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Sample records for coal miner absenteeism

  1. Reducing coal miner absenteeism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.H.; Clingan, M.R. (Bureau of Mines, PA (USA). Pittsburgh Research Center)

    1989-09-01

    High absenteeism at coal mines can seriously affect safety and hamper productivity. Several effective strategies for achieving high attendance which mine operators may not have considered are presented and a method is proposed for implementing programs for minimizing absenteeism among coal miners. The best strategies for improving attendance will vary according to the needs and circumstances of the particular mine, however, the process for establishing such a program is relatively invariant. A four-stage process is recommended; evaluate data from prior attendance records, communicate attendance goals and policy, develop and implement an attendance promotion program, and recycle. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Absenteeism due to sickness in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymczykiewicz, K.

    1980-01-01

    During two consecutive years sickness absence of 8005 miners from two pit coal mines (A and B) of different geological structure and mechanization degree was analysed. It was found that in mine ''A'' 37% had no sick leaves, whereas in mine ''B''--28%. Absence rate was similar in both mines (though the miners' work and living conditions differed), i.e. 5.21% in mine ''A'', and 5.98% in mine ''B''. Thus work and living conditions do not determine general sickness absence rate. The highest absence in both mines was that of miners frequently falling ill for a long time (approx. 5.5% miners). For the group the number of work disablement days was 28.8 and 26.7, respectively. Underground miners' sickness absence was higher than that of surface workers, the rate being 3.8 and 4.0 and 1.1 and 2.1, respectively. The highest absence was that of miners travelling to work on motor cycles (7.1 and 7.3) and bicycles (6.4 and 6.7). Those working regularly in the first shift were more frequently absent from work than those working in different shifts. Miners living in worse conditions had higher absence rate than those living in flats of a higher standard. Also elderly employees and those having children represented a higher absence rate. The highest absence rate was that of workers having four children, the lowest--that of single persons. In addition, specific absence rate of men, especially due to respiratory and circulatory system diseases, was found to be enhanced by smoking. Absence rate of smokers was 2--3 times higher than that of non-smokers.

  3. Ways to reduce miner absenteeism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    Discussion is presented of the use of attendance programs at mines, to reduce interruptions to production, decrease labour costs, and to improve safety. Techniques described include use of absentee charts, frequency of attendance charts, and rewards for good attendance. 3 figs.

  4. Absenteeism and accidents in a dangerous environment: empirical analysis of underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, P.S.; Garber, S.

    1988-02-01

    The study examined the effects or consequences of absenteeism on accidents. Data were gathered from production crews in five underground coal mines. A unique data set was created that traced on a daily basis the absence event, the company's policy on replacement, and the occurrence of an accident. The concept of familiarity was introduced to explain the impact of absenteeism on accidents. The basic data showed that absenteeism increased the chances for accidents in certain categories of unfamiliarity. Implications for manpower policy and absentee research are discussed. 4 tabs., 6 refs.

  5. Study of blood pressure among coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandon; Dhar, B.B.; Singh, A.K.P.; Sahay, L.K. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the work was to assess the prevalence of hypertension among 2772 coal miners and to establish the relationship of hypertension with family history, living conditions, dietary habits, and other associated medical parameters. 4 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. The impact of roster changes on absenteeism and incident frequency in an Australian coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, A.; Heiler, K.; Ferguson, S.A. [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville, SA (Australia). Center for Sleep Research

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact on employee health and safety of changes to the roster system in an Australian coal mine. Absenteeism and incident frequency rate data were collected over a 33 month period that covered three different roster schedules. Period 1 covered the original 8-hour/7-day roster. Period 2 covered a 12-month period under a 12-hour/7-day schedule, and period 3 covered a 12-month period during which a roster that scheduled shifts only on weekdays, with uncapped overtime on weekends and days off (12-hour/5-day) was in place. Data were collected and analysed from the maintenance, mining, and coal preparation plant (CPP) sectors. The study did not find significant negative effects of a 12-hour pattern, when compared to an 8-hour system. However, when unregulated and excessive overtime was introduced as part of the 12-hour/5-day roster, absenteeism rates were increased in the maintenance sector. The combination of excessive work hours and lack of consultation with employees regarding the second change may have contributed to the overall negative effects.

  7. The mineral matter characteristics of some Chinese coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X. [China University of Mining and Technology (China). Dept. of Coal Preparation and Utilization

    1994-12-01

    The mineral matter has been separated from 18 coal samples with a low temperature ashes and analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction method. Based on the results of chemical analysis of the coal ash, with reference to the standard composition of minerals, the content of various mineral phases in the coal ash has been determined. Furthermore, this paper summarizes the mineral matter characteristics of the coal samples and discusses the relationship between the composition of mineral matter in coal and its depositional environment.

  8. Radiographic outcomes among South African coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Rajen N; Robins, Thomas G; Solomon, A; White, Neil; Franzblau, Alfred

    2004-10-01

    This study, the first to document the prevalence of pneumoconiosis among a living South African coal mining cohort, describes dose-response relationships between coal workers' pneumoconiosis and respirable dust exposure, and relationships between pneumoconiosis and both lung function deterioration and respiratory symptoms. A total of 684 current miners and 188 ex-miners from three bituminous-coal mines in Mpumalanga, South Africa, was studied. Chest radiographs were read according to the International Labour Organization (ILO) classification by two experienced readers, one an accredited National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) "B" reader. Interviews were conducted to assess symptoms, work histories (also obtained from company records), smoking, and other risk factors. Spirometry was performed by trained technicians. Cumulative respirable dust exposure (CDE) estimates were constructed from historical company-collected sampling and researcher-collected personal dust measurements. kappa-Statistics compared the radiographic outcomes predicted by the two readers. An average profusion score was used in the analysis for the outcomes of interest. Because of possible confounding by employment status, most analyses were stratified on current and ex-miner status. The overall prevalence of pneumoconiosis was low (2%-4%). The degree of agreement between the two readers for profusion was moderate to high (kappa=0.58). A significant association (Pminers only. A significant (Pminers with pneumoconiosis than among those without. Logistic regression models showed no significant relationships between pneumoconiosis and symptoms. The overall prevalence of pneumoconiosis, although significantly associated with CDE, was low. The presence of pneumoconiosis is associated with meaningful health effects, including deterioration in lung function. Intervention measures that control exposure are indicated, to reduce these functional effects.

  9. Analysis of mineral phases in coal utilizing factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscoe, B.A.; Hopke, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    The mineral phase inclusions of coal are discussed. The contribution of these to a coal sample are determined utilizing several techniques. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction with coal washability studies have produced some information on the general trends of elemental variation in the mineral phases. These results have been enhanced by the use of various statistical techniques. The target transformation factor analysis is specifically discussed and shown to be able to produce elemental profiles of the mineral phases in coal. A data set consisting of physically fractionated coal samples was generated. These samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and then their elemental concentrations examined using TTFA. Information concerning the mineral phases in coal can thus be acquired from factor analysis even with limited data. Additional data may permit the resolution of additional mineral phases as well as refinement of theose already identified

  10. Spirometry in a population of coal miners in Paipa, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia González

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: Spirometry is a useful test for detecting the presence of respiratory disorders in the population of coal miners. The time of exposure was significantly associated with the respiratory disease exhibited by these miners.

  11. Facility certification program for coal miners pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trout, E.D.; Kelley, J.P.; Larson, V.L.; Herbert, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    Public Law 91-173, often referred to as the Black Lung Law, called for a chest radiograph of all active coal miners at stated intervals. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health was responsible for carrying out the provisions of the law. Among other requirements was a provision for certification of radiological facilities where radiological examinations would be provide. A test object to be radiographed by each such facility was designed and sent to those facilities applying for certification. To date, 284 facilities have applied for certification of which 215 have been approved. A record has been kept of the number of times any approved facility submitted radiographs before approval. A complete listing of the types of equipment used, personnel qualifications and other pertinent data will be reported

  12. Low back pain and lumbar angles in Turkish coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S.; Gumustas, S.; Koc, U. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine

    2007-02-15

    This study was designed to assess the incidence of low back pain among Turkish coal miners and to investigate the relationship between angles of the lumbar spine and low back pain in coal miners. Fifty underground workers (Group I) and 38 age-matched surface workers (Group II) were included in the study. All the subjects were asked about low back pain in the past 5 years. The prevalence of low back pain was higher in Group I than in Group II (78.0%, 32.4%, respectively, P {lt} 0.001). The results of the study showed that low back pain occurred in 78.0% of Turkish coal miners. Although the nature of the occupation may have influenced coal miners' lumbar spinal curvature, lumbar angles are not a determinant for low back pain in this population. Further extensive studies involving ergonomic measurements are needed to validate our results for Turkish coal mining industry.

  13. Literature review of labour turnover and absenteeism costs in the coal mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolf, A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper includes labor turnover formulae, turnover costs, and turnover rates for the mining industry. Few meaningful studies or reports on absenteeism costs and labour turnover in mining were retrieved.

  14. Are underground coal miners satisfied with their work boots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2018-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with work boot design is common in the mining industry. Many underground coal miners believe their work boots contribute to the high incidence of lower limb injuries they experience. Despite this, the most recent research to examine underground coal mining work boot satisfaction was conducted over a decade ago. This present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by assessing current mining work boot satisfaction in relation to the work-related requirements for underground coal mining. 358 underground coal miners (355 men; mean age = 39.1 ± 10.7 years) completed a 54-question survey regarding their job details, work footwear habits, foot problems, lower limb and lower back pain history, and work footwear fit and comfort. Results revealed that underground coal miners were not satisfied with their current mining work boots. This was evident in the high incidence of reported foot problems (55.3%), lower back pain (44.5%), knee pain (21.5%), ankle pain (24.9%) and foot pain (42.3%). Over half of the underground coal miners surveyed believed their work boots contributed to their lower limb pain and reported their work boots were uncomfortable. Different working roles and environments resulted in differences in the incidence of foot problems, lower limb pain and comfort scores, confirming that one boot design cannot meet all the work-related requirements of underground coal mining. Further research examining the interaction of a variety of boot designs across the different underground surfaces and the different tasks miners perform is paramount to identify key boot design features that affect the way underground coal miners perform. Enhanced work boot design could improve worker comfort and productivity by reducing the high rates of reported foot problems and pain amongst underground coal miners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mineral and inorganic chemical composition of the Pernik coal, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yossifova, Mariana G. [Geological Institute, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl.24, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-11-22

    The mineral and inorganic chemical composition of five types of samples from the Pernik subbituminous coals and their products generated from the Pernik preparation plant were studied. They include feed coal, low-grade coal, high-grade coal, coal slime, and host rock. The mineral matter of the coals contains 44 species that belong mainly to silicates, carbonates, sulphates, sulphides, and oxides/hydroxides, and to a lesser extent, chlorides, biogenic minerals, and organic minerals. The detrital minerals are quartz, kaolinite, micas, feldspars, magnetite, cristobalite, spessartine, and amphibole. The authigenic minerals include various sulphides, silicates, oxihydroxides, sulphates, and carbonates. Several stages and substages of formation were identified during the syngenetic and epigenetic mineral precipitations of these coals. The authigenic minerals show the greatest diversity of mineral species as the epigenetic mineralization (mostly sulphides, carbonates, and sulphates) dominates qualitatively and quantitatively. The epigenetic mineralization was a result of complex processes occurring mostly during the late development of the Pernik basin. These processes indicate intensive tectonic, hydrothermal and volcanic activities accompanied by a change from fresh to marine sedimentation environment. Thermally altered organic matter due to some of the above processes was also identified in the basin. Most of the trace elements in the Pernik coals (Mo, Be, S, Zr, Y, Cl, Ba, Sc, Ga, Ag, V, P, Br, Ni, Co, Pb, Ca, and Ti) show an affinity to OM and phases intimately associated with OM. Some of the trace elements (Sr, Ti, Mn, Ba, Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Cr, Ni, As, Ag, Yb, Sn, Ga, Ge, etc.) are impurities in authigenic and accessory minerals, while other trace elements (La, Ba, Cu, Ce, Sb, Bi, Zn, Pb, Cd, Nd, etc.) occur as discrete phases. Elements such as Sc, Be, Y, Ba, V, Zr, S, Mo, Ti, and Ga exceed Clarke concentrations in all of the coal types studied. It was also found that

  16. Views of coal miners in South Africa on sanctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhe, H.; Schoeppner, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    Presents the results of a survey conducted during 1987, of the attitudes of a sample of black, male coal miners working in 6 export-orientated mines in Transvaal and 3 in Natal. Both mines and miners were selected at random and nearly 1,000 interviews were conducted. The most significant findings are as follows: South African coal miners are largely satisfied with their conditions of work, above all with social benefits, safety standards and the relations amongst the workers themselves. Regarding improvements in their working conditions miners attach by far the greatest importance to the question of wages. Next on the list are improvements in accomodation and the abolition of apartheid. The issue of 'sanctions' is not debated very widely. More than two-thirds of polled miners had not heard of sanctions previously. Nevertheless, after an explanation of what the term means, a large majority of South African coal miners (70%) rejects sanctions. Only one-fifth (21%) is for sanctions. Three-quarters of miners polled believe that sanctions would hit them hard. Above all they mentioned the risk of losing their jobs (79%), life at home (75%) and a decline in wages (74%). 34% of coal miners would support sanctions if they were ultimately to lead to the fall of the South African Government. 26% if sanctions were to lead to the fall of the South African Government, but also to a loss of their own jobs. Most of the miners polled felt that the trade unions were representing them well. However, South African coal miners are insufficiently informed on supposed positions adopted by the trade unions on separate issues and this applies to trade union policy on sanctions as well. 72% of miners polled seek a government that shares power equally between black and white. Moderate means are proposed to attain such a government. Only a minority, the hard core comprising about 25% of the South African miners, seeks violent confrontation.

  17. One coal miner's perspective on the present United States coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.E. [Murray Energy Corp., Pepper Pike, OH (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The President and CEO of the Murray Energy Corporation presented his observations on and concerns about the coal and energy industries in the USA, as a coal miner and an energy trader. He outlines the coal mining operations of the Murray Energy Corporation. He offers critical comments about, for example, some unscrupulous energy trading activities, the future of Powder River Basin coal (which he believes may be curtailed by the introduction of clean coal technologies), the lack of expertise in coal mining, the need to revise the law concerning coal company bankruptcies, the need for the government to provide a means to secure bonds, the need to liberalize black lung disease benefits, and the factors deterring improvement of the performance of the eastern coal industry. He criticises current policy and puts forward some recommendations.

  18. Effect of mineral matter on coal self-heating rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Basil Beamish; Ahmet Arisoy [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). School of Engineering

    2008-01-15

    Adiabatic self-heating tests have been conducted on subbituminous coal cores from the same seam profile, which cover a mineral matter content range of 11.2-71.1%. In all cases the heat release rate does not conform to an Arrhenius kinetic model, but can best be described by a third order polynomial. Assessment of the theoretical heat sink effect of the mineral matter in each of the tests reveals that the coal is less reactive than predicted using a simple energy conservation equation. There is an additional effect of the mineral matter in these cases that cannot be explained by heat sink alone. The disseminated mineral matter in the coal is therefore inhibiting the oxidation reaction due to physicochemical effects. 14 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. New opportunities for U.S. coal and mineral exporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    U.S. exports of coal, metals and industrial minerals to the European Community were valued at $2.4 billion in 1989, representing 47 percent of total export revenues generated by these materials. Coal was the single largest contributor to the value of mineral exports to the EC with total sales of approximately $2 billion in 1989. With the extinction of trade barriers that will be triggered by the economic and political unification of Europe, new opportunities for U.S. minerals exporters are likely to develop. This paper examines the overall impact of European integration on U.S. metal and industrial mineral exports and provides a more rigorous analysis of the outlook for thermal and coking coal exports to the EC during the next decade

  20. Health status of anthracite surface coal miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amandus, H.E.; Petersen, M.R.; Richards, T.B.

    1989-01-01

    In 1984-1985, medical examinations consisting of a chest radiograph, spirometry test, and questionnaire on work history, respiratory symptoms, and smoking history were administered to 1,061 white males who were employed at 31 coal cleaning plants and strip coal mines in the anthracite coal region of northeastern Pennsylvania. The prevalence of radiographic evidence of International Labour Office (ILO) category 1 or higher small opacities was 4.5% in 516 men who had never been employed in a dusty job other than in surface coal mining. Among these 516 workers, all 4 cases of ILO radiographic category 2 or 3 rounded opacities and 1 case of large opacities had been employed as a highwall drill operator or helper. The prevalence of category 1 or higher opacities increased with tenure as a highwall drill operator or helper (2.7% for 0 y, 6.5% for 1-9 yr, 25.0% for 10-19 y, and 55.6% for greater than or equal to 20 y drilling). Radiographic evidence of small rounded opacities, dyspnea, and decreases in FEV1.0, FVC, and peak flow were significantly related to tenure at drilling operations after adjusting for age, height, cigarette smoking status, and exposures in dusty jobs other than in surface coal mining. However, tenure in coal cleansing plants and other surface coal mine jobs were not related to significant health effects. The apparent excess prevalence of radiographic small rounded opacities in anthracite surface coal mine drillers suggests that quartz exposures have been increased. Average respirable quartz concentrations at surface coal mine drilling operations should be evaluated to determine whether exposures are within existing standards, and dust exposures should be controlled

  1. Analytical methods relating to mineral matter in coal and ash from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A. [Ultra-Systems Technology Pty. Ltd., Indooroopilly, Qld. (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    The paper begins by describing the minerals that occur in coal, as well as trace elements. The testing methods that are then described include those that are in the main the standard tools for the examination and assessment of minerals in coal and ash. The techniques discussed include optical and beam techniques, X-ray methods and a variety of other useful methods. 12 refs.

  2. Musculoskeletal Disorders among Iranian Coal Miners at 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashallah Aghillinejad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some factors such as stooping posture and frequent kneeling in miners can increase prevalence of their musculoskeletal disorders Present study was performed for assessment of MSDs prevalence among Iranian coal miners and finds its relationships with some their characters including age, work experience and body mass index. Participants in the persent cross sectional study, were 505 coal miners which selected among Iranian coal miners by simple random method. Data of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs gathered by Standardized Nordic self-reporting questionnaire. Demographic and work related data were collected into the check list. Findings of persent study showed that 56.1% and 66.5% of study miners claimed one of the MSDs complaints during last week and in the last year respectively. Lumbar, Knee(s and Back had most common MSDs prevalence at last week and year. MSDs prevalence had significant association with age (P≤0.02 and non-significant association with BMI (P≥0.8 of workers. MSDs in Iranian coal miners were happened in high rate. Ergonomic interventions strategies in the workplaces must be focussed for elimination of environmental hazards such as apposition at the time of work, manual handling of heavy loads.

  3. In the pit: a Cape Breton coal miner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, R.; Caplan, R. (ed.)

    2001-07-01

    This is an account of the mining life of a coal miner in Nova Scotia from 1951 to 1969. The author was born in New Waterford and worked there, in Numbers 12 and 18 Colliery. Many of his experiences and observations from working at the coal face are described. These include accounts of hauling coal in the pit, driving a diesel, and the coming of mechanization. Mining community life is included as background material. A brief history of 12 Colliery (1908-1975) is included. 12 figs.

  4. Diffuse interlobular septal thickening in a coal miner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrumurthy, S.G.; Kearney, S.; Sissons, M.; Haider, Y. [Lancashire Teaching Hospital for NHS Funding Trust, Chorley (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Diffuse interlobular septal thickening (DIST) is an abnormality seen on high-resolution CT (HRCT) scanning of the thorax. While DIST may be present to variable extents in a number of lung conditions, it is uncommon as a predominant finding except in a few entities. This report features an ex-coal miner, thought to have coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), in whom the HRCT scan showed no evidence of CWP and instead showed DIST. The patient's condition progressed incessantly towards death from severe secondary pulmonary hypertension. The case links fatal pulmonary hypertension to DIST, a pattern not previously described in coal workers.

  5. Gamma radiation hazard to miners in bituminous coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skubacz, K.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation hazard to miners working in 16 bituminous coal mines was determined by a thermoluminescence method. While the miners exposure to gamma radiation is higher than that of the general population, the yearly dose was never found to exceed 5 mSv in any investigated person. Factors contributing to the estimate of the exposure hazard and the need for individual dose monitoring in mines are discussed in more detail. 3 refs., 4 figs. (author)

  6. 77 FR 56717 - Specifications for Medical Examinations of Underground Coal Miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... CFR Part 37 Specifications for Medical Examinations of Underground Coal Miners; Final Rule #0;#0... 0920-AA21 Specifications for Medical Examinations of Underground Coal Miners AGENCY: Centers for... medical examinations of underground coal miners. Existing regulations established specifications for...

  7. Gallium-67 citrate imaging in underground coal miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanner, R.E.; Barkman, H.W. Jr.; Rom, W.N.; Taylor, A.T. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-two underground coal workers with 27 or more years of coal dust exposure were studied with gallium-67 citrate (Ga-67) imaging. Radiographic evidence of coal workers indicates that pneumoconiosis (CWP) was present in 12 subjects. The Ga-67 scan was abnormal in 11 of 12 with, and 9 of 10 without, CWP. The Ga-67 uptake index was significantly correlated with total dust exposure (p less than 0.01) and approached significant correlation with the radiographic profusion of the nodules (0.10 greater than p greater than 0.05). There was no correlation between Ga-67 uptake and spirometric function, which was normal in this group of patients; furthermore, increased lung uptake of gallium did not indicate a poor prognosis in subjects no longer exposed to coal dust. While coal dust exposure may be associated with positive Ga-67 lung scan in coal miners with many years of coal dust exposure, the scan provided no information not already available from a careful exposure history and a chest radiograph. Since Ga-67 scanning is a relatively expensive procedure the authors would recommend that its use in subjects with asymptomatic CWP be limited to an investigative role and not be made part of a routine evaluation

  8. Removal of mineral oil and wastewater pollutants using hard coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANISLAV R. SIMONOVIĆ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of hard coal as an adsorbent for removal of mineral oil from wastewater. In order to determine the efficiency of hard coal as an adsorbent of mineral oil, process parameters such as sorption capacity (in static and dynamic conditions, temperature, pH, contact time, flow rate, and chemical pretreatment were evaluated in a series of batch and continuous flow experiments. There were significant differences in the mineral oil removal for various pH values examined. The adsorption of mineral oil increased as pH values diverged from 7 (neutral. At lower temperatures, the adsorption was notably higher. The wastewater flow rate was adjusted to achieve optimal water purification. Equilibrium was reached after 10 h in static conditions. At that time, more than 99% of mineral oil had been removed. At the beginning of the filtering process, the adsorption rate increased rapidly, only to show a minor decrease afterwards. Equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich models to determine the water-hard coal partitioning coefficient. Physical adsorption caused by properties of the compounds was the predominant mechanism in the removal process.

  9. Environmental procedures for thermoelectric power plants by national mineral coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, M.T.F.; Verney Gothe, C.A. de; Silva Ramos, R. da

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the environmental impacts decursive of utilization of South-Brazilian mineral coal to generation of electric energy. This environmental impacts and alternatives of attenuating measures are presented and evaluated, containing the totality of productive cycle: mining, processing, transport, stock piling and use in thermoelectric power plants. Environmental procedures are systematized for first time, in order to be observed in whole expansion of coal thermoelectric generator park. The conception of power plants and site studies of their useful lives are also included. (C.M.). 19 figs, 24 tabs

  10. Emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, L.H.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Coal mining remains a major industry that has workers at risk for developing chronic lung disease. Aside from simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis, the development of emphysema and obstructive lung disease independent of smoking may be underappreciated. This article reviews more recent studies that may help rectify this faulty view. Cumulative exposure to coal dust is a significant risk factor for the development of emphysema and has an additive effect to smoking. Increased coal dust exposure is associated with increased risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In newly employed coal miners, bronchitic symptoms are associated with a rapid decline in lung function within 2 years after starting work. In evaluating impairment, the chest radiograph may be helpful as a marker of exposure but the diffusing capacity is most correlated with dyspnea, whereas the emphysema computed tomography score has good association with expiratory flow limitation. Latest studies further support the association of emphysema and COPD with coal dust exposure. Increased cumulative exposure may also increase risk of death from these diseases.

  11. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  12. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  13. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  14. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  15. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  16. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  17. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  18. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  19. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  20. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  1. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  2. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  3. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system. [environment effects, miner health and safety, production cost, and coal conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Underground mining systems suitable for coal seams expoitable in the year 2000 are examined with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. Requirements for such systems may be summarized as follows: (1) production cost; (2)miner safety; (3) miner health; (4) environmental impact; and (5) coal conservation. No significant trade offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  4. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals...

  5. Characterization of Rare Earth Element Minerals in Coal Utilization Byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montross, Scott N. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Verba, Circe A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Research Innovation Center; Collins, Keith [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Research Innovation Center

    2017-07-17

    The United States currently produces over 100 million tons of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) per year in the form of fly ash, bottom ash, slag, and flue gas (American Coal Ash Association (ACCA), 2015). But this “waste material” also contains potentially useful levels of rare earth elements (REE). Rare earth elements are crucial for many existing and emerging technologies, but the U.S. lacks a domestic, sustainable REE source. Our project explored the possibility of developing a supply of REEs for U.S. technologies by extracting REEs from CUBs. This work offers the potential to reduce our dependence on other countries for supply of these critical elements (NETL, REE 2016 Project Portfolio). Geologic and diagenetic history, industrial preparation methods, and the specific combustion process all play major roles in the composition of CUB. During combustion, inorganic mineral phases of coal particles are fluidized at temperatures higher than 1400oC, so inorganic mineral materials are oxidized, fused, disintegrated, or agglomerated into larger spherical and amorphous (non-crystalline) particles. The original mineralogy of the coal-containing rock and heating/cooling of the material significantly affects the composition and morphology of the particles in the combustion byproduct (Kutchko and Kim, 2006). Thus, different types of coal/refuse/ash must be characterized to better understand mineral evolution during the combustion process. Our research focused on developing a working model to address how REE minerals behave during the combustion process: this research should help determine the most effective engineering methods for extracting REEs from CUBs. We used multimodal imaging and image processing techniques to characterize six rock and ash samples from different coal power plants with respect to morphology, grain size, presence of mineral phases, and elemental composition. The results of these characterization activities provided thresholds for realizing the

  6. Gastric cancer in coal miners: an hypothesis of coal mine dust causation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, T M; Whong, W Z; Ames, R G

    1983-10-01

    An hypothesis is proposed to explain the elevated incidence of gastric cancer among coal miners. Inhaled coal mine dust, especially the larger particles, is cleared from the lung and tracheobronchial tree by mucociliary function, swallowed, and introduced into the stomach. Organic and/or inorganic materials in the dust can undergo intra-gastric nitrosation and/or interaction with exogenous chemicals to form carcinogenic compounds which in turn may lead to precancerous lesions, which may subsequently develop into gastric cancer. This sequence of events, however, depends upon occupational exposures as well as life-style features and individual genetic predisposition.

  7. Mineral coal. Reactivation of the consumption inside the country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, UPME

    2000-01-01

    Contrary of the Atlantic coast coal, that for their geographical location and for the size of the exploitation, they are dedicated to the international markets, the coal of the interior of the country that in general are exploited in handmade form and in small scale, they are dedicated to the domestic, given market the lack of infrastructure of transport to locate them at competitive costs in the ports. The coal of the interior are, however, an input of non-worthless importance in the electric power generation and in the cement production, brick and paper. The exploitation of the mineral also exercises its influence in the economic development of the regions producers. The study of the situation and perspectives of the sector are, this way, fundamental for the orientation and design of the strategies for their invigoration. This article examines to big features the problems associated with the loss of dynamism of the consumption of coal in the departments of the interior of Colombia and it presents some alternatives to confront the difficulties of the sector, in this region of the country

  8. STATISTICAL ANALYSYS OF THE SCFE OF A BRAZILAN MINERAL COAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIVA Cláudio

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of some process variables on the productivity of the fractions (liquid yield times fraction percent obtained from SCFE of a Brazilian mineral coal using isopropanol and ethanol as primary solvents is analyzed using statistical techniques. A full factorial 23 experimental design was adopted to investigate the effects of process variables (temperature, pressure and cosolvent concentration on the extraction products. The extracts were analyzed by the Preparative Liquid Chromatography-8 fractions method (PLC-8, a reliable, non destructive solvent fractionation method, especially developed for coal-derived liquids. Empirical statistical modeling was carried out in order to reproduce the experimental data. Correlations obtained were always greater than 0.98. Four specific process criteria were used to allow process optimization. Results obtained show that it is not possible to maximize both extract productivity and purity (through the minimization of heavy fraction content simultaneously by manipulating the mentioned process variables.

  9. First aid to miners suffering from overheating in deep coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makartsev, V.I.; Tsepurdei, A.A.; Zabolotnii, V.N.; Mozhaev, G.A.; Gridin, V.S. (Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Institut Gornospasatel' nogo Dela (Russian Federation))

    1993-03-01

    Describes the symptoms of hyperthermia and approaching thermal shock in coal miners working in deep coal mines. First aid is given to miners suffering from hyperthermia and thermal shock. It is pointed out that prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures at workplaces can result in thermal exhaustion with a deficit of body fluids and minerals. Thermal exhaustion is characterized by general weakness, headaches, insomnia, sleepiness, choleric mood, emotional upset, tremulous pulse and labored breathing. Preventive measures against overheating in deep coal mines are listed.

  10. Maximum Aerobic Capacity of Underground Coal Miners in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnadeep Saha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Miners fitness test was assessed in terms of determination of maximum aerobic capacity by an indirect method following a standard step test protocol before going down to mine by taking into consideration of heart rates (Telemetric recording and oxygen consumption of the subjects (Oxylog-II during exercise at different working rates. Maximal heart rate was derived as 220−age. Coal miners reported a maximum aerobic capacity within a range of 35–38.3 mL/kg/min. It also revealed that oldest miners (50–59 yrs had a lowest maximal oxygen uptake (34.2±3.38 mL/kg/min compared to (42.4±2.03 mL/kg/min compared to (42.4±2.03 mL/kg/min the youngest group (20–29 yrs. It was found to be negatively correlated with age (r=−0.55 and −0.33 for younger and older groups respectively and directly associated with the body weight of the subjects (r=0.57 – 0.68, P≤0.001. Carriers showed maximum cardio respiratory capacity compared to other miners. Indian miners VO2max was found to be lower both compared to their abroad mining counterparts and various other non-mining occupational working groups in India.

  11. Biering-Sorensen test scores in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Y.; Ortancil, O.; Ankarali, H.; Basaran, A.; Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    Biering-Sorensen test is an isometric back endurance test. Biering-Sorensen test scores have varied in different cultural and occupational groups. The aims of this study were to collect normative data on Biering-Sorensen holding times, to determine the discriminative ability of the Biering-Sorensen test in Turkish coal miners, and to examine the association between Biering-Sorensen test result and functional disability. One hundred and fifty male coal miners participated in this study. Trunk extensor muscle strength was measured using the Biering-Sorensen test. Oswestry disability index was used to measure the functional disability level of low back pain. The mean Biering-Sorensen holding time for the total subject group was 107.3 {+-} 22.5 s. The mean time of Biering-Sorensen test of the subjects with and without low back pain were 99.9 {+-} 19.8 and 128.6 {+-} 15.2 s, respectively. The difference between the subjects with and without low back pain was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between Oswestry functional disability score and Biering-Sorensen holding time (R = -0.824, p < 0.001). Turkish coal miners have low mean back extensor endurance holding times. Biering-Sorensen test had a good discriminative ability in our study group. Trunk muscle strength has a significant effect on the disability level of low back pain. Thus trunk muscle endurance training exercise therapy may be effective for the reduction of disability in patients with low back pain.

  12. Daughters of the mountain: women coal miners in central Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallichet, S.E. [Morehead State University in Kentucky, KY (United States). Department of Sociology, Social Work, and Criminology

    2006-10-15

    The book introduces us to a cohort of women miners at a large underground coal mine in southern West Virginia, where women entered the workforce in the late 1970s after mining jobs began opening up for women throughout the Appalachian coalfields. The work goes beyond anecdotal evidence to provide complex and penetrating analyses of qualitative data. Based on in-depth interviews with including social relations among men and women, professional advancement, and union participation. She also explores the ways in which women adapt to mining culture, developing strategies for both resistance and accommodation to an overwhelmingly male-dominated world. 1 app.

  13. Mineral catalysis of oil producing reactions in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    This work was concerned primarily with the development of a relatively inexpensive, readily available, high activity catalyst that can be used as a disposable catalyst in coal liquefaction processes. For a fair evaluation of the developmental mineral catalyst (presulfided iron oxide), it was necessary to determine at different stages of this work, whether catalyst inhibition, deactivation or activity was the limiting factor in coal liquefaction catalysis. First, different routes were explored to prepare a high hydrogenation activity, iron-based catalyst. Naphthalene hydrogenation was used as a model reaction to rate the hydrogenation activities of different additives. Presulfiding of iron oxide with H/sub 2/S, under controlled conditions, rendered the highest hydrogenation activity mineral catalyst, which had a hydrogenation activity even greater than that of commercial CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst sulfided with creosote oil and hydrogen. Sulfiding of CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst with H/sub 2/S remarkably improved its initial hydrogenation activity. Second, the catalyst inhibition and deactivation during liquefaction were studied. Liquefaction-process solvents contain a number of compounds that can either deactivate or inhibit the hydrogenation activity of a catalyst. Finally, the hydrocracking activity of the presulfided iron oxide catalyst was compared with that of commercial catalysts, CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and low alumina FCC catalyst.

  14. Miners' return to work following injuries in coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Kunar, Bijay Mihir

    2016-12-22

    The occupational injuries in mines are common and result in severe socio-economical consequences. Earlier studies have revealed the role of multiple factors such as demographic factors, behavioral factors, health-related factors, working environment, and working conditions for mine injuries. However, there is a dearth of information about the role of some of these factors in delayed return to work (RTW) following a miner's injury. These factors may likely include personal characteristics of injured persons and his or her family, the injured person's social and economic status, and job characteristics. This study was conducted to assess the role of some of these factors for the return to work following coal miners' injuries. A study was conducted for 109 injured workers from an underground coal mine in the years 2000-2009. A questionnaire, which was completed by the personnel interviews, included among others age, height, weight, seniority, alcohol consumption, sleeping duration, presence of diseases, job stress, job satisfaction, and injury type. The data was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazard model. According to Kaplan-Meier estimate it was revealed that a lower number of dependents, longer sleep duration, no job stress, no disease, no alcohol addiction, and higher monthly income have a great impact on early return to work after injury. The Cox regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors which influenced miners' return to work included presence of disease, job satisfaction and injury type. The mine management should pay attention to significant risk factors for injuries in order to develop effective preventive measures. Med Pr 2016;67(6):729-742. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. Study of catalytic effects of mineral matter level on coal reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzocco, Nestor J.; Klunder, Edgar B.; Krastman, Donald

    1981-03-01

    Coal liquefaction experiments using a 400-lb/day bubble-column reactor tested the catalytic effects of added mineral matter level on coal conversion, desulfurization, and distillate yields in continuous operation under recycle conditions, with specific emphasis on the use of a disposable pyrite catalyst indigenous to the feed coal. Western Kentucky No. 11 run-of-mine (ROM) and washed coals were used as feedstocks to determine the effects of levels of mineral matter, specifically iron compounds. Liquefaction reactivity as characterized by total distillate yield was lower for washed coal, which contained less mineral matter. Liquefaction reactivity was regained when pyrite concentrate was added as a disposable catalyst to the washed coal feed in sufficient quantity to match the feed iron concentration of the run-of-mine coal liquefaction test run.

  16. 75 FR 64411 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... industries, such as mining, by reducing workplace deaths and improving the health of coal miners. This..., enhanced enforcement, collaborative outreach, and education and training. The initiative will reduce, and... reducing the respirable coal mine dust levels, miners continue to develop black lung. Based on recent data...

  17. Musculoskeletal disorders, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of Chinese coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingming; Wu, Feng; Wang, Jun; Sun, Linyan

    2017-01-01

    Human factors comprise one of the important reasons leading to the casualty accidents in coal mines. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners. There were 1500 Chinese coal miners surveyed in this study. Among these miners, 992 valid samples were obtained. The study surveyed the MSDs, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners with MSDs Likert scale, Eysenck personality questionnaire, Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) scale, and accident proneness questionnaire, respectively. The highest MSDs level was found in the waist. The increasing working age of the miners was connected with increased MSDs and psychological distress. Significant differences in MSDs and psychological distress of miners from different types of work were observed. Coal miners with higher MSDs had higher accident proneness. Coal miners with higher neuroticism dimension of Eysenck personality and more serious psychological distress had higher accident proneness. Phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism dimension of psychological distress were the three most important indicators that had significant positive relationships with accident proneness. The MSDs, neuroticism dimension, and psychological distress of the coal mine workers are important to work safety and require serious attention. Some implications concerning coal mine safety management in China were provided.

  18. Mineral distribution in two southwest colombian coals using cyclone separation and oxidation at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Andres F; Barraza, Juan M; Rojas, Andres F.

    2010-01-01

    It was studied the mineral distribution of two Colombian coals using a cyclone separation and oxidation at low temperature, OLT. The cyclone separation was carried out at two densities (1.3 and 1.4), three particle size (1000+ 600?m, 600+ 425?m and 425+ 250?m) and two processing stages. To determine the mineral matter, feed and under flow fractions from hydrocyclone were concentrated in mineral matter by OLT in a fluidized bed (T<300 celsius degrade). 18 minerals were identified by X Ray Diffraction, XRD. XRD results showed 13 minerals from Golondrinas and 15 minerals from Guachinte coal. It was found that kaolinite and quartz were the most abundant minerals in coal fractions from Golondrinas and Guachinte. Furthermore, it was found that mainly minerals kaolinite, quartz, dolomite, jarosite, gypsum and pyrite, exhibited affinity towards mineral matter, while siderite and valerite showed affinity towards organic matter.

  19. Combustion characteristics of intensively cleaned coal fractions. Effect of mineral matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubiera, F.; Arenillas, A.; Fuente, E.; Pis, J.J. [Inst. Nacional de Carbon, Oviedo (Spain); Ivatt, S. [ETSU, Harwell, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this work has been to assess the effect that intensive coal cleaning exerts on the combustion behaviour of different density-separated coal fractions. Samples with ash contents varying from 39% for the raw coal, to 2% for the cleanest fraction were obtained after density separation. Temperature-programmed combustion and isothermal gasification in air were used to measure the reactivities of the parent coal and the cleaned fractions. Coal and char reactivities increased with increasing ash content of the samples. Thermal analysis-mass spectrometry of the low-temperature ashes was also carried out in order to study the reactions of coal minerals under combustion conditions. (orig.)

  20. Current data on pneumoconiosis in Lorraine coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechoux, J

    1975-01-01

    Despite great efforts at technical prevention, pneumoconiosis is still common among miners of the Lorraine (France) region. Radiological anomalies are seen much more frequently in coal mining than rock mining areas. The radiological picture has been modified in that grossly nodular forms have almost completely disappeared and are increasingly replaced by punctiform patterns characteristic of mixed-dust pneumoconiosis. Tuberculosis, which in 1953 was the cause of death of some half of silicotic patients, was observed in only about 15% of Lorraine pneumoconiotic subjects in 1973. Changes in the nature of pneumoconiosis, at least as much as therapeutic advances, have increased the mean age at death of Lorraine pneumoconiotic workers from 56.9 in 1953 to 68.8 in 1973.

  1. Determination of mineral matter distribution in a coal seam using O sub 2 chemisorption technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.D.; Goulet, J.-C.; Grandsen, J.; Price, J.T.; Furimsky, E. (CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Laboratories)

    1990-08-01

    A series of samples taken from different depths of the seam of a bituminous coal in Western Canada was used to determine the mineral matter distribution. The measurements were carried out using the O{sub 2} chemisorption based on a thermogravimetric technique. The O{sub 2} chemisorption increased with decreasing mineral matter content. The employed technique was found to be suitable for identifying the portion of coal seam least contaminated with mineral matter. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Phosphorus minerals in tonstein; coal seam 405 at Sośnica-Makoszowy coal mine, Upper Silesia, southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokowska-Pawłowska, Magdalena; Nowak, Jacek

    2013-06-01

    Kokowska-Pawłowska, M. and Nowak, J. 2013. Phosphorus minerals in tonstein; coal seam 405 at Sośnica- Makoszowy coal mine, Upper Silesia, southern Poland. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (2), 271-281. Warszawa. The paper presents results of research on tonstein, which constitutes an interburden in coal seam 405 at the Sośnica- Makoszowy coal mine, Makoszowy field (mining level 600 m), Upper Silesia, southern Poland. The mineral and chemical compositions of the tonstein differ from the typical compositions described earlier for tonsteins from Upper Silesia Coal Basin area. Additionally, minerals present in the tonsteins include kaolinite, quartz, kaolinitised biotite and feldspars. The presence of the phosphatic minerals apatite and goyazite has been recognized. The presence of gorceixite and crandallite is also possible. The contents of CaO (5.66 wt%) and P2O5 (6.2 wt%) are remarkably high. Analysis of selected trace elements demonstrated high contents of Sr (4937 ppm) and Ba (4300 ppm), related to the phosphatic minerals. On the basis of mineral composition the tonstein has been identified as a crystalline tonstein, transitional to a multiplied one.

  3. Women and men coal miners: coping with gender integration underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yount, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    The central purpose of this research is to initiate a theoretical understanding of the integration of women into traditionally-male, physical-labor jobs. The primary sources of data consist of in depth interviews with women and men underground coal miners and company personnel, and field notes collected during participant observation work in mining communities. Part I addresses the relationship between conditions of production and modes of interaction in underground mines. Personality traits conceived as aspects of masculinity are traced to efforts to cope with the stressors of engaging in physical labor in a work setting characterized by lack of work autonomy, a high degree of threat, and a high degree of interdependence for task accomplishment. Part II focuses on situational and individual factors affecting the integration of women in the workplace. Although most women miners are satisfied with their work, a gender based division of labor has arisen in which women are concentrated in low-prestige laborer positions. The processes involved in undermining a woman's work reputation and self-concept are summarized and forms of discrimination that recreate aspects of the female sterotype and lead to the development of sex segregation in the workplace are to the development of sex segregation in the workplace are discussed.

  4. Cervical spine degenerative changes (narrowed intervertebral disc spaces and osteophytes) in coal miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zejda, J. E.; Stasiow, B.

    2003-01-01

    A series of 685 x-rays films of the cervical spine obtained in coal miners was analyzed to explore the occurrence of narrowed disc spaces and osteophytes in this occupational group, and to examine the association of x-rays changes with age, duration of employment, and duration of occupational exposure to hand-arm vibration. All data were extracted from individual medical files of coal miners examined for suspected hand-arm vibration-related disorders in 1989-1999 at the Occupational Medicine Center in Katowice. The narrowed intervertebral disc spaces were found in 188 coal miners (26.9%) and osteophytes in 332 coal miners (47.5%). The occurrence of degenerative changes in coal miners was similar to that observed in a small group of 68 blue-collar workers (no exposure to hand-arm vibration) employed in the coal industry. Univariate comparisons showed that intervertebral disc spaces and osteophytes were more frequent among older subjects and among subjects with longer duration of employment. The results of logistic regression analysis confirmed statistically significant effect of age, but not of other factors included in the model. When both x-ray changes were grouped together (a combined dependent variable) age remained the only statistically significant explanatory variable. The findings do not support the view that the examined degenerative changes in cervical spine are more prevalent in coal miners and depend on duration of physical work or local exposure to hand-arm vibration in this occupational group. (author)

  5. Sulphur self–retention and sulphur dioxide capture with active calcium minerals in mineral–rich coals / Mchabe, D.

    OpenAIRE

    Mchabe, Dursman

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide information for the development of clean coal technology, the sulphur self–retention and sulphur dioxide capturing properties of minerals present in low grade coals was investigated. This study consisted of detailed mineral analyses of coal and ash samples using results obtained from QEMSCAN and separate retention (coal) and capture (ash) experiments with laboratory scale reactors. Typical South African coal samples were used in this study. The ash content v...

  6. Lung cancer among coal miners, ore miners and quarrymen : smoking-adjusted risk estimates from the synergy pooled analysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taeger, Dirk; Pesch, Beate; Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Dahmann, Dirk; Siemiatycki, Jack; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Olsson, Ann; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Tardón, Adonina; Merletti, Franco; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Mukeriya, Anush; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Gustavsson, Per; Field, John; Marcus, Michael W; Fabianova, Eleonora; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; Rudnai, Peter; Bencko, Vladimir; Janout, Vladimir; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Foretova, Lenka; Forastiere, Francesco; John McLaughlin, John McLaughlin; Paul Demers, Paul Demers; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Joachim Schüz, Joachim Schüz; Kurt Straif, Kurt Straif; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Working in mines and quarries has been associated with an elevated lung cancer risk but with inconsistent results for coal miners. This study aimed to estimate the smoking-adjusted lung cancer risk among coal miners and compare the risk pattern with lung cancer risks among ore miners and

  7. A Look into Miners' Health in Prevailing Ambience of Underground Coal Mine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, N. C.; Pal, S.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors such as noise, vibration, illumination, humidity, temperature and air velocity, etc. do play a major role on the health, comfort and efficient performance of underground coal miners at work. Ergonomics can help to promote health, efficiency and well being of miners and to make best use of their capabilities within the ambit of underground coal mine environment. Adequate work stretch and work-rest scheduling have to be determined for every category of miners from work physiology point of view so as to keep better health of the miners in general and to have their maximum efficiency at work in particular.

  8. Distribution of Clay Minerals in Light Coal Fractions and the Thermal Reaction Products of These Clay Minerals during Combustion in a Drop Tube Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sida Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the contribution of clay minerals in light coal fractions to ash deposition in furnaces, we investigated their distribution and thermal reaction products. The light fractions of two Chinese coals were prepared using a 1.5 g·cm−3 ZnCl2 solution as a density separation medium and were burned in a drop-tube furnace (DTF. The mineral matter in each of the light coal fractions was compared to that of the relevant raw coal. The DTF ash from light coal fractions was analysed using hydrochloric acid separation. The acid-soluble aluminium fractions of DTF ash samples were used to determine changes in the amorphous aluminosilicate products with increasing combustion temperature. The results show that the clay mineral contents in the mineral matter of both light coal fractions were higher than those in the respective raw coals. For the coal with a high ash melting point, clay minerals in the light coal fraction thermally transformed more dehydroxylation products compared with those in the raw coal, possibly contributing to solid-state reactions of ash particles. For the coal with a low ash melting point, clay minerals in the light coal fraction produced more easily-slagging material compared with those in the raw coal, playing an important role in the occurrence of slagging. Additionally, ferrous oxide often produces low-melting substances in coal ash. Due to the similarities of zinc oxide and ferrous oxide in silicate reactions, we also investigated the interactions of clay minerals in light coal fractions with zinc oxide introduced by a zinc chloride solution. The extraneous zinc oxide could react, to a small extent, with clay minerals in the coal during DTF combustion.

  9. Quantification of mineral matter in commercial cokes and their parent coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurovs, Richard; French, David; Grigore, Mihaela [CRC for Coal in Sustainable Development, CSIRO Energy Technology, PO Box 330 Newcastle 2300 (Australia)

    2007-10-01

    The nature of mineral matter in coke is an important factor in determining the behaviour of coke in the blast furnace. However, there have been few quantitative determinations of the types of mineral matter in coke and the feed coal. Here we use a technique of quantitative X-ray diffraction - SIROQUANT trademark - to determine the nature and quantity of mineral matter in eleven cokes and their parent materials, using samples of coals and their cokes utilised commercially in blast furnaces around the world. In some of these coals a considerable proportion of the phosphorus was present as goyazite, an aluminium phosphate. In the cokes, most of the iron was incorporated into amorphous aluminosilicate material; metallic iron accounted for about 15% of the iron present, and a similar amount was present as sulfides. Potassium and sodium were largely present as amorphous aluminosilicate material. Most of the quartz in the coal was unaffected by the coking, but a small fraction was transformed into other minerals. Quartz is not completely inert during coking. The amount of the catalytic forms of iron in the coke - iron, iron oxides and iron sulfides - was not related to the amount of pyrite and siderite in the starting coal, indicating that estimation of catalytic iron requires investigation of the mineral matter in coke directly and cannot be estimated from the minerals in the coal. (author)

  10. Mineral identification in Colombian coals using Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, M.; Mojica, J.; Barraza, J.; Perez Alcazar, G.A.; Tabares, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Minerals were identified in three Colombian coal samples from the Southwest of the country using Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Original and sink separated coal fractions of specific gravity 1.40 and 1.60 with particle size less than 600 μm were used in the study. Using Moessbauer spectroscopy, the minerals identified in the original coal samples were pyrite jarosite, ankerite, illite and ferrous sulfate, whereas by means of X-ray diffraction, minerals identified were kaolinite, quartz, pyrite, and jarosite. Differences in mineral composition were found in the original and sink separated fractions using both techniques. Moessbauer spectra show that the mineral phases in low concentrations such as illite, ankerite and ferrous sulfate do not always appear in the spectra of sink coals, despite of those minerals occurring in the original coal, due to the fact that they are associated with the organic matter and not liberated in the grinding process. X-ray results show that the peak intensity grows as the specific gravity is increased indicating that the density separation method could be an effective process to clean coal

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF DEWATERING AIDS FOR MINERALS AND COAL FINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe-Hoam Yoon; Ramazan Asmatulu; Ismail Yildirim; William Jansen; Jinmig Zhang; Brad Atkinson; Jeff Havens

    2004-07-01

    MCT has developed a suite of novel dewatering chemicals (or aids) that are designed to cause a decrease in the capillary pressures of the water trapped in a filter cake by (1) decreasing the surface tension of water, (2) increasing the contact angles of the particles to be dewatered, and (3) causing the particles to coagulate, all at the same time. The decrease in capillary pressure in turn causes an increase in the rate filtration, an increase in throughput, and a decrease in pressure drop requirement for filtration. The reagents are used frequently as blends of different chemicals in order to bring about the changes in all of the process variables noted above. The minerals and coal samples tested in the present work included copper sulfide, lead sulfide, zinc sulfide, kaolin clay, talc, and silica. The laboratory-scale test work included studies of reagent types, drying cycle times, cake thickness, slurry temperature, conditioning intensity and time, solid content, and reagent dosages. To better understand the mechanisms involved, fundamental studies were also conducted. These included the measurements of the contact angles of the particles to be dewatered (which are the measures of particle hydrophobicity) and the surface tensions of the filtrates produced from dewatering tests. The results of the laboratory-scale filtration experiments showed that the use of the novel dewatering aids can reduce the moistures of the filter cake by 30 to 50% over what can be achieved using no dewatering aids. In many cases, such high levels of moisture reductions are sufficient to obviate the needs for thermal drying, which is costly and energy intensive. Furthermore, the use of the novel dewatering aids cause a substantial increase in the kinetics of dewatering, which in turn results in increased throughput. As a result of these technological advantages, the novel dewatering aids have been licensed to Nalco, which is one of the largest mining chemicals companies of the world. At

  12. Respirable coal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms in South-African coal miners: A comparison of current and ex-miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidoo, R.N.; Robins, T.G.; Seixas, N.; Lalloo, U.G.; Becklake, M. [University of KwaZuluNatal, Congella (South Africa). Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine

    2006-06-15

    Dose-response associations between respirable dust exposure and respiratory symptoms and between symptoms and spirometry outcomes among currently employed and formerly employed South-African coal miners were investigated. Work histories, interviews, and spirometry and cumulative exposure were assessed among 684 current and 212 ex-miners. Results: Lower prevalences of symptoms were found among employed compared with ex-miners. Associations with increasing exposure for symptoms of phlegm and past history of tuberculosis were observed, whereas other symptom prevalences were higher in the higher exposure categories. Symptomatic ex-miners exhibited lower lung-function compared to the nonsymptomatic. Compared with published data, symptoms rates were low in current miners but high in ex-miners. Although explanations could include the low prevalence of smoking and/or reporting/selection bias, a 'Survivor' and/or a 'hire' effect is more likely, resulting in an underestimation of the dust-related effect.

  13. Development and Validation of a Safety Attitude Scale for Coal Miners in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Safety attitude is of vital importance to accident prevention, and the high accident rate in the coal mining industry makes it urgent to undertake research on coal miners’ safety attitude. However, the current literature still lacks a valid and reliable safety attitude measurement scale for coal miners, which stands as a barrier against their safety attitude improvement. In this study, a scale is developed that can be used to measure coal miners’ safety attitude. The preliminary scale was based on an extended literature review. Empirical data were then collected from 725 coal miners using the preliminary scale. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were undertaken to validate and improve the scale. The final scale, which consists of 17 items, contains four dimensions: management safety commitment, team safety climate, fatalism and work pressure. Results show that this safety attitude scale can effectively measure the safety attitude of coal miners, showing high psychological measurement validity. This paper contributes to the occupational safety research by developing the factor structure and indicator system of coal miners’ safety attitude, thus providing more profound interpretation of this crucial construct in the safety research domain. The measurement scale serves as an important tool for safety attitude benchmarking among different coal mining enterprises and, thus, can boost the overall safety improvement of the whole industry. These findings can facilitate improvement of both theories and practices related to occupational safety attitude.

  14. Pathological study of the prevalence of silicosis among coal miners in Iran: A case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Naghadehi, Masoud; Sereshki, Farhang; Mohammadi, F.

    2014-02-01

    One of the most hazardous diseases that is commonly associated with the coal mining industry is Silicosis which caused by dust inhalation. This disease occurs as a result of prolonged breathing of dust containing silica (quartz). The generation of coal mine dust during underground and surface coal mining is the most significant source of coal dust exposure. Silica dust develops scar tissue inside the lungs which reduces the lungs ability to extract oxygen from the air. All miners working in underground and surface coal mines are at risk of being exposed to mine dust containing silica. In this study, cases with pathologic diagnosis of silicosis during seven years period between 2000 and 2007 were retrieved, from the pathologic file of Department of Pathology, Massih Daneshvary Hospital in Iran. Results of this case study showed the great effects of dust exposure and inhalation from the viewpoint of symptoms especially between the miners.

  15. Back extensor muscle endurance test scores in coal miners in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.; Latimer, J.; Jamieson, M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Faculty of Health and Science, School of Physiotherapy

    2003-06-01

    Low back pain is a common complaint among those working in the Australian coal mining industry. One test that may be predictive of first-time episodes of low back pain is the Biering-Sorensen test of back extensor endurance strength. While this test has been evaluated in overseas sedentary populations, normative data and the discriminative ability of the test have not been evaluated with coal miners. Eighty-eight coal miners completed a questionnaire for known risk factors for low back pain, performed the Biering-Sorensen test, and undertook a test of aerobic fitness. Data analysis was performed to describe the groups and to determine whether any significant difference existed between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. Significantly lower than expected holding times were found in this group of coal miners (mean 113 s). This result was significantly lower than demonstrated in previous studies. When holding times for those with a past history of low back pain were compared with times for those with no history of low back pain, the difference was not statistically significant, nor was there a significant difference in fitness between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. It is concluded that coal miners in Australia have lower than normal Biering-Sorensen holding times. This lower back holding time does not differ between coal miners with a past history of low back pain and those without.

  16. King coal: miners, coal, and Britain's industrial future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, T.

    1981-01-01

    The coal industry in the United Kingdom and the history of the mineworkers, from their attempts at unionization until the present day, are described. Reasons for the policy of closing pits and dismantling the coal industry, and for importing coal are discussed and analyzed.

  17. Assessment of subclinical right ventricular systolic dysfunction in coal miners using myocardial isovolumic acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan Abacıoglu, Ozge; Kaplan, Mehmet; Abacıoglu, Serkan; Quisi, Ala

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have been conducted regarding the effects of coal mining on the respiratory system. However, there is a lack of data concerning potential effects of coal mining on the cardiovascular system. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential subclinical right and left ventricular dysfunction in coal miners. This single-center, prospective study included a total of 102 patients. Patient and control groups consisted of 54 coal miners and 48 healthy men, respectively. All patients underwent 12-lead electrocardiography, transthoracic echocardiography, and pulmonary function test. As compared to control group, coal miners had significantly higher right ventricular myocardial performance index (RVMPI) (0.41 ± 0.03 vs 0.37 ± 0.02, P right ventricular fractional area change (RVFAC) (33.55% ± 6.70% vs 37.04 ± 9.26 P right and left ventricular dysfunction, including RVMPI, RVFAC, TAPSE, IVA, and AD, are impaired in coal miners. © 2017 The Authors Echocardiography Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A scanning electron microscope method for automated, quantitative analysis of mineral matter in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Ward, C.R. [R.A. Creelman and Associates, Epping, NSW (Australia)

    1996-07-01

    Quantitative mineralogical analysis has been carried out in a series of nine coal samples from Australia, South Africa and China using a newly-developed automated image analysis system coupled to a scanning electron microscopy. The image analysis system (QEM{asterisk}SEM) gathers X-ray spectra and backscattered electron data from a number of points on a conventional grain-mount polished section under the SEM, and interprets the data from each point in mineralogical terms. The cumulative data in each case was integrated to provide a volumetric modal analysis of the species present in the coal samples, expressed as percentages of the respective coals` mineral matter. Comparison was made of the QEM{asterisk}SEM results to data obtained from the same samples using other methods of quantitative mineralogical analysis, namely X-ray diffraction of the low-temperature oxygen-plasma ash and normative calculation from the (high-temperature) ash analysis and carbonate CO{sub 2} data. Good agreement was obtained from all three methods for quartz in the coals, and also for most of the iron-bearing minerals. The correlation between results from the different methods was less strong, however, for individual clay minerals, or for minerals such as calcite, dolomite and phosphate species that made up only relatively small proportions of the mineral matter. The image analysis approach, using the electron microscope for mineralogical studies, has significant potential as a supplement to optical microscopy in quantitative coal characterisation. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Cigarette smoking and federal black lung benefits in bituminous coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, T M; Collins, L C; Snider, H L; Anderson, W H

    1989-02-01

    The records of 1000 consecutive coal miners applying for benefits under the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act were examined to determine the contribution of age, dust accumulation, and cigarette smoking to the profile of the miner who satisfies the current pulmonary criteria for disability. Using the presence of pneumoconiosis on chest radiograph as the indication of significant coal dust accumulation, the miners were separated into Group A--those without pneumoconiosis (n = 316) and Group B--those with pneumoconiosis (n = 684). The federal spirometric criteria for disability identified 55/316 miners in Group A (14.5%) and 99/684 miners in Group B (17.4%) potentially eligible for an award (P = .27). The mean ages of miners in both groups did not differ significantly, nor was there difference in the mean ages of groups that did or did not meet the federal criteria. In both groups, those miners potentially eligible for a financial award smoked more cigarettes than did their counterparts (Group A, 31.0 v 18.5 pack-years, P less than .001; Group B, 31.3 v 23.6 pack-years, P less than .001). There was no difference in the smoking histories of the miners from either group who met the federal criteria. Our data indicate that, in the case of bituminous coal miners, the present federal legislation intended to identify and remunerate those who suffer lung impairment from chronic occupational exposure to coal dust is biased in favor of those who sustain additional damage to their ventilatory capacity by smoking cigarettes.

  20. Variation in mineral composition of coal during enrichment and coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.L. Ulanovskii; A.N. Likhenko [Ukrkoks Coke Producers' Association, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2009-06-15

    The parameters I{sub b} and B{sub b} used in developing an optimal coking-batch composition are determined from data on the chemical composition of the ash in Donetsk Basin and other coal. It is found that, when the ash content is reduced in deeper enrichment of coal with an increased content of fine pyrite, there will be accompanying increase in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and decrease in the SiO{sub 2} content of the ash in lighter fractions. This increases I{sub b}. In other words, reducing the ash content of the coal is an unpromising means of increasing CRI and CSR of the coke produced. Three ash-containing elements (silicon, aluminum, and iron) are experimentally proven to transfer from coal to coke. Specific behavior of calcium, magnesium, alkali metals, and sulfur during coking.

  1. Cross flow cyclonic flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ralph W.; Patton, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the separation of coal from pyritic impurities using a modified froth flotation system. The froth flotation column incorporates a helical track about the inner wall of the column in a region intermediate between the top and base of the column. A standard impeller located about the central axis of the column is used to generate a centrifugal force thereby increasing the separation efficiency of coal from the pyritic particles and hydrophillic tailings.

  2. Environmental procedures for thermoelectric power plants by national mineral coal; Diretrizes ambientais para usinas termeletricas a carvao mineral nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, M T.F.; Verney Gothe, C.A. de; Silva Ramos, R da

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the environmental impacts decursive of utilization of South-Brazilian mineral coal to generation of electric energy. This environmental impacts and alternatives of attenuating measures are presented and evaluated, containing the totality of productive cycle: mining, processing, transport, stock piling and use in thermoelectric power plants. Environmental procedures are systematized for first time, in order to be observed in whole expansion of coal thermoelectric generator park. The conception of power plants and site studies of their useful lives are also included. (C.M.). 19 figs, 24 tabs.

  3. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Underground Coal Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although underground coal miners are quite susceptible to depressive symptoms due to a highly risky and stressful working environment, few studies have focused on this issue. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and to explore its associated factors in this population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a coal-mining population in northeast China. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2500 underground coal miners (1,936 effective respondents. Depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance (ERI, overcommitment (OC, perceived physical environment (PPE, work-family conflict (WFC, and some demographic and working characteristics were measured anonymously. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 62.8%, and the mean level was 20.00 (9.99. Hierarchical linear regression showed that marital status, education, monthly income, and weekly working time were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. A high level of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with high ERI, PPE, WFC, and OC. Accordingly, most Chinese underground coal miners probably have depressive symptoms that are mainly predicted by some occupational psychosocial factors. Efforts should be made to develop strategies to reduce ERI and OC, improve physical working environment, and care for workers’ family well-being, thereby mitigating the risk of depression among Chinese underground coal miners.

  4. Petrographic and mineral characterization of Balkan coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yossifova, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is part of a complex petrographic, mineralogical and chemical investigation on Balkan bituminous coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation. The petrographic and phase-mineralogical composition in ten composite samples and four water extracts have been studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. 4 refs., 4 tabs

  5. Bioprocessing of coal - 10 - an application of microbial flotation to mineral processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, T. [and others] [CRIEPI, Abiko-shi (Japan). Abiko Research Lab.

    1996-09-01

    Microbial flotation for coal desulfurization is being developed. Pyrite in coal is removed by bacterial adhesion by changing the surface property of pyrite. The bacterial adhesion of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans to sulfide minerals (pyrite, galena, molybdenite, chalcocite and millerite), and pyrite removal from the mixture of these sulfide minerals by microbial flotation was investigated. To compare the adhesion of T. ferrooxidans to pyrite with that to the other four minerals mentioned, the surface areas of the minerals, where the bacterium could adhere, was measured. It was observed that the roughness on the mineral surfaces was much smaller than the size of the bacterial cells. Hence, it was suggested that the roughness did not affect the bacterial adhesion to mineral surfaces. Bacterial adhesion to pyrite was compared with that to the other minerals. The amount of adhering bacterium was estimated on the basis of the adherable surface area measured with microscopic method. The amount of adhering cells to pyrite was 421.6 x 10{sup 8} cells/cm{sup 2}. On the other hand, the amounts of adhering cells to the minerals, except for pyrite were in a range of 77.1 to 160.8 x 10{sup 8} cells/cm{sup 2}. The bacterium adheres more to pyrite than to the other minerals, and only adheres to pyrite even if the pyrite is mixed with other minerals. Hence, T. ferrooxidans could adhere selectively to pyrite. Pyrite removal from the mineral mixtures was investigated with microbial flotation. Pyrite removal was in a range of 83.7% to 95.1% and mineral recovery was 72.9% to 100%. The grade of recovered minerals was in a range of 79.2 to 86.0% and that of rejected pyrite was in a range of 78.7 to 90.0%. These results suggest that microbial flotation can be a novel technology for mineral processing.

  6. Psychological Distress and Pain Reporting in Australian Coal Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy N. Carlisle

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The study findings support the existence of widespread musculoskeletal pain among the coal-mining workforce, and this pain is associated with increased psychological distress. Operators (truck drivers and workers reporting poor sleep quality during work periods are most likely to report increased distress, which highlights the importance of supporting the mining workforce for sustained productivity.

  7. Using X-ray methods to evaluate the combustion sulfur minerals and graphitic carbon in coals and ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertz, D.L.; Collins, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    Coals are complex mixtures of vastly different materials whose combustion kinetics may well exhibit symbiotic effects. Although the sulfur oxide gases produced during the combustion of coals may have a variety of sources, they are frequently caused by the thermal degradation of inorganic minerals to produce ''acid rain''. Since many of the minerals involved either as reactants or products in coal combustion produce well defined x-ray power diffraction (XRPD) patterns, the fate of these minerals may be followed by measuring the XRPD patterns of combustion products. Coal 1368P, a coal with an unusually high pyrite (FeS/sub 2/) fraction, has been the subject materials in our investigations of the fate of the inorganic minerals during combustion. These studies include measuring the fate of pyrite and of graphitic carbon in coal 1368P under varying combustion conditions. The results discussed in this paper were obtained by standard XRPD methods

  8. Linking Compensation and Health Surveillance Data Sets to Improve Knowledge of US Coal Miners' Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Kirsten S; Cohen, Robert A; Blackley, David J; Laney, Anthony S; Storey, Eileen; Halldin, Cara N

    2017-10-01

    Increase knowledge of US coal miners' respiratory health by linking data from the black lung benefits program (BLBP) and the coal workers' health surveillance program (CWHSP). BLBP claims data from 2000 through 2013 was linked to CWHSP data from 1970 through 2016. Overall, 273,644 miners participated in CWHSP, 37,548 in BLBP, and 22,903 in both programs. Median age of miners at their time of first/only participation in CWHSP was 28 and 32 years, respectively. BLBP claimants were older (median age 59). Thirty-nine percent of BLBP claimants had not participated in CWHSP. The relative contributions of states to participation differed between CWHSP and BLBP. For example, Kentucky miners accounted for 18% of CWHSP participants, but 36% of BLPB participants. Many BLBP claimants never appeared in CWHSP, indicating missed opportunities for secondary prevention.

  9. Debilitating lung disease among surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldin, Cara N; Reed, William R; Joy, Gerald J; Colinet, Jay F; Rider, James P; Petsonk, Edward L; Abraham, Jerrold L; Wolfe, Anita L; Storey, Eileen; Laney, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    To characterize exposure histories and respiratory disease among surface coal miners identified with progressive massive fibrosis from a 2010 to 2011 pneumoconiosis survey. Job history, tenure, and radiograph interpretations were verified. Previous radiographs were reviewed when available. Telephone follow-up sought additional work and medical history information. Among eight miners who worked as drill operators or blasters for most of their tenure (median, 35.5 years), two reported poor dust control practices, working in visible dust clouds as recently as 2012. Chest radiographs progressed to progressive massive fibrosis in as few as 11 years. One miner's lung biopsy demonstrated fibrosis and interstitial accumulation of macrophages containing abundant silica, aluminum silicate, and titanium dust particles. Overexposure to respirable silica resulted in progressive massive fibrosis among current surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure. Inadequate dust control during drilling/blasting is likely an important etiologic factor.

  10. Nuclear techniques for in situ evaluation of coal and mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsaru, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in in situ analysis of minerals and coal by nuclear borehole logging. Developments in the oil, gas and uranium industries are not discussed in the present paper unless they have direct applications in the mineral industry (e.g. multi-element analysis and development of spectral litho-density tools). The review covers techniques developed mostly in the last decade and is based on work published in North America, Europe and Australia. (author)

  11. Non-Coal Mineral Production Mines in Iowa, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Registered noncoal mineral production sites within the State of Iowa, current to the year 2000. This shape file contains polygons representing the permitted...

  12. [Changes in the blood concentrations of interleukins and electrolytes in miners working in deep coal mines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, E B; Rebrov, B A; Rebrova, O A; Stroilo, N G; Voloshinovich, A R

    2001-01-01

    Miners working in deep coal mines, engaged in hard physical work under most harsh mine conditions demonstrate a striking imbalance between pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines and a rise in the blood levels of electrolytes K+ and Na+ as well. The analysis performed revealed a direct correlation between the level of blood concentration of IL-6 and that of K+, Na+.

  13. 77 FR 1359 - Specifications for Medical Examinations of Underground Coal Miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... ionizing radiation associated with the radiograph. Proposed Sec. 37.42(h) would require the use of... potential for higher ionizing radiation exposures using digital radiography systems, we have included... resulted in no coal miners employed by a non-compliant operator participating in the Program. NIOSH is...

  14. Birth and first steps of mineral coal industry in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Amouroux, Jean-Marie

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes a brief history of the emergence of a mineral coal industry in the USA. He notices that wood has been the first source of energy used by settlers for housing heating, and then in industry and transports for heat and steam production. As demand and supply conditions were bad, coal production, although mining sites had been quickly identified and used, only emerged from the 1840's. Different kinds of coal (anthracite, bitumen) have been extracted depending on the region. Then, urbanisation and industrialisation created new opportunities for coal, and the share of coal regularly increased. The author describes how the coal industry was organised: seven regions, central position of Pittsburgh. He outlines the tremendous growth of coal production between 1840 and 1913; comments the distribution of this production among the different states. He describes and comments how this production has been industrialised. This industrialisation resulted in a dramatic increase of productivity between 1890 and 1910. He finally evokes the rather late creation of federal bodies

  15. Electric plants to gas, influence of both Mineral Matter and Air Oxidation in coal pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, F.; Jaramillo, A.; Quintero, G.

    1995-01-01

    In this work some coal samples from different Colombia's deposits are analyzed. In first stage, material matter is removed from coal by acid treatment with HF/HCl, and aerial oxidation of coal is made with air in oven to 150 Centigrade degree temperature. In second stage, pyrolysis is carried out in two different techniques: 1. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and 2. Programmed Temperature Pyrolysis (PTP) in a pyrolyzer equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. In both techniques, the coal samples are heated in different rates to 650 Centigrade degree. During PTP trials the evolution of CH4, H2S, hydrocarbons (m/z=42), CO2, benzene and toluene are monitored. Studied coal samples showed: 1). A gas conversion range between 48.8% to 21.8%; 2). A decrease in the gas conversion between 2% to 4%, when oxidation it is applied; 3). The temperature at the one which is presented the maximum evolution of CH4 is similar for all coal samples; 4). The maximum evolution of H2S depends on mineral matter composition, occurs between 480 to 550 Centigrade degrees and is presented due to pyrite decomposition. 5). The evolution of CO2 occurs between 100 to 650 Centigrade degree, its production is generated in different stage of the mentioned temperature range, and in some coal samples is presented due to inorganic origin

  16. Cross sectional and longitudinal study on selenium, glutathione peroxidase, smoking, and occupational exposure in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadif, R.; Oryszczyn, M.P.; Fradier-Dusch, M.; Hellier, G.; Bertrand, J.P.; Pham, Q.T.; Kauffmann, F. [INSERM, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France). Faculty of Medicine

    2001-04-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the variations of selenium (Se) concentration relative to changes in occupational exposure to coal dust, taking into account age and changes in smoking habits in miners surveyed twice, in 1990 and 1994. It was found that selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activities (GSH-Px) activities were significantly lower in active than in retired miners. Moreover, Se concentration was lower in miners exposed to high compared with those exposed to low dust concentrations. In miners exposed to high dust concentrations, Se concentration was significantly lower whereas erythrocyte GSH-Px activity was significantly higher in the subgroup with estimated cumulative exposure {gt} 68 mg/m{sup 3}.y. In all miners, plasma GSH-Px activity was correlated with Se concentration. The 4 year Se changes were negatively related to exposure to high dust concentrations and positively related to change in exposure from high to retirement and to change from smoker to ex-smoker. The variations of Se concentration in relation to changes in occupational exposure to coal dust and in smoking habits, and the close correlation found between plasma Se concentration and GSH-Px activity suggest that both are required in antioxidant defence. These results agree well with the hypothesis that the decrease in Se concentration reflects its use against reactive oxygen species generated by exposure to coal mine dust and by smoking.

  17. Frequency of musculoskeleton health problems and its relation with demographic variables among cherat coal miners district nowshera khyber pukhtunkhwa pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishtiaq, M.; Zehan, N.

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to determine the frequency of musculo-skeleton health problems among the coal miners and to assess the relation of musculo-skeleton with various demographic variables among cherat coal miners of District Nowshera Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was conducted between July and December 2014 at the cherat coal mines of District Nowshera. A sample size of 400 was selected through cluster sampling technique, in which the study area was divided into four clusters and then from each cluster 40% coal miners were selected based on simple random technique. There are approximately 80-90 Cherat coal mines in which around 1000 of coal miners are working. Coal miner's having more than one year of coal mining job were included in the study while those with less than one year or having any pathological problems were excluded from the study population. Field visits were conducted to collect relevant data from the study areas. The structured pretested questionnaire was used to collect data regarding history of musculo-skeleton problems and was evaluated with the selected demographic variables like age, duration of coal mining job, job satisfaction, and previous history of mine injuries. Results: Our study results showed that approximately 61% of coal miners had history of musculo-skeleton problems. Among those coal miners who gave history of musculo-skeleton problems, 76.64% were due to lack of training, 24.59% to early 1-4 years of coal mining job, 60.23% to less than 30 years of coal miner's age, 75.00% to unsatisfied with job, 83.19% to poor/bad knowledge of mine safety measures; 58.87% for not using personnel protective measures; and 67.62% to positive smoking history while the remaining 32.38 were among non-smokers. Conclusion: The frequency of occupational musculo-skeleton problems among coal miners 61% more and had strong relationship with age, duration of coal mining job, smoking behavior, job satisfaction

  18. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal), 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  19. Explanatory models of black lung: understanding the health-related behavior of Appalachian coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, J

    1982-03-01

    Many retired coal miners who are eligible for care in a black lung treatment center at little or no cost to themselves do not enter into available programs or discontinue soon after beginning therapy. Reasons for this behavior are related to the prevalent beliefs among Appalachians concerning the course of black lung and the appropriate treatment for it. The miners' health beliefs are clearly at odds with those of the health care providers who work in the centers. Using the concept of explanatory model, popular and professional health cultures are analyzed, focusing on course of disease, sick role, appropriate treatment, and expected outcome. Differences in explanatory models are discussed with regard to implications for the organization and delivery of care to retired coal miners with black lung.

  20. SULPHIDE MINERALIZATION IN UPPER WESTPHALIAN COAL SEAMS FROM THE EASTERN PART OF THE UPPER SILESIAN COAL BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiarski Ireneusz

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphologically diversified sulphide mineralization has been found in No. 301 and 302 coal seams (Westphalian B. The main sulphide is pyrite which forms veinlets cross-cutting the sedimentary fabrics of the coal, encrusts the cellular structures and intergrowths with oxysulphides. Two generations of pyrites were observed: the preceding and the following the oxysulphides. Pyrite composition is stoichiometric, rare admixtures are up to(in wt.%: Mn - 0.19, Co - 0.48, Ni - 0.42 and As - 1.41. Iron oxysulphides contain up to 35.06 wt.% oxygen. Their composition varies between FeS2O and FeS2O3. Increased contents of As (up to 1.46 wt.% and Pb (up to 0.96 wt.% were detected.

  1. Characterization of products of combustion of mineral coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, H.S.; Albuquerque, J. S. V.; Sales, J.C.; Nogueira, R.E.F.Q.

    2011-01-01

    During the burning of coal in power plants, various types of waste or by products are generated. These materials have been the subject of several studies. They contain ashes and have many technological applications, such as in the production of various types of ceramic pieces. The objective of this work was to study the feasibility of adding the coal combustion products as filler for ceramics. X-ray fluorescence analysis was used to identify and quantify the proportions of the elements contained in the sample and x-ray diffraction to identify the phases present. The analysis by X-ray diffraction revealed a diffraction pattern of silicon sulfide, calcium silicate and sulfide phases of Aluminium, Potassium and Titanium. X-ray fluorescence analysis showed silica (37.14%), calcium (21.86%), aluminum (14.69%) and sulfur (8.70%). These results show characteristics of materials with potential for incorporation in ceramic bodies, provided that some processing is done to eliminate the sulfur. (author)

  2. The cytological status of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Bazeliuk; B.M. Salimbaeva

    2006-11-15

    Sixty-four persons were examined. The examination was undertaken to study the cytomophological parameters of the cells of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners. Group 1 consisted of 18 donors without contact with industrial dust; Group 2 comprised 24 apparently healthy miners; Group 3 included 22 workers (drift miners) with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis, grade 1 respiratory failure. The patients with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis had noticeably worse morphofunctional characteristics of the epithelium that displayed extensive fields with pronounced structural changes, such as destruction and desquamation of the integumentary epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Nasal mucosal atrophic changes were observed in 50% of the examined miners. Examination of the buccal epithelium in apparently healthy miners (code 0) and in workers with Stage I anthracosilicosis revealed the increased proportion of microfloral (Streptococcus) contamination by 79% and 3.7 times, respectively.

  3. Burnout, Depression and Proactive Coping in Underground Coal Miners in Serbia - Pilot Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Saška

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mining is unsurprisingly considered a high-risk occupation because it involves continuous hard labour under highly demanding and stressful conditions. Many of these work stressors can impair individuals’ well-being in both a physiological and psychological sense. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of burnout and depressive symptoms and to evaluate aspects of proactive coping among underground coal miners in Serbia. The study involved 46 male underground coal miners. Burnout was measured with the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and level of proactive coping was measured with the Proactive Coping Inventory. The results showed a low level of burnout syndrome among the underground coal miners (12.46±4.879. Depression was slightly above the minimum (1.2±2.094, and the majority of the participants had no symptoms of depression (93.5%. Overall, the underground coal miners’ ability to proactively cope with work stress was very good (42.17±6.567. This is in contrast to the findings of the few previous international studies and is a good basis for further research using a larger sample in Serbia.

  4. Prevalence of major obstructive sleep apnea syndrome symptoms in coal miners and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kart, Levent; Dutkun, Yalçın; Altın, Remzi; Ornek, Tacettin; Kıran, Sibel

    2010-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is associated with symptoms including habitual snoring, witness apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. Also obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is related to some occupations which are needed attention for work accident. We aimed to determine the prevalence of snoring, witnessed apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness in coal workers and healthy adults in Zonguldak city center, and also evaluate the differences between these groups. This study consisted of 423 underground coal workers and 355 individuals living in centre of Zonguldak. Study and comparison group were chosen by nonstratified randomized sampling method. Data were collected by a questionnaire that included information regarding snoring, witnessed apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. Mean age was 43.3 ± 6.05 years in miners and 44.3 ± 11.8 years in comparison group. In miners, snoring frequency was determined as 42.6%, witnessed apneas were 4.0%, and daytime sleepiness were 4.7%. In comparison group, these symptoms were 38.6%, 4.8% and 2.8% respectively. There were no statistical differences between coal workers and comparison group in these symptoms. Also snoring prevalence was higher in smoker miners. We found that major symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in coal workers are similar to general population in Zonguldak. Further studies that constucted higher populations and with polysomnography are needed to evaluate these findings.

  5. Physiocochemical properties of blood serum proteins of coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandakova, V N; Zemliakova, L F; Sukhanov, V V; Min' ko, L A

    1979-07-01

    Using disk electrophoresis in the polyacrylamide gel, blood serum proteins were studied in miners working under conditions of the combine (the control group) and drilling-and-blasting (the contact with carbon oxide, nitrogen oxides) driving technique under normal temperature conditions. 26 to 27 protein fractions characterized by mobility, thermolability under definite conditions of the experiment and the contitative content were obtained. It is shown that the contact with carbon oxide and nitrogen oxides causes changes in the properties of certain proteins (II3, globulins - 2 alpha 1, 3 alpha 1, 2 beta, 2 alpha 2, 5 alpha 2, 6 alpha 2, 7 alpha 2) of miners' blood serum. Some of these proteins are supposed to participate in the adaptation reactions of the organism.

  6. Impact of organic-mineral matter interactions on thermal reaction pathways for coal model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, A.C. III; Britt, P.F.; Struss, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

    1995-07-01

    Coal is a complex, heterogeneous solid that includes interdispersed mineral matter. However, knowledge of organic-mineral matter interactions is embryonic, and the impact of these interactions on coal pyrolysis and liquefaction is incomplete. Clay minerals, for example, are known to be effective catalysts for organic reactions. Furthermore, clays such as montmorillonite have been proposed to be key catalysts in the thermal alteration of lignin into vitrinite during the coalification process. Recent studies by Hatcher and coworkers on the evolution of coalified woods using microscopy and NMR have led them to propose selective, acid-catalyzed, solid state reaction chemistry to account for retained structural integrity in the wood. However, the chemical feasibility of such reactions in relevant solids is difficult to demonstrate. The authors have begun a model compound study to gain a better molecular level understanding of the effects in the solid state of organic-mineral matter interactions relevant to both coal formation and processing. To satisfy the need for model compounds that remain nonvolatile solids at temperatures ranging to 450 C, model compounds are employed that are chemically bound to the surface of a fumed silica (Si-O-C{sub aryl}linkage). The organic structures currently under investigation are phenethyl phenyl ether (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OC{sub 6}H{sub 5}) derivatives, which serve as models for {beta}-alkyl aryl ether units that are present in lignin and lignitic coals. The solid-state chemistry of these materials at 200--450 C in the presence of interdispersed acid catalysts such as small particle size silica-aluminas and montmorillonite clay will be reported. Initial focus will be on defining the potential impact of these interactions on coal pyrolysis and liquefaction.

  7. Development of slimline logging systems for coal and mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    Recently, interest shown by multinational oil companies in mining prospecting has led to the requirement for more sophisticated slimline logging units, capable of given comparable results to conventional systems. Aspects of operating conditions and logging requirements are discussed, with particular reference to the effect on equipment design. Special consideration is given to the design and calibration of gamma ray, density, neutron, caliper and resistivity tools. Methods of handling data are discussed and the general application of these techniques to mineral work is considered

  8. Minerals in the Ash and Slag from Oxygen-Enriched Underground Coal Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqin Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal gasification (UCG is a promising option for the recovery of low-rank and inaccessible coal resources. Detailed mineralogical information is essential to understand underground reaction conditions far from the surface and optimize the operation parameters during the UCG process. It is also significant in identifying the environmental effects of UCG residue. In this paper, with regard to the underground gasification of lignite, UCG slag was prepared through simulation tests of oxygen-enriched gasification under different atmospheric conditions, and the minerals were identified by X-Ray diffraction (XRD and a scanning electron microscope coupled to an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS. Thermodynamic calculations performed using FactSage 6.4 were used to help to understand the transformation of minerals. The results indicate that an increased oxygen concentration is beneficial to the reformation of mineral crystal after ash fusion and the resulting crystal structures of minerals also tend to be more orderly. The dominant minerals in 60%-O2 and 80%-O2 UCG slag include anorthite, pyroxene, and gehlenite, while amorphous substances almost disappear. In addition, with increasing oxygen content, mullite might react with the calcium oxide existed in the slag to generate anorthite, which could then serve as a calcium source for the formation of gehlenite. In 80%-O2 UCG slag, the iron-bearing mineral is transformed from sekaninaite to pyroxene.

  9. Gas emissions, minerals, and tars associated with three coal fires, Powder River Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A; Radke, Lawrence F; Heffern, Edward L; O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Hower, James C; Smeltzer, Charles D; Hower, Judith M; Olea, Ricardo A; Eatwell, Robert J; Blake, Donald R; Emsbo-Mattingly, Stephen D; Stout, Scott A; Queen, Gerald; Aggen, Kerry L; Kolker, Allan; Prakash, Anupma; Henke, Kevin R; Stracher, Glenn B; Schroeder, Paul A; Román-Colón, Yomayra; ter Schure, Arnout

    2012-03-15

    Ground-based surveys of three coal fires and airborne surveys of two of the fires were conducted near Sheridan, Wyoming. The fires occur in natural outcrops and in abandoned mines, all containing Paleocene-age subbituminous coals. Diffuse (carbon dioxide (CO(2)) only) and vent (CO(2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), and elemental mercury) emission estimates were made for each of the fires. Additionally, gas samples were collected for volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis and showed a large range in variation between vents. The fires produce locally dangerous levels of CO, CO(2), H(2)S, and benzene, among other gases. At one fire in an abandoned coal mine, trends in gas and tar composition followed a change in topography. Total CO(2) fluxes for the fires from airborne, ground-based, and rate of fire advancement estimates ranged from 0.9 to 780mg/s/m(2) and are comparable to other coal fires worldwide. Samples of tar and coal-fire minerals collected from the mouth of vents provided insight into the behavior and formation of the coal fires. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Acidic surface functional groups and mineral elements in Lakra coal (Sindh, Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, K.; Ishaq, M.; Ahjmad, I.; Shakirullah, M.; Haider, S.

    2010-01-01

    Surface acidity of virgin coal (Lakra Sindh, Pakistan) and variously extracted/leached coal samples with HNO/sub 3/ NaOH, and KMnO/sub 4/, were investigated by aqueous potentiometric titration employing KOH as a titrant. The titration curve of virgin coal showed that its surface might contain carboxylic, carbonyl, phenolic and other weak acidic functional groups such as enols and C-H bond. The titration curves of leached coal samples showed inflections at pH 4-11, being not similar the inflections of carboxylic groups. This inflection might be given by functional groups like CO/sub 2/, phenolic, enols and C-H. Mineral matter such as Fe, K, Zn, Mn and Ni were determined in the ash of coal by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and was found that Fe (3104 micro g/g) in the highest and Ni (36.05 micro g/g) in the lowest quantity is present in virgin coal sample. (author)

  11. Influence of inorganic compounds on the combustion of coal. III. The effect of water of constitution of added compounds, moisture, and mineral matter in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newall, H F

    1939-01-01

    The effects on the combustion rate from excess moisture and the addition of selected inorganic substances to powdered coals were determined. The catalytic effect of 19 known inorganic ash constituents on combustion rates was also examined. Alumina and silica were found to inhibit combustion while ferric oxide accelerated it. Titanium, Ge, and B oxides, along with gypsum and calcium phosphate, decreased the rate of combusion, while Ca, Mg, Mn, and V oxides increased combustion rates. Although several of the ash constituents in coal directly affected combustion rates, the effect of adding them to the coal prior to combustion did not correlate with the effect of the mineral matter already in the coal.

  12. A prospective cohort study among new Chinese coal miners: the early pattern of lung function change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.L.; Wu, Z.E.; Du, Q.G.; Petsonk, E.L.; Peng, K.L.; Li, Y.D.; Li, S.K.; Han, G.H.; Atffield, M.D. [NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2005-11-01

    The early pattern of lung function changes in 317 newly hired Chinese underground coal miners was compared to 132 referents. This three year prospective cohort study involved a pre-employment and 15 follow up health surveys, including a questionnaire and spirometry tests. Twice a month, total and respirable dust area sampling was done. The authors used a two stage analysis and a linear mixed effects model approach to analyse the longitudinal spirometry data, and to investigate the changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over time, controlling for age, height, pack years of smoking, mean respirable dust concentration, the room temperature during testing, and the group x time interaction terms. Results: FEV1 change over time in new miners is non-linear. New miners experience initial rapid FEV1 declines, primarily during the first year of mining, little change during the second year, and partial recovery during the third year. Both linear and quadratic time trends in FEV1 change are highly significant. Smoking miners lost more FEV1 than non-smokers. Referents, all age less than 20 years, showed continued lung growth, whereas the miners who were under age 20 exhibited a decline in FEV1. Conclusion: Dust and smoking affect lung function in young, newly hired Chinese coal miners. FEV1 change over the first three years of employment is non-linear. The findings have implications for both methods and interpretation of medical screening in coal mining and other dusty work: during the first several years of employment more frequent testing may be desirable, and caution is required in interpreting early FEV1 declines.

  13. The release of mineral matter and associated phosphorus as a function of the particle size coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claassens, V. [Sasol Technology Research & Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Syngas & Coal Technologies

    2009-05-15

    The presence of phosphorus in carbon reductants is a major concern in the metallurgical industry. The behaviour of the phosphorus and mineral matter content (reported as ash) as a function of particle size was investigated. The primary aim of this study was to determine the reduction in phosphorus and mineral matter that occurred as the particle size decreased. A secondary aim was to determine how the phosphorus was distributed in the feed coal and to where it reported during floc-flotation. Results showed that the ash content decreased more rapidly than the phosphorus content as the mean particle size was reduced. It remains unclear why P-rejection is only half as effective as mineral matter rejection. Detailed liberation analysis of P-containing minerals is required to possibly explain this phenomenon.

  14. Behavior of catalyst and mineral matter in coal liquefaction; Sekitan ekika hannochu no kobusshitsu to shokubai no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, K.; Wang, J.; Tomita, A. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    Mineral matter in coals is important in various senses for coal liquefaction. It is possible that the catalytic activity is affected by the interaction between catalyst and mineral matter. Iron-based catalyst forms pyrrhotite in the process of liquefaction, but the interaction between it and mineral matter is not known in detail. In this study, the interaction between mineral matter and catalyst and the selective reaction between them were investigated. Tanito Harum coal was used for this study. This coal contains a slight amount of siderite and jarosite besides pyrite as iron compounds. Liquefaction samples were obtained from the 1 t/d NEDOL process PSU. The solid deposits in the reactor mainly contained pyrrhotite and quartz. A slight amount of kaolinite was observed, and pyrite was little remained. It was found that the catalyst (pyrrhotite) often coexisted with quartz, clay and calcite. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Pre-Concentration of Vanadium from Stone Coal by Gravity Using Fine Mineral Spiral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low grade of V2O5 in stone coal, the existing vanadium extraction technologies face challenges in terms of large handling capacity, high acid consumption and production cost. The pre-concentration of vanadium from stone coal before the extraction process is an effective method to reduce cost. In this study, detailed mineral characterization of stone coal was investigated. It has been confirmed that the vanadium mainly occurs in muscovite and illite. A significant demand for an effective pre-concentration process with simple manipulation for discarding quartz and other gangue minerals is expected. Based on the mineralogical study, a new vanadium pre-concentration process using a fine mineral spiral was investigated. The experimental results showed that the separation process, which was comprised of a rougher and scavenger, could efficiently discard quartz, pyrite and apatite. A final concentrate with V2O5 grade of 1.02% and recovery of 89.6% could be obtained, with 26.9% of the raw ore being discarded as final tailings.

  16. Quantitative determination of mineral coal impurities from Brazil through optical emission spectrography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clain, Almir Faria

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to develop a spectrographic technique to determine the highest possible number of the chemical elements micro-constituents of Brazilian mineral coals. The experimental technique developed corresponds to the so called total-burning procedure. Coal samples were calcined to ashes at 400°C and then totally burned in graphite electrodes by a DC arc. The spectrographic measurements were made in a Jarrell-Ash emission spectrograph, Ebert mounting type, model Mark IV. An inert atmosphere chamber (for a gaseous mixture 20% 0 2 and 80% air) and a seven step rotating sector were used as main accessories. The analytical curves for the different elements, were obtained using synthetic standards in the concentration range of 10 to 1.000 ppm, and the standards as well as the coal ashes were diluted with spectrographically pure graphite in 1:1 ratio. Seventeen coal samples from different shells and strata of Morungava and Charqueadas mines - Rio Grande do Sul State - were analyzed to test the proposed technique, being possible to determine the following elements: B, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga,Pb, Ge, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sn, Sb, V, Y, Zn and Zr. The coefficient of variation was 14% in average for all the elements and the sensitivity was so that the majority of the impurities present in the coals were analyzed. (author)

  17. Contributions of dust exposure and cigarette smoking to emphysema severity in coal miners in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuempel, E.D.; Wheeler, M.W.; Smith, R.J.; Vallyathan, V.; Green, F.H.Y. [NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Previous studies have shown associations between dust exposure or lung burden and emphysema in coal miners, although the separate contributions of various predictors have not been clearly demonstrated. The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust, cigarette smoking, and other factors on emphysema severity. The study group included 722 autopsied coal miners and nonminers in the United States. Data on work history, smoking, race, and age at death were obtained from medical records and questionnaire completed by next-of-kin. Emphysema was classified and graded using a standardized schema. Job-specific mean concentrations of respirable coal mine dust were matched with work histories to estimate cumulative exposure. Relationships between various metrics of dust exposure (including cumulative exposure and lung dust burden) and emphysema severity were investigated in weighted least squares regression models. Emphysema severity was significantly elevated in coal miners compared with nonminers among ever- and never-smokers (P < 0.0001). Cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust or coal dust retained in the lungs were significant predictors of emphysema severity (P < 0.0001) after accounting for cigarette smoking, age at death, and race. The contributions of coal mine dust exposure and cigarette smoking were similar in predicting emphysema severity averaged over this cohort. Coal dust exposure, cigarette smoking, age, and race are significant and additive predictors of emphysema severity in this study.

  18. Meanings of sex, concepts of risk and sexual practices among migrant coal miners in Quang Ninh, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tuan, Ta

    2010-08-01

    The study explores the meanings of sex among migrant coal miners in Vietnam and identifies contextual factors influencing engagement in unsafe sexual practices. Findings reveal that sex carries a number of social meanings in the lives of migrant miners: sex is relaxation and reward for their risk and hard work; access to sex is an incentive for miners to continue working in the mine; sex strengthens identity and social networks; sex helps miners to affirm manhood, group membership and masculinity; and sex workers are confidants with whom they can share their problems. Facing accidents at work on a daily basis, miners are less inclined to worry about the long-term risks of HIV infection. In addition, being excluded from access to relevant information, miners feel distant from HIV infection. Findings suggest that interventions on sexual behaviour and practices should be sensitive to the concepts of risk and meanings of sex among migrant groups such as coal miners.

  19. The three-dimensional shapes of underground coal miners' feet do not match the internal dimensions of their work boots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2018-04-01

    Mining work boots provide an interface between the foot and the ground, protecting and supporting miners' feet during lengthy coal mining shifts. Although underground coal miners report the fit of their work boots as reasonable to good, they frequently rate their boots as uncomfortable, suggesting that there is a mismatch between the shape of their feet and their boots. This study aimed to identify whether dimensions derived from the three-dimensional scans of 208 underground coal miners' feet (age 38.3 ± 9.8 years) differed from the internal dimensions of their work boots. The results revealed underground coal miners wore boots that were substantially longer than their feet, possibly because boots available in their correct length were too narrow. It is recommended boot manufacturers reassess the algorithms used to create boot lasts, focusing on adjusting boot circumference at the instep and heel relative to increases in foot length. Practitioner Summary: Fit and comfort ratings suggest a mismatch between the shape of underground coal miners' feet and their boots exists. This study examined whether three-dimensional scans of 208 miners' feet differed from their boot internal dimensions. Miners wore boots substantially longer than their feet, possibly due to inadequate width.

  20. A kinetic study of gaseous potassium capture by coal minerals in a high temperature fixed-bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    The reactions between gaseous potassium chloride and coal minerals were investigated in a lab-scale high temperature fixed-bed reactor using single sorbent pellets. The applied coal minerals included kaolin, mullite, silica, alumina, bituminous coal ash, and lignite coal ash that were formed...... into long cylindrical pellets. Kaolin and bituminous coal ash that both have significant amounts of Si and Al show superior potassium capture characteristics. Experimental results show that capture of potassium by kaolin is independent of the gas oxygen content. Kaolin releases water and forms metakaolin...... when heated at temperatures above 450°C. The amounts of potassium captured by metakaolin pellet decreases with increasing reaction temperature in the range of 900-1300°C and increases again with further increasing the temperature up to 1500°C. There is no reaction of pre-made mullite with KCl...

  1. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: Quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuempel, E. D.; Vallyathan, V.; Green, F. H. Y.

    2009-02-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1, as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV1 <80% at the cohort mean cumulative coal dust exposure (87 mg/m3 x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79).

  2. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.D. Kuempel; V. Vallyathan; F.H.Y. Green [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV{sub 1}, as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV1 <80% at the cohort mean cumulative coal dust exposure (87 mg/m{sup 3} x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79). 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: Quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuempel, E D [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Education and Information Division, Risk Evaluation Branch, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Vallyathan, V [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Health Effects Laboratory Division, Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Green, F H Y, E-mail: ekuempel@cdc.go [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-02-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV{sub 1}, as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV{sub 1} <80% at the cohort mean cumulative coal dust exposure (87 mg/m{sup 3} x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79).

  4. [Changes in the interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 concentrations in the blood plasma of miners working in deep coal mines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Belkina, E B

    2000-03-01

    Blood plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured in 45 miners working in a deep coal mine immediately after work shift using an immunoenzyme technique. The highest IL-6 level was recorded in those miners engaged in hard work under most adverse conditions of underground workings--it was found to exceed the control values. The same group of workers demonstrated the lowest level of IL-10 that differed from the control value. Miners aged between 41 to 50 years working in a coal mine, their underground service duration 16 to 20 years, displayed a decline in the level of IL-6. The coal mine miners with the 11- to 15-year service duration revealed an increase in the level of IL-10.

  5. Applying a health action model to predict and improve healthy behaviors in coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedian-Shahroodi, Mohammad; Tehrani, Hadi; Mohammadi, Faeze; Gholian-Aval, Mahdi; Peyman, Nooshin

    2018-05-01

    One of the most important ways to prevent work-related diseases in occupations such as mining is to promote healthy behaviors among miners. This study aimed to predict and promote healthy behaviors among coal miners by using a health action model (HAM). The study was conducted on 200 coal miners in Iran in two steps. In the first step, a descriptive study was implemented to determine predictive constructs and effectiveness of HAM on behavioral intention. The second step involved a quasi-experimental study to determine the effect of an HAM-based education intervention. This intervention was implemented by the researcher and the head of the safety unit based on the predictive construct specified in the first step over 12 sessions of 60 min. The data was collected using an HAM questionnaire and a checklist of healthy behavior. The results of the first step of the study showed that attitude, belief, and normative constructs were meaningful predictors of behavioral intention. Also, the results of the second step revealed that the mean score of attitude and behavioral intention increased significantly after conducting the intervention in the experimental group, while the mean score of these constructs decreased significantly in the control group. The findings of this study showed that HAM-based educational intervention could improve the healthy behaviors of mine workers. Therefore, it is recommended to extend the application of this model to other working groups to improve healthy behaviors.

  6. Elaboration of new ceramic microfiltration membranes from mineral coal fly ash applied to waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedidi, Ilyes; Saïdi, Sami; Khemakhem, Sabeur; Larbot, André; Elloumi-Ammar, Najwa; Fourati, Amine; Charfi, Aboulhassan; Salah, Abdelhamid Ben; Amar, Raja Ben

    2009-12-15

    This work aims to develop a new mineral porous tubular membrane based on mineral coal fly ash. Finely ground mineral coal powder was calcinated at 700 degrees C for about 3 h. The elaboration of the mesoporous layer was performed by the slip-casting method using a suspension made of the mixture of fly-ash powder, water and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The obtained membrane was submitted to a thermal treatment which consists in drying at room temperature for 24 h then a sintering at 800 degrees C. SEM photographs indicated that the membrane surface was homogeneous and did not present any macrodefects (cracks, etc...). The average pore diameter of the active layer was 0.25 microm and the thickness was around 20 microm. The membrane permeability was 475 l/h m(2) bar. This membrane was applied to the treatment of the dying effluents generated by the washing baths in the textile industry. The performances in term of permeate flux and efficiency were determined and compared to those obtained using a commercial alumina microfiltration membrane. Almost the same stabilised permeate flux was obtained (about 100 l h(-1)m(-2)). The quality of permeate was almost the same with the two membranes: the COD and color removal was 75% and 90% respectively.

  7. Miners' lung: a history of dust disease in British coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur McIvor; Ronald Johnston

    2007-02-15

    The authors explore the experience of coal miners' lung diseases and the attempts at voluntary and legal control of dusty conditions in British mining from the late nineteenth century to the present. In this way, the book addresses the important issues of occupational health and safety within the mining industry. The authors examine the prevalent diseases, notably pneumoconiosis, emphysema and bronchitis, and evaluate the roles of key players such as the doctors, management and employers, the state and the trade unions. Contents are: General editor's preface; Introduction. Part 1 Interpretations and Context: Methodology and historiography; Work and the body in coalmining. Part 2 Advancing Medical Knowledge on Dust Disease: Coal workers' pneumoconiosis: discovery and denial; Social medicine and pioneering epidemiology; The last gasp: bronchitis and emphysema. Part 3 The Industrial Politics of Miners' Lung: 'Enlightened management'? The NCB, the state and dust; The trade unions and dust. Part 4 Miners' Testimonies: Dust and Disability Narratives: Workplace culture: risk and masculinity; Breathless men: living and dying with dust disease. Conclusion. 3 figs., 10 tabs., 1 app.

  8. Molecular analysis of p53 and K-ras in lung carcinomas of coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, F.H.; Li, Y.W.; Vallyathan, V. [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States). School of Medicine, Dept. of Pathology

    2001-10-01

    Thirty-three cases of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) from the archives of National Coal Workers' Autopsy Study were studied for mutational alterations in p53 and K-ras using PCR-SSCP, DNA sequencing and PCR-oligonucleotide probe hybridization techniques. Mutations of the p53 were observed in 4 smokers (19%) and one in a never smoker (8%). Two polymorphisms in smokers were detected at codon 213, a common site for sequence variation. Among the smokers the p53 mutations were in the heavy smokers. In never smokers there was only a single p53 mutation and two K-ras mutations. In never smokers the frequency of K-ras mutations was similar (17%) in smokers, but one never smoker had two K-ras mutations. Mutations of p53 were more frequent in adenocarcinomas (27%) and they were AT-GC transitions. There were two large cell undifferentiated carcinomas with p53 mutation and one with a K-ras mutation. Two of the 16 squamous cell carcinomas were positive for p53 mutation, while no K-ras mutations were found in this group. The results of these preliminary studies indicate a moderately different mutational spectrum of p53 and K-ras in coal miners independent of cigarette smoking. The mutational spectrum observed in this study of coal miners with heavy cigarette smoking history suggest a protective effect of coal mine dust in preventing abnormal mutations induced by chemical carcinogens in cigarette smoke or reactive oxygen species.

  9. Exposure to radon and mortality standard in a coal miner cohort in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, Lene Holanda Sadler; Amaral, Eliana; Koifman, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    High levels of radon and his products have been found at a underground coal mine, at the Southern Brazil, in operation since 1945. The 222 Rn concentration levels measured were 7000 Bq/m 3 and 0.7 WL for the radon sons (7.7 WLM/year), which are values considered higher than the limits for intervention in a working environments (500 to 1500 Bq/m3 of 222 Rn) and the occupational exposure limit (4.0 WLM/year). Due to the unique opportunity found in these miner group, it was decided to construct a cohort with miners from that mining (underground and surface) viewing the evaluation of the possible effects to the health decurrens from that exposure

  10. Moessbauer and XRD Characterization of the Mineral Matter of Coal from the Guachinte Mine in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, F.; Perez Alcazar, G. A.; Barraza, J. M.; Bohorquez, A.; Tabares, J. A.; Speziali, N. L.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization and differentiation, using Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), of coal samples with different ash and sulfur contents obtained in three places corresponding at cuts in different seams from the Guachinte mine, Valle, Colombia. The mineral phases identified by XRD were in general kaolinite, quartz, pyrite and gypsum, and in particular dolomite and calcite. MS confirms the presence of pyrite and kaolinite, besides evidences the additional presence of jarosite which was not detected by the XRD results due their low amounts. In the high mineral matter ash sample quartz and hematite was identified by XRD, the last one confirmed by MS results. A second phase in this sample was detected by Moessbauer spectroscopy, which could be superparamagnetic hematite. Rietveld refinement for XRD pattern from a sample is reported.

  11. Increasing Severity of Pneumoconiosis Among Younger Former US Coal Miners Working Exclusively Under Modern Dust-Control Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Judith M; Harris, Gerald; Almberg, Kirsten S; Rose, Cecile S; Petsonk, Edward L; Cohen, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) steadily declined among US miners following dust control regulations in 1970. In 2000, severe forms of this disease reemerged among young miners, and are well described among working-but not former-miners. Black lung benefits program (BLBP) data (2001 to 2013) were used to estimate respiratory disease burden among former miners including: (1) CWP (simple; advanced CWP, and progressive massive fibrosis [CWP/PMF]); and (2) respiratory impairment (FEV1 percent reference: mild, moderate, ≥moderately-severe). Among 24,686 claimants, 8.5% had advanced CWP/PMF; prevalence was highest among younger (less than or equal to 56 years: 10.8%) and older (greater than 70 years: 8.4%) miners and those who began work after versus before 1970 (8.3% vs. 4.0%). BLBP claims provide potentially useful data for monitoring the burden and severity of coal mine dust lung disease, and assessing efficacy of protective regulations.

  12. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, September 1, 1980-November 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D.; Givens, E.N.; Schweighardt, F.K.; Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Shridharani, K.; Huang, W.J.

    1981-02-01

    The effects of minerals and inexpensive ores or by-products (pyrites, red mud, flue dust, speculites, zinc sulfides, calcium oxide, dolomites, mica, molybdenite) in catalysing coal liquefaction or the hydrogenation of process solvents was studied with different cokes and solvents. Improved results were obtained in several cokes and th results are given in terms of oil fields, hydrogen consumption, desulfurization of SRC, etc. The addition of pyrite resulted in increased production of oils and increased conversion of coal; however, the effects varied from coal to coal. Dolomite, mica and molybdenite had insignificant catalytic activity. The reduction of pyrite, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ at process conditions was studied. (LTN)

  13. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: Quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuempel, E D; Vallyathan, V; Green, F H Y

    2009-01-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV 1 , as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV 1 3 x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79).

  14. [Correlative factors on prevalence rate of dislipidemia among 1 337 coal miners in Shanxi province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z D; Wen, D D; Wang, B; Xue, S L; Liu, G S; Li, X H; Zhao, Z H; Wang, J; Wei, B G; Wang, S P

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To understand the prevalence rate and correlative factors of dislipidemia among Shanxi coal miners and to provide evidence for the development of programs on dislipidemia prevention. Methods: We investigated 1 337 mine workers from a Coal Group in April 2016 and collected data related to their blood biochemistry. We then classified the types in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of " Guidelines for prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults (2007)" , using χ (2) test and unconditional logistic regression model for analysis. Results: The overall prevalence rate of Dislipidemia was 59.1% (790/1 337), with males as 60.4% (708/1 173) and females as 50.0%(82/164) while males appeared higher ( χ (2)=6.386, P dislipidemia ( χ (2)=7.117, P dislipidemia ( P dislipidemia. Conclusion: Among the coal mine workers, those who were males, aged from 20 to 34, having high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure abnormalities) or with high BMI (≥24.0 kg/m(2)) need to be taken special attention on care and prevention of dislipidemia.

  15. Predicted mineral melt formation by BCURA Coal Sample Bank coals: Variation with atmosphere and comparison with reported ash fusion test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Thompson [University of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Department of Engineering Materials

    2010-08-15

    The thermodynamic equilibrium phases formed under ash fusion test and excess air combustion conditions by 30 coals of the BCURA Coal Sample Bank have been predicted from 1100 to 2000 K using the MTDATA computational suite and the MTOX database for silicate melts and associated phases. Predicted speciation and degree of melting varied widely from coal to coal. Melting under an ash fusion test atmosphere of CO{sub 2}:H{sub 2} 1:1 was essentially the same as under excess air combustion conditions for some coals, and markedly different for others. For those ashes which flowed below the fusion test maximum temperature of 1773 K flow coincided with 75-100% melting in most cases. Flow at low predicted melt formation (46%) for one coal cannot be attributed to any one cause. The difference between predicted fusion behaviours under excess air and fusion test atmospheres becomes greater with decreasing silica and alumina, and increasing iron, calcium and alkali metal content in the coal mineral. 22 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Estimation of respirable dust exposure among coal miners in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Rajen; Seixas, Noah; Robins, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    The use of retrospective occupational hygiene data for epidemiologic studies is useful in determining exposure-outcome relationships, but the potential for exposure misclassification is high. Although dust sampling in the South African coal industry has been a legal requirement for several decades, these historical data are not readily adequate for estimating past exposures. This study describes the respirable coal mine dust levels in three South African coal mines over time. Each of the participating mining operations had well-documented dust sampling information that was used to describe historical trends in dust exposure. Investigator-collected personal dust samples were taken using standardized techniques from the face, backbye (underground jobs not at the coal face), and surface from 50 miners at each mine, repeated over three sampling cycles. Job histories and exposure information was obtained from a sample of 684 current miners and 188 ex-miners. Linear models were developed to estimate the exposure levels associated with work in each mine, exposure zone, and over time using a combination of operator-collected historical data and investigator-collected samples. The estimated levels were then combined with work history information to calculate cumulative exposure metrics for the miner cohort. The mean historical and investigator-collected respirable dust levels were within international norms and South African standards. Silica content of the dust samples was also below the 5% regulatory action level. Mean respirable dust concentrations at the face, based on investigator-collected samples, were 0.9 mg/m(3), 1.3 mg/m(3), and 1.9 mg/m(3) at Mines 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The operator-collected samples showed considerable variability across exposure zones, mines, and time, with the annual means at the face ranging from 0.4 mg/m(3) to 2.9 mg/m(3). Statistically significant findings were found between operator- and investigator-collected dust samples. Model

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging for the wrist joint of the coal miners in vibration department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, X.Z.; Liu, R.L.; Hu, S.D.; Zhang, W.; Xu, W.X.; Ge, L.X. [Central Hospital of Zaozhuang Mine Corporation, Zaozhuang (China)

    2006-04-15

    To study the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the wrist joint of coal miners who work in excavation and vibration department. Forty-three coal miners with the hand-arm vibration disease served as the observation group while 20 workers who were not working in the vibration department acted as the control group. The patients in the observation group were divided into five subgroups according to the time when they received vibration. The regularity of the development of signs and symptoms of MRI was observed and analyzed. The hydroarthrosis was most found in MRI. There were significant difference in hydroarthrosis osteoporosis and osteomyelitis between the observation group and the control group. The edema of bone marrow and the avascular necrosis of ossa carpi were found only in the observation group and not found in the control group. The hydroarthrosis and the edema of bone marrow occurred most in the early stage of vibration. The signal in the edema of the bone marrow of the distal end of the radius was decreased in the GE sequence with the specificity. Changes in the wrist joint occur in the early stage of the vibration work, and can be found in the MRI. The edema of the bone marrow of the distal end of the radius is of great value in the diagnosis of the hand-arm vibration disease.

  18. James Craufurd Gregory, 19th century Scottish physicians, and the link between occupation as a coal miner and lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, K; Wallace, W A; Elliot, T A; Henry, C

    2017-09-01

    By the mid-19th century about 200,000 miners were employed in a UK coal mining industry still growing with the advances of the Industrial Revolution. Coal miners were long known to suffer poor health but the link to inhaling dust in the mines had not been made. In 1813 George Pearson was the first to suggest that darkening of lungs seen in normal individuals as they aged was caused by inhaled soot from burning oil, candles and coal, which were the common domestic sources of heat and light. In 1831 Dr James Craufurd Gregory first described black pigmentation and disease in the lungs of a deceased coal miner and linked this to pulmonary accumulation of coal mine dust. Gregory hypothesised that the black material seen at autopsy in the collier's lungs was inhaled coal dust and this was confirmed by chemical analysis carried out by Professor Sir Robert Christison. Gregory suggested that coal dust was the cause of the disease and warned physicians in mining areas to be vigilant for the disease. This first description of what came to be known as 'coal worker's pneumoconiosis' sparked a remarkable intellectual effort by physicians in Scotland, culminating in a large body of published work that led to the first understandings of this disease and its link to coalblackened lungs. This paper sets out the history of the role of Scottish physicians in gaining this understanding of coal worker's pneumoconiosis. It describes Gregory's case and the lung - recently discovered in the pathology collection of the Surgeons' Hall Museums, Edinburgh, where it has lain unnoticed for over 180 years - on which Gregory based his landmark paper.

  19. The estimation of the number of underground coal miners and normalization collective dose at present in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fu-dong; Chen, Lu; Pan, Zi-qiang; Liu, Sen-lin; Chen, Ling; Wang, Chun-hong

    2017-01-01

    Due to the improvement of production technology and the adjustment of energy structure, as well as the town-ownership and private-ownership coal mines (TPCM) were closed or merged by national policy, the number of underground miner has changed comparing with 2004 in China, so collective dose and normalization collective dose in different type of coal mine should be changed at the same time. In this paper, according to radiation exposure by different ventilation condition and the annual output, the coal mines in China are divided into three types, which are named as national key coal mines (NKCM), station-owned local coal mines (SLCM) and TPCM. The number of underground coal miner, collective dose and normalization collective dose are estimated at present base on surveying annual output and production efficiency of raw coal in 2005-2014. The typical total value of the underground coal miners recommended in China is 5.1 million in 2005-2009, and in which there are respectively included 1 million, 0.9 million and 3.2 million for NKCM, SLCM and TPCM. There are total of 4.7 million underground coal miner in 2010-2014, and the respectively number for NKCM, SLCM and TPCM are 1.4 million, 1.2 million and 2.1 million. The collective dose in 2005-2009 is 11 335 man.Sv.y"-"1, and in which there are respectively included 280, 495 and 10 560 man.Sv.y"-"1 for NKCM, SLCM and TPCM. As far as 2010-2014, there are total of 7982 man.Sv.y"-"1, and 392, 660 and 6930 man.Sv.y"-"1 for each type of coal mines. Therefore, the main contributor of collective dose is from TPCM. The normalization collective dose in 2005-2009 is 0.0025, 0.015 and 0.117 man.Sv per 10 kt for NKCM, SLCM and TPCM, respectively. As far as 2010-2014, there are 0.0018, 0.010 and 0.107 man.Sv per 10 kt for each type of coal mines. The trend of normalization collective dose is decreased year by year. (authors)

  20. Using the extended parallel process model to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among coal miners in Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Johnson, L.; Witte, K.; Patel, D.; Orrego, V.; Zuckerman, C.; Maxfield, A.M.; Thimons, E.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (US)

    2004-12-15

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss is the second most self-reported occupational illness or injury in the United States. Among coal miners, more than 90% of the population reports a hearing deficit by age 55. In this formative evaluation, focus groups were conducted with coal miners in Appalachia to ascertain whether miners perceive hearing loss as a major health risk and if so, what would motivate the consistent wearing of hearing protection devices (HPDs). The theoretical framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model was used to identify the miners' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and current behaviors regarding hearing protection. Focus group participants had strong perceived severity and varying levels of perceived susceptibility to hearing loss. Various barriers significantly reduced the self-efficacy and the response efficacy of using hearing protection.

  1. [Disorders of locomotor system and effectiveness of physiotherapy in coal miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilski, Bartosz; Bednarek, Agata

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the survey was to analyze the efficacy of physiotherapy applied in coal miners as well as to assess their locomotor system load and the effects of working conditions in mines. The questionnaire survey covered a group of 51 miners, aged 28-76 years (mean, 54 years), undergoing physiotherapeutic procedures in the mine out-patient clinic during the first quarter of 2003. The survey revealed that lumbosacral disorders were the most frequent locomotor system complaints reported by miners, especially those who work in a bending down position. According to the clinical data, spondylosis and allied disorders were the main reasons for pain in this part of the body. Having analyzed the relationship between age and occurrence of back pains, the majority of complaints were found in the 46-55 age group (two complaints per one respondent). The analysis of the association between back pains and duration of employment revealed that the complaints for the locomotor system occurred already after a five-year employment. The survey showed that the application of physiotherapeutic procedures diminished the back pain in the study group by 2.83 on average on the 0-10 scale. It was also found that magnetotherapy proved to be the most effective method in treating the spinal degenerative changes.

  2. Associations between occupational factors and occupational injury and the interplay of personal factors in Indian and French coal miners.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacherjee, A.; Kunar, BM.; Baumann, Michèle

    2011-01-01

    Research studies during the last decade have shown the roles of occupational and individual factors in occupational injury but a few information is available regarding their interplay. This study aimed at assessing the roles of occupational hazards and exploring their contributions to the occurrences of injuries among the Indian and French coal miners. In this study two surveys were conducted. The survey in India was a matched case-control study including 245 miners with an occupational injur...

  3. Relationships of physical job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashis Bhattacherjee; Jean-Pierre Bertrand; Jean-Pierre Meyer (and others) [Indian Institute of Technology (India). Department of Mining Engineering

    2007-04-15

    This study assessed the relationships of job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries among coal miners. The sample included randomly selected 516 underground workers. They completed a standardized self-administred questionnaire. The data were analyzed via logistic regression method. The rate of injuries in the past two years was 29.8%. The job tasks with significant crude relative risks were: power hammer, vibrating hand tools, pneumatic tools, bent trunk, awkward work posture, heat, standing about and walking, job tasks for trunk and upper/lower limbs, pain caused by work, and muscular tiredness. Logistic model shows a strong relationship between the number of job tasks (JT) and injuries and significant ORs=1.71 for face work, not-good-health-status, and psychotropic drug use. Musculoskeletal disorders and certain personality traits were also significant in univariate analysis. Therefore job tasks and living conditions strongly increase the injuries, and occupational physicians could help workers to find remedial measures.

  4. Osteoarthritis of the knee in coal miners: report by the Industrial Injuries Advisory Council in accordance with Section 171 of the Social Security Administration Act 1992 considering prescription for osteoarthritis of the knee in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-15

    The report considers prescription for osteoarthritis of the knee in miners. Osteoarthritis of the knee, a common disorder in the general population, was last reviewed by the Council in May 1995 in its Command paper 'Disorders of the Knee' (Cm. 2842). This report follows a representation from an ex-Council member highlighting epidemiological evidence of an increased risk of this disorder in miners. The coal mining industry has undergone many changes which have decreased the extent to which miners have been exposed to such employment conditions, notably the closure of many mines by 1986. However, there is evidence that the relevant exposure circumstances will still have occurred after 1986 in certain categories of miner, such as faceworkers working nonmechanised coal faces.It is recommended that osteoarthritis of the knee should be prescribed in relation to work as an underground miner for ten years or more in aggregate; but that to be reckonable, any service from 1986 onwards should be in certain specific categories of coal mining occupation, as set out in the recommended prescription schedule. 2 apps.

  5. Book review: Economic geology: Principles and practice: Metals, minerals, coal and hydrocarbons—Introduction to formation and sustainable exploitation of mineral deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This volume, available in both hardcover and paperback, is an English translation of the fifth edition of the German language text Mineralische und Energie-Rohstoffe. The book provides an extensive overview of natural resources and societal issues associated with extracting raw materials. The comprehensive list of raw materials discussed includes metals, industrial minerals, coal, and hydrocarbons. The book is divided into four parts: (1) “Metalliferous ore deposits,” (2) “Nonmetallic minerals and rocks,” (3) “Practice of economic geology,” and (4) “Fossil energy raw materials—coal, oil, and gas.” These sections are bound by a brief introduction and an extensive list of up-to-date references as well as an index. Each chapter begins with a concise synopsis and concludes with a summary that contains useful suggestions for additional reading. All figures are grayscale images and line drawings; however, several have been grouped together and reproduced as color plates. Also included is a companion website (www.wiley.com/go/pohl/geology) that contains additional resources, such as digital copies of figures, tables, and an expanded index, all available for download in easy-to-use formats.Economic Geology: Principles and Practice: Metals, Minerals, Coal and Hydrocarbons—Introduction to Formation and Sustainable Exploitation of Mineral Deposits. Walter l. Pohl. 2011. Wiley-Blackwell. Pp. 663. ISBN 978-1-4443-3663-4 (paperback).

  6. Obtention and characterization of ceramic products with addition of the mineral coal bottom ashes from thermoelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniess, C.T.; Prates, P.B.; Brys, M.; Martins, G.J.; Riella, H.G.; Bernardin, A.

    2011-01-01

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of mineral coal bottom ash derived from thermoelectric power plants are compatible with various raw materials used in ceramic industries, which indicates a possibility of partial or fully substitution of raw materials by this residue. This work intends to obtain and characterize ceramic products with additions of different percentages of bottom ash coal. For this, was used a commercial ceramic body (CI) made by an industry in the state of Santa Catarina. The formulations of the ceramics products were obtained by the mixture design (planning network Simplex). The byproduct of coal bottom ash was found to be an attractive raw material source of SiO_2 and Al_2O_3 to obtain ceramic materials. Was demonstrated the possibility of developing a ceramic materials classified as semi-porous (6 10) with additions of up to 20% of coal bottom ash in the composition of the ceramic body. (author)

  7. Battling Chronic Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauer, Kim

    2016-01-01

    While the principal of a New York elementary school (P.S. 48) took on chronic absenteeism from 2011 to 2013, a research team at the Center for New York City Affairs followed her efforts. The school drove down chronic absenteeism almost 10 percentage points. School staff routinely touched base with students, outside "success mentors"…

  8. The properties of the nano-minerals and hazardous elements: Potential environmental impacts of Brazilian coal waste fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civeira, Matheus S; Pinheiro, Rafael N; Gredilla, Ainara; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez Ortiz; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Ramos, Claudete G; Taffarel, Silvio R; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-02-15

    Brazilian coal area (South Brazil) impacted the environment by means of a large number of coal waste piles emplaced over the old mine sites and the adjacent areas of the Criciúma, Urussanga, and Siderópolis cities. The area studied here was abandoned and after almost 30 years (smokeless visual) some companies use the actual minerals derived from burning coal cleaning rejects (BCCRs) complied in the mentioned area for industry tiles or refractory bricks. Mineralogical and geochemical similarities between the BCCRs and non-anthropogenic geological environments are outlined here. Although no visible flames were observed, this study revealed that auto-combustion existed in the studied area for many years. The presence of amorphous phases, mullite, hematite and other Fe-minerals formed by high temperature was found. There is also pyrite, Fe-sulphates (eg. jarosite) and unburnt coal present, which are useful for comparison purposes. Bad disposal of coal-dump wastes represents significant environmental concerns due to their potential influence on atmosphere, river sediments, soils and as well as on the surface and groundwater in the surroundings of these areas. The present study using advanced analytical techniques were performed to provide an improved understanding of the complex processes related with sulphide-rich coal waste oxidation, spontaneous combustion and mineral formation. It is reporting huge numbers of rare minerals with alunite, montmorillonite, szomolnokite, halotrichite, coquimbite and copiapite at the BCCRs. The data showed the presence of abundant amorphous Si-Al-Fe-Ti as (oxy-)hydroxides and Fe-hydro/oxides with goethite and hematite with various degrees of crystallinity, containing hazardous elements, such as Cu, Cr, Hf, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Th, U, Zr, and others. By Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the mineralogical composition was related with the range of elemental concentration of each sample. Most of the nano-minerals and ultra-fine particles

  9. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS IN THE EASTERN PART OF INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Netai Chandra; Nath, Suva; Sharma, Gourab Dhara; Mallik, Avijit

    2014-12-01

    Coal in India is extracted generally by semi-mechanized and mechanized underground mining methods. The Bord and Pillar (B & P) mining method still continues to be popular where deployment of manual miners is more than that of other mining methods. The study is conducted at haulage based mine of Eastern Coalfields of West Bengal. Underground miners confront with a lot of hazards like extreme hostile environment, awkward working posture, dust, noise as well as low luminosity. It is difficult to delay the onset of fatigue. In order to study the physiological responses of trammers, various parameters like working heart rates, net cardiac cost and relative cardiac cost including recovery heart rate patterns are recorded during their work at site. Workload classification of trammers has been done following various scales of heaviness. The effect of environment on the physiological responses has been observed and suitable recommendations are made. The work tasks are bound to induce musculoskeletal problems and those problems could be better managed through rationalizing the work-rest scheduling.

  11. The Transformation of Coal-Mining Waste Minerals in the Pozzolanic Reactions of Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Giménez-García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry has the potential to become a major consumer of recycled waste materials that are transformed and recycled in various forms as aggregates and pozzolanic materials. These recycled waste materials would otherwise have been dumped in landfill sites, leaving hazardous elements to break down and contaminate the environment. There are several approaches for the reuse of these waste products, especially in relation to clay minerals that can induce pozzolanic reactions of special interest in the cement industry. In the present paper, scientific aspects are discussed in relation to several inert coal-mining wastes and their recycling as alternative sources of future eco-efficient pozzolans, based on activated phyllosilicates. The presence of kaolinite in this waste indicates that thermal treatment at 600 °C for 2 h transformed these minerals into a highly reactive metakaolinite over the first seven days of the pozzolanic reaction. Moreover, high contents of metakaolinite, together with silica and alumina sheet structures, assisted the appearance of layered double hydroxides through metastable phases, forming stratlingite throughout the main phase of the pozzolanic reaction after 28 days (as recommended by the European Standard as the reaction proceeded.

  12. Recent developments in nucleonic control systems and on-stream analysers for the mineral and coal industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Some recent developments in industrial nuclear gauging in Australia are briefly reviewed. Quality control, process control and automation in the mineral and coal industries are based on measurements of the composition and flows of critical process stream. Australia's vast mineral wealth and its importance to the national economy has resulted in CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) successfully developing and commercializing a variety of nucleonic gauges to meet the needs of the mineral and coal industries. These include gauges for on-line determination of the ash content of coal on conveyor belts, the ash content of solids of weight fraction of coal in slurries, on-stream determination of iron, alumina and manganese in iron ore, bulk analysis of raw feed limestone in the cement industry, and gauges for the measurement of level, moisture, and interfaces. A variety of gauges based on natural radioactivity have also been developed. Instruments based on natural gamma radiation are relatively inexpensive, and free of artificial radiation sources. An on-stream analyser based on natural gamma ray activity has been developed for monitoring the soil content of sugar cane. Significant benefits accrued to industry in using nucleonic gauges are briefly discussed. (author). 18 refs., 8 figs

  13. Study on the correlation between chemical and mineral composition of coal ashes; Sekitanbaibun no kobutsu soseigakuteki kento kagakubutsu sosei to kobutsugakuteki sosei no sokan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirato, M.; Nagashima, S.; Okada, S. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Coal ash is a substance that has been mixed into minerals in the earth`s crust during their coalification process. Estimation was made on what kinds of mineral composition have been mixed into coals. Noted first was the kinds of compounds contained in the ash, wherein the ratios of mass in the compounds and minerals were correlated, and selection was made on minerals which are thought correlated. The selection criterion was based on minerals containing silica, alumina, iron oxide, lime and magnesium as compounds. Then, a phase equilibrium line diagram was used to estimate compositions and melting points of minerals which are thought to have been produced from these compounds. By comparing the estimation with the measured melting points of the ashes, mineral compositions thought reasonable were all selected. Assumption was possible on minerals that are thought to have been transferred into coal ash. Compound indications of ashes from 29 kinds of the world`s typical coals were replaced with the subject minerals and expressed as mineral compositions. As a method of calculation, stoichiometric coefficients for each mineral were determined by taking material balance in atomic/molecular levels in masses of compound aggregates and mineral composition aggregates. 7 tabs.

  14. Technological roadmap for production, clean and efficient use of Brazilian mineral coal: 2012 to 2035; Roadmap tecnologico para producao, uso limpo e eficiente do carvao mineral nacional: 2012 a 2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Brazil has one of the largest coal reserves in the world, but it is not among the largest producers in the world. Coal in Brazil, has two main applications: use as fuel for power generation, including industrial energy use, and in the iron and steel industry for production of coke, pig iron and steel. In the updated rates of use, the coal reserves can provide coal for more than 500 years. A public policy to better take advantage of the mineral coal, with horizons in 2022 and 2035 and the guidelines and strategies proposed for the country to reach the production, clean and efficient use of the expressive quantity of the mineral national coal are presented.

  15. The Video Collaborative Localization of a Miner's Lamp Based on Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks for Underground Coal Mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kaiming; Yang, Wei; Han, Ruisong

    2015-09-29

    Based on wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs) deployed in an underground coal mine, a miner's lamp video collaborative localization algorithm was proposed to locate miners in the scene of insufficient illumination and bifurcated structures of underground tunnels. In bifurcation area, several camera nodes are deployed along the longitudinal direction of tunnels, forming a collaborative cluster in wireless way to monitor and locate miners in underground tunnels. Cap-lamps are regarded as the feature of miners in the scene of insufficient illumination of underground tunnels, which means that miners can be identified by detecting their cap-lamps. A miner's lamp will project mapping points on the imaging plane of collaborative cameras and the coordinates of mapping points are calculated by collaborative cameras. Then, multiple straight lines between the positions of collaborative cameras and their corresponding mapping points are established. To find the three-dimension (3D) coordinate location of the miner's lamp a least square method is proposed to get the optimal intersection of the multiple straight lines. Tests were carried out both in a corridor and a realistic scenario of underground tunnel, which show that the proposed miner's lamp video collaborative localization algorithm has good effectiveness, robustness and localization accuracy in real world conditions of underground tunnels.

  16. Methods of medical prevention of borderline states and maintaining capacity to work in miners at deep coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobets, G.P.; Perederii, G.S.; Tkachenko, L.N.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kiva, A.I. (Institut Gigieny Truda i Profzabolevanii, Donetsk (USSR))

    1990-01-01

    Describes the procedures used to identify and treat borderline states in coal miners working in deep mines in the Donbass. Timely preventive treatment helps to maintain the condition of the miners and reduce time lost through sickness. Diagnosis is performed on the basis of a number of physical indices coupled with a subjective assessment marked on a points scale. The types of treatment available at sanatoria are outlined: they include physiotherapy, mud and carbon dioxide baths, various types of massage, etc. Courses last 2-3 weeks and are followed by 3-8 days of rehabilitation at work, depending on occupation and working conditions. 6 refs.

  17. Associations of symptoms related to isocyanate, ureaformol, and formophenolic exposures with respiratory symptoms and lung function in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J.P.; Simon, V.; Chau, N. [Houilleres Bassin Lorraine, Freyming Merlebach (France)

    2007-04-15

    The respiratory effects of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)-based resins and ureaformol- and formophenolic-based resins, used in coal mining, are unknown. This cross-sectional study of 354 miners evaluated respiratory health in miners with MDI-related symptoms (IS) and ureaformol/formophenolic-related symptoms (UFS). The protocol included clinical examination, chest radiograph, questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, job history, resin handling, and spirometry. Resin handling concerned 27.7% of the miners. IS affected 5.6%, and 1.4% also after work. UFS affected 22.6%, and 2.3% also after work. Wheezing affected 35.6%; chronic cough, expectoration, or bronchitis about 10%; dyspnea 5.4%; and asthma 2.8%. The miners with UFS had significantly more frequent chronic cough, expectoration, chronic bronchitis, dyspnea, and wheezing, whereas those with IS at and after work had markedly lower FVC, FEV1, MMEF, FEF50% and FEF25%. These findings raise the possibility of deleterious effects of exposures to MDI and ureaformol/ ormophenolic resins on respiratory health and lung function in coal miners during their working life.

  18. The application of artificial intelligence for the identification of the maceral groups and mineral components of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczuk, Mariusz; Skiba, Marta

    2017-06-01

    The correct and consistent identification of the petrographic properties of coal is an important issue for researchers in the fields of mining and geology. As part of the study described in this paper, investigations concerning the application of artificial intelligence methods for the identification of the aforementioned characteristics were carried out. The methods in question were used to identify the maceral groups of coal, i.e. vitrinite, inertinite, and liptinite. Additionally, an attempt was made to identify some non-organic minerals. The analyses were performed using pattern recognition techniques (NN, kNN), as well as artificial neural network techniques (a multilayer perceptron - MLP). The classification process was carried out using microscopy images of polished sections of coals. A multidimensional feature space was defined, which made it possible to classify the discussed structures automatically, based on the methods of pattern recognition and algorithms of the artificial neural networks. Also, from the study we assessed the impact of the parameters for which the applied methods proved effective upon the final outcome of the classification procedure. The result of the analyses was a high percentage (over 97%) of correct classifications of maceral groups and mineral components. The paper discusses also an attempt to analyze particular macerals of the inertinite group. It was demonstrated that using artificial neural networks to this end makes it possible to classify the macerals properly in over 91% of cases. Thus, it was proved that artificial intelligence methods can be successfully applied for the identification of selected petrographic features of coal.

  19. Use of clay-mineral alteration patterns to define syntectonic permeability of joints (cleat) in Pennsylvania anthracite coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, E.J.; Marshak, S.; Altaner, S.P. [Chevron Oil Field Research Company, La Habra, CA (United States)

    1996-10-15

    Joints (cleat) in Pennsylvania anthracite contain two distinct clay-mineral assemblages, both of which formed by alteration of preexisting kaolinite at peak metamorphic conditions during the Alleghanian orogeny. The first assemblage, NH{sub 4} - illite or pyrophyllite {+-} quartz, formed by reaction of kaolinite with methane-rich fluids derived from within the coal. The second assemblage, sudoite {+-} tosudite {+-} rectorite {+-} berthierine, formed by the reaction of kaolinite with ferromagnesian-bearing hydrothermal fluids which must have come from outside the coal. In an earlier paper, the authors suggested that the first assemblage indicated clay diagenesis in low-permeability environments, and that the second assemblage indicated clay diagenesis in high-permeability environments. If this premise is correct, then the distribution of clay-mineral alteration assemblages serves to define syntectonic permeability variations in coal cleat. The first assemblage dominates in the coal matrix itself, in isolated cleat, in cleat that parallel the regional trend of Alleghanian folds, and in the mirror portions of cleat oriented perpendicular to the fold trends, suggesting that these regions are low-permeability environments. The second assemblage dominates in the hackle fringe of interconnected cleat that trend perpendicular to the strike of the Appalachian orogen, suggesting that these regions are high-permeability environments. These results emphasize that syntectonic cleat permeability is a function of cleat orientation, macroscopic cleat interconnetivity and orientation, as well as microscopic cleat-surface morphology.

  20. Influence of nitric acid concentration on the characteristics of active carbons obtained from a mineral coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelifi, A.; Temdrara, L.; Addoun, A. [Laboratoire d' Etude Physicochimique des Materiaux et Application a l' Environnement, Faculte de Chimie, USTHB, BP. 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Almazan-Almazan, M.C.; Perez-Mendoza, M.; Domingo-Garcia, M.; Lopez-Garzon, F.J [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, 18071 Granada (Spain); Lopez-Domingo, F.J. [Departamento de CCIA, ETS de Ingenieria Informatica y Telecomunicacion, Granada, 18071 (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper deals with the effect of the concentration of nitric acid solutions on the properties of activated carbons obtained by the oxidation of a parent activated carbon. For this purpose a mineral coal from Algeria has been used as raw material to prepare the parent active carbon AC. This was further treated with nitric acid solutions. The analysis of the samples includes the chemical and textural characterization. The former was carried out by selective titrations and FTIR spectroscopy. The latter, by nitrogen and carbon dioxide adsorption at 77 and 273 K, respectively, and by adsorption of organic probes (benzene, dichloromethane, cyclohexane and 2,2-dimethyl butane) at 303 K. The nitrogen adsorption isotherms have been analysed by using the BET equation, {alpha}{sub s}-method and molecular simulation. The Dubinin-Radushkevich approach has been applied to the carbon dioxide and vapours adsorption data. The results show that the treatment with 2 N nitric acid solution is very appropriate because it introduces a large amount of oxygen containing groups with a small change of the textural characteristics of the parent AC. More concentrated nitric acid solutions change in large extent the textural properties although they also introduce large amount of chemical groups. (author)

  1. Seasonal factors controlling mineral precipitation in the acid mine drainage at Donghae coal mine, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.; Kim, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring over a 12 month period in the Sanae creek flow in acid mine drainage, Donghae coal mine area, demonstrates that the concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate are highest during autumn when water flow in the creek is at its lowest. The highest pH values of the stream were measured in April and May, whereas the lowest pH was recorded in October. The Fe concentration of stream water rapidly decreased downstream due to the precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxide and/or oxyhydroxysulfate phases in the stream. Mineral precipitates in the creek in the Donghae mine area show various colours such as brownish yellow (Munsell colour 9.5 YR hues), reddish brown (Munsell colour 3.5 YR hues) and white depending on seasons and distance from the pollution source in the creek. Such phenomena are attributed to the variation in pH and chemical composition of stream water caused by seasonal factors. The measured pH ranges in stream water of the brownish yellow, white and reddish brown precipitates are pH 3.2-4.5, 4.5-6.0 and 5.3-6.9, respectively

  2. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the lung in a coal miner with pneumoconiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, T.K.; Hsu, C.J.; Chiang, C.Y.; Bai, K.J.; Huang, T.W. [Dept. of Health Executive of Yuan, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2001-12-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumors of the lung are uncommon and etiologically diverse lesions that often present as solitary masses in the lung. It may be difficult to distinguish these lesions from more commonly encountered lung neoplasms. Inflammatory pseudotumors can also occur in other organs, but the lung is most commonly involved. The authors describe a 63-year-old male coal miner with a 40-year history of dust exposure, who had a large right middle lobe mass on chest roentgenograms, with slow growth over the 7 years prior to admission. Repeated transthoracic echo-guided biopsies of the mass were indicative of an inflammatory and reactive process. The radiographic, histologic, and clinical findings indicated a diagnosis of inflammatory pseudotumor. The patient refused surgical intervention and was regularly followed at the outpatient clinic. Follow-up chest roentgenograms for 1 year revealed that the tumor site was stable. This case suggested that inflammatory, pseudotumor, although uncommon, should be included in the differential diagnosis in a patient with pneumoconiosis and a solitary mass in the lung.

  3. A Novel Real-Time Coal Miner Localization and Tracking System Based on Self-Organized Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of information technology, we envision that the key of improving coal mine safety is how to get real-time positions of miners. In this paper, we propose a prototype system for real-time coal miner localization and tracking based on self-organized sensor networks. The system is composed of hardware and software platform. We develop a set of localization hardware devices with the Safety Certificate of Approval for Mining Products include miner node, wired fixed access station, and base with optical port. On the software side, we develop a layered software architecture of node application, server management, and information dissemination and broadcasting. We also develop three key localization technologies: an underground localization algorithm using received signal strength indication- (RSSI- verifying algorithm to reduce the influence of the severe environment in a coal mine; a robust fault-tolerant localization mechanism to improve the inherent defect of instability of RSSI localization; an accurate localization algorithm based on Monte Carlo localization (MCL to adapt to the underground tunnel structure. In addition, we conduct an experimental evaluation based on a real prototype implementation using MICA2 motes. The results show that our system is more accurate and more adaptive in general than traditional localization algorithms.

  4. Investigation of the potential of coal combustion fly ash for mineral sequestration of CO2 by accelerated carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukwattage, N.L.; Ranjith, P.G.; Wang, S.H.

    2013-01-01

    Mineral carbonation of alkaline waste materials is being studied extensively for its potential as a way of reducing the increased level of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Carbonation converts CO 2 into minerals which are stable over geological time scales. This process occurs naturally but slowly, and needs to be accelerated to offset the present rate of emissions from power plants and other emission sources. The present study attempts to identify the potential of coal fly ash as a source for carbon storage (sequestration) through ex-situ accelerated mineral carbonation. In the study, two operational parameters that could affect the reaction process were tested to investigate their effect on mineralization. Coal fly ash was mixed with water to different water-to-solid ratios and samples were carbonated in a pressure vessel at different initial CO 2 pressures. Temperature was kept constant at 40 °C. According to the results, one ton of Hazelwood fly ash could sequester 7.66 kg of CO 2 . The pressure of CO 2 inside the vessel has an effect on the rate of CO 2 uptake and the water-to-solid ratio affects the weight gain after the carbonation of fly ash. The results confirm the possibility of the manipulation of process parameters in enhancing the carbonation reaction. - Highlights: ► Mineral sequestration CO 2 by of coal fly ash is a slow process under ambient conditions. ► It can be accelerated by manipulating the process parameters inside a reactor. ► Initial CO 2 pressure and water to solid mixing ratio inside the reactor are two of those operational parameters. ► According to the test results higher CO 2 initial pressure gives higher on rates of CO 2 sequestration. ► Water to fly ash mixing ratio effect on amount of CO 2 sequestered into fly ash

  5. Mineral potential of Malawai. 3. Mineral deposits associated with sedimentary and volcanic cover rocks: Karoo and post-Karoo (coal, uranium, industrial minerals and gemstone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report was produced for the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Malawi. It gives information and maps of uranium deposits, coal deposits, coal-bed methane, natural gas and helium potential, limestone deposits and gemstones (blue agate, chalcedony and kimerlites, the primary source of diamonds). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 4 maps, 5 photos.

  6. Basinal analysis of the Ecca and Lowermost Beaufort Beds and associated coal, uranium and heavy mineral beach sand occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.J.; Whitfield, G.G.

    1979-01-01

    The regional sediment transport directions, major provenance areas and the controlling palaeotectonic and palaeogeographic frameworks of sedimentation have been reconstructed for the Great Karoo Basin during the Permian. Analyses of this magnitude can be useful in regional exploration programmes for coal, uranium and fossil heavy mineral beach sand deposits. The strong palaeogeographic control on coal deposition is demonstrated by the fact that some of the most important deposits accumulated in topographically low lying areas on the pre-Karoo surface. Such areas formed sheltered environments ideal for the growth and accumulation of organic material. Elsewhere relatively slow rates of subsidence of a broad, protected, low lying delta plain controlled the deposition of coal. North of the main Karoo Basin many of the coal deposits are confined to structurally controlled linear basins. Hundreds of sedimentary uranium occurrences of varying grade and size occur within a broad, discontinuous belt in the Lower Beaufort of the southwestern portion of the Karoo Basin. The uranium mineralization occurs in a variety of fluvial deposits usually rich in carbonaceous material. Minute tuffaceous fragments, reflecting contemporaneous vulcanism, form a minor but significant constituent in some of the uraniferous sandstones. The uranium occurrences are confined largely to the Southern and Western Facies of the Lower Beaufort, and occur mainly within the confines of the Karoo Trough. Consolidated heavy mineral beach deposits have been found in the predominantly fluvio-deltaic Middle Ecca Group of the Northern Facies at a number of widely separated locations. These deposits were formed by shore line processes, such as the reworking of delta-front sands, during periods of temporary marine regression

  7. Chemical characterization of bottom ashes generated during combustion of a Colombian mineral coal in a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, H.S.; Nogueira, R.E.F.Q.; Lobo, C.J.S.; Nobre, A.I.S.; Sales, J.C.; Silva, C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Bottom ashes generated during combustion of a mineral coal from Colombia were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The interest in this particular coal is due to the fact that it will be used by a thermal power plant in Ceara, Northeastern Brazil, where it could produce over 900 tons of different residues/combustion products every day. Results from Xray fluorescence allowed identification and quantification of elements present in the sample: silicon (59,17%), aluminum (13,17%), iron (10,74%), potassium (6,11%), titanium (2,91%), calcium (4,97%), sulphur (0,84%) and others (2,09%). The X-ray diffraction revealed patterns from silica, mullite, calcium sulphate and hydrated sodium. Results obtained so far indicate that the material is a potential raw-material for use in the formulation of ceramic components (author)

  8. Ash liberation from included minerals during combustion of pulverized coal: the relationship with char structure and burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.; Wall, T.; Liu, G.; Bryant, G. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). CRC for Black Coal Utilization and Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-12-01

    In this study, the float fraction ({lt} specific gravity of 2.0) of a size cut (63-90 {mu}m) bituminous coal was combusted in a drop tube furnace (DTF) at a gas temperature of 1300{degree}C under an atmosphere of air, to investigate the ash liberation at five coal burnoff levels (35.5%, 54.3%, 70.1%, 87.1% and 95.6%). The data indicated that char structure determines the ash liberation at different burnoff levels. Fragmentation of porous char was found to be the determinative mechanism for formation of fine ash during the early and middle stages of char combustion, while coalescence of included mineral matter determines the coarse ash formed in the later stages of combustion. The investigation confirmed that the char morphology and structure play a key role in determining char fragmentation, char burnout history, and the ash liberation during combustion. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Mineralization of PAHs in coal-tar impacted aquifer sediments and associated microbial community structure investigated with FISH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, S W; Ong, S K; Moorman, T B [Iowa State University, Ames, IA (USA)

    2007-11-15

    The microbial community structure and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coal-tar contaminated aquifer were investigated spatially using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and in laboratory-scale incubations of the aquifer sediments. DAPI-detected microbial populations in the contaminated sediments were three orders of magnitude greater than nearby uncontaminated sediments, suggesting growth on coal-tar constituents in situ. Actinobacteria, {beta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria, and Flavobacteria dominated the in situ aerobic (> 1 mg l{sup -1} dissolved oxygen) microbial community, whereas sulfate-reducing bacteria comprised 37% of the microbial community in the sulfidogenic region of the aquifer. Rapid mineralization of naphthalene and phenanthrene were observed in aerobic laboratory microcosms and resulted in significant enrichment of {beta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria potentially explaining their elevated presence in situ. Nitrate- and sulfate-limited mineralization of naphthalene in laboratory microcosms occurred to a small degree in aquifer sediments from locations where groundwater chemistry indicated nitrate- and sulfate-reduction, respectively. The results of this study suggest that FISH may be a useful tool for providing a link between laboratory microcosms and groundwater measurements made in situ necessary to better demonstrate the potential for natural attenuation at complex PAH contaminated sites.

  10. Tackling Absenteeism in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allensworth, Elaine; Evans, Shayne

    2016-01-01

    Incisive research from the University of Chicago Urban Education Institute on the prevalence and consequences of absenteeism in Chicago schools has highlighted the dramatic effects of even moderate amounts of absences on grades, graduation rates, and student success in college. These insights spurred not only an ambitious 98% attendance goal on…

  11. Mineral conversion and microstructure change in the melting process of Shenmu coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jianguo; Deng Furong; Zhao Hong; Cen Kefa [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

    2007-05-15

    China has rich reserves of Shenmu coal, which has the typical characteristic of low-melting-point ash. If used in the pulverized-coal boiler of a power plant, Shenmu coal would cause serious slagging. In order to solve the slagging problem of Shenmu coal, the melting mechanism of Shenmu coal ash was studied. One of the Shenmu coals - Wenjialiang coal - was selected for the study. Using thermogravimetry-differential scanning colorimetry (TG-DSC) methods, the change of the coal ash's physicochemistry with temperature was studied. The typical temperature points in the melting process were obtained. Ash samples of the different temperature points were prepared in a high-temperature furnace with parameters similar to those used in the TG-DSC test, and were then cooled quickly in water. Later, the ash samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) methods in detail. Wenjialiang coal ash started to melt at 980{sup o}C. The ash was found to melt to a great extent at 1200{sup o}C and formed a multiform microstructure. At 1260{sup o}C, it was found to melt into a dense body with many pores, and formed a piece of vitreous body at 1340{sup o}C. Anorthite and gehlenite are the intermediate products that exist between 980 and 1340{sup o}C. They may be the main cause of the ash having low melting points, so that they could convert into a eutectic at low temperatures.

  12. Rock Mechanics Studies During Continuous Miner Bases Coal Pillar Extraction in Indian Coalfields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ram, S.; Kumar, D.; Koníček, Petr; Singh, A. K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, A. Kr.; Singh, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 111, April 2014-March 2015 (2015), s. 89-104 ISSN 0254-8003 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : mining * mechanized depillaring scenario * rock mechanics Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  13. The assessment of micronucleus frequency in lymphocytes in the cohort of coal-miners characterized by different polymorphisms of double strand break reparation genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Yur'yevich Sinitsky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coal-miners are exposed to a lot of number of harmful factors (chemical agents, ionizing radiation, heavy metals, coal dust etc.. Material and methods: Venous blood samples extracted from 129 coal-miners. Assessment of cytogenetic damage was performed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN on peripheral blood lymphocytes. PCR and gel electrophoresis were used to determine polymorphisms in the genes Lig4 (rs1805388 and XRCC4 (rs6869366. Results: We found a significant increase in the frequency of binucleated lymphocytes with micronuclei (MN and protrusions in carriers of the Ile/ Ile genotype of the Lig4 gene Thr9Ile polymorphism in comparison to Thr/Thr and Thr/Ile genotypes. Conclusions: Thr9Ile polymorphism within Lig4 gene can be used as potential molecular genetic markers of increased individual susceptibility to the complex of harmful factors in coal-mining conditions.

  14. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  15. Family employees and absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Goerke; Jörn Block; Jose Maria Millan; Concepcion Roman

    2014-01-01

    Work effort varies greatly across employees, as evidenced by substantial differences in absence rates. Moreover, absenteeism causes sizeable output losses. Using data from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), this paper investigates absence behavior of family employees, i.e. workers who are employed in enterprises owned by a relative. Our estimates indicate that being a family employee instead of a regular employee in the private sector significantly reduces both the probability and...

  16. The production of activated carbon from nigerian mineral coal via steam activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwosu, F.O.; Owolabi, B.I.O.; Adebowale, O.

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon was produced from Okpara sub-bituminous coal and Ogwashi brown lignite coal of Nigeria through steam activation at 900 degree C and 960 degree C each for 30 min and 60 min. Okpara and Ogwashi precursor coals had carbon content of 67.41 and 64.47%, respectively, whereas the bulk density and the ash content were 0.59 - 0.68 g/mL and 2.56-9.91%, respectively. The former exhibited up to 901.0 mg/g iodine number and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area of 604 m/sup 2/g while the latter, iodine number of 998.0 mg/g and 669 m/sup 2/g BET surface area. Both showed adequate porosity indicative of their potential for utilization for commercial production of active carbons. (author)

  17. Imported mineral coal: competitiveness for electric power generation in northeast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codeceira Neto, A.; Ribeiro Filho, A.P.R.; Silva, S.P.R. da

    1993-01-01

    With the hydroelectric potential exhaustion of northeast and with the increase of costs to the use of hydroelectric uses available in Brazil, the thermoelectric generation will be able to become a competitive solution to attend the market of electric power. This work has as purpose describe the options of imported coal use to Brazilian northeast its technological aspects, the environmental question, and the preliminary studies of localization and the costs associated on implantation of coal thermoelectric power plants. 7 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

  19. Conversations among Coal Miners in a Campaign to Promote Hearing Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T.; Quick, Brian L.; Witte, Kim; Vaught, Charles; Booth-Butterfield, Steve; Patel, Dhaval

    2009-01-01

    Although working in a coal mine can diminish one's hearing capabilities by 50%, not until 2000 did federal laws require companies to establish noise standards in order to help prevent hearing loss among their employees. Since then, researchers have worked with safety administrators to develop effective messages promoting hearing protection and…

  20. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, December 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D.; Givens, E.N.; Schweighardt, F.K.; Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Huang, W.J.; Shridharani, K.

    1981-04-01

    Results from screening studies showed that the pyrite samples separated from various coal seams had similar catalytic activity. The addition of all the pyrite samples to feed slurry increased conversion of coal and production of oil. A sample of fusinite was also tested for its liquefaction behavior with and without added pyrite. The addition of pyrite increased the conversion of fusinite and production of oil. These results show that pyrite catalyzes the conversion of fusinite and therefore improves overall coal conversion. Conversion of coal and oil production increased by impregnating coal with iron and molybdenum compounds. Coal conversion and oil production also increased with increasing concentration of both iron and molybdenum impregnated on coal. Addition of various transition metal sulfides increased coal conversion and oil production. Dramatic improvements were noted with nickel, vanadium, and tin sulfides. Addition of transition metal naphthenates produced mixed results; some of them improved coal conversion and others had no effect. The effect of metal concentration on coal conversion was also not clear. Deep cleaning of coal did not affect coal conversion, but it significantly reduced oil production. Addition of pyrite separated from coal to deep cleaned coal sample regained the oil production to the original value, i.e., oil produced from liquefaction of raw coal.Coal cleaned by oil agglomeration gave highest coal conversion and oil production. Basic and non-basic nitrogen compounds reduced the naphthalene hydrogenation activity of both Co-Mo-Al and sulfided Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Sulfided Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was inactive for denitrogenation of quinoline, and the reaction product mainly consisted of hydrogenated and hydrocracked quinoline. On the contrary, Co-Mo-Al was active for denitrogenation of quinoline, resulting in lower quinoline poisoning.

  1. Geopolymer obtained from coal ash; Geopolimeros obtidos a partir de cinzas de carvao mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, V.; Bissari, E.S.; Uggioni, E.; Bernardin, A.M., E-mail: amb@unesc.net [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos e Vitreos

    2011-07-01

    Geopolymers are three-dimensional alumino silicates that can be rapidly formed at low temperature from naturally occurring aluminosilicates with a structure similar to zeolites. In this work coal ash (Tractebel Energy) was used as source of aluminosilicate according a full factorial design in eight formulations with three factors (hydroxide type and concentration and temperature) and two-levels. The ash was dried and hydroxide was added according type and concentration. The geopolymer was poured into cylindrical molds, cured (14 days) and subjected to compression test. The coal ash from power plants belongs to the Si-Al system and thus can easily form geopolymers. The compression tests showed that it is possible to obtain samples with strength comparable to conventional Portland cement. As a result, temperature and molarity are the main factors affecting the compressive strength of the obtained geopolymer. (author)

  2. Effect of coal rank and mineral matter on gasification reactivity of coal char treated at high temperature; Netsushorishita sekitan char no gas ka tokusei ni taisuru tanshu oyobi kobutsushitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, K.; Takei, H.; Harano, A.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In the wide range from brown coal to anthracite, an investigation was made of effects of heat treatment on physical/chemical properties and of coal rank dependence. For the experiment, 12 kinds of coal samples were used, and for heat treatment, the fluidized bed heated by the electric furnace and the infrared-ray gold image furnace were used. To examine characteristics of the heat-treated coal char, conducted were oxygen gasification, TPD measurement, XRD measurement, alkali metal measurement, and pore distribution measurement. The following were obtained from the experiment. The gasification reaction rate of the char heat-treated in the temperature range between 900{degree}C to 1700{degree}C decreases with a rise of the temperature of heat treatment, and the degree of decrease in the rate depends on coal rank. The order of gasification rate between coal ranks depends on the temperature of heat treatment, and the lower the heat treatment temperature is, the more largely the gasification rate is influenced by catalysis of mineral matters included in the coal. As causes of the decrease in gasification rate associated with the rise in temperature of heat treatment, indicated were release of alkali metal having catalysis and decrease of active sites by carbonaceous crystallinity. 6 figs.

  3. Evaluation of risk and prognosis of development of pneumoconiosis in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, V V; Bolonova, L N; Donets, I K; Petul' ko, S N; Yulish, N R; Teplova, T E

    1987-07-01

    A regressional analysis study of 105 indices of the state of body and mine environment in 177 coal mines of Donbass revealed multiple quantitative dependences between working conditions, indices of functional state of the body, pathomorphological and roentgenological changes in the lungs and on this basis a diagnostic procedure was established permitting the evaluation of the risk of development of pneumoconiosis and diagnosis of this disease at the preroentgenological stage.

  4. The design of a mechanical referencing system for the rear drum of the Longwall Shearer Coal Miner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. W.; Yang, T. C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design of two systems which reference the position of a longwall shearer coal miner to the mine roof of the present cut and of the last cut are presented. This system is part of an automation system that will guide the rear cutting drum in such a manner that the total depth of cut remains constant even though the front drum may be following an undulating roof profile. The rear drum referencing mechanism continually monitors the distance from the mine roof to the floor for the present cut. This system provides a signal to control a constant depth of cut. The last cut follower mechanism continually monitors the distance from the mine roof of the prior cut to the cutting drum. This latter system provides a signal to minimize the step height in the roof between cuts. The dynamic response of this hydraulic-pneumatic and mechanical system is analyzed to determine accumulator size and precharge pressure.

  5. 78 FR 26638 - Non-Competitive One-Year Extension With Funds for Black Lung/Coal Miner Clinics Program (H37...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Non-Competitive One-Year Extension With Funds for Black Lung/Coal Miner Clinics Program (H37) Current Grantee..., 2013), announcing the issuing of a non-competitive one-year extension with funds for the Black Lung...

  6. Trace element geochemistry of self-burning and weathering of a mineralized coal waste dump: The Novátor mine, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříbek, B.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Veselovský, F.; Laufek, F.; Malec, J.; Knésl, I.; Majer, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 173, MAR 15 (2017), s. 158-175 ISSN 0166-5162 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11674S Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : coal wastes * organic matter * uranium * mineralization * self-heating * biomarkers Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 4.783, year: 2016

  7. Yoga-based pulmonary rehabilitation for the management of dyspnea in coal miners with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Ranjita

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Findings indicate that IAYT benefits coal miners with COPD, reducing dyspnea; fatigue and PR, and improving functional performance and peripheral capillary SpO2%. Yoga can now be included as an adjunct to conventional therapy for pulmonary rehabilitation programs for COPD patients.

  8. IL18 and IL18R1 polymorphisms, lung CT and fibrosis: a longitudinal study in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadif, R.; Mintz, M.; Marzec, J.; Jedlicka, A.; Kauffmann, F.; Kleeberger, S.R. [INSERM, U780, Villejuif (France)

    2006-12-15

    It has been suggested that interleukin (IL)-18 plays a role in the development of inflammatory and fibrosing lung diseases. Associations of polymorphisms in the genes coding for IL-18 (108 /G-656T, C-607A, G-137C, T113G, C127T) and its receptor (IL8R1/C-69T) with coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) were studied in 200 miners who were examined in 1990, 1994 and 1999. Coal-dust exposure was assessed according to job history and ambient measures. The main health outcome was lung computed tomography (CT) score in 1990. Internal coherence was assessed by studying CT score in 1994, 4-yr change in CT score and CWP incidence and prevalence. CT score in 1990 was a good predictor of radiographic grade in 1999 and, therefore, an appropriate subclinical quantitative trait. The IL18 -137C allele was associated with lower CT score in 1990 and 1994 (11.24 versus 1.69 and 1.57 versus 2.46, respectively), slower progression of CT score between 1990 and 1994 and lower pneumoconiosis prevalence in 1999 relative to the G allele (0.33 versus 0.77 and 8.2 versus 19.6%, respectively). Smoking- or dust-adjustment, and stratification on IL18R1 genotype and adjustment for haplotype effects did not change the conclusions. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest a role for IL18 in reducing the development of this fibrosing lung disease.

  9. Feasibility study for a long-term follow-up in a historical cohort of Brazilian coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, L.H.S.; Melo, V.P.; Amaral, E.C.S.; Koifman, S. [Inst. of Radioprotecao & Dosimetria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2007-09-15

    The first Brazilian historical mortality cohort study on miners was conducted. The cohort consisted of 3224 workers in the underground coal mining industry in southern Brazil. This industry has been operating since 1942 without compliance with any regulatory standards, since there were no relevant national regulations. Over almost 60 years, about 5000 workers were exposed to high levels of radiation. However, later radiation exposure was significantly reduced, particularly that due to radon exposure. Recent radon concentration measurements indicated an average annual exposure to radon progeny of 2.1 WLM, ranging from 0.2 to 7.2 WLM. As radon exposure in the past was unknown, it can be suggested that mine workers have not been working safely as regards the health hazard related to radon and radon progeny exposure. The cohort inclusion criteria are as follows: (a) all male employees who had worked for at least one year at the coal mine; (b) workers with complete workplace information (underground and surface); (c) employment hiring between 1945 and 1997 and (d) the worker must have been alive on 1 January 1979. Through multiple strategies of search it was possible to follow up the members of the cohort with a success rate of 92%. This paper presents the characteristics of the study population and provides information about the feasibility of conducting a retrospective mortality study in Brazil, taking into account the methodological and logistical difficulties of conducting such a study in a developing country.

  10. Feasibility study for a long-term follow-up in a historical cohort of Brazilian coal miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, L H S; Melo, V P; Amaral, E C S; Koifman, S

    2007-01-01

    The first Brazilian historical mortality cohort study on miners was conducted. The cohort consisted of 3224 workers in the underground coal mining industry in southern Brazil. This industry has been operating since 1942 without compliance with any regulatory standards, since there were no relevant national regulations. Over almost 60 years, about 5000 workers were exposed to high levels of radiation. However, later radiation exposure was significantly reduced, particularly that due to radon exposure. Recent radon concentration measurements indicated an average annual exposure to radon progeny of 2.1 WLM, ranging from 0.2 to 7.2 WLM. As radon exposure in the past was unknown, it can be suggested that mine workers have not been working safely as regards the health hazard related to radon and radon progeny exposure. The cohort inclusion criteria are as follows: (a) all male employees who had worked for at least one year at the coal mine; (b) workers with complete workplace information (underground and surface); (c) employment hiring between 1945 and 1997 and (d) the worker must have been alive on 1 January 1979. Through multiple strategies of search it was possible to follow up the members of the cohort with a success rate of 92%. This paper presents the characteristics of the study population and provides information about the feasibility of conducting a retrospective mortality study in Brazil, taking into account the methodological and logistical difficulties of conducting such a study in a developing country

  11. Race, class loyalty and the structure of capitalism: Coal miners in Alabama and the Transvaal, 1918-1922

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, P. [Rand Afrikaans University, Auckland Park (South Africa). Dept. of Sociology

    2004-03-15

    Focusing on two major coal-industry strikes, one in Alabama (1920-1921) and one in the Transvaal (1922), this article seeks to understand why the former was biracial and the latter only involved white employees. The contrast is interesting because of its wider significance within the US and South Africa, and because of resemblances between the two cases. In Alabama, blacks and whites undertook similar work and there were cultural commonalities as well as divides, but in the Transvaal the economic and social gulf was so great that, for practical purposes, there were two working classes. In Alabama, most black miners and most white miners were free and settled, and came from similar rural areas. In the Transvaal, whilst blacks were coerced and migrated between subsistence societies and the collieries, whites were free and settled, and mostly had proletarian backgrounds. In South Africa, the regular supply of 'cheap' black labour - upon which the economy depended - was maintained by institutions created or supported by the state. It is argued, finally, that whilst the possibility of interracialism was rooted in the outcome of the Civil War, the institutionalisation of a dual working class was a product of imperialist victory in the South African War.

  12. Mineral-char interaction during gasification of high-ash coals in fluidized-bed gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available -enriched conditions, while X-ray spectroscopy [and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS)] mapping was used to determine the distribution of elements, such as Si, Al, Mg, Ca, and K, in the same chars. The higher ordered structure of the carbon around the melted minerals...

  13. Basic results and prospects for development of physiology of work of miners of Donbass coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebnyak, V.P. (Institut Gigieny Truda i Profzabolevanii, Donetsk (USSR))

    1988-11-01

    In the Donbass, tunnelers and stopers work under unfavorable factors of the underground environment: heavy physical work in limited space, increased possibility of accidents and personal risk, a warming microclimate, noise and dust. In view of this, role of physiology of work consists in guaranteeing normalization of work load, in development of rational regiments of work and rest, and a basis of psychophysical criteria of professional choice, development of physiologically based methods of rehabilitation, preparation of miners for factors of underground medium. Physiologic normalization of work of miners can be achieved by establishing norms of work and rest. With mechanization of mining, level of tension of work has increased, requiring longer rest periods after work. Increased temperatures of deep mines necessitate corresponding increase in rest periods, reducing exhaustion of workers and physiologically increasing productivity of work 12-15%. Investigations in physiology of work of miners have established norms of loads, national regimens of work and rest, ways to prevent disease and reduce physiologic tension of organism to prevent functional breakdowns and illnesses. For the future, further study of mechanisms causing strain and exhaustion affecting work capacity of miners is recommended. 14 refs.

  14. Organization, relational justice and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzer, Ulrich; Åborg, Carl; Johansson, Gun; Svartengren, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for more knowledge on how to manage companies towards healthier and more prosperous organizations with low levels of absenteeism. Relational Justice can be a useful concept when managing such organizations. Organizational factors can help to explain why some companies have relatively low absenteeism rates, even though they are equal to other companies in many other aspects. Previous studies suggest that management may be one important factor. Efficient management may depend on good relations between the leaders and the employees. The concept of Relational Justice is designed to capture these relations. Consequently, a Relational Justice framework may be used to understand why some companies have a low incidence of absenteeism. Managers from a representative body of Swedish companies. Interviews were analyzed to explore whether the items representing the concept of Relational Justice can be used to further understand the strategies, procedures and structures that characterize organizations and management in companies with a low incidence of absenteeism. Strategies, procedures or principles related to Relational Justice were common and highlighted in companies with an incidence of absenteeism. The most frequently occurring factors were; to be treated with kindness and consideration, personal viewpoint considered and to be treated impartially. The results suggested that a Relational Justice framework could be used to increase understanding of the organizational and managerial factors typical for companies with a low incidence of absenteeism. A Relational Justice approach to organizational management may be used to successfully lower absenteeism, change organizations and promote healthy and prosperous companies.

  15. Spectroscopic study of emission coal mineral plasma produced by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, L P; Pérez, J A; Riascos, H

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of plasma produced by laser ablation of coal samples using 1064 nm radiation pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG on different target under air ambient, was performed. The emission of molecular band systems such as C 2 Swan System (d 3 Π g →a 3 Π u ), the First Negative System N 2 (Band head at 501,53 nm) and emission lines of the C I, C II, were investigated using the optical emission spectroscopy technique. The C 2 molecular spectra (Swan band) were analyzed to determine vibrational temperature (0,62 eV); the density and electron temperature of the plasma have been evaluated using Stark broadening and the intensity of the nitrogen emission lines N II, the found values of 1,2 eV and 2,2 x10 18 cm −3 respectively.

  16. Increasing labor productivity - an important target for miners. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The development of coal mining in the USSR from 1980 to 1983 is discussed. Factors which influence labor productivity increase are analyzed: use of equipment with increased productivity and reliability (e.g. the KM-103 and KD-80 face systems for thin coal seams, the ANShch integrated face systems for steep coal mines, the KMT and 2UKP systems for mining seams with roofs difficult to break down, the 4PP-2 and 4PP-2Shch heading machines), use of equipment replacing manual operations during underground mining, increasing role of surface coal mining which is characterized by labor productivity higher than in underground mining, use of more reliable mining systems in surface mining less influenced by low temperatures in winter (in Siberia), use of mining schemes optimized by means of computerized simulation and mathematical models both in underground and surface coal mining, reducing idletime of mining equipment, social and economic policy aimed at labor productivity increase and reducing absenteeism, improved training and refreshment courses for miners, use of automatic control systems in coal preparation plants, use of more productive equipment for coal preparation.

  17. Process for the extraction of valuable products from coals, pitches, mineral oils, and the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-06-05

    A process is described for the treating of coke, lignite, peat, etc., and mineral oils with the help of hydrogen or other reducing gases and under pressure to recover valuable hydrocarbons, characterized by the carbonaceous substances and the reducing gas coming together already heated totally or in part at least from 350/sup 0/C to the temperature necessary for the reaction. The substances to be treated becoming extracted in the form of paste or liquid from the reaction chamber and then returned to it and being reacted outside the reaction zone in the presence of the reducing gases at the temperature necessary for the reaction.

  18. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz? Well, yes, but small ... canned salmon and sardines with bones leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli calcium-fortified foods — from orange ...

  19. Regional measurement of ventilation and perfusion to detect subtle lung abnormalities in coal miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susskind, H.; Liu, J.; Brill, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between regional pulmonary ventilation (V) and perfusion (Q) uniquely determines the amount of gas exchange that occurs in the lungs. Therefore, the pixel-by-pixel distributions of V and Q were measured with continuously inhaled Kr-81m and i.v. injected Tc-99m MAA, respectively, in a group of 71 subjects exposed to coal dust and then compared with those from a control group of 9 healthy volunteers. Each subject sat upright with his back against a large-field-of-view scintillation camera; 500,000 count images were obtained, analyzed by computer, and then displayed in a 64 x 64 matrix. Individual pixel values of V and Q were correlated by a best-fit regression line, whose slope was proportional to the overall V/Q ratio. The slopes of individual groups of nonsmokers, ex-smokers, and smokers (0.83-0.85) were significantly greater (p < 0.02) than the slope of the controls (0.70 +/- 0.07). In addition, the authors found that the skewness of plots of frequency distribution of V/Q and of V and Q vs V/Q for the individual patient groups was statistically different from that of the normals (p < 0.01). Statistical analysis of local and Q values therefore appears to be a potentially useful, non-invasive method to evaluate subtle regional lung impairment

  20. Comparison of models of automatic classification of textural patterns of mineral presents in Colombian coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Carvajal, Jaime; Branch Bedoya, John Willian

    2005-01-01

    The automatic classification of objects is a very interesting approach under several problem domains. This paper outlines some results obtained under different classification models to categorize textural patterns of minerals using real digital images. The data set used was characterized by a small size and noise presence. The implemented models were the Bayesian classifier, Neural Network (2-5-1), support vector machine, decision tree and 3-nearest neighbors. The results after applying crossed validation show that the Bayesian model (84%) proved better predictive capacity than the others, mainly due to its noise robustness behavior. The neuronal network (68%) and the SVM (67%) gave promising results, because they could be improved increasing the data amount used, while the decision tree (55%) and K-NN (54%) did not seem to be adequate for this problem, because of their sensibility to noise

  1. Analysis of development achievement of overseas resources and study of plans of system improvement (bituminous coal, general mineral resources)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J N [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    Development policy of overseas resources of Korea should be carried out as a part of long-term resources security policy that can prepare for the stable supply and demand of needed resources under the proper economic size and industrial structure. This study tried to search for the ways to promote overseas development of bituminous coal and, general mineral resources, and support them more effectively per field. For this, development achievements so far, domestic and foreign pending issues, and operation status of the support system are studied, analyzed, and the improvement plans are drafted per field. Financial support for overseas resources development should be more expanded than the present in the future. For this, the current collateral system centered on real right should be improved and financial support centered on the credit of enterprise should be reinforced. Besides, in the related tax support system, related tax laws and systems should be improved in order to alleviate the tax burden of business operators so that they can carry out the overseas resources development business with more advantageous conditions through the additive introduction of current deduction system of indirect payment tax. Since payback period of overseas resources development business tends to become long-term, it should be continuously carried out based on future-oriented development investment plan and will of more than twenty (20) years rather than on temporary development support plan based on short-term market trend. 25 refs., 73 tabs.

  2. Differences in frequency rates and classes of occupational accidents in copper ore and black coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecko, R.; Zacharzewski, J.

    1987-02-01

    This paper analyzes occupational accidents in copper mines and black coal mines in Poland from 1968 to 1985. Evaluates accident rate calculated per 1000 employees and per 100,000 t coal or copper ore output and distribution of accident classes characterized on the basis of miner absenteeism caused by an accident. Accident rate in coal mines calculated per 1,000 miners was: 58.5 in 1981, 51.0 in 1982, 39.5 in 1983, 36.6 in 1984 and 32.1 in 1985. Accident rate calculated per 100,000 t coal output was: 5.8 in 1980, 13.7 in 1981, 10.7 in 1982, 8.2 in 1983, 7.8 in 1984 and 6.7 in 1985. Curves showing accident rates and indices characterizing accident classes in 1968-1985 are plotted. Comparative evaluations of accident rate fluctuations in copper and coal mines suggest that these fluctuations are associated with causes other than mining and geologic conditions. Certain similiarities in accident rate fluctuations could be determined in spite of differing mining and geologic conditions and mine service life in the Lubin copper basin and Upper Silesia coal basin. 4 refs.

  3. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  4. EFFECTS OF THE APPLICATION OF A MINERAL-AND-ORGANIC FERTILISER PRODUCED FROM BROWN COAL ON THE OCCURRENCE AND INFECTIOUS POTENTIAL OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Majchrowska-Safaryan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the species composition and rate of entomopathogenic fungi occurrence in cultivable soil following the application of a mineral-and-organic fertiliser produced from brown coal. The material for testing consisted of soil samples collected in the second year of the experiment on two dates in 2015 (spring and autumn. The experiment was carried out on the following plots: control plot (no fertilisation; a plot fertilised with mineral fertilisers NPK presowing + N60 for top dressing; a plot fertilised with NPK presowing + manure; a plot fertilised with a fertiliser produced from brown coal at a dose of 1 t/ha NPK presowing + N20 for top dressing; and a plot fertilised with a fertiliser produced from brown coal at a dose of 5 t/ha NPK presowing + N40 for top dressing. Entomopathogenic fungi were isolated from soil of particular fertilisation experiment plots using insect traps (Galleria mellonella larvae as well as a selective medium. Three species of entomopathogenic fungi, i.e. Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. and Isaria fumosorosea, were isolated using two methods, from the soil samples collected from particular fertilisation experiment plots on two dates, i.e. spring and autumn. Fungus M. anisopliae s.l. proved to be the predominant species in the tested soil samples. The addition of the mineral-and-organic fertiliser, produced based on brown coal, to the soil at both applied doses contributed to an increase in the number of infectious units (CFUs of entomopathogenic fungi formed in relation to the control plot.

  5. Employee no-shows: managing library absenteeism.

    OpenAIRE

    Wygant, L J

    1988-01-01

    Employee absenteeism is a problem faced by all library administrators. This paper describes the development, implementation, and results of a program to discourage absenteeism at the Moody Medical Library of the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. The important role of library administrators and supervisors in controlling absenteeism is emphasized.

  6. Relationship Between Physical Activity Patterns and Metabolic Syndrome Among Male Coal Miners of Shanxi Province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jie; Tian, Shuang-Shuang; Qiao, Nan; Wang, Cong; Huang, Jian-Jun; Sun, Chen-Ming; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Cui, Yan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiao-Meng; Xu, Shu-Hong; Guan, Hongwei; Wang, Tong

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and physical activity (PA) in different domains among male coal miners of Shanxi Province in China. The study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used. Data regarding the general information of participants were collected by well-trained interviewers. MetS was defined according to IDF criteria. Self-reported PA was obtained with the IPAQ and categorized into three tertiles of intensity levels across occupation, transportation, household, and leisure-time domains. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied to compute the odds ratios and their 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 3076 males aged 18-65 years old were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of MetS was 40.5% in the study subjects. The percentages of vigorous-intensity PA in MetS and non-MetS groups were 70.07% and 62.92%, respectively. Participants spent most of their time on occupation (2034 MET-min/w) and transportation (693MET-min/w) domains. Higher-intensity levels in occupation domains were significantly associated with lower risk of MetS (OR: 0.759, 95% CI: 0.633-0.911; OR: 0.627, 95% CI: 0.516-0.762). Across four types of workers, the relationships between PA domains and MetS were different. For underground and underground auxiliary workers, the negative relationship was found between occupation PA and MetS. For office workers, the negative relationship was found between household PA and MetS. For ground workers, only leisure-time PA had positively related to MetS.

  7. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, June 1, 1980-August 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D; Givens, E N; Schweighardt, F K; Clinton, J H; Tarrer, A R; Guin, J A; Curtis, C W; Huang, W J; Shridharani, K

    1980-09-01

    Additional data on the pyrite catalysis of liquefaction of Elkhorn number 3 coal are presented. The liquefaction of Elkhorn number 3 coal was significantly catalyzed by the presence of pyrite. Coal conversion, oil yield and preasphaltene conversion all increased when pyrite was added. An increase in hydrocarbon gas make accompanied by a higher hydrogen consumption were also observed. The higher activity in the presence of pyrite could be utilized by running the liquefaction step at milder conditions which would mean a lower gas make. Although we had heard reports that sulfur elimination from the SRC was improved by use of pyrite, our data showed only very small changes. Nitrogen removal from the solvent, however, was definitely observed. At 850/sup 0/F nitrogen in the oil product went from 1.61 to 1.12 on adding pyrite. This increased nitrogen removal was also seen in the added ammonia yields. Kentucky number 9 coal also responded very well to the presence of pyrite. Conversions and oil yields increased while the hydrocarbon yields decreased at both temperatures that were tested, i.e., 825 and 850/sup 0/F. Hydrogen consumptions also increased. In the screening program the results from testing a number of materials are reported. None of the zeolites gave any significant improvement over coal itself. The iron, molybdenum, nickel, and cobalt rich materials had significant activity, all 85 to 90% conversion with high oil yields.Among materials specifically reported this period the clays failed to show any significant catalytic effect.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood cell and hypertension risk among mining workers: a case-control study in Chinese coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, L; Guo, J; Shi, X; Zhang, G; Kang, H; Sun, C; Huang, J; Wang, T

    2017-09-01

    Alteration of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, which reflects oxidant-induced cell damage, has been observed in a wide range of human diseases. However, whether it correlates with hypertension has not been elucidated. We aimed to explore the association between mtDNA copy number and the risk of hypertension in Chinese coal miners. A case-control study was performed with 378 hypertension patients and 325 healthy controls in a large coal mining group located in North China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staffs with necessary medical knowledge. The mtDNA copy number was measured by a quantitative real-time PCR assay using DNA extracted from peripheral blood. No significant differences in mtDNA copy number were observed between hypertension patients and healthy controls. However, in both case and control groups, the mtDNA copy number was statistically significantly lower in the elder population (≥45 years old) compared with the younger subjects (associated with hypertension in coal miners.

  9. Coal mining in Spain: first half year 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Statistical data from the first half of 1986 on coal mining in Spain. These figures cover anthracite, bituminous coal and lignite both nationally and for the coal-producing regions of Leon, Asturias, Palencia, Teruel and La Coruna. Special attention is paid to absenteeism and its causes.

  10. Role of non-ferrous coal minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, March 1, 1981-May 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D.; Givens, E.N.; Schweighardt, F.K.; Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Huang, W.J.; Shridharani, K.

    1981-06-01

    This report covers results from both tubing-bomb experiments and continuous PDU runs. The following materials were evaluated in the PDU on Elkhorn No. 2 coal from Floyd County, Kentucky: Molybdic oxides; iron oxide; pyrite; pyrite/iron oxide mixture, and iron sulfate impregnation. A base case liquefaction run was also made for direct comparison. All of the above materials were examined at both 825 and 850/sup 0/F. Tubing-bomb experiments are reported on pyrite, red mud, sodium sulfide and organic compounds of cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, zinc, chromium and lead. Significant conclusions were drawn on the catalysis by different materials. Especially significant was the higher level of activity resulting from impregnation versus particle incorporation of the catalyst in the system. Impregnation of coal decreased the hydrocarbon gases yield and increased oil yield. Hydrogen consumption was significantly reduced by impregnation. Addition of molybdic oxide containing 90% MoO/sub 3/ and 10% silica to coal liquefaction reaction mixture had the following effect: coal conversion increased, oil yield increased by more than a factor of two at both temperatures, hydrogen consumption increased, solvent/oil fraction showed substantial increase in hydrogen content, and molybdenum in the resulting liquefaction residue was apparently transformed into an amorphous material. A more thorough evaluation of completely sulfided molybdenum will be made to see if its activity increases. In the tubing-bomb experiments organic compound of molybdenum showed the highest activity for coal conversion and oil production. Significant synergism was noted between red mud and sodium sulfide in the coal liquefaction reaction.

  11. Obtention and characterization of ceramic products with addition of the mineral coal bottom ashes from thermoelectric power plants; Obtencao e caracterizacao de produtos ceramicos com a adicao de cinzas pesadas de carvao mineral provenientes de usinas termeletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniess, C.T.; Prates, P.B.; Brys, M.; Martins, G.J.; Riella, H.G., E-mail: kniesscl@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil); Bernardin, A. [Universidade do Extremo Sul de Santa Catarina (UNESC), SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of mineral coal bottom ash derived from thermoelectric power plants are compatible with various raw materials used in ceramic industries, which indicates a possibility of partial or fully substitution of raw materials by this residue. This work intends to obtain and characterize ceramic products with additions of different percentages of bottom ash coal. For this, was used a commercial ceramic body (CI) made by an industry in the state of Santa Catarina. The formulations of the ceramics products were obtained by the mixture design (planning network Simplex). The byproduct of coal bottom ash was found to be an attractive raw material source of SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to obtain ceramic materials. Was demonstrated the possibility of developing a ceramic materials classified as semi-porous (6 10) with additions of up to 20% of coal bottom ash in the composition of the ceramic body. (author)

  12. Absenteeism and Undergraduate Exam Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marburger, Daniel R.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between student absenteeism during a principles of microeconomics course and subsequent performance on examinations. Finds that students who missed class on a given date were significantly more likely to respond incorrectly to questions relating to material covered that day than students who attended class. (RLH)

  13. Chemical characterization of bottom ashes generated during combustion of a Colombian mineral coal in a thermal power plant; Caracterizacao quimica das cinzas de fundo originadas pela combustao, em usina termoeletrica, de um carvao mineral do nordeste da Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, H.S.; Nogueira, R.E.F.Q.; Lobo, C.J.S.; Nobre, A.I.S.; Sales, J.C.; Silva, C.J.M., E-mail: hspfisica@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    Bottom ashes generated during combustion of a mineral coal from Colombia were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The interest in this particular coal is due to the fact that it will be used by a thermal power plant in Ceara, Northeastern Brazil, where it could produce over 900 tons of different residues/combustion products every day. Results from Xray fluorescence allowed identification and quantification of elements present in the sample: silicon (59,17%), aluminum (13,17%), iron (10,74%), potassium (6,11%), titanium (2,91%), calcium (4,97%), sulphur (0,84%) and others (2,09%). The X-ray diffraction revealed patterns from silica, mullite, calcium sulphate and hydrated sodium. Results obtained so far indicate that the material is a potential raw-material for use in the formulation of ceramic components (author)

  14. Concerning coal: an anthology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.; Hawse, M.L.; Maloney, P.J. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The anthology takes a humanistic look at coal mining in Illinois. One of its goals is to increase public awareness of coal in American society; it also seeks to enhance understanding of the historical aspects of coal and to study the impact of coal on mining families. Many of the 25 selections in the anthology come from Coal Research Center publications, `Concerning coal` and `Mineral matters`. Articles are arranged in three parts entitled: life in the mining community; mining in folklore, story telling, literature, art and music; and technology as it affected the people of the coal fields. 117 refs., 25 photos. 1 map.

  15. Regulations implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: determining coal miners' and survivors' entitlement to benefits. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    This final rule revises the Black Lung Benefits Act (BLBA or Act) regulations to implement amendments made by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA amended the BLBA in two ways. First, it revived a rebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis for certain claims. Second, it reinstituted automatic entitlement to benefits for certain eligible survivors of coal miners whose lifetime benefit claims were awarded because they were totally disabled due to pneumoconiosis. These regulations clarify how the statutory presumption may be invoked and rebutted and the application and scope of the survivor-entitlement provision. The rule also eliminates several unnecessary or obsolete provisions.

  16. Effect of ultrafine iron and mineral matter on conversion of nitrogen and carbon during pyrolysis and gasification of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, Y.; Furimsky, E. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Reaction Science

    1995-01-01

    A subbituminous coal was used to determine the distribution of N{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and HCN during slow rate heating pyrolysis in He and gasification in 10% CO{sub 2} + He balance. During pyrolysis, the N{sub 2} was the major product followed by NH{sub 3} and HCN. During gasification, the N{sub 2} yields were significantly enhanced and those of NH{sub 3} and HCN decreased. Partial demineralization of coal resulted in a decrease in carbon and nitrogen conversion. This effect was also evident by comparing the nitrogen and carbon conversions of chars prepared at 500{degree}C from the fresh and demineralized coals. The addition of ultrafine Fe to coal increased conversion of carbon and nitrogen to N{sub 2} during gasification but had little effect during pyrolysis. Thus, during the former more than 80% of the coal nitrogen was released as N{sub 2}. Also, in the presence of Fe the temperature of N{sub 2} release was decreased by about 100{degree}C both during pyrolysis and gasification. During gasification of chars prepared at 1000{degree}C, the conversion of the coal nitrogen to N{sub 2} was much lower than that of carbon. 16 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Mineral processing and characterization of coal waste to be used as fine aggregates for concrete paving blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Santos

    Full Text Available Commercial coal production in the southern region of Brazil has been occurring since the beginning of the twentieth century. Due to the geological characteristics of the region, large amounts of solid wastes are generated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of coal waste to produce concrete paving blocks. A procedure to process the coal waste with the purpose of reducing the sulfur content and changing the particle size distribution of the material to meet the specification of fine aggregates was developed. The methodology considered the following steps: (a sampling of a coal mining waste; (b gravity separation of the fraction with specific gravity between 2.4 and 2.8; (c comminution of the material and particle size analysis; (d technological characterization of the material and production of concrete paving blocks; and (e acidity generation prediction (environmental feasibility. The results showed that the coal waste considered in this work can be used to replace conventional sand as a fine aggregate for concrete paving blocks in a proportion of up to 50%. This practice can result in cleaner coal production and reduce the demand for exploitation of sand deposits.

  18. Depositional environments of the Hart coal zone (Paleocene), Willow Bunch Coalfield, southern Saskatchewan, Canada from petrographic, palynological, paleobotanical, mineral and trace element studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; Beaton, A.P.; McDougall, W.J.; Nambudiri, E.M.V.; Vigrass, L.W. (University of Regina, SK (Canada). Energy Research Unit)

    1991-12-01

    Coal petrology, palynology, paleobotany and mineralogy of the Hart coal indicate deposition under wet, warm-temperate to subtropical climatic conditions in low-lying backswamps with fluvial channels and locally ponded areas. The coal is dominated by mixed xylitic/attrital lithotypes and by huminite macerals with secondary inertinite macerals and minor liptinite macerals. Good correlation exists between lithotypes and maceral composition. Local and vertical variations in proportions of huminites and inertinites reflect frequent fluctuations in water levels, periodic flooding, desiccation and burning of the peat. Swamps were dominated by {ital Glyptostrobus-Taxodium} forest with {ital Betula-Myrica-Alnus} communities and, locally {ital Laevigatosporites}, which are the dominant contributors to the xylite-rich lithotypes. Attrital lithotypes with abundant {ital Pandanus}, {ital Typha} and {ital Azolla} are consistent with wetter areas of a fluvial environment, including ponds and channels. Trace elements Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Si, Ti, U, Se, V, W, K and Th, typically associated with syngenetic minerals kaolinite, calcite and quartz, may have a volcanic source. High concentrations of Na, Ba and Ca found in organic complexes are of secondary origin and probably originate in deep source brines rather than marine surface waters. 55 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. [Workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, Paolo; Conway, Paul Maurice; Neri, Luca; Punzi, Silvia; Camerino, Donatella; Costa, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism in a large sample of Italian workers. A cross-sectional study conducted by means of questionnaires. In all, 8,992 subjects filled in a questionnaire to detect workplace bullying, the presence of work stress factors and days of sickness absence in the last year. Workplace bullying and psychosocial stressor were measured by the means of the CDL 2.0 questionnaire. Days of sickness absence reported by the subjects. On average, days of sickness absence were 7.4, and 7.2% of the respondents were defined as bullied. Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a workplace bullying was associated with more days of sickness absence after controlling for gender, age, professional qualification, company sector and juridical nature and other psychosocial factors (men: OR =1.62; women: OR =2.15). The present study confirms that workers exposed to a workplace bullying reported higher sickness absenteeism as compared with non-exposed subjects, also when a potentially highly stressful work environment is considered. The results of the present study support that workplace bullying may be viewed as an extreme stressful condition. Interventions to avoid workplace bullying not only favoure workers' health, but also avoid the company costs associated with workers' sickness absenteeism.

  20. Abundances and distribution of minerals and elements in high-alumina coal fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Zhao, L.; Peng, S.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, D.; Sun, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China, is unique because it is highly enriched in alumina (Al2O3>50%). The fly ash mainly consists of amorphous glass and mullite and trace amounts of corundum, quartz, char, calcite, K-feldspar, clay minerals, and Fe-bearing minerals. The mullite content in fly ash is as high as 37.4% because of high boehmite and kaolinite contents in feed coal. Corundum is a characteristic mineral formed during the combustion of boehmite-rich coal.Samples from the economizer were sieved into six size fractions (500 mesh) and separated into magnetic, mullite+corundum+quartz (MCQ) and glass phases for mineralogical and chemical analysis. The corundum content increases but amorphous glass decreases with decreasing particle size. Fractions of small particle sizes are relatively high in mullite, probably because mullite was formed from fine clay mineral particles under high-temperature combustion condition. Similarly, fine corundum crystals formed in the boiler from boehmite in feed coal. The magnetic phase consists of hematite, magnetite, magnesioferrite, and MgFeAlO4 crystals. The MCQ phase is composed of 89% mullite, 6.1% corundum, 4.5% quartz, and 0.5% K-feldspar.Overall, the fly ash from the power plant is significantly enriched in Al2O3 with an average of 51.9%, but poor in SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, P2O5, and As. Arsenic, TiO2, Th, Al2O3, Bi, La, Ga, Ni, and V are high in mullite, and the magnetic matter is enriched in Fe2O3, CaO, MnO, TiO2, Cs, Co, As, Cd, Ba, Ni, Sb, MgO, Zn, and V. The remaining elements are high in the glass fraction. The concentration of K2O, Na2O, P2O5, Nb, Cr, Ta, U, W, Rb, and Ni do not clearly vary with particle size, while SiO2 and Hg decrease and the remaining elements clearly increase with decreasing particle size. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  2. Absenteeism- a complex problem: A study on absenteeism in Trondheim’s nursing homes

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Josiane

    2011-01-01

    Absenteeism is a community problem when one looks at the amount of money spent because of it, an amount that could have been used on other more important matters. For this thesis I set out to study absenteeism in nursing homes here in my town, Trondheim. I wanted to study the nursing homes with relatively low absenteeism rate and the nursing homes with relatively high absenteeism rate to see if I could find differences that could explain the differences in their absenteeism rates. Interviews ...

  3. Absenteeism in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Jensen, Troels Wendelboe

    2007-01-01

    and Sweden. Employees working in the public sector, more specific the municipalities, have a higher level of absence compared to the private sector. According to the personal characteristics, women are more absent than men in all Nordic countries, but the effect of age differs according to the country...... in question. If the manager however is a woman and the employee likewise, then the level of absence is higher in Denmark, Norway and Finland compared to the other gender constellations. Originality/value - Because of the lack of international comparative studies of absenteeism in the Nordic countries...

  4. Characteristics of Absenteeism in Nursing Home Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Rosenthal, Alvin S.

    This study investigated factors associated with absenteeism among nursing staff (N=219) at a long-term care facility. Four absenteeism measures were calculated from personnel records for each month of the year: no pay (the sum of unscheduled, unpaid sick, and leave without pay), part day (the sum of arrived late and left early), paid sick, and…

  5. Impact of divorce on absenteeism levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, H.; Besseling, J.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in marital status may be linked with consecutive data on absenteeism from the occupational health services in the Netherlands. According to a recent study by TNO Work and Employment, it appears that divorce has an impact on absenteeism levels among employees. After a certain period following

  6. School Absenteeism through the Transition to Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly M.

    2018-01-01

    Using nationally representative data from the Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 Cohort (n = 2,798), this study examined patterns of absenteeism and their consequences through the transition to kindergarten. Overall, children were less likely to be absent in kindergarten than from Head Start at ages 3 and 4. Absenteeism was fairly stable…

  7. Pupil Absenteeism and the Educational Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, H. C. M.

    2015-01-01

    From a review of the literature, it is concluded that (i) each form of pupil absenteeism relates to a heterogeneous group of children; (ii) because of such heterogeneity, those who are involved in assessment and intervention in relation to pupil absenteeism are faced with a demanding task; (iii) as a consequence of their education and training,…

  8. Early-Years Absenteeism Seen as Critical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    While efforts to reduce chronic absenteeism typically focus on adolescents, experts say that the early grades are the place to start. Statistics show that rates of absenteeism in kindergarten and 1st grade can rival those in high school. An average of one in 10 pupils in grades K-12 nationwide is considered chronically absent, defined as missing…

  9. Coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  10. Evaluation of the mortality standard of a miners cohort exposed to radon in an underground coal mining, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, Lene H.S.; Amaral, Eliana C.S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to to evaluate the possible health effects on workers in a underground coal mining that were exposed to radon and its decay products without the knowledge of the exposure risk. We established a historical cohort of workers in this mining which included 2856 workers, 1946 underground workers and 910 surface workers, and was carried out a retrospective tracking of mortality in this cohort between 1979 and 2002. Through multiple strategies for monitoring, involving several national institutions, was possible to trace the vital status of 92% of the cohort and 100% of the causes of deaths. The results showed that employees of underground coal mining in Parana had a risk of mortality from lung cancer higher than might be expected to the male population of the state of Parana, observing an increase in risk with the time of underground service. However, this increase in mortality from lung cancer was not observed for surface workers. Among several carcinogenic agents present in the mine environment, radon gas and its decay products can be identified as the major cause for this increase in risk of lung cancer for these workers, once other epidemiological studies in coal mining, which have no risk of exposure to radon, do not present an increased of mortality risk from lung cancer

  11. Experimental formation of Pb, Sn, Ge and Sb sulfides, selenides and chlorides in the presence of sal ammoniac: A contribution to the understanding of the mineral formation processes in coal wastes self-ignition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laufek, F.; Veselovský, F.; Drábek, M.; Kříbek, B.; Klementová, Mariana

    176-177, May (2017), s. 1-7 ISSN 0166-5162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : coal wastes * metalloids * mineral formation * self-burning processes Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 4.783, year: 2016

  12. Coal statistics for the first half of 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statistical data on coal mining in Spain, compiled by Federacion Nacional Empresarious Minas Carbon, is presented. The figures given are both national and according to the coal-producing regions of Leon, Asturias, Palencia, Teruel and La Coruna. Particular attention is paid to absenteeism and its causes. 44 tabs.

  13. Characterization of Egyptian coal from Sinai using Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, N.A.; Abdel Meguid, M.M.; Deriu, A.; Albanese, G.

    1983-08-01

    The presence of iron bearing minerals in coal makes the Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS) extremely useful for characterization of coals from different localities. In this paper the MS has been applied to characterize Egyptian coal from Sinai (Maghara). The chemical analysis of this coal is given. The MS results showed that pyritic sulphur (pyrite and marcasite) is the only bearing mineral in Egyptian coal. A review is given for the iron bearing minerals in coals from different countries measured by MS. (author)

  14. Daylight and absenteeism--evidence from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Simen; Røed, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Based on administrative register data from Norway, we examine the impact of hours of daylight on sick-leave absences among workers. Our preferred estimates imply that an additional hour of daylight increases the daily entry rate to absenteeism by 0.5 percent and the corresponding recovery rate by 0.8 percent, ceteris paribus. The overall relationship between absenteeism and daylight hours is negative. Absenteeism is also sensitive to weather conditions. Heavy snowfall raises the incidence of absence during the winter, while warm weather reduces the probability of returning to work during the summer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Absenteeism, efficiency wages, and marginal taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Dale-Olsen, Harald

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I test the argument that increased taxes on earnings correspond to increased incentives to shirk, thus causing an increase in the rate of worker absenteeism. After fixed job effects are taken into account, panel register data on prime-age Norwegian males who work full-time show that a higher marginal net-of-earnings-tax rate reduces the rate of absenteeism. When the net-of-tax rate is increased by 1.0 percent, absenteeism decreases by 0.3−0.5 percent. Injury-related absences ar...

  16. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  17. Associations of polymorphisms in the cytokine genes IL1β (rs16944), IL6 (rs1800795), IL12b (rs3212227) and growth factor VEGFA (rs2010963) with anthracosilicosis in coal miners in Russia and related genotoxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volobaev, Valentin P; Larionov, Aleksey V; Kalyuzhnaya, Ekaterina E; Serdyukova, Ekaterina S; Yakovleva, Svetlana; Druzhinin, Vladimir G; Babich, Olga O; Hill, Elena G; Semenihin, Victor A; Panev, Nikolay I; Minina, Varvara I; Sivanesan, Saravana Devi; Naoghare, Pravin; da Silva, Juliana; Barcelos, Gustavo R M; Prosekov, Alexander Y

    2018-04-13

    Anthracosilicosis (AS), a prevalent form of pneumoconiosis among coal miners, results from the accumulation of carbon and silica in the lungs from inhaled coal dust. This study investigated genotoxic effects and certain cytokine genes polymorphic variants in Russian coal miners with АS. Peripheral leukocytes were sampled from 129 patients with AS confirmed by X-ray and tissue biopsy and from 164 asymptomatic coal miners. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in the extracted DNA samples: IL1β T-511C (rs16944), IL6 C-174G (rs1800795), IL12b A1188C (rs3212227) and VEGFA C634G (rs2010963). Genotoxic effects were assessed by the analysis of chromosome aberrations in cultured peripheral lymphocytes. The mean frequency of chromatid-type aberrations and chromosome-type aberrations, namely, chromatid-type breaks and dicentric chromosomes, was found to be higher in AS patients [3.70 (95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.29-4.10) and 0.28 (95% CI, 0.17-0.38)] compared to the control group [2.41 (95% CI, 2.00-2.82) and 0.09 (95% CI, 0.03-0.15)], respectively. IL1β gene T/T genotype (rs16944) was associated with AS [17.83% in AS patients against 4.35% in healthy donors, odds ratio = 4.77 (1.88-12.15), P < 0.01]. A significant increase in the level of certain chromosome interchanges among AS donors is of interest because such effects are typical for radiation damage and caused by acute oxidative stress. IL1β T allele probably may be considered as an AS susceptibility factor among coal miners.

  18. Inventario mundial de la calidad del carbon mineral (WoCQI) [The world coal quality inventory (WoCQI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.; Lovern, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    Los oficiales encargados de la politica comercial de cada pais requieren informacion clara y precisa sobre el recurso del carbon mineral, particularmente sobre sus propiedades y caracteristicas, para tomar decisiones bien fundamentadas con respecto al mejor uso de los recursos naturales, necesidades de importacion y oportunidades de exportacion, objetivos de politica interna y externa, oportunidades de transferencia tecnologica, posibilidades de inversion externa, estudios ambientales y de salud, y asuntos relacionados con el uso de productos secundarios y su disposicion.

  19. ABSENTEEISM AT WORK IN HOTEL EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Tous-Pallarès Pallarès

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Registered absenteeism has a psychosocial basis in which there are problems between the individual, the job and the quality of service requirements of the company. This paper analyzes the research studies that evaluate absentee behavior in the hotel and catering industry. The studies consulted usually use registered temporary sick leave (TSL as an indicator of employee absentee behavior. The results show that the impact of absenteeism can be minimized using different strategies: improving the processes of recruitment, selection and training of employees as much as possible and assessing individual differences and their contextual variables that are related to a better quality of service. The information obtained describes a situation similar to the one prior to the economic crisis

  20. Reuse of ash coal in the formulation of mortars; Reaproveitamento de cinzas de carvao mineral na formulacao de argamassas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, J.S.; Souza, C.A.G.; Souza, J.A.S., E-mail: jacilene_s@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: celioag@ufpa.br, E-mail: jass@ufpa.br [Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Para, UFPA/PPEQ, Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    This paper aims to study the ash incorporation from the combustion of coal in fluidized bed boilers, in production of mortar, replacing part of cement. Specimens were prepared using Portland cement to the specifications CPII-E-32 of normal characteristics and classification of sand below 100 mesh. Blends in the 4:1 ratio, that is, 4 parts of aggregate to 1 part of cement, with insertion of ashes in the proportions 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%. The mortar was developed in mixing and casting was made in a mold of 5 cm x 10 cm. The behavior of compressive strength was evaluated after 28 days; the strength decreases with increasing percentage of ash. Additional analysis was carried out by X-ray diffraction, and it was found that the substitution of this waste can be successfully used in mortars with blends of up to 30%. (author)

  1. Use of analcime zeolite from mineral coal fly ash in adsorption of Cu"+"2 and Cd"+"2 in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha Junior, C.A.F.; Santos, S.C.A.; Angelica, R.S.; Neves, R.F.; Souza, C.A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The use of zeolite for removing heavy metals from contaminated effluents over the years has been widespread due to its high cation exchange capacity in aqueous solutions. Thus this study aims to use analcime zeolite for removal of Cu"+"2 and Cd"+"2 from aqueous solutions at different concentrations, and the zeolitic material synthesized from coal fly ash generated in an alumina plant in northern Brazil . The use of zeolite analcime proved quite satisfactory, since this product has removed almost entirely Cu"+"2 and Cd"+"2 solutions with concentrations up to 200ppm, and demonstrated an average capacity for solutions of 400ppm, which shows good applicability of this material for the treatment of effluent contamination in the ranges studied. The adsorption models of Langmuir and Freundlich showed a good fit to experimental data generated in this work. (author)

  2. The influence of coal bottom ash and tincal (boron mineral) additions on the physical and microstructures of ceramic bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayca, S.U.; Batar, T.; Sayin, E.; Solak, O.; Kahraman, B. [Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey). Soma Vocational School

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, the influence of coal bottom ash and tincal additions on the physical properties and microstructures of the standard wall tile body composition was investigated. Water absorption, fang strength, dry and fired shrinkage tests of the incorporated ceramic bodies and reference body were done. Microstructures of sintered tiles were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that tincal additions to the ceramic body improved the physical properties of the tiles. As a result, tincal can be used as a flux material in the ceramic bodies due to its favorable effects on the water absorption and fired strength. The results revealed that bottom ash can be used in the ceramic tile body composition. When bottom ash was used in the ceramic industry, environmental hazards of bottom ash are inhibited. Furthermore, bottom ash is transformed to an economic product.

  3. A method for analyzing low statistics high resolution spectra from 210Pb in underground coal miners from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Spitz, H.B.

    2006-01-01

    A survey conducted by the IRD-CNEN determined that some workers from an underground coal mine in the south of Brazil were exposed to elevated airborne concentrations of 222 Rn. Because inhalation of high airborne concentrations of 222 Rn can lead to an increase of 210 Pb in bone, in vivo measurements of 210 Pb in the skeleton were performed in selected underground workers from this mine. Measurements were performed using an array of high-resolution germanium detectors positioned around the head and knee to detect the low abundant 46.5 keV photon emitted by 210 Pb. The gamma-ray spectra were analyzed using a moving median smoothing function to detect the presence of a photopeak at 46.5 keV. The minimum detectable activity of 210 Pb in the skeleton using this methodology was 50 Bq. (author)

  4. Work Absenteeism Due to a Chronic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, Guy; Brouard, Marie-Ève

    2011-01-01

    Research on health-related work absenteeism focuses primarily on moral hazard issues but seldom discriminates between the types of illnesses that prompt workers to stay home or seek care. This paper focuses on chronic migraine, a common and acute illness that can prove to be relatively debilitating. Our analysis is based upon the absenteeism of workers employed in a large Fortune- 100 manufacturing firm in the United States. We model their daily transitions between work and absence spells bet...

  5. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  6. Microscopic coal research in Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebard, P.A.

    1955-01-01

    Since the industrial developments of Europe and North America in the nineteenth century, coal has been considered as the most important mineral wealth a country could possess. Coal was often referred to as King Coal, and it was not until around 1950 that its position as the major fuel for modern

  7. Fly ash from a Mexican mineral coal. II. Source of W zeolite and its effectiveness in arsenic (V) adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Adriana; Gamero, Procoro; Almanza, Jose Manuel; Vargas, Alfredo; Montoya, Ascencion; Vargas, Gregorio; Izquierdo, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Coal-fired plants in Coahuila (Mexico) produce highly reactive fly ash (MFA), which is used in a one-step process as a raw material in producing zeolite. We explored two routes in the synthesis of zeolite: (a) direct MFA zeolitization, which resulted in the formation of W zeolite with KOH and analcime with NaOH and (b) a MFA fusion route, which resulted in the formation of zeolite W or chabazite with KOH and zeolite X or P with NaOH. No residual crystalline phases were present. When LiOH was employed, ABW zeolite with quartz and mullite were obtained. For both zeolitization routes, the nature of the alkali (KOH, NaOH, LiOH), the alkali/MFA ratio (0.23-1.46), and the crystallization temperature and time (90-175 o C; 8-24 h) were evaluated. Additionally, the effect of temperature and time on MFA fusion was studied. W zeolite was obtained by both zeolitization methods. The direct route is preferred because it is a straightforward method using soft reaction conditions that results in a high yield of low cost zeolites with large crystal agglomerates. It was demonstrated that aluminum modified W zeolite has the ability to remove 99% of the arsenic (V) from an aqueous solution of Na 2 HAsO 4 .7H 2 O originally containing 740 ppb.

  8. Fly ash from a Mexican mineral coal. II. Source of W zeolite and its effectiveness in arsenic (V) adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Adriana [CINVESTAV IPN-Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Monterrey Km 13.5, C.P. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Gamero, Procoro, E-mail: pgamerom@hotmail.com [CINVESTAV IPN-Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Monterrey Km 13.5, C.P. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Almanza, Jose Manuel [CINVESTAV IPN-Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Monterrey Km 13.5, C.P. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Vargas, Alfredo; Montoya, Ascencion [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, G.A. Madero, C.P. 07730, Distrito Federal (Mexico); Vargas, Gregorio [CINVESTAV IPN-Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Monterrey Km 13.5, C.P. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Izquierdo, Maria [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, C/Luis Sole Sabaris, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Coal-fired plants in Coahuila (Mexico) produce highly reactive fly ash (MFA), which is used in a one-step process as a raw material in producing zeolite. We explored two routes in the synthesis of zeolite: (a) direct MFA zeolitization, which resulted in the formation of W zeolite with KOH and analcime with NaOH and (b) a MFA fusion route, which resulted in the formation of zeolite W or chabazite with KOH and zeolite X or P with NaOH. No residual crystalline phases were present. When LiOH was employed, ABW zeolite with quartz and mullite were obtained. For both zeolitization routes, the nature of the alkali (KOH, NaOH, LiOH), the alkali/MFA ratio (0.23-1.46), and the crystallization temperature and time (90-175 {sup o}C; 8-24 h) were evaluated. Additionally, the effect of temperature and time on MFA fusion was studied. W zeolite was obtained by both zeolitization methods. The direct route is preferred because it is a straightforward method using soft reaction conditions that results in a high yield of low cost zeolites with large crystal agglomerates. It was demonstrated that aluminum modified W zeolite has the ability to remove 99% of the arsenic (V) from an aqueous solution of Na{sub 2}HAsO{sub 4}.7H{sub 2}O originally containing 740 ppb.

  9. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  10. Bioleaching of vanadium from barren stone coal and its effect on the transition of vanadium speciation and mineral phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Lin, Hai; Dong, Ying-bo; Li, Gan-yu

    2018-03-01

    This study determined the optimal conditions required to obtain maximum vanadium extraction and examined the transition of mineral phases and vanadium speciation during the bioleaching process. Parameters including the initial pH value, initial Fe2+ concentration, solid load, and inoculum quantity were examined. The results revealed that 48.92wt% of the vanadium was extracted through bioleaching under optimal conditions. Comparatively, the chemical leaching yield (H2SO4, pH 2.0) showed a slower and milder increase in vanadium yield. The vanadium bioleaching yield was 35.11wt% greater than the chemical leaching yield. The Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction results revealed that 88.62wt% of vanadium existed in the residual fraction. The bacteria substantially changed the distribution of the vanadium speciation during the leaching process, and the residual fraction decreased to 48.44wt%. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results provided evidence that the crystal lattice structure of muscovite was destroyed by the bacteria.

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Invasive Plants in Response to Mineral Toxicity of Reclaimed Coal-Mine Soil in the Appalachian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Malkaram, Sridhar A; Patel, Dharmesh; Taylor, Kaitlyn; Hass, Amir; Nimmakayala, Padma; Huber, David H; Reddy, Umesh K

    2015-09-01

    Efficient postmining reclamation requires successful revegetation. By using RNA sequencing, we evaluated the growth response of two invasive plants, goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria L.) and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), grown in two Appalachian acid-mine soils (MS-I and -II, pH ∼ 4.6). Although deficient in macronutrients, both soils contained high levels of plant-available Al, Fe and Mn. Both plant types showed toxicity tolerance, but metal accumulation differed by plant and site. With MS-I, Al accumulation was greater for mugwort than goutweed (385 ± 47 vs 2151 ± 251 μg g-1). Al concentration was similar between mine sites, but its accumulation in mugwort was greater with MS-I than MS-II, with no difference in accumulation by site for goutweed. An in situ approach revealed deregulation of multiple factors such as transporters, transcription factors, and metal chelators for metal uptake or exclusion. The two plant systems showed common gene expression patterns for different pathways. Both plant systems appeared to have few common heavy-metal pathway regulators addressing mineral toxicity/deficiency in both mine sites, which implies adaptability of invasive plants for efficient growth at mine sites with toxic waste. Functional genomics can be used to screen for plant adaptability, especially for reclamation and phytoremediation of contaminated soils and waters.

  12. Self-scrubbing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  13. Obesity, diet quality and absenteeism in a working population

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Sarah; Kirby, Ann; Murphy, Aileen; Geaney, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Objective The relationship between workplace absenteeism and adverse lifestyle factors (smoking, physical inactivity and poor dietary patterns) remains ambiguous. Reliance on self-reported absenteeism and obesity measures may contribute to this uncertainty. Using objective absenteeism and health status measures, the present study aimed to investigate what health status outcomes and lifestyle factors influence workplace absenteeism. Design Cross-sectional data were obtained from a complex work...

  14. Timeliness of syndromic influenza surveillance through work and school absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Bollaerts, K; Antoine, J; Robesyn, E; Van Proeyen, L; Vomberg, J; Feys, E; De Decker, E; Catry, B

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the usefulness of work and school absenteeism surveillance as an early warning system for influenza. In particular, time trends in daily absenteeism rates collected during the A(H1N1)2009 pandemic are compared with weekly incidence rates of influenza-like illness (ILI) obtained from the Belgian Sentinel General Practitioner (SGP) network. The results indicate a rise in absenteeism rates prior to the onset of the influenza epidemic, suggesting that absenteeism sur...

  15. THE CAUSES OF ABSENTEEISM OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gürbüz Ocak; İjlal Ocak; Emine A. Baysal

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the causes of high school students’ absenteeism. Survey method was used. The population was comprised of 531 students in the public high schools. The data was collected with "The Scale of Absenteeism Causes" developed by the researchers. Cronbach Alpha was calculated as α=0.936. Findings show the causes of students' absenteeism aren't related to school, students themselves and their parent, however, student absenteeism causes partly psychological reaso...

  16. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  17. 30 CFR 772.13 - Coal exploration compliance duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal exploration compliance duties. 772.13... INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL EXPLORATION § 772.13 Coal exploration compliance duties. (a) All...

  18. 30 CFR 206.265 - Value enhancement of marketable coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value enhancement of marketable coal. 206.265... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.265 Value enhancement of marketable coal. If, prior to use, sale, or other disposition, the lessee enhances the value of coal after the coal has been placed in...

  19. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  20. 30 CFR 206.464 - Value enhancement of marketable coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value enhancement of marketable coal. 206.464... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.464 Value enhancement of marketable coal. If, prior to use, sale, or other disposition, the lessee enhances the value of coal after the coal has been placed in...

  1. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  2. Surface chemical problems in coal flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Miller, K. J.; Deurbrouck, A. W.

    1981-02-01

    As the use of coal increases and more fine material is produced by mining and processing, the need for improved methods of coal beneficiation increases. While flotation techniques can help meet these needs, the technique is beset with many problems. These problems involve surface chemical and interfacial properties of the coal-mineral-water slurry systems used in coal flotation. The problems associated with coal flotation include non-selectivity, inefficient reagent utilization, and excessive variablity of results. These problems can be broadely classified as a lack of predictability. The present knowledge of coal flotation is not sufficient, in terms of surface chemical parameters, to allow prediction of the flotation response of a given coal. In this paper, some of the surface chemical properties of coal and coal minerals that need to be defined will be discussed in terms of the problems noted above and their impact on coal cleaning.

  3. Causes of Student Absenteeism and School Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Seyma; Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the causes of student absenteeism and school dropouts at primary, secondary and high school level in Düzce Province and to develop suggestions for solving these problems. A "case study" design, which is one of the qualitative research approaches, was used in this study. The study group consisted of…

  4. System for analysing sickness absenteeism in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z

    1997-01-01

    The National System of Sickness Absenteeism Statistics has been functioning in Poland since 1977, as the part of the national health statistics. The system is based on a 15-percent random sample of copies of certificates of temporary incapacity for work issued by all health care units and authorised private medical practitioners. A certificate of temporary incapacity for work is received by every insured employee who is compelled to stop working due to sickness, accident, or due to the necessity to care for a sick member of his/her family. The certificate is required on the first day of sickness. Analyses of disease- and accident-related sickness absenteeism carried out each year in Poland within the statistical system lead to the main conclusions: 1. Diseases of the musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous systems accounting, when combined, for 1/3 of the total sickness absenteeism, are a major health problem of the working population in Poland. During the past five years, incapacity for work caused by these diseases in males increased 2.5 times. 2. Circulatory diseases, and arterial hypertension and ischaemic heart disease in particular (41% and 27% of sickness days, respectively), create an essential health problem among males at productive age, especially, in the 40 and older age group. Absenteeism due to these diseases has increased in males more than two times.

  5. Persistent Absenteeism among Irish Primary School Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Maeve; Darmody, Merike; McCoy, Selina

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of international studies document the importance of regular school attendance. There is a consensus among authors that absenteeism has negative implications for academic achievement as well as the social development of the child and may put them at a disadvantage in terms of their position in the education and labour market. Most…

  6. Preventing absenteeism at the workplace in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, C.V. van; Gründemann, R.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper, presented at the ninth European Congress on Work and Organizational Psychology, Helsinki, Finland, 12-15 May 1999, gives the results of a study to document the processes and mechanisms of workplace initiatives to reduce absenteeism related with ill health, by identifying the methods used

  7. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  8. 30 CFR 206.452 - Coal subject to royalties-general provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal subject to royalties-general provisions... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.452 Coal subject to royalties—general provisions. (a) All coal (except coal unavoidably lost as determined by BLM pursuant to 43 CFR group 3400...

  9. 30 CFR 206.253 - Coal subject to royalties-general provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal subject to royalties-general provisions... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.253 Coal subject to royalties—general provisions. (a) All coal (except coal unavoidably lost as determined by BLM under 43 CFR part 3400) from a...

  10. [Job satisfaction and organizational culture as predictors of absenteeism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Llanos, Rodolfo

    2015-08-01

    Absenteeism caused by sick leaves generates an important economic burden. To determine if job satisfaction, psychological climate, hierarchic level and age are predictors of absenteeism caused by sick leaves. FOCUS-93 survey that measures organizational culture and the satisfaction scale of Warr, Cook and Wall were distributed to 1387 workers of a hospital and answered by 874. Absenteeism data was obtained from the justified absenteeism registry of the Chilean Health Services. Absenteeism is influenced by job satisfaction and organizational culture. Age has no influence. Hierarchic level has a negative influence on absenteeism among men and a negligible effect among women. Those workers that are not satisfied with their work have higher rates of absenteeism.

  11. Clay Mineralogy of Coal-Hosted Nb-Zr-REE-Ga Mineralized Beds from Late Permian Strata, Eastern Yunnan, SW China: Implications for Paleotemperature and Origin of the Micro-Quartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The clay mineralogy of pyroclastic Nb(Ta-Zr(Hf-REE-Ga mineralization in Late Permian coal-bearing strata from eastern Yunnan Province; southwest China was investigated in this study. Samples from XW and LK drill holes in this area were analyzed using XRD (X-ray diffraction and SEM (scanning electronic microscope. Results show that clay minerals in the Nb-Zr-REE-Ga mineralized samples are composed of mixed layer illite/smectite (I/S; kaolinite and berthierine. I/S is the major component among the clay assemblages. The source volcanic ashes controlled the modes of occurrence of the clay minerals. Volcanic ash-originated kaolinite and berthierine occur as vermicular and angular particles, respectively. I/S is confined to the matrix and is derived from illitization of smectite which was derived from the original volcanic ashes. Other types of clay minerals including I/S and berthierine precipitated from hydrothermal solutions were found within plant cells; and coexisting with angular berthierine and vermicular kaolinite. Inferred from the fact that most of the I/S is R1 ordered with one case of the R3 I/S; the paleo-diagenetic temperature could be up to 180 °C but mostly 100–160 °C. The micro-crystalline quartz grains (<10 µm closely associated with I/S were observed under SEM and were most likely the product of desiliconization during illitization of smectite.

  12. Washability characteristics of residual coals obtained from solvent extraction: studies towards developing cleaner coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, C.C.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2004-07-01

    The washability characteristics of original Indian coals and solvent-extracted residual coals were studied by the float and sink technique. The following conclusions were drawn on the basis of the present study. Anthracene oil-extracted residual coals have lower percentage of reactions in the specific gravity range of 1.4 to 1.6 than the original coals, which indicates that the mineral matter is disassociated from the organic mass, and the anthracene oil-extracted residual coal is more suitable for washing than the original coal. The floatability behaviour of coal increases during NMP (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) extraction. This indicates that coal changes its washability character during NMP extractions. As during NMP extraction the surface area of coal increases by creating fissures in the matrix, the chemical leaching technique would be more suitable to remove the mineral matter in the residual coals. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Indochina area mineral prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-05

    Prospects for commercial mining of various minerals are considered for Kampuchea (Cambodia), Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar (Burma) and Thailand. Mineral production is much below its geologic potential for economic and political reasons. Resource potential is limited to tin, tungsten, lead and zinc, barytes and gemstones, and coal. 1 fig.

  14. Effects of absenteeism feedback and goal-setting interventions on nurses' fairness perceptions, discomfort feelings and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudine, Alice; Saks, Alan M; Dawe, Doreen; Beaton, Marilyn

    2013-04-01

    A longitudinal field experiment was conducted to test the effects of absenteeism feedback and goal-setting interventions on nurses' (1) fairness perceptions, (2) discomfort feelings and (3) absenteeism. Nurses' obstacles to reducing absenteeism were also explored. Absenteeism is a significant issue in health care and there is a need to avoid interventions that are seen to be negative, punitive or lead to sick nurses coming to work. Sixty-nine nurses working in a hospital in Eastern Canada received either: (1) absenteeism feedback with individual goal-setting, (2) absenteeism feedback with group goal-setting, or (3) no intervention, and were asked questions about how they could reduce their absenteeism. There was a significant decrease in the total number of days absent but no decrease in absent episodes, and a significant effect on fairness perceptions and discomfort feelings for the nurses in the absenteeism feedback conditions. Six categories of obstacles to reducing absenteeism were identified. The interventions made nurses feel their absence rate was less fair and to experience greater feelings of discomfort. The study's interventions may lead to a reduction in absence without the negative outcomes of a harsh absenteeism policy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Exposure to radon and mortality standard in a coal miner cohort in Brazil; Exposicao a radonio e padrao de mortalidade em uma coorte de mineiros de carvao no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, Lene Holanda Sadler; Amaral, Eliana [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Koifman, Sergio [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola Nacional de Saude Publica

    2002-07-01

    High levels of radon and his products have been found at a underground coal mine, at the Southern Brazil, in operation since 1945. The {sup 222}Rn concentration levels measured were 7000 Bq/m{sup 3} and 0.7 WL for the radon sons (7.7 WLM/year), which are values considered higher than the limits for intervention in a working environments (500 to 1500 Bq/m3 of {sup 222}Rn) and the occupational exposure limit (4.0 WLM/year). Due to the unique opportunity found in these miner group, it was decided to construct a cohort with miners from that mining (underground and surface) viewing the evaluation of the possible effects to the health decurrens from that exposure.

  16. Factors Associated with Absenteeism in High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    DEMIR, Kamile; AKMAN KARABEYOGLU, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: There are many factors that affect student achievement directly and indirectly at the secondary educational level. Lower attendance rates have been cited as detrimental to academic achievement; therefore, it is suggested that improved attendance is a direct indicator, rather than determinant of students’ academic achievement.Purpose of Study: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of individual, family and school variables on absenteeism among high sch...

  17. Actual and Potential Electoral Absenteeism in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    ACKAERT, Johan; DUMONT, P.; DE WINTER, L.

    2007-01-01

    During the eighties and nineties of the 20th century, absenteeism increased in Belgium. This evolution ended for all types of elections at the beginning of the current century. This paper offered a number of potential explanations for this puzzle, but we acknowledge that further examination is necessary to provide a clear answer for this change. We showed that potential absenteeists share specific characteristics. Potential turnout (in case of abolishment of compulsory voting) ...

  18. An empirical investigation into health sector absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Vivienne; Bamford, David

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to consider why absenteeism in Health and Social Care is so high and to suggest proactive changes in organization activity to address this. The research took a multimethod approach with a quantitative emphasis; there were three parts: (i) quantitative survey questionnaire; (ii) analysis of absenteeism and related secondary data; and (iii) qualitative data from other questions in survey and discussion groups. The quantitative emphasis in the research is appropriate, given the gap identified in the literature. Perceived limitations are that the study considers just one part of the overall system. The research indicates that managers underestimate staff absence levels and almost half believe absenteeism cannot reduce. Professional managers were more negative and over half of nurse managers believed that absence could not reduce. Unless there is a systematic systemic change in organizations, which changes managers' attitudes and understanding of absence with a consequent change in activity across the absence continuum, there is no prospect of a sustained reduction in absence levels. Manager impact and role in absence management are poorly covered in research, so this research helps inform those gaps.

  19. An empirical study on absenteeism in Garment industry

    OpenAIRE

    T. S. Nanjundeswaraswamy

    2016-01-01

    bsenteeism is a major challenge for any organization in the current competitive world. Curbing absenteeism helps organizations achieve their targets and increases productivity. This study highlights the major causes of absenteeism in the production division of a garment industry under various dimensions, which influence on absenteeism like work environment, organizational culture, relation and co-operation, compensation and rewards, facilities, job satisfactory and security, and general facto...

  20. Associates of School Absenteeism in Adolescents With Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lisa A.; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite high rates of school absenteeism in adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD), the issue remains understudied. Potential associates of school absenteeism in adolescents with SCD include demographic (age, income), psychosocial (IQ, self-efficacy, competence, internalizing symptoms, negative thinking), and health-related (hemoglobin, health-care utilization, pain, disease knowledge). Procedure Forty participants ages 12–18 completed measures of psychosocial functioning, IQ, and pain. Medical chart reviews identified other health-related variables. A subsample also completed an assessment of goals. Using school records, absenteeism was the percent of school days missed in the previous year. Correlations tested associates of absenteeism and linear regression tested a model of absenteeism. Results Participants missed an average of 12% of the school year and more than 35% missed at least 1 month of school. Health-related and psychosocial variables, but not demographic variables, correlated with absenteeism. Attendance at clinic appointments and parent-reported teen pain frequency were significant associates of absenteeism in the regression model. For those who completed goal assessment, over 40% of goals identified were academically focused. Absenteeism was positively related to current academic goals and health-related hindrance of academic goals, and negatively related to future-oriented academic goals. Conclusions School absenteeism is a significant problem for adolescents with SCD despite the presence of academic goals. Collaboration between schools, parents, patients, and providers to understand and manage the impact of SCD on school attendance is recommended. PMID:19006248

  1. Obesity, diet quality and absenteeism in a working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Sarah; Kirby, Ann; Murphy, Aileen; Geaney, Fiona

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between workplace absenteeism and adverse lifestyle factors (smoking, physical inactivity and poor dietary patterns) remains ambiguous. Reliance on self-reported absenteeism and obesity measures may contribute to this uncertainty. Using objective absenteeism and health status measures, the present study aimed to investigate what health status outcomes and lifestyle factors influence workplace absenteeism. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a complex workplace dietary intervention trial, the Food Choice at Work Study. Four multinational manufacturing workplaces in Cork, Republic of Ireland. Participants included 540 randomly selected employees from the four workplaces. Annual count absenteeism data were collected. Physical assessments included objective health status measures (BMI, midway waist circumference and blood pressure). FFQ measured diet quality from which DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) scores were constructed. A zero-inflated negative binomial (zinb) regression model examined associations between health status outcomes, lifestyle characteristics and absenteeism. The mean number of absences was 2·5 (sd 4·5) d. After controlling for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, the zinb model indicated that absenteeism was positively associated with central obesity, increasing expected absence rate by 72 %. Consuming a high-quality diet and engaging in moderate levels of physical activity were negatively associated with absenteeism and reduced expected frequency by 50 % and 36 %, respectively. Being in a managerial/supervisory position also reduced expected frequency by 50 %. To reduce absenteeism, workplace health promotion policies should incorporate recommendations designed to prevent and manage excess weight, improve diet quality and increase physical activity levels of employees.

  2. Time Pressure, Time Autonomy, and Sickness Absenteeism in Hospital Employees: A Longitudinal Study on Organizational Absenteeism Records

    OpenAIRE

    Maria U. Kottwitz; Volker Schade; Christian Burger; Lorenz Radlinger; Achim Elfering

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although work absenteeism is in the focus of occupational health, longitudinal studies on organizational absenteeism records in hospital work are lacking. This longitudinal study tests time pressure and lack of time autonomy to be related to higher sickness absenteeism. Methods: Data was collected for 180 employees (45% nurses) of a Swiss hospital at baseline and at follow-up after 1 year. Absent times (hours per month) were received from the human resources department of the hosp...

  3. Buckets of money for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    The revival of coal prices is providing record profits for Australian coal producers. As the world's largest coal exporter, any move in coal prices has significant ramifications for the Australian economy. The coal boom of the mid-1980s resulted in a massive increase in mine capacity and subsequently excess supply. This resulted in the decade between 1990 and 2000 seeing benchmark prices for coking coal in Japan plummeting to $US 39 a tonne (down from around the $US 52 mark) and a price of $US 28 for a tonne of steaming coal. Asia's financial problems, late in the decade coupled with a rapid fall in Asian steel making, also added to our coal export woes. As a result for most of the 1990s, Australia's coal sector delivered inadequate returns, was seen as over-capitalised and suffered from a profound investor indifference. But the sector is now seeing a definite turnaround in fortunes. Prices for thermal coal are on the rise and the benchmark coking coal prices to Asia have also jumped. Market analysts reported the price for contract deliveries of thermal coal in April this year were $US 34.50 ($AUD 69.35) up by $US 5.75 from the same time last year. The increased production is expected on the back of a continued rise in export demand, further improvement in prices, significant improvements in mine productivity, a weak Australian dollar and the probability of new projects and mine extensions going into operation. The improved returns have also flowed into rising valuations for listed coal miners. Over the last year, coal miners such as MIM and Gympie Gold, have delighted in share price gains of 12 per cent and 55 per cent respectively. These sort of performances are being repeated across the Australian industry

  4. 30 CFR 49.30 - Requirements for small coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for small coal mines. 49.30 Section 49.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.30 Requirements for small coal...

  5. 30 CFR 49.40 - Requirements for large coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for large coal mines. 49.40 Section 49.40 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.40 Requirements for large coal...

  6. 30 CFR 210.205 - What reports must I submit to claim allowances on Indian coal leases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on Indian coal leases? 210.205 Section 210.205 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Minerals § 210.205 What reports must I submit to claim allowances on Indian coal leases? General. You must... coal leases: (1) Form MMS-4292, Coal Washing Allowance Report, to claim an allowance for the reasonable...

  7. 30 CFR 817.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 817.81... ACTIVITIES § 817.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an... within a permit area, which are approved by the regulatory authority for this purpose. Coal mine waste...

  8. 30 CFR 872.21 - What are historic coal funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are historic coal funds? 872.21 Section... What are historic coal funds? (a) “Historic coal funds” are moneys provided under section 402(g)(5) of SMCRA based on the amount of coal produced before August 3, 1977, in your State or on Indian lands in...

  9. 30 CFR 816.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 816.81... ACTIVITIES § 816.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an... within a permit area, which are approved by the regulatory authority for this purpose. Coal mine waste...

  10. 30 CFR 827.12 - Coal preparation plants: Performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal preparation plants: Performance standards...-COAL PREPARATION PLANTS NOT LOCATED WITHIN THE PERMIT AREA OF A MINE § 827.12 Coal preparation plants..., modification, reclamation, and removal activities at coal preparation plants shall comply with the following...

  11. 30 CFR 817.84 - Coal mine waste: Impounding structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. 817.84... ACTIVITIES § 817.84 Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. New and existing impounding structures constructed of coal mine waste or intended to impound coal mine waste shall meet the requirements of § 817.81...

  12. 30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.20 Requirements for all coal mines. (a) The operator of each underground coal mine shall make available two certified mine rescue...

  13. Social cohesiveness and absenteeism: The relationship between characteristics of employees and short-term absenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Karin; Nauta, Aukje

    2004-01-01

    This study tries to explain the relationship between characteristics of the employees (e.g., gender and working hours) and short-term absenteeism by examining the social cohesiveness of a team. Hypotheses are formulated concerning gender and working hours of employees, social cohesiveness, and

  14. Minding the Gaps in Absenteeism: Disparities in Absenteeism by Race/Ethnicity, Poverty and Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Kevin A.

    2018-01-01

    Children from certain racial and ethnic minority backgrounds, in poverty, and/or with a disability, often face distinct challenges in attending school, leading them to miss more school relative to their non-minority, more socio-economically advantaged and non-disabled peers. This brief describes these disparities in absenteeism in the US,…

  15. Overcapacity forces change on the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soras, C.; Stodden, J.

    1987-09-01

    This article discusses the recent economic factors which have affected the coal mining industry in the USA, these include OPEC world oil prices, hostilities in the Gulf, strikes by miners and consumption rates. The recent years of over capacity have brought about key changes in the structure of the coal business and these are covered. The article forecasts an improvement in the market for coal, a free enterprise in the power market and a smaller but stronger coal industry in years to come.

  16. School Absenteeism Among Children Living With Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Involuntary tobacco smoke exposure causes substantial morbidity in children. We hypothesized that children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home would have increased school absenteeism with associated costs due to lost caregiver wages/time. METHODS: We analyzed data on health and absenteeism among schoolchildren aged 6 to 11 years identified in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). We used multivariate models to assess the relationships between adult-reported household smoking and child health and school absenteeism. Analyses were adjusted for children's and parents' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The value of lost caregiver time was estimated by using self-reported employment and earnings data in the NHIS and publicly available time-use data. RESULTS: Children living with 1 or ≥2 adults who smoked in the home had 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54–1.55) and 1.54 (95% CI: 0.95–2.12) more days absent from school per year, respectively, than children living with 0 smokers in the home. Living with ≥2 adults who smoked in the home was associated with increased reports of having ≥3 ear infections in the previous 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.65 [95% CI: 1.36–5.16]) and having a chest cold in the 2 weeks before interview (aOR: 1.77 [95% CI: 1.03–3.03]) but not with having vomiting/diarrhea in the previous 2 weeks (aOR: 0.93 [95% CI: 0.45–1.89]). Caregivers' time tending children absent from school was valued at $227 million per year. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoke exposure has significant consequences for children and families above and beyond child morbidity, including academic disadvantage and financial burden. PMID:21890826

  17. Taxation of unmined minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremberg, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Kentucky Revenue Cabinet which began implementing its controversial unmined minerals tax program. The Revenue Cabinet should complete its first annual assessment under this program in December, 1989. The Revenue Cabinet's initial efforts to collect basic data concerning the Commonwealth's coal bearing lands has yielded data coverage for 5 million of Kentucky's 10 million acres of coal lands. Approximately 1000 detailed information returns have been filed. The returns will be used to help create an undeveloped mineral reserves inventory, determine mineral ownership, and value mineral reserves. This new program is run by the Revenue Cabinet's Mineral Valuation Section, under the Division of Technical Support, Department of Property Taxation. It has been in business since September of 1988

  18. Mineral industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de

  19. Characteristics of zero-absenteeism in hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, J A H; Roelen, C A M; van der Klink, J J L; Groothoff, J W

    2013-06-01

    Literature on sickness presenteeism is emerging, but still little is known about employees who are never absent from work due to injuries or illness. Insight into the determinants and characteristics of such zero-absentees may provide clues for preventing sickness absence. To investigate the characteristics of zero-absentees, defined as employees without sickness absence over a period of 5 years. A mixed-method qualitative study comprising semi-structured interviews and focus groups for which Azjen and Fishbein's theory of planned behaviour was used as a framework. Zero-absentees working in hospital care were invited for semi-structured interviews until saturation was reached. The results of semi-structured interviews were validated in two focus groups. Of 1053 hospital employees, 47 were zero-absentees of whom 31 (66%) agreed to participate in the study. After 16 semi-structured interviews, no new insights or information were gathered from the interviews. The remaining 15 employees were invited to two (n = 8 and n = 7) focus groups. Personal attitudes and self-efficacy were more important in zero-absenteeism than social pressures of managers, colleagues or patients. Zero-absentees were found to be intrinsically motivated to try attending work when ill. In the present study population of hospital employees, we found indications that zero-absenteeism and sickness presenteeism might be different types of work attendance. Managers should realize that zero-absentees are driven by intrinsic motivation rather than social pressures to attend work.

  20. Does temporal and locational flexibility of work reduce absenteeism?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Possenriede, D.S.; Hassink, W.H.J.; Plantenga, J.

    In this study, the effects of temporal and locational flexibility or work on the frequency and length of sickness absenteeism are analysed. Using a Dutch survey of public sector employees, we show that increased temporal and locational flexibility is negatively associated with sickness absenteeism

  1. Physical activity and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in

  2. Sickness absenteeism at an all-time low

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, J.

    2011-01-01

    Absenteeism in the Netherlands rose steadily in the 1960s and 70s, driven by legislation that made it attractive for employees to take long-term sick leave. Changes in laws on absenteeism and disability seem to have been a driving force behind the fall in rates since the early 1980s and employers

  3. School Organizational Effectiveness and Chronic Absenteeism: Implications for Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhoff, Sarah Winchell; Pogodzinski, Ben

    2018-01-01

    Chronic absenteeism in K-12 schools is strongly associated with critical educational outcomes such as student achievement and graduation. Yet, the causes of chronic absenteeism are complex, with environmental, family/individual, and school factors all affecting the likelihood of a student attending school regularly. This exploratory study examines…

  4. Physical Activity and School Absenteeism Due to Illness in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Renate; van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore, we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents and explored whether…

  5. Alternative medicine, worker health, and absenteeism in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczynski, Kate

    2017-06-01

    Health related absenteeism costs an estimated $153 billion annually in the United States (Witters and Agrawal, 2011). 1 Chronic conditions (major contributors to absenteeism) are often successfully managed by Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). As CAM becomes an increasingly visible component of healthcare, firms may wish to consider whether CAM therapies can help reduce illness-related absenteeism. This paper aims to extend the literature on healthcare utilization and absenteeism by exploring whether CAM treatment is associated with fewer workdays missed due to illness. Using the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and propensity score matching (PSM), this study estimates the relationship between visits to CAM practitioners, health, and illness-related absenteeism. In a sample of 8820 workers, the average annual number of workdays lost due to illness is 3.69. Visiting an acupuncturist correlates with lower absenteeism among men (1.182 fewer workdays missed, pabsenteeism, and many correlate with improved health. Two limitations of this study are worth noting. First, a small proportion of the sample uses CAM, limiting the generalizability of results. Second, if health conscious individuals are more likely to use CAM, then health attitudes may be contributing to lower absenteeism among the treated. Further research is needed to identify a causal relationship between CAM treatment, health, and absenteeism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic Absenteeism: A Key Indicator of Student Success. Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafa, Alyssa

    2017-01-01

    Research shows that chronic absenteeism can affect academic performance in later grades and is a key early warning sign that a student is more likely to drop out of high school. Several states enacted legislation to address this issue, and many states are currently discussing the utility of chronic absenteeism as an indicator of school quality or…

  7. The Multidimensional Structure of University Absenteeism: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bonilla, Jesús Manuel; López-Bonilla, Luis Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Absenteeism has been a common and very extended problem in university spheres for several years. This problem has become a permanent feature in academic studies in general, yet it has received scarce empirical research attention. This work is focused on the analysis of the factors that determine university absenteeism. It evaluates a series of…

  8. Geochemistry of coals, coal ashes and combustion wastes from coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilev, S.V.; Vassileva, C.G.

    1997-01-01

    Contents, concentration trends, and modes of occurrence of 67 elements in coals, coal ashes, and combustion wastes at eleven Bulgarian thermoelectric power stations (TPS) were studied. A number of trace elements in coal and coal ash have concentrations greater than their respective worldwide average contents (Clarke values). Trace elements are concentrated mainly in the heavy accessory minerals and organic matter in coal. In decreasing order of significance, the trace elements in coal may occur as: element-organic compounds; impurities in the mineral matter; major components in the mineral matter; major and impurity components in the inorganic amorphous matter; and elements in the fluid constituent. A number of trace elements in the waste products, similar to coal ashes, exceed known Clarke contents. Trace elements are mainly enriched in non-magnetic, heavy and fine-grained fractions of fly ash. They are commonly present as impurities in the glass phases, and are included in the crystalline components. Their accessory crystalline phases, element-organic compounds, liquid and gas forms, are of subordinate importance. Some elements from the chalcophile, lithophile and siderophile groups may release into the atmosphere during coal burning. For others, the combustion process appears to be a powerful factor causing their relative enrichment in the fly ash and rarely in the bottom ash and slag. 65 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs

  9. Absenteeism in the workforce, Klang Valley, Malaysia--preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indran, S K; Gopal, R K; Omar, A

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sickness absenteeism among the three types of agencies, government, semi-government (boards) and private (public) companies. The methodology involved eliciting retrospective data on medical leave over the year 1990 by requesting the agencies to fill up a questionnaire (Appendix I), and calculating the indices of absenteeism from this data. The results show that the private agencies scored higher for all the indices but only the "lost time" percentage was significantly increased. Females also had significantly higher severity of sickness absenteeism rates in all the agencies. Overtime work was associated with higher absenteeism indices, markedly noted in the private agencies. In conclusion, agencies showed work out their own indices of absenteeism so that it could be compared with national rates.

  10. An empirical study on absenteeism in Garment industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Nanjundeswaraswamy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available bsenteeism is a major challenge for any organization in the current competitive world. Curbing absenteeism helps organizations achieve their targets and increases productivity. This study highlights the major causes of absenteeism in the production division of a garment industry under various dimensions, which influence on absenteeism like work environment, organizational culture, relation and co-operation, compensation and rewards, facilities, job satisfactory and security, and general factors. The Study helps to identify reasons for employee absenteeism in production division. Sample of 180 employees responses were considered for the study from the universe and the data were analysed, statistically. The study shows that the major factors like wages, other source of income, and bad relationship with supervisors were contributing to the major absence of employees from work. This clearly indicates that work environment, relation and co-operation, facilities provided by the organization and job satisfaction were the main components which are causing the employee absenteeism.

  11. [Nursing staff absenteeism rates as a personnel management indicator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancinetti, Tânia Regina; Soares, Alda Valéria Neves; Lima, Antonio Fernandes Costa; Santos, Nanci Cristiano; Melleiro, Marta Maria; Fugulin, Fernanda Maria Togeiro; Gaidzinski, Raquel Rapone

    2011-08-01

    Absenteeism in nursing is a difficult problem for health organizations; hence it is an indicator that must be monitored. The objective of this study was to analyze the absenteeism rate of nursing professionals in a public hospital. Absenteeism data were collected monthly, from January to July 2008, and calculated by means of an electronic program. The mean absenteeism index for nurses varied from 5.6% to 9.7% for technicians/nursing aides. Sick leaves were the most prevalent reason for absences. The data revealed the major cause of absenteeism and pointed at the need to change policies for hiring nursing professionals, in addition to reviewing the working processes in order to improve the workers' health conditions.

  12. School Absenteeism: An Online Survey via Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, Verena; Schneider, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    School absenteeism is a significant social and public health problem. However, existing prevalence rates are often not representative due to biased assessment processes at schools. The present study assessed school absenteeism in Germany using a nationwide online self-report survey. Although our definition of school absenteeism was more conservative than in previous studies, nearly 9 % of the 1359 high school students reported school absenteeism within the past 7 days. Absent students lived less often with both parents, were on average of lower socioeconomic status, and reported more emotional problems, behavioral problems and less prosocial behavior than attending students. Being an indicator of a wide variety of problems in children and adolescents, school absenteeism deserves much more attention. Future directions for research and implications for prevention and intervention programs are discussed.

  13. [School absenteeism in Germany: prevalence of excused and unexcused absenteeism and its correlation with emotional and behavioural problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Christoph; Fischer, Gloria; Jentzsch, Anika; Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Danuta; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Data about the prevalence of school absenteeism and its correlation with emotional and behavioural problems in Germany is scarce, in particular regarding excused absenteeism. This study aims to close the gap by examining a sample of 2,679 pupils attending the different types of secondary school (Hauptschule, Realschule, Gymnasium), who participated in a clinical trial for the prevention of truancy (WE-STAY-Project). Pupils' mean age was 14 years (M = 13.94, SD = 0.85, Range = 11-19) and gender distribution was balanced (49.35% males, 50.65% females). Using a self-report questionnaire, pupils where asked on how many days they had missed school on average per month during the last school year (excused and unexcused). Emotional and behavioural problems were measured by using the "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire" (SDQ). 4.1% of the pupils reported to have missed school without a valid excuse on more than four days per month (unexcused absenteeism). 6.1% had missed school having an excuse on more than ten days per month (excused absenteeism). Both, unexcused and excused absenteeism, showed an increase of emotional and behavioural problems dependent on the intensity of absenteeism. In conclusion, these findings show the relevance of school absenteeism in Germany. In the future, more attention should be given to pupils with also excused absenteeism.

  14. Pharmacy student absenteeism and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Levita; Vansal, Sandeep; Kim, Esther; Sullivan, Maureen; Salbu, Rebecca

    2012-02-10

    To assess the association of pharmacy students' personal characteristics with absenteeism and academic performance. A survey instrument was distributed to first- (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students to gather characteristics including employment status, travel time to school, and primary source of educational funding. In addition, absences from specific courses and reasons for not attending classes were assessed. Participants were divided into "high" and "low" performers based on grade point average. One hundred sixty survey instruments were completed and 135 (84.3%) were included in the study analysis. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to have missed more than 8 hours in therapeutics courses. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to miss class when the class was held before or after an examination and low performers were significantly more likely to believe that participating in class did not benefit them. There was a negative association between the number of hours students' missed and their performance in specific courses. These findings provide further insight into the reasons for students' absenteeism in a college or school of pharmacy setting.

  15. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  16. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Concentrations of lithium in Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yuzhuang; Li, Yanheng; Zhao, Cunliang; Lin, Mingyue; Wang, Jinxi; Qin, Shenjun [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China). Key Laboratory of Resource Exploration Research of Hebei Province

    2010-04-15

    Lithium is an important energy metal. Its concentrations in coals have been studied by many geologists. Its average content is only 14 mg/kg in the coals of the world. Lithium has never been reported as a coal associated deposit before. In order to study the concentrations in Chinese coals, 159 coal and gangue samples were taken from six coal mines and were determined by ICP-MS and the minerals in the samples were identified by X-ray powder diffraction. The results indicate that the Li contents in the coal samples from the Antaibao Coal Mine have reached the industry grade of coal associated deposits. In Tongxing Coal Mine, Li contents in the coal floor rock samples have reached the industry grade of independent lithium deposits. Main minerals are polylithionite, triphylite, zinnwaldite, lithionite and cookeite, which were transported into the peats. Therefore, lithium enriched is most likely in the synsedimentary stage in both coal mines. Furthermore, a revised average Li content in Chinese coals was given.

  18. Mineral statistics yearbook 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of mineral production in Saskatchewan was compiled and presented as a reference manual. Statistical information on fuel minerals such as crude oil, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and coal, and of industrial and metallic minerals, such as potash, sodium sulphate, salt and uranium, was provided in all conceivable variety of tables. Production statistics, disposition and value of sales of industrial and metallic minerals were also made available. Statistical data on drilling of oil and gas reservoirs and crown land disposition were also included. figs., tabs

  19. Outlook 96: Minerals and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Papers discussing the future of Australia's minerals and energy are presented under the following headings: Australia in the global minerals and energy markets; minerals exploration; steelmaking raw materials; aluminium and alumina; gold; nickel; base metals; titanium minerals; energy for a sustainable future; electricity; electricity in Asia; crude oil; coal trade; natural gas in Australia and uranium. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs., figs., refs

  20. The application of the coal grain analysis method to coal liberation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, G.; Firth, B.; Adair, B. [CSIRO Earth Science & Resource Engineering Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    Emerging coal markets such as the use of coal for conversion to liquid fuels and its use in fuels cells and as coal water slurries in diesel engines require coal products with different coal quality specifications than those applicable to traditional coal markets of coke making and conventional power generation. As well as quantifying coals in terms of their chemical and physical properties, detailed knowledge of the mineral inclusions within the coal particles is required to identify coals that are suited to economically produce the low-ash value coals required for these markets. After mining and processing, some particles can consist of essentially pure components of a single maceral or mineral phase whilst others are composite particles that are comprised of varying amounts of macerals and minerals. The proportion of particles that are present as pure components or as composites will be a function of the characteristics of the coal and the particle size. In general, it is considered that size reduction will result in liberation and hence increased yield. The amount of liberation that occurs during crushing or grinding a coal is however coal specific. Particle characterization information provided by an optical microscopic-imaging method, Coal Grain Analysis, was used to identify coals that might benefit from additional crushing to improve recovery of clean coal by new density separation techniques and by flotation. As expected, the results of these studies suggest that the degree of liberation that is obtained is coal specific, and, hence, yield improvements are also coal specific. Hence a quantitative method of investigating this issue is required.

  1. THE ACADEMIC ABSENTEEISM AND ITS MORE OBVIOUS RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto José Miranda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the relationship between absenteeism and academic performance in the Accounting Sciences Course. For this purpose, a documentary research was realized in a Brazilian public institution. With the course coordination permission, several information were analyzed concerning the participation of 1,525 students in 715 courses taught in the period between the first semester of 2009 and the second semester of 2013, totaling 29,839 observations. From these observations, the following variables were analyzed: academic performance, class size, period, turn, course load and not assiduous (absenteeism measure. The results indicated that all the variables investigated are significantly correlated to academic performance of students. However, the variable that had the strongest correlation was absenteeism. These results suggest that the first consequence of absenteeism is the decline in academic performance, as had been previously identified by other researchers. It was also identified that absenteeism is significantly correlated with all the variables mentioned before. Thus, students who are in more filled rooms, of the day turn, of the final periods and enrolled in courses with higher course loads tend to have higher absenteeism levels. In addition, it was found that 32.9% of evaded students in the period researched had had reproofs for lack between 2009 and 2013, evidenced thereby, the second serious consequence of absenteeism, the evasion.

  2. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  3. Coal and recycling mark the way forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bignell, E.

    2000-11-01

    A report is given of this year's Mineral Engineering Society's annual conference held in Scarborough, UK. The themes of recycling and coal were chosen for the two days of technical presentations. Topics included the cleaning up of brown field sites; the use of recycled waste oxide to replace iron ore pellets for cooling furnaces in steel making; high pressure filtration of industrial mineral effluent; iron ore mining in Australia; screen development; the status of coal preparation technology, by RJB Mining; study of movement of material (to simulate coal) in a hopper; and a UK-Chinese project on reduction of sulphur in coal.

  4. Utilising employee assistance programmes to reduce absenteeism in the workplace.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Absenteeism in the organisation is a major problem for many South African organisations and it is a financially crippling factor. It is made worse by the fact that organisations have no proper mechanisms in place to deal with the problem of absenteeism. The goal of the study is to show that the utilisation of an EAP programme will effectively manage and reduce absenteeism for organisations. Use was made of a literature review. Recommendations are made on how to implement and manage EAPs in th...

  5. Trade-offs between health and absenteeism in welfare states: Striking the balance

    OpenAIRE

    Markussen, Simen

    2007-01-01

    Workers’absenteeism due to illness represents a major concern in several countries. Absenteeism are however not very well understood in economics. This paper presents a model where absenteeism is understood in relation to health. Its main predictions are (i) intermediate welfare state generosity lead to the lowest absence rates as (ii) generous regimes results in excess long-term absenteeism and (iii) strict regimes lead to excess short-term absenteeism. (iv) Maximizing health is not the same...

  6. Investigation to identify the inhibitors and facilitators of excessive absenteeism in a mining environment / Dianne Williamson

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the facilitators and inhibitors of excessive absenteeism in a mining environment. Absenteeism can be one of the most important human resource issues in any organisation. Absenteeism can be really difficult, but with good understanding of what causes absenteeism and how to reduce it, organisations can limit the negative side effects of employee attendance issues. Absenteeism is not only a behaviour caused by an individual's character...

  7. Mineral industry statistics 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Production, consumption and marketing statistics are given for solid fuels (coal, peat), liquid fuels and gases (oil, natural gas), iron ore, bauxite and other minerals quarried in France, in 1975. Also accident statistics are included. Production statistics are presented of the Overseas Departments and territories (French Guiana, New Caledonia, New Hebrides). An account of modifications in the mining field in 1975 is given. Concessions, exploitation permits, and permits solely for prospecting for mineral products are discussed. (In French)

  8. Proceedings of the international symposium on coal - science, technology, industry, business, environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, K.S.; Sen, S. [eds.

    1996-12-31

    Papers were presented which covered the areas of coal science, advanced coal preparation, coal utilization, coal chemicals and the environment. These included carbon aromaticity, mineral studies, utilization of low rank coals, bioconversion of methane, swelling of coals, photocatalytic activity, flotation and effects of oxidation, microbial desulfurization, deashing, briquetting, commercial scale conversion of coal to fuels and chemicals, role of coal in iron and steel making, coal-water mixtures, dyes and chemical products, nitrogen oxides emissions and pollution control. 45 papers have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  9. [METHODS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING IN MORPHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF CHORNOBYL FACTOR INFLUENCE ON PROSTATE GLAND OF COAL MINERS-- THE CHERNOBYL DISASTER FIGHTERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 25 parameters in a prostate gland at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of prostate gland was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of a prostate gland tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine.

  10. [Methods of mathematical modeling in morphological diagnostics of Chernobyl factor influence on the testes of coal miners of Donbas--the Chernobyl disaster fighters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 29 parameters in testicles at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of testicles was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of testicles tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine.

  11. Coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    ACR's Coal 1992, the successor to the ACR Coal Marketing Manual, contains a comprehensive set of data on many aspects of the Australian coal industry for several years leading up to 1992. Tables and text give details of coal production and consumption in New South Wales, Queensland and other states. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, China, Colombia, Poland and ex-USSR. Also listed are prices of Australian coking and non-coking coal, Australian coal stocks (and those of other major countries), loading port capacities, freight rates and coal quality requirements (analysis of coals by brand and supplier). A listing of Australian coal exporting companies is provided. A description of the spot Coal Screen Dealing System is given. World hard coal imports are listed by country and coal imports by major Asian countries tabulated. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is included.

  12. 78 FR 21958 - Non-Competitive One-Year Extension With Funds for Black Lung/Coal Miner Clinics Program (H37...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... increased, suggesting that the disease is also leading to increased significant, long-term disability. This... Clinics Program supports projects that seek to prevent, monitor, and treat pulmonary and respiratory diseases in active and inactive miners. This extension with funds will allow the Office of Rural Health...

  13. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  14. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  15. Lung disease and coal mining: what pulmonologists need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Leonard H T; Krefft, Silpa D; Cohen, Robert A; Rose, Cecile S

    2016-03-01

    Coal mine workers are at risk for a range of chronic respiratory diseases including coal workers' pneumoconiosis, diffuse dust-related fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The purpose of this review is to describe coal mining processes and associated exposures to inform the diagnostic evaluation of miners with respiratory symptoms. Although rates of coal workers' pneumoconiosis declined after regulations were enacted in the 1970s, more recent data shows a reversal in this downward trend. Rapidly progressive pneumoconiosis with progressive massive fibrosis (complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis) is being observed with increased frequency in United States coal miners, with histologic findings of silicosis and mixed-dust pneumoconiosis. There is increasing evidence of decline in lung function in individuals with pneumoconiosis. Multiple recent cohort studies suggest increased risk of lung cancer in coal miners. A detailed understanding of coal mining methods and processes allows clinicians to better evaluate and confirm chronic lung diseases caused by inhalational hazards in the mine atmosphere.

  16. Predicting absenteeism: screening for work ability or burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouteten, R

    2017-01-01

    In determining the predictors of occupational health problems, two factors can be distinguished: personal (work ability) factors and work-related factors (burnout, job characteristics). However, these risk factors are hardly ever combined and it is not clear whether burnout or work ability best predicts absenteeism. To relate measures of work ability, burnout and job characteristics to absenteeism as the indicators of occupational health problems. Survey data on work ability, burnout and job characteristics from a Dutch university were related to the absenteeism data from the university's occupational health and safety database in the year following the survey study. The survey contained the Work Ability Index (WAI), Utrecht Burnout Scale (UBOS) and seven job characteristics from the Questionnaire on Experience and Evaluation of Work (QEEW). There were 242 employees in the study group. Logistic regression analyses revealed that job characteristics did not predict absenteeism. Exceptional absenteeism was most consistently predicted by the WAI dimensions 'employees' own prognosis of work ability in two years from now' and 'mental resources/vitality' and the burnout dimension 'emotional exhaustion'. Other significant predictors of exceptional absenteeism frequency included estimated work impairment due to diseases (WAI) and feelings of depersonalization or emotional distance from the work (burnout). Absenteeism among university personnel was best predicted by a combination of work ability and burnout. As a result, measures to prevent absenteeism and health problems may best be aimed at improving an individual's work ability and/or preventing the occurrence of burnout. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Biological gender differences, absenteeism and the earning gap

    OpenAIRE

    Ichino, Andrea; Moretti, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    In most Western countries illness-related absenteeism is higher among female workers than among male workers. Using the personnel dataset of a large Italian bank, we show that the probability of an absence due to illness increases for females, relative to males, approximately 28 days after a previous illness. This difference disappears for workers age 45 or older. We interpret this as evidence that the menstrual cycle raises female absenteeism. Absences with a 28-day cycle explain a significa...

  18. Exploring Parents’ Perceptions of Student Absenteeism in K-3

    OpenAIRE

    Karpilovski, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    Chronic absenteeism affects students’ academic achievement as well as their social and emotional wellbeing. In early elementary school, the primary responsibility for school attendance rests with parents and guardians. This thesis investigates parents’ perceptions of factors related to school attendance. The study was conducted in BC’s largest school district within the context of an absenteeism reduction program. Fifty-four parents of students in K-3 from 15 inner-city schools participated i...

  19. Overtime and Short-time with Fluctuating Absenteeism and Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Regt Erik R. de

    2005-01-01

    Even though overtime is a widely observed phenomenon, this paper argues against the view of overtime as a structural cost minimizing labour demand solution. A large part of the observed overtime can be explained by the volatility of demand and absenteeism.The paper''s main contribution is to investigate how stochastic absenteeism and stochastic demand tend to increase average hours per worker. Two distinct mechanisms are identified, independent of the type of uncertainty. The relative sizes o...

  20. Asthma-Related School Absenteeism, Morbidity, and Modifiable Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Joy; Qin, Xiaoting; Beavers, Suzanne F; Mirabelli, Maria C

    2016-07-01

    Asthma is a leading cause of chronic disease-related school absenteeism. Few data exist on how information on absenteeism might be used to identify children for interventions to improve asthma control. This study investigated how asthma-related absenteeism was associated with asthma control, exacerbations, and associated modifiable risk factors using a sample of children from 35 states and the District of Columbia. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Child Asthma Call-back Survey is a random-digit dial survey designed to assess the health and experiences of children aged 0-17 years with asthma. During 2014-2015, multivariate analyses were conducted using 2006-2010 data to compare children with and without asthma-related absenteeism with respect to clinical, environmental, and financial measures. These analyses controlled for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Compared with children without asthma-related absenteeism, children who missed any school because of asthma were more likely to have not well controlled or very poorly controlled asthma (prevalence ratio=1.50; 95% CI=1.34, 1.69) and visit an emergency department or urgent care center for asthma (prevalence ratio=3.27; 95% CI=2.44, 4.38). Mold in the home and cost as a barrier to asthma-related health care were also significantly associated with asthma-related absenteeism. Missing any school because of asthma is associated with suboptimal asthma control, urgent or emergent asthma-related healthcare utilization, mold in the home, and financial barriers to asthma-related health care. Further understanding of asthma-related absenteeism could establish how to most effectively use absenteeism information as a health status indicator. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Physical Activity and School Absenteeism Due to Illness in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    de Groot, Renate; van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents and explored whether mental health and cardiovascular fitness mediated this association. 328 Students in grades 7 and 9 (mean age 13.8 years; 49% boys) were included. PA was measured o...

  2. Uruguay minerals fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, H.

    1967-01-01

    In this report the bases for the development of the necessary works of prospection are exposed on mineral fuels of Uruguay. We have taken the set from: coal, lutitas bituminous, uranium, petroleum and disturbs. In all the cases we have talked about to the present state of the knowledge and to the works that we considered necessary to develop in each case

  3. Mineral matter reactions in cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. French; R. Sakurovs; M. Grigore [CSIRO Energy Technology (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    Some cokes appear to be particularly susceptible to weakening in the blast furnace. A mechanism which has been postulated to explain this is silica reduction by coke. Thus this project was initiated to ascertain the behaviour of quartz and silicates in coke with an emphasis on the role of the clay minerals. It is now possible to obtain quantitative mineralogical data and, the case of coal, to also obtain quantitative data on mineral grain size, shape and association through the use of automated electron beam image analysis techniques. This new ability can allow relationships between the amount of minerals in a coke and its reactivity to be established for the first time. Samples of five Australian coking coals were selected based upon quartz and clay mineral contents, mineral grain size and association. Samples were also provided by BlueScope Steel of coal, feed coke, and tuyere coke samples from the bosh, deadman and raceway regions of the blast furnace. The analytical work program conducted was as follows: Preparation of cokes by CSIRO; Petrography of starting coals and cokes; QEMSCAN of coals; LTA and XRD of starting coals and cokes; Coke reactivity tests (NSC and small scale); Petrography, LTA and XRD of reacted cokes; Petrographic and XRD examination of heat treated cokes. This study indicates that the NSC reactivity test does not adequately reflect the behaviour of coke in the lower part of the blast furnace. Further investigation of the behaviour of coke in the lower part of the blast furnace is required.

  4. Coal, energy and environment: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, J.S.; Hawse, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This international conference held in Czechoslovakia was a bold attempt to establish working relationships among scientists and engineers from three world areas: Taiwan, the United States of America, and Czechoslovakia. The magic words unifying this gathering were ''clean coal utilization.'' For the ten nationalities represented, the common elements were the clean use of coal as a domestic fuel and as a source of carbon, the efficient and clean use of coal in power generation, and other uses of coal in environmentally acceptable processes. These three world areas have serious environmental problems, differing in extent and nature, but sufficiently close to create a working community for discussions. Beyond this, Czechoslovakia is emerging from the isolation imposed by control from Moscow. The need for each of these nations to meet and know one another was imperative. The environmental problems in Czechoslovakia are extensive and deep-seated. These proceedings contain 63 papers grouped into the following sections: The research university and its relationship with accrediting associations, government and private industry; Recent advances in coal utilization research; New methods of mining and reclamation; Coal-derived waste disposal and utilization; New applications of coal and environmental technologies; Mineral and trace elements in coal; Human and environmental impacts of coal production and utilization in the Silesian/Moravian region; and The interrelationships between fossil energy use and environmental objectives. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  5. Influence of Nurse Aide Absenteeism on Nursing Home Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Nicholas G; Ferguson-Rome, Jamie C

    2015-08-01

    In this analysis, the association of nurse aide absenteeism with quality is examined. Absenteeism is the failure of nurse aides to report for work when they are scheduled to work. Data used in this investigation came from survey responses from 3,941 nursing homes; Nursing Home Compare; the Online System for Survey, Certification and Administrative Reporting data; and the Area Resource File. Staffing characteristics, quality indicators, facility, and market information from these data sources were all measured in 2008. The specific quality indicators examined are physical restraint use, catheter use, pain management, and pressure sores using negative binomial regression. An average rate of 9.2% for nurse aide absenteeism was reported in the prior week. We find that high levels of absenteeism are associated with poor performance on all four quality indicators examined. The investigation presented, to our knowledge, is one of the first examining the implications of absenteeism in nursing homes. Absenteeism can be a costly staffing issue, one of the potential costs identified in this analysis is an impact on quality of care. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Miners' strike 1984-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L; Salter, S [comps.

    1985-01-01

    References relating to the 1984-85 UK miners strike are listed under the following subject headings: events and analysis - a chronological record; short term effects - coal stocks and supplies, electricity supplies, financial, industrial and economic; the miners and their leadership; social aspects - civil liberties, media coverage, mining communities, picketing, policing, the future; pit closures. 240 references.

  7. Demographic variables in coal miners’ safety attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-wen; Wu, Xiang; Ci, Hui-Peng; Qin, Shu-Qi; Liu, Jia-Long

    2017-03-01

    To change unsafe behavior through adjusting people’s safety attitudes has become an important measure to prevent accidents. Demographic variables, as influential factors of safety attitude, are fundamental and essential for the research. This research does a questionnaire survey among coal mine industry workers, and makes variance analysis and correlation analysis of the results in light of age, length of working years, educational level and experiences of accidents. The results show that the coal miners’ age, length of working years and accident experiences correlate lowly with safety attitudes, and those older coal miners with longer working years have better safety attitude, as coal miners without experiences of accident do.However, educational level has nothing to do with the safety attitude. Therefore, during the process of safety management, coal miners with different demographic characteristics should be put more attention to.

  8. Distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism and their antecedents in full-time Australian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Christopher A; Caputi, Peter; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated distinct longitudinal trajectories of absenteeism over time, and underlying demographic, work, and health antecedents. Data from the Household, Income, and Labor Dynamics in Australia Survey were used; this is a panel study of a representative sample of Australian households. This paper focused on 2,481 full-time employees across a 5-year period. Information on annual sick leave and relevant sociodemographic, work, and health-related factors was collected through interviews and self-completed surveys. Growth mixture modeling indicated 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism over time. The moderate absenteeism trajectory (34.8%) of the sample had 4-5 days of sick leave per year and was used as the reference group. The low absenteeism trajectory (33.5%) had 1-2 days of absenteeism per year, while the no absenteeism trajectory (23.6%) had very low rates of absenteeism (absenteeism (>11 days per year). Compared with the moderate absenteeism trajectory, the high absenteeism trajectory was characterized by poor health; the no absenteeism and low absenteeism trajectories had better health but may also reflect processes relating to presenteeism. These results provide important insights into the nature of absenteeism in Australian employees, and suggest that different patterns of absenteeism over time could reflect a range of demographic, work, and health related factors. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Process for agglomerating fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, L J; Misbach, P

    1976-06-24

    The invention concerns a process for agglomerating black coal in mud or powder form in the presence of a mineral oil product dispersed in water. During this process, the nutty slack is added to a portion - approximately 5 - 15% of its weight in the case of anhydrous coal - of a bitumen emulsion and thoroughly mixed. The emulsion should contain mineral oil bitumen with a penetration value 25/sup 0/ less than 5, or a Conradson value of over 35. In a further finishing process the emulsion contains alkaline naphthenate.

  10. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came into being on an initiative of doctor De La Roch, who was a German surgeon of a French origin. However, as early as 1844, the idea of absenteeism raised an interest of catholic clergymen of Greater Poland with high ranking clergy such as Rev. Leon Michał Przyłuski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Rev. Jan Kanty Dąbrowski, Archbishop of Posen, and later on Archbishops Rev. Mieczysław Halka Ledóchowski and Rev. Florian Oksza Stablewski. They were fascinated with activities of Rev. Jan Nepomucen Fick, Parish Priest of Piekary Śląskie and several other priests on whose initiative a lot of church brotherhoods of so called holy continence were set up in Upper Silesia as early as the first half-year of 1844. It was due to Bishop Dąbrowski that 100 000 people took vows of absenteeism in 1844–1845, becoming members of brotherhoods of absenteeism. In turn, it was an initiative of Archbishop Przyłuski that Jesuit missionaries – Rev. Karol Bołoz Antoniewicz, Rev. Teofil Baczyński and Rev. Kamil Praszałowicz, arrived in Greater Poland from Galicia in 1852 to promote the idea of absenteeism. Starting from 1848, they were helping Silesian clergymen to spread absenteeism. Clergymen of Greater Poland were also active in secular absenteeism associations. They became involved in the workings of the Association for the Promotion of Absenteeism that was set up by Zygmunt Celichowski in Kórnik in 1887, and especially in the Jutrzenka Absenteeism Association

  11. Airways obstruction, coal mining, and disability.

    OpenAIRE

    Lapp, N L; Morgan, W K; Zaldivar, G

    1994-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the inhalation of coal in the absence of complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) or smoking can lead to disabling airways obstruction. The cause of such obstruction has been variously attributed to emphysema or bronchitis. The frequency of significant airways obstruction in a group of United States coal miners seeking compensation for occupationally induced pulmonary impairment was therefore determined. In a sample of 611 "Black Lung" claimants there...

  12. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Dang Phuong Thao; Dang Vu Chi

    2018-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine ...

  13. Existing situation of hydro resources of coal reservoirs in regards to mineral coal mining and processing activities and other human activities; Situacao atual dos recursos hidricos da bacia carbonifera, face as atividades de lavra, beneficiamento e uso do carvao mineral e de outras atividades antropicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Antonio Silvio J [Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais (CPRM), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Alexandre, Nadja Zim [Fundacao de Amparo ao Meio Ambiente (FATMA), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); [Universidade do Extermo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The coal region which is situated in the south-east of Santa Catarina State (Brazil) is best-known as the Brazilian coal capital. The progress brought to this area by the coal explotation and later by the building of a vast ceramic industrial park has been followed by an intense environmental degradation which presents few favorable conditions for the existence of a good life quality. Nowadays this region has two thirds of its underground and surface water resources degraded by activities related the coal explotation and its use. However during the past twenty-five years some new pollution resources have been settled down in this area, specially those related to the ceramic industry, metal-mechanic, chemical and farming, to name just some of them. Therefore the Companhia de Pesquisa de Recursos Minerais - CPRM, in cooperation with Fundacao do Meio Ambiente - FATMA and Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense - UNESC has been carrying out a project named Qualidade das Aguas Superficiais da Bacia Carbonifera. Besides, some aspects related to the underground water resources will be focused in this work for these resources have also been very polluted and by the same pollution causes as those named before. (author) 2 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Existing situation of hydro resources of coal reservoirs in regards to mineral coal mining and processing activities and other human activities; Situacao atual dos recursos hidricos da bacia carbonifera, face as atividades de lavra, beneficiamento e uso do carvao mineral e de outras atividades antropicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Antonio Silvio J. [Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais (CPRM), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Alexandre, Nadja Zim [Fundacao de Amparo ao Meio Ambiente (FATMA), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)]|[Universidade do Extermo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    The coal region which is situated in the south-east of Santa Catarina State (Brazil) is best-known as the Brazilian coal capital. The progress brought to this area by the coal explotation and later by the building of a vast ceramic industrial park has been followed by an intense environmental degradation which presents few favorable conditions for the existence of a good life quality. Nowadays this region has two thirds of its underground and surface water resources degraded by activities related the coal explotation and its use. However during the past twenty-five years some new pollution resources have been settled down in this area, specially those related to the ceramic industry, metal-mechanic, chemical and farming, to name just some of them. Therefore the Companhia de Pesquisa de Recursos Minerais - CPRM, in cooperation with Fundacao do Meio Ambiente - FATMA and Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense - UNESC has been carrying out a project named Qualidade das Aguas Superficiais da Bacia Carbonifera. Besides, some aspects related to the underground water resources will be focused in this work for these resources have also been very polluted and by the same pollution causes as those named before. (author) 2 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This volume of the Australian Mineral Industry Annual Review records the development and performance of the industry during the calendar year 1986. It reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration, and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. Part 1, 'General Review', after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole. Part 2, 'Commodity Review', covers individual mineral commodities and commodity groups including brown coal, black coal and peat. Part 3, 'Mining Census', tabulates statistics extracted from the Mining Census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the Manufacturing Census. Part 4, tabulates quantity and value data on mineral output provided by the State departments of mines and their equivalents. The commodity review of black coal has been abstracted separately.

  16. Genesis of some tertiary Indian coals from the chemical composition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baruah. 2008) that in northeast Indian coals, the major minerals (wt% >5) identified in the crystalline matter of coal are quartz, kaolin, illite, feldspar, calcite, pyrite, and gypsum. Vassilev et al. (2010a, b) reported that the rank of the coal increases with.

  17. 30 CFR 819.13 - Auger mining: Coal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Coal recovery. 819.13 Section 819....13 Auger mining: Coal recovery. (a) Auger mining shall be conducted so as to maximize the utilization and conservation of the coal in accordance with § 816.59 of this chapter. (b) Auger mining shall be...

  18. 30 CFR 716.4 - Special bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines. 716.4 Section... INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.4 Special bituminous coal mines. (a) Definition. Special bituminous coal surface mines as used in this section means those bituminous...

  19. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Administration 30 CFR Parts 7 and 75 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal... Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Limited reopening of the... for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals...

  20. 30 CFR 716.5 - Anthracite coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anthracite coal mines. 716.5 Section 716.5... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.5 Anthracite coal mines. (a) Permittees of anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations in those States where the mines are regulated by...

  1. Microsphere zeolite materials derived from coal fly ash cenospheres as precursors to mineral-like aluminosilicate hosts for 135,137Cs and 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereshchagina, Tatiana A.; Vereshchagin, Sergei N.; Shishkina, Nina N.; Vasilieva, Nataly G.; Solovyov, Leonid A.; Anshits, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    Hollow microsphere zeolite materials with a bilayered zeolite/glass crystalline shell bearing NaP1 zeolite were synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment of coal fly ash cenospheres (Si/Al = 2.7) in an alkaline medium. Cs + and/or Sr 2+ forms of zeolitized cenospheres with the different Cs + and/or Sr 2+ loading were prepared by the ion exchange from nitrate solutions. The resulted (Cs,Na)P1, (Sr,Na)P1 and (Cs,Sr,Na)P1 bearing microsphere zeolites were converted to glass ceramics by heating at 900–1000 °C. The differential scanning calorimetry and quantitative phase analysis were used to monitor the solid-phase transformation of the initial and ion exchanged zeolite materials. It was established that the final solidified forms of Cs + and/or Sr 2+ are glass–crystalline ceramic materials based on pollucite–nepheline, Sr-feldspar–nepheline and Sr-feldspar–pollucite composites including ∼60 wt.% of the major host phases (pollucite, Sr-feldspar) and 10–20 wt.% of glass. The 137 Cs leaching rate of 4.1 × 10 −7 g cm −2 day −1 was determined for the pollucite glass–ceramic according to Russian State Standard (GOST) No. 52126 P-2003 (7 day, 25 °C, distilled water)

  2. Database on nuclide content of coal and gangue in Chinese coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fudong; Liao Haitao; Wang Chunhong; Chen Ling; Liu Senlin

    2006-01-01

    The designing ides, structure, interface and basic function of a database are introduced of nuclide content of coal or gangue in Chinese coal mine. The design of the database adopts Sybase database system, and the database has the functions of making inquiries of keyword, classification and statistics, printing, data input which are achieved by using Power builder Language program. At the present, in this database, the data are collected on the radioactivity of natural radionuclide of 2043 coal, gangue and the other relative samples from various coal miners of all over the country. The database will provide the basic data for the environmental impact assessment of Chinese coal energy. (authors)

  3. Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  4. State-Level Estimates of Cancer-Related Absenteeism Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangka, Florence K.; Trogdon, Justin G.; Nwaise, Isaac; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Guy, Gery P.; Orenstein, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is one of the top five most costly diseases in the United States and leads to substantial work loss. Nevertheless, limited state-level estimates of cancer absenteeism costs have been published. Methods In analyses of data from the 2004–2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey, the U.S. Census Bureau for 2008, and the 2009 Current Population Survey, we used regression modeling to estimate annual state-level absenteeism costs attributable to cancer from 2004 to 2008. Results We estimated that the state-level median number of days of absenteeism per year among employed cancer patients was 6.1 days and that annual state-level cancer absenteeism costs ranged from $14.9 million to $915.9 million (median = $115.9 million) across states in 2010 dollars. Absenteeism costs are approximately 6.5% of the costs of premature cancer mortality. Conclusions The results from this study suggest that lost productivity attributable to cancer is a substantial cost to employees and employers and contributes to estimates of the overall impact of cancer in a state population. PMID:23969498

  5. [Effective interventions to reduce absenteeism among hospital nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanca-Gutiérrez, Joaquín Jesús; Jiménez-Díaz, María del Carmen; Escalera-Franco, Luis Felipe

    2013-01-01

    To select and summarize the interventions that have proved effective in reducing absenteeism among hospital nurses. A scoping review was conducted through a literature search using Medline, Web of Science, Cinahl, Embase, Lilacs, Cuiden and Cochrane Library Plus databases. Of a total of 361 articles extracted, 15 were finally selected for this review. The implementation of multifaceted support or physical training programs can produce positive results in terms of reducing absenteeism among hospital nurses. Cognitive-behavioral type interventions require studies with larger samples to provide conclusive results. Establishing more flexible working shifts may also reduce absenteeism rates, although again studies with larger samples are needed. Programs aimed at managing change developed by nurses themselves, participatory management of professional relations, the support provided by supervisors who are opposed to hierarchical leadership styles, and wage supplements that reward the lack of absence can also reduce these types of indicators. Absenteeism can be considered as a final result and a consequence of the level of job satisfaction. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce absenteeism among hospital nurses will no doubt largely depend on the ability of these interventions to increase the job satisfaction of these workers. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of hand sanitizer use on elementary school absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, B; Ali, Y; Fendler, E; Dolan, M; Donovan, S

    2000-10-01

    Several studies have indicated a connection between handwashing and illness-related absenteeism in school settings. The difficulty of ensuring consistent and effective handwashing among student populations has also been noted. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer in the classroom to help decrease the illness-related absentee rate for elementary school students. This study involved 5 individual school districts, 16 individual schools, and more than 6000 students in Delaware, Ohio, Tennessee, and California. Individual schools in each district were paired into product and control groups. In the product group schools, an alcohol gel hand sanitizer was used by the students and staff when entering and leaving the classroom. Absenteeism due to infection was recorded, and the data were statistically analyzed. The overall reduction in absenteeism due to infection in the schools included in this study was 19.8% for schools that used an alcohol gel hand sanitizer compared with the control schools (P sanitizer was used. Elementary school absenteeism due to infection is significantly reduced when an alcohol gel hand sanitizer is used in the classroom as part of a hand hygiene program.

  7. Alcohol- and drug-related absenteeism: a costly problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ann; Pidd, Ken; Kostadinov, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    Absenteeism related to alcohol and other drug (AOD) use can place a substantial burden on businesses and society. This study estimated the cost of AOD-related absenteeism in Australia using a nationally representative dataset. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey (n=12,196) was undertaken. Two measures of AOD-related absenteeism were used: participants' self-reported absence due to AOD use (M1); and the mean difference in absence due to any illness/injury for AOD users compared to abstainers (M2). Both figures were multiplied by $267.70 (average day's wage in 2013 plus 20% on-costs) to estimate associated costs. M1 resulted in an estimation of 2.5 million days lost annually due to AOD use, at a cost of more than $680 million. M2 resulted in an estimation of almost 11.5 million days lost, at a cost of $3 billion. AOD-related absenteeism represents a significant and preventable impost upon Australian businesses. Workplaces should implement evidence-based interventions to promote healthy employee behaviour and reduce AOD-related absenteeism. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Absenteeism and its implications for nursing care in emergency services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Carvalho Pinto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of absenteeism among nursing teams and its determinants in healthcare emergency services. A cross-sectional study was carried out by means of secondary data from records of a coordination of human resources. Occurrences with 208 nursing professionals were identified. Univariate analysis was carried out with frequency calculation of the variables age, gender, professional category, workplace, and days and reasons for absenteeism. Fisher’s exact test was applied, fixing the error type I in 5%. The mean age of the participants was 47.2 years, with a prevalence of the female gender (79.8%. A total of 5,778 occurrences of absenteeism were found (mean of 28 per professional, and illness was the main determinant for absenteeism (2,671 occurrences; 46.2%. There was a prevalence of short-term absenteeism (3,020 occurrences; 52.3%. The findings observed in emergency services were similar, with a potential impact on planning, workforce, and quality of care.

  9. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  10. Venezuelan coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, L.U.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

  11. Multistate models for clustered duration data - An application to workplace effects on individual sickness absenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, Maarten; Kerkhofs, Marcel

    2000-01-01

    Sickness absenteeism figures show a relatively large amount of variation across firms and organizations, indicating substantial within-firm correlations between absenteeism records of individual workers. To study the role of firm-specific circumstances and workforce composition, we specify

  12. Forecasting safe duration of working time at coal face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, V V

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses methods of evaluating pneumoconiosis hazard for coal miners, depending on factors which influence disease development. Some theories developed in the USSR, according to which the critical mass of coal dust in miner's lungs can amount to 20 g, are criticized. It is noted that this amount of dust causes an acute form of pneumoconiosis. Using regression analysis an equation was developed which describes dependence of pathologic changes in a miner's lung on the following factors: number of shifts characterized by contact with dust, dust concentration, volume of pulmonary ventilation in dust air (m3/min), miner's age, coal rank (described by volatile matter content), and a correction factor. On the basis of the described equation it has been calculated that a safe concentration of coal dust which practically excludes pneumoconiosis risk for a miner with 35 years of service ranges from 2 to 9 mg/m/sup 3/ for coals with volatile matter content from 2 to 44%.

  13. Australian mineral industry annual review. Preliminary summaries 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Salient statistics and a general industry overview are presented. Special attention is given to the following mineral commodities: aluminium, black coal, copper, fertiliser minerals, gemstones, gold, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zinc and zirconium.

  14. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  15. Evaluation of the effect of macerals on coal permeability in Tazareh and Parvadeh mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhang Sereshki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the subject of gas emission in underground coal mines in many countries is an important subject. Many factors affect in gas emissions in coal seams. Geological and physical structures of coal are affecting on gas emissions'. Also, composition and mineralization of coal, affect in coal permeability for different gases. In this study, the relationship between maceral composition and coal permeability in Tazareh and Parvadeh mines has been studied. Accordingly, a laboratory studies to investigate the relationship between coal composition and coal permeability was done. In coal samples, with MFORR equipment the permeability test was done. With microscopic analysis, the maceral contents of coal such as Inertinite and Vitrinite have been measured. Accordingly, many coal samples of Parvadeh and Tazareh coal mines have the pyrite as the dominant mineral matter. Parvadeh coal samples has the average percentage of Vitrinite equal 81.34% and 10.52% Inertinite. Also, in the Tazareh coal samples in Eastern Alborz coal mines, the average percentage of Vitrinite is 69.31% and inertinite is 22.47%. The average percentage of Pyrite content in Parvadeh coal samples in Tabas coal mines is 2.38% and in the Tazareh coal samples in Eastern Alborz coal mines is 2.62%.  The permeability test results have been shown, which, with increase of Inertinite contents, the permeability of coal is increasing. Also, test results have been shown, there was a reduction in the coal permeability with increasing of mineral contents and carbonate contents of the coal. So, the coal permeability in Tabas coal samples is more than Eastern Alborz coal samples.

  16. South African law and policy regulating learner absenteeism at public schools: Supporting an ecosystemic management approach

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzee, Susan; Venter, Rienie

    2016-01-01

    Learner absenteeism often occurs involuntarily due to learners' social and economic circumstances. Notwithstanding this fact, there is a worldwide trend towards a more punitive and retributory management approach to address learner absenteeism. Because such an approach neglects to consider absentees' specific circumstances, it fails to address learner absenteeism properly. In the first part of this article, the authors considered the suitability of the ecosystemic theory as basis for a manage...

  17. Coal summit II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Various papers were presented on world coal trade. Papers include: Poland as a producer and exporter of coal; the dynamics of world coal trade; Cerrejon coal production perspectives; present state of the Australian coal industry; present state of the EC coal market and future prospects; prospects of US coal exports to Europe; forecast of Italian coal supply and demand through 1990; statistics from coal transportation outlook; status of world coal ports.

  18. FT-IR and XRD analysis of coal from Makum coalfield of Assam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    iliary fuels, such as natural gas or imported coals to satisfy the coal quality requirement for ther- mal power generation, particularly from the emis- sion point of view. Since mineral matter affects almost all aspects of coal utilization, the accep- tance of coal for industrial application depends critically on both organic and ...

  19. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted disposal...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1107-11 - Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment employed in low coal. 75.1107-11 Section 75.1107-11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES... § 75.1107-11 Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. On mining...

  1. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted disposal...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1907 Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. (a) As of...

  3. 30 CFR 827.13 - Coal preparation plants: Interim performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal preparation plants: Interim performance...-COAL PREPARATION PLANTS NOT LOCATED WITHIN THE PERMIT AREA OF A MINE § 827.13 Coal preparation plants: Interim performance standards. (a) Persons operating or who have operated coal preparation plants after...

  4. Impact of smoking status on workplace absenteeism and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, M.; Shikiar, R.; Rentz, A.; Khan, Z.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To: evaluate the impact of smoking status on objective productivity and absenteeism measures; evaluate the impact of smoking status on subjective measures of productivity; and assess the correlation between subjective and objective productivity measures.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study in a workplace environment.
SUBJECTS—Approximately 300 employees (100 each of former, current, and never smokers) at a reservation office of a large US airline.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Objective productivity and absenteeism data were supplied by the employer. Subjective assessments of productivity were collected using a self report instrument, the Health and Work Questionnaire (HWQ).
RESULTS—Current smokers had significantly greater absenteeism than did never smokers, with former smokers having intermediate values; among former smokers, absenteeism showed a significant decline with years following cessation. Former smokers showed an increase in seven of 10 objective productivity measures as compared to current smokers, with a mean increase of 4.5%. While objective productivity measures for former smokers decreased compared to measures for current smokers during the first year following cessation, values for former smokers were greater than those for current smokers by 1-4 years following cessation. Subjective assessments of "productivity evaluation by others" and "personal life satisfaction" showed significant trends with highest values for never smokers, lowest for current smokers, and intermediate for former smokers.
CONCLUSIONS—Workplace productivity is increased and absenteeism is decreased among former smokers as compared to current smokers. Productivity among former smokers increases over time toward values seen among never smokers. Subjective measures of productivity provide indications of novel ways of productivity assessment that are sensitive to smoking status.


Keywords: smoking cessation; workplace; absenteeism; productivity

  5. Workplace smoking related absenteeism and productivity costs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S P; Wen, C P; Hu, S C; Cheng, T Y; Huang, S J

    2005-06-01

    To estimate productivity losses and financial costs to employers caused by cigarette smoking in the Taiwan workplace. The human capital approach was used to calculate lost productivity. Assuming the value of lost productivity was equal to the wage/salary rate and basing the calculations on smoking rate in the workforce, average days of absenteeism, average wage/salary rate, and increased risk and absenteeism among smokers obtained from earlier research, costs due to smoker absenteeism were estimated. Financial losses caused by passive smoking, smoking breaks, and occupational injuries were calculated. Using a conservative estimate of excess absenteeism from work, male smokers took off an average of 4.36 sick days and male non-smokers took off an average of 3.30 sick days. Female smokers took off an average of 4.96 sick days and non-smoking females took off an average of 3.75 sick days. Excess absenteeism caused by employee smoking was estimated to cost USD 178 million per annum for males and USD 6 million for females at a total cost of USD 184 million per annum. The time men and women spent taking smoking breaks amounted to nine days per year and six days per year, respectively, resulting in reduced output productivity losses of USD 733 million. Increased sick leave costs due to passive smoking were approximately USD 81 million. Potential costs incurred from occupational injuries among smoking employees were estimated to be USD 34 million. Financial costs caused by increased absenteeism and reduced productivity from employees who smoke are significant in Taiwan. Based on conservative estimates, total costs attributed to smoking in the workforce were approximately USD 1032 million.

  6. Coal-related research, organic chemistry, and catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Coal chemistry research topics included: H exchange at 400 0 C, breaking C-C bonds in coal, molecular weight estimation using small-angle neutron scattering, 13 C NMR spectra of coals, and tunneling during H/D isotope effects. Studies of coal conversion chemistry included thermolysis of bibenzyl and 1-naphthol, heating of coals in phenol, advanced indirect liquefaction based on Koelbel slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor, and plasma oxidation of coal minerals. Reactions of PAHs in molten SbCl 3 , a hydrocracking catalyst, were studied. Finally, heterogeneous catalysis (desulfurization etc.) was studied using Cu, Au, and Ni surfaces. 7 figures, 6 tables

  7. Elections: DOD Needs More Comprehensive Planning to Address Military and Overseas Absentee Voting Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Acknowledgments Contact Acknowledgments Related GAO Products Page 75 GAO-16-378 DOD Overseas Absentee Voting U.S. Postal Service: Actions... Products Page 76 GAO-16-378 DOD Overseas Absentee Voting Election Reform: Nine States’ Experiences Implementing Federal Requirements for...ELECTIONS DOD Needs More Comprehensive Planning to Address Military and Overseas Absentee Voting Challenges

  8. Absenteeism in Undergraduate Business Education: A Proposed Model and Exploratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    One issue in undergraduate business education remaining underexamined is student absenteeism. In this article, the literature on undergraduate absenteeism is reviewed culminating in a proposed conceptual framework to guide future research, and an exploratory investigation of management students' attitudes about absenteeism is conducted.…

  9. Beyond the Excused/Unexcused Absence Binary: Classifying Absenteeism through a Voluntary/Involuntary Absence Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birioukov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Student absenteeism in secondary schools has received international academic attention for quite some time. Absenteeism has been linked to diminished academic outcomes and is one of the leading causes of high school dropout. Although absenteeism is a serious concern for educational scholars, the definitions of absences and their subtypes are…

  10. South African Law and Policy Regulating Learner Absenteeism at Public Schools: Supporting an Ecosystemic Management Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Susan; Venter, Rienie

    2016-01-01

    Learner absenteeism often occurs involuntarily due to learners' social and economic circumstances. Notwithstanding this fact, there is a worldwide trend towards a more punitive and retributory management approach to address learner absenteeism. Because such an approach neglects to consider absentees' specific circumstances, it fails to address…

  11. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Phuong Thao; Dang, Vu Chi

    2018-03-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine drainage treatment in Hongai coal mines. In addition, selection and criteria for the design of the treatment systems have been presented.

  12. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Phuong Thao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine drainage treatment in Hongai coal mines. In addition, selection and criteria for the design of the treatment systems have been presented.

  13. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki) in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came int...

  14. Floatability characteristics: A case study with three typical Indian prime coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, D.; Singh, A.K.; Banerjee, P.K. [Tata Steel Ltd., Jamshedpur (India). Division for Research & Development

    2008-07-01

    Three types of prime coking coals (coals A, B, and C) from Jharia coalfield, India, were investigated for the variations in their floatability characteristics. Among the three coals studied, coal A showed the least floatability. However, its floatability improved to some extent at higher dosages of collector and frother. Other two types of coal, i.e., coals B and C, showed almost similar flotation performance, which was much better as compared to coal A. The studies revealed that coal showed the least floatability characteristics, primarily due to the least concentration of vitrinite and liptinite content and a high percentage of inertinite and mineral matters in the coal. Also, the lower type of vitrinite (V7-V9) was present in the coal in greater proportion as compared to the other two coals and the proportion of ultra fines (-0.053mm) in coal A was higher as compared to the other two coals.

  15. Properties of sorbents from brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straka, P.; Buchtele, J. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2000-07-01

    The surface and sorptional properties of carbonaceous materials prepared from brown coal and their relation to minerals content and coal bulk density as technologically important parameters of starting coal were described. Chars were prepared from brown coal of North Bohemian Brown Coal District and activated with CO{sub 2} in a large-scale laboratory unit. Their surface and sorptive properties were investigated. It was found that mineral matter/ash content favourably affects the mesoporosity development in chars/activated chars as the sorption capacity increased with increasing ash content in chars. No influence of ash content on the macroporosity was observed. With the activated chars, both the inner surface and sorption capacity showed the maximum in the burn-off range of 41-64%. Optimization of the process is discussed.

  16. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  17. Sumpor u ugljenu (Sulphur in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sulphur in coal possesses important environmetal problems in its usage. The sulphur dioxide (S02 emissions produced during coal combustion account for a significant proportion of the total global output of anthropogenic SO2. The extent of sulphur separation depends on several variables such as the form of sulphur in coal, intimacy of contact between minerals and the products of devolatilization. The total sulphur in coal varies in the range of 0.2 - 11 wt %, although in most cases it is beetwen 1 and 3 wt %. Sulphur occurs in a variety of both inorganic and organic forms. Inorganic sulphur is found mainly as iron pyrite, marcasite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopirite and as sulphates (rarely exceeds w = 0,1 %. Organic sulphur is found in aromatic rings and aliphatic functionalities usually as mercaptans, aliphatic and aryl sulfides, disulfides and thiophenes. Organic and pyritic sulphur quantities depend on coal rank. Higher rank coals tend to have a high proportion of labile sulphur. All the organic sulphur is bivalent and it is spread throughout the organic coal matrix. Sulphur occurs in all the macerals and most minerals. Vitrinite contains the major part of organic sulphur and metals. Elemental sulphur is produced during coal weathering. The depolymerization methods as pyrolysis and hydrogenation are very drastic methods wich change the structure of the coal and the sulphur groups. In the case of pyrolysis, high levels of desulphurization, in chars and additional production of liquid hydrocarbon can be achieved. Thiophenes and sulphides were the major sulphur components of tars from coal pyrolysis. Hyrdogen sulphide and the lower mercaptans and sulphides were found in the volatile matters. Hydrogen sulphide and thiophenes are practically the only sulphur products of coal hydrogenation. H2S is produced in char hydrodesulphurization. A number of options are available for reducing sulphur emissions including the

  18. Volcanic ash in feed coal and its influence on coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.; Hower, J.C.; Stricker, G.D.; O' Connor, J.T.

    2000-07-01

    The US Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana Utility to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from a coal-fired power plant. The plant utilizes a low-sulfur (.23--.47 weight percent S) coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of feed coal samples identified two mineral suites. A primary suite (not authigenic) consisting of quartz (detrital and volcanic beta-form grains), biotite, and minor zircon and a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing calcite, alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The authigenic minerals are attributed to air-fall and reworked volcanic ash that was deposited in peat-forming mires. The Powder River Basin feed coals contain higher amounts of Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, Sr, and P compared to other analyzed eastern coals. These elements are associated with alumino-phosphate, biotite, calcite, and clay minerals. The element associations are indicative of coal that incorporated volcanic ash during deposition. XRD analysis of CCPs revealed a predominance of glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals in the fly ash; and quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite in the bottom ash. Microprobe and SEM analysis of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, and rounded grains of wollastonite with periclase. The abundant Ca and Mg mineral phases in the fly ashes are related to the presence of carbonate, clay, and phosphate minerals in the feed coal. The Ca- and Mg-rich mineral phases in the CCPs can be attributed to volcanic minerals deposited in the

  19. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  20. Converting coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avigliano, A. [Bedeschi (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    In September 2005, Bedeschi was commissioned to design and supply a coal unloading, conveying and storage facility for a new raw coal line system within Hatien II Cement Co. The new plant is composed of a grab unloader, a conveyor system, a storage shed with stacking and reclaiming facilities, a complete dedusting system and civil and steel structure engineering. The scope of supply includes a local fabrication portion; however, main components will be imported. The project will be completed in 21 months. The paper looks into the mechanics of loading and unloading coal. 4 figs., 4 photos.

  1. 30 CFR 702.16 - Stockpiling of minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stockpiling of minerals. 702.16 Section 702.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL EXEMPTION FOR COAL EXTRACTION INCIDENTAL TO THE EXTRACTION OF OTHER MINERALS § 702.16 Stockpiling of...

  2. Extensive medical absenteeism among secondary school students : An observational study on their health condition from a biopsychosocial perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanneste-van Zandvoort, Y.T.M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Rots, M.C.; Feron, F.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate approach to reducing school absenteeism should focus on medical absenteeism as this is the most prevalent form of school absenteeism. The objective of this study is to explore the health condition of pre-vocational secondary students with extensive medical absenteeism from a

  3. Prediction of Various Degrees of Vocational Secondary School Absenteeism: Importance of the Organization of the Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Cosnefroy, Olivier; Lecigne, Andre

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study different types of absenteeism in vocational secondary school taking into account the specificity of the school context. Participants were 523 students. First, three school absenteeism groups were established: Students with no absenteeism (nearly 64% of the sample), students with absenteeism (26%), and…

  4. Automated mineralogical logging of coal and coal measure core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Fraser; Joan Esterle; Colin Ward; Ruth Henwood; Peter Mason; Jon Huntington; Phil Connor; Reneta Sliwa; Dave Coward; Lew Whitbourn [CSIRO Exploration & Mining (Australia)

    2006-06-15

    A mineralogical core logging system based on spectral reflectance (HyLogger{trademark}) has been used to detect and quantify mineralogies in coal and coal measure sediments. The HyLogger{trademark} system, as tested, operates in the visible-to-shortwave infrared spectral region, where iron oxides, sulphates, hydroxyl-bearing and carbonate minerals have characteristic spectral responses. Specialized software assists with mineral identification and data display. Three Phases of activity were undertaken. In Phase I, carbonates (siderite, ankerite, calcite) and clays (halloysite, dickite) were successfully detected and mapped in coal. Repeat measurements taken from one of the cores after three months demonstrated the reproducibility of the spectral approach, with some spectral differences being attributed to variations in moisture content and oxidation. Also, investigated was HyLogger{trademark} ability to create a 'brightness-profile' on coal materials, and these results were encouraging. In Phase II, geotechnically significant smectitic clays (montmorillonite) were detected and mapped in cores of clastic roof and floor materials. Such knowledge would be useful for mine planning and design purposes. In Phase III, our attempts at determining whether phosphorus-bearing minerals such as apatite could be spectrally detected were less than conclusive. A spectral index could only be created for apatite, and the relationships between the spectrally-derived apatite-index, the XRD results and the analytically-derived phosphorus measurements were ambiguous.

  5. South African law and policy regulating learner absenteeism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Packard Bell

    Department of Psychology of Education, College of Education, University of ... Keywords: ecosystemic theory; learner absenteeism; management approach; South African law and policy ..... learners, but can also be cultural and systemic ..... tesis. Pretoria, Suid-Afrika: Universiteit van Suid-. Afrika. Beskikbaar te .... Phd thesis.

  6. South African law and policy regulating learner absenteeism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Packard Bell

    Learner absenteeism often occurs involuntarily due to learners' social and economic circumstances. ..... still a child; e.g. under 18 years of age, and ... schools to take the age and maturity of the ... 5). The Policy on Learner Attendance (DBE, RSA,. 2010, para. 13(i)) allows the ..... Emotional literacy and the ecology of.

  7. Absenteeism, Burnout and Symptomatology of Teacher Stress: Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Toro, Laura; Prieto-Ursúa, María

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been carried out confirming high levels in symptomatology of stress and depression in the teaching profession, research focusing on sex differences in these problems has been both scarce and inconclusive. The aim of this study is to analyse differences with regards to sex in the incidence of absenteeism, work-related…

  8. Effect of sporting activity on absenteeism in a working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S.G. van den; Boshuizen, H.C.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Blatter, B.M.; Ariëns, G.A.; Bongers, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of sporting activity on absenteeism in a working population. METHODS: Data were used from a prospective cohort study in a working population with a follow up period of 3 years and were collected with yearly questionnaires or collected from company records.

  9. Does Menstruation Explain Gender Gaps in Work Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Mariesa A.; Rockoff, Jonah E.

    2012-01-01

    Ichino and Moretti (2009) find that menstruation may contribute to gender gaps in absenteeism and earnings, based on evidence that absences of young female Italian bank employees follow a 28-day cycle. We find this evidence is not robust to the correction of coding errors or small changes in specification, and we find no evidence of increased…

  10. Aggression and violence, posttraumatic stress and absenteeism in penitentiaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, M.J.J.; Schweizer, S.; Bogaerts, S.; Knaap, L.M. van der

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the Judicial Penitentiary Service (DJI) is to gain insight into the possible effects of aggression and violence among employees and in the factors which are at the roots of it. The DJI is especially interested in absenteeism as a possible effect of aggression and violence among employees,

  11. Caregiver Asthma in Urban Families: Implications for School Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Robin S.; Miller, Sarah; Leibach, Gillian G.; Dahl, Alexandra L.; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne

    2018-01-01

    Asthma is a significant contributor to missed school days, especially for children living in urban settings. This preliminary study examined the impact of caregiver asthma on school absenteeism in a sample of 102 urban children with asthma from African American, Latino, and non-Latino White backgrounds. Caregivers and children participated in a…

  12. Understanding Excessive School Absenteeism as School Refusal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Understanding excessive absenteeism is important to ameliorating the negative outcomes associated with the behavior. The present study examined behavioral reinforcement profiles of school refusal behavior: negative reinforcement (avoidance) and positive reinforcement (gaining parental attention or receiving tangible benefits from not attending…

  13. Presenteeism and absenteeism: differentiated understanding of related phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Eric; Lemyre, Louise; Corneil, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    In the past it was assumed that work attendance equated to performance. It now appears that health-related loss of productivity can be traced equally to workers showing up at work as well as to workers choosing not to. Presenteeism in the workplace, showing up for work while sick, seems now more prevalent than absenteeism. These findings are forcing organizations to reconsider their approaches regarding regular work attendance. Given this, and echoing recommendations in the literature, this study seeks to identify the main behavioral correlates of presenteeism and absenteeism in the workplace. Comparative analysis of the data from a representative sample of executives from the Public Service of Canada enables us to draw a unique picture of presenteeism and absenteeism with regards not only to the impacts of health disorders but also to the demographic, organizational, and individual factors involved. Results provide a better understanding of the similarities and differences between these phenomena, and more specifically, of the differentiated influence of certain variables. These findings provide food for thought and may pave the way to the development of new organizational measures designed to manage absenteeism without creating presenteeism.

  14. [School absenteeism: Preliminary developments and maintaining persisting challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Christoph; Brunner, Romuald; Resch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    A first step when considering school absenteeism is to understand the meaning and definition of the term. School absenteeism encompasses several terms such as school refusal, truancy and school phobia, all of which have been used inconsistently and confusingly in the past. Furthermore, the question of how many days of absence can be seen as problematic remains unclear. Due to these definitional problems, available data is inconsistent. Therefore, the prevalence rates of school absenteeism can only be estimated (about 5 % of all students). School absenteeism affects not only individual students, but also family, school and society structures. In order to establish appropriate support and intervention programs, a multimodal as well as an individual approach should be considered to address this interdependency. The primary goal, however, should be the students’ resumption of a regular school attendance, which requires a strong cooperation between parents, schools, youth welfare services and psychotherapeutic offers. If therapeutic interventions are required, it is highly recommended to start with outpatient treatment. If school attendance still remains irregular an inpatient treatment should follow.

  15. Teachers' Acceptance of Absenteeism: Towards Developing a Specific Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Ishan, Gamal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to develop and validate a measure of a specific attitude toward teachers' absenteeism that predicts this behavior more accurately than other general measures of job attitudes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 443 teachers from 21 secondary schools in Israel. In the first phase, the teachers answered anonymous…

  16. The School Absenteeism among High School Students: Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkis, Murat; Arslan, Gökmen; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship between student school absenteeism, personal factors (academic self- perception, attitudes towards teacher and school, goal valuation and motivation/ self-regulation), family factors (parents' educational level and income), and academic achievement in structural equation…

  17. School Attendance, Absenteeism, and Student Success. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Oregon Department of Education staff spoke with principals from five Oregon schools that had low rates of chronic absenteeism compared to schools with similar demographics during the 2014-15 school year: Echo Shaw Elementary School, Free Orchards Elementary School, Dayton Junior High School, Valor Middle School, and North Marion High School. Each…

  18. Chronic Student Absenteeism: The Critical Role of School Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathleen; Meeder, Linda; Voskuil, Vicki R

    2016-05-01

    Routine school attendance is necessary for youth to develop into well-educated, successful adult citizens who will make significant contributions to society. Yet over 5 million students in the United States are chronically absent missing more than 10% of school in a year. The growing problem of chronic absenteeism among youth can be linked to increases in chronic health conditions in childhood such as allergies, asthma, diabetes, and obesity. School nurses are in an ideal position to play a vital role in reducing chronic student absenteeism, enabling youth to achieve their maximum learning potential. However, the role of the school nurse has not historically been recognized as a key factor for assisting youth to be present and regularly engaged in school. This feature article highlights a hospital-funded school nurse program within the state of Michigan that has reduced chronic absenteeism rates by placing school nurses into schools where previously there were none. The program implemented a number of initiatives that were instrumental in increasing the health and safety of students and provides a unique "before and after" glimpse of how school nursing reduces chronic student absenteeism rates and validates the essential role of the nurse within the educational system. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. The Severity of State Truancy Policies and Chronic Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conry, Jillian M.; Richards, Meredith P.

    2018-01-01

    Since the Common School era, states have maintained truancy laws to ensure that students attend school. However, we know little about the severity of these laws and their relationship to student outcomes, particularly absenteeism. In this study, we survey state education statutes to document the severity of truancy policies. We estimate the…

  20. Identifying the Determinants of Chronic Absenteeism: A Bioecological Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A.; Gee, Kevin A.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: Chronic school absenteeism is a pervasive problem across the US; in early education, it is most rampant in kindergarten and its consequences are particularly detrimental, often leading to poorer academic, behavioral and developmental outcomes later in life. Though prior empirical research has identified a broad range of…

  1. Activity and structure of calcined coal gangue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong Chenchen; Li Dongxu; Wang Xiaojun; Li Zongjin [Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering

    2007-12-15

    Coal gangue was activated by means of calcination in seven temperature ranges. Systematic research was made about activation mechanism and structural evolution. The glycerin-ethanol method, SEM, MIP and XRD were used to determine the variation of structure and activation of coal gangue during calcination. The experimental results show that because of heat treatment in the range of calcination temperatures, mineral composition and microstructure of coal gangue are changed. In addition, its activity is improved. The amount of lime absorbed by the sample calcined at 700{sup o}C is 2-4 times that by uncalcined coal gangue in the course of hydration. When NaOH is added to coal gangue-lime system, the hydration reaction rate of the system is increased and the microstructure of hydrating samples of coal gangue is improved.

  2. When the management of nurse absenteeism becomes a cause of absenteeism: a study based on a comparison of two health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damart, Sébastien; Kletz, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to explore perceptions of the causes of nurse absenteeism. Nurse absenteeism is rising in many countries. However, there is little evidence as to how strategies adopted in order to cushion the effects of absenteeism on workload influence absenteeism itself. The study used a 'qualitative' method based on cognitive mapping techniques in order to represent perceptions about absenteeism graphically. The study was conducted in two health-care facilities with a sample of 55 interviewees. Absenteeism is due in part to strategies adopted in order to cushion the effects of absenteeism on organisations. Furthermore, the strategies are self-legitimising. The more they are used, the more they are regarded as normal and useful. A plan to reduce absenteeism among nurses must explicitly take into account the strategies used to cushion its impact. To cushion the effects of absenteeism among caregivers, managers must make trade-offs that take into account, for example, the workload or disruption linked to the substitution of personnel. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. How job demands affect absenteeism? The mediating role of work-family conflict and exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, Michela; Guglielmi, Dina; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Violante, Francesco Saverio

    2016-01-01

    To investigate how psychosocial factors (such as job demands and work-family conflict) produce absenteeism in the workplace, using the health impairment process of the job demands-resources model. According to this model, job demands lead to burnout (often measured with the emotional exhaustion component), which in turn could lead to outcomes (such as absenteeism). Work-family conflict (WFC) was also studied, because of contradictory results collected in the existing literature on absenteeism in the workplace, regarding the role of WFC in causing absenteeism. Data were collected on 245 workers using both subjective (questionnaire on psychological risk factors and work-related health) and objective data (sickness leave frequency records). To test the hypothesis that job demands and WFC contribute to absenteeism in the workplace, a subsequent mediation analysis was used, which analysed both (a) the subsequent mediation of WFC and emotional exhaustion and (b) the separate roles played by the mediators proposed (WFC and emotional exhaustion). Job demands affect absenteeism through the subsequent mediation of WFC and emotional exhaustion. In addition, emotional exhaustion mediates the relationship between job demands and absenteeism, while WFC does not. In conclusion, subsequent mediation highlights the role of emotional exhaustion in causing absenteeism; in fact, when emotional exhaustion is included in the analysis, job demands are associated with higher levels of absenteeism. The results of this study suggest that without the concurrent contribution of emotional exhaustion, WFC does not influence absenteeism in the workplace. Our findings are useful for organizations that aim to reduce absenteeism.

  4. Preventing Absenteeism and Promoting Resilience Among Health Care Workers In Biological Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Miller, James S.

    2009-05-08

    The ability to ensure adequate numbers of medical staff represents a crucial part of the medical response to any disaster. However, healthcare worker absenteeism during disasters, especially in the event of an attack of biological terrorism or an epidemic such as pandemic influenza, is a serious concern. Though a significant rate of absenteeism is often included as a baseline assumption in emergency planning, published reports on strategies to minimize absenteeism are comparatively few. This report documents interviews with managers and emergency response planners at hospitals and public health agencies and reviews existing survey data on healthcare worker absenteeism and studies of disasters to glean lessons about the needs of healthcare workers during those disasters. Based on this research, expected rates of absenteeism and individual determinants of absenteeism are presented along with recommendations of steps that hospitals, emergency medical services departments, public health organizations, and government agencies can take to meet the needs of healthcare workers and minimize absenteeism during a biological event.

  5. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  6. Coal - 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards

  7. Evidence for a relationship between child maltreatment and absenteeism among high-school students in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagborg, Johan Melander; Berglund, Kristina; Fahlke, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    School absenteeism is a potent predictor of academic failure. Maltreated adolescents have been found to be more absent from school compared to their peers. However, it is scarcely studied in what degree a general population of students with high levels of school absenteeism has been exposed to child maltreatment. Furthermore, it is not known if maltreated school-absentees have specific characteristics compared to not-maltreated absentees. In this article, the first objective was to present and compare the prevalence of six types of child maltreatment in a general population of high school students reporting no, moderate or excessive absenteeism. The second objective was to compare maltreated and not-maltreated students who report absenteeism in respect to mental health, perceived school environment and peer victimization in school. Data from 667 girls and 649 boys (mean age 14.3) was used from the longitudinal multidisciplinary research program LoRDIA (Longitudinal Research on Development In Adolescence). Data was collected via self-report questionnaires in classroom settings. All six types of child maltreatment were overrepresented among absentees. Roughly 25% of absentees reported one subtype of maltreatment (16% in the total population) and a mean of 22% of absentees reported two or more types of maltreatment (11% in the total population). Maltreated absentees reported more mental health problems, personal harassment and worse relationship with their teachers than not-maltreated absentees. There might be specific correlates of school absenteeism among maltreated adolescents and professionals involved in preventing school-absenteeism should be made aware of the relationship between maltreatment and absenteeism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Losses in the coal supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This report examines the way coal can change as it passes along the coal chain. A great deal of the change is intended, through separation and sizing, to ensure the coal being mined matches the specification demanded by the customer. This report attempts to identify these changes and presents some of the issues faced by the coal supplier and user. Much of the change leads to a loss of mass in the coal. Some of the coal is left in the ground (intentionally and unintentionally), while elsewhere, full extraction might occur with the addition of non-coal materials from the surrounding rocks. In both cases, the mined coal often requires further processing. Coal processing by separation at preparation plants refines coal further and is where most of the mass loss occurs. Value is added by reducing ash content and improving heating value, thus providing a much more saleable product for the market. As soon as the coal leaves the mine, mass loss can occur either through natural deterioration of the fuel, through spillage or dust, or in extreme cases theft. In all cases measuring the amount of coal as it passes through the supply chain is required to verify that the coal reaching the consumer is of satisfactory quality and quantity. This can be done crudely by measuring stockpiles, to more sophisticated weighing systems at various points along the supply chain, and even measuring the volume held in a ship. Measurement is subject to error which must be minimised. Biomass needs to be processed in much the same way as coal, such as removing mineral matter and taking care in avoiding contamination.

  9. Social cohesiveness and absenteeism - The relationship between characteristics of employees and short-term absenteeism within an organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, K; Nauta, A

    2004-01-01

    This study tries to explain the relationship between characteristics of the employees (e.g., gender and working hours) and short-term absenteeism by examining the social cohesiveness of a team. Hypotheses are formulated concerning gender and working hours of employees, social cohesiveness, and

  10. Social cohesiveness and absenteeism : the relationship between characteristics of employees and short-term absenteeism within an organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, K.; Nauta, A.

    2004-01-01

    This article tries to explain the relationship between characteristics of the employees as gender and working hours, and short-term absenteeism by examining the social cohesiveness of a team. Hypotheses are formulated concerning gender and working hours of employees, social cohesiveness, and

  11. Reduction of H{sub 2} S during the mineral coal gasification by using dolomite addition in a fluidized bed reactor; Diminuicao de H{sub 2} S na gaseificacao de carvao mineral mediante adicao de dolomita em reator de leito fluidizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behanie, John Jairo Ramirez [Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellin (Colombia). Centro de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo Integral. Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales]. E-mail: jbehaine@logos.upb.edu.co; Sanches, Caio Glauco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia Termica e de Fluidos]. E-mail: caio@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    Brazilian mineral coal from Candiota mine (Rio Grande do Sul State) was gasified with air in a atmospheric fluidized bed reactor at laboratory scale. Experimental essays carried out in a 0.2 m internal diameter reactor permitted both, to evaluate the gasifier operation at different air factors without dolomite particles addition, and to study the effect adsorbent on the capture hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), contained in the generated gas. Test were done with and without the use of dolomite. Without using dolomite, the maximum gas lower heating value was 2.2 MJ/N m3 and the cold gas thermal efficiency was close to 43%, operating at an air factor between 0.45 and 0.60. During the experimental test with dolomite , a maximum reduction of 58% for H2 S was attained using a molar ratio of Ca/S equal to 4. Literature review showed higher capture efficiencies, even at lower molar ratio (Ca/S). Variances were probably caused by low residence times in the gas-solid interaction, considering the used bubble fluidization regime. (author)

  12. Variations in pore characteristics in high volatile bituminous coals: Implications for coal bed gas content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Strapoc, D.; Solano-Acosta, W.; Rupp, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Seelyville Coal Member of the Linton Formation (Pennsylvanian) in Indiana was studied to: 1) understand variations in pore characteristics within a coal seam at a single location and compare these variations with changes occurring between the same coal at different locations, 2) elaborate on the influence of mineral-matter and maceral composition on mesopore and micropore characteristics, and 3) discuss implications of these variations for coal bed gas content. The coal is high volatile bituminous rank with R0 ranging from 0.57% to 0.60%. BET specific surface areas (determined by nitrogen adsorption) of the coals samples studied range from 1.8 to 22.9??m2/g, BJH adsorption mesopore volumes from 0.0041 to 0.0339??cm3/g, and micropore volumes (determined by carbon dioxide adsorption) from 0.0315 to 0.0540??cm3/g. The coals that had the largest specific surface areas and largest mesopore volumes occur at the shallowest depths, whereas the smallest values for these two parameters occur in the deepest coals. Micropore volumes, in contrast, are not depth-dependent. In the coal samples examined for this study, mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes. It is especially clear in the case of micropores, where an increase in mineral-matter content parallels the decrease of micropore volume of the coal. No obvious relationships were observed between the total vitrinite content and pore characteristics but, after splitting vitrinite into individual macerals, we see that collotelinite influences both meso- and micropore volume positively, whereas collodetrinite contributes to the reduction of mesopore and micropore volumes. There are large variations in gas content within a single coal at a single location. Because of this variability, the entire thickness of the coal must be desorbed in order to determine gas content reliably and to accurately calculate the level of gas saturation. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All

  13. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  14. Method selection for mercury removal from hard coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziok Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is commonly found in coal and the coal utilization processes constitute one of the main sources of mercury emission to the environment. This issue is particularly important for Poland, because the Polish energy production sector is based on brown and hard coal. The forecasts show that this trend in energy production will continue in the coming years. At the time of the emission limits introduction, methods of reducing the mercury emission will have to be implemented in Poland. Mercury emission can be reduced as a result of using coal with a relatively low mercury content. In the case of the absence of such coals, the methods of mercury removal from coal can be implemented. The currently used and developing methods include the coal cleaning process (both the coal washing and the dry deshaling as well as the thermal pretreatment of coal (mild pyrolysis. The effectiveness of these methods various for different coals, which is caused by the diversity of coal origin, various characteristics of coal and, especially, by the various modes of mercury occurrence in coal. It should be mentioned that the coal cleaning process allows for the removal of mercury occurring in mineral matter, mainly in pyrite. The thermal pretreatment of coal allows for the removal of mercury occurring in organic matter as well as in the inorganic constituents characterized by a low temperature of mercury release. In this paper, the guidelines for the selection of mercury removal method from hard coal were presented. The guidelines were developed taking into consideration: the effectiveness of mercury removal from coal in the process of coal cleaning and thermal pretreatment, the synergy effect resulting from the combination of these processes, the direction of coal utilization as well as the influence of these processes on coal properties.

  15. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  16. What differences does age make? Coal mining injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallett, L.; Schwerha, D.J. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Research Laboratory

    2007-02-15

    The US Bureau of Labor Statistics says that in 2002 the coal mine workforce in the USA had a higher medium age than the workforce in any other sector of mining. Many older miners are part of the generation group known as Baby Boomers. The article gives figures for injuries received in underground coal mining, surface coal mining and coal preparation plant workers, analysed by age groups (Nexters, {lt}22; Generation Xers, 22-41; Baby Boomers, 42-59; Veterans, 60 and above), and also by job title. In all generation groups, more injuries were recorded in miners with less than two years experience. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 6 charts.

  17. Proceedings of XXIV international mineral processing congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dianzuo; Sun Chuan Yao; Wang Fu Liang; Zhang Li Cheng; Han Long (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    Topics covered in volume 1 include applied mineralogy, comminution, classification, physical separation, flotation chemistry, sulphide flotation, non-sulphide flotation and reagent in mineral industry. Volume 2 covers processing of complex ores, processing of industrial minerals and coal, solid liquid separation, dispersion and aggregation, process simulation, expert systems and control of mineral processing, biohydrometallurgy, and mineral chemical processing. Volume 3 contains powder technology, mineral materials, treatment and recycling for solid wastes, waste water treatment, secondary resource recovery, soil remediation, concentrator engineering and process design, and application of mineral processing in related industry. It includes a CD-ROM of the proceedings.

  18. Environmental problems in Russian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, V.; Oumnov, V.

    1996-01-01

    The state of the Russian coal industry is complicated both economically and environmentally. Most mines are unprofitable. Several coal mines are intended to be closed. So, under existing conditions, coal mines are unable to give much attention to environmental protection problems. At the same time, coal mining is one of the most polluting industries. The main trends in this industry's negative influence upon the environment are: land spoilage and immobilization to lay out open-pit mines and mineral waste dump areas and tailing piles as well as with industrial waste water runoff; atmospheric pollution with the air coming from underground and substances blown off from dumps, hydrogeological regime intervention in coal mining areas, etc. One way to solve environmental problems in coal mining is a more rational utilization of the accompanying natural coal resources. Such measures make it possible to obtain complementary profits not only at the expense of reducing environmental destruction but producing new kinds of goods or services as well. Examples of similar solutions are solid mineral wastes utilization, underground space utilization, coal gas utilization and other issues

  19. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  20. Coal dust contiguity-induced changes in the concentration of TNF- and NF- B p65 on the ocular surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z.Y.; Hong, J.; Liu, Z.Y.; Jin, X.D.; Gu, C.H. [China Medical University, Shenyang (China)

    2009-07-01

    To observe the influence of coal dust on ocular surface of coal miners and rabbits with coal dust contiguity on expression TNF- and NF- Bp65 and dry eye occurrence. Expression TNF- and NF- Bp65 in ocular surface were determined. Results showed tear production, BUT and lysozyme decreased for coal miners and rabbits with coal dust contiguity. Coal dust exposure was linked to development of xerophthalmia, and induced a higher expression of NF- B p65 and TNF- perhaps as a mechanism to resist coal dust ocular surface injury.

  1. Exercício físico regular diminui o estresse oxidativo pulmonar em ratos após exposição aguda ao carvão mineral El ejercicio físico regular reduce la respuesta oxidativa pulmonar en los ratones después de la exhibición afilada al carbón mineral Regular physical exercises decrease the oxidant pulmonary stress in rats after acute exposure to mineral coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Pinho

    2006-04-01

    pulmonar después de la inhalación de polvo de carbón mineral. Veinticuatro ratones varones Wistar (200-250g fueron aleatoriamente divididos en 2 grupos con los mandos respectivos (, n = 6 y Ningún -, n = 6. Los animales recibieron, por instilación traqueal polvo de carbón mineral (3mg/0,5ml salina, 3 dias/semana, durante 3 semanas o 0,5ml de solución salina 0,9%. Cuarenta ocho horas después de la última instilación, el grupo especializado fue sometido a un programa de ejercicio progresivo en la cinta durante 12 semanas (a 17m.min-1, 50min.dia-1, 10% de inclinación. Cuarenta ocho horas después de la última sesión de entrenamiento, todos los animales fueron sacrificados por decapitación y los pulmones y el músculo sóleo fueron extirpados por cirugía para el análisis bioquímico subsecuente. La actividad de la citrato-sintetasa fue determinada en los músculos así como los daños y perjuicios en los lipidos y las proteínas se estimaron en los pulmones para la concentración de TBARS y para la determinación de carbonilo de estos grupos, respectivamente. Los resultados mostraron que el ejercicio físico regular reduce los niveles presentes de TBARS significativamente en los ratones especializados y reduce los niveles de la oxidación en las proteínas en ambos grupos cuando se compararon los grupos respectivos. Los resultados permitieron sugerir que el ejercicio físico regular en la cinta es un agente capaz minimizarlos daños y perjuicios oxidativos pulmonares inducidos por la inhalación de partículas de carbón mineral.Several studies have pointed the regular low to moderate intensity physical exercise an important agent to combat the oxidant stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the physical exercise in the pulmonary oxidant response after inhaling mineral coal dust. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (200-250 g were randomly divided in two groups with their respective controls (trained, n = 6; non-trained, n = 6. All animals

  2. A Statewide Look at Attendance and Chronic Absenteeism in Elementary Schools in Oregon. Chronic Absenteeism in Oregon Elementary Schools. Part 1 of 4. September 2016. Research Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This brief highlights the importance of using a measure like chronic absenteeism, rather than average daily attendance, in order to identify concerning patterns in elementary attendance rates. The chronic absenteeism measurement is better able to shine a light on the number of individual students struggling with attendance. Subsequent briefs in…

  3. Indian coal tars. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, A N; Bhatnagar, J N; Roy, A K

    1954-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out on these efforts: (1) rank and specific-gravity fractions on tar yield; (2) addition of water to the coal charge, or steam during carbonization, on yield of tar and tar acids; (3) the presence of a cracking agent (shale) with and without steam addition on the yield of tar and tar acids (the particular shale used without steam reduced the yield, and the restricted use of steam brought the yield to the former noncatalyzed level); and (4) catalytic effect of three different samples of shale, firebrick, quartz, coke, and silica-alumina on the cracking of tar acids (the most active were two of the shales, a freshly-prepared coke, and the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/ catalysts that gave conversion up to 98%). The products were mainly carbon, aromatic hydrocarbons of the naphthalene series and gases (CO and H/sub 2/). The yield of the tar becomes less as coal of lower specific gravity is used or when higher temperatures are used for carbonization. The mineral matter associated with Indian coals acts as a decomposition catalyst for tar acids, as shown by experiments on the decomposition of PhOH at temperatures above 800/sup 0/.

  4. Coal: a human history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freese, B.

    2002-12-01

    Prized as 'the best stone in Britain' by Roman invaders who carved jewellery out of it, coal has transformed societies, powered navies, fueled economies, and expanded frontiers. It made China a twelfth-century superpower, inspired the writing of the Communist Manifesto, and helped the northern states win the American Civil War. Yet the mundane mineral that built our global economy - and even today powers our electrical plants - has also caused death, disease, and environmental destruction. As early as 1306, King Edward I tried to ban coal (unsuccessfully) because its smoke became so obnoxious. Its recent identification as a primary cause of global warming has made it a cause celebre of a new kind. In this book, Barbara Freese takes us on an historical journey that begins three hundred million years ago and spans the globe. From the 'Great Stinking Fogs' of London to the rat-infested coal mines of Pennsylvania, from the impoverished slums of Manchester to the toxic city streets of Beijing, this book describes an ordinary substance that has done extraordinary things.

  5. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, Billings, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  6. Proceedings of the 11th international conference on coal science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The theme of the conference was 'Exploring the horizons of coal'. The proceedings include 370 papers dealing with coal petrography, physical structure and properties, advanced characterization, oxidation and weathering, coal preparation and beneficiation, liquefaction and pyrolysis reactivity and products, combustion and combustion modeling, NOx, SO{sub x} and particulate emissions and controls, gasification fundamentals and processing, coal in iron making processes, chemistry of S, N, and Cl, mineral matter, trace elements and HAPS, chemicals, carbons and carbon products, coal combustion byproducts and ash chemistry, and greenhouse gases and sequestration. Although 'proceedings' are published, the conference was cancelled.

  7. ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. James Davis

    1999-12-18

    The objective of this research was to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. The specific objectives were: Design and develop a scaleable electrophoresis apparatus to clarify suspensions of colloidal coal and clay particles; Demonstrate the separation process using polluted waste water from the coal-washing facilities at the coal-fired power plants in Centralia, WA; Develop a mathematical model of the process to predict the rate of clarification and the suspension electrical properties needed for scale up.

  8. Distilling coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  9. Forensic Psychiatric Evaluation for Military Absenteeism in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Chen, Chih-Kang; Wang, Tzong-Shi; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between military absenteeism and mental health problems has been noted; however, factors affecting military absenteeism by enlisted personnel have not been studied systematically. In a medical center in Taiwan, we performed a chart review of 26 forensic psychiatric evaluations of enlisted personnel who were absent without leave (AWOL) or deserted their service from 1994 to 2014. The findings showed that many of these recruits had a lower level of education (50.00% had just nine years of education), intellectual disability (46.15%), depressive disorders (30.76%), and suicidal ideation (53.85%). Depressive disorder was overrepresented in comparison with findings in a previous study. Further study is needed to confirm whether psychiatric screening before service enlistment and early psychiatric intervention for service members with mental illness or emotional disturbance could help in the prevention of desertion or going AWOL. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  10. Comment on Tomaskova et al. Mortality in Miners with Coal-Workers’ Pneumoconiosis in the Czech Republic in the Period 1992–2013. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2017, 14, 269

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With interest, I read the recent analysis by Tomaskova and co-workers (2017 about mortality from coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP. The research question remains unclear whether coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP resulting from exposure to respirable coal dust containing crystalline silica accelerates the development of lung cancer or whether it is an intermediate stage in the pathway. I made several points of considerations with respect to (1 qualified data; (2 alternate measures for excessive risks; and (3 methodological flaws that should be avoided.

  11. Impact of smoking status on workplace absenteeism and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern, M.; Shikiar, R.; Rentz, A.; Khan, Z.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To: evaluate the impact of smoking status on objective productivity and absenteeism measures; evaluate the impact of smoking status on subjective measures of productivity; and assess the correlation between subjective and objective productivity measures.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study in a workplace environment.
SUBJECTS—Approximately 300 employees (100 each of former, current, and never smokers) at a reservation office of a large US airline.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Objective produc...

  12. School Absenteeism during Menstruation among Rural Adolescent Girls in Pune

    OpenAIRE

    Suman Bodat, Mrunalini M Ghate, Jyoti R Majumdar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Menstrual related problems and inadequate school sanitation facilities have an adverse effect on adolescent girl?s academic performance and school attendance especially in rural setting. The following study was undertaken to determine school absenteeism during menstruation period. Objective: To assess the impact of menstruation on school attendance and factors affecting menstruation management. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in rural field practice area o...

  13. Determinants of absenteeism in a large Danish bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2006-01-01

    studies is constructed. The model is based on hedonic theory and uses the frequency metric when measuring absence. The results of the empirical study show that there is indeed a significant negative relationship between job satisfaction and absence. Furthermore, the study shows that demographic variables...... for both employees and employers play an important role for the frequency of absence. One very interesting result is that the absenteeism for employees is very clearly related to observed absence by the unit manager....

  14. Assessing the effect of public policy on worker absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Per; Palme, Mårten

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the effect of economic incentives on worker absenteeism, using panel data on work absence for 1990 and 1991 with a sample of 1,396 Swedish blue-collar workers. During this period Sweden implemented major reforms of both its national income replacement program for short-term sickness and income taxes. Both affected the worker's cost of missing work. Our econometric model allows for state-dependent dynamic behavior and control for unobserved heterogeneity. The latter proves to be an ...

  15. Assessment of Electronic Absentee System for Elections (EASE) Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    No. DODIG-2015-135 J U N E 3 0 , 2 0 1 5 Assessment of Electronic Absentee System for Elections (EASE) Grants Mission Our mission is to provide...efficiency; advises the Secretary of Defense and Congress; and informs the public. Vision Our vision is to be a model oversight organization in the Federal...Government by leading change, speaking truth, and promoting excellence—a diverse organization , working together as one professional team, recognized

  16. Menstruation and School Absenteeism: Evidence from Rural Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Monica J.; Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Mensch, Barbara S.

    2013-01-01

    The provision of toilets and menstrual supplies has emerged as a promising programmatic strategy to support adolescent girls’ school attendance and performance in less developed countries. We use the first round of the Malawi Schooling and Adolescent Survey (MSAS) to examine the individual- and school-level factors associated with menstruation-related school absenteeism. The MSAS is a school-based longitudinal survey of adolescent students enrolled in coed public primary schools in the southe...

  17. THE ACADEMIC ABSENTEEISM AND ITS MORE OBVIOUS RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto José Miranda; Tamires Sousa Araujo; Izabelle Almeida Marcelino

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the relationship between absenteeism and academic performance in the Accounting Sciences Course. For this purpose, a documentary research was realized in a Brazilian public institution. With the course coordination permission, several information were analyzed concerning the participation of 1,525 students in 715 courses taught in the period between the first semester of 2009 and the second semester of 2013, totaling 29,839 observations. From these observations, th...

  18. Gender Differences in Quits and Absenteeism in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xuelin

    2007-01-01

    Female workers are traditionally viewed as more likely to quit, to be absent and to take more days of absence than male workers, and this gender difference is widely used as an important explanation for the gender wage gap and other labour market differences between men and women. This study documents the gender differences in quits and absenteeism in Canada and attempts to assess whether the traditional view is still valid today. The study found that Canadian women's quitting behaviour chang...

  19. Characterization of Malaysian coals for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abunowara, M.; Bustam, M. A.; Sufian, S.; Eldemerdash, U.

    2016-06-01

    Coal samples from Mukah-Balingian and Merit-Pila coal mines were characterized with ultimate, approximate, petrographic analysis, FT-IR spectra patterns, FESEM images and BET measurements to obtain information on the chemical composition and chemical structure in the samples. Two coal samples were obtained from Merit-Pila coal mine namely sample1 (S1) and sample2 (S2). The other two coal samples were obtained from Mukah-Balingian coal mine namely sample3 (S3) and sample4 (S4), Sarawak, Malaysia. The results of ultimate analysis show that coal S1 has the highest carbon percentage by 54.47%, the highest hydrogen percentage by 10.56% and the lowest sulfur percentage by 0.19% and the coal S4 has the highest moisture content by 31.5%. The coal S1 has the highest fixed carbon percentage by 42.6%. The coal S4 has BET surface area by 2.39 m2/g and Langmuir surface area by 3.0684 m2/g respectively. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis of all coal samples shows a presence of oxygen containing functional groups which considered are as active sites on coal surface. The oxygen functional groups are mainly carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (-CH, -CH2, -CH3), aliphatic (C-O-C stretching associated with -OH), amino (-NH stretching vibrations), (-NH stretching vibrations), aromatic (C=C), vinylic (C=C) and clay minerals. In all FE-SEM images of coal samples matrix, it can be seen that there are luminous and as non luminous features which refer to the existence of various minerals types distributed in the coal organic matrix. The bright luminosity is due to the presence of sodium, potassium or aluminium. According to petrographic analysis, all coal sample samples are range in vitrinite reflectance from 0.38% to 56% (VRr) are sub-bituminous coals.

  20. Federal coal lease readjustments: will reason prevail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolf, C W

    1988-01-01

    After 1920, when the US Congress passed the Mineral Lands Leasing Act (MLLA), coal owned by the Federal government could only be developed by leasing under the MLLA. Most Federally owned coal is in the west, where the Federal government enjoys a near monopoly in coal ownership and its development. In 1976, congress enacted the Federal Coal Leasing Amendments ACT (FCLAA), over President Ford's veto, in order to: increase rents and royalties on Federal coal leases; force lessees holding Federal coal leases not in production to open mines on the non-producing leases; and end 'speculation' in Federal coal leases. The book maintains that in passing the FCLAA, Congress did not understand the western coal industry, and neither did the Department of the Interior (DOI) in concluding that Congress had mandated that the FCLAA must be applied to pre-FCLAA leases, even those in production, when such leases are readjusted. In the resulting lawsuits, the western coal industry has not been explained to the Federal courts and the decisions regarding the applicability of the FCLAA upon readjustment of pre-FCLAA leases have consequently been wrong. The book examines the record to date and aims to demonstrate the validity of these conclusions. It also describes which actions the DOI should have taken to accomplish the objectives of congress set forth in the FCLAA, to readjust pre-FCLAA leases without litigation.

  1. Predicting absenteeism and turnover intentions in the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albion, Majella J; Fogarty, Gerard J; Machin, Michael A; Patrick, Jeff

    2008-05-01

    The study examined the mediating influence of individual psychological reactions to work on the relationship between organisational climate and job withdrawal behaviours (viz, intention to leave and absenteeism). 1097 hospital employees were surveyed using the Queensland Public Agency Staff Survey (QPASS) to obtain measures of organisational climate, psychological reactions to work, job satisfaction, and self-reported levels of intention to leave. Group-level absenteeism data were provided from the Health Service District files. Two psychological states, quality of work life and job satisfaction, were found to fully mediate the relationship between the organisational climate variable, role clarity, and intention to leave, while individual distress was found to partially mediate the same relationship. However, the hypothesised mediation effect of psychological states on the relationship between organisational climate and absenteeism did not emerge. Skills shortages and increasing demands for health services make retention of staff in the health service industry vitally important. As a means of addressing this issue, this study presents an emergent mediating model defining relationships among individual psychological factors, aspects of organisational climate and intention to leave. Identification of the processes associated with staff withdrawal behaviours or intentions will assist in devising interventions to improve retention.

  2. Lower back pain and absenteeism among professional public transport drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresal, Friderika; Roblek, Vasja; Jerman, Andrej; Meško, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Drivers in public transport are subjected to lower back pain. The reason for the pain is associated with the characteristics of the physical position imposed on the worker while performing the job. Lower back pain is the main cause of absenteeism among drivers. The present study includes 145 public transport drivers employed as professional drivers for an average of 14.14 years. Analysis of the data obtained in the study includes the basic descriptive statistics, χ(2) test and multiple regression analysis. Analysis of the incidence of lower back pain showed that the majority of our sample population suffered from pain in the lower back. We found that there are no statistically significant differences between the groups formed by the length of service as a professional driver and incidence of lower back pain; we were also interested in whether or not the risk factors of lower back pain affects the absenteeism of city bus drivers. Analysis of the data has shown that the risk factors of pain in the lower part of the spine do affect the absenteeism of city bus drivers.

  3. Workloads, strain processes and sickness absenteeism in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Aline Mininel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the workloads, strain processes and sickness absenteeism among nursing workers from a teaching hospital in the Brazilian Central-West. METHOD: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was developed with a quantitative approach, based on the theoretical framework of the social determination of the health-disease process. Data were collected between January and December 2009, based on records of complaints related to occupational exposure among nursing professionals, filed in the software Monitoring System of Nursing Workers' Health. For the sake of statistical analysis, relative and absolute frequencies of the variables and the risk coefficient were considered. RESULTS: 144 notifications of occupational exposure were registered across the analysis period, which represented 25% of the total nursing population at the hospital. The physiological and psychic workloads were the most representative, corresponding to 37% and 36%, respectively. These notifications culminated in 1567 days of absenteeism for disease treatment. CONCLUSIONS: the findings evidence the impact of occupational illnesses on the absenteeism of nursing workers, and can be used to demonstrate the importance of institutional investments in occupational health surveillance.

  4. Absenteeism and Employer Costs Associated With Chronic Diseases and Health Risk Factors in the US Workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Asay, Garrett R. Beeler; Roy, Kakoli; Lang, Jason E.; Payne, Rebecca L.; Howard, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Employers may incur costs related to absenteeism among employees who have chronic diseases or unhealthy behaviors. We examined the association between employee absenteeism and 5 conditions: 3 risk factors (smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity) and 2 chronic diseases (hypertension and diabetes). Methods We identified 5 chronic diseases or risk factors from 2 data sources: MarketScan Health Risk Assessment and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Absenteeism was measur...

  5. Effectiveness of neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing staff absenteeism during pandemic influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, VJ; Chen, MI

    2007-01-01

    We used a deterministic SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed) meta-population model, together with scenario, sensitivity, and simulation analyses, to determine stockpiling strategies for neuraminidase inhibitors that would minimize absenteeism among healthcare workers. A pandemic with a basic reproductive number (R0) of 2.5 resulted in peak absenteeism of 10%. Treatment decreased peak absenteeism to 8%, while 8 weeks' prophylaxis reduced it to 2%. For pandemics with higher R0, peak ab...

  6. Socio demographic and clinical predictors of absenteeism A cross sectional study of urban industrial employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhash Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Public sector undertakings are facing a threat of privatization due to unsatisfactory performance putting pressure on management and in turn to employees. There is an increasing trend of absenteeism observed amongst employees citing job stress. Aim: To find an association between job stress and absenteeism in relation to socio-demographic and clinical profile. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in an urban aeronautical industry with 68 employees who mentioned stress at workplace during evaluation. Job stress was assessed using Professional Life Stress Scale (David Fontana. Those who scored more than 30 (n = 43 were taken up for the study after an informed consent. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to find socio-demographic and clinical profile. Employees who reported taking leave in last six months just to avoid work or workplace constitute the "absenteeism" group. The absenteeism group was compared to non-absenteeism group using Fisher exact/Chi-square test or independent t-test depending on type of variables. Results: Out of 43 subjects, 18 had absenteeism while 25 did not have absenteeism. Comparing the two groups, interstate migration, having more than one previous job, commuting time more than an hour, co-morbid anxiety/depression, and alcohol abuse were significantly associated with absenteeism (P 0.05. Conclusion: In absenteeism research, one of the widely accepted models is Steer and Rhode′s "Process model of absenteeism." The model postulates job stress as one of the barriers for attendance. Thus, knowing the factors for absenteeism would help in preventing absenteeism.

  7. Statistical estimates of absenteeism attributable to seasonal and pandemic influenza from the Canadian Labour Force Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Hui; Schanzer Dena L; Gilmore Jason

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background As many respiratory viruses are responsible for influenza like symptoms, accurate measures of the disease burden are not available and estimates are generally based on statistical methods. The objective of this study was to estimate absenteeism rates and hours lost due to seasonal influenza and compare these estimates with estimates of absenteeism attributable to the two H1N1 pandemic waves that occurred in 2009. Methods Key absenteeism variables were extracted from Statis...

  8. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  9. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  10. Minerals Policy Statement 2: controlling and mitigating the environmental effects of minerals extraction in England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    Minerals Policy Statement 2 (MPS2) sets out the policies and considerations that the UK Government expects Mineral Planning Authorities to follow when preparing development plans and in considering application for minerals development. This supercedes Minerals Policy Guidance 11 (MPG 11). Annex 1: Dust to MPS2 sets out the policy considerations in relation to dust from mineral workings and associated operations, and how they should be dealt with in local development plans and in considering individual applications. Annex 2: Noise to MPS2 addresses policy in relation to noise from mineral workings. These have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database. 58 refs., 2 apps.

  11. Characterization of coal types by their content of volatile matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, A. (Ruhrkohle A.G., Essen (Germany, F.R.). Qualitaetsstelle)

    1979-08-01

    First of all, the difference between mineral content and ash content, the effect of minerals on the content of volatile matter and the connection between the ash and volatile matter contents is examined. Then three processes are described, to determine the content of organic fuels in the volatile matter of hard coal. The results are compared and the applicability of the processes is assessed. The conversion formulae recommended for the ASTM and NCB classifications are examined regarding their applicability to German types of coal. Finally an equation is proposed, in order to calculate the estimated value for the content of water and mineral free fuel in volatile matter. Apart from the content of volatile matter in water free coal, one only needs the figures ash content and the mineral factor for this. The equation can also be used for mixtures the usability of the equation is tested for Ruhr coal.

  12. Mineralogic and element association of coals from the Gevra mine, Korba coal field, Madhya Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.R.; Powell, M.A.; Fyfe, W.S.; Sahu, K.C.; Tripathy, S.

    1991-01-01

    As a part of a project to study the content and distribution of trace elements in coals and coal by-products from coal mining areas of India, the mineral and elemental composition of the whole coal and concentration of the selective elements in the whole coal mined from the Gevra mine of the Korba coal field in Madhya Pradesh are studied. The vertical trend of the selected elements are defined and possible relationships of these elements to the minerals present in or associated with the above coal are examined. The Gevra Coals have ash contact ( 3 times world average) and low sulphur content (1/4 of world average). Most elements are found to be positively correlated with ash indicating an inorganic association. Elements which show organic affinity include S, Cl, I and In. Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb occur in sulfide phases, the dominant Fe phase identified is siderite which also contain Mn and Mg. Th and U along with varying proportions of rare earths, Ce, Dy, La and Y have been identified with discrete phosphate minerals. Most trace elements have been found to be concentrated in the upper and lower portions of the coal seam exposed in Gevra mine and in partings. It is, therefore, suggested that selective mining and removal of high ash/inorganic material, particularly the upper and lower portion of the seam, will greatly reduce the mobilization of Al, As, Co, Fe, Hf, Sc, Si, Ti and to a lesser degree Cr, La, Mn, Th U and V during combustion of coal in power plants and consequently will reduce the influx of trace elements to the environment. (M.G.B.). 23 refs., 5 figs

  13. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the... drainage may not be diverted over the outslope of the refuse piles. Runoff from the areas above the refuse...

  14. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the... drainage may not be diverted over the outslope of the refuse pile. Runoff from areas above the refuse pile...

  15. The chemical composition of tertiary Indian coal ash and its

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Part 1 of the present investigation, 37 representative Eocene coal samples of Meghalaya, India were analyzed and their physico-chemical characteristics and the major oxides and minerals present in ash samples were studied for assessing the genesis of these coals. Various statistical tools were also applied to study ...

  16. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  17. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  18. Coal marketing manual 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This manual provides information on the international coal market in tabulated format. Statistics are presented for the Australian coal industry, exports, currency movements, world coal production, coal and coke imports and exports. Detailed information is provided on the Australian coal industry including mine specific summaries. Pricing summaries for thermal and coking coal in 1987, coal quality standards and specifications, trends in coal prices and stocks. Imports and exports for World coal and coke, details of shipping, international ports and iron and steel production. An exporters index of Australian and overseas companies with industry and government contacts is included. 15 figs., 67 tabs.

  19. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  20. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  1. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  2. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  3. Coal and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  4. Petrography and rank of the Bhangtar coals, southeastern Bhutan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareek, H S [BH23, Meerut (India)

    1990-07-01

    In Bhutan, a potential coal deposit is exposed at Bhangtar in the 'landslide zone'. Nineteen coal seams are encountered in this area, and occur in the Lower Gondwana Supergroup preserved in between the Main Boundary Fault and the Thrust. The coal is low in moisture, {lt}1.76%, but the coal cores show moisture values of 3.16%. The ash content is up to 48.87% and increases substantially in the younger seams. The volatile content (on a pure coal basis) ranges from 23.38% to 41.02%. The sulphur content is less than 0.61%. The coals are non-coking. The amount of trace elements in the coal is quite low. The average petrographic composition of the Bhangtar coal is vitrinite - 31%, exinite - 2%, inertinite - 31%, and mineral and shaly matter - 36%, the vitrinite proportion decreases from the older to the younger seams, which are shaly. an age can be assigned to the Bhangtar coal. Based on oil reflectance, the rank of the coal is metalignitous to hypobituminous. The average microlithotype composition of the coal is vitrite - 30%, clarite - 1%, vitrinertite V - 14%, vitrinertite I - 11%, durite - 3%, fusite - 14%, and carbominerite - 27%. Vitrite decreases in proportion towards the younger seams, 'intermediates' show a concomitant increase, while durite and fusite remain constant. Carbonaceous shale contains fragmentary inertinite and vitrinite macerals and is interlayered with micro-bands of shaly coal which is characterised by abundant fragments of fusinite and vitrinite. The coal is very fragile and thus amenable to economic beneficiation. The coal is used as fuel in electric power plants. The Bhangtar coal is characteristically distinct from the Gondwana coals of India in petrography and rank, but correlates petrographically with the Kameng coals of Arunachal Pradesh, India. 18 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs., 3 plates.

  5. Absenteeism and Employer Costs Associated With Chronic Diseases and Health Risk Factors in the US Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kakoli; Lang, Jason E.; Payne, Rebecca L.; Howard, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Employers may incur costs related to absenteeism among employees who have chronic diseases or unhealthy behaviors. We examined the association between employee absenteeism and 5 conditions: 3 risk factors (smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity) and 2 chronic diseases (hypertension and diabetes). Methods We identified 5 chronic diseases or risk factors from 2 data sources: MarketScan Health Risk Assessment and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Absenteeism was measured as the number of workdays missed because of sickness or injury. We used zero-inflated Poisson regression to estimate excess absenteeism as the difference in the number of days missed from work by those who reported having a risk factor or chronic disease and those who did not. Covariates included demographics (eg, age, education, sex) and employment variables (eg, industry, union membership). We quantified absenteeism costs in 2011 and adjusted them to reflect growth in employment costs to 2015 dollars. Finally, we estimated absenteeism costs for a hypothetical small employer (100 employees) and a hypothetical large employer (1,000 employees). Results Absenteeism estimates ranged from 1 to 2 days per individual per year depending on the risk factor or chronic disease. Except for the physical inactivity and obesity estimates, disease- and risk-factor–specific estimates were similar in MEPS and MarketScan. Absenteeism increased with the number of risk factors or diseases reported. Nationally, each risk factor or disease was associated with annual absenteeism costs greater than $2 billion. Absenteeism costs ranged from $16 to $81 (small employer) and $17 to $286 (large employer) per employee per year. Conclusion Absenteeism costs associated with chronic diseases and health risk factors can be substantial. Employers may incur these costs through lower productivity, and employees could incur costs through lower wages. PMID:27710764

  6. Absenteeism and Employer Costs Associated With Chronic Diseases and Health Risk Factors in the US Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asay, Garrett R Beeler; Roy, Kakoli; Lang, Jason E; Payne, Rebecca L; Howard, David H

    2016-10-06

    Employers may incur costs related to absenteeism among employees who have chronic diseases or unhealthy behaviors. We examined the association between employee absenteeism and 5 conditions: 3 risk factors (smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity) and 2 chronic diseases (hypertension and diabetes). We identified 5 chronic diseases or risk factors from 2 data sources: MarketScan Health Risk Assessment and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Absenteeism was measured as the number of workdays missed because of sickness or injury. We used zero-inflated Poisson regression to estimate excess absenteeism as the difference in the number of days missed from work by those who reported having a risk factor or chronic disease and those who did not. Covariates included demographics (eg, age, education, sex) and employment variables (eg, industry, union membership). We quantified absenteeism costs in 2011 and adjusted them to reflect growth in employment costs to 2015 dollars. Finally, we estimated absenteeism costs for a hypothetical small employer (100 employees) and a hypothetical large employer (1,000 employees). Absenteeism estimates ranged from 1 to 2 days per individual per year depending on the risk factor or chronic disease. Except for the physical inactivity and obesity estimates, disease- and risk-factor-specific estimates were similar in MEPS and MarketScan. Absenteeism increased with the number of risk factors or diseases reported. Nationally, each risk factor or disease was associated with annual absenteeism costs greater than $2 billion. Absenteeism costs ranged from $16 to $81 (small employer) and $17 to $286 (large employer) per employee per year. Absenteeism costs associated with chronic diseases and health risk factors can be substantial. Employers may incur these costs through lower productivity, and employees could incur costs through lower wages.

  7. Effects of torpedo blasting on rockburst prevention during deep coal seam mining in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wojtecki, Ł.; Koníček, Petr; Schreiber, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2017), s. 694-701 ISSN 1674-7755 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : rockburst prevention * torpedo blasting * seismic effect * Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining OBOR OECD: Mining and mineral processing http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1674775517300896

  8. 78 FR 25308 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ...; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: 60-Day... mines. CPDMs must be designed and constructed for coal miners to wear and operate without impeding their... related to Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices. MSHA is particularly interested in comments that: Evaluate...

  9. 30 CFR 872.22 - How does OSM distribute and award historic coal funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does OSM distribute and award historic coal... TRIBES § 872.22 How does OSM distribute and award historic coal funds? (a) To be eligible to receive historic coal funds, you must meet the following criteria: (1) You must have and maintain an approved...

  10. 30 CFR 875.13 - Certification of completion of coal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification of completion of coal sites. 875... Certification of completion of coal sites. (a) The Governor of a State, or the equivalent head of an Indian tribe, may submit to the Secretary a certification of completion of coal sites. The certification must...

  11. 78 FR 72717 - Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Workers' Compensation Programs Division of Coal Mine Workers... proposed collection: Comparability of Current Work to Coal Mine Employment (CM-913). A copy of the proposed...., provides for the payment of benefits to coal miners who are totally disabled by black lung disease arising...

  12. 76 FR 10070 - Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation; Proposed Extension of Existing Collection; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Workers' Compensation Programs Division of Coal Mine Workers... Rereading (CM-933b), Medical History and Examination for Coal Mine Workers' Pneumoconiosis (CM-988), Report... interpretation of x-rays. When a miner applies for benefits, the Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation...

  13. Outlook for the Australian coal market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    A shortage of bituminous coal is now being witnessed on the world market, which stems from an increase in demand for it. The prices for bituminous coal, which have been increasing since 1988, will continue to rise in 1990. World coal production in 1989/1990 has been estimated by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources at 3,370 million tons, which is 50 million tons more than in the preceding year. Australian experts predict a doubling in world demand for coal by 2025. Many Australian coal mining companies, counting on the increased demand in the future, are taking measures to consolidate production and strengthen their financial base in order to accelerate development of new fields or expand production at existing mines. It is expected that the highest rates of growth in demand will be for power coal. Because of increased world production of steel the demand for coking coal will also rise, but the rates of growth will be much lower than for power coal

  14. Structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of chars prepared from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixed HyperCoals and coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atul Sharma; Hiroyuki Kawashima; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

    2009-04-15

    HyperCoal is a clean coal with mineral matter content <0.05 wt %. Oaky Creek (C = 82%), and Pasir (C = 68%) coals were subjected to solvent extraction method to prepare Oaky Creek HyperCoal, and Pasir HyperCoal. Experiments were carried out to compare the gasification reactivity of HyperCoals and parent raw coals with 20, 40, 50 and 60% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a catalyst at 600, 650, 700, and 775{sup o}C with steam. Gasification rates of coals and HyperCoals were strongly influenced by the temperature and catalyst loading. Catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal chars was found to be chemical reaction controlled in the 600-700{sup o}C temperature range for all catalyst loadings. Gasification rates of HyperCoal chars were found to be always higher than parent coals at any given temperature for all catalyst loadings. However, X-ray diffraction results showed that the microstructures of chars prepared from coals and HyperCoals were similar. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show no significant difference between the chemical compositions of the chars. Significant differences were observed from scanning electron microscopy images, which showed that the chars from HyperCoals had coral-reef like structures whereas dense chars were observed for coals. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Investigation of virgin coals and coals subjected to a mild acid treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, T.M.; Evans, B.J.; Wynter, C.; Pollak, H.; Taole, S.; Radcliffe, D. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-06-01

    A quantitative determination of the relative marcasite/pyrite contents in virgin coals is possible by means of {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. Complications arise however, when iron-containing silicates, carbonates, or other salts are present. The application of a mild chemical treatment involving hydrofluoric acid has been employed to remove these Fe-containing phases while leaving the iron-disulfide phases unaffected. Several South African coal samples with non-iron disulfide, Fe-containing phases ranging from 18 to 30 weight percent were subjected to a hydrofluoric acid leaching at room temperature. The loss of mineral matter with HF leaching correlates well with the mineral matter residue following low temperature ashing. The {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra of the resulting coal samples indicate that only FeS{sub 2} phases are present and the absence of appreciable quantities of marcasite in the coals.

  16. Study on the technology of decreasing ash and sulfur in coking coal concentrate by deep-cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, A.; Li, P.; Chen, S. [Hefei Design and Research Institute of Coal Industry, Hefei (China)

    2007-06-15

    Middling fractions of coking coal, a rare resource in China, were analysed for their embedded minerals both in kind and distribution. Observation with a microscope shows that most are clay minerals of very small particle size. The embedded minerals can be liberated from middling by grinding. Clean coal can be obtained from ground middling by the flocculation-flotation process. The yield of clean coal could thus be increased and its ash and sulfur content decreased. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Effects on presenteeism and absenteeism from a 1-year workplace randomized controlled trial among health care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Overgaard, Kristian; Hansen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether workplace interventions successfully improving health outcomes can also provide concurrent improvements in presenteeism and absenteeism.......It is unknown whether workplace interventions successfully improving health outcomes can also provide concurrent improvements in presenteeism and absenteeism....

  18. Assessing the Impact of Removing Select Materials from Coal Mine Overburden, Central Appalachia Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exposure of readily soluble components of overburden materials from surface coal mining to air and water results in mineral oxidation and carbonate mineral dissolution, thus increasing coal mine water conductivity. A conductivity benchmark of 300 µS/cm for mine water dischar...

  19. 30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 942.761 Section 942.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  20. 30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 903.761 Section 903.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, applies to surface coal mining...