Yampa coal field combined leased areas and mined-out areas, Colorado Plateau (yam*leasg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and coverages that represent areas of combined State and Federal coal leases and mined-out areas in the Yampa coal field. Yamaleasg contains...

  8. 76 FR 35968 - Maintenance of Incombustible Content of Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... relaxation for lower volatile coal. In its experimental studies of the effect of particle size on explosion... approximately 415 active underground bituminous coal mines employing 47,119 miners. Table 1 presents the 415...

  9. Presentations from the 1992 Coal Mining Impoundment Informational Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    On May 20 and 21, 1992, the MSHA Coal Mining Impoundment Informational Meeting was held at the National Mine Health and Safety Academy in Beckley, West Virginia. Fifteen presentations were given on key issues involved in the design and construction of dams associated with coal mining. The attendees were told that to improve the consistency among the plan reviewers, engineers from the Denver and Pittsburgh Technical Support Centers meet twice annually to discuss specific technical issues. It was soon discovered that the topics being discussed needed to be shared with anyone involved with coal waste dam design, construction, or inspection. The only way to accomplish that goal was through the issuance of Procedure Instruction Letters. The Letters present a consensus of engineering philosophy that could change over time. They do not present policy or carry the force of law. Currently, thirteen position papers have been disseminated and more will follow as the need arises. The individual paper were not even entered into the database.

  10. Detection of Coal Mine Spontaneous Combustion by Fuzzy Inference System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ji-ping; SONG Shu; MA Feng-ying; ZHANG Ya-li

    2006-01-01

    The spontaneous combustion is a smoldering process and characterized by a slow burning speed and a long duration. Therefore, it is a hazard to coal mines. Early detection of coal mine spontaneous combustion is quite difficult because of the complexity of different coal mines. And the traditional threshold discriminance is not suitable for spontaneous combustion detection due to the uncertainty of coalmine combustion. Restrictions of the single detection method will also affect the detection precision in the early time of spontaneous combustion. Although multiple detection methods can be adopted as a complementarity to improve the accuracy of detection, the synthesized method will increase the complicacy of criterion, making it difficult to estimate the combustion. To solve this problem, a fuzzy inference system based on CRI (Compositional Rule of Inference) and fuzzy reasoning method FITA (First Infer Then Aggregate) are presented. And the neural network is also developed to realize the fuzzy inference system. Finally, the effectiveness of the inference system is demonstrated by means of an experiment.

  11. Detection of coal dust in a mine using optical tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Mingsheng; Tong Minming; Hao Jifei; Cai Li; Xu Jie

    2012-01-01

    A dust concentration imaging system based on optical tomography is proposed to monitor concentration variations of coal dust in a mine.Concentration profiles,rather than just a point value,of coal dust concentrations are the goal of this method.An optical sensor array is employed to realize an optical sensing field of the coal dust concentration during on-line monitoring.A novel image reconstruction algorithm,called the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT),is compared to the well known linear,back projection algorithm (LBP).The SIRT was applied to the present problem and tested by modeling.The disadvantage of the SIRT is a slow speed but some improvements have been made by adding a weighting function that reduces the relative error to 1.7% from 3.1% for 50 iterations.The results of image reconstruction are presented for both simulated and real objects.They prove that the optical tomography technique,based on a multi-source fan projection scheme,can be an effective approach for estimating coal dust distribution.This system can be applied in real time for continuous measurements in a mine.

  12. Tannery and coal mining waste disposal on soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kray, C.H.; Tedesco, M.J.; Bissani, C.A.; Gianello, C.; da Silva, K.J. [CEFET BG, Goncalves (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    Tannery residues and coal mine waste are heavily polluting sources in Brazil, mainly in the Southern States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. In order to study the effects of residues of chrome leather tanning (sludge and leather shavings) and coal waste on soybean and maize crops, a field experiment is in progress since 1996, at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul Experimental Station, county of Eldorado do Sul, Brazil. The residues were applied twice (growing seasons 1996/97 and 1999/00). The amounts of tannery residues were applied according to their neutralizing value, at rates of up to 86.8 t ha{sup -1}, supplying from 671 to 1.342 kg ha{sup -1} Cr(III); coal waste was applied at a total rate of 164 t ha{sup -1}. Crop yield and dry matter production were evaluated, as well as the nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu and Zn) and Cr contents. Crop yields with tannery sludge application were similar to those obtained with N and lime supplied with mineral amendments. Plant Cr absorption did not increase significantly with the residue application. Tannery sludge can be used also to neutralize the high acidity developed in the soil by coal mine waste.

  13. Coal seam methane distribution and its significance in Pingdingshan mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭德勇; 周心权; 沈少川; 张晓萍

    2002-01-01

    A study aimed at the coal seam group E and F in Pingdingshan mining area has been completed. This study is on the relationship of the coal-seam methane reserve to coal thickness, coal rank, coal seam depth, surrounding rock and geological structure and other factors. The study indicates that different geological factor plays different role in controlling the law of coal-seam methane reserve. The coal-seam methane rich area, which was formed because of various factors and comprehensive effect, is the coal and methane outburst-prone area, and also the key area for coal-bed methane recovery. Among all factors, coal seam depth and geological structure is more important factor in affecting coal-seam methane content in Pingdingshan mining area.

  14. Selection of an Appropriate Mechanized Mining Technical Process for Thin Coal Seam Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanized mining technical process (MMTP related to the control method of the shearer is a vital process in thin coal seam mining operations. An appropriate MMTP is closely related to safety, productivity, labour intensity, and efficiency. Hence, the evaluation of alternative MMTP is an important part of the mining design. Several parameters should be considered in MMTP evaluation, so the evaluation is complex and must be compliant with a set of criteria. In this paper, two multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM methods, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE, were adopted for this evaluation. Then, the most appropriate MMTP for a thin coal seam working face was selected in China.

  15. Effects of caving-mining ratio on the coal and waste rocks gangue flows and the amount of cyclically caved coal in fully mechanized mining of super-thick coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ningbo; Liu Changyou; Pei Mengsong

    2015-01-01

    Aimed at determining the appropriate caving–mining ratio for fully mechanized mining of 20 m thick coal seam, this research investigated the effects of caving–mining ratio on the flow fields of coal and waste rocks, amount of cyclically caved coal and top coal loss by means of numerical modeling. The research was based on the geological conditions of panel 8102 in Tashan coal mine. The results indicated the loose coal and waste rocks formed an elliptical zone around the drawpoint. The ellipse enlarged with decreasing caving–mining ratio. And its long axis inclined to the gob gradually became vertical and facil-itating the caving and recovery of top coal. The top coal loss showed a cyclical variation;and the loss cycle was shortened with the decreasing in caving–mining ratio. Moreover, the mean squared error (MSE) of the amount of cyclically caved coal went up with increasing caving–mining ratio, indicating a growing imbalance of amount of cyclically caved coal, which could impede the coordinated mining and caving operations. Finally it was found that a caving–mining ratio of 1:2.51 should be reasonable for the conditions.

  16. Surface movement above an underground coal longwall mine after closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, André

    2016-09-01

    The surface movement in an area of about 22 km2 above the underground coal mine of Houthalen was analyzed based on Interferometry with Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements. After its closure in 1992, a residual subsidence was observed over a period of several years, followed by an uplift of the surface above and around the past longwall panels, whereby the rate of movement was, in absolute terms, of the same order for the two types of movements. The processes behind these movements are different. The process of subsidence is caused by the caving of the roof above the mined-out area and is mainly a mechanical stress-deformation process, including time-dependent aspects. However, the process of uplift is most probably caused by the swelling of the clay minerals in the argillaceous rocks in the coal strata after the flooding of the underground workings. Hence, the areas in which there is the greatest risk of damage to the surface infrastructure are not the same for the hazards linked to subsidence and uplift. For example, the zone in which the maximum uplift occurs clearly is at a different location from that of the zone with the maximum residual subsidence. There is no clear sign that the amount of mining underneath affects the residual subsidence, and there is no indication that the process of uplift is linked directly to the mining characteristics. It is more likely that uplift as the result of flooding is initiated at, or close to, the vertical shafts.

  17. The environment of coal mining areas and the economic evaluation of the land reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hong; XIAO Xing-tian; HE Zhi-qiang

    2001-01-01

    The environment impact of the coal resources mining was analyzed. The method of economic evaluation for the coal mining was established to analyze lan d destruction. The opportunity cost method was used to quantitatively analyze an d estimate the economic loss of the land destruction by coal mining. At the same time, the dump land reclamation of the Yuanbaoshan Open Pit was taken as an exa mple to evaluate environmental and economical benefit with the method of economi c evaluation for the coal mining areas land reclamation.

  18. Land reclamation in the refuse dump of open coal mines and its following ecology principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jun-fu; WANG Xiu-lan

    2006-01-01

    Through the research on the model of the land reclamation in the refuse dump of Heidaigou open coal mines, it was concerned that ecology was the theoretical basic for the land reclamation of open coal mines. According to the principle of ecological substituting, the land reclamation can be divided into three stages: water and soil conservation,ecological performance and economic performance. Taking the land reclamation in the refuse dump of Heidaigou open coal mines as the practical example, explained the application of the ecological substituting principle on the land reclamation in the open coal mines.

  19. Simulation Study and Probe on UWB Wireless Communication in Underground Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-fen; WANG Zheng-gang; YU Hong-zhen

    2006-01-01

    From an analysis of the status of coal mine underground wireless communication, the application of UWB wireless communication system to underground coal mine is proposed. The basic composition of an UWB communication system and application in underground coal mines are introduced. The analyses show that, because of the transmission power being non-limitted in underground coal mines, the use of UWB in coal mines cannot only realize wireless access services of short distance high rate application for transmission of video monitoring signals, but also realize wireless access services of long distance low rate applications for mobile telephones in underground coal mines and parameters of working conditions monitoring, etc. It is emphasized on the simulation of a TH-PPM UWB communication system with traditional underground broadband model and ground CM1, CM3 model. It is shown that the traditional underground broadband model and ground CM1, CM3 models are not applicable to the UWB communication system in underground coal mines. It is necessary to conduct research on the propagation characteristics of UWB in coal mine tunnels, given the characteristics of the underground environment and to find the appropriate UWB model for underground coal mines.

  20. Problems of hydrogeology and engineering geology in black coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sztelak, J.

    1989-03-01

    Reviews topics discussed in 11 papers presented at the conference in the hydrogeology and engineering geology session. Three subgroups of topics were distinguished: environmental protection, surface waters and surface protection. One paper dealt with protection of a bath peat deposit from infiltration of saline mine waters from a settling pond. Other papers considered mine water recirculation, dumping slurries in rock body by injection through boreholes, hydrogeological damage caused to surface waters by mining operations, water bearing levels at 700-1,500 m depth, content of radioactive isotopes (uranium 234 and 238) in Carboniferous waters, draining water from the Jurassic water bearing level in the Lublin coal basin, rock burst criteria and forecasting, and slope stability.

  1. CHINA'S RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN COAL MINING,PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范维唐; 王成龙; 朱德仁

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the state-of-the-art and outlook of coal mining and clean coal echnology in China. As the major mining method,underground mining accounts for 96% of the total production. Among the state own mines, the percentage of mechanized mining reached 71%. A rapid development of high-productive and high-profitable mines,especially those with longwall sublevel caving method, is described. The issues of heavy duty equipment, roof bolting, mine safety are also addressed. The Chinese government is paying more and more attention on the environmental problems inducing from coal mining,processing and utilization. A basic framework of clean coal technology is being formed and a wide range of technology is included.

  2. Land cover transformation in two post-mining landscapes subjected to different ages of reclamation since dumping of spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Effah K; Boakye-Danquah, John; Asabere, Stephen B; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Wiegleb, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Transformation of natural land cover (LC) into modified LC has become inevitable due to growing human needs. Nevertheless, landscape transformational patterns during reclamation of mine damaged lands remain vague. Our hypothesis was that post-mining landscapes with different ages since dumping become more diverse in LC transformation over time. The aim was to study the impact of landscape reclamation on land cover changes (LCC) in two post-mining landscapes. Land cover maps of 1988, 1991, 1995, 1998, 2000 and 2003 were produced from LANDSAT TM images of Schlabendorf Nord and Schlabendorf Süd and used to survey the changing landscape. Change detection extension was used to identify changes among land cover types (LCTs). Detrended correspondence analyses (DCA) ordination technique (CANOCO) aided study of similarity among LC distribution. Soil pH analysis was carried out to study effect of soil and climate conditions on LCC. The results show that visible patterns of increase and decrease in the LCTs occurred in both landscapes. Given two post-mining landscapes subjected to different ages of reclamation, clear differences in vegetation growth and LCC pattern would occur. At early stages of restoration, LCTs often have unstable conditions and experience more acute transformation depending on the level of land use intensity in space and time. LCCs were mostly due to progressive and reversed succession. Due to variation in post-mining landscape soil conditions, soil treatment during reclamation should be site specific. The comparative analysis of LCCs in Schlabendorf provides a framework for prioritizing land use planning options for sustainable management of post-mining landscapes in temperate ecosystems.

  3. Technical cooperation front line. JICA technology cooperation project in Indonesia and Vietnam (Coal mining technology enhancement project in Indonesia); (Coal Mine Firedamp Gas Management Center in Vietnam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inami, K. [Japan Coal Energy Center (Japan). Technical Service Group, Engineering Dept.

    2002-09-01

    In April 2001, two coal mining technical cooperation projects of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) started. The first project is 'Coal Mining Technology Enhancement Project in Indonesia'. The second project is 'Coal Mine Firedamp Gas Management Center in Vietnam'. Both are project-type technical cooperation for the technology transfer centering in advanced Japanese underground coal mine technologies for a five years project period from April 1 2001 to 31 March 2006. Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL) have carried out indirect supporting function for the planning and the execution of the project from the preparation phase of the project start-up as a supporting agency based on the business agreement with JICA. This paper reports the projects development. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, J.H. [Aquatech Services, Inc., Citrus Heights, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  5. SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF BARU (Dipterix alata Vog. TREATED WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE, COMPOSTED GARBAGE OR CATTLE MANURE ON MINED SPOILS IN THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Queiroz Pinheiro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge and composted garbage are available in large quantities to be employed assources of organic matter for revegetation projects of mined spoils in the Brazilian FederalDistrict (DF. These sources were used for growing baru (Dipterix alata Vog. on minedspoils in the Brazilian Cerrado and the growth and mortality of 99 seedlings treated with theseorganic matter soruces were measured. In 4 months, rates of survival ranged from 56.7%, fortrees treated with compost, to 96.7% for plants treated with sewage sludge. The compostseems to have toxic effects on seedlings, since the treatments with 35, 45 and 50 L/hollow hadno survivals. After the first period of growth, the study was able to show that the best rate forplant development with sewage sludge was 20 and 30 L/hollow (57% and 47. For plantstreated with compost, the best result was obtained with the smallest dosage (5L/hollow,where the growth is similar to the best results obtained with the sludge (47%. In larger dosesthe growth varied between 6% and 24%, span in which the results obtained in the controltreatments, chemical treatment (16% and no treatment (12% are also found. Therefore, theincrease in growth of the seedlings is a function of the dosage and type of organic materialemployed.

  6. Testing the electrostatic characteristics of polypropylene fabric with metallic yarns, intended for use in coal mines threatened by the explosion hazard. Part 2: Tests in coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarek, M.; Orzech, L.

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the electrostatic safety of polypropylene fabric with metallic yarns intended for use in coal mines. Such fabrics have not been used in the Polish mining industry yet. The tests conducted have been divided into two subgroups: laboratory tests and tests in a coal mine. This paper presents the results of tests in a coal mine, where we have focused on the resistance-to-ground in some specific situations. Bags made of fabric at the roadway face were tested, as well as the roll of fabric during transport and carried by a miner. The results obtained allow the reliable assessment of the risk of using fabrics with metallic yarns in the explosive atmosphere which often occurs in coal mines.

  7. Testing the electrostatic characteristics of polypropylene fabric with metallic yarns, intended for use in coal mines threatened by the explosion hazard. Part 2: Tests in coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talarek, M; Orzech, L, E-mail: mtalarek@komag.eu [KOMAG Institute of Mining Technology, Pszczynska 37, 44-101 Gliwice (Poland)

    2011-06-23

    The aim of this paper was to assess the electrostatic safety of polypropylene fabric with metallic yarns intended for use in coal mines. Such fabrics have not been used in the Polish mining industry yet. The tests conducted have been divided into two subgroups: laboratory tests and tests in a coal mine. This paper presents the results of tests in a coal mine, where we have focused on the resistance-to-ground in some specific situations. Bags made of fabric at the roadway face were tested, as well as the roll of fabric during transport and carried by a miner. The results obtained allow the reliable assessment of the risk of using fabrics with metallic yarns in the explosive atmosphere which often occurs in coal mines.

  8. Introducing Nagasaki Coal Mining Technology Training Center owned by the Mitsui Matsushima Resources Co., Ltd.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumakawa, K. [Mitsui Matsushima Resources Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2006-09-15

    The Nagasaki Coal Mine Technology Training Center was established as a facility for 'The Training Project' on coal mine technology following the purchase of part of the mining area owned by the Matsushima Coal Mine which was closed in November 2001. The Training Center is located seaward at Ikeshima approximately 7 km west of the Nishisonogi Peninsula's western coast. Training is provided to personnel from Vietnam and Indonesia in subjects ranging from underground mining safety, exploration surveying and rock drivage, to electrical engineering. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Application of coal mine dynamic safety management and occupational health and safety management system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua; WANG Chun-qiu; CAO Qing-gui; LIU Ye-jiao; LIN Xiao-fei

    2007-01-01

    A method system was put forward based on the occupational health and safety management system to develop the dynamic safety management of coal mine. It aimed at the problems in the mining safety management and was put in practice in Lingxin coal mine of Ningxia Coal Industry Group Co., Ltd.. And good effect was obtained in safety work. It developed the mining dynamic safety management based on the building of occupational health and safety management system of mining enterprise and its main contents are as follows: timely identification and dynamic control of accident risk, persistent improvement of safety management performance according to the "PDCA" circle.

  10. Major research approaches to solve gas-dynamic problems in Donbass coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzyara, V.I.; Agaphonov, A.V. [Makeyevka State Safety in Mine Research Institute, Makeyevka (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The number of gas-dynamic events per million tons of coal mined remains great though coal output from underground coal mines in Donetsk basin has dropped. This dictates enhanced research efforts to solve the following gas-dynamic problems: sudden coal, rock and gas outbursts, sudden coal, rock and gas outbursts, sudden squeezing, falls (coal spillage) sudden methane inrushes from the bottom, and bumps. New approaches to solve these problems have been based on modern concepts and ideas of natural mechanisms of the events. Current and future research needs are discussed. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Geotechnical approaches to coal ash content control in mining of complex structure deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batugin, SA; Gavrilov, VL; Khoyutanov, EA

    2017-02-01

    Coal deposits having complex structure and nonuniform quality coal reserves require improved processes of production quality control. The paper proposes a method to present coal ash content as components of natural and technological dilution. It is chosen to carry out studies on the western site of Elginsk coal deposit, composed of four coal beds of complex structure. The reported estimates of coal ash content in the beds with respect to five components point at the need to account for such data in confirmation exploration, mine planning and actual mining. Basic means of analysis and control of overall ash content and its components are discussed.

  12. El Cerrejon Zona Norte - a giant open pit coal mine in Colombia, South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golosinski, T.S. (Intercor, Barranquilla (Colombia))

    El Cerrejon coal bearing formation at the NE tip of Colombia, contains a quarter of the country's thermal coal. The coal is being mined under a 33-year contract by the Colombian Coal Agency, Carbocol, and Intercor, a subsidiary of the Exxon Corp. The third phase of the contract, ending in 2008, is now under way. The article describes the geology of the deposit and the construction project which was completed in October 1986. The complexity of geological setting, characterized by intensely faulted, inclined multiple coal seams, resulted in the selection of the open pit mining method, the initial mining sequence being based on strike mining. Procedures adopted for mine planning, drilling and blasting, waste removal, and minimising environmental impact are outlined. The operation has been successfully established in one of the most remote areas of Colombia, and produces 15 Mt/a high quality thermal coal in an efficient and environmentally safe manner. 6 figs.

  13. Study on the economic mining method for the close quarter coal seams with thin rock sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    勾攀峰; 陈兆强; 员小有

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the mining method for the close quarter coal seams with thin rock sheet, that is mining the low coal seam, recovering the top coal seam after putting down the roof rock of the low coal seam. Practice has proved that in recovering the top coal outside the face width after the rock between seams falls naturally or is demolished, the technology is simple, easy to operate and does not make a great demand for technical equipment. In the process of recovering the top coal, the low seam support could not be affected seriously, and two seams mining could be coordinated. Compared with the individual mining method, this mining method can produce a better economic benefit.

  14. Numerical simulation and damage analysis of fissure field evolution law in a single coal seam mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng; Gao; Xingguang; Liu; Chaofeng; Ge; Hongmei; Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Based on the different deformation and failure laws of coal and rock materials under tensile or compressive loads,the damage variable was defined to divide three phases from the damage and rupture point of view in order to reveal the fissured field evolution characteristics and spatial distribution of coal and rock in the single coal seam mining with low permeability and rich methane.According to the corresponding damage constitutive equations,the secondary development of the finite element program was completed.The fissures field evolution law of a coal mine with single coal seam mining was calculated and analyzed by this new program and the distribution areas and failure degree of the surrounding coal and rock structures with damage,fissure or rupture are given on the condition of mining.This paper provides a scientific basis for quantitative research and evaluation of the safe simultaneous production of coal and gas.

  15. The Economic Impact of Psychological Distress in the Australian Coal Mining Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Rod; Kelly, Brian; Considine, Robyn; Tynan, Ross; Searles, Andrew; Doran, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the economic impact of psychological distress among employees of the Australian Coal Mining Industry. Sample data were gathered from 1456 coal mining staff across eight sites in two Australian states. Two measures were taken of work time lost over four weeks due to psychological distress: (1) full-day absences; (2) presenteeism. Lost work time was valued using hourly wages. Sample data was modeled to estimate annual monetary losses for the Australian Coal Mining Industry. For the sample, estimated annual value of time lost due to psychological distress was $4.9 million ($AUS2015) ($0.61 million per mine), and for the Australian Coal Mining Industry, $153.8 million ($AUS2015). Psychological distress is a significant cost for the Australian Coal Mining Industry. Relevant intervention programs are potentially cost-effective.

  16. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2015; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-03-08

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  17. Characterization of Coal Mine Overburden and Assessment as Mine Haul Road Construction Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Soumya Ranjan; Verma, Abhiram Kumar; Rao, Karanam Umamaheshwar

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents details of laboratory investigation carried out on coal mine overburden materials to check their suitability in base/sub-base of mine haul road pavement. In this investigation, strength characteristics of un- stabilized overburden materials are evaluated. Strength characteristics of overburden materials are obtained through laboratory tests by physical, mechanical, chemical and micro-structural analysis. The laboratory investigation shows untreated murrum, top soil and sub soil are not suitable to be used as mine haul road construction material. In this investigation, CBR method is used for layer thickness as well as cover thickness calculation. The paper also discusses the importance of various tests required for evaluation and assessment of mine haul road.

  18. Emission and commercial utilization of coal mine methane in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin illustrated by the example of Katowice Coal Holding Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kędzior Sławomir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of the release of methane from coal seams and its emission to the atmosphere from the mines of Katowice Coal Holding Company in the years of 1997-2011. This period is characterized by organizational changes in Polish mining industry involving liquidation or a merger of mines, an increase in both the concentration of coal mining activity, and the depth of the exploitation at which the amount of methane in coal seams grows ever larger. The analysis of the variation in the methane emission from the coal mines in that period points out a decline in the intensity of the emission until 2005, probably owing to the liquidation of some mines, later, but in the years of 2006-2010 - a considerable increase in both the absolute methane emission of the mines and the methane emission to the atmosphere despite a dropping coal extraction. This signifies that mining activity takes place in increasingly difficult gas conditions prevailing at great depths. Despite a slight decrease in both the absolute methane emission and methane emission to the atmosphere in 2011, a continuously growing trend of this phenomenon should be expected in the future. A similar tendency is also visible in the whole Upper Silesian Coal Basin, however the methane emission peak falls in 2008. In order to curb the growth of the amount of the emitted methane, it should be commercially utilized. Particularly vital is considering methane as an unconventional resource, following the example of other countries.

  19. Coal and rock fissure evolution and distribution characteristics of multi-seam mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dongming; Qi Xiaohan; Yin Guangzhi; Zheng Binbin

    2013-01-01

    Henan Pingdingshan No.10 mine is prone to both coal and gas outbursts. The E9-10 coal seam is the main coal-producing seam but has poor quality ventilation, thus making it relatively difficult for gas extraction. The F15 coal seam, at its lower section, is not prone to coal and gas outbursts. The average seam separa-tion distance of 150 m is greater than the upper limit for underside protective seam mining. Based on borehole imaging technology for field exploration of coal and rock fracture characteristics and discrete element numerical simulation, we have studied the evolution laws and distribution characteristics of the coal and rock fissure field between these two coal seams. By analysis of the influential effect of group F coal mining on the E9-10 coal seam, we have shown that a number of small fissures also develop in the area some 150 m above the overlying strata. The width and number of the fissures also increase with the extent of mining activity. Most of the fissures develop at a low angle or even parallel to the strata. The results show that the mining of the F15 coal seam has the effect of improving the permeability of the E9-10 coal seam.

  20. Coal mine safety achievements in the USA and the contribution of NIOSH research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esterhuizen, G.S.; Gurtunca, R.G. [NIOSH, Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Over the past century coal miner safety and health have seen tremendous improvements: the fatality and injury rates continue to decrease while productivity continues to increase. Many of the hazards that plagued miners in the past, such as coal bumps, methane and coal dust explosions, ground fall accidents and health issues have been significantly reduced. The contribution of NIOSH research includes products for prevention and survival of mine fires, methane control measures, design procedure for underground coal mines, methods for excavation surface controls, methods and procedures for blasting, laser usage in underground mines and prevention of electrocution from overhead power lines that have reduced accidents and injuries in underground coal mines. Health research has produced products such as the personal dust monitor, noise abating technologies and ergonomic solutions for equipment operators. Research priorities at NIOSH are set by considering surveillance statistics, stakeholder inputs and loss control principles. Future research in coal mining is directed towards respiratory diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, repetitive musculoskeletal injuries, traumatic injuries, falls of ground and mine disasters. The recent spate of accidents in coal mines resulted in the Miner Act of 2006, which includes a specific role for NIOSH in future mine safety research and development. The mine safety achievements in the USA reflect the commitment of industry, labour, government and research organizations to improving the safety of the mine worker.

  1. Rational Use of Land Resource During the Implementation of Transportless System of Coal Strata Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdkova, T.; Tyulenev, M.; Zhironkin, S.; Trifonov, V. A.; Osipov, Yu M.

    2017-01-01

    Surface mining and open pits engineering affect the environment in a very negative way. Among other pollutions that open pits make during mineral deposits exploiting, particular problem is the landscape changing. Along with converting the land into pits, surface mining is connected with pilling dumps that occupy large ground. The article describes an analysis of transportless methods of several coal seams strata surface mining, applied for open pits of South Kuzbass coal enterprises (Western Siberia, Russia). To improve land-use management of open pit mining enterprises, the characteristics of transportless technological schemes for several coal seams strata surface mining are highlighted and observed. These characteristics help to systematize transportless open mining technologies using common criteria that characterize structure of the bottom part of a strata and internal dumping schemes. The schemes of transportless systems of coal strata surface mining implemented in South Kuzbass are given.

  2. Fuzzy Evaluation of Coal Seam Geological Condition of Fully-Mechanized Face in Ten-Million-Ton Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on coal seam geological condition and mining technological characteristic in Jisan Mine, coal seam geological condition is quantitative evaluated by using fuzzy evaluation with the view of coal mining and coalface production. The structure and index system of evaluation factor, the membership functions and weights of evaluation factor, evaluation model and reliability in the coal seam geological conditions are expounded in detail. Eighty-two coalfaces which will be exploited is classified. All of these have provided a theoretical foundation for the selection of coal mining technology and for sustainable development of the coal mine.

  3. Protocols for the remediation of lands impacted by former coal mining operations, Sydney coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgeron, S. [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Abandoned underground coal mines can pose health and safety risks to persons working in close proximity to the former mining operations. This paper described protocols used to address potential coal mining hazards at the Sydney coal field in Nova Scotia (NS). The protocols document was developed by a mine workings group consisting of government agencies, consultants, and the owners of the mine site. Hazards at the mine included unstable ground caused by the collapse of abandoned coal mine workings; unsecured abandoned mine openings; potential accidental discharges of untreated mine waters; and the potential release of hazardous mine gases. A 5 remediation protocol process was established to include (1) information gathering, (2) an initial mine site investigation, (3) a mine workings report, (4) a detailed mine site investigation, and (5) a mine openings remediation. The protocols can be used to identify the potential hazards posed during investigations and remediation activities. 26 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Coal Mining vis-â-vis Agriculture in India: A Question of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. It is important to conduct suitable assessment studies to learn the potential adverse impact of mining on agriculture. In the subsequent discussions an attempt has been made to clarify the coal mining activities and its residual impact on environment and agricultural activities.The leaseholds for the underground mines are procured from the land lords who grant mining authority the right for underground coal mining. The land for houses, dwellings and the associated activities are purchased piecemeal from different sources while large portion of the surface right remained under the control of farmers and landlords. Underground mining in these areas is conducted with full responsibility of the surface protection by the operators who normally maintain pillars as the natural support to the surface features. Increasing demand for open caste mining process requires huge land. These lands sometime are acquired at the cost of cultivable land. Coal mining has direct impact over agriculture in the study region and residual impacts of mining bring far reaching consequences. The present study is explanatory in nature based on empirical facts collected from various formal sources from Coal India office. The task is to bring out the issues related to coal mining activities and their impact on vegetation and agriculture in adjoining areas in Raniganj and Jharia coalfields in India through this study.

  5. Surface Movement Regularity of Super-Wide Mining Face With Top-Coal Caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Run-hou

    2005-01-01

    No.4326 super-wide panel of Wangzhuang Coal Mine ( in which the fully-mechanized top-coal caving longwall mining method was used) was monitored for dynamic characteristic of surface movement. The dynamic surface movement in and after mining was predicted by using the Mining Subsidence Prediction System. The results indicate that after mining, the surface above the super-wide panel reaches a state of full subsidence, making the No.309national highway above the panel be located on the flat bottom of the subsidence basin so that the influence of mining activity in both sides of 4326 panel on the national highway is the smallest.

  6. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping; Mou, Junhui; Jin, Kan; Cui, Jie

    2015-01-01

    To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index). Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption) index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar occurrence conditions

  7. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Jiang

    Full Text Available To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index. Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar

  8. Reflotation of Coal Slurries from OKD company, Mine Lazy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Èernotová L.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the work is a verification of selective flotation on the black coal slurries sampled from slurry ponds of Mine Lazy, OKD company. Reflotation was realized with 6 collectors: Flotakol NX, Flotalex Ekofol 440, Montanol, MP 125 and AF 2. The technology of main flotation was applied. The variance analysis was used for the selectivity evaluation of particular collectors, whereby both the yield and flotation concentrate quality were tested. The goal of the flotation experiments was to achieve the flotation concentrate quality under 10% of ash. From the results follows that by using basic flotation it is possible (with the slurry samples to reach the marketable coal concentrates with the ash content under 10% by Flotalex collector application.

  9. Geotechnical risk management to prevent coal outburst in room-and-pillar mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Peter⇑; Peterson Scott; Neilans Dan; Wade Scott; McGrady Ryan; Pugh Joe

    2016-01-01

    A coal outburst is a severe safety hazard in room-and-pillar mining under deep cover. It is more likely to occur during pillar retreating. Multi-seam mining dramatically increases the risk of coal outburst within the influence zones created by remnant pillars and gob-solid boundaries. Though coal outburst is gener-ally associated with heavy loading of coal pillars, its occurrence is difficult to predict. Risk management provides a proactive tool to minimize coal outburst in room-and-pillar mining under deep cover. Risk assessment is the first step in identifying and quantifying outburst risk factors. The primary risk factors for coal outburst are overburden depth, roof and floor strength, geological anomalies, mining type, multi-seam mining, and panel width. A risk assessment chart can be used to proactively screen out min-ing sections with high risk of coal outburst for further analysis. Gob-solid boundaries and remnant pillars are critical factors in evaluation of the coal outburst risk of multi-seam mining. Risk identification, risk assessment, geologic influence mapping, geotechnical evaluation, risk analysis, risk mitigation, and mon-itoring are essential elements of coal outburst risk management process. Training is an integral part of risk management for risk identification and communication between all the stakeholders including man-agement, technical and safety personnel, and miners.

  10. Integral evaluation of operating quality and the deciding of management strategy in productive coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing-li(赵景礼)

    2004-01-01

    According to overall mean square root of weighted deviation, presented an evaluation model of "geology-technique-social conditions" with a significant index system for the estimation of operating quality in productive coal mines. In the given example, the evaluation result is used to decide management strategy of coal mine, which plays a guiding role in the production.

  11. Ground control problems and roadheader drivage at Ombilin Coal Mine, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, K.; Shimada, H.; Furukawa, H. (and others) [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Earth Resources and Mining Engineering

    2003-09-01

    In 1998, an agreement on the 'Slope Project at Ombilin III' was made between JCOAl (Japan Coal Energy Center) and PTBA. In this project, a development system of an incline was introduced to open a new underground coal mine, or Ombilin III that will begin mining operations in the 2000s to meet the necessary demand for increasing the production of Indonesian domestic coal. This paper discusses the ground control problems and the development performance of two main inclinea at Ombilin Coal Mine. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Natural radioactivity level of associated bone-coal mining area in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ji-Da; ZHENG Hui-Di; SONG Wei-Li; ZENG Guang-Jian; WANG Sha-Ling; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    The geographic distribution, γ-radiation level and specific activity of radionuclides of the bone-coal mines in Zhejiang Province were reported. The weighted average of γ-radiation dose rate of the bone-coal mines is 566 nGy/h for 107 main bone-coal mines. The weighted mean activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the samples are 949, 918, 34 and 554 Bq/kg for 171 samples of bone-coal, respectively.

  13. Zonal extraction technology and numerical simulation analysis in open pit coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanlong; Cai Qingxiang; Shang Tao; Peng Hongge; Zhou Wei; Chen Shuzhao

    2012-01-01

    In order to enhance coal recovery ratio of open pit coal mines,a new extraction method called zonal mining system for residual coal around the end-walls is presented.The mining system can improve economic benefits by exploiting haulage and ventilation roadways from the exposed position of coal seams by utilizing the existing transportation systems.Moreover,the main mining parameters have also been discussed.The outcome shows that the load on coal seam roof is about 0.307 MPa and the drop step of the coal seam roof about 20.3 m when the thickness of cover and average volume weight are about 120 m and 0.023 MN/m3 respectively.With the increase of mining height and width,the coal recovery ratio can be improved.However,when recovery ratio is more than 0.85,the average stress on the coal pillar will increase tempestuously,so the recovery ratio should also be controlled to make the coal seam roof safe.Based on the numerical simulation results,it is concluded that the ratio of coal pillar width to height should be more than 1.0 to make sure the coal pillars are steady,and there are only minor displacements on the end-walls.

  14. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... AGENCY Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean..., titled Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act... environmental review of Appalachian surface coal mining operations under the Clean Water Act,...

  15. Main issues of engineering geology in hydrogeology of red strata occurring in mine construction and coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fen, Q.; Sui, W.; Han, B.; Cao, T. [China University of Mining and Technology (China)

    1994-09-01

    There are red strata of the Jurassic System and the Third System located in the coal fields at the boundary between Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan and Anhui Provinces. When a mine shaft is sunk through the red strata, spalling, fracturing swelling and other signs of instability occur. Excavation through the red strata induces water inrush or mine flooding. Based on field test and measurement and data collected in situ, this paper studied the water bearing, mechanical strength, swelling and fracturing of the red strata which affect mine construction and coal mining operation. 2 tabs.

  16. Variation in gas drainage rate from a coal seam during mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Gang; Qi; Qingxin; Li; Hongyan; Fan; Xisheng

    2012-01-01

    Gas flow patterns during draining of gas from a coal seam during mining are discussed.The coal seam is treated as a dual medium with both pores and cracks.The seepage,diffusion,and desorption processes are treated using a gas flow equation that describes flow around drill holes.MATLAB is used to solve the differential equations.The permeability tracer test results from a mined coal seam are used to study the variation in gas drainage from a coal seam during mining.The results show that mining can increase the permeability of a coal seam,which then increases the gas drainage.There are inflection points in this variation over time.A close relationship between this variation and the rate of change in coal seam permeability is observed.

  17. Study on the economic mining method for the close quarter coal seams with thin rock sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOU Pan-feng; CHEN Zhao-qiang; YUN Xiao-you

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the mining method for the close quarter coal seams with thin rock sheet, that is mining the low coal seam, recovering the top coal seam aft er putting down the roof rock of the low coal seam. Practice has proved that in recovering the top coal outside the face width after the rock between seams fall s naturally or is demolished, the technology is simple, easy to operate and doe s not make a great demand for technical equipment. In the process of recovering t he top coal, the low seam support could not be affected seriously, and two seams mining could be coordinated. Compared with the individual mining method, this m ining method can produce a better economic benefit.

  18. Technique of coal mining and gas extraction without coal pillar in multi-seam with low permeability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Liang

    2009-01-01

    Aimed at the low mining efficiency in deep multi-seams because of high crustal stress, high gas content, low permeability, the compound "three soft" roof and the trouble-some safety situation encountered in deep level coal exploitation, proposed a new idea of gob-side retaining without a coal-pillar and Y-style ventilation in the first-mined key pres-sure-relieved coal seam and a new method of coal mining and gas extraction. The follow-ing were discovered: the dynamic evolution law of the crannies in the roof is influenced by mining, the formative rule of "the vertical cranny-abundant area" along the gob-side, the distribution of air pressure field in the gob, and the flowing rule of pressure-relieved gas in a Y-style ventilation system. The study also established a theoretic basis for a new mining method of coal mining and gas extraction which is used to extract the pressure-relieved gas by roadway retaining boreholes instead of roadway boreholes. Studied and resolved many difficult key problems, such as, fast roadway retaining at the gob-side without a coal-pillar, Y-style ventilation and extraction of pressure-relieved gas by roadway retaining boreholes, and so on. The study innovated and integrated a whole set of technical sys-tems for coal and pressure relief gas extraction. The method of the pressure-relieved gas extraction by roadway retaining had been successfully applied in 6 typical working faces in the Huainan and Huaibei mining areas. The research can provide a scientific and reliable technical support and a demonstration for coal mining and gas extraction in gaseous deep multi-seams with low permeability.

  19. Study on coal mine macro, meso and micro safety management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longkang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the coal mine safety production situation in our country improved year by year, but severe accidents still occurred; the accidents caused great economic loss to the national economy. According to statistical analysis, almost all of the coal mine accidents will expose the hidden danger in before, most of the accidents caused due to safety management not reaching the designated position and the hidden danger management does not take any decision in time. Based on the coal mine safety management holes in our country, the coal mine macro, meso and micro safety management system was established in this paper, which includes meaning and conception of the theories of the macro, meso and micro safety management, and also includes the matching hardware equipment, in order to achieve the hidden danger's closed-loop control and dynamic early warning in the process of coal mine production.

  20. Remote sensing monitoring land use change in Donglutian coal mine, Shuozhou City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Baoying; Liu, Ling

    2017-01-01

    This paper monitored the coal mine exploitation in Donglutian coal mine, Shuozhou city, Shanxi Province. Landsat satellite images from 2008 to 2016 were selected, and then 15m color composite images were obtained through data processing and image fusion. On this basis, the land use map from 2008 to 2016 was obtained using visual interpretation method. Results showed that the main land use type in this area was cropland, unused land and coalmine. Area of cropland and unused land kept decreasing year by year, while coal mine expanded rapidly. The expansion of coal mine concentrated on two time periods: from 2009 to 2010 and from 2012 to 2013. During these two time periods, topsoil stripping was the main exploitation type, while deep mining was the main type for other times. Results also presented that the exploitation number of small coals kept increasing year by year, from the initial number of 26 at 2008 to 42 at 2016.

  1. Miners' return to work following injuries in coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Kunar, Bijay Mihir

    2016-12-22

    The occupational injuries in mines are common and result in severe socio-economical consequences. Earlier studies have revealed the role of multiple factors such as demographic factors, behavioral factors, health-related factors, working environment, and working conditions for mine injuries. However, there is a dearth of information about the role of some of these factors in delayed return to work (RTW) following a miner's injury. These factors may likely include personal characteristics of injured persons and his or her family, the injured person's social and economic status, and job characteristics. This study was conducted to assess the role of some of these factors for the return to work following coal miners' injuries. A study was conducted for 109 injured workers from an underground coal mine in the years 2000-2009. A questionnaire, which was completed by the personnel interviews, included among others age, height, weight, seniority, alcohol consumption, sleeping duration, presence of diseases, job stress, job satisfaction, and injury type. The data was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazard model. According to Kaplan-Meier estimate it was revealed that a lower number of dependents, longer sleep duration, no job stress, no disease, no alcohol addiction, and higher monthly income have a great impact on early return to work after injury. The Cox regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors which influenced miners' return to work included presence of disease, job satisfaction and injury type. The mine management should pay attention to significant risk factors for injuries in order to develop effective preventive measures. Med Pr 2016;67(6):729-742.

  2. Miners’ return to work following injuries in coal mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Bhattacherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occupational injuries in mines are common and result in severe socio-economical consequences. Earlier studies have revealed the role of multiple factors such as demographic factors, behavioral factors, health-related factors, working environment, and working conditions for mine injuries. However, there is a dearth of information about the role of some of these factors in delayed return to work (RTW following a miner’s injury. These factors may likely include personal characteristics of injured persons and his or her family, the injured person’s social and economic status, and job characteristics. This study was conducted to assess the role of some of these factors for the return to work following coal miners’ injuries. Material and Methods: A study was conducted for 109 injured workers from an underground coal mine in the years 2000–2009. A questionnaire, which was completed by the personnel interviews, included among others age, height, weight, seniority, alcohol consumption, sleeping duration, presence of diseases, job stress, job satisfaction, and injury type. The data was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: According to Kaplan-Meier estimate it was revealed that a lower number of dependents, longer sleep duration, no job stress, no disease, no alcohol addiction, and higher monthly income have a great impact on early return to work after injury. The Cox regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors which influenced miners’ return to work included presence of disease, job satisfaction and injury type. Conclusions: The mine management should pay attention to significant risk factors for injuries in order to develop effective preventive measures. Med Pr 2016;67(6:729–742

  3. Coal-Mac, Inc. Phoenix No. 1 mine provides wildlife haven. 2007 Wildlife West Virginia Award

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, A.

    2007-07-15

    Coal Mac, Inc.'s Harless Wood Industrial Park off Holden 22 Mines Road in Logan Country, West Virginia is an award-winning reclamation site in the mountains frequented by geese, wild turkey, deer and black bears. Orchard grass and rye is a temporary cover for the timothy, clover and other seedlings. The area was mined several years ago. Some 40,000-50,000 tons of coal per month are surfaced mined with the current permit that takes in 1,500-2,000 acres. After removing the coal, valleys are backfilled as part of the mining and reclamation plan. 10 photos.

  4. Electromagnetic environments in roadways of underground coal mines and a novel testing method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic environment of laneways in underground coal mines is an important area for the design of new electronic products,as well as a fundamental space for mine monitoring,surveillance,communications and control systems.An investigation of electromagnetic interference in coal mines is essential for the enhancement of performances of these systems.In this study,a new field method is provided in which radiated emission tests in coal mine laneways have been carried out.We conclude that:1) the wirin...

  5. Coal mining, social injustice and health: a universal conflict of power and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrice, Emily; Colagiuri, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Given the current insatiable demand for coal to build and fuel the world's burgeoning cities the debate about mining-related social, environmental and health injustices remains eminently salient. Furthermore, the core issues appear universally consistent. This paper combines the theoretical base for defining these injustices with reports in the international health literature about the impact of coal mining on local communities. It explores and analyses mechanisms of coal mining related injustice, conflicting priorities and power asymmetries between political and industry interests versus inhabitants of mining communities, and asks what would be required for considerations of health to take precedence over wealth.

  6. Mudstone depressurization behaviour in an open pit coal mine, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, G.; Waterhouse, J. [Golder Associates, West Perth, WA (Australia); Crisostomo, J. [PT Adaro Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2010-07-01

    Mining activities in the Tutupan mine in Indonesia began in the mid-1990s. The open pit mine's coal seams are interbedded with fine-grained sandstones, mudstones, and carbonaceous mudstones. Slope stability analyses at the pit have integrated hydrogeology with geotechnical engineering analyses to optimize slope designs and reduce the risk of slope failure. This paper discussed the impact of mining and dewatering on mudstone depressurization. Sensors were placed at key points in the mine to obtain data related to the mudstone units. Reductions in pore pressure occurred as a result of groundwater flow away from the observed zones, increases in porosity, and increases in total porosity caused by an expansion of the rock mass as a result of drainage and hydrostatic unloading. Mudstone pore pressure trends with time were interpreted by determining the thickness of the mudstone unit, the presence or absence of known thin sandstone beds, unloading from overhead mining activities, and the position of the mudstone within the sedimentary sequence. The study showed that unloading activities have a significant impact on pore pressure in thick mudstone units, regardless of the depth, thickness, or properties of the unit. Pore pressure within high wall mudstone units typically decreased to values equivalent to the elevation of the unit where it was exposed to dips in a high wall. The dewatering of sandstone units in low walls caused a decline in pore pressure within the thick mudstone units located beneath the sandstones. Differences in primary permeabilities were attributed to greater fracturing in deeper and stronger rock units. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Treating coal mine drainage with an artificial wetland. [USA - Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fennessy, M.S.; Mitsch, W.J. (Ohio State University Columbus, OH (USA). School of Natural Resources)

    A 0.22-ha constructed wetland dominated by Typha latofolia was evaluated for its ability to treat approximately 340 L/min of coal mine drainage from an underground seep in eastern Ohio. Loading of mine drainage to the wetland ranged from 15 to 35 cm/d. Conductivity, pH, manganese, and sulfate were little changed by the wetland. Iron decreased by 50 to 60%, with slightly higher decreases during the growing season. Comparisons are made to a volunteer Typha marsh receiving mine drainage where iron was found to decrease by approximately 89%. Design considerations of loading rates of created wetlands suggest that improved treatment of mine drainage is correlated with longer retention times and lower iron loading rates. Preliminary design criteria for construction of these types of Typha wetlands for removal of iron are suggested as 5 cm/d hydrologic loading and 2 to 40 g Fe/m{sup 2}.d for iron loading, depending on the treatment desired. 34 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Monitoring and control of ventilation in Polish coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziurzynski, W.; Roszkowski, J.; Tobiczyk, J.; Wasilewski, S. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland). Strata Mechanics Research Institute

    2005-07-01

    In the 1990s, the SMP hazards monitoring and ventilation control systems, based on continuous measurement of air parameters, were put into operation at nearly 30 Polish mines. These systems provide continuous measurement of methane concentration within the range of zero to 100 per cent with automatic switching off of electrical energy immediately after detection of potentially explosive conditions. Early detection of coal spontaneous combustion and open fires is made by continuous measurements of CO, CO{sub 2}, smoke and O{sub 2} content in mine air as well as temperature changes in air and rock mass. The essence of the system is intrinsic safety of all underground instrumentation and uninterrupted central power supply from the surface. All abnormal and critical states are signalled to the mine control room. These trigger alarm and emergency procedures. The computer based ventilation monitoring and control system also performs the function of an expert system for fire detection and underground fire fighting. The mine control operator (dispatcher) makes use of stored data in computer escape route schemes and procedures for the safe withdrawal of miners from hazardous areas. The operator can put in motion intrinsically safe alarm signalling units and banners with programmed messages indicating escape routes. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Mines, Non-Coal (Active), mines, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Mines, Non-Coal (Active) dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  10. The study of coal mine equipment's comprehensive evaluation index system and evaluation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-hua; SHI Guo-qing

    2004-01-01

    Equipment management is one of the important parts of business administration of coal. Most of coal mines take no account of their equipment management, and have no comprehensive and effective evaluation index system. Based on the analysis of the equipment evaluation measures of reform and the applications, the paper built up a comprehensive and effective evaluation index system of coal mine equipment, and improved the evaluation method with the use of fuzzy theory, analytic hierarchy process and entropy method.

  11. Greenhouse growth trials of perennial ryegrass in coalmine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, B.K.C.; Dudeney, A.W.L. [T.H. Huxley School, Royal School of Mines, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    As part of a European Union research programme on the rehabilitation of coal tips, a greenhouse growth trial was carried out with samples of spoil from two tips in Germany. Perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne cv Prohpet was sown in 1 kg spoil samples of particle size - 6.7 + 2.3 mm, with and without addition of ammonium nitrate and calcium phosphate in a greenhouse at 23C, with 19 hours light per day for 39 days. Potash was expected to be available in the spoil. Nutrient uptake, growth height and root penetration were examined. From the results, all the plants grew and took up N, P and K although differently according to the fertilizer present and the particular spoil characteristics. It was found that the roots adhered to the surface of the spoil and penetrated into cracks. From height measurements, correlation was observed between potassium uptake from the spoil and plant growth. 8 refs.

  12. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 1. Eastern coal province. [More than 1300 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, N. E.; Sobek, A. A.; Streib, D. L.

    1977-11-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Eastern Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographices. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  13. The application of GIS in predicting water gushing from sixth coal seam floor in Liuqiao No. 2 coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.; Li, D. [Huainan Mining Institute (China)

    1997-12-31

    Based on the detailed introduction of the method and procedure of GIS in the prediction of coal floor water influx, the paper establishes a multi-factor water gushing model, predicts water influx divisions taking Liuqiao No. 2 coal mine in North-Anhui as an example. A good result is obtained, and a new way of forecasting water influx from coal floors is provided. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  14. MINE DEGASIFICATION AS BASIC SAFETY ELEMENT IN THE UNDERGROUND PARTS OF GASSY COAL MINES IN THE OSTRAVA – KARVINÁ COALFIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Hudeček

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, degasification methods to drain the gas from the underground parts of coal mines in the Czech Republic are described. The authors are concerned with the possibilities of and new trends in ensuring safety by means of drilling operations. Examples of applications of degasification in mine plants in the Czech Republic, above all in a hard coal deposit in the Ostrava-Karviná Coalfield in the Upper Silesian Basin are presented.

  15. Characteristics and applications of gas desorption with excavation disturbances in coal mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiachen Wang; Renlun Wu; Peng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    According to the deficiency of experiment system for gas adsorption and desorption in coal mass, a large scale experiment system is developed independently by researchers. This experiment system is composed of primary and auxiliary boxes, power transmission system, mining system, loading system, gas charging system, data monitoring and intelligent acquisition system. The maximum experiment coal consumption is 1200 kg, the mining system is developed to conduct experiment for gas desorption under excavating disturbance, and the plane-charging cribriform ventilation device is developed to realize uniform ventilation for experiment coal sample, which is accord with the actual gas source situation of coal bed. The desorption characteristics of gas in coal are experimentally studied under the conditions of nature and mining using the experiment system. The results show that, compare with nature condition, the permeability of coal and the velocity of gas desorption could significantly increase under the influence of coal pressure relief and destruction caused by mining, and the degree of gas desorption could somewhat increase too. Finally, pressure relief gas extraction of current seam and adjacent seams after mining in a certain coal mine of Yangquan mining area are introduced, and the gas desorption experiment results is verified by analyzing the effect of gas extraction.

  16. Restoring Forests and Associated Ecosystem Services on Appalachian Coal Surface Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Carl E.; Burger, James A.; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Angel, Patrick N.; Barton, Christopher D.; Davis, Victor; Franklin, Jennifer A.

    2011-05-01

    Surface coal mining in Appalachia has caused extensive replacement of forest with non-forested land cover, much of which is unmanaged and unproductive. Although forested ecosystems are valued by society for both marketable products and ecosystem services, forests have not been restored on most Appalachian mined lands because traditional reclamation practices, encouraged by regulatory policies, created conditions poorly suited for reforestation. Reclamation scientists have studied productive forests growing on older mine sites, established forest vegetation experimentally on recent mines, and identified mine reclamation practices that encourage forest vegetation re-establishment. Based on these findings, they developed a Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) that can be employed by coal mining firms to restore forest vegetation. Scientists and mine regulators, working collaboratively, have communicated the FRA to the coal industry and to regulatory enforcement personnel. Today, the FRA is used routinely by many coal mining firms, and thousands of mined hectares have been reclaimed to restore productive mine soils and planted with native forest trees. Reclamation of coal mines using the FRA is expected to restore these lands' capabilities to provide forest-based ecosystem services, such as wood production, atmospheric carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and water quality protection to a greater extent than conventional reclamation practices.

  17. Vegetation Growth Monitoring Under Coal Exploitation Stress by Remote Sensing in the Bulianta Coal Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Coal exploitation inevitably damages the natural ecological environment through large scale underground exploitation which exhausts the surrounding areas and is the cause of surface subsidence and cracks.These types of damage seriously lower the underground water table.Deterioration of the environment has certainly an impact on and limits growth of vegetation, which is a very important indicator of a healthy ecological system.Dynamically monitoring vegetation growth under coal exploitation stress by remote sensing technology provides advantages such as large scale coverage, high accuracy and abundant information.A scatter plot was built by a TM (Thematic Mapper) infrared and red bands.A detailed analysis of the distributional characteristics of vegetation pixels has been carried out.Results show that vegetation pixels are affected by soil background pixels, while the distribution of soil pixels presents a linear pattern.Soil line equations were obtained mainly by linear regression.A new band, reflecting vegetation growth, has been obtained based on the elimination of the soil background.A grading of vegetation images was extracted by means of a density slice method.Our analysis indicates that before the exploitation of the Bulianta coal mining area, vegetation growth had gradually reduced; especially intermediate growth vegetation had been transformed into low vegetation.It may have been caused by the deterioration of the brittle environment in the western part of the mining area.All the same, after the start of coal production, vegetation growth has gradually improved, probably due to large scale aerial seeding.Remote sensing interpretation results proved to be consistent with the actual situation on the ground.From our research results we can not conclude that coal exploitation stress has no impact on the growth of vegetation.More detailed research on vegetation growth needs to be analyzed.

  18. The Imposition Environmental Cost-Loading Of Companies Investing In Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Risman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The instrument of environment is an effort to prevent environmental problems caused by mining activities both in forms and its nature. The aims of the study are to analyze and understanding the essence of environment cost-loading in order to restore the environment from coal mining activities both when mining taken place and post-mining. The type of research used is a normative-legal research. This research was conducted in the province of South Kalimantan with the consideration that the South Kalimantan is one of the largest coal-producing Provinces in Indonesia. In addition the environment cost-loading for investor in coal mining have the same properties in all coal mining sites in Indonesia. The results of the research indicated that the imposition and environment-cost in investment activity in the field of coal mining can be seen from the two approaches i.e the economic and legal approach. Economic approach is an approach that emphasizes the economic benefits gained by the owner of activities when they comply with the environmental requirements stipulated by laws and environmental regulations. Realizing the importance of environmental cost-loading for the company that manages the coal mining especially for the utilization of prevention of pollution caused by coal mining activity it is necessary to develop an institutional guarantee of recovery from the effects of pollution by establishing fund insurance for environmental restoration as a result of pollution. Thus in order to optimize the implementation of guarantee fund for environmental restoration are specifically utilized for post-mining reclamation then granting the status of Clean and Clear C amp C for coal mining investor must be presupposing the proof of guarantee fund has been placed for environmental restoration post-mining.

  19. Pneumatic transport of coal at the Miskolci mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaszner, L.; Szocs, E.

    1984-01-01

    Due to the full mechanization of coal extraction of the Miskolci mine in Hungary (BNR) which was completed in 1980, in order to fully use the capacity of the mine, a pneumatic transport system was installed in it. The system was jointly designed by Hungarian designers and the Radmark Company (Great Britain). The basic characteristics of the system are: vertical lift height, 308 meters; number of knees of rectangular cross section, 2 by 90 degrees; greatest size of transportable material, 43 millimeters; productivity, 100 tons per hour and established power of the electric drive, 655 kilowatts. The system consists of two parallel lines (each with the cited characteristics). The interior diameter of the pipelines is 350 millimeters. The basic elements of the system are the Root air blasters, the ribbed Radmark dispensers, the dispensing transporters, the pipelines, the electric drive with a control system and settling cyclones. More than 672,000 tons of coal were fed to the surface by the system between September, 1980 and January, 1983. The cost of the capital investments were recouped in nine months of operation of the system due to the additional extraction.

  20. Mining pressure monitoring and analysis in fully mechanized backfilling coal mining face-A case study in Zhai Zhen Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiang; ZHANG Ji-xiong; KANG Tao; SUN Qiang; LI Wei-kang

    2015-01-01

    Fully mechanized solid backfill mining (FMSBM) technology adopts dense backfill body to support the roof. Based on the distinguishing characteristics and mine pressure control principle in this technology, the basic principles and methods for mining pressure monitoring were analyzed and established. And the characteristics of overburden strata movement were analyzed by monitoring the support resistance of hydraulic support, the dynamic subsidence of immediate roof, the stress of backfill body, the front abutment pressure, and the mass ratio of cut coal to backfilled materials. On-site strata behavior measurements of 7403W solid backfilling working face in Zhai Zhen Coal Mine show that the backfill body can effectively support the overburden load, obviously control the overburden strata movement, and weaken the strata behaviors distinctly. Specific performances are as follows. The support resistance decreases obviously; the dynamic subsidence of immediate roof keeps consistent to the variation of backfill body stress, and tends to be stable after the face retreating to 120-150 m away from the cut. The peak value of front abutment pressure arises at 5-12 m before the operating face, and mass ratio is greater than the designed value of 1.15, which effectively ensures the control of strata movement. The research results are bases for intensively studying basic theories of solid backfill mining strata behaviors and its control, and provide theoretical guidance for engineering design in FMSBM.

  1. Conceptual development of a method to determine the principal stresses around coal mine workings to ensure safe mine design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzer, S

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available the objective a survey of 52 papers was carried out to identify methods which could be of use for the determination of in situ stresses in coal mines. This survey showed that the majority of methods used to measure stress in coal seam and then over-cored by a...

  2. Technique of coal mining and gas extraction without coal pillar in multi-seam with low permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Yuan [Huainan Mining (Group) Co. Ltd., Huainan (China)

    2009-06-15

    Aimed at the low mining efficiency in deep multi-seams because of high crustal stress, high gas content, low permeability, the compound 'three soft' roof and the troublesome safety situation encountered in deep level coal exploitation, a new idea of gob-side retaining without a coal-pillar and Y-style ventilation in the first-mined key pressure-relieved coal seam and a new method of coal mining and gas extraction was proposed. The following were discovered: the dynamic evolution law of the crannies in the roof is influenced by mining, the formative rule of 'the vertical cranny-abundant area' along the gob-side, the distribution of air pressure field in the gob, and the flowing rule of pressure-relieved gas in a Y-style ventilation system. The study also established a theoretic basis for a new mining method of coal mining and gas extraction which is used to extract the pressure-relieved gas by roadway retaining boreholes instead of roadway boreholes. Studied and resolved many difficult key problems, such as, fast roadway retaining at the gob-side without a coalpillar, Y-style ventilation and extraction of pressure-relieved gas by roadway retaining boreholes, and so on. The study innovated and integrated a whole set of technical systems for coal and pressure relief gas extraction. The method of the pressure-relieved gas extraction by roadway retaining had been successfully applied in 6 typical working faces in the Huainan and Huaibei mining areas. The research can provide a scientific and reliable technical support and a demonstration for coal mining and gas extraction in gaseous deep multi-seams with low permeability. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Lean Manufacturing And Productivity Improvement In Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Ade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic reforms- Liberalization, Privatization, Globalization, (LPG started in 1991 in India. The main objective of the government was to achieve high economic growth and industrialize the nation for the well-being of Indian citizens. Thus Indian market became Global and open market. Coal industry was not an exception to this phenomena of globalization. The improvement in productivity has become need of coal industry to take the competitive advantage of global market.The challenge to the coal Industry is to identify the wastes and meet the market price by maintaining a good profit. The only solution is to reduce total production cost. Lean manufacturing is a systematic approach to identify and eliminate the waste through continuousimprovements and synchronizing the production process to obtain manufacturing excellence. This can be achieved by Lean thinking (to identify and eliminate wastes and Lean production (to improve efficiency and effectiveness of equipment. Earlier the lean manufacturing concept was limited to manufacturing organizationnow it is used invariably in operation industries.In this paper researcher has applied lean manufacturing concept in order to increase productivity and to minimize the production cost of mining.

  4. Numerical simulation of seismic survey in coal mine roadway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, G.; Li, G.; Cheng, J. [Chang' an University, Xi' an (China). College of Geological Engineering and Geomatics

    2008-11-15

    With the staggered-grid high order finite difference wave field simulation method, the elastic wave field caused by explosives with a point source in a coal mine roadway was simulated and different type of waves in the wave field were distinguished. Comparing all three spatial components of the propagation of the waves caused by explosives on or under the roadway at different depths, this indicates that: on the roadway base, the reverberation caused by the top and bottom of the roadway (multiple reflection on the top and bottom of the roadway) is the main disturbing wave in the roadway seismic survey which will seriously disturb the reflection of the deep place coal bed underneath the roadway; at a depth of several metres under the roadway basal bottom boundary, the reverberation disturbing wave is greatly reduced and the reflection caused by deeper coal bed can be clearly detected; high signal-to-noise ratio data can be found with the Y component detector because of the propagation of SH waves; high resolution of seismic data is possible in a roadway. In the model, a cavity 3 metres high and 4 metres wide can be detected underneath the roadway. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Combined use of coal mine gases for efficient energy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postrzednik Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two basic types of coal mine gases: gas from demethanation of coal deposits, and ventilation gas; containing combustible ingredients (mainly methane, CH4. Effective use of these gases is an important technical and ecological issue (greenhouse gas emissions, mainly due to the presence of methane in these gases. Serious difficulties in this area (e.g. using them as the fuel for internal combustion (IC engine occur mainly in relation to the ventilation gas, whereas the gas from demethanation of coal deposits can be used directly as the fuel for internal combustion engines. The proposed solution of this problem shows that the simple mixing of these two gases (without supplying of oxygen from ambient air is the effective way to producing the gaseous combustible mixture, which can be used for the fueling of internal combustion gas engines. To evaluate the energy usefulness of this way produced combustible mixture the process indicator has been proposed, which expresses the share of the chemical energy supplied with the ventilation gas, in the whole chemical energy of the produced fuel combustible mixture. It was also established how (e.g., by appropriate choice of the mixed gas streams can be achieved significantly higher values of the characteristic process indicator, while retaining full energy usefulness of the gained gaseous mixture to power combustion engines.

  6. Underground Coal Mining: Relationship between Coal Dust Levels and Pneumoconiosis, in Two Regions of Colombia, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Rey, Carlos Humberto; Ibañez Pinilla, Milciades; Briceño Ayala, Leonardo; Checa Guerrero, Diana Milena; Morgan Torres, Gloria; Groot de Restrepo, Helena; Varona Uribe, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    In Colombia, coal miner pneumoconiosis is considered a public health problem due to its irreversibility, high cost on diagnosis, and lack of data related to its prevalence in the country. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in underground coal mining workers in two regions of Colombia. The results showed a 35.9% prevalence of pneumoconiosis in the study group (42.3% in region 1 and 29.9% in region 2). An association was found between a radiologic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis and a medium risk level of exposure to carbon dust (OR: 2.901, 95% CI: 0.937, 8.982), medium size companies (OR: 2.301, 95% CI: 1.260–4.201), length of mining work greater than 25 years (OR: 3.222, 95% CI: 1.806–5.748), and a history of smoking for more than one year (OR: 1.479, 95% CI: 0.938–2.334). These results establish the need to generate an intervention strategy aimed at preventing the identified factors, as well as a timely identification and effective treatment of pneumoconiosis in coal miners, in which the commitment of the General Health and Social Security System and the workers compensation system is ensured. PMID:26366418

  7. Underground Coal Mining: Relationship between Coal Dust Levels and Pneumoconiosis, in Two Regions of Colombia, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Humberto Torres Rey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, coal miner pneumoconiosis is considered a public health problem due to its irreversibility, high cost on diagnosis, and lack of data related to its prevalence in the country. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in underground coal mining workers in two regions of Colombia. The results showed a 35.9% prevalence of pneumoconiosis in the study group (42.3% in region 1 and 29.9% in region 2. An association was found between a radiologic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis and a medium risk level of exposure to carbon dust (OR: 2.901, 95% CI: 0.937, 8.982, medium size companies (OR: 2.301, 95% CI: 1.260–4.201, length of mining work greater than 25 years (OR: 3.222, 95% CI: 1.806–5.748, and a history of smoking for more than one year (OR: 1.479, 95% CI: 0.938–2.334. These results establish the need to generate an intervention strategy aimed at preventing the identified factors, as well as a timely identification and effective treatment of pneumoconiosis in coal miners, in which the commitment of the General Health and Social Security System and the workers compensation system is ensured.

  8. Genotoxic effects in wild rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus musculus) in an open coal mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Grethel; Pérez, Lyda Espitia; Linares, Juan Carlos; Hartmann, Andreas; Quintana, Milton

    2007-06-15

    Coal is a mixture of a variety of compounds containing mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to coal is considered as an important non-cellular and cellular source of reactive oxygen species that can induce DNA damage. In addition, spontaneous combustion can occur in coal mining areas, further releasing compounds with detrimental effects on the environment. In this study the comet assay was used to investigate potential genotoxic effects of coal mining activities in peripheral blood cells of the wild rodents Rattus rattus and Mus musculus. The study was conducted in a coal mining area of the Municipio de Puerto Libertador, South West of the Departamento de Cordoba, Colombia. Animals from two areas in the coal mining zone and a control area located in the Municipio de Lorica were investigated. The results showed evidence that exposure to coal results in elevated primary DNA lesions in blood cells of rodents. Three different parameters for DNA damage were assessed, namely, DNA damage index, migration length and percentage damaged cells. All parameters showed statistically significantly higher values in mice and rats from the coal mining area in comparison to the animals from the control area. The parameter "DNA Damage Index" was found to be most sensitive and to best indicate a genotoxic hazard. Both species investigated were shown to be sensitive indicators of environmental genotoxicity caused by coal mining activities. In summary, our study constitutes the first investigation of potential genotoxic effects of open coal mining carried out in Puerto Libertador. The investigations provide a guide for measures to evaluate genotoxic hazards, thereby contributing to the development of appropriate measures and regulations for more careful operations during coal mining.

  9. 30 CFR 817.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  10. 30 CFR 816.73 - Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.73 Disposal of excess spoil: Durable rock fills. The regulatory authority may approve the alternative method of disposal of excess durable rock spoil by gravity placement...

  11. Evaluation of environment benefits based on new-type mining of coal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Futong; Ren, Zaixiang

    2017-08-01

    According to the energy structure characteristics in China, this paper analyzed the current situation of liquefaction and gasification exploitation of coal as an emerging mining method. Simultaneously, setting the UCG (UCG) as an example, this paper analyzed the factors impacting the new-type mining method of coal resources and the mining damages, obtaining that the main damages of UCG include surface subsidence, groundwater pollution and other pollution. This paper, which proposed to evaluate the environmental benefits of the new-type mining method, established a evaluation system of environmental benefits of UCG and adopted fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, obtaining four-class comprehensive evaluation indexes of the new-type mining method.

  12. Financial Incentives to Restructure Coal Mining Industry. Comparative Case Study Romania and State of Michigan, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger HAMLIN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Former coal mining sites have always raised environmental and economic challenges for the areas where they were located, especially for those communities that were highly dependent on the coal mining industry. The present paper will explore the factors leading to the decline of coal mining industry in Romania and State of Michigan, U.S., the social, economic and environmental impact that occurred after closing coal extractions and the approaches that the two states took to reconstruct the economy of the former mining areas. The paper attempts to make recommendations of financial incentives that can be used to foster the economic redevelopment of former coal mining sites in Romania.

  13. Coal mining in the Netherlands: The need for a proper assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.P.R.

    2004-01-01

    In the Netherlands several billion tonnes of mineable coal remained after closure of all mines in 1974. Mining activities in Dutch Limburg were suspended relatively early in comparison to surrounding basins, of which only DSK’s Ruhr mines are still producing. In retrospective this saved the costs of

  14. Coal mining in the Netherlands: The need for a proper assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.P.R.

    2004-01-01

    In the Netherlands several billion tonnes of mineable coal remained after closure of all mines in 1974. Mining activities in Dutch Limburg were suspended relatively early in comparison to surrounding basins, of which only DSK’s Ruhr mines are still producing. In retrospective this saved the costs of

  15. Stimulation of commercial coal seam methane production aimed at improving mining technology

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the current research is due to the urgent need to revise the existing normative bases and procedures involved in intensive development of coal-methane deposits and commercial production of coal seam methane. The article presents the analysis of data on coal production volume and amount of methane emitted into the atmosphere in Kuzbass. There is a need to develop the exploration techniques that would allow implementing pre-mining gas drainage of coal seams and provide the comp...

  16. Applying Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach to Evaluate and Classify the Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential in Eastern Alborz Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Saffari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Subject analysis of the potential of spontaneous combustion in coal layers with analytical and numerical methods has been always considered as a difficult task because of the complexity of the coal behavior and the number of factors influencing it. Empirical methods, due to accounting for certain and specific factors, have not accuracy and efficiency for all positions. The Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach as a systematic method for analyzing and classifying is proposed in engineering projects. The present study is concerned with employing the RES approach to categorize coal spontaneous combustion in coal regions. Using this approach, the interaction of parameters affecting each other in an equal scale on the coal spontaneous combustion was evaluated. The Intrinsic, geological and mining characteristics of coal seams were studied in order to identifying important parameters. Then, the main stages of implementation of the RES method i.e. interaction matrix formation, coding matrix and forming a list category were performed. Later, an index of Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential (CSCPi was determined to format the mathematical equation. Then, the obtained data related to the intrinsic, geological and mining, and special index were calculated for each layer in the case study (Pashkalat coal region, Iran. So, the study offers a perfect and comprehensive classification of the layers. Finally, by using the event of spontaneous combustion occurred in Pashkalat coal region, an initial validation for this systematic approach in the study area was conducted, which suggested relatively good concordance in Pashkalat coal region.

  17. Analysis of underground fires in Polish hard coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WACHOWICZ Jan

    2008-01-01

    In the period of the first twenty years after World War II the number of fires in Polish hard coal mines reached annually the value of several thousands of cases. About 80% of fires constituted spontaneous fires. Investigations into the development of new methods of fire hazard prediction and implementation of new methods and means of fire prevention as well as the introduction of prohibition concerning the use of products manufactured of combustible organic materials in underground mine workings re-duced considerably the hazard of underground fire rise. The worked out at the Central Mining Institute (GIG) new method of un-derground fire prediction allows the correct selection of fire prevention means. The introduction into common use of fire-resistant conveyor belts, the main factor giving rise to spontaneous fires, and methods of assessment of their fire resistance eliminated prac-tically the fire hazard. These activities contributed in an efficient way to the reduction of the number of underground fires to a sa-tisfactory level.

  18. An optimized control of ventilation in coal mines based on artificial neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付华; 邵良杉

    2002-01-01

    According to the nonlinear and time-dependent features of the ventilation systems for coal mines, a neural network method is applied to control the ventilator for coal mines in real time. The technical processes of coal mine ventilation system are introduced, and the principle of controlling a ventilation fan is also explained in detail. The artificial neutral network method is used to calculate the wind quantity needed by work spots in coal mine on the basis of the data collected by the system, including ventilation conditions, environmental temperatures, humidity, coal dust and the contents of all kinds of poisonous and harmful gases. Then the speed of ventilation fan is controlled according to the required wind which is determined by an overall integration of data. A neural network method is presented for overall optimized solution or the genetic algorithm of simulated annealing.

  19. Estimation of radon concentrations in coal mines using a hybrid technique calibration curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, K.; Ali, S. [PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan). Radiation Physics Division, Environmental Radiation Group

    2001-07-01

    A calibration curve was generated using Ra-226 activity concentration measured by a HPGe detector-based gamma-ray spectrometer versus alpha-track-density rate due to radon and its progeny on CR-39 track detector. Using the slops of the experimentally determined curve in the units of Becquerel per kilogram (Bq kg{sup -1}) per unit alpha -track-density per hour (cm{sup -2}h{sup -1}), radon concentrations (Bq m{sup -3}) were estimated using coal samples from various coal mines in two provinces of Pakistan, Punjab and Balochistan. Consequently, radon dose rates were computed in the simulated environment of the coal mines. These results provide only a screening method to indicate the radon dose in coal mines, It was shown that the actual measurements of radon concentrations in the coal mines are in agreement with the estimated radon concentrations using the hybrid-technique calibration curve.

  20. Coal mining with Triple-section extraction process in stagger arrangement roadway layout method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zimo; Liu, Baozhu; Zhao, Jingli; Chanda, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces the Triple-section extraction process in the three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement method for longwall top-coal caving mining. This 3-D roadway layout of stagger arrangement method without coal pillars, which arranged the air intake roadway and air return roadway in different horizons, realizing the design theory transformation of roadway layout from 2D system to 3D system. And the paper makes systematic analysis to the geological, technical and economic factors, applies this new mining roadway layout technology for raising coal recovery ratio and solving the problems about full-seam mining in thick coal seam synthetically according to theoretical study and mining practice. Furthermore, the paper presents a physical simulation about inner staggered roadway layout of this particular longwall top-coal caving method.

  1. Research into comprehensive gas extraction technology of single coal seams with low permeability in the Jiaozuo coal mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jiangwei; Fu Xuehai; Hu Xiao; Chen Li; Ou Jianchun

    2011-01-01

    For a low permeability single coal seam prone to gas outbursts,pre-drainage of gas is difficult and inefficient,seriously restricting the safety and efficiency of production.Radical measures of increasing gas extraction efficiency are pressure relief and infrared antireflection.We have analyzed the effect of mining conditions and the regularity of mine pressure distribution in front of the working face of a major coal mine of the Jiaozuo Industrial (Group) Co.as our test area,studied the width of the depressurization zone in slice mining and analyzed gas efficiency and fast drainage in the advanced stress relaxation zone.On that basis,we further investigated and practiced the exploitation technology of shallow drilling,fan drilling and grid shape drilling at the working face.Practice and our results show that the stress relaxation zone is the ideal region for quick and efficient extraction of gas.By means of an integrated extraction technology,the amount of gas emitted into the zone was greatly reduced,while the risk of dangerous outbursts of coal and gas was lowered markedly.This exploration provides a new way to control for gas in working faces of coal mines with low permeability and risk of gas outbursts of single coal seams in the Jiaozuo mining area.

  2. The mining and burning of coal: effects on health and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleden, William M; Shearman, David; Crisp, George; Finch, Philip

    2011-09-19

    Australia's coal conundrum is that all political parties say they are concerned about climate change while sanctioning an unprecedented expansion of coalmining and coal seam gas extraction in Australia. Australia's coal contributes to climate change and its global health impacts. Each phase of coal's lifecycle (mining, disposal of contaminated water and tailings, transportation, washing, combustion, and disposing of postcombustion wastes) produces pollutants that affect human health. Communities in which coalmining or burning occurs have been shown to suffer significant health impacts. The health and climate costs of coal are unseen, and when costs to health systems are included, coal is an expensive fuel.

  3. Coal Seams in the Horna Nitra Valley – the Cigel Mining Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Fazekaš

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the statistics data, coal will become with no doubt the most important energy source in the 21-st century. The HornaNitra Valley represents one of the main fuels – energy centre of Slovakia. Deposits of caustobioliths – brown coal and lignite presentsignificant raw material potential. The mining companies, along with run-in extraction methods of coal reserves, are giving their timeto a research of untraditional coal processing technologies. An in-situ monitoring of coal seams geo-technological propertiescontributes in a significant way to obtain some complex knowledge on interactions of certain determining factors which influencethe coal gases formation underground.

  4. New software for visualizing 3D geological data in coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungjae; Choi, Yosoon

    2015-04-01

    This study developed new software to visualize 3D geological data in coal mines. The Visualization Tool Kit (VTK) library and Visual Basic.NET 2010 were used to implement the software. The software consists of several modules providing functionalities: (1) importing and editing borehole data; (2) modelling of coal seams in 3D; (3) modelling of coal properties using 3D ordinary Kriging method; (4) calculating economical values of 3D blocks; (5) pit boundary optimization for identifying economical coal reserves based on the Lerchs-Grosmann algorithm; and (6) visualizing 3D geological, geometrical and economical data. The software has been applied to a small-scale open-pit coal mine in Indonesia revealed that it can provide useful information supporting the planning and design of open-pit coal mines.

  5. Study on comprehensive gas control techniques and practice in coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yong; QI Qi

    2011-01-01

    The origins and main control methods of gas in coal seams were introduced cursorily, and the processes that need to be done in controlling gas, which includes prediction of gas emissions, drainage systems, the means of prevention of gas outbursts, and some suggestions were put forward. The characteristic of different gas emissions and the corresponding counter measures were presented, and a case study of simultaneous extraction of coal and gas in Xieyi Coal Mine was carried out by coal mining and gas extraction without coal-pillar. The field application shows that gas drainage ratio in panel 5121(0) averages about 90% and reaches as high as 95%, which will give beneficial references to gas control in coal mines.

  6. Key technologies and equipment for a fully mechanized top-coal caving operation with a large mining height at ultra-thick coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua Wang; Bin Yu; Hongpu Kang; Guofa Wang; Debing Mao; Yuntao Liang; Pengfei Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Thick and ultra-thick coal seams are main coal seams for high production rate and high efficiency in Chinese coal mines, which accounts for 44%of the total minable coal reserve. A fully mechanized top-coal caving mining method is a main underground coal extraction method for ultra-thick coal seams. The coal extraction technologies for coal seams less than 14 m thick were extensively used in China. However, for coal seams with thickness greater than 14 m, there have been no reported cases in the world for underground mechanical extraction with safe performance, high efficiency and high coal recovery ratio. To deal with this case, China Coal Technology&Engineering Group, Datong Coal Mine Group, and other 15 organizations in China launched a fundamental and big project to develop coal mining technologies and equipment for coal seams with thicknesses greater than 14 m. After the completion of the project, a coal extraction method was developed for top-coal caving with a large mining height, as well as a ground control theory for ultra-thick coal seams. In addition, the mining technology for top-coal caving with a large mining height, the ground support technology for roadway in coal seams with a large cross-section, and the prevention and control technology for gas and fire hazards were developed and applied. Furthermore, a hydraulic support with a mining height of 5.2 m, a shearer with high reliability, and auxiliary equipment were developed and manufactured. Practical implication on the technologies and equipment developed was successfully completed at the No. 8105 coal face in the Tashan coal mine, Datong, China. The major achievements of the project are summarized as follows:1. A top-coal caving method for ultra-thick coal seams is proposed with a cutting height of 5 m and a top-coal caving height of 15 m. A structural mechanical model of overlying strata called cantilever beam-articulated rock beam is established. Based on the model, the load resistance of the

  7. Fault Diagnosis Approach of Local Ventilation System in Coal Mines Based on Multidisciplinary Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Xiao-yan; XUE He; TAO Xin-li; HU Ning

    2006-01-01

    In order to reduce the probability of fault occurrence of local ventilation system in coal mine and prevent gas from exceeding the standard limit, an approach incorporating the reliability analysis, rough set theory, genetic algorithm (GA), and intelligent decision support system (IDSS) was used to establish and develop a fault diagnosis system of local ventilation in coal mine. Fault tree model was established and its reliability analysis was performed. The algorithms and software of key fault symptom and fault diagnosis rule acquiring were also analyzed and developed. Finally, a prototype system was developed and demonstrated by a mine instance. The research results indicate that the proposed approach in this paper can accurately and quickly find the fault reason in a local ventilation system of coal mines and can reduce difficulty of the fault diagnosis of the local ventilation system, which is significant to decrease gas exploding accidents in coal mines.

  8. Evaluation of remediation of coal mining wastewater by chitosan microspheres using biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benassi, J.C.; Laus, R.; Geremias, R.; Lima, P.L.; Menezes, C.T.B.; Laranjeira, M.C.M.; Wilhelm, D.; Favere, V.T.; Pedrosa, R.C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the remediation of mining wastewater effluents by chitosan microspheres using biomarkers of exposure and effect. DNA damage (Comet assay) and several biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as lipoperoxidation levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), were measured in blood and liver of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed for 7, 15, and 30 days to dechlorinated tap water, 10% coal mining wastewater (CMW), and coal mining wastewater treated with chitosan microspheres (RCM). The results obtained indicated that the use of oxidative stress biomarkers were useful tools for the toxicity evaluation of coal mining effluents and also suggest that chitosan microspheres may be used as an alternative approach for remediation of coal mining wastewaters.

  9. Mining lore : Chinese labourers in BC's coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, C.

    2010-09-15

    This article presented a historical review of Chinese labourers in Canada's industries and how they were often exploited and treated poorly. The 1860 gold rush in British Columbia attracted the first labourers from China. More labourers followed, the majority male, to work in the coal mines around Nanaimo. More than half the employees at coal baron Robert Dunsmuir's Wellington mine on Vancouver Island were Chinese labourers who worked under conditions and wages that other miners would not accept. During a large strike at the Wellington Mine in 1883, the striking white miners were replaced with Chinese from Victoria, which contributed to a brewing anti-Chinese sentiment. The striking miners eventually withdrew their demand for higher wages, insisting only that Dunsmuir rid his mine of the Chinese. Dunsmuir refused, held out, and broke the strike. When an anti-immigration bill was passed in 1884 by the British Columbia (BC) Legislative Assembly, the Canadian government stepped in, only to hire thousands of Chinese labourers to work on the railway. Their low wages saved contractors $3 million, making construction economically feasible. However, just a few weeks after blocking BC's anti-immigration bill, the Canadian government passed a Chinese Immigration Act that would come into effect only after construction was completed. The Act restricted and regulated Chinese immigration, and imposed a head tax on any Chinese entering the country, making it unaffordable to bring a wife and family to Canada. When the railroad was completed, thousands of Chinese labourers were left unemployed with nowhere to go. In 1887, an explosion at a Nanaimo mine killed 150 employees. The miners blamed the Chinese, claiming that their lack of English made them a safety hazard. By the early 1920s, the Chinese community in Victoria formed the Chinese Benevolent Association to provide general welfare assistance and oppose discriminatory laws. In 2006, the Canadian government

  10. Effects of torpedo blasting on rockburst prevention during deep coal seam mining in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ł. Wojtecki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB, coal seams are exploited under progressively more difficult geological and mining conditions (greater depth, higher horizontal stress, more frequent occurrence of competent rock layers, etc.. Mining depth, dislocations and mining remnants in coal seams are the most important factors responsible for the occurrence of rockburst hazards. Longwall mining next to the mining edges of neighbouring coal seams is particularly disadvantageous. The levels of rockburst hazards are minimised via the use of rockburst prevention methods. One active prevention method is torpedo blasting in roof rocks. Torpedo blastings are performed in order to decrease local stress concentrations in rock masses and to fracture the roof rocks to prevent or minimise the impact of high-energy tremors on excavations. The estimation of the effectiveness of torpedo blasting is particularly important when mining is under difficult geological and mining conditions. Torpedo blasting is the main form of active rockburst prevention in the assigned colliery in the Polish part of the USCB. The effectiveness of blasting can be estimated using the seismic effect method, in which the seismic monitoring data and the mass of explosives are taken into consideration. The seismic effect method was developed in the Czech Republic and is always being used in collieries in the Czech part of the coal basin. Now, this method has been widely adopted for our selected colliery in the Polish part of the coal basin. The effectiveness of torpedo blastings in the faces and galleries of the assigned longwall in coal seam 506 has been estimated. The results show that the effectiveness of torpedo blastings for this longwall was significant in light of the seismic effect method, which corresponds to the in situ observations. The seismic effect method is regularly applied to estimating the blasting effectiveness in the selected colliery.

  11. Effects of selective handling of pyritic, acid-forming materials on the chemistry of pore gas and ground water at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Clarion County, PA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Dugas, Diana L.; Brady, Keith; Kovalchuck, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    A change from dragline to “selective handling” mining methods at a reclaimed surface coal mine in western Pennsylvania did not significantly affect concentrations of metals in ground water because oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of siderite were not abated. Throughout the mine, placement of pyritic material near the land surface facilitated the oxidation of pyrite, causing the consumption of oxygen (O2) and release of acid, iron, and sulfate ions. Locally in the unsaturated zone, water sampled within or near pyritic zones was acidic, with concentrations of sulfate exceeding 3,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L). However, acidic conditions generally did not persist below the water table because of neutralization by carbonate minerals. Dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and siderite in unsaturated and saturated zones produced elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese. Alkalinity concentrations of 600 to 800 mg/L as CaCO3 were common in water samples from the unsaturated zone in spoil, and alkalinities of 100 to 400 mg/L as CaCO3 were common in ground-water samples from the underlying saturated zone in spoil and bedrock. Saturation indices indicated that siderite could dissolve in water throughout the spoil, but that calcite dissolution or precipitation could occur locally. Calcite dissolution could be promoted as a result of pyrite oxidation, gypsum precipitation, and calcium ion exchange for sodium. Calcite precipitation could be promoted by evapotranspiration and siderite dissolution, and corresponding increases in concentrations of alkalinity and other solutes. Partial pressures of O2 (Po2) and CO2 (Pco2) in spoil pore gas indicated that oxidation of pyrite and precipitation of ferric hydroxide, coupled with dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and siderite were the primary reactions affecting water quality. Highest vertical gradients in Po2, particularly in the near-surface zone (0-1 m), did not correlate

  12. Risk monitoring and early-warning technology of coal mine production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Qing-gui; ZHANG Hua; LIU Ji-kun; LIU Xiao-rong

    2007-01-01

    This article was written according to the security information theory and the security cybernetics basic principle, for reducing the accident risk effectively and safeguarding the production safety in coal mine. First, each kind of risk characteristic has carried on the earnest analysis to the coal-mining production process. Then it proposed entire wrap technology system of the risk management and the risk monitoring early warning in the coal-mining production process, and developed the application software-coal mine risk monitoring and the early warning system which runs on the local area network. The coal-mining production risk monitoring and early warning technology system includes risk information gathering, risk identification and management, risk information transmission;saving and analysis, early warning prompt of accident risk, safety dynamic monitoring, and safety control countermeasure and so on. The article specifies implementation method and step of this technology system, and introduces application situations in cooperating mine enterprise, e.g. Xiezhuang coal mine. It may supply the risk management and the accident prevention work of each kind of mine reference.

  13. Development of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for the utilization of coal mine gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, B.; Blum, L.; de Haart, L. G. J.; Dengel, A.

    Apart from natural gas there is another important natural source of methane. The so-called coal mine gas is a by-product of the geochemical process of the carbonization of sediments from marsh woods of the Earth's Carboniferous Period. Methane evaporates from the coal and has to be removed out of the active mines where it represents one of the main safety risks. Methane also evaporates in abandoned coal mines. In the federal state Saarland in Germany exists above ground a more than 110 km pipeline for the drained coal mine gas from 12 different sources. The content of methane varies between 25 and 90%, the oxygen content (from air) is in the range up to 10%. This wide range or variation, respectively, of fuel and oxygen content, causes a lot of problems for the use in conventional engines. Therefore the company Evonik New Energies GmbH is interested in using SOFC with coal mine gas as efficient as possible to produce electric power. For that purpose at Forschungszentrum Jülich the available SOFC technology was adapted to the use with coal mine gas and a test facility was designed to operate an SOFC stack (approximately 2 kW electrical power output) together with a pre-reformer. This paper presents the results of the coal mine gas analysis and the effect on the pre-reformer and the fuel cell. The composition of the coal mine gas was determined by means of micro-gas chromatography. The results obtained from preliminary tests using synthetic and real coal mine gas on the pre-reformer and on the fuel cell are discussed.

  14. Numerical Investigation of the Dynamic Mechanical State of a Coal Pillar During Longwall Mining Panel Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Jiang, Yaodong; Zhao, Yixin; Zhu, Jie; Liu, Shuai

    2013-09-01

    This study presents a numerical investigation on the dynamic mechanical state of a coal pillar and the assessment of the coal bump risk during extraction using the longwall mining method. The present research indicates that there is an intact core, even when the peak pillar strength has been exceeded under uniaxial compression. This central portion of the coal pillar plays a significant role in its loading capacity. In this study, the intact core of the coal pillar is defined as an elastic core. Based on the geological conditions of a typical longwall panel from the Tangshan coal mine in the City of Tangshan, China, a numerical fast Lagrangian analysis of continua in three dimensions (FLAC3D) model was created to understand the relationship between the volume of the elastic core in a coal pillar and the vertical stress, which is considered to be an important precursor to the development of a coal bump. The numerical results suggest that, the wider the coal pillar, the greater the volume of the elastic core. Therefore, a coal pillar with large width may form a large elastic core as the panel is mined, and the vertical stress is expected to be greater in magnitude. Because of the high stresses and the associated stored elastic energy, the risk of coal bumps in a coal pillar with large width is greater than for a coal pillar with small width. The results of the model also predict that the peak abutment stress occurs near the intersection between the mining face and the roadways at a distance of 7.5 m from the mining face. It is revealed that the bump-prone zones around the longwall panel are within 7-10 m ahead of the mining face and near the edge of the roadway during panel extraction.

  15. Spoils of Truce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Review of Spoils of Truce. Corruption and stat building in Postwar Lebanon Reinoud Leenders Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-8014-5100-3......Review of Spoils of Truce. Corruption and stat building in Postwar Lebanon Reinoud Leenders Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-8014-5100-3...

  16. Neural Network Based Algorithm and Simulation of Information Fusion in the Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of information fusion and the basic principles of neural networks are introduced.Neural networks were introduced as a way of building an information fusion model in a coal mine monitoring system.This assures the accurate transmission of the multi-sensor information that comes from the coal mine monitoring systems.The information fusion mode was analyzed.An algorithm was designed based on this analysis and some simulation results were given.Finally, conclusions that could provide auxiliary decision making information to the coal mine dispatching officers were presented.

  17. The current situation of impact of coal mine developing on environment in China and government proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yang [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Ministry of Land and Resources

    2005-07-01

    Current environmental problems caused by coal mining in China, the importance of management of the environment, impact of coal mining on land and water resources, and upcoming coal development are discussed. It is suggested that the government should act in two ways: take responsibility for management of reclamation of mines existing before 1986, and set up mechanisms to protect the environment, starting with the publishing of relevant laws and regulations. Methods for solving environmental issues include: prepare a practical plan, establish an environmental control fund, establish a special fund to protect the environment, and develop new ways to combine protection of the biological environment and land reclamation. 5 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Neuronet Modelling of the Processes of Budgeting and Use of Labour Resources at Coal Mining Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlіnska Olha M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers issues of efficient budgeting and use of labour resources at coal mining enterprises. It proves expediency of use of modern neuronet, namely, multilayer perceptron, for solution of tasks of modelling the process of budgeting and use of labour resources at coal mining enterprises. It shows that Statistika is the best software package for creation of neuronets of the multilayer perceptron architecture. On the basis of analysis and comparative characteristic the article selects the topology and builds a neuronet model of budgeting and use of labour resources at coal mining enterprises.

  19. Safety Psychology Applicating on Coal Mine Safety Management Based on Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baoyue; Chen, Fei

    In recent years, with the increase of intensity of coal mining, a great number of major accidents happen frequently, the reason mostly due to human factors, but human's unsafely behavior are affected by insecurity mental control. In order to reduce accidents, and to improve safety management, with the help of application security psychology, we analyse the cause of insecurity psychological factors from human perception, from personality development, from motivation incentive, from reward and punishment mechanism, and from security aspects of mental training , and put forward countermeasures to promote coal mine safety production,and to provide information for coal mining to improve the level of safety management.

  20. Water quality of coal deposits and abandoned mines, Saginaw County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Coal was last mined in Saginaw County, Michigan in 1950. Water from abandoned mines and from undisturbed coal-bearing beds in the Saginaw Formation is highly mineralized and contains high concentrations of iron. Compared to streams in the area, the water contains higher concentrations of at least 15 constituents including boron, phenol, lithium, strontium, and manganese. Water from abandoned mines and coal-bearing beds is a poor source of water for domestic, public, or agricultural uses. Large amounts of this highly mineralized ground water reaching local streams would have a deleterious effect on surface-water quality.

  1. Possibilities of Utilization of Aggregates and Extractive Waste from Hard Coal Mining at Janina Mine in the Process of Reclamation of Open-pit Mines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beata Klojzy-Karczmarczyk; Janusz Mazurek; Krzysztof Paw

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the economic importance of gangue mined during coal production has changed and it is currently treated more and more often not as waste but as a source of mineral resources for economic use...

  2. Relations between health indicators and residential proximity to coal mining in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. for Community Medicine

    2008-04-15

    We used data from a survey of 16493 West Virginians merged with county-level coal production and other covariates to investigate the relations between health indicators and residential proximity to coal mining. Results of hierarchical analyses indicated that high levels of coal production were associated with worse adjusted health status and with higher rates of cardiopulmonary disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, lung disease, and kidney disease. Research is recommended to ascertain the mechanisms, magnitude, and consequences of a community coal-mining exposure effect.

  3. Long-term liablities of coal mining; Ewigkeitslasten im Kohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, Walter (ed.) [GDMB Gesellschaft der Metallurgen und Bergleute e.V., Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The closer the end of coal mining in 2018, the more the issue of groundwater re-emergence in the Ruhr area is also being considered. This is especially the case because currently the subject of restitution and liability issues in the area of contaminated sites of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is discussed. In addition, the companies concerned lost considerable value on the stock market. For this reason, the question of whether the financial provisions in the created foundation are sufficient to shoulder the expected responsibilities and measures also arises with regard to coal mining. The question is which measures are to be taken and where damages can occur. Additional impulses are given by the Meggen judgment of the BVerwG of 18.12.2014, which interpreted the responsibility of the mining companies very widely. In the Rhineland, an earthquake hit 2.4 on 22.12.2015 - probably due to a rise in groundwater around the closed opencast mine Bergheim. All these questions are included in the colloquium on economics and environmental law on 26 January 2016. This also includes experiences and problems from other federal states such as Brandenburg and Saxony. [German] Je naeher das Ende des Steinkohlenbergbaus 2018 rueckt, desto eher geraet auch die Frage des Grundwasserwiederanstiegs im Ruhrgebiet ins Blickfeld. Das gilt zumal deshalb, weil aktuell ueber Rueckstellung und Haftungsfragen im Bereich der Altlasten der friedlichen Nutzung der Kernenergie diskutiert wird. Zudem verloren die betroffenen Gesellschaften an der Boerse erheblich an Wert. Daher stellt sich auch in Bezug auf den Steinkohlenbergbau die Frage, ob die finanziellen Rueckstellungen in der geschaffenen Stiftung ausreichen, um die zu erwartenden Verantwortlichkeiten und Massnahmen schultern zu koennen. Vorgelagert ist die Frage, welche Massnahmen zu ergreifen sind und wo Schaeden auftreten koennen. Zusaetzliche Impulse bekommt diese Frage durch das Meggen-Urteil des BVerwG vom 18.12.2014, welches die

  4. Width design for gobs and isolated coal pillars based on overall burst-instability prevention in coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfei Zhang; Fuxing Jiang; Sitao Zhu; Lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on the overall burst-instability of isolated coal pillars by means of the possibility index diagnosis method (PIDM). First, the abutment pressure calculation model of the gob in side direction was established to derive the abutment pressure distribution curve of the isolated coal pillar. Second, the overall burst-instability ratio of the isolated coal pillars was defined. Finally, the PIDM was utilized to judge the possibility of overall burst-instability and recoverability of isolated coal pillars. The results show that an overall burst-instability may occur due to a large gob width or a small pillar width. If the width of the isolated coal pillar is not large enough, the shallow coal seam will be damaged at first, and then the high abutment pressure will be transferred to the deep coal seam, which may cause an overall burst-instability accident. This approach can be adopted to design widths of gobs and isolated coal pillars and to evaluate whether an existing isolated coal pillar is recoverable in skip-mining mines.

  5. Effects of Poisonous and Harmful Elements Brought about by Coal Mining on Water Environment in Zibo Coal Mine, Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Coal resources are very abundant in Zibo, Shandong Province, China. A lot of mining sewages are discharged during the coal mining. The mining sewage is characterized by high ρ(SO2-4), hardness and totally dissolved solids (TDS). Mining sewage in the southern Zibo is acidic, where heavy metals and benzene are detected. The Xiaofu River is polluted when mining sewage flows into it, so that the Mengshan Reservoir is polluted by Xiaofu River. The groundwater is polluted in Zichuan by the leaking of the Xiaofu River. The polluted Xiaofu River is thus used to irrigate the farmland in Mashang-Mengshui zone. The irrigation water affects the quality of shallow groundwater. The laboratory soil column test shows that SO2-4, CI- , Ca2+ and Mg2+ can migrate through vadose soil, especially SO2-4 and CI-.

  6. Identifying Catchment-Scale Predictors of Coal Mining Impacts on New Zealand Stream Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapcott, Joanne E.; Goodwin, Eric O.; Harding, Jon S.

    2016-03-01

    Coal mining activities can have severe and long-term impacts on freshwater ecosystems. At the individual stream scale, these impacts have been well studied; however, few attempts have been made to determine the predictors of mine impacts at a regional scale. We investigated whether catchment-scale measures of mining impacts could be used to predict biological responses. We collated data from multiple studies and analyzed algae, benthic invertebrate, and fish community data from 186 stream sites, including un-mined streams, and those associated with 620 mines on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand. Algal, invertebrate, and fish richness responded to mine impacts and were significantly higher in un-mined compared to mine-impacted streams. Changes in community composition toward more acid- and metal-tolerant species were evident for algae and invertebrates, whereas changes in fish communities were significant and driven by a loss of nonmigratory native species. Consistent catchment-scale predictors of mining activities affecting biota included the time post mining (years), mining density (the number of mines upstream per catchment area), and mining intensity (tons of coal production per catchment area). Mining was associated with a decline in stream biodiversity irrespective of catchment size, and recovery was not evident until at least 30 years after mining activities have ceased. These catchment-scale predictors can provide managers and regulators with practical metrics to focus on management and remediation decisions.

  7. Identifying Catchment-Scale Predictors of Coal Mining Impacts on New Zealand Stream Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapcott, Joanne E; Goodwin, Eric O; Harding, Jon S

    2016-03-01

    Coal mining activities can have severe and long-term impacts on freshwater ecosystems. At the individual stream scale, these impacts have been well studied; however, few attempts have been made to determine the predictors of mine impacts at a regional scale. We investigated whether catchment-scale measures of mining impacts could be used to predict biological responses. We collated data from multiple studies and analyzed algae, benthic invertebrate, and fish community data from 186 stream sites, including un-mined streams, and those associated with 620 mines on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand. Algal, invertebrate, and fish richness responded to mine impacts and were significantly higher in un-mined compared to mine-impacted streams. Changes in community composition toward more acid- and metal-tolerant species were evident for algae and invertebrates, whereas changes in fish communities were significant and driven by a loss of nonmigratory native species. Consistent catchment-scale predictors of mining activities affecting biota included the time post mining (years), mining density (the number of mines upstream per catchment area), and mining intensity (tons of coal production per catchment area). Mining was associated with a decline in stream biodiversity irrespective of catchment size, and recovery was not evident until at least 30 years after mining activities have ceased. These catchment-scale predictors can provide managers and regulators with practical metrics to focus on management and remediation decisions.

  8. Post-mining policies and practices in the Eastern USA coal region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeff Skousen; Carl E. Zipper

    2014-01-01

    Surface coal mines prior to 1950 in the USA were generally left without any reclamation. As government regulations advanced since then, mine operators were required to backfill the area and plant grasses or trees. After the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) was passed in 1977 in the USA, mine operators were required to conduct pre-mining analyses of the site and to designate a land use that could be achieved after mining. Successful reclamation, as needed to satisfy today’s societal demands, requires engineering, design, and purposeful reconstruction of the full mining disturbance, not just its surface, and control of waters leaving the mine site. Effective reclamation on modern American coal mines is fully integrated with the mining operation. A suitable and effective post-mining land use that is sustainable for future generations is crucial to the long-term success and profitability of the mining business and to the future economic benefits of the landowner. Accepted post-mining land uses in the USA are:(1) prime farmland, (2) hay land and pasture, (3) biofuel crops, (4) forestry, (5) wildlife habitat, and (6) building site development. Policies and regulations for each post-mining land use were developed and practices to achieve successful and sustainable land uses were established. Post-mining conditions should provide ecosystem services and produce lands capable of supporting societal needs in the future.

  9. Suitable retention and recovery technology of floor coal at ends of fully mechanized face with great mining heights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Nenghu; WU Qi; Yuan Yong; Bai Qingsheng

    2011-01-01

    Gateways at faces of great mining heights are mostly driven along the roof of coal seams. For gateway height restrictions, a 1-3 m floor coal is retained, leaving a triangular floor coal at the face ends, causing a loss of coal. In order to improve coal recovery rates and to ensure efficiency of equipment at coal mining faces, we investigated suitable retention methods and recovery technology of floor coal at face ends. The upper floor coal can directly be recovered by a shearer with floor dinting. The lower floor coal is recovered by shearer with floor dinting after advanced floor dinting and retaining a step for protecting coal sides in a haulage gateway. Field practice shows that this method can improve the coal recovery rates at fully mechanized working faces with great mining heights.

  10. USGS compilation of geographic information system (GIS) data representing coal mines and coal-bearing areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Dai, Shifeng; Tewalt, Susan J.; Chou, Chiu-Jung; Trippi, Michael H.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Dai, Shifeng; Tewalt, Susan J.; Chou, Chiu-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled geographic information system (GIS) data representing the known coal mine locations and coal-mining areas of China as of 2001. These data are now available for download, and may be used in a GIS for a variety of energy resource and environmental studies of China. Province-scale maps were also created to display the point locations of coal mines and the coal-mining areas. In addition, coal-field outlines from a previously published map by Dai and others (2012) were also digitized and are available for download as a separate GIS data file, and shown in a nation-scale map of China. Chemical data for 332 coal samples from a previous USGS study of China and Taiwan (Tewalt and others, 2010) are included in a downloadable GIS point shapefile, and shown on a nation-scale map of China. A brief report summarizes the methodology used for creation of the shapefiles and the chemical analyses run on the samples.

  11. Integrated positioning for coal mining machinery in enclosed underground mine based on SINS/WSN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qigao; Li, Wei; Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Yu, Zhenzhong; Yan, Wenxu; Zhou, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN positioning strategy is proposed to eliminate accumulative error produced by SINS; then the corresponding coupling model is established. Finally, positioning performance is analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show that attitude angle and position of the shearer can be real-timely tracked by integrated positioning strategy based on SINS/WSN, and positioning precision meet the demand of actual working condition.

  12. Integrated Positioning for Coal Mining Machinery in Enclosed Underground Mine Based on SINS/WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qigao Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN positioning strategy is proposed to eliminate accumulative error produced by SINS; then the corresponding coupling model is established. Finally, positioning performance is analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show that attitude angle and position of the shearer can be real-timely tracked by integrated positioning strategy based on SINS/WSN, and positioning precision meet the demand of actual working condition.

  13. Gas seepage equation of deep mined coal seams and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guo-zhong; WANG Hong-tu; TAN Hai-xiang; FAN Xiao-gang; YUAN Zhi-gang

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain a gas seepage law of deep mined coal seams, according to the properties of eoalbed methane seepage in in-situ stress and geothermal temperature fields, the gas seepage equation of deep mined coal seams with the Klinkenberg effect was obtained by confirming the coalbed methane permeability in in-situ stress and geothermal temperature fields. Aimed at the condition in which the coal seams have or do not have an outcrop and outlet on the ground, the application of the gas seepage equation of deep mined coal seams in in-situ stress and geothermal temperature fields on the gas pressure calculation of deep mined coal seams was investigated. The comparison between calculated and measured results indicates that the calculation method of gas pressure, based on the gas seepage equation of deep mined coal seams in in-situ stress and geothermal temperature fields can accurately be identical with the measured values and theoretically perfect the calculation method of gas pressure of deep mined coal seams.

  14. Estimation of radon concentrations in coal mines using a hybrid technique calibration curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, K; Ali, S

    2001-01-01

    The results of epidemiological studies in various countries show that radon and its progeny cause carcinogenic effects on mine workers. Therefore, it becomes of paramount importance to monitor radon concentrations and consequently determine the radon dose rates in coal mines for the protection of coal miners. A new calibration curve was obtained for radon concentration estimation using hybrid techniques. A calibration curve was generated using 226Ra activity concentration measured by a HPGe detector-based gamma-ray spectrometer versus alpha-track-density rate due to radon and its progeny on CR-39 track detector. Using the slope of the experimentally determined curve in the units of Becqueral per kilogram (Bq kg-1) per unit alpha-track-density per hour (cm-2 h-1), radon concentrations (Bq m-3) were estimated using coal samples from various coal mines in two provinces of Pakistan, Punjab and Balochistan. Consequently, radon dose rates were computed in the simulated environment of the coal mines. Results of these computations may be considered with a caveat that the method developed in this paper provides only a screening method to indicate the radon dose in coal mines. It has been shown that the actual measurements of radon concentrations in the coal mines are in agreement with the estimated radon concentrations using the hybrid-technique calibration curve.

  15. Economical Optimization of the Mechanized Longwall Faces with Top Coal Caving Mining, In Horizontal Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onica, Ilie; Mihăilescu, Viorel; Andrioni, Felicia

    2016-09-01

    To increase the economic and technical performances of the Jiu Valley hard coal mines, the top coal caving, in horizontal slices, mining methods (Bourbaki methods) were introduced, adapted to the local geo-mining conditions. This mining was successfully experimented by using classical technology, using the individual supports and coal blasting. In the future, it is planned to adopt the mechanized technology, with frame supports and shearers. The mechanized longwall faces with top coal caving mining, in horizontal slices, of coal seam no. 3 could be efficient only if the sizes of the top coal height and the panel length determine a minimum cost of production. Therefore, the goal of this paper is the optimization of these parameters, from a technical and economic point of view, taking into account the general model of the cost function, at the panel level. For that, it was necessary to make a certain sequence of analysis involving: technological unit establishment, purpose function and optimizing model. Thus, there attaining to the mathematical model of the unit cost, after determination of all the individual calculation articles, regarding the preparatory workings, coal face equipments, materials, energy, workforce, etc. Because of the complexity of the obtained technical and economic model, to determine the optimum sizes of the panel length and top coal height, it was necessary to archive a sensitivity analysis of the unit cost function to the main parameters implied into this mathematical model.

  16. INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

    2005-08-01

    An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never

  17. The use of sulphate-reducing bacteria in bioremediation of ex-coal mining soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENNY WIDYATI

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The most serious impact after exploiting coal by opened peat mining is acid mine drainage phenomenon. This is an oxidation of sulphide minerals by releasing sulphate that generate the environment acidity. This study was aimed to observe the ability of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB isolated of sludge paper mills in decreasing the ex-coal mining sulphate content. Before inoculating onto the soil, SRB was incubated in the sterilized organic matter for 4 days. Organic matter inhabited SRB mix with ex-coal mining soil (1:3 v/v. As a control was a series ex-coal mining mixed with non inoculated organic matter (1:3 v/v. The experiment is carried out in randomized complete design in 3 replications, each consist of 5 buckets. All buckets were maintained in saturated water content. Every 5 days for 20 days the sulphate content, pH and Eh were assessed to observe the bioremediation progress. The result shown that SRB was able to reduce 84.25% ex-coal mining sulphate content in 20 days. In consequence, the soil pH was increased from 4.15 to 6.66 during the process. It is recommended that SRB is prospective to be further developed as a sulphate bioremediation agents on ex-coal mining soil.

  18. Applicable conditions for a classification system of aquifer-protective mining in hallow coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yude; Zhang Dongsheng; Fan Gangwei; Yan Shoufeng

    2011-01-01

    Based on the conclusions of domestic and foreign research,we have analyzed the collapse-fall characteristics of overlying strata and the mechanism of aquifer-protective mining in shallow coal seam working faces at the Shendong Mine.We have selected the height of the water-conducting fracture zone in overlying strata as a composite index and established the applicable conditions of aquifer-protective mining in shallow coal seams with a multi-factor synthetic-index classification method.From our calculations and analyses of variance,we used factors such as the overlying strata strength,mining disturbing factors and rock integrity as related factors of the composite index.We have classified the applicable conditions of aquifer-protective mining in shallow coal seams into seven types by comparing the result of the height of water-conducting fractured zones of long-wall and short-wall working faces with the thickness of the bedrock.the thickness of the weathered zone and the size of safety coal-rock pillars.As a result,we propose the preliminary classification system of aquifer-protective mining in shallow coal seams.It can provide a theoretical guidance for safe applications of aquifer-protective mining technology in shallow coal seams under similar conditions.

  19. Thermal load at workstations in the underground coal mining: Results of research carried out in 6 coal mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Słota

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Statistics shows that almost half of Polish extraction in underground mines takes place at workstations where temperature exceeds 28°C. The number of employees working in such conditions is gradually increasing, therefore, the problem of safety and health protection is still growing. Material and Methods: In the present study we assessed the heat load of employees at different workstations in the mining industry, taking into account current thermal conditions and work costs. The evaluation of energy cost of work was carried out in 6 coal mines. A total of 221 miners employed at different workstations were assessed. Individual groups of miners were characterized and thermal safety of the miners was assessed relying on thermal discomfort index. Results: The results of this study indicate considerable differences in the durations of analyzed work processes at individual workstations. The highest average energy cost was noted during the work performed in the forehead. The lowest value was found in the auxiliary staff. The calculated index of discomfort clearly indicated numerous situations in which the admissible range of thermal load exceeded the parameters of thermal load safe for human health. It should be noted that the values of average labor cost fall within the upper, albeit admissible, limits of thermal load. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that in some cases work in mining is performed in conditions of thermal discomfort. Due to high variability and complexity of work conditions it becomes necessary to verify the workers’ load at different workstations, which largely depends on the environmental conditions and work organization, as well as on the performance of workers themselves. Med Pr 2016;67(4:477–498

  20. Landscape transformation of surface-mined areas in North Bohemian coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorencova, H.; Kaspar, J. [MUS Coal Mining Company j.s.c., Most (Czech Republic)

    1999-07-01

    Northern Bohemia is the area worst affected by opencast brown coal mining but also the area with good reclamation of damaged land. MUS Coal Mining Company focuses reclaiming activity on restoration of forests, parks or water landscapes to agricultural use. This paper presents two case studies of post-mining activities. First, at the Most opencast mine after early closure, where a lake of 325 ha will be created. Secondly, reclamation of Velebudice overburden waste dump where the main reclamation objective was to establish a hippodrome (82 ha). 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Recent advances in remote coal mining machine sensing, guidance, and teleoperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralston, J.C.; Hainsworth, D.W.; Reid, D.C.; Anderson, D.L.; McPhee, R.J. [CSIRO Exploration & Minerals, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

    2001-10-01

    Some recent applications of sensing, guidance and telerobotic technology in the coal mining industry are presented. Of special interest is the development of semi or fully autonomous systems to provide remote guidance and communications for coal mining equipment. The use of radar and inertial based sensors are considered in an attempt to solve the horizontal and lateral guidance problems associated with mining equipment automation. Also described is a novel teleoperated robot vehicle with unique communications capabilities, called the Numbat, which is used in underground mine safety and reconnaissance missions.

  2. Study on Environment Characteristics for Mining Management at East Pit 3 West Banko Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neny Rochyani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The management on mining environment is closely related to the environmental characteristics and the condition of mining itself.  In East PIT 3 West Banko Coal Mine Tanjung Enim mine drainage system has been developed which refers to the open pit method employed by the company. The observation and analysis showed that the sludge settling ponds have been constructed as well as adequate catchment area. To discharge water into the channel at 0.3016 m 3 / sec can still be accommodated due to the dimensions of the channel that can accommodate an intake capacity of 1,639 m 3 / sec. While the use of lime made in the settling ponds  with the ratio of 0.7 g: 1 liter of water indicates the water quality test results that meet the environmental quality standards that the pH is 6.7 with a TSS of 12mg / l Fe content was 2.1580 mg / l and Mn content of 1.3 mg / l.

  3. Wetlands and coal surface mining: a management handbook with particular reference to the Illinois Basin of the Eastern Interior Coal Region. Research report September 1983-September 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardamone, M.A.; Taylor, J.R.; Mitsch, W.J.

    1984-09-01

    The report outlines management operation for protecting wetlands during the surface mining of coal, particularly for the portion of the Eastern Interior Coal Region that is found in Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois. The main issues addressed in this manual include: basic information for identifying wetlands; wetland values, and methods used for values assessment; how coal mining can affect wetlands; a method for addressing wetland protection needs and some prevention and mitigation actions; reclamation alternatives, including wetland restoration and the creation of wetlands as alternative ecosystems on mined areas; and general legal and regulatory information concerning wetland protection and surface mining of coal.

  4. Determination of Abutment Pressure in Coal Mines with Extremely Thick Alluvium Stratum: A Typical Kind of Rockburst Mines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Sitao; Feng, Yu; Jiang, Fuxing

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the abutment pressure distribution in coal mines with extremely thick alluvium stratum (ETAS), which is a typical kind of mines encountering frequent intense rockbursts in China. This occurs due to poor understanding to abutment pressure distribution pattern and the consequent inappropriate mine design. In this study, a theoretical computational model of abutment pressure for ETAS longwall panels is proposed based on the analysis of load transfer mechanisms of key stratum (KS) and ETAS. The model was applied to determine the abutment pressure distribution of LW2302S in Xinjulong Coal Mine; the results of stress and microseismic monitoring verified the rationality of this model. The calculated abutment pressure of LW2302S was also used in the terminal mining line design of LW2301N for rockburst prevention, successfully protecting the main roadway from the adverse influence of the abutment pressure.

  5. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to fracture related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry. [Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T. V.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. New fracture detail of Indiana has been observed and mapped from ERTS-1 imagery. Studies so far indicate a close relationship between the directions of fracture traces mapped from the imagery, fractures measured on bedrock outcrops, and fractures measured in the underground mines. First hand observations and discussions with underground mine operators indicate good correlation of mine hazard maps prepared from ERTS-1/aircraft imagery and actual roof falls. The inventory of refuse piles/slurry ponds of the coal field of Indiana has identified over 225 such sites from past mining operations. These data will serve the State Legislature in making tax decisions on coal mining which take on increased importance because of the energy crisis.

  6. Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) of faulting and subsidence at an abandoned coal mine in the Walloon Coal Measures, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Martin; MacDonald-Creevey, Amanda; Smith, Ben

    2016-04-01

    As urban and suburban areas expand into previously unoccupied sites, the problem of accurately determining the locations of abandoned mine workings and the possible effects of fault reactivation on surface subsidence becomes more important. Here, we present the results of DC electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) surveys above an abandoned coal mine in the Jurassic Walloon Coal Measures of the Clarence-Moreton Basin, Queensland. Objectives were to: (1) locate the surface entrance to a coal mine access shaft, (2) determine the extent of the mine workings, (3) determine if the workings are open, partly- or fully-collapsed, (4) locate the possible existence of a high angle fault delineating the western extent of the workings. Coal seams were mined underground by the bord-and-pillar technique at the site until the first half of the 20th century to within ~20 m of the ground surface. This has led to ground settlement post-abandonment, with an additional hazard of this stress-redistribution being the possible reactivation of steeply-dipping faults known to pervade the coal measures. After an initial site reconnaissance, desktop study and modelling, it was determined that existing mine plans, maps and records were poorly kept and inaccurate, making a satisfactory geotechnical risk assessment prior to land development and construction difficult. The 2D ERI transects, coupled with boreholes, identified lateral zones of moderate-high resistivity that are interpreted to be partly-collapsed workings. The second key feature identified was a reverse fault that delineated the western edge of the mine workings. The key outcome is that for abandoned mine risk assessment to be optimised, careful integration of geophysical data and direct testing needs to be made.

  7. Health and Safety Assessment in Lakhra Coal Mines and Its Mitigation Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallahuddin Panhwar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The coal mine excavation, transportation and coal cutting process are involved in hazards and risks that can result in fatalities, injuries and diseases, if these are not properly managed. This study has been undertaken for assessment of the safety and health issues amongst the mines workers. Convenience sampling technique was exercised upon 97 mine workers and interviewed with the help of set questionnaire. Personnel protection to workplace environment was monitored by using physical observation and scientific analysis. All parameters were measured against national and international protocols pertaining to labor law at coal mines. It has been determined that very high risk was persisting while mine excavation, coal cutting and transportation processes. Previous record of last five years was suggesting that 04 deaths happened due to roof fall, 03 fatalities occurred through suffocation by inhaling toxic gases, one causality happened via rope haulage pulley, and also one death due to stone fall down from mine shaft. 121 workers injured in different kinds of accidents within five years. It has been learnt from in-depth analysis that maximum of health risk and subsequent health damages are triggering due to lack of awareness, non-compliance of labor as well as mines laws. Thus, it is recommended that government should not allow coal mining contractors and companies, those which are failing in compliance with the suggested standards.

  8. Mice housed on coal dust-contaminated sand: A model to evaluate the impacts of coal mining on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2016-03-01

    Coal dust is the most important air pollutant in coal mining in regards to producing deleterious health effects. It permeates the surrounding environment threatening public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects associated with exposure to sand contaminated with coal dust particles below 38 μm in diameter, obtained from a mineral sample collected in the largest coal mine in South America, La Loma, Cesar, Colombia. Sterilized sand was spiked with coal dust to obtain concentrations ranging from zero to 4% coal dust. To model natural exposure, mice were housed for eight weeks in boxes containing this mixture as bedding after which, they were euthanized and blood and tissue samples were collected. Real time PCR analysis revealed an increase in Cyp1A1 mRNA for living on sand with coal dust concentrations greater than 2% compared to mice living on sand without coal dust. Unexpectedly, for mice on coal dust-polluted sand, Sod1, Scd1 and Nqo1 hepatic mRNA were downregulated. The Comet assay in peripheral blood cells and the micronucleus test in blood smears, showed a significant potential genotoxic effect only at the highest coal dust concentration. Histopathological analysis revealed vascular congestion and peribronchial inflammation in the lungs. A dose-response relationship for the presence of hepatic steatosis, vacuolization and nuclei enlargements was observed in the exposed animals. The data suggest living on a soil polluted with coal dust induces molecular, cellular and histopathological changes in mice. Accordingly, the proposed model can be used to identify deleterious effects of exposure to coal dust deposited in soils that may pose health risks for surrounding wildlife populations.

  9. Noise propagation characteristics of underground equipment in coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Gen-yin; WEI Zhi-yong; XU Ming; ZHU Yan-yan

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the survey of underground noise in Jinggezhuang and Donghuantuo mines,Kailuan Group,noise radiation intensity,noise propagation properties and noise frequency-spectrum characteristics of underground equipment were studied at different work conditions.The result indicates that the noise source intensity surpasses the noise limit requirement of 85 dBA completely.Nearly 70% noise sources exceed the noise limit of 90 dBA,and some are over 100 dBA.Noise attenuation in semi-free field environment on the ground is significantly different from underground far-field environment of noise source in coal mines.Noise of these regions,where staffs are long and highly concentrated,exceeds 85 dBA,the basic noise limit.The noise frequency-spectrum presents the wideband characteristics.Especially in the main frequency of the language communication 500,1 000 and 2 000 Hz,the octave band of noise performs obviously.

  10. Selected aspects of disability pensions in black coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, K.; Tausz, K. (Glowny Instytut Gornictwa, Katowice (Poland))

    1989-01-01

    Discusses structure of disability pensions of black coal miners in Poland. A group of 2,950 miners was analyzed in 1987; 1,782 were miners who worked underground. Age structure of disabled miners who worked underground was the following: 17-21 years 1.2%, 22-26 years 7.5%, 27-31 years 11.3%, 32-36 years 16.7%, 37-41 years 17.5%, 42-46 years 20.3%, 47-51 years 16.7%, 52-56 years 6.5%, over 57 years 2.3%. Occupational structure of disabled miners was the following: 45.5% worked at working faces, 29.5% in mine haulage, 9.3% in repair shops, 3.0% in mine shafts, 6.0% at other working places. In 57% of cases the disability was preceded by sickness 91-180 days long, in 38.5% of cases by sickness longer than 180 days. Disease structure was the following: 27.0% blood circulation, 12.6% diseases of osseous or muscular system, 12.8% effects of occupational traumatism or intoxication.

  11. Unattached fraction of radon progeny in Polish coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubacz, K.; Chalupnik, S. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland). Laboratory of Radiometry

    2001-07-01

    The system of the monitoring of the radiation hazard in Polish underground mines is based on the monitoring of the workplaces. As the routine instrument, a device called ALFA-31is used to measure the radon progeny concentration in air. This unit proceeds together with the cyclone, the separator of the respirable fraction in the dust sampler. The cyclone causes the cut-off of unattached fraction of the short lived radon progeny that can play a very important role in the investigations of the adequate dose from this source of radiation hazard. Measurements of the unattached fraction were done with help of the alpha spectroscopy system and special kind of metal grids called diffusion battery screens that are designated to separate the unattached fraction. Results of the survey show that the average ratio of unattached to attached fractions is at level 3-5% in Polish coal mines. But it may cause the significant increase in the dose equivalent, due to these calculations at least 15-20% in comparison with dose equivalent caused by attached fraction 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Computer science in the design of hard coal mines in the People's Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszke, J.; Mazurek, A.; Pozor, L.; Wrobel, R.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the organization of the Main Coal Planning and Design Office at the Ministry of Coal Industry in Beijing. Discusses the principles of coal resource classification in China and a computer-aided method used for this classification. Reviews computer application in mine design in China, the hardware available at the Main Coal Planning and Design Office and the software developed there. Describes the activities of the Computer Center of the Institute of Mining belonging to the Chinese Academy of Mining and the benefits resulting from cooperation along the lines of mine design with the corresponding Main Office of Mine Study and Design in Katowice, Poland.

  13. The concept, structure and characteristics of the distributed virtual coal-mine geographical environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; LIU Yan-long; TIAN Mao-yi; LU Xiu-shan; SHI Feng-hua

    2007-01-01

    Distributed virtual coal-mine geography environment(CM-DVGE) researches the virtual reality simulation of coal-mine environment in cyberspace and the performance of coal production process. The goal is to deal with the practical safety problems of observation, analysis, design and training during the underground coal production process.This paper first probed into the evolution of CM-DVGE from a historical point of view, then respectively analyzed the characteristics of its physical progressive levels according to the cognitivd law and its logical structure of data on the basis of data flow, and concluded by putting forward the prospect of the application of CM-DVGE, thus enriched and developed the method of synthetic study of coal mine.

  14. Coal Lease Areas, MiningClaims, Published in 1999, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Coal Lease Areas dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1999. It is described as 'MiningClaims'. Data by this publisher are often...

  15. The problems of attraction investment to the Ukrainian coal mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makogon, Y.V. [State University, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the problems which face foreign investment in the Ukranian coal mining industry. It elaborates on the role of the state and regional networks on the economic growth and the attractions to the investors.

  16. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagioni, K. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs.

  17. Prediction Technology of Buried Water-Bearing Structures in Coal Mines Using Transient Electromagnetic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhi-hai; YUE Jian-hua; LIU Shu-cai

    2007-01-01

    Buried water-conducting and water-bearing structures in front of the driving head may easily lead to water bursts in coal mines. Therefore, it is very important for the safety of production to make an accurate and timely forecast about water bursts. Based on the smoke ring effect of transient electromagnetic fields, the principle of transient electromagnetic method used in detecting buried water-bearing structures in coal mines in advance, is discussed. Small multi-turn loop configurations used in coal mines are proposed and a field procedure of semicircular sector scanning is presented. The application of this method in one coal mine indicates that the technology has many advantages compared with others. The method is inexpensive, highly accurate and efficient. Suggestions are presented for future solutions to some remaining problems.

  18. Research on numerical emulator of mine methane and coal dust explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zhou-quan; Niu Steve

    2008-01-01

    The mathematical physics model of mine methane and coal dust explosionpropagation was established in the research, by using continuous phase, combustion, par-ticulate equations of mathematical physics. Based upon the data from mine methanedrainage roadway explosion, and mine methane and coal dust explosion propagation ex-perimental studies, the numerical emulator system of mine methane and coal dust explo-sion software was developed by using prevalent flow simulation platform, which can beused to simulate the explosion accidents process effectively. In addition, the system canalso be used to determine whether coal dust involved in the explosion, and to simulateaccurately the transition from deflagration to detonation in methane explosion, propagationvelocity of explosion shock, attenuation pattern, and affected area of explosion.

  19. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  20. Engineering geology applied to the design and operation of underground coal mines. Bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunrud, C.R.

    1998-11-01

    The primary goal of this report is to present, in a systematic outline format, information gained from studies and experience of many geologists, engineers, and miners in the US and other countries in order to: (1) Help geologists, engineers, and other mine planners design underground coal mines that are safer, more efficient, and compatible with the environment by incorporating the information presented; (2) Ensure that mine planners are more aware of some of the more important geologic and geotechnical factors that control of affect mining; and (3) Show how geologic, geotechnical, and mining factors, commonly important to proper mine design, may be incorporated into the planning and design phase of the coal mining operations.

  1. Analysis of the current rib support practices and techniques in U.S. coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Khaled M; Murphy, Michael M; Lawson, Heather E; Klemetti, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Design of rib support systems in U.S. coal mines is based primarily on local practices and experience. A better understanding of current rib support practices in U.S. coal mines is crucial for developing a sound engineering rib support design tool. The objective of this paper is to analyze the current practices of rib control in U.S. coal mines. Twenty underground coal mines were studied representing various coal basins, coal seams, geology, loading conditions, and rib control strategies. The key findings are: (1) any rib design guideline or tool should take into account external rib support as well as internal bolting; (2) rib bolts on their own cannot contain rib spall, especially in soft ribs subjected to significant load-external rib control devices such as mesh are required in such cases to contain rib sloughing; (3) the majority of the studied mines follow the overburden depth and entry height thresholds recommended by the Program Information Bulletin 11-29 issued by the Mine Safety and Health Administration; (4) potential rib instability occurred when certain geological features prevailed-these include draw slate and/or bone coal near the rib/roof line, claystone partings, and soft coal bench overlain by rock strata; (5) 47% of the studied rib spall was classified as blocky-this could indicate a high potential of rib hazards; and (6) rib injury rates of the studied mines for the last three years emphasize the need for more rib control management for mines operating at overburden depths between 152.4 m and 304.8 m.

  2. Analysis of the current rib support practices and techniques in U.S. coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Khaled M.; Murphy Michael M.; Lawson Heather E.; Klemetti Ted

    2016-01-01

    Design of rib support systems in U.S. coal mines is based primarily on local practices and experience. A better understanding of current rib support practices in U.S. coal mines is crucial for developing a sound engineering rib support design tool. The objective of this paper is to analyze the current practices of rib control in U.S. coal mines. Twenty underground coal mines were studied representing various coal basins, coal seams, geology, loading conditions, and rib control strategies. The key findings are:(1) any rib design guideline or tool should take into account external rib support as well as internal bolting;(2) rib bolts on their own cannot contain rib spall, especially in soft ribs subjected to significant load—external rib control devices such as mesh are required in such cases to contain rib sloughing;(3) the majority of the studied mines follow the overburden depth and entry height thresholds recommended by the Program Information Bulletin 11-29 issued by the Mine Safety and Health Administration;(4) potential rib insta-bility occurred when certain geological features prevailed—these include draw slate and/or bone coal near the rib/roof line, claystone partings, and soft coal bench overlain by rock strata;(5) 47%of the stud-ied rib spall was classified as blocky—this could indicate a high potential of rib hazards;and (6) rib injury rates of the studied mines for the last three years emphasize the need for more rib control management for mines operating at overburden depths between 152.4 m and 304.8 m.

  3. Law of surface movement for multi-coal seam strip mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-ya; ZHANG Hong-mei

    2014-01-01

    It is an important part of green mining to control the disasters of coal mining which have caused irreversible damages to buildings and ecological environment. Strip mining is one of the efficient measures to control surface subsidence and mining damage. However, the research on the laws of the surface subsidence are still deficient in multi-coal seam strip mining at present. Based on the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (short for FLAC3D) numerical simulation software, the laws of the surface subsidence and horizontal movement were systematically studied for different depths, different mining widths, different distances between seams, different mining thickness, different parameters between seams and the special relations of the upper pillar and the lower pillar in the vertical direction in multi-seam strip mining. The function relation between the maximum subsidence and the maximum horizontal movement with the depth, the mining width, the seam distance, mining thickness, different parameters between seams and the partial offset are summarized respectively. Finally the formula integrating the surface maximum subsidence value and the maximum horizontal movement was deduced. The results can be used for reference theory and measure in forecasting the surface displacement in multi-coal seam strip mining.

  4. VRLane: a desktop virtual safety management program for underground coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Chen, Jingzhu; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Pengpeng; Wu, Daozheng

    2008-10-01

    VR technologies, which generate immersive, interactive, and three-dimensional (3D) environments, are seldom applied to coal mine safety work management. In this paper, a new method that combined the VR technologies with underground mine safety management system was explored. A desktop virtual safety management program for underground coal mine, called VRLane, was developed. The paper mainly concerned about the current research advance in VR, system design, key techniques and system application. Two important techniques were introduced in the paper. Firstly, an algorithm was designed and implemented, with which the 3D laneway models and equipment models can be built on the basis of the latest mine 2D drawings automatically, whereas common VR programs established 3D environment by using 3DS Max or the other 3D modeling software packages with which laneway models were built manually and laboriously. Secondly, VRLane realized system integration with underground industrial automation. VRLane not only described a realistic 3D laneway environment, but also described the status of the coal mining, with functions of displaying the run states and related parameters of equipment, per-alarming the abnormal mining events, and animating mine cars, mine workers, or long-wall shearers. The system, with advantages of cheap, dynamic, easy to maintenance, provided a useful tool for safety production management in coal mine.

  5. Results of the coal mines by long wall mining in Australia (1997); Australia no long wall hori tanko jisseki (1997 nen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The paper classified each of the mines by the following items, presenting the statistics: state/area, name of coal beam and thickness, mining depth, minable reserve, mining amount of raw coal (classified into long wall and others), predicted mining amount of raw coal for 1998, size of long wall working face (length of working face, length of operation, and coal minable ability per hour) and lost-time injury frequency rate (number of disaster causing shutdown over 24 hours/million working hours). The number of mines surveyed was 33. Mines having large minability are Dartbrook (4000 tons/hour), South Bulga and Crinum (3500 each) and Gordonstone and Kenmare (3000 each). Mines having small minability are Gretley (600 tons/hour), Okadale (800), etc. The largest drilling depth is 550m. Mines having large minable amount are Gordonstone (190 million tons), Appin (135) and Newstan (130) and Wyee (110)

  6. Proceedings of the fourth WVU conference on coal mine electrotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, M.D. (ed.)

    1978-10-01

    Thirty-nine papers from the Proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered included mine power systems, mine instrumentation, mine illumination, mine communications, automatic control and monitoring, regulations, power distribution instrumentation, power distribution equipment, electrical systems for mine trolleys, on-line computer control of mines and monitoring using microprocessors. (LTN)

  7. Impact of longwall mining on groundwater above the longwall panel in shallow coal seams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since longwall mining causes subsidence through the overlying strata to the ground surface, the surface water and groundwater above the longwall panels may be affected and drained into the lower levels. Therefore, loss or interruption of streams and overburden aquifers is a common concern in coal industry. This paper analyzed the potential effects of longwall mining on subsurface water system in shallow coal seam. In order to monitor different water level fluctuations throughout the mining period, three water wells were drilled down to the proposed deformation zone above the longwall panel. A GGU-SS-FLOW3D model was used to predict water table contours for the periods of pre- and post-mining conditions. The field data from the three water wells were utilized to calibrate the model. The field test and numerical model can help to better understand the dewatering of shallow aquifers and surface waters related to ground subsidence from longwall mining in shallow coal seam.

  8. Impact of longwall mining on groundwater above the longwall panel in shallow coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Li; Syd S. Peng; Jinwang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Since longwall mining causes subsidence through the overlying strata to the ground surface, the surface water and groundwater above the longwall panels may be affected and drained into the lower levels. Therefore, loss or interruption of streams and overburden aquifers is a common concern in coal industry. This paper analyzed the potential effects of longwall mining on subsurface water system in shallow coal seam. In order to monitor different water level fluctuations throughout the mining period, three water wells were drilled down to the proposed deformation zone above the longwall panel. A GGU-SS-FLOW3D model was used to predict water table contours for the periods of pre-and post-mining conditions. The field data from the three water wells were utilized to calibrate the model. The field test and numerical model can help to better understand the dewatering of shallow aquifers and surface waters related to ground subsidence from longwall mining in shallow coal seam.

  9. Stimulation of commercial coal seam methane production aimed at improving mining technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubina, E. A.; Lukyanov, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The relevance of the current research is due to the urgent need to revise the existing normative bases and procedures involved in intensive development of coal-methane deposits and commercial production of coal seam methane. The article presents the analysis of data on coal production volume and amount of methane emitted into the atmosphere in Kuzbass. There is a need to develop the exploration techniques that would allow implementing pre-mining gas drainage of coal seams and provide the companies with the guidance on coal seam methane drainage in very gassy coal mines. Commercial production of methane should become an integral part of economy and energy balance of the Russian Federation, which, in its turn, would enhance environmental protection due to reducing methane emissions, the largest source of greenhouse effect.

  10. Investigation of environmental activity levels of bone-coal mining area in five provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ji-Da; KONG Ling-Li; LI Ying; JIANG Shan; ZHANG Liang; SHI Jin-Hua; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    During 1991-1993,the activity levels of the bone-coal mines were investigated in Zhejiang,Hubei,Hunan,Jiangxi and Anhui Province,respectively,where the reserve of bone-coal is about 90% of our country's total reserve.The average of γ radiation doserate level measured for bone-coal, bone-coal cinder (BCC)and bone-coal cinder brick (BCCB) in these provinces is about 500 nGy/h,400 nGy/h and 700 nGy/h respectively, while that for fields,roads and houses made of BCCB in corresponding regions of these provinces is about 200 nGy/h, 260 nGy/h and 300nGy/h respectively.It is shown that the environmental activity level of bone-coal mining area is about 3 times higher than the reference spots.

  11. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

    2009-11-15

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  12. Applicability of surface directional wells for upper Silesia Basin coal seams’ drainage ahead of mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jura Bartłomiej; Skiba Jacek; Wierzbinski Krystian

    2014-01-01

    Methods of exploitation drainage, which is presently applied in polish hard coal mines in Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland), are not effective enough, high risk of methane hazard can be observed, and produc-tion capacity of the mining plant is not fully used. Methane hazard, which may occur during planned coal exploitation, is presented in this paper. Following parameters are taken into consideration in the fore-casts:coal extraction parameters, geological and mining conditions, deposit’s methane saturation degree and impact of coal exploitation on the degasification coefficient of the seams, which are under the influ-ence of relaxation zone. This paper presents the results of the analysis aiming to verify applicability of drainage ahead of mining of the coal seams by using surface directional wells. Based on the collected data (coal seams’ structural maps, profiles of the exploratory wells, geological cross-sections), the lab tests of drilling cores and direct wells’ tests, static model of the deposit was constructed and suitable grid of directional wells from the surface was designed. Comparison of forecasted methane emission volume between the two methods is investigated. The results indicated the necessity of performing appropriate deposit’s stimulations in order to increase effectiveness of drainage ahead of mining.

  13. New 'Stavalj' coal mine and thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojin Cokorilo; Nikola Lilic; Miodrag Denic; Vladimir Milisavljevic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Faculty of Mining and Geology

    2009-07-01

    The Stavalj deposit has over 180 million tonnes of coal reserves, which is considered by the Ministry of Mining and Energy as having a large energy potential of national importance. A pre-feasibility study was developed for the purpose of evaluation of new underground coal mine and thermal power plant complex. The mine is designed with two sets of mechanized longwalls, for the production rate of 2.3 million tonnes per year of run-of-mine coal or 1.68 million tonnes of Clean coal. This production is sufficient for a thermal power plant of 320 MW, based on circulated fluidised bed combustion boilers and one turbine, with emissions of CO{sub 2} at the same level as power plants operated by Electric Power Industry of Serbia. Following a review of the pre-feasibility study, possibilities for further improvement of underground coal mining are suggested. These improvements comprise of operation with one larger mechanized longwall set and without a coal processing plant. Effects of these suggestions are lower initial investments, lower roadway development requirements, improved energy efficiency at coal production and smaller number of workers, all of which contribute to reduction of capital and operational expenditures and lower cost of fuel. 7 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Study on the transformed strategy of “life field” for aged in coal mine community——A case sstudy of ccommunity rrenewal ddesign of Sihe coal mine in Jincheng, Shanxi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Minghui; Wang, Chenghao; Zhang, Shanshan

    2017-06-01

    Coal mine community is driven by the coal mine industry, and it mainly relies on coal mining enterprises to provide benefits for residents. Under the background of increasing serious global aging problem, the problems in the field of elderly people’s health, life, entertainment, communication, retirement and re-employment and other aspects become more acute and urgently to be solved. So it is necessary to make a more detailed study on how to transform the coal mine community according to the special needs of the elderly miners. This article takes renewal design of SiHe coal mine in JinCheng of ShanXi province as an example and takes the community’s “life field” as a clue, trying to put forward the transformed strategy of “life field” for aged in coal mine community and to come up with a method to update the community throughout the whole atmosphere to the personal space.

  15. Gas Concentration Prediction Based on the Measured Data of a Coal Mine Rescue Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coal mine environment is complex and dangerous after gas accident; then a timely and effective rescue and relief work is necessary. Hence prediction of gas concentration in front of coal mine rescue robot is an important significance to ensure that the coal mine rescue robot carries out the exploration and search and rescue mission. In this paper, a gray neural network is proposed to predict the gas concentration 10 meters in front of the coal mine rescue robot based on the gas concentration, temperature, and wind speed of the current position and 1 meter in front. Subsequently the quantum genetic algorithm optimization gray neural network parameters of the gas concentration prediction method are proposed to get more accurate prediction of the gas concentration in the roadway. Experimental results show that a gray neural network optimized by the quantum genetic algorithm is more accurate for predicting the gas concentration. The overall prediction error is 9.12%, and the largest forecasting error is 11.36%; compared with gray neural network, the gas concentration prediction error increases by 55.23%. This means that the proposed method can better allow the coal mine rescue robot to accurately predict the gas concentration in the coal mine roadway.

  16. Effects of salt intake on blood pressure in banovici coal mine workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becarevic, Munevera; Salihefendic, Nizama; Zildzic, Muharem

    2014-12-01

    High blood pressure is the cause of almost 13 % of all deaths in the world. DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) is "gold standard" in diet recommended by American Society of Hypertension, American Heart Association and Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 for reduction many CV risk factors including hypertension. Non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension through DASH dietary program with reduction of salt intake can significantly reduce high values of blood pressure and decrease general cardiovascular risks. The aim of this research is to determine the prevalence of hypertension among miners in Banovici coal mine and amount of salt taken in meals during work time. We inspected the medical documentation and registers for all employees in coal mine Banovici in order to provide calculation of hypertension prevalence. Based on reports and company standards on grocery usage and average amount of salt used in preparation of one meal in coal mine kitchen, we have calculated the average consumption of salt of one employee per meal. There are 2700 of employees in coal mine Banovici with average life age of 46 years. From them 694 (25.7%) miners have arterial hypertension. Also 707023 kg of salt is being spent for preparation of meals in coal mine kitchen on yearly basis. Employees take between 4-9 grams of salt per one meal excluding the salt contained in bread. the amount of salt intake per one meal in the coal mine kitchen is larger from daily doses recommended by ACC/AHA.

  17. Research on Path Planning Method of Coal Mine Robot to Avoid Obstacle in Gas Distribution Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqing Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the explosion-proof safety level of a coal mine robot has not yet reached the level of intrinsic safety “ia” and it cannot work in a dangerous gas distribution area, therefore, path planning methods for coal mine robot to avoid the dangerous area of gas are necessary. In this paper, to avoid a secondary explosion when the coal mine robot passes through gas hazard zones, a path planning method is proposed with consideration of gas concentration distributions. First, with consideration of gas distribution area and obstacles, MAKLINK method is adopted to describe the working environment network diagram of the coal mine robot. Second, the initial working paths for the coal mine robot are obtained based on Dijkstra algorithm, and then the global optimal working path for the coal mine robot is obtained based on ant colony algorithm. Lastly, experiments are conducted in a roadway after an accident, and results by different path planning methods are compared, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed path planning method.

  18. The impact of disposal and treatment of coal mining wastes on environment and farmland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhengfu; Dong, Jihong; Lei, Shaogang; Leng, Hailong; Mu, Shouguo; Wang, Hui

    2009-08-01

    In China, coal mining wastes have traditionally been dumped in cone-shaped heaps that have the potential to pollute air, soil and water environments and landscapes through dust generation, leachate production, self-ignition and as a consequence of an absence of vegetation cover. Since 1980s, the disposal technique for coal mining wastes has been changing and in many instances the wastes are now transported directly to subsided land as a fill to enable the reuse of that land. Thus, today, both coal mining waste dumps from the past and filled subsided lands are in existence. However, the comparative impacts of these different disposal techniques on the environment and farmland productivity have not been studied in detail. Using Dongtan (DT), Nantun (NT) and Xinglongzhuang (XLZ) coal mines as examples, the components of coal mining wastes and their potential pollution contribution to soil, surface water and ground water are tested in-situ. The results show that contaminants are released after self-ignition and weathering of coal mining wastes, but they are not above the allowable environmental standards. However, despite these findings, more and closer attention needs to be paid to the mobility, transportation and accumulation of these contaminants in the environment over time.

  19. Modeling forest ecosystem changes resulting from surface coal mining in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Brown; Andrew J. Lister; Mary Ann Fajvan; Bonnie Ruefenacht; Christine Mazzarella

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to assess the effects of surface coal mining on forest ecosystem disturbance and restoration in the Coal River Subbasin in southern West Virginia. Our approach is to develop disturbance impact models for this subbasin that will serve as a case study for testing the feasibility of integrating currently available GIS data layers, remote...

  20. Application Results of 3-D Seismic Exploration Technology in Coal Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shenglin; WU Xizun

    2004-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the development and present situation of China's coal seismic exploration. It focuses on analyzing the important functions of 3-D seismic exploration technology in the designing and production of coal mines, and also the results of its application.