WorldWideScience

Sample records for coal injection system

  1. Synchronized droplet size measurements for Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, K. D.; Terracina, D. P.; Payne, S. E.; Caton, J. A.

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMD's near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 (mu)m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

  2. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  3. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  4. Successful continuous injection of coal into gasification and PFBC system operating pressures exceeding 500 psi - DOE funded program results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, T.; Aldred, D.; Rutkowski, M. [Stamet Inc., North Holywood, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The current US energy program is focussed towards commercialisation of coal-based power and IGCC technologies that offer significant improvements in efficiency and reductions in emissions. For gasification and pressurised fluidized bed combustors to be widely accepted, certain operational components need to be significantly improved. One of the most pressing is provision of reliable, controlled and cost-effective solid fuel feeding into the pressure environment. The US Department of Energy has funded research to develop the unique Stamet 'Posimetric{reg_sign} Solids Pump' to be capable of feeding coal into current gasification and PFBC operating pressures. The research objective is a mechanical rotary device able to continuously feed and meter coal into pressured environments of at least 34 bar (500 psi). The research program comprised an initial design and testing phase to feed coal into 20 bar (300 psi) and a second phase for feeding into 34 bar (500 psi). The first phase target was achieved in December 2003. Following modification and optimization, in January 2005, the Stamet Pump achieved a world-record pressure level for continuous injection of coal of 38 bar (560 psi). Research is now targeting 69 bar (1000 psi). The paper reviews the successful pump design, optimisations and results of the testing. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Full scale calcium bromide injection with subsequent mercury oxidation and removal within wet flue gas desulphurization system: Experience at a 700 MW coal-fired power facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mark Simpson

    The Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule, which requires that existing power plants reduce mercury emissions to meet an emission rate of 1.2 lb/TBtu on a 30-day rolling average and that new plants meet a 0.0002 lb/GWHr emission rate. This translates to mercury removals greater than 90% for existing units and greater than 99% for new units. Current state-of-the-art technology for the control of mercury emissions uses activated carbon injected upstream of a fabric filter, a costly proposition. For example, a fabric filter, if not already available, would require a 200M capital investment for a 700 MW size unit. A lower-cost option involves the injection of activated carbon into an existing cold-side electrostatic precipitator. Both options would incur the cost of activated carbon, upwards of 3M per year. The combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors and wet flue gas desulphurization (wet FGD) systems have demonstrated the ability to substantially reduce mercury emissions, especially at units that burn coals containing sufficient halogens. Halogens are necessary for transforming elemental mercury to oxidized mercury, which is water-soluble. Plants burning halogen-deficient coals such as Power River Basin (PRB) coals currently have no alternative but to install activated carbon-based approaches to control mercury emissions. This research consisted of investigating calcium bromide addition onto PRB coal as a method of increasing flue gas halogen concentration. The treated coal was combusted in a 700 MW boiler and the subsequent treated flue gas was introduced into a wet FGD. Short-term parametric and an 83-day longer-term tests were completed to determine the ability of calcium bromine to oxidize mercury and to study the removal of the mercury in a wet FGD. The research goal was to show that calcium bromine addition to PRB coal was a viable approach for meeting the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule

  6. Wettability determination by contact angle measurements: hvbB coal-water system with injection of synthetic flue gas and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojai Kaveh, Narjes; Rudolph, E Susanne J; Wolf, Karl-Heinz A A; Ashrafizadeh, Seyed Nezameddin

    2011-12-01

    Geological sequestration of pure carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in coal is one of the methods to sequester CO(2). In addition, injection of CO(2) or flue gas into coal enhances coal bed methane production (ECBM). The success of this combined process depends strongly on the wetting behavior of the coal, which is function of coal rank, ash content, heterogeneity of the coal surface, pressure, temperature and composition of the gas. The wetting behavior can be evaluated from the contact angle of a gas bubble, CO(2) or flue gas, on a coal surface. In this study, contact angles of a synthetic flue gas, i.e. a 80/20 (mol%) N(2)/CO(2) mixture, and pure CO(2) on a Warndt Luisenthal (WL) coal have been determined using a modified pendant drop cell in a pressure range from atmospheric to 16 MPa and a constant temperature of 318 K. It was found that the contact angles of flue gas on WL coal were generally smaller than those of CO(2). The contact angle of CO(2) changes from water-wet to gas-wet by increasing pressure above 8.5 MPa while the one for the flue gas changes from water-wet to intermediate-wet by increasing pressure above 10 MPa. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Temperature field distribution of coal seam in heat injection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Zhizhen; Peng Weihong; Shang Xiaoji; Wang Kun; Li Heng; Ma Wenming

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we present a natural boundary element method (NBEM) to solve the steady heat flow problem with heat sources in a coal seam. The boundary integral equation is derived to obtain the temperature filed distribution of the coal seam under the different injecting conditions.

  8. SQL injection detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargonas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    SQL injection detection system Programmers do not always ensure security of developed systems. That is why it is important to look for solutions outside being reliant on developers. In this work SQL injection detection system is proposed. The system analyzes HTTP request parameters and detects intrusions. It is based on unsupervised machine learning. Trained by regular request data system detects outlier user parameters. Since training is not reliant on previous knowledge of SQL injections, t...

  9. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  10. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  11. The PEP injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Avery, R.T.; Peterson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A system to transport 10-to-15-GeV electron and positron beams from the Stanford Linear Accelerator and to inject them into the PEP storage ring under a wide variety of lattice configurations has been designed. Optically, the transport line consists of three 360/degree/ phase-shift sections of FODO lattice, with bending magnets interspersed in such a way as to provide achromaticity, convenience in energy and emittance definition, and independent tuning of the various optical parameters for matching into the ring. The last 360/degree/ of phase shift has 88 milliradians of bend in a vertical plane and deposits the beam at the injection septum via a Lambertson magnet. Injection is accomplished by launching the beam with several centimeters of radial betatron amplitude in a fast bump provided by a triad of pulsed kicker magnets. Radiation damping reduces the collective amplitude quickly enough to allow injection at a high repetition rate

  12. Evaluation of a Compact Coaxial Underground Coal Gasification System Inside an Artificial Coal Seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-qiang Su

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Underground Coal Gasification (UCG system is a clean technology for obtaining energy from coal. The coaxial UCG system is supposed to be compact and flexible in order to adapt to complicated geological conditions caused by the existence of faults and folds in the ground. In this study, the application of a coaxial UCG system with a horizontal well is discussed, by means of an ex situ model UCG experiment in a large-scale simulated coal seam with dimensions of 550 × 600 × 2740 mm. A horizontal well with a 45-mm diameter and a 2600-mm length was used as an injection/production well. During the experiment, changes in temperature field and product gas compositions were observed when changing the outlet position of the injection pipe. It was found that the UCG reactor is unstable and expands continuously due to fracturing activity caused by coal crack initiation and extension under the influence of thermal stress. Therefore, acoustic emission (AE is considered an effective tool to monitor fracturing activities and visualize the gasification zone of coal. The results gathered from monitoring of AEs agree with the measured data of temperatures; the source location of AE was detected around the region where temperature increased. The average calorific value of the produced gas was 6.85 MJ/Nm3, and the gasification efficiency, defined as the conversion efficiency of the gasified coal to syngas, was 65.43%, in the whole experimental process. The study results suggest that the recovered coal energy from a coaxial UCG system is comparable to that of a conventional UCG system. Therefore, a coaxial UCG system may be a feasible option to utilize abandoned underground coal resources without mining.

  13. Case study on ground surface deformation induced by CO2 injection into coal seam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Tang Chun'an

    2010-01-01

    To monitor a geomechanical response of injecting CO 2 into relatively shallow coal seams, tiltmeters were set as an array to cover the ground surface area surrounding the injection well, and to measure the ground deformation during a well fracturing stimulation and a short-term CO 2 injection test. In this paper, an attempt to establish a quantitative relationship between the in-situ coal swelling and the corresponding ground deformation was made by means of numerical simulation study. (authors)

  14. Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Ilha Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

  15. The coal cleat system: A new approach to its study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After a general analysis regarding the concept of coal “cleat system”, its genetic origin and practical applications to coalbed methane (CBM commercial production and to CO2 geological sequestration projects, the authors have developed a method to answer, quickly and accurately in accordance with the industrial practice and needs, the following yet unanswered questions: (1 how to define the spatial orientation of the different classes of cleats presented in a coal seam and (2 how to determine the frequency of their connectivites. The new available and presented techniques to answer these questions have a strong computer based tool (geographic information system, GIS, able to build a complete georeferentiated database, which will allow to three-dimensionally locate the laboratory samples in the coalfield. It will also allow to better understand the coal cleat system and consequently to recognize the best pathways to gas flow through the coal seam. Such knowledge is considered crucial for understanding what is likely to be the most efficient opening of cleat network, then allowing the injection with the right spatial orientation, of pressurized fluids in order to directly drain the maximum amount of gas flow to a CBM exploitation well. The method is also applicable to the CO2 geological sequestration technologies and operations corresponding to the injection of CO2 sequestered from industrial plants in coal seams of abandoned coal mines or deep coal seams.

  16. Coal char combustion under a CO{sub 2}-rich atmosphere: Implications for pulverized coal injection in a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrego, A.G.; Casal, M.D. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC. P.O. Box 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Osorio, E.; Vilela, A.C.F. [Laboratorio de Siderurgia, DEMET/PPGEM - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. P.O. Box 15021, 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) is employed in blast furnace tuyeres attempting to maximize the injection rate without increasing the amount of unburned char inside the stack of the blast furnace. When coal is injected with air through the injection lance, the resolidified char will burn in an atmosphere with a progressively lower oxygen content and higher CO{sub 2} concentration. In this study an experimental approach was followed to separate the combustion process into two distinct devolatilization and combustion steps. Initially coal was injected into a drop tube furnace (DTF) operating at 1300 C in an atmosphere with a low oxygen concentration to ensure the combustion of volatiles and prevent the formation of soot. Then the char was refired into the DTF at the same temperature under two different atmospheres O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (typical combustion) and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} (oxy-combustion) with the same oxygen concentration. Coal injection was also performed under a higher oxygen concentration in atmospheres typical for both combustion and oxy-combustion. The fuels tested comprised a petroleum coke and coals currently used for PCI injection ranging from high volatile to low volatile bituminous rank. Thermogravimetric analyses and microscopy techniques were used to establish the reactivity and appearance of the chars. Overall similar burnouts were achieved with N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} for similar oxygen concentrations and therefore no loss in burnout should be expected as a result of enrichment in CO{sub 2} in the blast furnace gas. The advantage of increasing the amount of oxygen in a reacting atmosphere during burnout was found to be greater, the higher the rank of the coal. (author)

  17. Development of a mathematical model simulating the multiply connected automatic control system of a coal-fired power unit equipped with a direct-injection dust feed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.A. Shorokhov; A.P. Smol' nikov; D.A. Kurochkin; N.N. Komarova; A.S. Mar' yasov; A.R. Gudovich; S.N. Bartosh [ZAO SibKOTES, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    Matters relating to development and identification of a mathematical model for simulating a power unit and its individual systems are discussed. Results obtained from a large series of the active experiments on an operating power unit are presented.

  18. Cooling water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, ECCS system is constituted as a so-called stand-by system which is not used during usual operation and there is a significant discontinuity in relation with the usual system. It is extremely important that ECCS operates upon occurrence of accidents just as specified. In view of the above in the present invention, the stand-by system is disposed along the same line with the usual system. That is, a driving water supply pump for supplying driving water to a jet pump is driven by a driving mechanism. The driving mechanism drives continuously the driving water supply pump in a case if an expected accident such as loss of the function of the water supply pump, as well as during normal operation. That is, all of the water supply pump, jet pump, driving water supply pump and driving mechanism therefor are caused to operate also during normal operation. The operation of them are not initiated upon accident. Thus, the cooling water injection system can perform at high reliability to remarkably improve the plant safety. (K.M.)

  19. Lance for injecting highly-loaded coal slurries into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, D.

    1991-10-29

    A lance is used to inject fuel oil into a blast furnace. This simple design permits conversion of coal water and coal tar slurries to a fine mist at very low flow rates. This design prevents the build-up of deposits which increases service life and steadies the flow rate.

  20. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  1. Development of I and C system for the coal feeder of coal firing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Teak Soo; Park, Chan Ho [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    KECC(Kepco Coal Feeder Control System) receives coal weight, conveyor speed and boiler demand signals. It controls coal flow by generating speed signal of feeder which conveys coal in hopper to pulverizer, displaying measured coal quantity and providing local auto and manual manipulator (author). 33 figs.

  2. Plan for injection of coal combustion byproducts into the Omega Mine for the reduction of acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, T.A.; Moran, T.C.; Broschart, D.W.; Smith, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Omega Mine Complex is located outside of Morgantown, West Virginia. The mine is in the Upper Freeport Coal, an acid-producing coal seam. The coal was mined in a manner that has resulted in acid mine drainage (AMD) discharges at multiple points. During the 1990's, the West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) assumed responsibility for operating a collection and treatment system for the AMD. Collection and treatment costs are approximately $300,000 per year. Injecting grout into the mine workings to reduce AMD (and thus reducing treatment costs) is proposed. The procedure involves injecting grout mixes composed primarily of coal combustion byproducts (CCB's) and water, with a small quantity of cement. The intention of the injection program is to fill the mine voids in the north lobe of the Omega Mine (an area where most of the acidity is believed to be generated) with the grout, thus reducing the contact of air and water with potentially acidic material. The grout mix design consists of an approximate 1:1 ratio of fly ash to byproducts from fluidized bed combustion. Approximately 100 gallons of water per cubic yard of grout is used to achieve flowability. Observation of the mine workings via subsurface borings and downhole video camera confirmed that first-mined areas were generally open while second-mined areas were generally partially collapsed. The injection program was developed to account for this by utilizing closer injection hole spacing in second-mined areas. Construction began in January 1998, with grout injection expected to commence in mid-April 1998

  3. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  4. Three-dimensional simulation of flow and combustion for pulverised coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, B.Y.; Zulli, P.; Rogers, H.; Mathieson, J.G.; Yu, A.B. [BlueScope Steel Research, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of pulverised coal injection has been developed for simulating coal flow and combustion in the tuyere and raceway of a blast furnace. The model has been used to simulate previously reported combustion tests, which feature an inclined co-axial lance with an annular cooling gas. The predicted coal burnout agrees well with that measured for three coals with volatile contents and particle size ranging between 20.2-36.4% and particle sizes 1-200 {mu}m. Many important phenomena including flow asymmetry, recirculating flow and particle dispersion in the combustion chamber have been predicted. The current model can reproduce the experimental observations including the effects on burnout of coal flowrate and the introduction of methane for lance cooling.

  5. Control of spontaneous combustion of coal in goaf at high geotemperatureby injecting liquid carbon dioxide: inertand cooling characteristics of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenling; Wen, Hu; Yu, Zhijin; Wang, Chao; Ma, Li

    2018-02-01

    The spontaneous combustion of coal in goaf at high geo temperatures is threatening safety production in coalmine. The TG-DSC is employed to study the variation of mass and energy at 4 atmospheres (mixed gases of N2, O2 and CO2) and heating rates (10°C/min) during oxidation of coal samples. The apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor of coal oxidation decrease rapidly with increasing theCO2 concentration. Furthermore, its reaction rate is slow, its heat released reduces. Based on the conditions of 1301 face in the Longgucoalmine, a three-dimensional geometry model is developed to simulate the distributions stream field and temperature field and the variation characteristics ofCO2 concentration field after injecting liquidCO2. The results indicate that oxygen reached to depths of˜120m in goaf, 100m in the side of inlet air, and 10m in the side of outlet air before injecting liquidCO2. After injecting liquidCO2for 28.8min, the width of oxidation and heat accumulation zone is shortened by 20m, and the distance is 80m in the side of working face and 40˜60m in goafin the direction of dip affected by temperature.

  6. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  7. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shigeru; Akiba, Masato

    1991-03-01

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  8. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates

  9. Pneumatic automation systems in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmatkov, N.A.; Kiklevich, Yu.N.

    1981-04-01

    Giprougleavtomatizatsiya, Avtomatgormash, Dongiprouglemash, VNIIGD and other plants develop 30 new pneumatic systems for mine machines and equipment control each year. The plants produce about 200 types of pneumatic systems. Major pneumatic systems for face systems, machines and equipment are reviewed: Sirena system for remote control of ANShch and AShchM face systems for steep coal seams, UPS control systems for pump stations, PAUZA control system for stowing machines, remote control system of B100-200 drilling machines, PUSK control system for coal cutter loaders with pneumatic drive (A-70, Temp), PUVSh control system for ventilation barriers activated from moving electric locomotives, PAZ control system for skip hoist loading. Specifications of the systems are given. Economic benefit produced by the pneumatic control systems are evaluated (from 1,500 to 40,000 rubles/year). Using the systems increases productivity of face machines and other machines used in black coal mines by 5 to 30%.

  10. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A TANGENTIALLY COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (YORKTOWN LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes activities conducted and results achieved in an EPA-sponsored program to demonstrate Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on a tangentially fired coal-burning utility boiler, Virginia Power's 180-MWe Yorktown Unit No. 2. his successfully d...

  11. PLT neutral beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) neutral beam injection system is given and its performance characteristics are outlined. A detailed operational procedure is included, as are some tips on troubleshooting. Proper operation of the source is shown to be a crucial factor in system performance

  12. Impact of thermal processes on CO2 injectivity into a coal seam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H Y; Liu, J S; Pan, Z J; Connell, L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate how thermal gradients, caused by CO2 injection, expansion and adsorption, affect the permeability and adsorption capacity of coal during CO2 sequestration. A new permeability model is developed in which the concept of elastic modulus reduction ratio is introduced to partition the effective strain between coal matrix and fracture. This model is implemented into a fully coupled mechanical deformation, gas flow and heat transport finite element simulator. To predict the amount of CO2 sequested, the extended Langmuir sorption model is used, with parameters values taken from the literature. The coupled heat and gas flow equations, are solved in COMSOL using the finite element method. The simulation results for a constant volume reservoir demostrate that thermal strain acts to significantly reduce both CO2 injectivity and adsorption capacity. These impacts need to be considered in the calculation of the optimum injection rate and the total sequestration capacity.

  13. An injection technique for in-situ remediation of abandoned underground coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canty, G.A.; Everett, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Remediation of underground mines can prove to be a difficult task, given the physical constraints associated with introducing amendments to a subterranean environment. An acid mine abatement project involving in-situ chemical treatment method was conducted by the University of Oklahoma. The treatment method involved the injection of an alkaline coal combustion by-product (CCB) slurry into a flooded mine void (pH 4.4) to create a buffered zone. Injection of the CCB slurry was possible through the use of equipment developed by the petroleum industry for grouting recovery wells. This technology was selected because the CCB slurry could be injected under significant pressure and at a high rate. With higher pressure and rates of injection, a large quantity of slurry can be introduced into the mine within a limited amount of time. Theoretically, the high pressure and rate would improve dispersal of the slurry within the void. In addition, the high pressure is advantageous in fracturing or breaking-down obstructions to injection. During the injection process, a total of 418 tons of CCB was introduced within 15 hours. The mine did not refuse any of the material, and it is likely that a much larger mass could have been added. One injection well was drilled into a pillar of coal. Normally this would pose a problem when introducing a slurry; however, the coal pillar was easily fractured during the injection process. Currently, the pH of the mine discharge is above 6.5 and the alkalinity is approximately 100 mg/L as CACO 3

  14. Foam injection method and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, W C; Parmley, J B; Shepard, J C

    1977-05-10

    A method is described for more efficiently practicing in situ combustion techniques by generating a gas-water mist or foam adjacent to the combustion formation within the injection well. The mist or foam is forced out of the well into the formation to transport heat away from the burned region of the formation toward the periphery of the combustion region to conserve fuel. Also taught are a method and system for fluid treating a formation while maintaining enhanced conformance of the fluid injection profile by generating a mist or foam down-hole adjacent to the formation and then forcing the mist or foam out into the formation. (19 claims)

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) to Blast Furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Chenn

    2008-01-01

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process

  16. CFD modelling and analysis of pulverized coal injection in blast furnace: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yansong; Yu, Aibing [Laboratory for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems, School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Zulli, Paul [BlueScope Steel Research (BSR), P.O. Box 202, Port Kembla, NSW 2505 (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    In order to understand the complicated phenomena of pulverized coal injection (PCI) process in blast furnace (BF), several mathematical models have been developed by the UNSW and BSR cooperation. These models are featuring from coal combustion in a pilot-scale test rig, to coal combustion in a real BF, and then to coal/coke combustion in a real BF, respectively. This paper reviews these PCI models in aspects of model developments and model applicability. The model development is firstly discussed in terms of model formulation, their new features and geometry/regions considered. The model applicability is then discussed in terms of main findings followed by the model evaluation on their advantages and limitations. It is indicated that the three PCI models are all able to describe PCI operation qualitatively. The model of coal/coke combustion in a real BF is more reliable for simulating in-furnace phenomena of PCI operation qualitatively and quantitatively. Such model gives a more reliable burnout prediction over the raceway surface, which could better represent the amount of unburnt char entering the coke bed. These models are useful for understanding the flow-thermo-chemical behaviours and then optimising the PCI operation in practice. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Volatile release and particle formation characteristics of injected pulverized coal in blast furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Yang, Tsung-Han

    2007-01-01

    Volatiles release and particle formation for two kinds of pulverized coals (a high volatile bituminous coal and a low volatile bituminous coal) in a drop tube furnace are investigated to account for the reactions of pulverized coal injected in blast furnaces. Two different sizes of feed particles are considered; one is 100-200 mesh and the other is 200-325 mesh. By evaluating the R-factor, the devolatilization extent of the larger feed particles is found to be relatively poor. However, the swelling behavior of individual or two agglomerated particles is pronounced, which is conducive to gasification of the chars in blast furnaces. In contrast, for the smaller feed particles, volatiles liberated from the coal particles can be improved in a significant way as a result of the amplified R-factor. This enhancement can facilitate the performance of gas phase combustion. Nevertheless, the residual char particles are characterized by agglomeration, implying that the reaction time of the char particles will be lengthened, thereby increasing the possibility of furnace instability. Double peak distributions in char particle size are observed in some cases. This possibly results from the interaction of the plastic state and the blowing effect at the particle surface. Considering the generation of tiny aerosols composed of soot particles and tar droplets, the results indicate that their production is highly sensitive to the volatile matter and elemental oxygen contained in the coal. Comparing the reactivity of the soot to that of the unburned char, the former is always lower than the latter. Consequently, the lower is the soot formation, the better is the blast furnace stability

  18. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  19. Compartmentalized safety coolant injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    A safety coolant injection system for nuclear reactors wherein a core reflood tank is provided to afford more reliable reflooding of the reactor core in the event of a break in one of the reactor coolant supply loops. Each reactor coolant supply loop is arranged in a separate compartment in the containment structure to contain and control the flow of spilled coolant so as to permit its use during emergency core cooling procedures. A spillway allows spilled coolant in the compartment to pass into the emergency water storage tank from where it can be pumped back to the reactor vessel. (author)

  20. Toward an understanding of coal combustion in blast furnace tuyere injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Mathieson; John S. Truelove; Harold Rogers [BlueScope Steel Research, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    The former Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited, along with its successors BlueScope Steel and BHP Billiton, like many of their iron and steel making counterparts, has had a long history of investigating pulverised coal injection and combustion under the conditions of blast furnace tuyere injection. A succession of pilot scale hot models and combustion test rigs have been constructed and operated at the company's Newcastle Laboratories beginning with the pilot scale hot raceway model in 1981. Each successive generation of test rig has attempted to provide a closer approximation to the actual blast furnace situation with the current test rig (1998 to present) seeking to promote an 'expanding' combusting coal plume. Test rig configuration is demonstrated to have a significant effect on coal burnout at a nominal transit time of 20 ms. The development of the combustion test rigs has been supported through the co-development of a range of sampling and measuring techniques and the application of a number of numerical combustion models. This paper reviews some of the milestones along the path of these investigations, the current understandings and what the future potentially holds. It's not solved yet! 17 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Mercury in coal and the impact of coal quality on mercury emissions from combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolker, Allan; Senior, Constance L.; Quick, Jeffrey C.

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of Hg in coal feedstock that is emitted by stack gases of utility power stations is a complex function of coal chemistry and properties, combustion conditions, and the positioning and type of air pollution control devices employed. Mercury in bituminous coal is found primarily within Fe-sulfides, whereas lower rank coal tends to have a greater proportion of organic-bound Hg. Preparation of bituminous coal to reduce S generally reduces input Hg relative to in-ground concentrations, but the amount of this reduction varies according to the fraction of Hg in sulfides and the efficiency of sulfide removal. The mode of occurrence of Hg in coal does not directly affect the speciation of Hg in the combustion flue gas. However, other constituents in the coal, notably Cl and S, and the combustion characteristics of the coal, influence the species of Hg that are formed in the flue gas and enter air pollution control devices. The formation of gaseous oxidized Hg or particulate-bound Hg occurs post-combustion; these forms of Hg can be in part captured in the air pollution control devices that exist on coal-fired boilers, without modification. For a given coal type, the capture efficiency of Hg by pollution control systems varies according to type of device and the conditions of its deployment. For bituminous coal, on average, more than 60% of Hg in flue gas is captured by fabric filter (FF) and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Key variables affecting performance for Hg control include Cl and S content of the coal, the positioning (hot side vs. cold side) of the system, and the amount of unburned C in coal ash. Knowledge of coal quality parameters and their effect on the performance of air pollution control devices allows optimization of Hg capture co-benefit

  2. Massive injection of coal and superoxygenated blast into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toxopeus, H.L.; Danloy, G.; Franssen, R.; Havelange, O. [Corus, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present project was to demonstrate the industrial feasibility of a massive injection of coal, {+-}270 kg/tHM, combined with a high O{sub 2} enrichment of the blast. The coke rate would thus be reduced to well below 250 kg/tHM. A reference level of 200-220 kg coal/tHM was successfully accomplished. However, the technical condition of the blast furnace hearths overruled all ambitions, the anticipated trial scheme had to be abandoned and no further trials were performed. A very short trial was aborted shortly after reaching an injection level of around 265 coal/tHM, due to excessive generation of very fine sludge originating from incomplete combustion. This forced the operators to investigate the merits of combustion more in depth. At the aimed low coke-rate detailed information about the gas distribution is of utmost importance. Therefore, in conjunction with the industrial tests, CRM designed a gas tracing method. Measurement of the transfer time between the injection point (a tuyere) and the sampling points (on an above-burden probe) would allow deduction of the radial gas distribution. CRM made the design and the start-up of an installation built by Hoogovens on blast furnace 7 of IJmuiden. Since then, repeated measurements have shown that the gas transfer time profiles are consistent with the data measured at the blast furnace top and at the wall. The modifications of the moveable armour position are reflected better and faster on the gas distribution as measured by helium tracing than on the skin flow temperatures.

  3. Optimal scheduling for enhanced coal bed methane production through CO2 injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuping; Zheng, Qipeng P.; Fan, Neng; Aminian, Kashy

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel deterministic optimization model for CO 2 -ECBM production scheduling. • Maximize the total profit from both sales of natural gas and CO 2 credits trading in the carbon market. • A stochastic model incorporating uncertainties and dynamics of NG price and CO 2 credit. - Abstract: Enhanced coal bed methane production with CO 2 injection (CO 2 -ECBM) is an effective technology for accessing the natural gas embedded in the traditionally unmineable coal seams. The revenue via this production process is generated not only by the sales of coal bed methane, but also by trading CO 2 credits in the carbon market. As the technology of CO 2 -ECBM becomes mature, its commercialization opportunities are also springing up. This paper proposes applicable mathematical models for CO 2 -ECBM production and compares the impacts of their production schedules on the total profit. A novel basic deterministic model for CO 2 -ECBM production including the technical and chemical details is proposed and then a multistage stochastic programming model is formulated in order to address uncertainties of natural gas price and CO 2 credit. Both models are nonlinear programming problems, which are solved by commercial nonlinear programming software BARON via GAMS. Numerical experiments show the benefits (e.g., expected profit gain) of using stochastic models versus deterministic models

  4. Injection of alkaline ashes into underground coal mines for acid mine drainage abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljoe, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    The injection of alkaline coal combustion waste products into abandoned underground coal mines for acid mine drainage (AMD) abatement has obvious conceptual appeal. This paper summarizes the findings of the baseline hydrogeologic and water quality evaluations at two sites--one in West Virginia and one in Maryland--where field demonstrations of the technique are being pursued in cooperative efforts among State and Federal agencies and/or private companies. The West Virginia site produces severe AMD from three to seven AMD sources that are spaced over about a 1.2 km stretch of the down-dip side of the mine workings. By completely filling the most problematic portion of the mine workings with coal combustion ashes, the State expects that the costs and problems associated with AMD treatment will be greatly reduced. At the Maryland site, it is expected that the AMD from a relatively small target mine will be eliminated completely by filling the entire mine void with a grout composed of a mixture of fly ash, fluidized-bed combustion ash, and flue gas desulfurization sludge. This project will also demonstrate the potential cost-effectiveness of the technique at other sites, both for the purpose of AMD remediation and control of land subsidence

  5. Damage Effects and Fractal Characteristics of Coal Pore Structure during Liquid CO2 Injection into a Coal Bed for E-CBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pore structure has a significant influence on coal-bed methane (CBM enhancement. Injecting liquid CO2 into coal seams is an effective way to increase CBM recovery. However, there has been insufficient research regarding the damage effects and fractal characteristics of pore structure at low temperature induced by injecting liquid CO2 into coal samples. Therefore, the methods of low-pressure nitrogen adsorption-desorption (LP-N2-Ad and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP were used to investigate the damage effects and fractal characteristics of pore structure with full aperture as the specimens were frozen by liquid CO2. The adsorption isotherms revealed that the tested coal samples belonged to type B, indicating that they contained many bottle and narrow-slit shaped pores. The average pore diameter (APD; average growth rate of 18.20%, specific surface area (SSA; average growth rate of 7.38%, and total pore volume (TPV; average growth rate of 18.26% increased after the specimens were infiltrated by liquid CO2, which indicated the generation of new pores and the transformation of original pores. Fractal dimensions D1 (average of 2.58 and D2 (average of 2.90 of treated coal samples were both larger the raw coal (D1, average of 2.55 and D2, average of 2.87, which indicated that the treated specimens had more rough pore surfaces and complex internal pore structures than the raw coal samples. The seepage capacity was increased because D4 (average of 2.91 of the treated specimens was also higher than the raw specimens (D4, average of 2.86. The grey relational coefficient between the fractal dimension and pore structure parameters demonstrated that the SSA, APD, and porosity positively influenced the fractal features of the coal samples, whereas the TPV and permeability exerted negative influences.

  6. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  7. SECA Coal-Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, Joseph

    2010-09-10

    This report documents the results of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42613 between Siemens Energy and the U.S. Department of Energy for the period October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2010. The Phase I POCD8R0 stack test was successfully completed as it operated for approximately 5,300 hrs and achieved all test objectives. The stack test article contained twenty-four 75 cm active length Delta8 scandiastabilized zirconia cells. Maximum power was approximately 10 kWe and the SOFC generator demonstrated an availability factor of 85% at 50% power or greater. The Phase II POCD8R1 stack test operated for approximately 410 hrs before being aborted due to a sudden decrease in voltage accompanied by a rapid increase in temperature. The POCD8R1 test article contained forty-eight 100 cm active length Delta8 scandiastabilized zirconia cells arranged in an array of six bundles, with each bundle containing eight cells. Cell development activities resulted in an approximate 100% improvement in cell power at 900°C. Cell manufacturing process improvements led to manufacturing yields of greater than 40% for the Delta8 cells. Delta8 cells with an active length of 100 cm were successfully manufactured as were cells with a seamless closed end. A pressurized cell test article was assembled, installed into the pressurized test facility and limited pressurized testing conducted. Open circuit voltage tests were performed at one and three atmospheres at 950°C were in agreement with the theoretical increase in the Nernst potential. Failed guard heaters precluded further testing. The SOFC analytical basis for the baseline system was validated with experimental data. Two system configurations that utilize a pressurized SOFC design with separated anode and cathode streams were analyzed. System efficiencies greater than 60% were predicted when integrating the separated anode and cathode stream module configuration with a high efficiency catalytic gasifier.

  8. SECA Coal-Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Pierre

    2010-09-01

    This report documents the results of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42613 between Siemens Energy and the U.S. Department of Energy for the period October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2010. The Phase I POCD8R0 stack test was successfully completed as it operated for approximately 5,300 hrs and achieved all test objectives. The stack test article contained twenty-four 75 cm active length Delta8 scandia-stabilized zirconia cells. Maximum power was approximately 10 kWe and the SOFC generator demonstrated an availability factor of 85% at 50% power or greater. The Phase II POCD8R1 stack test operated for approximately 410 hrs before being aborted due to a sudden decrease in voltage accompanied by a rapid increase in temperature. The POCD8R1 test article contained forty-eight 100 cm active length Delta8 scandia-stabilized zirconia cells arranged in an array of six bundles, with each bundle containing eight cells. Cell development activities resulted in an approximate 100% improvement in cell power at 900°C. Cell manufacturing process improvements led to manufacturing yields of greater than 40% for the Delta8 cells. Delta8 cells with an active length of 100 cm were successfully manufactured as were cells with a seamless closed end. A pressurized cell test article was assembled, installed into the pressurized test facility and limited pressurized testing conducted. Open circuit voltage tests were performed at one and three atmospheres at 950°C were in agreement wi th the theoretical increase in the Nernst potential. Failed guard heaters precluded further testing. The SOFC analytical basis for the baseline system was validated with experimental data. Two system configurations that utilize a pressurized SOFC design with separated anode and cathode streams were analyzed. System efficiencies greater than 60% were predicted when integrating the separated anode and cathode stream module configuration with a high efficiency catalytic gasifier.

  9. TARA beamline and injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.S.; Brindza, P.; Coleman, J.W.; Torti, R.P.; Blackfield, D.T.; Goodrich, P.

    1983-01-01

    The TARA beamline for neutral beam injection will permit one to three sources to fire into each plug (60 degree or optional 90 degree injection with respect to the TARA axis) or into each anchor (90 degree injection only). The sources, pre-aimed on their mounting plate at the NB test stand, may be fired into neutralizer ducts or optionally through a magnesium curtain, and the unneutralized fraction is dumped by the TARA fringing field onto a receiver plate. The beamline is housed in a cylindrical tank with the beam axis along the tank diameter at the midplane. The tank will be sorption pumped using LN + T/sub I/ or N/sub B/ and/or e-beam gettering. The beam burial tank contains sed arrays and a thin foil dump which reaches sufficiently high temperatures during the shot to boil out gas between shots

  10. New coal-based energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1986-01-01

    Conversion of coal into liquid fuels or into coal gas is considered and the use of high temperature nuclear reactors whose waste heat can be used for remote (district) heating mentioned. The use of high temperature reactors as energy source for coal gasification is also examined and, finally, the extraction of heat from combined coal, steel and high temperature nuclear reactors is suggested. (G.M.E.)

  11. Enchancing the use of coal by gas reburning and sorben injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, R.T.; Hong, C.C.; Opatrny, J.C.; Sommer, T.M.; Folsom, B.A.; Payne, R.; Ritz, H.J.; Pratapas, J.M.; May, T.J.; Krueger, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) Process was demonstrated on a 71 MWe net tangentially fired boiler at Hennepin, Illinois, and is being demonstrated on a 33 MWe net cyclone-fired boiler at Springfield, Illinois as a Clean Coal Technology Round I demonstration project. The Hennepin demonstration was completed after more than 2,000 hours of successful operation. In long-term demonstration testing at a Ca/S molar ratio of 1.75 an 19 percent gas heat input, 53 percent SO 2 reduction and 67 percent NO x reduction were achieved without any adverse impacts on boiler performance or electrostatic precipitator performance with flue gas humidification. These achievements exceeded the project goals of 50 and 60 percent, respectively. The CO 2 reduction due to the use of 18 percent natural gas was 8 percent

  12. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  13. Injection of FGD Grout to Abate Acid Mine Drainage in Underground Coal Mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mafi, S.; Damian, M.T.; Senita, R.E.; Jewitt, W.C.; Bair, S.; Chin, Y.C.; Whitlatch, E.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1997-07-01

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from abandoned underground coal mines in Ohio is a concern for both residents and regulatory agencies. Effluent from these mines is typically characterized by low pH and high iron and sulfate concentrations and may contaminate local drinking-water supplies and streams. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of injecting cementitious alkaline materials, such as Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) material to mitigate current adverse environmental impacts associated with AMD in a small, abandoned deep mine in Coshocton County Ohio. The Flue Gas Desulfurization material will be provided from American Electric Power`s (AEP) Conesville Plant. It will be injected as a grout mix that will use Fixated Flue Gas Desulfurization material and water. The subject site for this study is located on the border of Coshocton and Muskingum Counties, Ohio, approximately 1.5 miles south-southwest of the town of Wills Creek. The study will be performed at an underground mine designated as Mm-127 in the Ohio Department of Natural Resources register, also known as the Roberts-Dawson Mine. The mine operated in the mid-1950s, during which approximately 2 million cubic feet of coal was removed. Effluent discharging from the abandoned mine entrances has low pH in the range of 2.8-3.0 that drains directly into Wills Creek Lake. The mine covers approximately 14.6 acres. It is estimated that 26,000 tons of FGD material will be provided from AEP`s Conesville Power Plant located approximately 3 miles northwest of the subject site.

  14. Injection of FGD Grout to Abate Acid Mine Drainage in Underground Coal Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafi, S.; Damian, M.T.; Senita, R.E.; Jewitt, W.C.; Bair, S.; Chin, Y.C.; Whitlatch, E.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1997-07-01

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from abandoned underground coal mines in Ohio is a concern for both residents and regulatory agencies. Effluent from these mines is typically characterized by low pH and high iron and sulfate concentrations and may contaminate local drinking-water supplies and streams. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of injecting cementitious alkaline materials, such as Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) material to mitigate current adverse environmental impacts associated with AMD in a small, abandoned deep mine in Coshocton County Ohio. The Flue Gas Desulfurization material will be provided from American Electric Power's (AEP) Conesville Plant. It will be injected as a grout mix that will use Fixated Flue Gas Desulfurization material and water. The subject site for this study is located on the border of Coshocton and Muskingum Counties, Ohio, approximately 1.5 miles south-southwest of the town of Wills Creek. The study will be performed at an underground mine designated as Mm-127 in the Ohio Department of Natural Resources register, also known as the Roberts-Dawson Mine. The mine operated in the mid-1950s, during which approximately 2 million cubic feet of coal was removed. Effluent discharging from the abandoned mine entrances has low pH in the range of 2.8-3.0 that drains directly into Wills Creek Lake. The mine covers approximately 14.6 acres. It is estimated that 26,000 tons of FGD material will be provided from AEP's Conesville Power Plant located approximately 3 miles northwest of the subject site

  15. Development and start up of a co-injection system of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace no. 4; Desarrollo y puesta en operacion de un sistema de co-inyeccion de alquitran/gas natural en el alto horno no. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon Rodriguez, Manuel I; Mata Esparza, Hector Rolando; Arevalo Ballesteros, Gerardo [Altos Hornos de Mexico S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The crisis has attracted the world`s attention on the need for energy conservation and the development in a greater extent the utilization of carbon base fuels and other energy sources (nuclear energy). Being a blast furnace, not only an energy consumer but also an energy producer, the greatest contribution to the pig iron cost is the energy needed to melt and reduce to metallic state the iron ores, this energy is mainly derived from coke. The dependence on coal via the coking plant to produce first fusion iron is incremented day after day as a result of the high levels of production. Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA), contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of pig iron is pending. The injection of fuels into a blast furnace through its nozzles is a technology used for the diminishing the coke consumption of coke, its use implies a change in the philosophy of the blast furnace operation, and is currently employed in most of the blast furnaces of the world. AHMSA taking advantage of coal tar production (approx. 130 tons/day) in its coking plants decided the design and put into operation a co-injection system of coal tar and natural gas. The activities tending to carry out this project were initiated on April 1993, performing all of them with its own resources, completing them on July 18, 1993, day on which the injection of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace No. 4 in a stable form. To date (October 1993), the coal tar injection has been increased up to 36 kg/ton of pig iron. During the injection periods, the presence of operational, mechanical and instrumentation problems have not been an obstacle for the evolution on the injection, fulfilling its function of substituting coke in a replacing relationship of 1:1, i.e. 1 kg of coal tar per each kg of coke, without affecting the product quality

  16. Development and start up of a co-injection system of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace no. 4; Desarrollo y puesta en operacion de un sistema de co-inyeccion de alquitran/gas natural en el alto horno no. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon Rodriguez, Manuel I.; Mata Esparza, Hector Rolando; Arevalo Ballesteros, Gerardo [Altos Hornos de Mexico S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The crisis has attracted the world`s attention on the need for energy conservation and the development in a greater extent the utilization of carbon base fuels and other energy sources (nuclear energy). Being a blast furnace, not only an energy consumer but also an energy producer, the greatest contribution to the pig iron cost is the energy needed to melt and reduce to metallic state the iron ores, this energy is mainly derived from coke. The dependence on coal via the coking plant to produce first fusion iron is incremented day after day as a result of the high levels of production. Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA), contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of pig iron is pending. The injection of fuels into a blast furnace through its nozzles is a technology used for the diminishing the coke consumption of coke, its use implies a change in the philosophy of the blast furnace operation, and is currently employed in most of the blast furnaces of the world. AHMSA taking advantage of coal tar production (approx. 130 tons/day) in its coking plants decided the design and put into operation a co-injection system of coal tar and natural gas. The activities tending to carry out this project were initiated on April 1993, performing all of them with its own resources, completing them on July 18, 1993, day on which the injection of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace No. 4 in a stable form. To date (October 1993), the coal tar injection has been increased up to 36 kg/ton of pig iron. During the injection periods, the presence of operational, mechanical and instrumentation problems have not been an obstacle for the evolution on the injection, fulfilling its function of substituting coke in a replacing relationship of 1:1, i.e. 1 kg of coal tar per each kg of coke, without affecting the product quality

  17. Seca Coal-Based Systems Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alinger, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress made during the August 1, 2006 - May 31, 2008 award period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42614 for the U. S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled 'SECA Coal Based Systems'. The initial overall objective of this program was to design, develop, and demonstrate multi-MW integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power plants with >50% overall efficiency from coal (HHV) to AC power. The focus of the program was to develop low-cost, high performance, modular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology to support coal gas IGFC power systems. After a detailed GE internal review of the SOFC technology, the program was de-scoped at GE's request. The primary objective of this program was then focused on developing a performance degradation mitigation path for high performing, cost-effective solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). There were two initial major objectives in this program. These were: (1) Develop and optimize a design of a >100 MWe integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power plant; (2) Resolve identified barrier issues concerning the long-term economic performance of SOFC. The program focused on designing and cost estimating the IGFC system and resolving technical and economic barrier issues relating to SOFC. In doing so, manufacturing options for SOFC cells were evaluated, options for constructing stacks based upon various cell configurations identified, and key performance characteristics were identified. Key factors affecting SOFC performance degradation for cells in contact with metallic interconnects were be studied and a fundamental understanding of associated mechanisms was developed using a fixed materials set. Experiments and modeling were carried out to identify key processes/steps affecting cell performance degradation under SOFC operating conditions. Interfacial microstructural and elemental changes were characterized, and their relationships to observed degradation

  18. Seca Coal-Based Systems Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Alinger

    2008-05-31

    This report summarizes the progress made during the August 1, 2006 - May 31, 2008 award period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42614 for the U. S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled 'SECA Coal Based Systems'. The initial overall objective of this program was to design, develop, and demonstrate multi-MW integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power plants with >50% overall efficiency from coal (HHV) to AC power. The focus of the program was to develop low-cost, high performance, modular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology to support coal gas IGFC power systems. After a detailed GE internal review of the SOFC technology, the program was de-scoped at GE's request. The primary objective of this program was then focused on developing a performance degradation mitigation path for high performing, cost-effective solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). There were two initial major objectives in this program. These were: (1) Develop and optimize a design of a >100 MWe integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power plant; (2) Resolve identified barrier issues concerning the long-term economic performance of SOFC. The program focused on designing and cost estimating the IGFC system and resolving technical and economic barrier issues relating to SOFC. In doing so, manufacturing options for SOFC cells were evaluated, options for constructing stacks based upon various cell configurations identified, and key performance characteristics were identified. Key factors affecting SOFC performance degradation for cells in contact with metallic interconnects were be studied and a fundamental understanding of associated mechanisms was developed using a fixed materials set. Experiments and modeling were carried out to identify key processes/steps affecting cell performance degradation under SOFC operating conditions. Interfacial microstructural and elemental changes were characterized, and their relationships to observed

  19. Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Tao

    2011-12-31

    The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon an Electrochemical Looping (ECL) of Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC). The objective of Phase 1 was to experimentally characterize the interaction between the tin anode, coal fuel and cell component electrolyte, the fate of coal contaminants in a molten tin reactor (via chemistry) and their impact upon the YSZ electrolyte (via electrochemistry). The results of this work will provided the basis for further study in Phase 2. The objective of Phase 2 was to extend the study of coal impurities impact on fuel cell components other than electrolyte, more specifically to the anode current collector which is made of an electrically conducting ceramic jacket and broad based coal tin reduction. This work provided a basic proof-of-concept feasibility demonstration of the direct coal concept.

  20. Method of cutting steeply falling coal beds. [Bacteria, which only grow on methane, are injected into the coal bed and form low viscosity polysaccharides: as a result the coal collapses into the haulage gallery and is hauled away

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gretsinger, B Ye; Chernyshenko, D V; Levin, A D; Malashenko, Yu R; Shinkovskiy, V A; Shurova, Z P; Volkov, V I

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to reduce outlays for collapse and output of coal by creating artificial cavities of sliding along the coal bed in the surrounding rocks. This goal is achieved because in the well drilled in the bed for the entire height of the level, a suspension of cells of methane-oxidizing microorganisms is injected. The methane-oxidizing microorganisms used are, for example, the thermophilic culture Methylococcus thermophilus of strains ShP which grow at 45-65/sup 0/ C, or the mesophilic culture Methanomonas rubna of strains 15 Sh growing at 20-37/sup 0/ C. As a result of the vital activity of these cultures, polysaccharides are formed with viscosity of 5-7 and 3-4 St respectively. The mine pressure disrupts the blocks between the wells, and the outline section of the steeply dropping coal bed, being destroyed, slides on the products of vital activity of the microorganisms to the haulage gallery. Then the coal drops on cross cuts to the field gallery through which it is transported. Studies established that the only coal substrate which is suitable for growth of these microorganism cultures is methane. The synthesis of one g of absolutely dry substance of these microorganism requires 1.78 g of methane and 4.7 g of oxygen. The cultures are resistant to hydrostatic pressure from 20 to 150 atm and short-term pressure of gradient drops which occur during injection of the cellular suspension into the coal bed. They are filtered through the coal with preservation of the oxidizing and reproductive properties and are cultivated on the methane contained in the bed and form considerable number of exopolysaccarides. The polysaccarides weaken the bond between the bed and the surrounding rocks and serve as a unique lubricant promoting the sliding towards the haulage gallery of the coal blocks destroyed by mine pressure.

  1. Automated cost modeling for coal combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on cost information developed at AMAX R and D Center for coal-water slurry production implemented in an automated spreadsheet (Lotus 123) for personal computer use. The spreadsheet format allows the user toe valuate impacts of various process options, coal feedstock characteristics, fuel characteristics, plant location sites, and plant sizes on fuel cost. Model flexibility reduces time and labor required to determine fuel costs and provides a basis to compare fuels manufactured by different processes. The model input includes coal characteristics, plant flowsheet definition, plant size, and market location. Based on these inputs, selected unit operations are chosen for coal processing

  2. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal Preparation...

  3. Performance of the ALS injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.H.

    1993-05-01

    The authors started commissioning the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring on January 11, 1993. The stored beam reached 60 mA on March 24, 1993 and 407 mA on April 9, 1993. The fast pace of storage ring commissioning can be attributed partially to the robust injection system. In this paper they describe the operating characteristics of the ALS injection system

  4. Dimethyl Ether in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, M.; Abata, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates......A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates...

  5. Dual fuel injection piggyback controller system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji, Siti Zarina Mohd.; Hassanal, Muhammad Amirul Hafeez; Lee, Chua King; Fawzi, Mas; Zulkifli, Fathul Hakim

    2017-09-01

    Dual-fuel injection is an effort to reduce the dependency on diesel and gasoline fuel. Generally, there are two approaches to implement the dual-fuel injection in car system. The first approach is changing the whole injector of the car engine, the consequence is excessive high cost. Alternatively, it also can be achieved by manipulating the system's control signal especially the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) signal. Hence, the study focuses to develop a dual injection timing controller system that likely adopted to control injection time and quantity of compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel fuel. In this system, Raspberry Pi 3 reacts as main controller unit to receive ECU signal, analyze it and then manipulate its duty cycle to be fed into the Electronic Driver Unit (EDU). The manipulation has changed the duty cycle to two pulses instead of single pulse. A particular pulse mainly used to control injection of diesel fuel and another pulse controls injection of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The test indicated promising results that the system can be implemented in the car as piggyback system. This article, which was originally published online on 14 September 2017, contained an error in the acknowledgment section. The corrected acknowledgment appears in the Corrigendum attached to the pdf.

  6. An automatic injection system for rapid radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmia, M.J.; Kreek, S.A.; Kadkhodayan, B.; Gregorich, K.E.; Lee, D.M.; Hoffman, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    A description is given of the Automated Injection System (AIS), a pneumatically actuated device for automated collection of nuclear reaction products from a He/KCl gas jet transport system. The AIS is used with the Automated Chemical Chromatographic Element Separation System; together these two devices facilitate completely automated separation procedures with improved speed and reproducibility

  7. TFTR neutral beam injection system conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Three subsystems are described in the following chapters: (1) Neutral Beam Injection Line; (2) Power Supplies; and (3) Controls. Each chapter contains two sections: (1) Functions and Design Requirements; this is a brief listing of the requirements of components of the subsystem. (2) Design Description; this section describes the design and cost estimates. The overall performance requirements of the neutral beam injection system are summarized. (MOW)

  8. Dry sorbent injection of trona to control acid gases from a pilot-scale coal-fired combustion facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. B. Yelverton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Gaseous and particulate emissions from the combustion of coal have been associated with adverse effects on human and environmental health, and have for that reason been subject to regulation by federal and state governments. Recent regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency have further restricted the emissions of acid gases from electricity generating facilities and other industrial facilities, and upcoming deadlines are forcing industry to consider both pre- and post-combustion controls to maintain compliance. As a result of these recent regulations, dry sorbent injection of trona to remove acid gas emissions (e.g. HCl, SO2, and NOx from coal combustion, specifically 90% removal of HCl, was the focus of the current investigation. Along with the measurement of HCl, SO2, and NOx, measurements of particulate matter (PM, elemental (EC, and organic carbon (OC were also accomplished on a pilot-scale coal-fired combustion facility. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a coal-fired combustor burning bituminous coal and using dry sorbent injection were the focus of the current study. From this investigation it was shown that high levels of trona were needed to achieve the goal of 90% HCl removal, but with this increased level of trona injection the ESP and BH were still able to achieve greater than 95% fine PM control. In addition to emissions reported, measurement of acid gases by standard EPA methods were compared to those of an infrared multi-component gas analyzer. This comparison revealed good correlation for emissions of HCl and SO2, but poor correlation in the measurement of NOx emissions.

  9. SECA Coal-Based Systems – LGFCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettler, Richard [LG Fuel Cell Systems Incorporated, North Canton, OH (United States)

    2016-03-31

    LGFCS is developing an integrated planar (IP) SOFC technology for mega-watt scale distributed power generation including the potential for use in highly efficient, economically competitive central generation power plant facilities fuel by coal synthesis gas. The overall goal of this project is to demonstrate, through analysis and testing, progress towards adequate stack life and stability in a low-cost solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack design. The emphasis of the proposed work has been the further understanding of the degradation mechanisms present within the LGFCS SOFC stack and development of the active layers to mitigate such mechanisms for achievement of a lower rate of power degradation. Performance enhancement has been achieved to support cost reduction. Testing is performed at a range of scales from single cells to ~350 kW bundles and ultimately pressurized 15kW blocks in test rigs that are representative of the product system cycle. The block is the representative fuel cell module that forms the building block for the LGFCS SOFC power system.

  10. Risk management of energy efficiency projects in the industry - sample plant for injecting pulverized coal into the blast furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Filip P.; Berić Ivana M.; Jovanović Petar M.; Jovanović Aca D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the applicability of well-known risk management methodologies in energy efficiency projects in the industry. The possibilities of application of the selected risk management methodology are demonstrated within the project of the plants for injecting pulverized coal into blast furnaces nos. 1 and 2, implemented by the company US STEEL SERBIA d.o.o. in Smederevo. The aim of the project was to increase energy efficiency through the reductio...

  11. A study of the solid and gaseous products generated by a dc plasma torch under coal and steam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuthe, T.G.; Chang, J.S.; Irons, G.A.; Lu, W.K.; Berezin, A.A.; Chu, E.Y.

    1988-01-01

    In this work, the solid and gaseous products generated by a DC plasma torch under simultaneous coal powder and supersaturated steam injection are examined. A range of steam (0.75[g/min]) and coal powder (0-10[g/min]) were injected into the hot argon plasma and the product gases were analyzed by gas chromatographic techniques, an optical multichannel analyzer and infrared CO and CO/sub 2/ analyzers. The solid product generated by the present process was analyzed using neutron activation analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that the most common product constituents consisted of simple compounds such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Detailed analysis using infra-red analyzers and gas chromatographic techniques showed that the product gas contained significant amounts of H/sub 2/(--2[%], CO(0.5-4.5[%]) and CO/sub 2/(0.5-1.0[%]) gases, where approximately 80 (%) was still argon gas. Evidence was found of slight amounts of OH, but no significant amount of CH/sub 2/ compounds were detected. The energy yields of the CO/sub 2/ and CO production rates were in the range of 4-10 and 5-25 [g/kWhr] respectively. The produced gas CO:CO/sub 2/ concentration ratio was approximately in the order of 10. Neutron activation analysis shows that the solid product generated in the present process is significantly different from the ash produced by a conventional coal fired furnace. The overall concentrations of trace oxides are significantly lower in the solid product than in conventional ash, tending to support the hypothesis that the solid product is a coke rather than an ash. The conditions in the plasma torch also seem to favour the removal of Ca, S and Si oxides from the coal. Downstream temperature analysis indicates the product gas can be heated from 600 to 1500(K) depending on the torch operating conditions and injectant flowrates

  12. Highly-productive mechanization systems for coal mining in the Polish coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1985-01-01

    Effects of mechanization on underground coal mining in Poland from 1960 to 1980 and mining equipment used in Poland is reviewed. In 1983 black coal output increased to 191.1 Mt. There were 765 working faces, 442 of which with powered supports. Six hundred thirty-four shearer loaders were in use. About 82.7% of coal output fell on faces mined by sets of mining equipment (shearer loaders, powered supports and chain conveyors). The average coal output per working face amounted to 889 t/d. About 50% of mine roadways was driven by heading machines (346 heading machines were in use). The average coal output per face mined by a set of mining equipment amounted to 1248 t/d. About 86% of shearer loaders fell on double drum shearer loaders. Types of mining equipment used in underground mining are reviewed: powered supports (Pioma, Fazos, Glinik and the SOW), shearer loaders (drum shearer loaders and double-drum shearer loaders with chain haulage and chainless haulage systems for unidirectional and bi-directional mining), chain conveyors (Samson, Rybnik). Statistical data on working faces with various sets of equipment are given. 3 references.

  13. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF THE NSLS-II INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHAFTAN,T.; ROSE, T.; PINAYEV, I.; HEESE, R.; BENGTSSON, J.; SKARITKA, J.; MENG, W.; OZAKI, S.; MEIER, R.; STELMACH, C.; LITVINENKO, V.; PJEROV, S.; SHARMA, S.; GANETIS, G.; HSEUH, H.C.; JOHNSON, E.D.; TSOUPAS, N.; GUO, W.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; LUCCIO, A.U.; YU, L.H.; RAPARIA, D.; WANG, D.

    2007-06-25

    We present the conceptual design of the NSLS-II injection system [1,2]. The injection system consists of a low-energy linac, booster and transport lines. We review two different injection system configurations; a booster located in the storage ring tunnel and a booster housed in a separate building. We briefly discuss main parameters and layout of the injection system components.

  14. Immunological Risk of Injectable Drug Delivery Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiskoot, W.; van Schie, R.M.F.; Carstens, M.G.; Schellekens, H.

    2009-01-01

    Injectable drug delivery systems (DDS) such as particulate carriers and water-soluble polymers are being used and developed for a wide variety of therapeutic applications. However, a number of immunological risks with serious clinical implications are associated with administration of DDS. These

  15. Diagnosing the PEP-II Injection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.H.; Iverson, R.H.; Kulikov, A.; Pappas, G.C.; Weaver, M.; /SLAC

    2005-05-09

    The injection of beam into the PEP-II B-Factory, especially into the High Energy Ring (HER) has some challenges. A high background level in the BaBar detector has for a while inhibited us from trickling charge into the HER similar to the Low Energy Ring (LER). Analyzing the injection system has revealed many issues which could be improved. The injection bump between two kickers was not closed, mainly because the phase advance wasn't exactly 180{sup o} and the two kicker strengths were not balanced. Additionally we found reflections which kick the stored beam after the main kick and cause the average luminosity to drop about 3% for a 10 Hz injection rate. The strength of the overall kick is nearly twice as high as the design, indicating a much bigger effective septum thickness. Compared with single beam the background is worse when the HER beam is colliding with the LER beam. This hints that the beam-beam force and the observed vertical blow-up in the HER pushes the beam and especially the injected beam further out to the edge of the dynamic aperture or beyond.

  16. Diagnosing the PEP-II Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.H.; Iverson, R.H.; Kulikov, A.; Pappas, G.C.; Weaver, M.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    The injection of beam into the PEP-II B-Factory, especially into the High Energy Ring (HER) has some challenges. A high background level in the BaBar detector has for a while inhibited us from trickling charge into the HER similar to the Low Energy Ring (LER). Analyzing the injection system has revealed many issues which could be improved. The injection bump between two kickers was not closed, mainly because the phase advance wasn't exactly 180 o and the two kicker strengths were not balanced. Additionally we found reflections which kick the stored beam after the main kick and cause the average luminosity to drop about 3% for a 10 Hz injection rate. The strength of the overall kick is nearly twice as high as the design, indicating a much bigger effective septum thickness. Compared with single beam the background is worse when the HER beam is colliding with the LER beam. This hints that the beam-beam force and the observed vertical blow-up in the HER pushes the beam and especially the injected beam further out to the edge of the dynamic aperture or beyond

  17. An injection system for a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.C.R.

    1978-03-01

    An injection system for the Linear Accelerator is developed using the parameters of machines at the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and the Instituto Militar de Engenharia. The proposed system consists basically of a prebuncher and a chopper. The pre-buncher is used to improve the energy resolution and also to increase the accelerator target current. The chopper is used to remove from the beam the electrons that have no possibility of attaining the desired energy and that are usually lost in the walls and the cavity tube, thus producing undesirable background. Theoretical development of the chopper is performed in order to obtain its dimensions for future construction. The complete design the pre-buncher and its feed supply system and the experimental verication of its performance are also presented. It is intended to give the necessary information for the design and construction of the complete injection system proposed. (Author) [pt

  18. The Advanced Photon Source injection timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Laird, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source consists of five accelerators. The injection timing system provides the signals required to cause a bunch emitted from the electron gun to navigate through intermediate accelerators to a specific bucket (1 out of 1296) within the storage ring. Two linacs and a positron accumulator ring operate at 60Hz while a booster synchrotron ramps and injects into the storage ring at 2Hz. The distributed, modular VME/VXI-based injection timing system is controlled by two EPICS-based input/output controllers (IOCs). Over 40 VME/VXI cards have been developed to implement the system. Card types range from 352MHz VXI timing modules to VME-based fiber optic fanouts and logic translators/drivers. All timing is distributed with fiber optics. Timing references are derived directly from machine low-level rf of 9.77MHz and 352MHz. The timing references provide triggers to programmable delay generators. Three grades of timing are provided. Precision timing is derived from commercial digital delay generators, intermediate precision timing is obtained from VXI 8-channel digital delay generators which provide timing with 25ns peak-to-peak jitter, and modest precision timing is provided by the APS event system. The timing system is fully integrated into the APS EPICS-based control system

  19. Palynology in coal systems analysis-The key to floras, climate, and stratigraphy of coal-forming environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Palynology can be effectively used in coal systems analysis to understand the nature of ancient coal-forming peat mires. Pollen and spores preserved in coal effectively reveal the floristic composition of mires, which differed substantially through geologic time, and contribute to determination of depositional environment and paleo- climate. Such applications are most effective when integrated with paleobotanical and coal-petrographic data. Examples of previous studies of Miocene, Carboniferous, and Paleogene coal beds illustrate the methods and results. Palynological age determinations and correlations of deposits are also important in coal systems analysis to establish stratigraphic setting. Application to studies of coalbed methane generation shows potential because certain kinds of pollen are associated with gas-prone lithotypes. ??2005 Geological Society of America.

  20. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system. [environment effects, miner health and safety, production cost, and coal conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Underground mining systems suitable for coal seams expoitable in the year 2000 are examined with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. Requirements for such systems may be summarized as follows: (1) production cost; (2)miner safety; (3) miner health; (4) environmental impact; and (5) coal conservation. No significant trade offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  1. Applying Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach to Evaluate and Classify the Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential in Eastern Alborz Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Saffari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Subject analysis of the potential of spontaneous combustion in coal layers with analytical and numerical methods has been always considered as a difficult task because of the complexity of the coal behavior and the number of factors influencing it. Empirical methods, due to accounting for certain and specific factors, have not accuracy and efficiency for all positions. The Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach as a systematic method for analyzing and classifying is proposed in engineering projects. The present study is concerned with employing the RES approach to categorize coal spontaneous combustion in coal regions. Using this approach, the interaction of parameters affecting each other in an equal scale on the coal spontaneous combustion was evaluated. The Intrinsic, geological and mining characteristics of coal seams were studied in order to identifying important parameters. Then, the main stages of implementation of the RES method i.e. interaction matrix formation, coding matrix and forming a list category were performed. Later, an index of Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential (CSCPi was determined to format the mathematical equation. Then, the obtained data related to the intrinsic, geological and mining, and special index were calculated for each layer in the case study (Pashkalat coal region, Iran. So, the study offers a perfect and comprehensive classification of the layers. Finally, by using the event of spontaneous combustion occurred in Pashkalat coal region, an initial validation for this systematic approach in the study area was conducted, which suggested relatively good concordance in Pashkalat coal region.

  2. The PEP II injection kicker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, G.C.; Donaldson, A.R.; Williams, D.

    1997-07-01

    PEP II or the B Factory consists of two asymmetric storage rings. The injection energy for electrons is 9 GeV, while that for positrons is 3.1 GeV. The bend angle into the high energy ring (HER) is 0.35 m-rad, and the angle into the low energy ring (LER) is 0.575 m-rad. The magnetic length for the HER kicker is 0.85 m, and 0.55 m for the LER kicker. The field produced by the magnet is therefore 123.5 G for the HER, and 132 G for the LER. Each ring has a kicker magnet upstream of the injection line which is used to distort the orbit of the stored beam. An identical magnet downstream of the injection line is used to restore the orbit of the stored beam and inject the incoming beam. The two magnets are driven in parallel by the modulator. The apeture of the magnets is 3.86x3.46 cm (HxV). Therefore the current required to drive the HER is 863 A, while for the LER it is 756 A. The inductance of the magnet is approximately 1.4 uH/m. The current pulse is a critically damped sinusoid with a rise time of less than 300 ns. A kicker system has been designed which can be used for injection of both beams by varying the charge of voltage. The modulator uses a conjugate circuit to match the impedance of the magnet, and coupling to the beam chamber

  3. Model documentation Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    This report documents objectives and conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1996 (AEO96). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s three submodules: Coal Production Submodule, Coal Export Submodule, and Coal Distribution Submodule.

  4. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  5. A Study of Spill Control Characteristics of JP-8 and Conventional Diesel Fuel with a Common Rail Direct Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seomoon Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of energy sources is a key task for decreasing environmental impacts and global emission of gases. JP-8, a fuel derived from natural gas, coal, biomass, and waste plastics, is a bright prospect. JP-8 is considered a multi-source multi-purpose fuel, with several applications. A preliminary characterization of the JP-8 injection rate and injection quantity behavior was investigated based on the high-pressure common rail injection system used in a heavy-duty engine. According to the spill injection and injection pressure, a trade-off trend between injection rate and injection quantity was observed. As expected, pilot injection of JP-8 aviation fuel and diesel fuel affects the spray quantity and injection evolution of the subsequent operation without pilot injection. The difference in spilling between diesel and JP-8 aviation fuel is greater than the difference in injection amount per time; in the process of controlling the injector solenoid through ECU (Electric Control Units, the oil pressure valve and the needle valve operate to a higher extent in order to maintain the diesel fuel’s injection quantity volume. It was found that the total injection quantity was decreased by adding 20% pilot injection duration. Because the pilot injection quantity causes solenoid response, loss and needle lift stroke friction loss.

  6. SECA Coal-Based Systems - LGFCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettler, Richard

    2013-08-01

    LGFCS is developing an integrated planar (IP) SOFC technology for mega-watt scale power generation including the potential for use in highly efficient, economically competitive central generation power plant facilities fuel by coal synthesis gas. This Department of Energy Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is aimed at achieving further cell and stack technical advancements and assessing the readiness of the LGFCS SOFC stack technology to be scaled to larger-scale demonstrations in subsequent phases. LGFCS is currently in Phase 2 of the program with the Phase 1 test carrying over for completion during Phase 2. Major technical results covering the initial Phase 2 budget period include: Metric Stack Testing: 1. The Phase I metric test is a ~7.6 kW block test (2 strips) in Canton that started in March 2012 and logged 2135 hours of testing prior to an event that required the test to be shutdown. The degradation rate through 2135 hours was 0.4%/1000 hours, well below the Phase I target of 2%/1000 hours and the Phase 2 target of 1.5%/1000 hours. 2. The initial Phase II metric test consisting of 5 strips (~19 kW) was started in May 2012. At the start of the test OCV was low and stack temperatures were out of range. Shutdown and inspection revealed localized structural damage to the strips. The strips were repaired and the test restarted October 11, 2012. 3. Root cause analysis of the Phase 1 and initial Phase 2 start-up failures concluded a localized short circuit across adjacent tubes/bundles caused localized heating and thermal stress fracture of substrates. Pre-reduction of strips rather than in-situ reduction within block test rigs now provides a critical quality check prior to block testing. The strip interconnect design has been modified to avoid short circuits. Stack Design: 1. Dense ceramic strip components were redesigned to achieve common components and a uniform design for all 12 bundles of a strip while meeting a flow uniformity of greater

  7. Coal combustion by-product quality at two stoker boilers: Coal source vs. fly ash collection system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardon, Sarah M. [Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection, Division of Water, Frankfort, KY 40601 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Department of Physical Sciences, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Marks, Maria N. [Environmental Consulting Services, Lexington, KY 40508 (United States); Hedges, Daniel H. [University of Kentucky, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Fly ashes from two stoker boilers burning Pennsylvanian Eastern Kentucky high volatile A bituminous coal blends were examined for their petrology and chemistry. The source coals have similar trace element contents. One of the ash collection systems was retrofitted with a baghouse (fabric filter) system, collecting a finer fly ash at a cooler flue gas temperature than the plant that has not been reconfigured. The baghouse ash has a markedly higher trace element content than the coarser fly ash from the other plant. The enhanced trace element content is most notable in the As concentration, reaching nearly 9000 ppm (ash basis) for one of the collection units. Differences in the ash chemistry are not due to any substantial differences in the coal source, even though the coal sources were from different counties and from different coal beds, but rather to the improved pollution control system in the steam plant with the higher trace element contents. (author)

  8. Energy and exergy analysis of alternating injection of oxygen and steam in the low emission underground gasification of deep thin coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Ali Akbar; Wolf, Karl Heinz; Rogut, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that by coupling the underground coal gasification (UCG) with the carbon capture and storage (CCS), the coal energy can be economically extracted with a low carbon footprint. To investigate the effect of UCG and CCS process parameters on the feasibility of the UCG-CCS pr....... Additionally, we show that the zero-emission conversion of unmineable deep thin coal resources in a coupled UCG-CCS process, that is not practical with the current state of technology, can be realized by increasing the energy efficiency of the carbon dioxide capture process.......-CCS process, we utilize a validated mathematical model, previously published by the same authors, that can predict the composition of the UCG product, temperature profile, and coal conversion rate for alternating injection of air and steam for unmineable deep thin coal layers. We use the results of the model...

  9. Development of pellet injection systems for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing innovative pellet injection systems for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic fusion confinement devices for about 20 years. Recently, the ORNL development has focused on meeting the complex fueling needs of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In this paper, we describe the ongoing research and development activities that will lead to a ITER prototype pellet injector test stand. The present effort addresses three main areas: (1) an improved pellet feed and delivery system for centrifuge injectors, (2) a long-pulse (up to steady-state) hydrogen extruder system, and (3) tritium extruder technology. The final prototype system must be fully tritium compatible and will be used to demonstrate the operating parameters and the reliability required for the ITER fueling application

  10. Carbon formation and metal dusting in hot-gas cleanup systems of coal gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Wright, I.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1995-11-01

    The product gas resulting from the partial oxidation of Carboniferous materials in a gasifier is typically characterized by high carbon and sulfur, but low oxygen, activities and, consequently, severe degradation of the structural and functional materials can occur. The objective of this task was to establish the potential risks of carbon deposition and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes by examining the current state of knowledge regarding these phenomena, making appropriate thermochemical calculations for representative coal gasifiers, and addressing possible mitigation methods. The paper discusses carbon activities, iron-based phase stabilities, steam injection, conditions that influence kinetics of carbon deposition, and influence of system operating parameters on carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  11. SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR-ASSISTED SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM COAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien

    2008-01-01

    A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via high-temperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. Results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 66.1% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency

  12. System Analysis of Nuclear-Assisted Syngas Production from Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, E.A.; McKellar, M.G.; O'Brien, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via high temperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. Results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 64.4% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

  13. Injection system of the minicyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yonghao; Li Deming; Chen Maobai; Lu Xiangshun

    1999-01-01

    The existing injection system of the SMCAMS (super-sensitive mini-cyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer) is described together with the discussion of its disadvantages exposed after having been operating for five years, which provides a basis for consideration of improvements to the injection system. An optimized injection system with an analytical magnet added prior to the minicyclotron has been proposed and calculated

  14. Creating a Chinese-style coal-industry economic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Y

    1985-04-25

    Efforts to keep China's coal industry financially healthy and to continue increasing production also created problems in terms of output, transport, environmental damage, accidents, and labor pressures. In addition to the historical and economic reasons for these pressures, inadequate leadership and policy errors made things worse. An analysis suggests three problems: (1) an inequitable division of duties between government and business, (2) a neglected marketplace, and (3) the dominance of egalitarianism. The report relates these problems to the production of coal and a package of reforms which restructured the economic system of the industry to give it more autonomy and economic responsibility. The reforms emphasize rational pricing and use of coal as well as management of the industry.

  15. Potential for visible plume formation at a coal-fired boiler using ammonia injection for non-catalytic NOx control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, T.

    1993-01-01

    Circulating fluidized bed boilers utilizing ammonia injection for non-catalytic NO x reduction have been highly successful in reducing NO x emissions to very low levels. However, one limitation on this technology is the potential for the formation of visible plumes. One plant, with uncontrolled NO x of about 190 ppm, reduces NO x concentrations to the 20-25 ppm range by injecting ammonia in the boiler's cyclones. However, infrequent, short-lived, white, detached plumes have been noted extending for short distances downwind of the stack. Because unreacted ammonia is present in the flue gas along with HCl from coal combustion, the formation of solid NH 4 Cl in the atmosphere was suspected to be the most likely cause of the visible plume. Simple thermodynamic calculations predict the formation of solid ammonium chloride very soon after the flue gas mixes with cooler ambient air and plume optical density calculations are in reasonable agreement with observed plume density. Stack testing and other tests have been conducted during both plume and non-plume events to confirm that NH 4 Cl formation is the most likely cause of the capacity. As presented in this paper, the test data and theoretical calculations indicate that a visible plume may be expected when as little as 5 ppm of ammonia and HCl are present in the flue gas, depending on observation conditions. Analyses of fuel samples taken during stack tests show about 40% of the chlorine in the low chloride coal fired, typically less than 0.04%, is released from the stack as HCl. Ammonia slip is somewhat variable depending on combustion conditions in the boiler and the temperature at the ammonia injection points

  16. Injectable hydrogels for central nervous system therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakulska, Malgosia M; Shoichet, Molly S; Ballios, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    Diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) including those in the brain, spinal cord and retina are devastating because the CNS has limited intrinsic regenerative capacity and currently available therapies are unable to provide significant functional recovery. Several promising therapies have been identified with the goal of restoring at least some of this lost function and include neuroprotective agents to stop or slow cellular degeneration, neurotrophic factors to stimulate cellular growth, neutralizing molecules to overcome the inhibitory environment at the site of injury, and stem cell transplant strategies to replace lost tissue. The delivery of these therapies to the CNS is a challenge because the blood–brain barrier limits the diffusion of molecules into the brain by traditional oral or intravenous routes. Injectable hydrogels have the capacity to overcome the challenges associated with drug delivery to the CNS, by providing a minimally invasive, localized, void-filling platform for therapeutic use. Small molecule or protein drugs can be distributed throughout the hydrogel which then acts as a depot for their sustained release at the injury site. For cell delivery, the hydrogel can reduce cell aggregation and provide an adhesive matrix for improved cell survival and integration. Additionally, by choosing a biodegradable or bioresorbable hydrogel material, the system will eventually be eliminated from the body. This review discusses both natural and synthetic injectable hydrogel materials that have been used for drug or cell delivery to the CNS including hyaluronan, methylcellulose, chitosan, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Matrigel. (paper)

  17. UP-GRADED RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAHN,H.FISCHER,W.SEMERTZIDIS,Y.K.WARBURTON,D.S.

    2003-05-12

    The design of the RHIC injection systems anticipated the possibility of filling and operating the rings with a 120 bunch pattern, corresponding to 110 bunches after allowing for the abort gap. Beam measurements during the 2002 run confirmed the possibility, although at the expense of severe transverse emittance growth and thus not on an operational basis. An improvement program was initiated with the goal of reducing the kicker rise time from 110 to {approx}95 ns and of minimizing pulse timing jitter and drift. The major components of the injection system are 4 kicker magnets and Blmlein pulsers using thyratron switches. The kicker terminating resistor and operating voltage was increased to reduce the rise time. Timing has been stabilized by using commercial trigger units and extremely stable dc supplies for the thyratron reservoir. A fiber optical connection between control room and the thyratron trigger unit has been provided, thereby allowing the operator to adjust timing individually for each kicker unit. The changes were successfully implemented for use in the RHIC operation.

  18. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  19. A Poromechanical Model for Coal Seams Injected with Carbon Dioxide: From an Isotherm of Adsorption to a Swelling of the Reservoir Un modéle poromécanique pour l’injection de dioxyde de carbone dans des veines de charbon : d’une isotherme d’adsorption à un gonflement du réservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoosokhan S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Injecting carbon dioxide into deep unminable coal seams can enhance the amount of methane recovered from the seam. This process is known as CO2-Enhanced Coal Bed Methane production (CO2-ECBM. The seam is a porous medium whose porous system is made of cleats (small natural fractures and of coal pores (whose radius can be as small as a few angström. During the injection process, the molecules of CO2 get adsorbed in the coal pores. Such an adsorption makes the coal swell, which, in the confined conditions that prevail underground, induces a closure of the cleat system of the coal bed reservoir and a loss of injectivity. In this work, we develop a poromechanical model which, starting from the knowledge of an adsorption isotherm and combined with reservoir simulations, enables to estimate the variations of injectivity of the coal bed reservoir over time during the process of injection. The model for the coal bed reservoir is based on poromechanical equations that explicitly take into account the effect of adsorption on the mechanical behavior of a microporous medium. We consider the coal bed reservoir as a dual porosity (cleats and coal porosity medium, for which we derive a set of linear constitutive equations. The model requires as an input the adsorption isotherm on coal of the fluid considered. Reversely, the model provides a way to upscale an adsorption isotherm into a meaningful swelling of the coal bed reservoir at the macroscopic scale. The parameters of the model are calibrated on data on coal samples available in the literature. Reservoir simulations of an injection of carbon dioxide in a coal seam are performed with an in-house finite volume and element code. The variations of injection rate over time during the process of injection are obtained from the simulations. The effect of the compressibility of the coal matrix on those variations is discussed. L’injection de dioxyde de carbone dans des veines de charbon profondes peut augmenter

  20. 76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... proposed rule addressing Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal... Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. MSHA conducted hearings on...

  1. Secondary air injection system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  2. SECA Coal-Based Systems - LGFCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettler, Richard

    2014-01-31

    LGFCS is developing an integrated planar (IP) SOFC technology for mega-watt scale power generation including the potential for use in highly efficient, economically competitive central generation power plant facilities fuel by coal synthesis gas. This Department of Energy Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program has been aimed at achieving further cell and stack technical advancements and assessing the readiness of the LGFCS SOFC stack technology to be scaled to larger-scale demonstrations as a path to commercialization. Significant progress was achieved in reducing to practice a higher performance and lower cost cell technology, identifying and overcoming degradation mechanisms, confirming the structural capability of the porous substrate for reliability, maturing the strip design for improved flow to allow high fuel utilization operation while minimizing degradation mechanisms and obtaining full scale block testing at 19 kW under representative conditions for eventual product and meeting SECA degradation metrics. The SECA program has played a key role within the overall LGFCS development program in setting the foundation of the technology to justify the progression of the technology to the next level of technology readiness testing.

  3. Tube bundle system: for monitoring of coal mine atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, R Karl; Marchewka, W; Mohamed, K; Addis, J; Karnack, F

    2013-05-01

    A tube bundle system (TBS) is a mechanical system for continuously drawing gas samples through tubes from multiple monitoring points located in an underground coal mine. The gas samples are drawn via vacuum pump to the surface and are typically analyzed for oxygen, methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Results of the gas analyses are displayed and recorded for further analysis. Trends in the composition of the mine atmosphere, such as increasing methane or carbon monoxide concentration, can be detected early, permitting rapid intervention that prevents problems, such as a potentially explosive atmosphere behind seals, fire or spontaneous combustion. TBS is a well-developed technology and has been used in coal mines around the world for more than 50 years. Most longwall coal mines in Australia deploy a TBS, usually with 30 to 40 monitoring points as part of their atmospheric monitoring. The primary uses of a TBS are detecting spontaneous combustion and maintaining sealed areas inert. The TBS might also provide mine atmosphere gas composition data after a catastrophe occurs in an underground mine, if the sampling tubes are not damaged. TBSs are not an alternative to statutory gas and ventilation airflow monitoring by electronic sensors or people; rather, they are an option to consider in an overall mine atmosphere monitoring strategy. This paper describes the hardware, software and operation of a TBS and presents one example of typical data from a longwall coal mine.

  4. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  5. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  6. PETROBRAS green petroleum coke used as partial replacement for coal injected mixtures in blast furnaces; Utilizacao do coque verde de petroleo da PETROBRAS em substituicao parcial ao carvao mineral das misturas injetadas em altos fornos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Agenor Medrado da; Medrado, Swami Botelho; Noblat, Sebastiao Jorge Xavier [Companhia Siderurgia Nacional. CSN. Gerencia Geral de Processos Siderurgicos. RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: ams@csn.com.br, swami@csn.com.br, s.noblat@csn.com.br; Carvalho Junior, Joao Andrade de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho. Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta. Departamento de Energia, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: joao@feg.unesp.br

    2010-04-15

    The PETROBRAS produced green petroleum coke (GPC) is a carbon rich fuel, virtually ash-free, with low sulfur content and is a fuel suitable to replace metallurgical coke in blast furnaces. The GPC was tested in a pulverized coal injection simulator built in the Volta Redonda research center. It presented a low burning efficiency due to low volatile material content and high substitution rate by the carbon content. The industrial-scale tests were carried out in blast furnaces with up to 50% PETROBRAS GPC in the coal blends, which has never been done before in the steel industry. The injected coal/CVP mixtures produced no negative side effects in the blast furnace grinding systems, pneumatic conveying or operating process. The mixture burning process inside the blast furnace, showed a decrease in fuel consumption, with a significant reduction in metallurgical coke consumption. The industrial-scale tests of the GPC mixtures did not reach the 70% maximum for lack of the GPC feedstock, it being necessary to continue with standard coal mixtures. (author)

  7. Using plasma-fuel systems at Eurasian coal-fired thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, E. I.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2009-06-01

    The development of plasma technology for igniting solid fuels at coal-fired thermal power stations in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and other Eurasian countries is briefly reviewed. Basic layouts and technical and economic characteristics of plasma-fuel systems installed in different coal-fired boiles are considered together with some results from using these systems at coal-fired thermal power stations.

  8. Assessment of PCDD/F and PBDD/F Emissions from Coal-fired Power Plants during Injection of Brominated Activated Carbon for Mercury Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the injection of brominated powdered activated carbon (Br-PAC) on the emission of brominated and chlorinated dioxins and furans in coal combustion flue gas has been evaluated. The tests were performed at two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) demonstration sites where ...

  9. The fate of injectant coal in blast furnaces: The origin of extractable materials of high molecular mass in blast furnace carryover dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, S.N.; Wu, L.; Paterson, N.; Herod, A.A.; Dugwell, D.R.; Kandiyoti, R. [University of London Imperial College of Science & Technology, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the work was to investigate the fate of injectant coal in blast furnaces and the origin of extractable materials in blast furnace carryover dusts. Two sets of samples including injectant coal and the corresponding carryover dusts from a full sized blast furnace and a pilot scale rig have been examined. The samples were extracted using 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) solvent and the extracts studied by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The blast furnace carryover dust extracts contained high molecular weight carbonaceous material, of apparent mass corresponding to 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} u, by polystyrene calibration. In contrast, the feed coke and char prepared in a wire mesh reactor under high temperature conditions did not give any extractable material. Meanwhile, controlled combustion experiments in a high-pressure wire mesh reactor suggest that the extent of combustion of injectant coal in the blast furnace tuyeres and raceways is limited by time of exposure and very low oxygen concentration. It is thus likely that the extractable, soot-like material in the blast furnace dust originated in tars is released by the injectant coal. Our results suggest that the unburned tars were thermally altered during the upward path within the furnace, giving rise to the formation of heavy molecular weight (soot-like) materials.

  10. Low NOx firing systems for bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyrim, W.; Scheffknecht, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the case of lignite fluidized boilers the denitrification down to less than 200 mg/m 3 was possible with primary measures on the firing side only. On account of the excellent results achieved with the reconstructed plants the firing systems for the new generation of brown coal fire steam generators with a capacity of 800 MW and more is designed in a similar way. For bituminous coal fire steam generators the primary measures on the firing side are nor sufficient to keep the German NO x emission limit. Therefore these units had to be retrofitted with a SCR-DENOX plant. The experience with the new firing system made in a 110 MW steam generator in Austria with a wide range of fuels is introduced. One of the largest bituminous coal fired once-trough steam generator built by EVT is the boiler for the power station Bexbach I (750 MW). The firing system is designed as a tangential firing system with 32 jet burners. These are arranged in pairs in the corners and divided into 4 burner levels with 4 burner pairs each. One mill is allocated to each burner level. An important characteristic feature is that the four bowl mills are arranged on one side of the steam generator. The plant is constructed with upper air nozzles which are arranged above the top burner level for the reduced of nitrogen oxides. During tests at steam generator with similar design, the nO x formation could be reduced from 750 to 500 mg/m 3 s.t.p. (dry, 6% O 2 ) with an addition of upper air of 20% at 100% unit capacity and constant total flow. As a main approach for the further reduction of the primary NO x emission at bituminous coal fired steam generators with tangential firing systems, the experience gained from the firing of brown coal has also been taken into account. A fundamental aspect in this respect was the vertical air staging in the direction of the furnace height. The results of many tests in a test reactor have shown that the differences of the achievable NO x values of brown and

  11. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    Energi, Haesselbyverket, has now invested in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping wastes of rubber are mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1997 was 370 SEK/ton or 10 per cent higher than in 1996. For the world, the average import price fell to 46 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1998 as a result of the crisis in Asia. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO 2 -removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, Vaesteraas, has newly invested in a ca talytic NO x -cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NO x -burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 800 tons in 1997, a minor increase compared to 1996. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1.7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian countries and the developing countries. However, greater efforts to minimize the

  12. Modelling of limestone injection for SO2 capture in a coal fired utility boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacik, G.J.; Reid, K.; McDonald, M.M.; Knill, K.

    1997-01-01

    A computer model was developed for simulating furnace sorbent injection for SO 2 capture in a full scale utility boiler using TASCFlow TM computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The model makes use of a computational grid of the superheater section of a tangentially fired utility boiler. The computer simulations are three dimensional so that the temperature and residence time distribution in the boiler could be realistically represented. Results of calculations of simulated sulphur capture performance of limestone injection in a typical utility boiler operation were presented

  13. Cause analysis and suggestion of urea consumption in denitrification system of coal-fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Dong, Ruifeng; Guo, Yang; Wang, Fangfang; Yang, Shuo

    2018-02-01

    In the daily operation of many power plants, the urea consumption of denitration system is much more than normal. Therefore, the process of site testing and laboratory analysis are carried out. Several suggestions are given out. (1) The position of sampling hole on the exit flue of denitrification system should be redesigned. (2) The denitrification optimization and adjustment should be carried out based on the technical specifications for the operation system. (3) The flue gas CEMS system for single point sampling should be transformed into two or three point sampling mode. (4) When the coal - fired unit is shutting down, examine the ammonia injection and nozzle branch, in order to improve the operation reliability of denitration system.

  14. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Wotzak; Chellappa Balan; Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    The pre-baseline configuration for an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) system has been developed. This case uses current gasification, clean-up, gas turbine, and bottoming cycle technologies together with projected large planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. This pre-baseline case will be used as a basis for identifying the critical factors impacting system performance and the major technical challenges in implementing such systems. Top-level system requirements were used as the criteria to evaluate and down select alternative sub-systems. The top choice subsystems were subsequently integrated to form the pre-baseline case. The down-selected pre-baseline case includes a British Gas Lurgi (BGL) gasification and cleanup sub-system integrated with a GE Power Systems 6FA+e gas turbine and the Hybrid Power Generation Systems planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) sub-system. The overall efficiency of this system is estimated to be 43.0%. The system efficiency of the pre-baseline system provides a benchmark level for further optimization efforts in this program.

  15. Digital coal mine integrated automation system based on Controlnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin-yun Chen; Shen Zhang; Wei-ran Zuo [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2007-06-15

    A three-layer model for digital communication in a mine is proposed. Two basic platforms are discussed: a uniform transmission network and a uniform data warehouse. An actual, ControlNet based, transmission network platform suitable for the Jining No.3 coal mine in China is presented. This network is an information superhighway intended to integrate all existing and new automation subsystems. Its standard interface can be used with future subsystems. The network, data structure and management decision-making all employ this uniform hardware and software. This effectively avoids the problems of system and information islands seen in traditional mine-automation systems. The construction of the network provides a stable foundation for digital communication in the Jining No.3 coal mine. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Problems in modernization of automation systems at coal preparation plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshlyaev, L. P.; Lyakhovets, M. V.; Venger, K. G.; Leontiev, I. A.; Makarov, G. V.; Salamatin, A. S.

    2018-05-01

    The factors influencing the process of modernization (reconstruction) of the automation systems at coal preparation plants are described. Problems such as heterogeneity of existing and developed systems, planning of reconstruction of a technological complex without taking into account modernization of automated systems, commissioning without stopping the existing technological complex, as well as problems of conducting procurement procedures are discussed. The option of stage-by-stage start-up and adjustment works in the conditions of modernization of systems without long stops of the process equipment is offered.

  17. Increasing flexibility of coal power plant by control system modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Ante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expanding implementation of intermittent renewable energy sources has already started to change the role of thermal power plants in energy systems across Europe. Traditionally base load plants are now forced to operate as peaking plants. A familiar transition in upcoming years is expected in Croatia and coal power plant operators are preparing accordingly. To evaluate cycling capabilities and control system operation for flexible operation of selected 210 MW coal plant, series of tests with different load gradients were performed and results were thoroughly analyzed. Two possible “bottlenecks” are identified, thermal stress in superheater header, and achievable ramping rate considering operational limitations of coal feeders, firing system and evaporator dynamics. Several unexpected readings were observed, usually caused by malfunctioning sensors and equipment, resulting in unexpected oscillations of superheated steam temperature. Based on superheater geometry and experimental data, maximal steam temperature gradient during ramping was evaluated. Since thermal stress was well inside the safety margins, the simulation model of the whole boiler was used to evaluate achievable ramping on electric side.

  18. Development of a dry-feed system for a coal-fired gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothrock, J.W. Jr.; Smith, C.F.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the reported of the reported work is to develop a dry coal feed system that provides smooth, controllable flow of coal solids into the high pressure combustor of the engine and all test rigs. The system must start quickly and easily, run continuously with automatic transfer of coal from low pressure hoppers to the high pressure delivery system, and offer at least a 3:1 smooth turn-down ratio. cost of the equipment must be minimized to maintain the economic attractiveness of the whole system. Before the current contract started some work was done with dry powder coal. For safety and convenience reasons, coal water slurry was selected as the fuel for all work on the program. Much of the experimental work, including running the Allison 501-KM engine was done with coal slurry. Recent economic analysis led to a change to powdered coal.

  19. Antiproton Production beam and Reverse Injection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, G.

    1981-08-16

    The objectives of this project are two fold: (1) To extract high energy protons from the Main Ring (MR) and target them to produce antiprotons which are subsequently captured in the existing Booster accelerator; and (2) to provide a channel for injecting either protons or antiprotons into the MR from the booster in a direction opposite to that of the normal proton acceleration as colliding beams can be created. The present design, therefore, is in support of two separate larger projects, viz., the collisions of protons in the Tevatron (normal circulation direction) with 'reverse injected' protons in the MR, and the collision of normal direction protons with reverse injected antiprotons either in the MR or in the Tevatron. Figure 1 shows the layout of the project area. It spans the shortest distance between possible injection/ejection points in the existing accelerator structures, hence minimizing costs. The tunnel will lie underground at the level of the MR and booster.

  20. Injection system of teh SSC Medium Energy Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, N.; Gerig, R.; McGill, J.; Brown, K.

    1994-04-01

    The Medium Energy Booster (MEB) is the third of the SSCL accelerators and the largest of the resistive magnet synchrotrons. It accelerates protons from an injection momentum of 12 GeV/c to a top momentum of 200 GeV/c. A beam injection system has been designed to inject the beam transferred from the Low Energy Booster onto the MEB closed orbit in the MEB injection insertion region. The beam is injected via a vertical bending Lambertson septum magnet and a horizontal kicker with appropriate matching and very little beam loss and emittance dilution. The beam optics of the injection system is described in this paper. The required parameters of the Lambertson septum magnet and the injection kicker are given

  1. Coal-fired high performance power generating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  2. Innovative measurement for injection systems; Innovative Messtechnik fuer Einspritzsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janetzky, Bjoern; Majer, Clemens; Doell, Reinahrd [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The treatise introduces a new measuring method to determine the injection quantity and injection rate. In this method the change in pressure within a hydraulic chamber is measured during injection. Also the momentary pressure-dependent speed of sound of the medium inside the chamber is measured. With this information the desired injection quantity can be derived with high precision. A measuring technique (HDA) based on this method is described. Measurement with HDA are performed based on actual requirements from the Diesel-Injection-System, results from these measurements are presented in example. Results are compared with those achieved by using a known measuring technique (EMI). (orig.)

  3. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in the Philippines; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Philippines ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to the coal of the Philippines, where the expansion of the use of coal as a substitute for petroleum/plant fuel is aimed at, the paper grasped the situation of coal production/development, the trend of coal import and domestic distribution, the coal utilization trend, and environmental problems, and analyzed the situation of coal utilization/spread by industry including the commercial/residential use. The purpose of the survey is to draw up a master plan for the introduction of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. As to the use of environmentally-friendly coal technology which should be adopted to the coal mining industry and commercial/residential sector, cited are the introduction of coal preparation technology and power transmission technology, and the development/spread of briquette as a firewood substituting fuel. In the electric power sector, the problem is the treatment of ash after combustion and the effective use. Relating to the treatment of flue gas, there is no installation at all of desulfurization facilities and denitrification facilities. In the cement industry sector, they wish to return fuel from heavy oil to coal. For it, it is necessary to study dust preventive measures. In the other sectors, coal hasn`t been used very much. An increase in coal demand is not expected also in the future, and big problems concerning coal haven`t occurred. 42 figs., 64 tabs.

  4. Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) injection deflector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jason, A.j.; Higgins, E.F.; Koelle, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a pulsed magnetic deflector system planned for the injection system of the PSR. Two sets of magnets, appropriately placed in the optical systems of both the ring and the injection transport line, provide control of the rate at which particles are injected into a given portion of transverse phase space and limit the interaction of stored beam with the injection stripping foil. High-current modulators that produce relatively complex waveforms are required for this purpose. Solid-state drivers using direct feedback to produce the necessary waveforms are discussed as replacements for the more conventional high-voltage tube technology

  5. Operational considerations for the PSB H- Injection System

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W; Borburgh, J; Carli, C; Fowler, T; Goddard, B

    2010-01-01

    For the LINAC4 project the PS Booster (PSB) injection system will be upgraded. The 160 MeV Hbeam will be distributed to the 4 superimposed PSB synchrotron rings and horizontally injected by means of an H- charge-exchange system. Operational considerations for the injection system are presented, including expected beam losses from unwanted field stripping of H- and excited H0 and foil scattering, possible injection failure cases and expected stripping foil lifetimes. Loading assumptions for the internal beam dumps are discussed together with estimates of doses on various components.

  6. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream.

  7. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, U; Krötz, G; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D

    2008-01-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature

  8. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2008-04-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

  9. DIAGNOSTICS OF GASOLINE FUEL SYSTEMS WITH DIRECT INJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bulgakov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A method of diagnosing fuel systems with direct injection by means of producing a pressure oscillation in a hydraulic accumulator is presented. Having obtained a signal from pressure sensor it is possible to register a pressure drop at the moment of injection. If the system has a malfunction, then the pressure drop will be higher.

  10. Variable volume combustor with pre-nozzle fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-06

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of fuel nozzles, a pre-nozzle fuel injection system supporting the fuel nozzles, and a linear actuator to maneuver the fuel nozzles and the pre-nozzle fuel injection system.

  11. Early detection of spontaneous combustion of coal in underground coal mines with development of an ethylene enriching system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Jun; Xue, Sheng [CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Kenmore (Australia); Cheng, Weimin; Wang, Gang [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal (sponcom) is a major hazard in underground coal mining operations. If not detected early and managed properly, it can seriously affect mine safety and productivity. Gaseous products of sponcom, such as carbon monoxide, ethylene and hydrogen, are commonly used in coal mines as indicators to reflect the state of the sponcom. Studies have shown that ethylene starts to occur when sponcom reaches a characteristic temperature. However, due to dilution of ventilation air and detection limits of the instruments used for gas analysis at coal mines, ethylene cannot be detected until the sponcom has developed past its early stage, missing an optimum opportunity for mine operators to control the hazard. To address the issue, an ethylene-enriching system, based on its physical adsorption and desorption properties, has been developed to increase detection sensitivity of the ethylene concentration in mine air by about 10 times. This system has successfully been applied in a number of underground coal mines in China to detect sponcom at its early stage and enable mine operators to take effective control measures. This paper describes the ethylene enriching system and its application. (author)

  12. OPTICALLY BASED CHARGE INJECTION SYSTEM FOR IONIZATION DETECTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHEN, H.; CITTERIO, M.; LANNI, F.; LEITE, M.A.L.; RADEKA, V.; RESCIA, S.; TAKAI, H.

    2001-01-01

    An optically coupled charge injection system for ionization based radiation detectors which allows a test charge to be injected without the creation of ground loops has been developed. An ionization like signal from an external source is brought into the detector through an optical fiber and injected into the electrodes by means of a photodiode. As an application example, crosstalk measurements on a liquid Argon electromagnetic calorimeter readout electrodes were performed

  13. Biological CO2 conversion to acetate in subsurface coal-sand formation using a high-pressure reactor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko eOhtomo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological CO2 sequestration in unmineable subsurface oil/gas fields and coal formations has been proposed as a means of reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. However, the feasibility of injecting CO2 into subsurface depends upon a variety of geological and economic conditions, and the ecological consequences are largely unpredictable. In this study, we developed a new flow-through-type reactor system to examine potential geophysical, geochemical and microbiological impacts associated with CO2 injection by simulating in situ pressure (0–100 MPa and temperature (0–70°C conditions. Using the reactor system, anaerobic artificial fluid and CO2 (flow rate: 0.002 and 0.00001 mL/min, respectively were continuously supplemented into a column comprised of bituminous coal and sand under a pore pressure of 40 MPa (confined pressure: 41 MPa at 40°C for 56 days. 16S rRNA gene analysis of the bacterial components showed distinct spatial separation of the predominant taxa in the coal and sand over the course of the experiment. Cultivation experiments using sub-sampled fluids revealed that some microbes survived, or were metabolically active, under CO2-rich conditions. However, no methanogens were activated during the experiment, even though hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic methanogens were obtained from conventional batch-type cultivation at 20°C. During the reactor experiment, the acetate and methanol concentration in the fluids increased while the δ13Cacetate, H2 and CO2 concentrations decreased, indicating the occurrence of homo-acetogenesis. 16S rRNA genes of homo-acetogenic spore-forming bacteria related to the genus Sporomusa were consistently detected from the sandstone after the reactor experiment. Our results suggest that the injection of CO2 into a natural coal-sand formation preferentially stimulates homo-acetogenesis rather than methanogenesis, and that this process is accompanied by biogenic CO2 conversion to

  14. Risk management of energy efficiency projects in the industry - sample plant for injecting pulverized coal into the blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Filip P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the applicability of well-known risk management methodologies in energy efficiency projects in the industry. The possibilities of application of the selected risk management methodology are demonstrated within the project of the plants for injecting pulverized coal into blast furnaces nos. 1 and 2, implemented by the company US STEEL SERBIA d.o.o. in Smederevo. The aim of the project was to increase energy efficiency through the reduction of the quantity of coke, whose production requires large amounts of energy, reduction of harmful exhaust emission and increase productivity of blast furnaces through the reduction of production costs. The project was complex and had high costs, so that it was necessary to predict risk events and plan responses to identified risks at an early stage of implementation, in the course of the project design, in order to minimise losses and implement the project in accordance with the defined time and cost limitations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179081: Researching contemporary tendencies of strategic management using specialized management disciplines in function of competitiveness of Serbian economy

  15. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in Indonesia; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Indonesia ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to the coal of Indonesia, where the expansion of the use of coal as a substitute for petroleum/plant fuel is aimed at, the paper grasped the situation of coal production/distribution/utilization and environmental problems, and analyzed the situation of the coal utilization/spread by industry including the commercial/residential use. The purpose of the survey is to work out a comprehensive master plan including Japan`s international cooperation for introducing the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system to Indonesia. Coal utilization systems, the introduction of which Indonesia should study in future, were picked up, according to the surveys in fiscal 1993 and 1994. In commercial/residential and small-scale industry sectors, needed is improvement of carbonization technology for production of coal carbonization briquette. Moreover, the introduction of bio-briquette should be studied in the future. In the power generation sector, studies should be made on the introduction of technology for SOx/NOx reduction and technology for coal ash treatment including the effective use of coal ash. For the introduction of coal boilers, the combustion mixed with bagasse, which is abundant in amount, is also necessary. In the coal production sector, coal preparation technology is studied, and a method to select the optimum process was proposed through the simulation. 76 figs., 43 tabs.

  16. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.; Boysen, John E.

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  17. Computer-aided injection molding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K. K.; Shen, S. F.; Cohen, C.; Hieber, C. A.; Isayev, A. I.

    1982-10-01

    Achievements are reported in cavity-filling simulation, modeling viscoelastic effects, measuring and predicting frozen-in birefringence in molded parts, measuring residual stresses and associated mechanical properties of molded parts, and developing an interactive mold-assembly design program and an automatic NC maching data generation and verification program. The Cornell Injection Molding Program (CIMP) consortium is discussed as are computer user manuals that have been published by the consortium. Major tasks which should be addressed in future efforts are listed, including: (1) predict and experimentally determine the post-fillin behavior of thermoplastics; (2) simulate and experimentally investigate the injection molding of thermosets and filled materials; and (3) further investigate residual stresses, orientation and mechanical properties.

  18. An intelligent hybrid system for surface coal mine safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, N.; Obradovic, I.; Cvjetic, A. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-06-15

    Analysis of safety in surface coal mines represents a very complex process. Published studies on mine safety analysis are usually based on research related to accidents statistics and hazard identification with risk assessment within the mining industry. Discussion in this paper is focused on the application of AI methods in the analysis of safety in mining environment. Complexity of the subject matter requires a high level of expert knowledge and great experience. The solution was found in the creation of a hybrid system PROTECTOR, whose knowledge base represents a formalization of the expert knowledge in the mine safety field. The main goal of the system is the estimation of mining environment as one of the significant components of general safety state in a mine. This global goal is subdivided into a hierarchical structure of subgoals where each subgoal can be viewed as the estimation of a set of parameters (gas, dust, climate, noise, vibration, illumination, geotechnical hazard) which determine the general mine safety state and category of hazard in mining environment. Both the hybrid nature of the system and the possibilities it offers are illustrated through a case study using field data related to an existing Serbian surface coal mine.

  19. SECA Coal-Based Systems - FuelCell Energy, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayagh, Hossein [Fuelcell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2014-01-31

    The overall goal of this U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project is the development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive central generation power plant facilities fueled by coal synthesis gas (syngas). This program incorporates the following supporting objectives: • Reduce SOFC-based electrical power generation system cost to $700 or less (2007 dollars) for a greater than 100 MW Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) power plant, exclusive of coal gasification and CO2 separation subsystem costs. • Achieve an overall IGFC power plant efficiency of at least 50%, from coal (higher heating value or HHV) to AC power (exclusive of CO2 compression power requirement). • Reduce the release of CO2 to the environment in an IGFC power plant to no more than 10% of the carbon in the syngas. • Increase SOFC stack reliability to achieve a design life of greater than 40,000 hours. At the inception of the project, the efforts were focused on research, design and testing of prototype planar SOFC power generators for stationary applications. FuelCell Energy, Inc. successfully completed the initial stage of the project by meeting the program metrics, culminating in delivery and testing of a 3 kW system at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Subsequently, the project was re-aligned into a three phase effort with the main goal to develop SOFC technology for application in coal-fueled power plants with >90% carbon capture. Phase I of the Coal-based efforts focused on cell and stack size scale-up with concurrent enhancement of performance, life, cost, and manufacturing characteristics. Also in Phase I, design and analysis of the baseline (greater than 100 MW) power plant system—including concept identification, system definition, and cost analysis—was conducted. Phase II efforts focused on development of a ≥25 kW SOFC stack tower incorporating

  20. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  1. Layout considerations for the PSB H- injection system

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Carli, C; Chanel, M; Fowler, A; Goddard, B; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    The layout of the PSB H- injection system is described, including the arguments for the geometry and the required equipment performance parameters. The longitudinal positions of the main elements are specified, together with the injected and circulating beam axes. The assumptions used in determining the geometry are listed.

  2. Study on structuring the supervision system of coal mine associated with radionuclides in Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Guangwen; Jia Xiahui

    2012-01-01

    Xinjiang is one of China's rich coal provinces (areas) and it accounts for about 40% national coal reserves. In the long-term radioactive scientific research, monitoring and environmental impact assessment works, we found parts of Yili and Hetian's coal was associated with higher radionuclide, and parts of coal seam even reached nuclear mining level. However the laws and regulations about associated radioactive coal mine supervision were not perfect, and the supervision system is still in the exploration. This article mainly started with the coal mine enterprises' geological prospecting reports, radiation environmental impact assessment and monitoring report preparation for environment acceptance checking and supervisory monitoring, controlled the coal radioactive pollution from the sources, and carried out the research of building Xinjiang associated radioactive coal mine supervision system. The establishment of supervision system will provide technical guidance for the enterprises' coal exploitation and cinders using on the one hand, and on the other hand will provide decision-making basis for strengthening the associated radioactive coal mine supervision for Xinjiang environmental regulators. (authors)

  3. 76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... Agency's proposed rule addressing Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in... proposed rule for Proximity Detection Systems on Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. Due...

  4. 76 FR 54163 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... (except full-face continuous mining machines) with proximity detection systems. Miners working near..., each underground coal mine operator would be required to install proximity detection systems on...

  5. The kicker magnet system for TRISTAN Accumulation Ring injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Satoh, K.; Nakayama, H.

    1994-12-01

    The injection of electron beams to TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (AR) was started in November 1983 and the positron injection started in November 1985. For the injection of electron and positron beams to AR, the unique kicker system was developed. In the kicker power supply the charging to the main capacitor was done with the resonant charge system together with the auxiliary charging unit. The impedance matching circuit was added to the kicker magnet for getting the required current form with least reflecting oscillation. In this paper we report the performance of this kicker system. (author)

  6. USGS compilation of geographic information system (GIS) data of coal mines and coal-bearing areas in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2015-09-10

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled GIS data representing coal mines, deposits (including those with and without coal mines), occurrences, areas, basins, and provinces of Mongolia as of 2009. These data are now available for download, and may be used in a GIS for a variety of energy resource and environmental studies of Mongolia. Chemical data for 37 coal samples from a previous USGS study of Mongolia (Tewalt and others, 2010) are included in a downloadable GIS point shapefile and shown on the map of Mongolia. A brief report summarizes the methodology used for creation of the shapefiles and the chemical analyses run on the samples.

  7. Biological CO2 conversion to acetate in subsurface coal-sand formation using a high-pressure reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtomo, Y.; Ijiri, A.; Ikegawa, Y.; Tsutsumi, M.; Imachi, H.; Uramoto, G.; Hoshino, T.; Morono, Y.; Tanikawa, W.; Hirose, T.; Inagaki, F.

    2013-12-01

    The geological CO2 sequestration into subsurface unmineable oil/gas fields and coal formations has been considered as one of the possible ways to reduce dispersal of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere. However, feasibility of CO2 injection largely depends on a variety of geological and economical settings, and its ecological consequences have remained largely unpredictable. To address these issues, we developed a new flow-through-type CO2 injection system designated as the 'geobio-reactor system' to examine possible geophysical, geochemical and microbiological impact caused by CO2 injection under in-situ pressure (0-100 MPa) and temperature (0-70°C) conditions. In this study, we investigated Eocene bituminous coal-sandstones in the northwestern Pacific coast, Hokkaido, Japan, using the geobio-reactor system. Anaerobic artificial fluid and CO2 (flow rate: 0.002 and 0.00001 mL/min, respectively) were continuously supplemented into the coal-sand column under the pore pressure of 40 MPa (confined pressure: 41 MPa) at 40°C for 56 days. Molecular analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that predominant bacterial components were physically dispersed from coal to sand as the intact form during experiment. Cultivation experiments from sub-sampling fluids indicated that some terrestrial microbes could preserve their survival in subsurface condition. Molecular analysis of archaeal 16S rRNA genes also showed that no methanogens were activated during experiment. We also anaerobically incubated the coal sample using conventional batch-type cultivation technique with a medium for methanogens. After one year of the batch incubation at 20°C, methane could be detected from the cultures except for the acetate-fed culture. The sequence of archaeal 16S rRNA genes via PCR amplification obtained from the H2 plus formate-fed culture was affiliated with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen within the genus Methanobacterium, whereas the methanol plus trimethylamine culture

  8. The Injection System of SAGA Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Iwasaki, Yoshitaka; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Okajima, Toshihiro; Takabayashi, Yuichi; Tomimasu, Takio; Yoshida, Katuhide

    2005-01-01

    Saga light Source is a 1.4-GeV electron storage ring with a circumference of 75.6m. The injector is a 250-MeV linac producing 1 ms macro-pulse with a peak current of 12mA and repetition rate of 1Hz. The output beam from the linac is transported though a transport line, and injected into the ring though a septum magnet with a bending angle of 20-degree. The transport line consists of two bending magnets, two quadrupole doublelets, and a quadrupole singlet. The bump orbit is formed by four kicker magnets, two of which are installed at both sides of septum magnet, and other two are positioned apart by one magnet cell of the ring. They are excited by sinusoidal electric currents with a half width of 0.5 ms. The beam optics for the injection trajectory is computed and shown at control room, the parameters for which are provided directly from the power supply control server PC. The operator is able to see real-time result of the beam trajectory calculation. This tool is quite effective to optimize the magnets param...

  9. Coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    ACR's Coal 1992, the successor to the ACR Coal Marketing Manual, contains a comprehensive set of data on many aspects of the Australian coal industry for several years leading up to 1992. Tables and text give details of coal production and consumption in New South Wales, Queensland and other states. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, China, Colombia, Poland and ex-USSR. Also listed are prices of Australian coking and non-coking coal, Australian coal stocks (and those of other major countries), loading port capacities, freight rates and coal quality requirements (analysis of coals by brand and supplier). A listing of Australian coal exporting companies is provided. A description of the spot Coal Screen Dealing System is given. World hard coal imports are listed by country and coal imports by major Asian countries tabulated. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is included.

  10. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author)

  11. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author).

  12. Coal Power Systems strategic multi-year program plans; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE), through the Coal and Power Systems (C and PS) program, funds research to advance the scientific knowledge needed to provide new and improved energy technologies; to eliminate any detrimental environmental effects of energy production and use; and to maintain US leadership in promoting the effective use of US power technologies on an international scale. Further, the C and PS program facilitates the effective deployment of these technologies to maximize their benefits to the Nation. The following Strategic Plan describes how the C and PS program intends to meet the challenges of the National Energy Strategy to: (1) enhance American's energy security; (2) improve the environmental acceptability of energy production and use; (3) increase the competitiveness and reliability of US energy systems; and (4) ensure a robust US energy future. It is a plan based on the consensus of experts and managers from FE's program offices and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)

  13. Proceedings of the advanced coal-fired power systems `95 review meeting, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Mollot, D.J.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1995-06-01

    This document contains papers presented at The advanced Coal-Fired Power Systems 1995 Review Meeting. Research was described in the areas of: integrated gasification combined cycle technology; pressurized fluidized-bed combustion; externally fired combined cycles; a summary stauts of clean coal technologies; advanced turbine systems and hot gas cleanup. Individual projects were processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  14. The Influence of runner system on production of injection molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janostik Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study describes the influence of runner system on rheological properties during the injection molding process. Economic effects on the amount of production are discussed as well. Autodesk Moldflow Synergy 2016 (Moldflow was used for the study of the injection process. Three suggestions of the runner system, cold runner system, hot runner system and the combination of cold–hot runner system have been promoted. These three variants underwent the rheological and economic analysis. As a result, recommendations for the application of the runner system for the required amount of production have been suggested

  15. Research program for an environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Feasibility studies are conducted on the introduction of an environmentally-friendly coal utilization system into the Filipino electric power industry, cement industry, and domestic fuel sector. The studies cover the current status of economy and energy in that country, supply and demand of coal, environmental protection and Government's policy, study of the above-said system relative to its application to the fields of electric power industry, cement industry, and domestic fuel sector, and a study about the effective utilization of Filipino domestic coal by the use of the system. Imported coal is used in the electric power industry because of its cost and quality. It is learned after research, however, that domestic coal will be able to compete against imported coal when some technologies are resorted to, such as those pertinent to denitrification in the furnace, novel low-NOx burner, coal pulverization, and combustion diagnosis. As for the treatment of flue gas, it is concluded that the simplified wet lime/gypsum process will be suitable. It is inferred that the CWM (coal-water mixture) process technology will be effective for the utilization of domestic low-grade coal. (NEDO)

  16. Research program for an environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Feasibility studies are conducted on the introduction of an environmentally-friendly coal utilization system into the Filipino electric power industry, cement industry, and domestic fuel sector. The studies cover the current status of economy and energy in that country, supply and demand of coal, environmental protection and Government's policy, study of the above-said system relative to its application to the fields of electric power industry, cement industry, and domestic fuel sector, and a study about the effective utilization of Filipino domestic coal by the use of the system. Imported coal is used in the electric power industry because of its cost and quality. It is learned after research, however, that domestic coal will be able to compete against imported coal when some technologies are resorted to, such as those pertinent to denitrification in the furnace, novel low-NOx burner, coal pulverization, and combustion diagnosis. As for the treatment of flue gas, it is concluded that the simplified wet lime/gypsum process will be suitable. It is inferred that the CWM (coal-water mixture) process technology will be effective for the utilization of domestic low-grade coal. (NEDO)

  17. Life cycle assessment of solar aided coal-fired power system with and without heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Rongrong; Li, Chao; Chen, Ying; Yang, Yongping; Patchigolla, Kumar; Oakey, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The comprehensive performances of three kinds of different systems were compared through LCA. • The comprehensive results of all systems were evaluated by grey relation theory. • The effects of life span, coal price, and solar collector field cost, among other factors, on the results were explored. - Abstract: Pollutant emissions from coal-fired power system have been receiving increasing attention over the past few years. Integration of solar thermal energy can greatly reduce pollutant emissions from these power stations. The performances of coal-fired power system (S1), solar aided coal-fired power system with thermal storage (S2), and solar aided coal-fired power system without thermal storage (S3) with three capacities of each kind of system (i.e., nine subsystems) were analyzed over the entire life span. The pollutant emissions and primary energy consumptions (PECs) of S1, S2, and S3 were estimated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The evaluation value of global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), respiratory effects potential (REP) and PEC were obtained based on the LCA results. Furthermore, the system investments were estimated, and grey relation theory was used to evaluate the performance of the three types of systems comprehensively. Finally, in order to find the effect of some main factors on the solar aided coal-fired power system (SACFPS), uncertainty analysis has been carried out. The LCA results show that the pollutant emissions and PEC mainly take place in the fuel processing and operation stages for all three system types, and S2 performs the best among the three systems based on the grey relation analysis results. And the uncertainty analysis shows that with longer life span, the power system have better performance; with higher coal price, the power system will have worse performance; with lower solar collector field cost, the solar aided coal-fired power system will be more profitable than the base

  18. Impact of physical properties of biodiesel on the injection process in a common-rail direct injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudy, Frederic; Seers, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of biodiesel fuel properties on the injection mass flow rate of a diesel common-rail injection system. Simulations are first performed with ISO 4113 diesel fuel on a four-cylinder common-rail system to evaluate a single and triple injection strategies. For each injection strategy, the impact of modifying a single fuel property at a time is evaluated so as to quantify its influence on the injection process. The results show that fuel density is the main property that affects the injection process, such as total mass injected and pressure wave in the common-rail system. The fuel's viscosity and bulk modulus also influence, but to a lessen degree, the mass flow rate of the injector notably during multiple injection strategies as individual properties change the fuel's dampening property and friction coefficient.

  19. Vibration analysis of the Golfech 2 safety injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilhat, P.

    1993-01-01

    The main function of the safety injection system in a PWR plant is to ensure cooling of fuel elements in the event of a loss of coolant accident. The multistage centrifugal pump mounted-on this system induces pressure fluctuations, resulting in dynamic loads on piping. In certain plant units, these loads have caused cracking in the nozzles connected to the safety injection system, whereas in others, no damage has been observed. In order to understand the differences in dynamic behavior observed from one site to another, tests were performed on a real safety injection system, that of Golfech-2. They enabled determination of the modal characteristics of the system and identification of the hydro-acoustic source of the low head safety injection pump. They also enabled assessment of the pressure fluctuation levels in the pump suction and discharge areas as well as the vibratory response of the system when operating under partial and nominal flow conditions. Finally, these test results were used to estimate fatigue damage in the safety injection system. The experimental results will later be used to validate the model of the system undertaken with the piping design code CIRCUS and define the boundary conditions to be taken into account. (author). 6 figs., 2 refs

  20. Integrated circuit devices in control systems of coal mining complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Systems of automatic monitoring and control of coal mining complexes developed in the 1960's used electromagnetic relays, thyristors, and flip-flops on transistors of varying conductivity. The circuits' designers, devoted much attention to ensuring spark safety, lowering power consumption, and raising noise immunity and repairability of functional devices. The fast development of integrated circuitry led to the use of microelectronic components in most devices of mine automation. An analysis of specifications and experimental research into integrated circuits (IMS) shows that the series K 176 IMS components made by CMOS technology best meet mine conditions of operation. The use of IMS devices under mine conditions has demonstrated their high reliability. Further development of integrated circuitry involve using microprocessors and microcomputers. (SC)

  1. Study of RF system of Hefei storage ring under injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hongliang; Wang Lin; Li Yongjun; Huang Guirong; Zhang Pengfei; Li Weimin; Liu Zuping; He Duohui

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the beam loading effect of RF system and the conditions of Robinson instability are analyzed in detail. By the study of the injection beam intensity limit dependent on detune angle and visible detune angle, it is found that the storage ring can be injected to more than 300 mA current intensity to attain the design target of phase II project in the lower energy injection situation of Hefei Storage Ring if a certain power is feed in the RF cavity and a certain tuning angle of the RF cavity is set

  2. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  3. Pressure Fluctuations in a Common-Rail Fuel Injection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine experimentally the instantaneous pressures at the discharge orifice of a common-rail fuel injection system in which the timing valve and cut-off valve were at some distance from the automatic fuel injection valve, and also to determine the methods by which the pressure fluctuations could be controlled. The results show that pressure wave phenomena occur between the high-pressure reservoir and the discharge orifice, but that these pressure waves can be controlled so as to be advantageous to the injection of the fuel. The results also give data applicable to the design of such an injection system for a high-speed compression-ignition engine.

  4. Systems to limit coal dust and methane explosions in coal mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, JJL

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the need for enhanced precautionary measures to safeguard mine workers in collieries from the consequences of methane ignitions in a heading, the coal mining industry has expressed the desire for the development and testing of active...

  5. Dispatcher's monitoring systems of coal preparation processes. Systemy dyspozytorskiej kontroli procesow wzbogacania wegla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cierpisz, S [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland); Cierpisz, T; Glowacki, D; Puczylowski, T [Min-Tech Sp. z o.o., Katowice (Poland)

    1994-08-01

    The computer-based control and dispatcher's monitoring systems for coal preparation plants are described. The article refers to the local automation systems of coal blending production, control systems of heavy media separation process and dispatcher's visualization systems of technological lines operation. The effects of implementation of the above mentioned systems as well as some experiences gained at the designing and operational stages are given. (author). 2 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix G: Commercial design and technology evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A technology evaluation of five coal gasifier systems (Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Babcock and Wilcox, Lurgi and BGC/Lurgi) and procedures and criteria for evaluating competitive commercial coal gasification designs is presented. The technology evaluation is based upon the plant designs and cost estimates developed by the BDM-Mittelhauser team.

  7. The leachability of carbon-14-labelled 3,4-benzopyrene from coal ash into aqueous systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besemer, A.C.; Kanij, J.

    1984-01-01

    The leachability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal ash into aqueous systems was studied. Carbon-14-labeled 3,4-Benzopyrene (BaP) was deposited on coal fly ash by adsorption from the liquid phase in quantities of about 10 ??g/g ash. After a thermal treatment in air at 120??C for 2 hours

  8. Characteristics of pressure wave in common rail fuel injection system of high-speed direct injection diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Herfatmanesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of high-pressure common rail equipment now provides diesel engines possibility to apply as many as eight separate injection pulses within the engine cycle for reducing emissions and for smoothing combustion. With these complicated injection arrangements, optimizations of operating parameters for various driving conditions are considerably difficult, particularly when integrating fuel injection parameters with other operating parameters such as exhaust gas recirculation rate and boost pressure together for evaluating calibration results. Understanding the detailed effects of fuel injection parameters upon combustion characteristics and emission formation is therefore particularly critical. In this article, the results and discussion of experimental investigations on a high-speed direct injection light-duty diesel engine test bed are presented for evaluating and analyzing the effects of main adjustable parameters of the fuel injection system on all regulated emission gases and torque performance. Main injection timing, rail pressure, pilot amount, and particularly pilot timing have been examined. The results show that optimization of each of those adjustable parameters is beneficial for emission reduction and torque improvement under different operating conditions. By exploring the variation in the interval between the pilot injection and the main injection, it is found that the pressure wave in the common rail has a significant influence on the subsequent injection. This suggests that special attentions must be paid for adjusting pilot timing or any injection interval when multi-injection is used. With analyzing the fuel amount oscillation of the subsequent injections to pilot separation, it demonstrates that the frequency of regular oscillations of the actual fuel amount or the injection pulse width with the variation in pilot separation is always the same for a specified fuel injection system, regardless of engine speed

  9. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech

  10. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engines. Kraftstoffeinspritzsystem fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, U.

    1990-09-13

    A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine is provided with a fuel supply line (13) and at least one electromagnetically actuated fuel injection valve (14) for apportioning a quantity of fuel for injection. A connection muzzle (24) coming from the valve body (23) juts into an opening (22) in the suction pipe (21) of the internal combustion engine. The end of the injection valve opposite the connecting muzzle (24) is connected with the fuel supply line via a fuel entry. The valve body (23) is enclosed by a casing (25) in order to provide the conditions required for a warm start. An annulus (31) extending over a large part of the axial length of the valve remains between the casing and the valve body (23). The annulus (31) communicates with the fuel flow through the fuel supply line (13) via an afflux and an efflux opening (32, 33) (Fig. 1).

  11. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  12. Model documentation, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System`s (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS). CMM provides annual forecasts of prices, production, and consumption of coal for NEMS. In general, the CDS integrates the supply inputs from the CPS to satisfy demands for coal from exogenous demand models. The international area of the CDS forecasts annual world coal trade flows from major supply to major demand regions and provides annual forecasts of US coal exports for input to NEMS. Specifically, the CDS receives minemouth prices produced by the CPS, demand and other exogenous inputs from other NEMS components, and provides delivered coal prices and quantities to the NEMS economic sectors and regions.

  13. Multiscale Characterization and Quantification of Arsenic Mobilization and Attenuation During Injection of Treated Coal Seam Gas Coproduced Water into Deep Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Bhasker; Siade, Adam J.; Donn, Michael J.; Helm, Lauren; Morris, Ryan; Davis, James A.; Berg, Michael; Prommer, Henning

    2017-12-01

    Coal seam gas production involves generation and management of large amounts of co-produced water. One of the most suitable methods of management is injection into deep aquifers. Field injection trials may be used to support the predictions of anticipated hydrological and geochemical impacts of injection. The present work employs reactive transport modeling (RTM) for a comprehensive analysis of data collected from a trial where arsenic mobilization was observed. Arsenic sorption behavior was studied through laboratory experiments, accompanied by the development of a surface complexation model (SCM). A field-scale RTM that incorporated the laboratory-derived SCM was used to simulate the data collected during the field injection trial and then to predict the long-term fate of arsenic. We propose a new practical procedure which integrates laboratory and field-scale models using a Monte Carlo type uncertainty analysis and alleviates a significant proportion of the computational effort required for predictive uncertainty quantification. The results illustrate that both arsenic desorption under alkaline conditions and pyrite oxidation have likely contributed to the arsenic mobilization that was observed during the field trial. The predictive simulations show that arsenic concentrations would likely remain very low if the potential for pyrite oxidation is minimized through complete deoxygenation of the injectant. The proposed modeling and predictive uncertainty quantification method can be implemented for a wide range of groundwater studies that investigate the risks of metal(loid) or radionuclide contamination.

  14. Coal Power Systems strategic multi-year program plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE), through the Coal and Power Systems (C and PS) program, funds research to advance the scientific knowledge needed to provide new and improved energy technologies; to eliminate any detrimental environmental effects of energy production and use; and to maintain US leadership in promoting the effective use of US power technologies on an international scale. Further, the C and PS program facilitates the effective deployment of these technologies to maximize their benefits to the Nation. The following Strategic Plan describes how the C and PS program intends to meet the challenges of the National Energy Strategy to: (1) enhance American's energy security; (2) improve the environmental acceptability of energy production and use; (3) increase the competitiveness and reliability of US energy systems; and (4) ensure a robust US energy future. It is a plan based on the consensus of experts and managers from FE's program offices and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

  15. A new dual injection system for AMS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lin; Zhou Weijian; Cheng Peng; Yu Huagui; Chen Maobai

    2007-01-01

    In order to measure long-lived radioisotopes such as 10 Be with high sensitivity using an HVEE model 4130 AMS system, as well as to guarantee 14 C measurements of high precision, a new dual injection system for the AMS system is proposed. The proposal is to add a Wien filter located between the ion source system and the recombinator of the HVEE model 4130. When a pulsing voltage is optionally applied to the Wien filter, a sequential injection mode is turned on. The isotopes would alternately pass on different trajectories through the recombinator. When the pulsing voltage and magnetic field are turned off, the Wien filter acts as a field-free drift space and the standard simultaneous injection mode is on. Beam optics calculation show that the new dual injection system will increase the number of radio-nuclides which can be analyzed, keep the high precision capability for radiocarbon dating and achieve high sensitivity for 10 Be and 26 Al measurements, together with simplifying the layout as compared to existing dual-injector and dual high-energy beam line systems

  16. Study on coal mine macro, meso and micro safety management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longkang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the coal mine safety production situation in our country improved year by year, but severe accidents still occurred; the accidents caused great economic loss to the national economy. According to statistical analysis, almost all of the coal mine accidents will expose the hidden danger in before, most of the accidents caused due to safety management not reaching the designated position and the hidden danger management does not take any decision in time. Based on the coal mine safety management holes in our country, the coal mine macro, meso and micro safety management system was established in this paper, which includes meaning and conception of the theories of the macro, meso and micro safety management, and also includes the matching hardware equipment, in order to achieve the hidden danger's closed-loop control and dynamic early warning in the process of coal mine production.

  17. A system to analyze the complex physiological states of coal solubilizing fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelker, U.; Moenkemann, H.; Hoefer, M. [Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany). Botanisches Institut

    1997-11-01

    The mechanism by which some microorganisms solubilize brown coal is still unknown. The paper discusses the deuteromycetes Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma atroviride as a suitable test system to analyse the complex fungal physiology relating to coal solubilization. The two fungi can occur in two different growth substrate-controlled physiological states: a coal-solubilizing one, when cells are grown on glutamate or gluconate as substrate and a non-solubilizing one, when grown on carbohydrates. When grown on carbohydrates, F.oxysporum produces the pigment bikaverein. Purified bikaverein inhibits also coal solubilization by T. atroviride. The ability to solubilize coal is constitutive in F. oxysporum, while in T. atroviride, it has to be induced. 10 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. The coal cleat system: A new approach to its study

    OpenAIRE

    C.F. Rodrigues; C. Laiginhas; M. Fernandes; M.J. Lemos de Sousa; M.A.P. Dinis

    2014-01-01

    After a general analysis regarding the concept of coal “cleat system”, its genetic origin and practical applications to coalbed methane (CBM) commercial production and to CO2 geological sequestration projects, the authors have developed a method to answer, quickly and accurately in accordance with the industrial practice and needs, the following yet unanswered questions: (1) how to define the spatial orientation of the different classes of cleats presented in a coal seam and (2) how to determ...

  19. Coal 95; Kol - 95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C

    1996-12-31

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO{sub 2} removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO{sub x} cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO{sub x} burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs.

  20. Economic comparison of clean coal generating technologies with natural gas-combined cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, J.J.; Hoskins, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are four combustion technologies upon which U.S. electric utilities are expected to rely for the majority of their future power generating needs. These technologies are pulverized coal- fired combustion (PC); coal-fired fluidized bed combustion (AFBC); coal gasification, combined cycle systems (CGCC); and natural gas-fired combined cycle systems (NGCC). The engineering and economic parameters which affect the choice of a technology include capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, fuel costs, construction schedule, process risk, environmental and site impacts, fuel efficiency and flexibility, plant availability, capacity factors, timing of startup, and the importance of utility economic and financial factors

  1. British Coal Compass Project summary: colliery based manpower, personnel, scheduling and safety systems and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, V. (Oasis Group PLC (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    In early 1991, British Coal reviewed its existing personnel and manpower planning systems and concluded they were inadequate for the future needs of the business. With wages accounting for 40% British Coal's 1990/91 operational costs, the Corporation targeted manpower management as an area to deliver further improvements. British Coal's strategy to continue to improve productivity required payroll and personnel related systems which could support new flexible working hours and variable shifts. This strategy would enable machine running time to be increased, leading to improved productivity levels. 3 figs.

  2. Studies on classifying Indian coals. Part II. A new system for grading and pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluri, S.G.; Shrikhande, S.K.; Rao, S.K.; Haque, R.

    1985-07-01

    The new system is self-complete through grading to pricing. It grades non-coking coal by moisture and ash contents. Coking coal is graded by GKLT coke type and ash content. Volatile matter content is used as a supporting indexer, where necessary. Through the grade data, a coal is evaluated into a single numeral which depicts the coaly matter content and its nature or effectiveness. This value, called effective coaly matter, is converted to a relative rupee value or price index/price. Pragmatics and versatility of the system are discussed.

  3. Stripping foils for the PSB H- injection system

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Goddard, B; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    Beam physics considerations for the stripping foil of the PSB H- injection system are described, including the arguments for the foil type, thickness, geometry and positioning. The foil performance considerations are described, including expected stripping efficiency, emittance growth, energy straggling, temperature and lifetime. The required movement ranges and tolerances are detailed, together with the assumptions used.

  4. Modelling of liquid injection shutdown system (LISS) in ACR-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubcher, M.; Colton, A.; Donnelly, J.V.

    2008-01-01

    Modelling of the Liquid Injection Shutdown System (LISS) in the ACR-1000 reactor core must account for the major phenomena that occur following its activation, namely the moderator hydraulics and core neutronics. The former requires modelling of the poison volumes, their time of entry into the reactor, and their propagation into the moderator after emission from the nozzle. The latter requires the reactivity worth of varying volumes and geometries of poisoned moderator fluid in order to simulate the reactivity effect of the injected poison. The time-dependent poison map is generated from hydraulic calculations, and then the neutronics data for standard geometries and concentrations is constructed using DRAGON. (author)

  5. Web of Things-Based Remote Monitoring System for Coal Mine Safety Using Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bo, Cheng; Xin, Cheng; Zhongyi, Zhai; Chengwen, Zhang; Junliang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Frequent accidents have occurred in coal mine enterprises; therefore, raising the technological level of coal mine safety monitoring systems is an urgent problem. Wireless sensor networks (WSN), as a new field of research, have broad application prospects. This paper proposes a Web of Things- (WoT-) based remote monitoring system that takes full advantage of wireless sensor networks in combination with the CAN bus communication technique that abstracts the underground sensor data and capabili...

  6. Pneumatic hydrogen pellet injection system for the ISX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milora, S.L.; Foster, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    We describe the design and operation of the solid hydrogen pellet injection system used in plasma refueling experiments on the ISX tokamak. The gun-type injector operates on the principle of gas dynamic acceleration of cold pellets confined laterally in a tube. The device is cooled by flowing liquid helium refrigerant, and pellets are formed in situ. Room temperature helium gas at moderate pressure is used as the propellant. The prototype device injected single hydrogen pellets into the tokamak discharge at a nominal 330 m/s. The tokamak plasma fuel content was observed to increase by (0.5--1.2) x 10 19 particles subsequent to pellet injection. A simple modification to the existing design has extended the performance to 1000 m/s. At higher propellant operating pressures (28 bars), the muzzle velocity is 20% less than predicted by an idealized constant area expansion process

  7. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  8. High pressure common rail injection system modeling and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H P; Zheng, D; Tian, Y

    2016-07-01

    In this paper modeling and common-rail pressure control of high pressure common rail injection system (HPCRIS) is presented. The proposed mathematical model of high pressure common rail injection system which contains three sub-systems: high pressure pump sub-model, common rail sub-model and injector sub-model is a relative complicated nonlinear system. The mathematical model is validated by the software Matlab and a virtual detailed simulation environment. For the considered HPCRIS, an effective model free controller which is called Extended State Observer - based intelligent Proportional Integral (ESO-based iPI) controller is designed. And this proposed method is composed mainly of the referred ESO observer, and a time delay estimation based iPI controller. Finally, to demonstrate the performances of the proposed controller, the proposed ESO-based iPI controller is compared with a conventional PID controller and ADRC. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Railgun pellet injection system for fusion experimental devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Satake, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Kasai, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun 319-11 (Japan); Hasegawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun 319-11 (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    A railgun pellet injection system has been developed for fusion experimental devices. Using a low electric energy railgun system, hydrogen pellet acceleration tests have been conducted to investigate the application of the electromagnetic railgun system for high speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. In the system, the pellet is pre-accelerated before railgun acceleration. A laser beam is used to induce plasma armature. The ignited plasma armature is accelerated by an electromagnetic force that accelerates the pellet. Under the same operational conditions, the energy conversion coefficient for the dummy pellets was around 0.4%, while that for the hydrogen pellets was around 0.12%. The highest hydrogen pellet velocity was 1.4 km s{sup -1} using a 1 m long railgun. Based on the findings, it is estimated that the hydrogen pellet has the potential to be accelerated to 5 km s{sup -1} using a 3 m long railgun. (orig.).

  10. Railgun pellet injection system for fusion experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Hasegawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    A railgun pellet injection system has been developed for fusion experimental devices. Using a low electric energy railgun system, hydrogen pellet acceleration tests have been conducted to investigate the application of the electromagnetic railgun system for high speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. In the system, the pellet is pre-accelerated before railgun acceleration. A laser beam is used to induce plasma armature. The ignited plasma armature is accelerated by an electromagnetic force that accelerates the pellet. Under the same operational conditions, the energy conversion coefficient for the dummy pellets was around 0.4%, while that for the hydrogen pellets was around 0.12%. The highest hydrogen pellet velocity was 1.4 km s -1 using a 1 m long railgun. Based on the findings, it is estimated that the hydrogen pellet has the potential to be accelerated to 5 km s -1 using a 3 m long railgun. (orig.)

  11. America's Changing Energy Landscape - USGS National Coal Resources Data System Changes to National Energy Resources Data System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, J. A., II

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Eastern Energy Resources Science Center (EERSC) has an ongoing project which has mapped coal chemistry and stratigraphy since 1977. Over the years, the USGS has collected various forms of coal data and archived that data into the National Coal Resources Data System (NCRDS) database. NCRDS is a repository that houses data from the major coal basins in the United States and includes information on location, seam thickness, coal rank, geologic age, geographic region, geologic province, coalfield, and characteristics of the coal or lithology for that data point. These data points can be linked to the US Coal Quality Database (COALQUAL) to include ultimate, proximate, major, minor and trace-element data. Although coal is an inexpensive energy provider, the United States has shifted away from coal usage recently and branched out into other forms of non-renewable and renewable energy because of environmental concerns. NCRDS's primary method of data capture has been USGS field work coupled with cooperative agreements with state geological agencies and universities doing coal-related research. These agreements are on competitive five-year cycles that have evolved into larger scope research efforts including solid fuel resources such as coal-bed methane, shale gas and oil. Recently these efforts have expanded to include environmental impacts of the use of fossil fuels, which has allowed the USGS to enter into agreements with states for the Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Assessment as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act. In 2016 they expanded into research areas to include geothermal, conventional and unconventional oil and gas. The NCRDS and COALQUAL databases are now online for the public to use, and are in the process of being updated to include new data for other energy resources. Along with this expansion of scope, the database name will change to the National Energy Resources Data System (NERDS) in FY 2017.

  12. Joint verification project on environmentally friendly coal utilization systems. Joint verification project on the water-saving coal preparation system; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kyodo jissho jigyo. Shosuigata sentan system kyodo jissho jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    In this verification project, clean technology which should be spread in China was verified and the base structure for its spread was prepared for the purpose of controlling emissions of environmental pollutants associated with the coal utilization in China and of contributing to secure energy acquisition of Japan. As joint verification projects, a general rehabilitation type coal preparation system was installed in the Wangfenggang coal preparation plant, and a central control coal preparation system was installed in the Qingtan coal preparation plant. In the former, a system is verified in which optimum operation, water-saving, high quality, and heightening of efficiency can be obtained by introducing two computing systems for operation control and quality control, various measuring instruments, and analyzers to coal preparation plants where analog operation is conducted helped by Russia and Porland and have problems about quality control. In the latter, a central control system achieving water saving is verified by introducing rapid ash meters, scales, desitometers and computers to coal preparation plants having zigzag or heavy-fluid cyclon and connecting various kinds of information through network. For fiscal 1994, investigation and study were conducted. 51 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Performance of the DIII-D neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Callis, R.W.; Colleraine, A.P.; Cummings, J.; Glad, A.S.; Gootgeld, A.M.; Haskovec, J.S.; Hong, R.; Kellman, D.H.; Langhorn, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    During the upgrade of the Doublet III tokamak, the neutral beam injection system as also modified to accommodate long pulse sources and to utilize the larger entrance apertures to the torus vessel. All four beamlines on DIII-D are now in operation with a total of eight common long pulse sources. These have exhibited easier conditioning and good reproducibility. Performance results of the beamlines and supporting systems are presented, and the observed beam properties are discussed

  14. The control system for SSRF injection and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Qibing; Gu Ming; Wang Ruiping; Cheng Zhihao; Fan Xuerong; Zhu Haijun

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the injection and extraction control system design for SSRF, which is a distributed control system aimed at stability and reliability of the pulse power supplies, PPS (Personnel Protection System) and MPS (Machine Protection System). The hardware environment is mainly based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), and ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) is also applied for studying stability of the power supplies. WinCC and EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) have been selected as the platforms of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition). For unifying the interfacing to the control computer, all front-end equipments are connected via Industrial Ethernet. (authors)

  15. Symbiotic Nuclear—Coal Systems for Production of Liquid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taczanowski, S.

    The notion of safety is not confined to the technological or non-proliferation aspects. It covers also the elements of energy policy: irrational reactions of societies, emotions, egoistic interests of more or less powerful pressure of economical and external political factors. One should be conscious that the country's privilege of being equipped by the Nature with rich resources of oil or gas is not solely economical, but even more a political one. Simultaneously, the gradual depletion of world hydrocarbons that draws behind irrevocable price increase has to be expected within the time scale of exploitation of power plants (now amounted to ~60 years). Therefore consequences of energy policy last much longer than the perspectives the political or economical decision makers are planning and acting within and the public is expecting successes and finally evaluating them. The world oil and gas resources are geopolitically very non-uniformly distributed, in contrast to coal and uranium. Since the level of energy self-sufficiency of the EU is highest for coal, the old idea of synfuels production from coal is recalled. Yet, in view of limits to the CO2 emissions in the EU another method has to be used here than the conventional coal liquefaction just applied in China. Simultaneously, an interesting evolution of energy prices was be observed, namely an increase in that of motor fuels in contrast to that of electricity remaining well stable. This fact suggests that the use of electricity (mainly the off-peak load), generated without emissions of CO2 for production of liquid fuels can prove reasonable. Thus, the essence of the presented idea of coal-nuclear symbiosis lies in the supply of energy in the form of H2, necessary for this process, from a nuclear reactor. Particularly, in the present option H2 is obtained by electrolytic water splitting supplying also O2 as a precious by-product in well mature and commercially available already since decades, Light Water Reactors

  16. Compact toroid injection system for JFT-2M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, N. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan)]. E-mail: fukumotn@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Ogawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Nagata, M. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Uyama, T. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Shibata, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Kashiwa, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Suzuki, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Kusama, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    The compact toroid (CT) injection system for JFT-2M is composed of a CT injector, a gas delivery and vacuum system, a power supply system, and a diagnostics system. In particular, the power supply system delivers high performance for CT formation and acceleration. The CT formation capacitor bank unit achieved a formation current of 350 kA with a rise time less than 10 {mu}s. Although the CT acceleration bank units are equipped with 14 ignitron switches instead of gap switches to attenuate the discharge noise level, an acceleration current of 400 kA with a short rise time of 9 {mu}s is controlled within a jitter of much less than 1 {mu}s. The resulting CT velocity and mass density satisfy the requirements for CT penetration into the tokamak plasma core at a toroidal field of 1 T. This CT injection system is thus suitable for CT injection in a middle-sized tokamak plasma such as the JFT-2M tokamak.

  17. Compact toroid injection system for JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, N.; Ogawa, H.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T.; Shibata, T.; Kashiwa, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Kusama, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The compact toroid (CT) injection system for JFT-2M is composed of a CT injector, a gas delivery and vacuum system, a power supply system, and a diagnostics system. In particular, the power supply system delivers high performance for CT formation and acceleration. The CT formation capacitor bank unit achieved a formation current of 350 kA with a rise time less than 10 μs. Although the CT acceleration bank units are equipped with 14 ignitron switches instead of gap switches to attenuate the discharge noise level, an acceleration current of 400 kA with a short rise time of 9 μs is controlled within a jitter of much less than 1 μs. The resulting CT velocity and mass density satisfy the requirements for CT penetration into the tokamak plasma core at a toroidal field of 1 T. This CT injection system is thus suitable for CT injection in a middle-sized tokamak plasma such as the JFT-2M tokamak

  18. Trends in Japanese coal trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, S

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses 1) the latest forecast for coal demand in Japan; 2) trends in Japanese steam coal demand, with breakdown by industry; 3) the organization of steam coal supply, with details of the distribution network and of the new coal cartridge system; 4) the demand for metallurgical coal. Other topics outlined include the current status of Japanese coal production, Japanese coal trade, and the development of overseas coal resources. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  19. Assessment of industrial energy options based on coal and nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.D.; Bowers, H.I.; Bryan, R.H.; Delene, J.G.; Hise, E.C.; Jones, J.E. Jr.; Klepper, O.H.; Reed, S.A.; Spiewak, I.

    1975-07-01

    Industry consumes about 40 percent of the total primary energy used in the United States. Natural gas and oil, the major industrial fuels, are becoming scarce and expensive; therefore, there is a critical national need to develop alternative sources of industrial energy based on the more plentiful domestic fuels--coal and nuclear. This report gives the results of a comparative assessment of nuclear- and coal-based industrial energy systems which includes technical, environmental, economic, and resource aspects of industrial energy supply. The nuclear options examined were large commercial nuclear power plants (light-water reactors or high-temperature gas-cooled reactors) and a small [approximately 300-MW(t)] special-purpose pressurized-water reactor for industrial applications. Coal-based systems selected for study were those that appear capable of meeting environmental standards, especially with respect to sulfur dioxide; these are (1) conventional firing using either low- or high-sulfur coal with stack-gas scrubbing equipment, (2) fluidized-bed combustion using high-sulfur coal, (3) low- and intermediate-Btu gas, (4) high-Btu pipeline-quality gas, (5) solvent-refined coal, (6) liquid boiler fuels, and (7) methanol from coal. Results of the study indicated that both nuclear and coal fuel can alleviate the industrial energy deficit resulting from the decline in availability of natural gas and oil. However, because of its broader range of application and relative ease of implementation, coal is expected to be the more important substitute industrial fuel over the next 15 years. In the longer term, nuclear fuels could assume a major role for supplying industrial steam. (U.S.)

  20. The injection system of the stretcher ring ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreist, A.

    1989-07-01

    For the stretcher ring ELSA in the framwork of this thesis an injection system has been concipated and constructed which should allow all projected operational modes of this stretcher ring, the stretcher, the post-acceleration, and the accumulation mode. The proof could be performed that the realized concept allows all these operational modes. Furthermore it could be shown that the injection shifted from the equilibrium orbit has no disadvantageous effects on a uniform extraction and by this on a high touching ratio. In fact it is even possible to apply the decay of the coherent betatron oscillations around the equilibrium orbit, caused by injection of the incident beam shifted from the equilibrium orbit, to diagnosis purposes: By reproduction of this damping process in a simulation model statements on nonlinearities present in the ring and by this statements on the actual phase-space structure are possible. It has so been shown that the concept presented in this thesis and realized for this thesis represents a suited injection system for the stretcher ring ELSA. (orig.) [de

  1. ASPEN Plus simulation of coal integrated gasification combined blast furnace slag waste heat recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Wenjun; Yu, Qingbo; Wang, Kun; Qin, Qin; Hou, Limin; Yao, Xin; Wu, Tianwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated system of coal gasification with slag waste heat recovery was proposed. • The goal of BF slag heat saving and emission reduction was achieved by this system. • The optimal parameters were obtained and the waste heat recovery rate reached 83.08%. • About 6.64 kmol/min syngas was produced when using one ton BF slag to provide energy. - Abstract: This article presented a model for the system of coal gasification with steam and blast furnace slag waste heat recovery by using the ASPEN Plus as the simulating and modeling tool. Constrained by mass and energy balance for the entire system, the model included the gasifier used to product syngas at the chemical equilibrium based on the Gibbs free energy minimization approach and the boiler used to recover the heat of the blast furnace slag (BF slag) and syngas. Two parameters of temperature and steam to coal ratio (S/C) were considered to account for their impacts on the Datong coal (DT coal) gasification process. The carbon gasification efficiency (CE), cold gasification efficiency (CGE), syngas product efficiency (PE) and the heating value of syngas produced by 1 kg pulverized coal (HV) were adopted as the indicators to examine the gasification performance. The optimal operating temperature and S/C were 800 °C and 1.5, respectively. At this condition, CE reached above 90% and the maximum values of the CGE, PE and HV were all obtained. Under the optimal operating conditions, 1000 kg/min BF slag, about 40.41 kg/min DT pulverized coal and 77.94 kg/min steam were fed into the gasifier and approximate 6.64 kmol/min syngas could be generated. Overall, the coal was converted to clean syngas by gasification reaction and the BF slag waste heat was also recovered effectively (reached up to 83.08%) in this system, achieving the objective of energy saving and emission reduction

  2. Contractile injection systems of bacteriophages and related systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Nicholas M I; van Raaij, Mark J; Leiman, Petr G

    2018-01-01

    Contractile tail bacteriophages, or myobacteriophages, use a sophisticated biomolecular structure to inject their genome into the bacterial host cell. This structure consists of a contractile sheath enveloping a rigid tube that is sharpened by a spike-shaped protein complex at its tip. The spike ...

  3. Organic coal reserves in field and forest systems vs. Avifauna biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyszko-Podgórska Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the occurrence of birds depending on the use of the area and the content of organic coal in field-and-forest systems. The research demonstrated a great diversity of bird species and great differences in the content of organic coal in individual areas. According to the conducted analyses, human economic activity can influence the content of organic coal and, therefore, it also influences the occurrence of specific bird species. In connection with the fact that the entire area covered with the research has been modelled by humans, the content of organic coal, the composition of bird species and their functioning in spatial systems are derivatives of such an activity.

  4. Use of coal-water mixtures in blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malgarini, G; Giuli, M; Davide, A; Carlesi, C [Centro Sviluppo Materiali, Rome (Italy); Italsider, Genoa [Italy; Deltasider, Piombino [Italy

    1989-03-01

    At the present time, an ironworks blast furnace employing a pulverized coal injection (PCI) system is in operation at the Piombino Works (Italy). A wide development, within this industry, of PCI techniques is expected in the near future to limit, as much as possible, the rebuilding of coke ovens. Research activities and industrial trials aimed at maximizing the use of coal injection into blast furnaces are in course of development. This paper uses flowsheets to illustrate such a system and provides graphs to indicate the economic convenience of PCI systems as compared with systems using naphtha as an injected fuel.

  5. An experimental study of injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends on a common rail injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dong; Wang, Chunhai; Duan, Yaozong; Tian, Zhisong; Huang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are investigated on a common rail injection system. The injection rate, fuel spray evolution process (tip penetration distance, spray cone angle, projected spray area and relative brightness intensity contour) and microscopic droplet features are analyzed. The results show that diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates, earlier starts of injection and shorter injection delays, but little variances are observed in the mass injection rates for different test fuels. Increased gasoline proportion in the test blends causes slightly decreased spray tip penetration distance but increased spray cone angle. Also, more smaller-size droplets are observed in the fuel jet of the diesel and gasoline blends, indicating that the spray breakup and atomization processes are promoted. - Highlights: • Injection rate and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are studied. • Diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates. • Earlier starts of injection are found when using diesel and gasoline blends. • Diesel and gasoline blends produce shorter spray penetration but higher cone angle. • The number of small droplets increases in the spray of diesel and gasoline blends

  6. Thermodynamic comparison and efficiency enhancement mechanism of coal to alternative fuel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xiaozhou; Li, Sheng; Gao, Lin; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and exergy analysis are presented to three coal-to-alternative-fuels systems. • Internal reasons for performance differences for different systems are disclosed. • The temperature and heat release of synthesis reactions are key to plant efficiency. • The distillation unit and purge gas recovery are important to efficiency enhancement. - Abstract: Coal to alternative fuels is an important path to enforce energy security and to provide clean energy. In this paper, we use exergy analysis and energy utilization diagram (EUD) methods to disclose the internal reasons for performance differences in typical coal to alternative fuel processes. ASPEN plus software is used to simulate the coal-based energy systems, and the simulation results are verified with engineering data. Results show that coal to substitute natural gas (SNG) process has a higher exergy efficiency of 56.56%, while the exergy efficiency of traditional coal to methanol process is 48.65%. It is indicated that three key factors impact the performance enhancement of coal to alternative fuel process: (1) whether the fuel is distillated, (2) the synthesis temperature and the amount of heat release from reactions, and (3) whether the chemical purge gases from synthesis and distillation units are recovered. Distillation unit is not recommended and synthesis at high temperature and with large heat release is preferable for coal to alternative fuel systems. Gasification is identified as the main source of exergy destruction, and thereby how to decrease its destruction is the key direction of plant efficiency improvement in the future. Also, decreasing the power consumption in air separation unit by seeking for advanced technologies, i.e. membrane, or using another kind of oxidant is another direction to improve plant performance.

  7. Simulation of one-dimensional heat transfer system based on the blended coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y. G.; Li, W. B.; Cheng, Z. S.; Cheng, J. W.; liu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the supercritical boiler thermodynamic calculation model is studied. Three types of heat exchangers are proposed, namely furnace (total radiation type), semi-radiation and convection, and discussed. Two cases were simulated - mixing of two bituminous coals and mixing of a bituminous coal and lignite- order to analyze the performance on the flue gas side. The study shows that the influence of flue air leakage and gas distribution coefficient on the system.

  8. The Rheology of a Three Component System: COAL/WATER/#4 Oil Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Barbara Jean

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the rheology of a three component system, coal/water/#4 oil emulsions (COW), in which the third component, water, was present in a significant concentration, and to determine the applicability of existing theories from suspension rheology to the three component system studied. In a coal/water/oil emulsion, free coal particles adhere to the surface of the water droplets, preventing their coagulation, while the larger coal particles reside in the matrix of stabilized water droplets. The use of liquid fuels containing coal is a means of utilizing our nation's coal reserves while conserving oil. These fuels can be burned in conventional oil-fired furnaces. In this investigation, a high sulfur, high ash, bituminous coal was used, along with a heavy #4 oil to prepare the emulsions. The coal was ground to a log-normal distribution with an average particle size of 62 microns. A Haake RV3 concentric cylinder viscometer, with a ribbed measuring system, was used to determine the viscosity of the emulsions. A physical pendulum settling device measured the shift in center of mass of the COW as a function of time. The flow behavior of the fuel in pipes was also tested. In interpreting the data from the viscometer and the pipe flow experiments, a power law analysis was used in the region from 30 s('-1) to 200 s('-1). Extrapolation methods were used to obtain the low and high shear behavior of the emulsions. In the shear rate region found in boiler feed systems, COW are shear thinning with a flow behavior index of 0.7. The temperature dependent characteristic of the emulsions studied were similar and followed an Arrhenius type relationship. The viscosity of the COW decreases with increasing coal average particle size and is also a function of the width of the size distribution used. The type of coal used strongly influences the rheology of the fuel. The volatile content and the atomic oxygen to nitrogen ratio of the coal are the most

  9. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. (ed.); Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexingt

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles What determines their composition Whether or not particles deposit How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  10. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200 degrees C (2,200 degrees F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed

  11. Australian coal mine methane emissions mitigation potential using a Stirling engine-based CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meybodi, Mehdi Aghaei; Behnia, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Methane, a major contributor to global warming, is a greenhouse gas emitted from coal mines. Abundance of coal mines and consequently a considerable amount of methane emission requires drastic measures to mitigate harmful effects of coal mining on the environment. One of the commonly adopted methods is to use emitted methane to fuel power generation systems; however, instability of fuel sources hinders the development of systems using conventional prime movers. To address this, application of Stirling engines may be considered. Here, we develop a techno-economic methodology for conducting an optimisation-based feasibility study on the application of Stirling engines as the prime movers of coal mine CHP systems from an economic and an environmental point of view. To examine the impact of environmental policies on the economics of the system, the two commonly implemented ones (i.e. a carbon tax and emissions trading scheme) are considered. The methodology was applied to a local coal mine. The results indicate that incorporating the modelled system not only leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but also to improved economics. Further, due to the heavy economic burden, the carbon tax scheme creates great incentive for coal mine industry to address the methane emissions. -- Highlights: •We study the application of Stirling engines in coal mine CHP systems. •We develop a thermo-economic approach based on the net present worth analysis. •We examine the impact of a carbon tax and ETS on the economics of the system. •The modeled system leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. •Carbon tax provides a greater incentive to address the methane emissions

  12. Environmentally favourable electricity production using allothermal coal gasification in accordance with the MBG system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rost, M.; Heek, K.H. van; Knop, K.

    1988-01-01

    Combined gas- and steam turbine power plants with integrated coal gasification are an important foundation alone for the further development of coal processing. The basis of the development is a new allothermal coal gasification system in a fluidized bed, which has been developed from the long operating experience accumulated at a half-scale plant. In contrast with the concept adopted so far of combination with nuclear process heat, in the MGB system (M.A.N.-Bergbauforschung-Gaserzeugung) the reaction heat required for the gasification is obtained by burning part of the coal gas produced. The gasification in the fluidized bed occurs at temperatures of between 800 and 850 0 C within a pressure range of between 20 and 25 bar. The paper describes the integration of the MBG system into a 250 MW power plant as well as the state of development of allothermal coal gasification and test results from the half-scale experimental plant. The construction of a demonstration plant, which will be incorporated in the bypass of a bituminous coal-fired unit, is planned in order to prove the function of the gas generator. (orig.) [de

  13. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  14. Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.S.; Elischer, V.P.; Goldberg, D.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Jacobson, V.L.; Lou, K.H.; Tanabe, J.T.

    1981-03-01

    In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs

  15. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    OpenAIRE

    Madhav, K. V.; Kovacevic, A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an in...

  16. Design study of electrostatic inflector in compact cyclotron injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianjue; Fan Mingwu

    1996-01-01

    The beam dynamics behaviour in electrostatic inflector is investigated for a vertical type injection system to a compact cyclotron. The computer aided design and matching of the inflector are based on the simulation of computed beam orbit. Modeling and simulation are done on PC-486 to form a software package. The software package can be used to develop a new type cyclotron design combining with the software package CYCCAE developed by China Institute of Atomic Energy three years ago

  17. Fiber-Based, Injection-Molded Optofluidic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteucci, Marco; Triches, Marco; Nava, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to fabricate polymer optofluidic systems by means of injection molding that allow the insertion of standard optical fibers. The chip fabrication and assembly methods produce large numbers of robust optofluidic systems that can be easily assembled and disposed of, yet allow...... out two types of experiments that benefit from the improved optical system: optical stretching of red blood cells (RBCs) and Raman spectroscopy of a solution loaded into a hollow core fiber. The advantages offered by the presented technology are intended to encourage the use of LoC technology...

  18. Maintenance and Recovery of Water System for Injection (WFI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Anuar Wan Awang; Ahmad Firdaus Jalil; Wan Mohd Firdaus Wan Ishak

    2015-01-01

    Water system for injection (WFI) is one of the main component in manufacturing pharmaceutical materials and radiopharmaceuticals. This system accredited in 2005. Water quality produced analyzed and give the unsatisfied results. The operation of WFI was stopped temporarily due to technical problems. In 2013, recovery works were implemented with budget of RM 226,500.00. Comprehensive maintenance were implemented by Rykertech (Asia) Sdn. Bhd. With duration of 24 months (October 2014 until September 2016) with cost RM 473,550.00. Now, this system operated in good condition and produced water that meet with the specifications. (author)

  19. Geographic information system (GIS) representation of coal-bearing areas in India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. Prior to this study, no GIS file representing the occurrence of coal-bearing units in India or Bangladesh was known to exist. This Open-File Report contains downloadable shapefiles representing the coalfields of India and Bangladesh and a limited number of chemical and petrographic analyses of India and Bangladesh coal samples. Also included are maps of India and Bangladesh showing the locations of the coalfields and coal samples in the shapefiles, figures summarizing the stratigraphic units in the coalfields of India and Bangladesh, and a brief report summarizing the stratigraphy and geographic locations of coal-bearing deposits in India and Bangladesh.

  20. Mercury Emissions Capture Efficiency with Activated Carbon Injection at a Russian Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA-led project, conducted in collaboration with UNEP, the Swedish Environmental Institute and various Russian Institutes, that demonstrates that the mercury emission control efficiencies of activated carbon injection technologies applied at a Russian power plant burning Rus...

  1. Optimum design of the injection duct system of a stenter machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juraeva, Makhsuda; Song, Dong Joo [Yeungnam University, Geyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kyung Jin [Ajou Motor College, Boryeong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Stenter machines are used for drying fabrics in the textile industry and have a heater, injection duct system, and fans inside a chamber. The injection duct system has ducts and air-injecting holes. Plane-type injection duct systems were investigated to obtain uniform airflow at the air-injecting holes. The flow field of the injection duct systems was computed using ANSYS CFX with different heights of the duct end and different shapes for the air-injecting holes. There was a high mass flow rate at the air-injecting holes and high airflow circulation inside both plane-type and mountain-type ducts at the ends. The height of the duct end was varied between 40 mm and 160 mm. The injection duct systems were analyzed with four different shapes of air-injecting holes. The circular and elliptical holes had lower standard deviations of the mass flow rate than other shapes. Relatively uniform mass flow rates were obtained in the plane-type and mountain-type duct systems when the height of the duct end was 40 mm and the shape of the air-injecting holes was circular or elliptical. The developed injection duct systems were improved by obtaining a uniform mass flow rate at the air-injecting holes. A stenter prototype was fabricated with the developed injection duct system to confirm the numerical results. The developed injection duct system had better performance than the original system.

  2. Converting coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avigliano, A. [Bedeschi (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    In September 2005, Bedeschi was commissioned to design and supply a coal unloading, conveying and storage facility for a new raw coal line system within Hatien II Cement Co. The new plant is composed of a grab unloader, a conveyor system, a storage shed with stacking and reclaiming facilities, a complete dedusting system and civil and steel structure engineering. The scope of supply includes a local fabrication portion; however, main components will be imported. The project will be completed in 21 months. The paper looks into the mechanics of loading and unloading coal. 4 figs., 4 photos.

  3. An emergency water injection system (EWIS) for future CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Andre L.F.; Todreas, Neil E.; Driscoll, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of the feasibility and effectiveness of water injection into the annulus between the calandria tubes and the pressure tubes of CANDU reactors. The purpose is to provide an efficient decay heat removal process that avoids permanent deformation of pressure tubes severe accident conditions, such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The water injection may present the benefit of cost reduction and better actuation of other related safety systems. The experimental work was conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in a setup that simulated, as close as possible, a CANDU bundle annular configuration, with heat fluxes on the order of 90 kW/m 2 : the inner cylinder simulates the pressure tube and the outer tube represents the calandria tube. The experimental matrix had three dimensions: power level, annulus water level and boundary conditions. The results achieved overall heat transfer coefficients (U), which are comparable to those required (for nominal accident progression) to avoid pressure tube permanent deformation, considering current CANDU reactor data. Nonetheless, future work should be carried out to investigate the fluid dynamics such as blowdown behavior, in the peak bundle, and the system lay-out inside the containment to provide fast water injection. (author)

  4. Performance characterization of pneumatic single pellet injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuresko, D.D.; Milora, S.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Foster, C.A.; Combs, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory single-shot pellet injector, which has been used in plasma fueling experiments on ISX and PDX, has been upgraded and extensively instrumented in order to study the gas dyamics of pneumatic pellet injection. An improved pellet transport line was developed which utilizes a 0.3-cm-diam by 100-cm-long guide tube. Pellet gun performance was characterized by measurements of breech and muzzle dynamic pressures and by pellet velocity and mass determinations. Velocities of up to 1.4 km/s were achieved for intact hydrogen pellets using hydrogen propellant at 5-MPa breech pressure. These data have been compared with new pellet acceleration calculations which include the effects of propellant friction, heat transfer, time-dependent boundary conditions, and finite gun geometry. These results provide a basis for the extrapolation of present-day pneumatic injection system performance to velocities in excess of 2 km/s

  5. Performance characterization of pneumatic single pellet injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuresko, D.D.; Milora, S.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Foster, C.A.; Combs, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory single-shot pellet injector, which has been used in plasma fueling experiments on ISX and PDX, has been upgraded and extensively instrumented in order to study the gas dynamics of pneumatic pellet injection. An improved pellet transport line was developed which utilizes a 0.3-cm-diam by 100-cm-long guide tube. Pellet gun performance was characterized by measurements of breech and muzzle dynamic pressures and by pellet velocity and mass determinations. Velocities up to 1.4 km/s were achieved for intact hydrogen pellets using hydrogen propellant at 5-MPa breech pressure. These data have been compared with new pellet acceleration calculations which include the effects of propellant friction, heat transfer, time-dependent boundary conditions, and finite gun geometry. These results provide a basis for the extrapolation of present-day pneumatic injection system performance to velocities in excess of 2 km/s

  6. Electrical spin injection into high mobility 2D systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltscher, M; Ciorga, M; Utz, M; Schuh, D; Bougeard, D; Weiss, D

    2014-12-05

    We report on spin injection into a high mobility 2D electron system confined at an (Al,Ga)As/GaAs interface, using (Ga,Mn)As Esaki diode contacts as spin aligners. We measured a clear nonlocal spin valve signal, which varies nonmonotonically with the applied bias voltage. The magnitude of the signal cannot be described by the standard spin drift-diffusion model, because at maximum this would require the spin polarization of the injected current to be much larger than 100%, which is unphysical. A strong correlation of the spin signal with contact width and electron mean free path suggests that ballistic transport in the 2D region below ferromagnetic contacts should be taken into account to fully describe the results.

  7. Power injected in dissipative systems and the fluctuation theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumaître, S.; Fauve, S.; McNamara, S.; Poggi, P.

    We consider three examples of dissipative dynamical systems involving many degrees of freedom, driven far from equilibrium by a constant or time dependent forcing. We study the statistical properties of the injected and dissipated power as well as the fluctuations of the total energy of these systems. The three systems under consideration are: a shell model of turbulence, a gas of hard spheres colliding inelastically and excited by a vibrating piston, and a Burridge-Knopoff spring-block model. Although they involve different types of forcing and dissipation, we show that the statistics of the injected power obey the ``fluctuation theorem" demonstrated in the case of time reversible dissipative systems maintained at constant total energy, or in the case of some stochastic processes. Although this may be only a consequence of the theory of large deviations, this allows a possible definition of ``temperature" for a dissipative system out of equilibrium. We consider how this ``temperature" scales with the energy and the number of degrees of freedom in the different systems under consideration.

  8. Hydrogen ion species analysis and related neutral beam injection power assessment in the Heliotron E neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Fumimichi; Obiki, Tokuhiro; Sasaki, Akihiko; Iiyoshi, Atsuo; Uo, Koji

    1982-01-01

    The hydrogen ion species in a Heliotron E neutral beam injection system of maximum electric power 6.3 MW were analyzed in order to assess the neutral beam power injected into the torus. The masimum p roton ratio of the cylindrical bucket type ion source used was observed to be more than 90 percent assuming that the angular divergences for the respective species in the beam are the same. The experimental data are compared with calculations using a particle balance model. The analysis indicates that the net injection power reaches nearly 2.7 MW at the optimal conditions of the system considering the geometrical limitation of the neutral beam path. (author)

  9. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  10. Lightweight monitoring and control system for coal mine safety using REST style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Cheng, Xin; Chen, Junliang

    2015-01-01

    The complex environment of a coal mine requires the underground environment, devices and miners to be constantly monitored to ensure safe coal production. However, existing coal mines do not meet these coverage requirements because blind spots occur when using a wired network. In this paper, we develop a Web-based, lightweight remote monitoring and control platform using a wireless sensor network (WSN) with the REST style to collect temperature, humidity and methane concentration data in a coal mine using sensor nodes. This platform also collects information on personnel positions inside the mine. We implement a RESTful application programming interface (API) that provides access to underground sensors and instruments through the Web such that underground coal mine physical devices can be easily interfaced to remote monitoring and control applications. We also implement three different scenarios for Web-based, lightweight remote monitoring and control of coal mine safety and measure and analyze the system performance. Finally, we present the conclusions from this study and discuss future work. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of low capacity injection systems on transient initiated loss of vessel water injection at Browns Ferry unit one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, L.T.

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) analyses have indicated the transient initiated loss of vessel water injection (TQUV sequence) to be a dominant accident scenario for BWR plants. The PRA studies assumed the low capacity injection systems to be unimportant in severe accidents. The results of a Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program study have shown that these systems are capable of preventing or significantly delaying core damage in a TQUV sequence

  12. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS for interventional tool guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Guo

    Full Text Available Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking.

  13. Methodology for surge pressure evaluation in a water injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliande, Patricia; Nascimento, Elson A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Mascarenhas, Flavio C.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica Computacional; Dandoulakis, Joao P. [SHELL of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Predicting transient effects, known as surge pressures, is of high importance for offshore industry. It involves detailed computer modeling that attempts to simulate the complex interaction between flow line and fluid in order to ensure efficient system integrity. Platform process operators normally raise concerns whether the water injection system is adequately designed or not to be protected against possible surge pressures during sudden valve closure. This report aims to evaluate the surge pressures in Bijupira and Salema water injection systems due to valve closure, through a computer model simulation. Comparisons among the results from empirical formulations are discussed and supplementary analysis for Salema system were performed in order to define the maximum volumetric flow rate for which the design pressure was able to withstand. Maximum surge pressure values of 287.76 bar and 318.58 bar, obtained in Salema and Bijupira respectively, using empirical formulations have surpassed the operating pressure design, while the computer model results have pointed the greatest surge pressure value of 282 bar in Salema system. (author)

  14. [Systemic safety following intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillif, S; Levy, B; Girmens, J-F; Dumas, S; Tadayoni, R

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this manuscript is to assess data suggesting that intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (anti-VEGFs) could result in systemic adverse events (AEs). The class-specific systemic AEs should be similar to those encountered in cancer trials. The most frequent AE observed in oncology, hypertension and proteinuria, should thus be the most common expected in ophthalmology, but their severity should be lower because of the much lower doses of anti-VEGFs administered intravitreally. Such AEs have not been frequently reported in ophthalmology trials. In addition, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data describing systemic diffusion of anti-VEGFs should be interpreted with caution because of significant inconsistencies reported. Thus, safety data reported in ophthalmology trials and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data provide robust evidence that systemic events after intravitreal injection are very unlikely. Additional studies are needed to explore this issue further, as much remains to be understood about local and systemic side effects of anti-VEGFs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Strontium-rich injectable hybrid system for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Nuno, E-mail: nsmneves@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); INEB — Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto (Portugal); FMUP — Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Cirurgia, Serviço de Ortopedia, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Campos, Bruno B. [FCUP — Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Centro de Investigação em Química, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Rua do Campo Alegre 1021/1055, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Almeida, Isabel F.; Costa, Paulo C. [FFUP — Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratório de Tecnologia Farmacêutica, Departamento de Ciências do Medicamento, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Cabral, Abel Trigo [FMUP — Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Cirurgia, Serviço de Ortopedia, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2016-02-01

    Current challenges in the development of scaffolds for bone regeneration include the engineering of materials that can withstand normal dynamic physiological mechanical stresses exerted on the bone and provide a matrix capable of supporting cell migration and tissue ingrowth. The objective of the present work was to develop and characterize a hybrid polymer–ceramic injectable system that consists of an alginate matrix crosslinked in situ in the presence of strontium (Sr), incorporating a ceramic reinforcement in the form of Sr-rich microspheres. The incorporation of Sr in the microspheres and in the vehicle relies on the growing evidence that Sr has beneficial effects in bone remodeling and in the treatment of osteopenic disorders and osteoporosis. Sr-rich porous hydroxyapatite microspheres with a uniform size and a mean diameter of 555 μm were prepared, and their compression strength and friability tested. A 3.5% (w/v) ultrapure sodium alginate solution was used as the vehicle and its in situ gelation was promoted by the addition of calcium (Ca) or Sr carbonate and Glucone-δ-lactone. Gelation times varied with temperature and crosslinking agent, being slower for Sr than for Ca, but adequate for injection in both cases. Injectability was evaluated using a device employed in vertebroplasty surgical procedures, coupled to a texture analyzer in compression mode. Compositions with 35% w of microspheres presented the best compromise between injectability and compression strength of the system, the force required to extrude it being lower than 100 N. Micro CT analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of the microspheres inside the vehicle, and a mean inter-microspheres space of 220 μm. DMA results showed that elastic behavior of the hybrid is dominant over the viscous one and that the higher storage modulus was obtained for the 3.5%Alg–35%Sr-HAp-Sr formulation. - Highlights: • We developed a Sr rich viscoelastic hybrid system (alginate matrix crosslinked in

  16. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (survey of the coal utilization in Pakistan); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Pakistan ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper made a literature survey, hearing survey, site survey/study on the coal in Pakistan such as the coal utilization system and the environmental situation, etc., and aimed at pre-examination for the survey of the introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system to be planned in Pakistan in the future. The examination, data collection and preparation were conducted in terms of the following items: the structure of coal consumption in energy supply, structure of coal consumption, mainly of domestic brown coal consumption, the situation of coal utilization by industry and by region, environmental problems caused by coal utilization such as air pollution, the trend of policies of environmental regulation, etc. The literature on the following was obtained and surveyed: the situation of economy/energy in Pakistan, coal utilization technology by industrial field, and environmental protection technology. The hearing survey was made to institutions concerned, corporation groups and men of learning and experience. Site surveys were conducted for the typically selected coal utilization equipment and existing environmental protection equipment. 66 figs., 56 tabs.

  17. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C

    2000-07-01

    in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping waste of rubber is mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1998 was 370 SEK/ton or the same as in 1997. For the world, the average import price fell about 6 USD/ton to 32 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1999 as a result of the crisis in Asia but are now stabilising as a result of increasing oil prices. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO{sub 2}-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, in Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a catalytic NO{sub x}-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NO{sub x}- burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO{sub x}-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 700 tons in 1998, a minor decrease compared to 1997. The trade, however, has increased about 3 % to 520 mill tons. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1,7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong

  18. Report of activities of the advanced coal extraction systems definition project, 1979 - 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, M. L.; Isenberg, L.

    1981-01-01

    During this period effort was devoted to: formulation of system performance goals in the areas of production cost, miner safety, miner health, environmental impact, and coal conservation, survey and in depth assessment of promising technology, and characterization of potential resource targets. Primary system performance goals are to achieve a return on incremental investment of 150% of the value required for a low risk capital improvement project and to reduce deaths and disability injuries per million man-hour by 50%. Although these performance goals were developed to be immediately applicable to the Central Appalachian coal resources, they were also designed to be readily adaptable to other coals by appending a geological description of the new resource. The work done on technology assessment was concerned with the performance of the slurry haulage system.

  19. Coal to SNG: Technical progress, modeling and system optimization through exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sheng; Ji, Xiaozhou; Zhang, Xiaosong; Gao, Lin; Jin, Hongguang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Technical progresses of coal to SNG technologies are reported. • The entire coal to SNG system is modeled. • Coupling between SNG production and power generation is investigated. • Breakthrough points for further energy saving are determined. • System performance is optimized based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. - Abstract: For both energy security and CO 2 emission reduction, synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from coal is an important path to implement clean coal technologies in China. In this paper, an overview of the progress of coal to SNG technologies, including the development of catalysts, reactor designs, synthesis processes, and systems integration, is provided. The coal to SNG system is modeled, the coupling between SNG production and power generation is investigated, the breakthrough points for further energy savings are determined, and the system performance is optimized based on the first and the second laws of thermodynamics. From the viewpoint of the first law of thermodynamics, the energy conversion efficiency of coal to SNG system can reach 59.8%. To reduce the plant auxiliary power, the breakthrough points are the development of low-energy-consumption oxygen production technology and gas purification technology or seeking new oxidants for coal gasification instead of oxygen. From the viewpoint of the second law of thermodynamics, the major exergy destruction in a coal to SNG system occurs in the coal gasification unit, SNG synthesis unit and the raw syngas cooling process. How to reduce the exergy destruction in these units is the key to energy savings and system performance enhancement. The conversion ratio of the first SNG synthesis reactor and the split ratio of the recycle gas are key factors that determine the performance of both the SNG synthesis process and the whole plant. A “turning point” phenomenon is observed: when the split ratio is higher than 0.90, the exergy destruction of the SNG

  20. Prediction of China's coal production-environmental pollution based on a hybrid genetic algorithm-system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shiwei; Wei Yiming

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid model based on genetic algorithm (GA) and system dynamics (SD) for coal production–environmental pollution load in China. GA has been utilized in the optimization of the parameters of the SD model to reduce implementation subjectivity. The chain of “Economic development–coal demand–coal production–environmental pollution load” of China in 2030 was predicted, and scenarios were analyzed. Results show that: (1) GA performs well in optimizing the parameters of the SD model objectively and in simulating the historical data; (2) The demand for coal energy continuously increases, although the coal intensity has actually decreased because of China's persistent economic development. Furthermore, instead of reaching a turning point by 2030, the environmental pollution load continuously increases each year even under the scenario where coal intensity decreased by 20% and investment in pollution abatement increased by 20%; (3) For abating the amount of “three types of wastes”, reducing the coal intensity is more effective than reducing the polluted production per tonne of coal and increasing investment in pollution control. - Highlights: ► We propos a GA-SD model for China's coal production-pollution prediction. ► Genetic algorithm (GA) can objectively and accurately optimize parameters of system dynamics (SD) model. ► Environmental pollution in China is projected to grow in our scenarios by 2030. ► The mechanism of reducing waste production per tonne of coal mining is more effective than others.

  1. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. (ed.); Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shim-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the computer codes developed for the coal combustion project. In Subsection B.1 the FORTRAN code developed for the percolative fragmentation model (or the discrete model, since a char is expressed as a collection of discrete elements in a discrete space) is presented. In Subsection B.2 the code for the continuum model (thus named because mineral inclusions are distributed in a continuum space) is presented. A stereological model code developed to obtain the pore size distribution from a two-dimensional data is presented in Subsection B.3.

  2. WGA-Alexa transsynaptic labeling in the phrenic motor system of adult rats: Intrapleural injection versus intradiaphragmatic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttry, Janelle L; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2015-02-15

    Intrapleural injection of CTB-Alexa 488, a retrograde tracer, provides an alternative labeling technique to the surgically invasive laparotomy required for intradiaphragmatic injection. However, CTB-Alexa 488 is incapable of crossing synapses restricting the tracer to the phrenic nuclei and the intercostal motor nuclei in the spinal cord. Intrapleural injection of WGA-Alexa 488, a transsynaptic tracer, provides a method to label the respiratory motor pathway in both the spinal cord and medulla. Intradiaphragmatic injection of WGA-Alexa 594 and vagal nerve injections of True blue were used to confirm the phrenic nuclei and to differentiate between the rVRG and the NA in the medulla. Following intrapleural injection, WGA-Alexa 488 was retrogradely transported to the phrenic nuclei and to the intercostal motor nuclei. Subsequently WGA-Alexa 488 was transsynaptically transported from the phrenic motoneurons to the pre-motor neurons in the rVRG that provide the descending drive to the phrenic neurons during inspiration. In addition WGA-Alexa 488 was identified in select cells of the NA confirmed by a dual label of both WGA-Alexa 488 and True blue. WGA-Alexa 488 demonstrates retrograde transsynaptic labeling following intrapleural injection whereas the previous method of injecting CTB-Alexa 488 only demonstrates retrograde labeling. Intrapleural injection of WGA-Alexa fluor conjugates is an effective method to transsynaptically label the phrenic motor system providing an alternative for the invasive laparotomy required for intradiaphragmatic injections. Furthermore, the study provides the first anatomical evidence of a direct synaptic relationship between rVRG and select NA cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  4. Control of Surge in Centrifugal Compressor by Using a Nozzle Injection System: Universality in Optimal Position of Injection Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Hirano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The passive control method for surge and rotating stall in centrifugal compressors by using a nozzle injection system was proposed to extend the stable operating range to the low flow rate. A part of the flow at the scroll outlet of a compressor was recirculated to an injection nozzle installed on the inner wall of the suction pipe of the compressor through the bypass pipe and injected to the impeller inlet. Two types of compressors were tested at the rotational speeds of 50,000 rpm and 60,000 rpm with the parameter of the circumferential position of the injection nozzle. The present experimental results revealed that the optimum circumferential position, which most effectively reduced the flow rate for the surge inception, existed at the opposite side of the tongue of the scroll against the rotational axis and did not depend on the compressor system and the rotational speeds.

  5. Recovery of invertebrate and vertebrate populations in a coal ash stressed drainage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of coal-ash basin effluent on the densities of macrobenthic invertebrate and mosquitofish populations in a swamp drainage system was studied for 50 months. The density of the aquatic biota was periodically altered by heavy ash siltation, decreased pH due to fly ash, and by arsenic, copper, selenium and zinc associated with coal ash. Siltation was most influential in decreasing numbers of invertebrates, and lowered pH (from 7.2 to 5.5) more influential in decreasing mosquito fish and retarding recovery of invertebrates. An efficient primary-secondary retaining basin system enabled most invertebrate groups to recover their previous level of abundance.

  6. Mathematical model for the technological system of working a thin coal bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isayev, V V

    1979-01-01

    The principle for constructing a mathematical model of working a thin coal bed using the adaptation criterion is examined. Intersecting parameters of the medium and the unit are presented. Based on these parameters, dependences are presented for the adaptation criterion and its maximization. A general mathematical model is presented for the technological system of unmanned extraction of a thin bed D/sub 5/ under conditions of the mine ''Dolinskaya'' of the Karaganda Basin. The work results can be used to plan technological systems for working thin coal beds.

  7. Fiscal 1997 for the upgrading of the Asia/Pacific coal development. Survey of the optimization of the coal transportation system in Indonesia; 1997 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Indonesia ni okeru sekitan yuso system saitekika chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summarized the results of Phase 1 and Phase 2 surveys conducted based on `Agreement on the comprehensive survey of a coal transportation system in South Sumatra` concluded between NEDO and the Ministry of Mine and Energy in Indonesia. In addition to the data collection and site surveys made in Phase 1, conducted in Phase 2 were determination of sites for harbors, determination of a scenario on coal transportation from coal mines to harbors, optimization of the coal transportation system, social/economic assessment, and proposal on the optimum transportation system. The results of the simulation were as follows: It is the most advantageous to transport coal from coal deposit area to harbor by rail and from harbor to Paiton by barge weighed over 10,000 tons. Tanjung Api Api is the most advantageous as harbor. The production scale which is profitable became more than 15 million tons. The present coal price of PTBA is $25/t arriving Suralaya. The coal in this case is said to be 5500kcal/kg in quality, and the coal of the same quality to this is only profitable. 8 refs., 68 figs., 104 tabs.

  8. Conceptual design of coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a coal-fueled diesel system was prepared as part of a previous systems study. Since then, our team has accumulated extensive results from testing coal-water slurry on the 13-inch bore JS engine (400 rpm) in 1987 and 1988. These results provided new insights into preferred design concepts for engine components. One objective, therefore, was to revise the preliminary design to incorporate these preferred design concepts. In addition there were certain areas where additional, more detailed analysis was required as a result of the previous conceptual design. Another objective, therefore was to perform additional detailed design efforts, such as: (1) market applications and engine sizes, (2) coal-water slurry cleaning and grinding processes, (3) emission controls and hot gas contaminant controls, (4) component durability, (5) cost and performance assessments. (VC)

  9. Development of integrated control system for smart factory in the injection molding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M. J.; Kim, C. Y.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we proposed integrated control system for automation of injection molding process required for construction of smart factory. The injection molding process consists of heating, tool close, injection, cooling, tool open, and take-out. Take-out robot controller, image processing module, and process data acquisition interface module are developed and assembled to integrated control system. By adoption of integrated control system, the injection molding process can be simplified and the cost for construction of smart factory can be inexpensive.

  10. A direct plasma injection system into an RFQ for clean and safe ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, T.; Katayama, T.; Okamura, M.; Yano, K.; Sakumi, A.; Hattori, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Jameson, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    A new injection system, direct plasma injection system, was tested and its principle was proved successfully. We found that one of advantages of this injection system was efficient consumption of source materials. Large portions of induced ions can be injected into a first stage accelerator. This feature is quite useful for ion implantation applications, because toxic exhaust gas can be eliminated. In order to utilize this system for industrial application, the feasibility of a boron injection scheme using a Nd:YAG laser system was investigated

  11. Fiscal 1997 feasibility survey of an environment friendly type coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environment friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam (case of Vietnam); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia oyobi Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Vietnam ban))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper grasped the state of coal utilization by coal consumption field, the state of coal physical flow in Vietnam, etc., surveyed/studied a possibility of introducing the environment friendly type coal utilization system, and assessed the possibility. As to energy resources, the north is abundant in hydroelectric and coal (mainly anthracite) resources, and the south in oil and natural gas resources. Coal production in fiscal 1997 is planned to be 10 million tons. Coal preparation technique presently available is only grain size sieving. Accordingly, it is necessary to study for heightening efficiency of facilities and modernizing facilities in accordance with the introduction of the environment friendly type coal utilization technology. During the study, it is possible to propose improvement on coal processing technology (coal preparation technology). Assessment and study are made especially of the coal selection system, fine coal recovery system and waste water treatment system. For the plan on new coal-fired power plants (300MWtimes4), there is left much necessity of proposing studying models considered of the anthracite combustion technology and environmental improvement and of assessing/studying them. 60 figs., 117 tabs.

  12. British Coal Compass project summary: colliery based manpower, personnel, scheduling and safety systems and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, V. [Oasis Group plc (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-01

    In early 1991 British Coal reviewed its existing personnel and manpower planning systems and concluded they were inadequate for the future needs of the business. British Coal`s strategy to continue to improve productivity required payroll and personnel related systems which could support new flexible working hours and variable shifts. This strategy would enable machine running time to be increased, leading to improved productivity levels. The Corporation chose to install a distributed, integrated computer system, code named `Compass` to devolve many of the responsibilities for the management and payment of the industrial workforce from Corporate headquarters` functions to all its collieries. The system consists of eight main software systems: an on-line, real-time time and attendance system; a ristering system; a colliery personnel system; a strategic manpower planning system; a local data capture system; a central, core payroll system; a corporate personnel database; and a fail-safe, resilience system. The article describes the technology used and discusses the benefits of the system which started operations in autumn 1993. 3 figs.

  13. Recovery of invertebrate and vertebrate populations in a coal ash stressed drainage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, D.S.; Larrick, S.R.; Guthrie, R.K.; Davis, E.M.; Sherberger, F.F.

    1979-09-01

    The influence of coal ash effluent on the densities of macrobenthic invertebrate and mosquitofish populations in a swamp drainage system was studied. Samples were collected during a period of 50 mo. Three perturbations in the swamp systemash siltation, low pH, and toxic elementscaused changes in population densities. Siltation from inefficient effluent management caused the greatest drop in invertebrate populations, and pH declines from flyash addition caused the greatest mosquitofish population reductions. Dipterans and odonates were most tolerant to coal ash stress. Invertebrate population recovery was observed on completion of an efficient ash retaining basin. (13 graphs, 28 references, 3 tables)

  14. Coal handling system structural analysis for modifications or plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufault, A.; Weider, F.; Doyle, P.

    1989-01-01

    One neglected aspect of plant modification or life extension is the extent to which previous projects may have affected the integrity of existing structures. During the course of a project to backfit fire protection facilities to existing coal handling systems, it was found that past modifications had added loads to existing coal handling structures which exceeded the available design margin. This paper describes the studies that discovered the original problem areas, as well as the detailed analysis and design considerations used to repair these structures

  15. Microcontroller-driven fluid-injection system for atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasas, S; Alonso, L; Jacquet, P; Adamcik, J; Haeberli, C; Dietler, G

    2010-01-01

    We present a programmable microcontroller-driven injection system for the exchange of imaging medium during atomic force microscopy. Using this low-noise system, high-resolution imaging can be performed during this process of injection without disturbance. This latter circumstance was exemplified by the online imaging of conformational changes in DNA molecules during the injection of anticancer drug into the fluid chamber.

  16. Injectable systems and implantable conduits for peripheral nerve repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yen-Chih; Marra, Kacey G

    2012-01-01

    Acute sensory problems following peripheral nerve injury include pain and loss of sensation. Approximately 360 000 people in the United States suffer from upper extremity paralytic syndromes every year. Restoration of sufficient functional recovery after long-gap peripheral nerve damage remains a clinical challenge. Potential nerve repair therapies have increased in the past decade as the field of tissue engineering expands. The following review describes the use of biomaterials in nerve tissue engineering. Namely, the use of both synthetic and natural biomaterials, including non-degradable and degradable nerve grafts, is addressed. The enhancement of axonal regeneration can be achieved by further modification of the nerve guides. These approaches include injectable hydrogel fillers, controlled drug delivery systems, and cell incorporation. Hydrogels are a class of liquid–gel biomaterials with high water content. Injectable and gelling hydrogels can serve as growth factor delivery vehicles and cell carriers for tissue engineering applications. While natural hydrogels and polymers are suitable for short gap nerve repair, the use of polymers for relatively long gaps remains a clinical challenge. (paper)

  17. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Antoni K.; Maxson, James A.; Hensinger, David M.

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  18. Using system dynamics for simulation and optimization of one coal industry system under fuzzy environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.P.; Li, X.F. [Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2011-09-15

    In this paper, we have developed a model that integrates system dynamics with fuzzy multiple objective programming (SD-FMOP). This model can be used to study the complex interactions in a industry system. In the process of confirming sensitive parameters and fuzzy variables of the SD model, we made use of fuzzy multi-objective programming to help yield the solution. We adopted the chance-constraint programming model to convert the fuzzy variables into precise values. We use genetic algorithm to solve FMOP model, and obtain the Pareto solution through the programming models. It is evident that FMOP is effective in optimizing the given system to obtain the decision objectives of the SD model. The results recorded from the SD model are in our option, reasonable and credible. These results may help governments to establish more effective policy related to the coal industry development.

  19. Feasibility study of environmentally friendly type coal utilization systems. Feasibility study of environmentally friendly type coal utilization systems in sectors except the coal industry in China; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku no sekitan kogyo igai no bumon ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of working out a comprehensive master plan for application of the coal utilization system, the paper surveyed and studied the coal utilization system in terms of environmental measures and efficiency improvement in the utilization of coal. As a result of the discussion with NEDO and the National Planning Committee of China, Liaoning Province (the whole China) and Shenyang City were selected as a model area and a model city for the survey and study. As energy conservation measures taken in the former, desirable are intensifying/capacity-increase of boilers, kilns, etc. and adoption of new-type/high-efficient equipment. Also expected are reinforcement of combustion control and improvement of efficiency by using coal preparation, industrial use coal briquette, etc. Measures taken in the latter are the same as those taken in the whole China. As SOx reduction measures for Liaoning Province, desirable is installation of dry-type desulfurization equipment and simple desulfurization equipment. As dust prevention measures for it, desirable is installation of electrostatic precipitators or high-functional bag filters. SOx reduction measures for Shenyang City are the same as those taken in the whole China. SOx can be reduced by using coal-prepared low-sulfur coal and industrial use coal briquette added with desulfurizing agent. 88 figs., 163 tabs.

  20. 21st century energy solutions. Coal and Power Systems FY2001 program briefing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The continued strength of American's economy depends on the availability of affordable energy, which has long been provided by the Nations rich supplies of fossil fuels. Forecasts indicate that fossil fuels will continue to meet much of the demand for economical electricity and transportation fuels for decades to come. It is projected that natural gas, oil, and coal will supply nearly 90% of US energy in 2020, with coal fueling around 50% of the electricity. It is essential to develop ways to achieve the objectives for a cleaner environment while using these low-cost, high-value fuels. A national commitment to improved technologies-for use in the US and abroad-is the solution. The Coal and Power Systems program is responding to this commitment by offering energy solutions to advance the clean, efficient, and affordable use of the Nations abundant fossil fuel resources. These solutions include: (1) Vision 21-A multi-product, pollution-free energy plant-producing electricity, fuels, and/or industry heat-could extract 80% or more of the energy value of coal and 85% or more of the energy value of natural gas; (2) Central Power Systems-Breakthrough turbines and revolutionary new gasification technologies that burn less coal and gas to obtain energy, while reducing emissions; (3) Distributed Generation-Fuel cell technology providing highly efficient, clean modular power; (4) Fuels-The coproduction of coal-derived transportation fuels and power from gasification-based technology; (5) Carbon Sequestration-Capturing greenhouse gases from the exhaust gases of combustion or other sources, or from the atmosphere itself, and storing them for centuries or recycling them into useful products; and (6) Advanced Research-Going beyond conventional thinking in the areas of computational science, biotechnology, and advanced materials

  1. Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala Krishnan; P. Jayaweera; J. Bao; J. Perez; K. H. Lau; M. Hornbostel; A. Sanjurjo; J. R. Albritton; R. P. Gupta

    2008-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's SECA program envisions the development of high-efficiency, low-emission, CO{sub 2} sequestration-ready, and fuel-flexible technology to produce electricity from fossil fuels. One such technology is the integrated gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that produces electricity from the gas stream of a coal gasifier. SOFCs have high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency, environmental compatibility (low NO{sub x} production), and modularity. Naturally occurring coal has many impurities and some of these impurities end in the fuel gas stream either as a vapor or in the form of fine particulate matter. Establishing the tolerance limits of SOFCs for contaminants in the coal-derived gas will allow proper design of the fuel feed system that will not catastrophically damage the SOFC or allow long-term cumulative degradation. The anodes of Ni-cermet-based SOFCs are vulnerable to degradation in the presence of contaminants that are expected to be present in a coal-derived fuel gas stream. Whereas the effects of some contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCl have been studied, the effects of other contaminants such as As, P, and Hg have not been ascertained. The primary objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells to trace level contaminants present in a coal-derived gas stream in the temperature range 700 to 900 C. The results were used to assess catastrophic damage risk and long-term cumulative effects of the trace contaminants on the lifetime expectancy of SOFC systems fed with coal-derived gas streams.

  2. Improving the effectiveness of boiler units with coal dust systems equipped with mill-ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsukov, V. K.

    2007-09-01

    Problems pertinent to controlling the load of steam boilers and coal dust systems equipped with mill-ventilators are analyzed. A comprehensive set of patented technical solutions for these problems is presented. A formula for determining the ventilation output of mill-ventilators as a function of the fuel charge is proposed.

  3. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in India); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Indo ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The survey was conducted of the present situation of coal utilization and the present coal situation such as the environmental state of India which is a coal producing/consuming country next to China in Asia. The paper studied a feasibility of the introduction of the environmental friendly type coal utilization system` to be planned in India. The items for survey are the present situation of economy and energy and the future trend, environmental problems on coal utilization, the present status of the coal distribution system and study subjects, the present status of coal utilization by field and study subjects, a possibility of briquette use, a possibility of coal fluidization, electric power development plans and coal combustion technology in each industry, etc. The subjects are the obligation of coal preparation to coal thermal power plants 1000 km away from coal mines starting 2001, measures taken for effective ash use, measures taken for superannuated gas furnaces, etc. Based on the results of these site surveys and reports of the investigation under consignment from CMPDI, the paper studied/analyzed possibilities of introducing the coal utilization system having actual introduction results in Japan to India, and made an investigational report. 39 refs., 12 figs., 56 tabs.

  4. Prospects for coal: technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, W G; Peirce, T J

    1983-07-01

    This article summarises the reasons for predicting an increase in the use of coal as an industrial energy source in the United Kingdom. The development of efficient and reliable coal-burning techniques is therefore of great importance. Various techniques are then discussed, including conventional combustion systems, fluidised bed combustion systems, fluidised bed boilers and furnaces, coal and ash handling, coal-liquid mixtures, coal gasification and coal liquefaction. (4 refs.)

  5. Upper Paleozoic coal measures and unconventional natural gas systems of the Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Tang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper Paleozoic coal measures in the Ordos Basin consist of dark mudstone and coal beds and are important source rocks for gas generation. Gas accumulations include coal-bed methane (CBM, tight gas and conventional gas in different structural areas. CBM accumulations are mainly distributed in the marginal area of the Ordos Basin, and are estimated at 3.5 × 1012 m3. Tight gas accumulations exist in the middle part of the Yishan Slope area, previously regarded as the basin-centered gas system and now considered as stratigraphic lithologic gas reservoirs. This paper reviews the characteristics of tight gas accumulations: poor physical properties (porosity < 8%, permeability < 0.85 × 10−3 μm2, abnormal pressure and the absence of well-defined gas water contacts. CBM is a self-generation and self-reservoir, while gas derived from coal measures migrates only for a short distance to accumulate in a tight reservoir and is termed near-generation and near-reservoir. Both CBM and tight gas systems require source rocks with a strong gas generation ability that extends together over wide area. However, the producing area of the two systems may be significantly different.

  6. Evaluation methods of solar contribution in solar aided coal-fired power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yong; Zhai, Rongrong; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Yongping; Yan, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Five methods for evaluating solar contribution are analyzed. • Method based on the second law of thermodynamics and thermal economics is more suitable for SACPGS. • Providing reliable reference for the formulation of feed-in tariff policies in China. - Abstract: Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize solar thermal energy to couple with coal-fired power plants of various types by adopting characteristics of different thermal needs of plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will become unnecessary, meanwhile the intermittent and unsteady nature of power generation can be avoided. In addition, large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and energy saving can be achieved. With the ever-deepening analyses of solar aided coal-fired power plants, the contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power is worth further exploration. In this paper, five common evaluation methods of solar contribution are analyzed, and solar aided coal-fired power plants of 1000 MW, 600 MW and 330 MW are studied with these five methods in a comparative manner. Therefore, this study can serve as a theoretical reference for future research of evaluation methods and subsidies for new energy

  7. Study on bubble column humidification and dehumidification system for coal mine wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Penghui; Zhang, Meng; Du, Yuji; Cheng, Bo; Zhang, Donghai

    2018-04-01

    Water is important resource for human survival and development. Coal mine wastewater (CMW) is a byproduct of the process of coal mining, which is about 7.0 × 10 10 m 3 in China in 2016. Considering coal mine wastewater includes different ingredients, a new bubble column humidification and dehumidification system is proposed for CMW treatment. The system is mainly composed of a bubble column humidification and dehumidification unit, solar collector, fan and water tank, in which air is used as a circulating medium. The system can avoid water treatment component blocking for reverse osmosis (RO) and multi effect distillation (MED) dealing with CMW, and produce water greenly. By analysis of heat and mass transfer, the effects of solar radiation, air bubble velocity and mine water temperature on water treatment production characteristics are studied. Compared with other methods, thermal energy consumption (TEC) of bubble column humidification and dehumidification (BCHD) is moderate, which is about 700 kJ/kg (powered by solar energy). The results would provide a new method for CMW treatment and insights into the efficient coal wastewater treatment, besides, it helps to identify the parameters for the technology development in mine water treatment.

  8. Development of the TFTR neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prichard, B.A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The TFTR Neutral Beam Lines are designed to inject 20 MW of 120 keV neutral deuterium atoms into the plasma. This is accomplished using 12 sources, 65 amperes each, mounted in 4 beam lines. The 120 kV sources are being developed by LBL and a prototype beam line which will be tested at Berkeley is being developed as a cooperative effort by LLL and LBL. The implementation of these beam lines has required the development of several associated pieces of hardware. The control and monitoring of the 12 sources will be done via the TFTR computer control system (CICADA) as will other parts of the machine, and software is being developed to condition and operate the sources automatically. The prototype beam line is scheduled to begin operation in the fall of 1978 and all four production beam lines on TFTR in 1982

  9. Propellant Feed System for Swirl-Coaxial Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David Christopher (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A propellant feed system for swirl-coaxial injection of a liquid propellant includes a reservoir having a bottom plate and at least one tube originating in the bottom plate and extending therefrom. The tube has rectangular slits defined in and distributed tangentially and evenly about a portion of the tube that is disposed in the bottom plate. Drain holes are provided in the bottom plate and tunnels are defined in the bottom plate. Each tunnel fluidly couples one of the drain holes to a corresponding one of the rectangular slits. Each tunnel includes (i) a bend of at least 90.degree., and (ii) a straight portion leading to its corresponding rectangular slit wherein the straight portion is at least five times as long as a hydraulic diameter of the corresponding rectangular slit.

  10. The prediction and representation of phase equilibria and physicochemical properties in complex coal ash slag systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Jak; A. Kondratiev; S. Christie; P.C. Hayes [Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD), Brisbane (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    A range of problems in coal utilisation technologies, including ash slag flow in slagging gasifiers, deposit formation, slagging, fouling, fusibility tests, fluxing, blending etc, are related to the melting behaviour of the mineral matter in the coal. To assist with solving these practical issues i) thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibria, and ii) viscosity modelling studies are being undertaken at the Pyrometallurgy Research Centre (The University of Queensland, Australia) with support from the Collaborative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD). The thermodynamic modelling has been carried out using the computer system FactSage, which is used for the calculation of multi-phase slag / solid / gas / matte / alloy / salt equilibria in multi-component systems of industrial interest. A modified quasi-chemical solution model is used for the liquid slag phase. New model optimisations have been carried out, which have significantly improved the accuracy of the thermodynamic models for coal combustion processes. Viscosity modelling, using a modified Urbain formalism, is carried out in conjunction with FactSage calculations to predict the viscosities of fully liquid as well as heterogeneous, partly crystallised slags. Custom designed software packages are developed using these fundamental models for wider use by industrial researchers and engineers, and for incorporation as process control modules. The new custom-designed computer software package can be used to produce limiting operability diagrams for slag systems. These diagrams are used to describe phase equilibria and physico-chemical properties in complex slag systems. The approach is illustrated with calculations on the system SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-FeO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO at metallic iron saturation, slags produced in coal slagging gasifiers. 28 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Spraying system with water delivery to the cutter element working in conjunction with the GPK coal combine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    Technical specifications of the system are given. The system is used to reduce air dustiness when driving preparatory workings. Operational tests carried out in the Donets and Karaganda coal basins show that spraying system with water delivery to the zone where rock or coal is cut is from 2 to 2.5 times more effective than other spraying systems. It is recommended that the described spraying system be serially produced. (In Russian)

  12. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the Philippines; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Philippines ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Grasping the present situation of coal utilization technology in the Philippines, the paper proposed a feasibility study of introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system which seems to be needed in the future. (1) Introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the electric power generation sector: there are only four full-scale running coal thermal power plants in the Philippines. In the future, several coal thermal plants are planned to be constructed by 2005, but for the new installation, it is desirable to adopt fluidized bed boilers with wide application to coal kinds. In case of 0.3-1.0 million MW class plants, it is planned to adopt high grade import coals, and it will be natural to fire pulverized coal. For the processing of flue gas, it is a must to install desulfurization facilities and smoke/soot removal devices. (2) Utilization/development of domestic low grade coals: at the mine-mouth generating plant, it is necessary to investigate the economically minable amount of coal, confirm productivity, survey coal quality, etc., and select boiler. As to coal briquetting technology, it is necessary to examine coal quality for tests and make a thorough study of what technology is most suitable. 50 figs., 78 tabs.

  13. Experimental investigations of a single cylinder genset engine with common rail fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Paras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance and emissions characteristics of compression ignition (CI engines are strongly dependent on quality of fuel injection. In an attempt to improve engine combustion, engine performance and reduce the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder constant speed genset engine, a common rail direct injection (CRDI fuel injection system was deployed and its injection timings were optimized. Results showed that 34°CA BTDC start of injection (SOI timings result in lowest brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and smoke opacity. Advanced injection timings showed higher cylinder peak pressure, pressure rise rate, and heat release rate due to relatively longer ignition delay experienced.

  14. Adjustment of automatic control systems of production facilities at coal processing plants using multivariant physico- mathematical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtushenko, V. F.; Myshlyaev, L. P.; Makarov, G. V.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Burkova, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    The structure of multi-variant physical and mathematical models of control system is offered as well as its application for adjustment of automatic control system (ACS) of production facilities on the example of coal processing plant.

  15. A Wireless LAN and Voice Information System for Underground Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we constructed a wireless information system, and developed a wireless voice communication subsystem based on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN for underground coal mine, which employs Voice over IP (VoIP technology and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP to achieve wireless voice dispatching communications. The master control voice dispatching interface and call terminal software are also developed on the WLAN ground server side to manage and implement the voice dispatching communication. A testing system for voice communication was constructed in tunnels of an underground coal mine, which was used to actually test the wireless voice communication subsystem via a network analysis tool, named Clear Sight Analyzer. In tests, the actual flow charts of registration, call establishment and call removal were analyzed by capturing call signaling of SIP terminals, and the key performance indicators were evaluated in coal mine, including average subjective value of voice quality, packet loss rate, delay jitter, disorder packet transmission and end-to- end delay. Experimental results and analysis demonstrate that the wireless voice communication subsystem developed communicates well in underground coal mine environment, achieving the designed function of voice dispatching communication.

  16. Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report documents the approaches used in developing the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of the coal market module`s three submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS), the Coal Export Submodule (CES), the Coal Expert Submodule (CES), and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  17. Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This report documents the approaches used in developing the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of the coal market module's three submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS), the Coal Export Submodule (CES), the Coal Expert Submodule (CES), and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS)

  18. Flow Injection/Sequential Injection Analysis Systems: Potential Use as Tools for Rapid Liver Diseases Biomarker Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Kradtap Hartwell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow injection/sequential injection analysis (FIA/SIA systems are suitable for carrying out automatic wet chemical/biochemical reactions with reduced volume and time consumption. Various parts of the system such as pump, valve, and reactor may be built or adapted from available materials. Therefore the systems can be at lower cost as compared to other instrumentation-based analysis systems. Their applications for determination of biomarkers for liver diseases have been demonstrated in various formats of operation but only a few and limited types of biomarkers have been used as model analytes. This paper summarizes these applications for different types of reactions as a guide for using flow-based systems in more biomarker and/or multibiomarker studies.

  19. Injection system of compact SR light source 'AURORA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Takeshi; Yano, Takashi; Sasaki, Yasushi; Yasumitsu, Naoki

    1991-01-01

    A half-integer-resonance injection method is introduced for a superconducting SR-ring of 1 m orbit diameter, which is made of a weak focussing single-body magnet. The present method makes it possible to inject an electron beam of an energy of as high as 150 MeV into the ring of a magnetic field strength of 1 T. Several new injection devices are introduced in order to guide the beam under the strong magnetic fringing field, and to excite the half-integer-resonance. The field index of 0.73 is selected for the half-integer-resonance injection. The field index of 0.35 at the maximum magnetic field strength of 4.3 T is to get a sufficiently long quantum lifetime. A new device named resonance jumper is used to pass quickly several resonances of betatron motion without beam loss. The resonances occur when the magnetic field is ramped up and the field index decreases from 0.73 to 0.35. The injection devices except the inflector are air-core magnets in order to work in the strong magnetic field. In November of 1989, the beam was successfully injected and stored. The injection devices and the half-integer-resonance injection method were established. (author)

  20. The new control system of the SPS injection kicker

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Marchand, A; Verhagen, H

    2002-01-01

    The SPS accelerator will be used as injector for the LHC and has to be adapted to the LHC requirements. The tight specification on beam blow-up and bunch spacing in the SPS has required an upgrade program of the SPS injection kicker in order to obtain a reduction of the magnetic field ripple to less than ± 0.5% and of the magnet current rise time to less than 145 ns. In this context, the slow control part has been entirely rebuilt on the basis of off-the-shelf industrial components. A hierarchical architecture based on a SIEMENS S7-400 master programmable logic controller interconnected through PROFIBUS-DP to S7-300 deported and decentralised I/Os has been implemented. Integration of in-house specific G-64 hardware systems inside this industrial environment has been done through a PROFIBUS-DP to G-64 intelligent interface based on an OEM fieldbus mezzanine board on one side and an FPGA implementing the required functionality on the other. Simultaneously, the fast timing system has been completely reshuffled ...

  1. Development of the TFTR neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prichard, B.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The TFTR Neutral Beam Lines are designed to inject 20 MW of 120 keV neutral deuterium atoms into the plasma. This is accomplished using 12 sources, 65 amperes each, mounted in 4 beam lines. The 120 kV sources and a prototype beam line are being developed. The implementation of these beam lines has required the development of several associated pieces of hardware. 200 kV switch tubes for the power supplies are being developed for modulation and regulation of the accelerating supplies. A 90 cm metallic seal gate valve capable of sealing against atmosphere in either direction is being developed for separating the torus and beam line vacuum systems. A 70 x 80 cm fast shutter valve is also being developed to limit tritium migration from the torus into the beam line. Internal to the beam line a calorimeter, ion dump and deflection magnet have been designed to handle three beams, and optical diagnostics utilizing the doppler broadening and doppler shift of light emitted from the accelerated beam are being developed. The control and monitoring of the 12 sources will be done via the TFTR computer control system (CICADA) as will other parts of the machine, and software is being developed to condition and operate the sources automatically. The prototype beam line is scheduled to begin operation in the fall of 1978 and all four production beam lines on TFTR in 1982

  2. Improving energy efficiency of cyclone circuits in coal beneficiation plants by pump-storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lijun; Xia, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A pump-storage system (PSS) is introduced in a coal washing plant to reduce energy consumption and cost. • Optimal operation of the PSS under TOU tariff is formulated and solved. Life cycle cost analysis of the design is done. • Simulation results show the effectiveness of energy efficiency improvement and load shifting effect of the proposed approach. • An annual 38% reduction of overall cost of the coal washing plant with 2.86 years payback period is achieved. • Capacity improvement of power plants contracted to the coal mine is expected as less electricity is required to get fuel. - Abstract: A pump storage system (PSS) is introduced to the coal preparation dense medium cyclone (DMC) plants to improve their energy efficiency while maintaining the required medium supply. The DMC processes are very energy intensive and inefficient because the medium supply pumps are constantly over-pumping. The PSS presented is to reduce energy consumption and cost by introducing an addition medium circulation loop. The corresponding pump operation optimization problem in the PSS scheme under time-based electricity tariff is formulated and solved, based on which the financial benefits of the design is investigated using life cycle cost analysis. A case study based on the operation status of a South African coal mine is carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. It is demonstrated that the energy cost can be reduced by more than 50% in the studied case by introducing a 160 m 3 storage tank. According to life cycle analysis, the PSS Option 1 yields an annual 38% reduction of the overall cost for the beneficiation plant with a payback period of 2.68 years

  3. Indoor air pollution by different heating systems: coal burning, open fireplace and central heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriske, H J; Drews, M; Ebert, G; Menk, G; Scheller, C; Schöndube, M; Konieczny, L

    1996-11-01

    Investigations of indoor air pollution by different heating systems in private homes are described. Sixteen homes, 7 with coal burning, 1 with open fireplace (wood burning) and 8 with central heating have been investigated. We measured the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and sedimented dust in indoor air, of total suspended particulates, heavy metals and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air. Measurements were taken during winter (heating period) and during summer (non-heating period). Generally, we found higher indoor air pollution in homes with coal burning and open fireplace than in homes with central heating. Especially, the concentrations of carbon monoxide, sedimented dust and of some heavy metals were higher. In one case, we found also high indoor air pollution in a home with central heating. This apartment is on the ground floor of a block of flats, and the central heating system in the basement showed a malfunctioning of the exhaust system.

  4. System applications CRC -Biomass + Coal; Aplicaciones Sistema CRC-Biomasa+Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Main object of Phase I of the project is to analyse the technical-economic feasibility of the combined use of biomass and coal for power generation in the Spanish region of Andalusia, by means of new medium-size independent power plants or using biomass as supplementary fuel in existing large coal power plants, including: -Analysis and classification of biomass and coal resources in the region -Technical-economic study of conventional alternatives using the steam cycle -Analysis of efficiency improvement provided by advanced Rankine-cycle technologies, like the SMR cycle -Analysis of alternatives based on parallel combined cycles using gas turbines, including advanced solutions, like the EAPI and CRC-EAPI systems. -Description and evaluation of different biomass drying systems. -Description and evaluation of the three main biomass gasification systems currently under development: atmospheric direct, atmospheric indirect and pressurized. Main objects of Phase II of the project are to analyse a specific application of the EAPI system to a real cogeneration plant project and to analyse the application of the CRC2 system to a commercial supercritical power plant, including technical-economic study of both applications. (Author)

  5. Geochemistry of Coal Ash in the Equatorial Wet Disposal System Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kolay P. K.; Singh H.

    2013-01-01

    The coal utilization in thermal power plants in Malaysia has increased significantly which produces an enormous amount of coal combustion by-product (CCBP) or coal ash and poses severe disposal problem. As each coal ash is distinct, this study presents the geochemistry of the coal ash, in particular fly ash, produced from the combustion of local coal from Kuching Sarawak, Malaysia. The geochemical composition of the ash showed a high amount of silica, alumina, iron oxides and alkalies which w...

  6. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system joint demonstration project. Water-saving coal preparation system joint demonstration project; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kyodo jissho jigyo. Shosuigata sentan system kyodo jissho jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This project makes demonstration of clean coal technology (CCT) in China and preparation for the base of its spread, controlled environmental pollution due to the coal use by the countries concerned, and contributes to stably secure energy of Japan. The paper made analog operation in the 1960s-1970s, supported by Russia and Poland, introduced two computer systems for operational control and quality control, densimeter, level meter, flow meter and analyzer to coal preparation plants having problems on productivity and quality control, made the optimum operational diagnosis for the plants, and at the same time, demonstrated the comprehensive rehabilitation type system by which water saving, high quality and high effectiveness are obtained. Various types of sensors such as rapid ash meter, scale and densitometer and computers are introduced to coal preparation plants which were recently constructed in China, have jig or heavy liquid cyclone as main preparation equipment and conducts operational control. There, the central control system was demonstrated in which various information collected in the central operation room and in-site equipment is combined by network for high-grade data processing and water saving is achieved. 50 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Exploitation examination of reliability of coal dust systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dojchinovski, Ilija; Trajkovski, Kole

    1997-01-01

    Designers and operators wish is, long, failure free operation at designed parameters of every system. Always we know the system start up time, but we don't know how long this system will operate successfully. Because of that in this article is given a method how, step by step, to determine the reliability of the system. Reliability parameters are obtained from experimental and operational data. When reliability parameters are determined then it is very easy to compare reliability of similar systems, for example excavators, or different systems, such as truck and rubber band transport system. Practical use of the theory of reliability is by purchasing of the systems when manufacturers have to have and present reliability parameters and on this way we can decide which system satisfies our needs regarding the quality-price-reliability. Reliability can be practically used in system operation where: 1) system reliability is maintained with proper start, use and shutdown of the system; 2) a system reliability is maintained with good maintenance organization; 3) a system reliability is maintained with innovations and improvements with final purpose removing of the imperfections experienced through the operation. Reliability is very important parameter in power generation plants. (Author)

  8. 3D Geological Modeling of CoalBed Methane (CBM) Resources in the Taldykuduk Block Karaganda Coal Basin, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, Raman; Kiponievich Ogay, Evgeniy; Royer, Jean-Jacques; Zhapbasbayev, Uzak; Panfilova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Coal Bed Methane (CBM) is gas stored in coal layers. It can be extracted from wells after hydraulic fracturing and/or solvent injection, and secondary recovery techniques such as CO2 injection. Karaganda Basin is a very favorable candidate region to develop CBM production for the following reasons: (i) Huge gas potential; (ii) Available technologies for extracting and commercializing the gas produced by CBM methods; (iii) Experience in degassing during underground mining operations for safety reasons; (iv) Local needs in energy for producing electricity for the industrial and domestic market. The objectives of this work are to model the Taldykuduk block coal layers and their properties focusing on Coal Bed Methane production. It is motivated by the availability of large coal bed methane resources in Karaganda coal basin which includes 4 300 Bm3 equivalent 2 billion tons of coal (B = billion = 109) with gas content 15-25 m3/t of coal (for comparison San Juan basin (USA) has production in a double porosity model considering two domains: the matrix (m) and the fracture (f) for which the initial and boundary conditions are different. The resulting comprehensive 3D models had helped in better understanding the tectonic structures of the region, especially the relationships between the fault systems.

  9. Card index of coal user-payers in the system of accounting and analysis of coal marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czapka, D

    1980-01-01

    A card index of coal users-payers was formed on the basis of an existing card file of payers which functions in development of an earlier subsystem of financial accounting of coal users by means of a corresponding reorganization of the available set of data and supplementing it with new data on users. The card index performs a monitor and address function. Checked and refined data are input in subsequent technological cycles of data conversion. The structure of the card file, its functions, realization conditions with output of necessary following results are examined.

  10. Tumor transfection after systemic injection of DNA lipid nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morille, Marie; Passirani, Catherine; Dufort, Sandrine; Bastiat, Guillaume; Pitard, Bruno; Coll, Jean-Luc; Benoit, Jean-Pierre

    2011-03-01

    With the goal of generating an efficient vector for systemic gene delivery, a new kind of nanocarrier consisting of lipid nanocapsules encapsulating DOTAP/DOPE lipoplexes (DNA LNCs) was pegylated by the post-insertion of amphiphilic and flexible polymers. The aim of this surface modification was to create a long-circulating vector, able to circulate in the blood stream and efficient in transfecting tumoral cells after passive targeting by enhanced permeability and retention effect (EPR effect). PEG conformation, electrostatic features, and hydrophylicity are known to be important factors able to influence the pharmacokinetic behaviour of vectors. In this context, the surface structure characteristics of the newly pegylated DNA LNCs were studied by measuring electrophoretic mobility as a function of ionic strength in order to establish a correlation between surface properties and in vivo performance of the vector. Finally, thanks to this PEGylation, gene expression was measured up to 84-fold higher in tumor compared to other tested organs after intravenous injection. The present results indicate that PEGylated DNA LNCs are promising carriers for an efficient cancer gene therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Monitoring System for Roof Safety Control in Underground Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of roof activity is a primary measure adopted in the prevention of roof collapse accidents and functions to optimize and support the design of roadways in underground coalmines. However, traditional monitoring measures, such as using mechanical extensometers or electronic gauges, either require arduous underground labor or cannot function properly in the harsh underground environment. Therefore, in this paper, in order to break through this technological barrier, a novel monitoring system for roof safety control in underground coal mining, using fiber Bragg grating (FBG material as a perceived element and transmission medium, has been developed. Compared with traditional monitoring equipment, the developed, novel monitoring system has the advantages of providing accurate, reliable, and continuous online monitoring of roof activities in underground coal mining. This is expected to further enable the prevention of catastrophic roof collapse accidents. The system has been successfully implemented at a deep hazardous roadway in Zhuji Coal Mine, China. Monitoring results from the study site have demonstrated the advantages of FBG-based sensors over traditional monitoring approaches. The dynamic impacts of progressive face advance on roof displacement and stress have been accurately captured by the novel roadway roof activity and safety monitoring system, which provided essential references for roadway support and design of the mine.

  12. Penentuan Kebijakan Perawatan dan Optimasi Persediaan Suku Cadang pada Coal Handling System PLTU Paiton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadeli Muhammad F

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasilitas yang terdapat pada sebuah pembangkit listrik membutuhkan perawatan agar dapat berfungsi  sesuai dengan kapasitasnya. Salah satu fasilitas yang membutuhkan perawatan pada PLTU Paiton adalah fasilitas coal handling system. Perusahaan perlu menerapkan strategi perawatan yang tepat agar biaya perawatan yang dikeluarkan dapat optimal. Permasalahan yang ada pada PLTU Paiton adalah strategi perawatan yang ada masih belum bisa mengatasi kemungkinan kegagalan yang terjadi dan aktivitas perawatan yang dilakukan tidak didukung oleh ketersediaan suku cadang yang dibutuhkan. Hal tersebut menyebabkan biaya perawatan yang dikeluarkan menjadi tidak optimal. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode reliability centered maintenance (RCM II yang dikombinasikan dengan metode evaluasi dari electrical power research institute (EPRI untuk menentukan strategi perawatan yang tepat terhadap coal handling system. Permasalahan persediaan untuk mendukung implementasi penerapan strategi perawatan akan diselesaikan dengan metode probabilistic economic order quantity (EOQ model. Penggunaan metode RCM II yang dikombinasikan dengan metode evaluasi dari EPRI dan penggunaan metode probabilistic EOQ model bertujuan untuk mengoptimalkan biaya perawatan yang dikeluarkan.

  13. Exergy analysis of a coal/biomass co-hydrogasification based chemical looping power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from co-utilization of coal and biomass is very attractive since this technology can not only save the coal resource but make sufficient utilization of biomass. In addition, with this concept, net carbon discharge per unit electric power generation can also be sharply reduced. In this work, a coal/biomass co-hydrogasification based chemical looping power generation system is presented and analyzed with the assistance of Aspen Plus. The effects of different operating conditions including the biomass mass fraction, R_b, the hydrogen recycle ratio, R_h_r, the hydrogasification pressure, P_h_g, the iron to fuel mole ratio, R_i_f, the reducer temperature, T_r_e, the oxidizer temperature, T_o_x, and the fuel utilization factor, U_f of the SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) on the system operation results including the energy efficiency, η_e, the total energy efficiency, η_t_e, the exergy efficiency, η_e_x, the total exergy efficiency, η_t_e_x and the carbon capture rate, η_c_c, are analyzed. The energy and exergy balances of the whole system are also calculated and the corresponding Sankey diagram and Grassmann diagram are drawn. Under the benchmark condition, exergy efficiencies of different units in the system are calculated. η_t_e, η_t_e_x and η_c_c of the system are also found to be 43.6%, 41.2% and 99.1%, respectively. - Highlights: • A coal/biomass co-hydrogasification based chemical looping power generation system is setup. • Sankey and Grassmann diagrams are presented based on the energy and exergy balance calculations. • Sensitivity analysis is done to understand the system operation characteristics. • Total energy and exergy efficiencies of this system can be 43.6% and 41.2%, respectively. • About 99.1% of the carbon contained in coal and biomass can be captured in this system.

  14. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hendryx

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS techniques – exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping – to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and “other” age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  15. Gas injection system in the Tara center cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brau, K.; Post, R.S.; Sevillano, E.

    1985-11-01

    Precise control of the gas fueling is essential to the successful operation of tandem mirror plasmas. Improper choice of fueling location, magnetic geometry, and gas injection rates can prevent potential and thermal barrier formation, as well as reduce the energy confinement time. In designing the new gas injection configuration for the Tara center cell, the following issues were addressed: RF potential barriers, gas leakage, and charge exchange recombination. 2 refs., 6 figs

  16. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  17. A Wireless LAN and Voice Information System for Underground Coal Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zhang; Wei Yang; Dongsheng Han; Young-Il Kim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we constructed a wireless information system, and developed a wireless voice communication subsystem based on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) for underground coal mine, which employs Voice over IP (VoIP) technology and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) to achieve wireless voice dispatching communications. The master control voice dispatching interface and call terminal software are also developed on the WLAN ground server side to manage and implement the voice dispatching co...

  18. Blower Gun pellet injection system for W7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibon, M., E-mail: mathias.dibon@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Baldzuhn, J.; Beck, M. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cardella, A. [Lehrstuhl für Nukleartechnik, TU Munich, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Köchl, F. [Atominstitut, TU Wien, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Kocsis, G. [Wigner RCP, RMI, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest-114 (Hungary); Lang, P.T. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Macian-Juan, R. [Lehrstuhl für Nukleartechnik, TU Munich, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ploeckl, B. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Szepesi, T. [Wigner RCP, RMI, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest-114 (Hungary); Weisbart, W. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Operational principle of the ASDEX Upgrade Blower Gun. • Guiding tube properties for pellet guiding according to the requirements of W7-X. • Diagnostics for the characterization of the injection system. • Experimental procedure to investigate the performance of the Blower Gun. • Results concerning pellet speeds, mass loss, delivery efficiency and exit angle. - Abstract: Foreseen to perform pellet investigations in the new stellarator W7-X, the former ASDEX Upgrade Blower Gun was revised and revitalized. The systems operational characteristics have been surveyed in a test bed. The gun is designed to launch cylindrical pellets with 2 mm diameter and 2 mm length, produced from frozen deuterium D{sub 2}, hydrogen H{sub 2} or a gas mixture consisting of 50% H{sub 2} and 50% D{sub 2}. Pellets are accelerated by a short pulse of pressurized helium propellant gas to velocities in the range of 100–250 m/s. Delivery reliabilities at the launcher exit reach almost unity. The initial pellet mass is reduced to about 50% during the acceleration process. Pellet transfer to the plasma vessel was investigated by a first mock up guiding tube version. Transfer through this S-shaped stainless steel guiding tube (inner diameter 8 mm; length 6 m) containing two 1 m curvature radii was investigated for all pellet types. Tests were performed applying repetition rates from 2 Hz to 50 Hz and propellant gas pressures ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 MPa. For both H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}, low overall delivery efficiencies were observed at slow repetition rates, but stable efficiencies of about 90% above 10 Hz. About 10% of the mass is eroded while flying through the guiding tube. Pellets exit the guiding tube with an angular spread of less than 14°.

  19. Network Multifunctional Substation with Embedded System in Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Fan-rong; HUO Yan; ZHOU Yong

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of mining monitor and control systems during the construction process of digital mining combined with network and embedded technologies, the kernel access equipment of a mining monitor and control system was proposed and designed. It is the architecture of a mining embedded network multifunctional substation. This paper presents the design of hardware and software of the substation in detail. Finally, the system's efficiency was validated through experimentation.

  20. System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Raymond [Avondale, AZ

    2012-08-07

    The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

  1. Heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Lu; Chengyun, Xin; Xinyu, Liu

    2018-04-01

    Liquid nitrogen has been working as an important medium in fire extinguishing and prevention, due to its efficiency in oxygen exclusion and heat removal. Such a technique is especially crucial for coal industry in China. We built a tunnel model with a temperature monitor system (with 36 thermocouples installed) to experimentally study heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in non-homogeneous coal porous media (CPM), and expected to optimize parameters of liquid nitrogen injection in engineering applications. Results indicate that injection location and amount of liquid nitrogen, together with air leakage, significantly affect temperature distribution in CPM, and non-equilibrium heat inside and outside of coal particles. The injection position of liquid nitrogen determines locations of the lowest CPM temperature and liquid nitrogen residual. In the deeper coal bed, coal particles take longer time to reach thermal equilibrium between their surface and inside. Air leakage accelerates temperature increase at the bottom of the coal bed, which is a major reason leading to fire prevention inefficiency. Measurement fluctuation of CPM temperature may be caused by incomplete contact of coal particles with liquid nitrogen flowing in the coal bed. Moreover, the secondary temperature drop (STD) happens and grows with the more injection of liquid nitrogen, and the STD phenomenon is explained through temperature distributions at different locations.

  2. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  3. Energy price slump and policy response in the coal-chemical industry district : a case study of Ordos with a system dynamics model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Delu; Ma, Gang; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We employ system dynamics method towards a coal-chemical industry district economy evolution model, using coal industry, the coal-chemical industry, their downstream industries, and the manufacture-related service industry. Moreover, we construct energy price and policy response scenarios based on Ordos’ management experience. The results show that the energy price slump had a negative impact on the overall economic development of the coal-chemical industry district, despite promoting non-res...

  4. An Integrated Environment Monitoring System for Underground Coal Mines—Wireless Sensor Network Subsystem with Multi-Parameter Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wei; Han, Dongsheng; Kim, Young-Il

    2014-01-01

    Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS) as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between t...

  5. Novel Double-Needle System That Can Prevent Intravascular Injection of Any Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang Huang, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. A new type of needle system combines 2 parts, an inner needle and an outer needle. The inner needle is used for filler injection and the outer needle acts as a guiding needle that can observe blood reflow when inserting into the vessel lumen during injection process. This new needle system can be used for all kinds of filler, providing real time monitoring for physician and preventing intravascular injection of any filler.

  6. A Novel Technique of Supra Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Hyaluronic Acid Injection for Lower Face Lifting

    OpenAIRE

    Sahawatwong, Sinijchaya; Sirithanabadeekul, Punyaphat; Patanajareet, Vasiyapha; Wattanakrai, Penpun; Thanasarnaksorn, Wilai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various methods attempting to correct sagging of the lower face focus mainly on manipulation of the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Each technique has its own limitation. The authors propose a relatively simple, conservative method utilizing hyaluronic acid injection just above the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Objective: To address a novel hyaluronic injection technique to lift the lower face. Methods: Details of the injection techniques are described. The Positio...

  7. IMPROVING THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SHOVEL-TRUCK SYSTEMS IN OPEN-PIT COAL MINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark KORYAGIN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to reduce idle times of mining trucks and shovels in an open-pit coal mine. A heuristic algorithm for making dispatching decisions in conditions of dynamic allocation of trucks is developed. Priority parameters for choosing the shovel after the end-of-truck unloading are introduced. Also, an algorithm for searching for the optimal priority parameters to satisfy the required efficiency criterion is developed. This algorithm is based on a simulation model of a shovel-truck system. The proposed approach is applicable in terms of the group of shovels with a common dump point in various open-pit coal mines. The importance of this work lies in the fact that the proposed model takes into account the random factors related with the duration of loading and dumping, truck movement, repair of shovels and haul trucks, as well as the duration of periods between repairs.

  8. Empirical approach for designing of support system in mechanized coal pillar mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, A.; Singh, S.K.; Tewari, S.; Sinha, A. [Central Institute of Mining & Fuel Research, Dhanbad (India)

    2010-10-15

    Mechanized room-and-pillar system of coal pillar mining using side dump loading machine or load haul dumper machine, or by continuous miner, is the presently most dominant under ground method of extraction in India. Under this method of extraction, strata control is a major problem affecting safety and productivity of the mine. As per existing Director General of Mine Safety guidelines, systematic support rules must be followed at the depillaring faces irrespective of immediate roof rock type and competency. Therefore, there is a high chance that sometimes these systematic support rules give unnecessarily high support, or sometimes inadequate support, which may lead to roof failure at the face. As a result, there is a big loss of life and material including coal in terms of left-outribs/stooks and other associated mining equipment deployed at the faces. Therefore, in the present paper, authors attempted to develop generalized empirical equations for estimating the required support load density at different places of the face based on geotechnical parameters of the mine and physico-mechanical properties of the immediate roof rocks for designing of support system during mechanized coal pillar mining.

  9. Increased occupational coal dust toxicity in blood of central heating system workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluce, Yasin; Ozkol, Halil; Koyuncu, Ismail; Ine, Hatice

    2011-02-01

    Coal dust causes lung diseases in occupational exposure. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the pathogenesis of its toxicity. In this study, serum enzymes, lipid profile and other biochemical values with oxidant/antioxidant status in whole blood and serum of central heating system workers (CHSW; the persons responsible for heating the apartment with coal) were determined to reflect the cell injury. Blood samples were obtained from CHSW (n = 25) and healthy individuals (n = 25). All values were measured in whole blood and serum. ANOVA was used for the estimation of statistical data. In the group of CHSW, creatinine, ferritin, alanin aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, gamma glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activities as well as triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein, protein carbonyl and malondialdehide were significantly higher, while transferrin, high density lipoprotein and catalase (CAT) activities were lower than the group of healthy individuals. This result is consistent with hypothesis that respirable coal dust generates lipid and protein oxidation and induces leakage of serum enzymes by cell damage. It also leads to imbalance in antioxidant defense system, lipid profile and other biochemical parameters.

  10. Construction program for a large superconducting MHD magnet system at the coal-fired flow facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Genens, L.; Gonczy, J.; Ludwig, H.; Lieberg, M.; Kraft, E.; Gacek, D.; Huang, Y.C.; Chen, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory has designed and is constructing a 6 T large aperture superconducting MHD magnet for use in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) at Tullahoma, Tennessee. The magnet system consists of the superconducting magnet, a magnet power supply, an integrated instrumentation for operation, control and protection, and a complete cryogenic facility including a CTI Model 2800 helium refrigerator/liquefier with two compressors, helium gas handling system and a 7500 liter liquid helium dewar. The complete system will be tested at Argonne, IL in 1981. The magnet design is reviewed, and the coil fabrication programs are described in detail

  11. Study of Info backup system of strategy management for coal enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.; Dai, B.; Li, Q.; Shao, J. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Mineral and Energy Resources

    2001-09-01

    It is an application system which helps the determination, enforcement and control of the development strategy of a coal enterprise. This system, which is based on Delphi 5.0, is a Windows application and is bundled with some excellent software, such as 3D Studio Max, Autocad, PhotoShop, Gif Gear etc. It comprises of two subsystems, i.e., the information backup subsystem of strategy management and the control subsystem of strategy enforcement. This system can provide not only the effective information to the leaders or the managers, but also the timely and effective control in the whole course of strategy enforcement. 5 refs.,1 fig.

  12. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x} SO {sub x} and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R&D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO{sub x} production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  13. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  14. Improvement of fuel injection system of locomotive diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghai; Cui, Hongjiang; Wang, Juan; Guan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional locomotive diesels are usually designed for the performance of rated condition and much fuel will be consumed. A new plunger piston matching parts of fuel injection pump and injector nozzle matching parts were designed. The experimental results of fuel injection pump test and diesel engine show that the fuel consumption rate can be decreased a lot in the most of the working conditions. The forced lubrication is adopted for the new injector nozzle matching parts, which can reduce failure rate and increase service life. The design has been patented by Chinese State Patent Office.

  15. Evaluation of Structural Changes in the Coal Specimen Heating Process and UCG Model Experiments for Developing Efficient UCG Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gota Deguchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the underground coal gasification (UCG process, cavity growth with crack extension inside the coal seam is an important phenomenon that directly influences gasification efficiency. An efficient and environmentally friendly UCG system also relies upon the precise control and evaluation of the gasification zone. This paper presents details of laboratory studies undertaken to evaluate structural changes that occur inside the coal under thermal stress and to evaluate underground coal-oxygen gasification simulated in an ex-situ reactor. The effects of feed temperature, the direction of the stratified plane, and the inherent microcracks on the coal fracture and crack extension were investigated using some heating experiments performed using plate-shaped and cylindrical coal specimens. To monitor the failure process and to measure the microcrack distribution inside the coal specimen before and after heating, acoustic emission (AE analysis and X-ray CT were applied. We also introduce a laboratory-scale UCG model experiment conducted with set design and operating parameters. The temperature profiles, AE activities, product gas concentration as well as the gasifier weight lossess were measured successively during gasification. The product gas mainly comprised combustible components such as CO, CH4, and H2 (27.5, 5.5, and 17.2 vol% respectively, which produced a high average calorific value (9.1 MJ/m3.

  16. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  17. Development of slimline logging systems for coal and mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    Recently, interest shown by multinational oil companies in mining prospecting has led to the requirement for more sophisticated slimline logging units, capable of given comparable results to conventional systems. Aspects of operating conditions and logging requirements are discussed, with particular reference to the effect on equipment design. Special consideration is given to the design and calibration of gamma ray, density, neutron, caliper and resistivity tools. Methods of handling data are discussed and the general application of these techniques to mineral work is considered

  18. Adaptation of a load-inject valve for a flow injection chemiluminescence system enabling dual-reagent injection enhances understanding of environmental Fenton chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Matthew R.; Nightingale, Philp D.; Turner, Suzanne M.; Liss, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Measurement of multiple components of Fenton chemistry; Fe(II) and H 2 O 2 . •Rapid, quasi-simultaneous analysis enables calculation of environmental kinetics. •Low, nano to pico-molar detection limits with dual analyte analysis. •Able to measure complex matrix samples – organically enriched seawater. •Low cost system with appreciable sensitivity compared to single analyte analysis. -- Abstract: Environmental Fenton chemistry has been poorly constrained within the marine environment at a multi-component level. A simple, unique, reconfiguration of a flow-injection analytical system combined with luminol chemiluminescence allows quasi-simultaneously the measurement, using a single load-inject valve and a single photon multiplier tube, of reduced iron, Fe(II), and hydrogen peroxide. The system enables rapid, every 22 s, measurements with good accuracy at environmentally relevant concentrations, less than 5% relative standard deviations on both a 5 nM Fe(II) standard and a 60 nM hydrogen peroxide standard. Limits of detection were as low as 40 pM Fe(II) and 100 pM hydrogen peroxide. The system showed excellent capability by measuring from within an organic rich seawater the photochemically induced production of Fe(II) and hydrogen peroxide and their subsequent cycling and Fenton like interactions

  19. Method of injecting cooling water in emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto; Adachi, Michihiro; Tasaka, Kanji; Suzuki, Mitsuhiro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a cooling water injection method in an ECCS, which can perform effective cooling of the reactor core. Method: In a method of injecting cooling water in an ECCS as a countermeasure against a rupture accident of a pwr type reactor, cooling water in the first pressure storage injection system is injected into the upper plenum of the reactor pressure vessel at a set pressure of from 50 to 90 atg. and a set temperature of from 80 to 200 0 C, cooling water in the second pressure storage injection system is injected into the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel at a pressure of from 25 to 60 atg. which is lower than the set pressure and a temperature less than 60 0 C, and further in combination with these procedures, cooling water of less than 60 0 C is injected into a high-temperature side piping, in the high-pressure injection system of upstroke of 100 atg. by means of a pump and the low-pressure injection system of upstroke of 20 atg. also by means of a pump, thereby cooling the reactor core. (Aizawa, K.)

  20. Geological storage of carbon dioxide in the coal seams: from material to the reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikoosokhan, S.

    2012-01-01

    CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere are recognized to have a significant effect on global warming. Geological storage of CO 2 is widely regarded as an essential approach to reduce the impact of such emissions on the environment. Moreover, injecting carbon dioxide in coal bed methane reservoirs facilitates the recovery of the methane naturally present, a process known as enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM). But the swelling of the coal matrix induced by the preferential adsorption by coal of carbon dioxide over the methane in place leads to a closure of the cleat system (a set of small natural fractures) of the reservoir and therefore to a loss of injectivity. This PhD thesis is dedicated to a study of how this injectivity evolves in presence of fluids. We derive two poro-mechanical dual-porosity models for a coal bed reservoir saturated by a pure fluid. The resulting constitutive equations enable to better understand and model the link between the injectivity of a coal seam and the adsorption-induced swelling of coal. For both models, the pore space of the reservoir is considered to be divided into the macroporous cleats and the pores of the coal matrix. The two models differ by how adsorption of fluid is taken into account: the first model is restricted to surface adsorption, while the second model can be applied for adsorption in a medium with a generic pore size distribution and thus in a microporous medium such as coal, in which adsorption mostly occurs by micropore filling. The latter model is calibrated on two coals with different sorption and swelling properties. We then perform simulations at various scales (Representative Elementary Volume, coal sample, coal seam). In particular, we validate our model on experimental data of adsorption-induced variations of permeability of coal. We also perform simulations of seams from which methane would be produced (CBM) or of methane-free seams into which CO 2 would be injected. We study the effect of various

  1. Measurements and simulation for design optimization for low NOx coal-firing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Bar-Ziv; Y. Yasur; B. Chudnovsky; L. Levin; A. Talanker [Ben-Gurion University of Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2003-07-01

    The information required to design a utility steam generator is the heat balance, fuel analysis and emission. These establish the furnace wall configuration, the heat release rates, and the firing technology. The furnace must be sized for (1) residence time for complete combustion with low NOx, and (2) reduction of flue gas temperature to minimize ash deposition. To meet these, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of the combustion process in the furnace were performed and proven to be a powerful tool for this purpose. Still, reliable numerical simulations require careful interpretation and comparison with measurements. We report numerical results and measurements for a 575 MW pulverized coal tangential firing boiler of the Hadera power plant of Israel Electric Corporation (IEC). Measured and calculated values were found to be in reasonable agreement. We used the simulations for optimization and investigated temperature distribution, heat fluxes and concentration of chemical species. We optimized both the furnace flue gas temperature entering the convective path and the staged residence time for low NOx. We tested mass flow rates through close-coupled and separate overfire air ports and its arrangement and the coal powder fineness. These parameters can control the mixing rate between the fuel and the oxidizer streams and can affect the most important characteristics of the boiler such as temperature regimes, coal burning rate and nitrogen oxidation/reduction. From this effort, IEC started to improve the boiler performance by replacing the existing typical tangential burners to low NOx firing system to ensure the current regulation requirements of emission pollutions.

  2. Design of shutdown system no.2 liquid poison injection system for 500 MWe PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, S.; Balasubrahmanian, A.K.; Pillai, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Defence in depth and two group system concepts form the basic design philosophy for the shutdown systems. There are two independent, diverse and fast acting shutdown systems provided for the 500 MWe PHWR. The design is based on fail-safe principle, sufficient component redundancy and on-line testing. Liquid poison injection system, as shutdown system 2, is newly developed for the 500 MWe PHWRs. The system operates by rapidly injecting gadolinium nitrate solution into bulk moderator using stored helium pressure thereby inserting negative reactivity. A high pressure helium supply tank which provides the energy for system actuation, is connected, through an array of fast acting valves in series-parallel arrangement, to the individual poison tanks storing gadolinium nitrate solution. The valves, belonging to three different channels of reactor Protection System 2, are the only active components in the system. The valves are fail safe and are periodically tested on-line without actually firing the system. The system comprising of in-core assemblies and the external process system has been engineered. Experimental work is being carried out by BARC for design validation and data generation. This paper describes the conceptual development, design basis, design parameters and detailed engineering of the system. (author)

  3. Experience of creating a multifunctional safety system at the coal mining enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, V. V.; Davkaev, K. S.; Korolkov, M. V.; Lyakhovets, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    The principles of creating multifunctional safety systems (MFSS) based on mathematical models with Markov properties are considered. The applicability of such models for the analysis of the safety of the created systems and their effectiveness is substantiated. The method of this analysis and the results of its testing are discussed. The variant of IFSB implementation in the conditions of the operating coal-mining enterprise is given. The functional scheme, data scheme and operating modes of the MFSS are given. The automated workplace of the industrial safety controller is described.

  4. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000 to 2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB

  5. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2002-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB

  6. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin coal

  7. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB

  8. A reavaluation of the reliability analysis of the low pressure injection system for Angra-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.S. de; Fleming, P.V.; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F.F.; Tayt-Sohn, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    The emergency core cooling system of Angra 1 is analysed aiming at the low pressure injection systems, using the fault tree technique. All the failure mode of the components are considered for this analyse. (author) [pt

  9. Intelligent control and maintenance of management integrated system based on multi-agents for coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, F.; Wang, Y. [China University of Mining and technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Information and Electrical Engineering

    2006-06-15

    This paper discusses the progress of computer integrated processing (CIPS) of coal preparation and then presents an intelligence controlled production process, device-maintenance and production-management system of coal preparation based on multi-agents (IICMMS-CP). The construction of the IICMMS-CP, the distributed network control system based on live intelligence control stations and the strategy of implementing a distributed intelligence control system are studied in order to overcome the disadvantages brought about by the wide use of the PLC system by coal preparation plants. The software frame, based on a Multi-Agent Intelligence Control and Maintenance Management integrated system, is studied and the implementation methods of IICMMS-CP are discussed. The characteristics of distributed architecture, cooperation and parallel computing meet the needs of integrated control of coal preparation plants with large-scale spatial production distribution, densely-related processes and complex systems. Its application further improves the reliability and precision of process control, accuracy of fault identification and intelligence of production adjustment, establishes a technical basis for system integration and flexible production. The main function of the system has been tested in a coal preparation plant to good effect in stabilizing product quality, improving efficiency and reducing consumption. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Computer-controlled data acquisition system for the ISX-B neutral injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, P.H.; Sherrill, B.; Pearce, J.W.

    1980-05-01

    A data acquisition system for the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) neutral injection system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The system is based on CAMAC standards and is controlled by a MIK-11/2 microcomputer. The system operates at the ion source high voltage on the source table, transmitting the analyzed data to a terminal at ground potential. This reduces the complexity of the communications link and also allows much flexibility in the diagnostics and eventual control of the beam line

  11. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Malaysia Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This survey arranged the status of coal utilization technology and the status of coal production, supply, etc. in Malaysia and Vietnam, examined/studied coal utilization systems in both countries, and finally assessed feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. As a country of primary energy source which is abundant in crude oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, coal, etc., Malaysia now depends on crude oil and natural gas for 80% of its energy, and places emphasis on exploration of natural gas and oil refining. In electric power and cement industries where coal is consumed, effectiveness and environmental issues in association with coal utilization are future subjects. In Vietnam, the north is abundant in hydroelectric power and anthracite, and the south in oil and gas resource, but the north and central districts are in a state of undevelopment. Coal is used for coal thermal power generation, cement industry, and residential/commercial fuel. In the future, effective coal utilization and environmental issues will be subjects. 16 refs., 38 figs., 75 tabs.

  12. Short interval measurement of the Thomson scattering system at the pellet injection by using the event triggering system in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuhara, R.; Sakamoto, R.; Motojima, G.; Yamada, I.; Hayashi, H.

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated Thomson scattering measurements of a short interval less than 1 ms by using the event triggering system with a multi-laser configuration. We have tried to measure this system at the pellet injection and obtained electron temperature and density profiles before and just after the pellet injection. Obtained profiles were dramatically changed after pellet injection with shot-by-shot measurements. This measurement technique will contribute understanding the physics of the pellet deposition. (author)

  13. Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

    1980-10-01

    The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

  14. An automatic system for acidity determination based on sequential injection titration and the monosegmented flow approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Joanna; Wójtowicz, Marzena; Gawenda, Nadzieja; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2011-06-15

    An automatic sequential injection system, combining monosegmented flow analysis, sequential injection analysis and sequential injection titration is proposed for acidity determination. The system enables controllable sample dilution and generation of standards of required concentration in a monosegmented sequential injection manner, sequential injection titration of the prepared solutions, data collecting, and handling. It has been tested on spectrophotometric determination of acetic, citric and phosphoric acids with sodium hydroxide used as a titrant and phenolphthalein or thymolphthalein (in the case of phosphoric acid determination) as indicators. Accuracy better than |4.4|% (RE) and repeatability better than 2.9% (RSD) have been obtained. It has been applied to the determination of total acidity in vinegars and various soft drinks. The system provides low sample (less than 0.3 mL) consumption. On average, analysis of a sample takes several minutes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of lab scale fast gas injection system for SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, F.S.; Banaudha, Moni; Khristi, Yohan; Khan, M.S.; Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, D.C.; Khirwadkar, Samir

    2017-01-01

    The plasma density control plays an important role in Tokamak operation. The factors that influence plasma density in a Tokamak device are working gas injection, pumping, ionization rate and the recycle coefficient representing the wall conditions. Among these factors, gas injection is relatively convenient to be controlled. Hence, the most frequently adopted method to control the plasma density is to control the fast gas injection. This paper describes the design and experimental work carried out towards the development of Fast Gas Injection System for SST-1 Tokamak. Laboratory based test setup was successfully established for Fast Gas Injection System that can feed predefined quantity of gas in a controlled manner into vacuum chamber. Further, this FGIS system will be implemented in SST-1 Tokamak environment with online density feedback signal

  16. Nexsys{trademark} real time risk management system and demonstration at Kushiro coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addinell, S.J.; Rowan, G.; Matsuyama, S. [CSIRO (Australia). Division of Exploration and Mining

    2005-03-01

    In March 2005, the CSIRO Nexsys{trademark} development team travelled to Kushiro Coal Mine (KCM) to install and evaluate the Nexsys{trademark} real time risk management system developed under joint collaboration with JCOAL and other industry partners. After successful installation and configuration the system was able to interface directly to the existing mine site MELSEC monitoring hardware and system database. Once fully commissioned, Nexsys{trademark} will provide mine operators with a real-time risk management system with the capability to initiate preemptive Trigger Action Response Plans (TARPS) should mine operating parameters change for the worse. A range of autonomous altering and alarming options are available, including the capability to email the nature and severity of the alarm to key personnel, on or off site. The system is also fully compatible with wireless network systems and can be accessed through WLAN devices such as Ethernet enabled PDAs. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Main approaches to automation of management systems in the coal industry. [Czechoslovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafouk, P; Dlabaya, I; Frous, S

    1980-01-01

    The main approaches to automation of management systems in the coal industry of Czechoslovakia are enumerated. Organizational structure of the branch and concern form of organization. Complex improvement of management system and source of continued development of the branch. Automated control systems, an integral part of the complex management system. Primary problem - automation in the area of design of the information system. Centralization of methodological management of operations in the area of control system development. Unified approach to breakdown of control system into branches. Organizational support of the development of the control system, problems solved by the department of control system development of the Ministry, main department of control system development of the Research Institute, departmental committees in the branch. The use of principles of control system development in the Ostravsko-Karvinsk mining concern is demonstrated. Preparation for development of the control system in the concern: elaboration of concepts and programs of control system development. Design of control system of the concern. Control system of an enterprise in the concern as an integral control system. Support of control system development in organizations, participants in this process, their jurisdiction and obligations. Annual plans of control system development. Centralized subsystems and enterprises. Methods of coordination of the process of improvement of control and support of the harmony of decisions made. Technical support of control system development, construction of a unified network of computer centers in enterprises with combined resources of computer technology.

  18. Online Monitoring System of Air Distribution in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Based on Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żymełka, Piotr; Nabagło, Daniel; Janda, Tomasz; Madejski, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA) nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS) data.

  19. Online Monitoring System of Air Distribution in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Based on Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żymełka Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS data.

  20. Economic comparison of HVDC transmission and coal transport for Kalimantan - Sulawesi power system expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwaren Liun

    2016-01-01

    Due to the load characteristics on many regions in Indonesia, the electrical system is often inefficient. In areas far from an interconnected network, for example isolated island, the choice of low cost fueled plants such as coal can not be applied, while the oil fueled has a very high generation cost and high burdened on subsidies. As a result, those area are still use oil fueled plant by limiting the generator flame time and consumers do not receive satisfactory service. This paper aims to analyze the extent to which the benefit of HVDC transmission system from Kalimantan to Sulawesi so that consumers could get better services and able to produce in order to improve their welfare. The method used in this analysis is a literature study and perform calculations based on existing formula. The result shows that in term of direct cost, HVDC system which covers transmission line, converter and loses cost, yield in a range of 0.46 - 0.60 USD¢/kWh for the capacity within 500 - 2000 Mwe. While coal transportation cost is in the range of 0.544 - 0.645 USD¢/kWh for long barge between 270 - 300 feet. Therefore, for the region of Indonesia which consist lots of islands and remote areas, power supply using HVDC transmission from area with more evolved electrical system could enable more economical, so that remote region also got excellent electrical services to improve the well-being and incomes of the population. (author)

  1. Investigation cost subsidizing project for improving development of overseas coals in fiscal 1999. Investigations on improving development of Asian and Pacific coals (Investigation on optimizing the coal transportation system in East Karimantan Province in Indonesia); 1999 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Indonesia Higashi Karimantan shu ni okeru sekitan yuso system saitekika chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Evaluation was given on coal production quantity and coal transportation capability in areas scheduled of future development in Karimantan, Indonesia. Discussions were given on an optimal coal transportation system in East Karimantan Province. The coal production quantity in East Karimantan in fiscal 1999 was 35.27 million tons, accounting for 48% of the total Indonesian coal production. Production of 81.90 million tons is anticipated in 2020. Quality of the coal being produced is low in ash and high in water content in general. Calorific power is 5800 kcal or more. Sulfur content is 0.5% or more, not necessarily a low sulfur coal. The result of analyzing the optimal transportation routes by using the LP model may be summarized as follows: such scenarios are regarded to be largely profitable and advantageous that assume making railways utilizable as the land transportation in addition to use of trucks, belt conveyers, and barges, expanding coal terminals at the ports of PBCT, KPC, BCT and NPLCT, and newly building ports at Tarakan, TgSengatta, BPCTH, and Mangkapadie. (NEDO)

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF INTEGRATED CARBON RECOVERY SYSTEMS FROM FINE COAL PROCESSING WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.P. Chugh; D. Patil; A. Patwardhan; R.Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh; D. Tao; Latif Khan

    2000-07-01

    The project involves the development of an efficient, environmentally friendly system for the economical recovery of carbon from fine-coal refuse ponds. The project will be conducted in two phases. Phase I was involved in the development and evaluation of process equipment and techniques to be used in carbon recovery, product dewatering and reconstitution, and refuse management. Phase II will integrate the various units into a continuously operating circuit that will be demonstrated at a site selected based on the results presented in this study.

  3. Study on the evaluation system for the coal safety management based on risk pre-control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-chun; XU Hai-xia; WANG Pei; SONG Xue-feng

    2009-01-01

    The new type of risk management is process management.First,the hazard sources are identified before coal mine accidents occur,and then the pre-control measure and information monitoring method based on classifying the hidden hazard sources are given.Lastly,the risk pre-alarm and risk control method are confirmed,the management standard and management measure are used to eliminate the hidden hazard sources.In this study,an evaluation system is built to evaluate the result of risk management.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of a coal-based polygeneration system with partial gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yang, Yongping; Zhai, Dailong; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This study proposed a polygeneration system based on coal partial gasification, in which methanol and power were generated. This proposed system, comprising chemical and power islands, was designed and its characteristics are analyzed. The commercial software Aspen Plus was used to perform the system analysis. In the case study, the energy and exergy efficiency values of the proposed polygeneration system were 51.16% and 50.58%, which are 2.34% and 2.10%, respectively, higher than that of the reference system. Energy-Utilization Diagram analysis showed that removing composition adjustment and recycling 72.7% of the unreacted gas could reduce the exergy destruction during methanol synthesis by 46.85% and that the char utilized to preheat the compressed air could reduce the exergy destruction during combustion by 10.28%. Sensitivity analysis was also performed. At the same capacity ratio, the energy and exergy efficiency values of the proposed system were 1.30%–2.48% and 1.21%–2.30% higher than that of the reference system, respectively. The range of chemical-to-power capacity ratio in the proposed system was 0.41–1.40, which was narrower than that in the reference system. But the range of 1.04–1.4 was not recommended for the disappearance of energy saving potential in methanol synthesis. - Highlights: • A novel polygeneration system based on coal partial gasification is proposed. • The efficient conversion method for methanol and power is explored. • The exergy destruction in chemical energy conversion processes is decreased. • Thermodynamic performance and system characteristics are analyzed

  5. A novel approach for determination of free fatty acids in vegetable oils by a flow injection system with manual injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz, H Filiz; Kara, Huseyin; Sherazi, S T H

    2011-12-01

    A non-aqueous flow injection method for determining free fatty acid (FFA) content in corn and sunflower oil samples was developed. A single-line manifold system was built by modification of an HPLC for flow injection analysis (FIA). Without pre-treatment, oil samples were injected into a n-propanol solution containing KOH and phenolphthalein (PHP). The main parameters, such as flow rate of carrier phase, length, geometry, inner diameters of the coils and reagent concentration were all optimized. The proposed FIA method was validated for precision, accuracy, linear region, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). The intra- and inter-day measurements of the precision of the method were found to be within the limits of acceptance criteria (RSD analyst. The linear concentration range was calculated as 0.09-1.50 and 0.07-1.40 FFA% for corn and sunflower oils, correspondingly. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 7.53 × 10(-4)-2.28 × 10(-3) oleic acid % and 7.11 × 10(-4)-2.23 × 10(-3) oleic acid % for corn and sunflower oils, respectively. The results were compared with those obtained by the AOCS (Ca-5a-40) method using statistical t and F tests, and a significant difference was not observed between the methods at a 95% confidence level. The proposed method is suitable for quality control of routine applications due to its simplicity, high sample throughput, and economy of solvents and sample, offering considerable promise as a low cost analytical system that needs minimum human intervention over long periods of time.

  6. Material Properties and Characteristics for Development of an Expert System for Coal-Tar Sealers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shoenberger, James

    2001-01-01

    .... Several coal-tar mixtures that varied with source of the coal-tar emulsion, amount of aggregate, and amount of polymer used in the mixtures were evaluated for their field performance and material properties...

  7. The use of solvent extractions and solubility theory to discern hydrocarbon associations in coal, with application to the coal-supercritical CO2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jonathan J.; Burruss, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    findings indicate that hydrocarbon solubility does not exert a strong influence on hydrocarbon behavior in the systems studied. Other factors such as coal composition and maceral content, surface processes (physisorption), or other molecular interactions appear to affect the partitioning of hydrocarbons within the coal–supercritical CO2 system. Resolving the extent to which these factors might affect hydrocarbon behavior under different geological settings is important to efforts seeking to model petroleum generation, fractionation and expulsion from coal beds and to delineate potential hydrocarbon fate and transport in geologic CO2 sequestration settings.

  8. Polymeric microchip for the simultaneous determination of anions and cations by hydrodynamic injection using a dual-channel sequential injection microchip electrophoresis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Adam J; Nai, Yi Heng; Guijt, Rosanne M; Breadmore, Michael C

    2014-04-01

    A dual-channel sequential injection microchip capillary electrophoresis system with pressure-driven injection is demonstrated for simultaneous separations of anions and cations from a single sample. The poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchips feature integral in-plane contactless conductivity detection electrodes. A novel, hydrodynamic "split-injection" method utilizes background electrolyte (BGE) sheathing to gate the sample flows, while control over the injection volume is achieved by balancing hydrodynamic resistances using external hydrodynamic resistors. Injection is realized by a unique flow-through interface, allowing for automated, continuous sampling for sequential injection analysis by microchip electrophoresis. The developed system was very robust, with individual microchips used for up to 2000 analyses with lifetimes limited by irreversible blockages of the microchannels. The unique dual-channel geometry was demonstrated by the simultaneous separation of three cations and three anions in individual microchannels in under 40 s with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 1.5 to 24 μM. From a series of 100 sequential injections the %RSDs were determined for every fifth run, resulting in %RSDs for migration times that ranged from 0.3 to 0.7 (n = 20) and 2.3 to 4.5 for peak area (n = 20). This system offers low LODs and a high degree of reproducibility and robustness while the hydrodynamic injection eliminates electrokinetic bias during injection, making it attractive for a wide range of rapid, sensitive, and quantitative online analytical applications.

  9. Moderate temperature gas purification system: Application to high calorific coal-derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M.; Shirai, H.; Nunokawa, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    Simultaneous removal of dust, alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, halides and sulfur compounds is required to enlarge application of coal-derived gas to the high-temperature fuel cells and the fuel synthesis through chemical processing. Because high calorific fuel gas, such as oxygen-blown coal gas, has high carbon monoxide content, high-temperature (above 450{sup o}C) gas purification system is always subjected to the carbon deposition. We suggest moderate temperature (around 300{sup o}C) operation of the gas purification system to avoid the harmful disproportionation reaction and efficient removal of the various contaminants. Because the reaction rate is predominant to the performance of contaminant removal in the moderate temperature gas purification system, we evaluated the chemical removal processes; performance of the removal processes for halides and sulfur compounds was experimentally evaluated. The halide removal process with sodium aluminate sorbent had potential performance at around 300{sup o}C. The sulfur removal process with zinc ferrite sorbent was also applicable to the temperature range, though the reaction kinetics of the sorbent is essential to be approved.

  10. Moderate temperature gas purification system: application to high calorific coal derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Kobayashi; H. Shirai; M. Nunokawa [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Kanagawa (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Simultaneous removal of dust, alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, halides and sulfur compounds is required to enlarge application of coal-derived gas to the high temperature fuel cells and the fuel synthesis through chemical processing. Because high calorific fuel gas, such as oxygen-blown coal gas, has high carbon monoxide content, high temperature gas purification system is always subjected to the carbon deposition and slippage of contaminant of high vapor pressure. It was suggested that moderate temperature operation of the gas purification system is applied to avoid the harmful disproportionation reaction and efficient removal of the various contaminants. To establish the moderate temperature gas purification system, the chemical-removal processes where the reaction rate is predominant to the performance of contaminant removal should be evaluated. Performance of the removal processes for halides and sulfur compounds were experimentally evaluated. The halide removal process with sodium based sorbent had potential good performance at around 300{sup o}C. The sulfur removal process was also applicable to the temperature range, although the improvement of the sulfidation reaction rate is considered to be essential. 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  12. Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This report documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the Coal Production Submodule (CPS). It provides a description of the CPS for model analysts and the public. The Coal Market Module provides annual forecasts of prices, production, and consumption of coal

  13. Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This report documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the Coal Production Submodule (CPS). It provides a description of the CPS for model analysts and the public. The Coal Market Module provides annual forecasts of prices, production, and consumption of coal.

  14. The Indonesian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.; Daulay, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this comprehensive article the authors describe the origins and progress of the Indonesian coal industry and the role it plays, and will play, in the domestic energy scene and world coal trade. In the '80s, the Indonesian coal industry laid the basis for major expansion such that coal production rose from under a million tonnes in 1983 to 10.6 million tonnes in 1990, 50.9 million tonnes by 1996 and 61.2 million tonnes in 1992. At the same time, exports have increased from 0.4 million tonnes to 44.8 million tonnes. Current export levels are higher than originally expected, due in part to a slow down in the construction of electric power stations and a partial switch to natural gas. This has slowed the rate at which domestic coal demand has built up. The majority of coals currently exported are low rank steam coals, but some of the higher rank and very low ash coals are used for blast furnace injection, and a very small proportion may even be used within coking blends, even though they have poor coking properties. The Indonesian coal industry has developed very rapidly over the last six years to become a significant exporter, especially within the ASEAN context. The resources base appears to be large enough to support further increases in production above those already planned. It is probable that resources and reserves can be increased above the current levels. It is likely that some reserves of high value coals can be found, but it is also probable that the majority of additions to reserves will be lower in rank (and therefore quality) compared with the average of coals currently being mined. Reserves of qualities suitable for export will support that industry for a considerable period of time. However, in the longer term, the emphasis of production will increasingly swing to the domestic market

  15. Predicting mercury retention in utility gas cleaning systems with SCR/ESP/FGD combinations or activated carbon injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakumar, Balaji; Naik, Chitralkumar V.; Niksa, Stephen [Niksa Energy Associates LLC, Belmont, CA (United States); Fujiwara, Naoki [Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd, Chiba (Japan). Coal and Environment Research Lab.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents validations of the Hg speciation predicted by NEA's MercuRator trademark package with an American field test database for 28 full-scale utility gas cleaning systems. It emphasizes SCR/ESP/FGD combinations and activated carbon injection because these two applications present the best long- term prospects for Hg control by coal-burning utilities. Validations of the extents of Hg{sup 0} oxidation across SCRs and of Hg retention in wet FGDs gave correlation coefficients greater than 0.9 for both units. A transport-based FGD analysis correctly assessed the potential for Hg{sup 0} re-emission in one limestone wet FGD. Among the ten stations in the SCR/ESP/FGD validations, the simulations correctly identified 3 of 4 of the relatively high Hg emissions rates; all four of the sites with moderate emissions rates; and both sites with the lowest emission rates. The validations for ACI applications demonstrated that Hg removals can be accurately estimated for the full domain of coal quality, LOI, and ACI rates for both untreated and brominated carbon sorbents. The predictions for ACI depict the test-to-test variations in most cases, and accurately describe the impact of ACI configuration and sorbent type. ACI into FFs is the most effective configuration, although ACI into ESPs often removes 90% or more Hg, provided that there is sufficient residence time and Cl in the flue gas. Brominated sorbents perform better than untreated carbons, unless SO{sub 3} condensation inhibits Hg adsorption.

  16. Thermodynamic analyses of a biomass-coal co-gasification power generation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu

    2016-04-01

    A novel chemical looping power generation system is presented based on the biomass-coal co-gasification with steam. The effects of different key operation parameters including biomass mass fraction (Rb), steam to carbon mole ratio (Rsc), gasification temperature (Tg) and iron to fuel mole ratio (Rif) on the system performances like energy efficiency (ηe), total energy efficiency (ηte), exergy efficiency (ηex), total exergy efficiency (ηtex) and carbon capture rate (ηcc) are analyzed. A benchmark condition is set, under which ηte, ηtex and ηcc are found to be 39.9%, 37.6% and 96.0%, respectively. Furthermore, detailed energy Sankey diagram and exergy Grassmann diagram are drawn for the entire system operating under the benchmark condition. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the units composing the system are also predicted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of liquid poison injection system (SDS-2) for 500 MWe PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawathe, Shirish; Umashankari, P.; Balakrishnan, Kamala; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1991-01-01

    A secondary shut-down system (SDS-2) in the form of a mecahnism for introducing poison into the moderator of the PHWR is under development in Reactor Engineering Division of BARC. The system, as conceived, consists of a tank containing pressurised helium connected to poison tanks through quick opening solenoid valves. The tanks are connected to horizontal injection tubes in the calandria. On system actuation, gadolinium nitrate solution from the tanks passes to the injection tubes which have a number of holes through which the poison enters the moderator. This report details the development work being done on this poison injection system. An experimental facility was set up to measure the poison jet growth rate and the jet spread after injection, and mathematical models were developed to convert the observed jets into reactivity worth values. A description of the work and the computed results are presented. (author). 21 graphs. , 15 tabs

  18. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey. Environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey in Malaysia and Vietnam (Malaysia); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia oyobi Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia ban))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In this survey, the coal utilization status in individual consumption sectors and coal distribution status in Malaysia are summarized as basic data for the introduction of environmentally acceptable coal utilization systems. In this fiscal year, the status of existing coal utilization technology and environmental issues in Malaysia are summarized as basic data for the introduction of above-mentioned systems on the basis of data and information collected by basic research and site survey in FY 1996. Malaysia is one of the rich countries producing the primary resources with crude petroleum, natural gas, hydro-power, and coal. The coal demand will be realized after saturating LNG development since 2000. The major coal consumption industries are power generation sector and cement industry sector. As expected increase in the future coal consumption, efficiency of coal utilization and environmental issues are problems in the future. Based on the FS results of this survey, the survey will be continued for planning and conducting the model project required from Malaysia. 8 figs., 34 tabs.

  19. Injection system for the PEP II asymmetric B Factory at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieguth, T.; Bloom, E.; Bulos, F.; Davies-White, W.; Donald, M.; Fairfield, K.; Godfrey, G.; Holtzapple, R.; Ronan, M.; Zisman, M.

    1992-01-01

    The asymmetric energy B Factory proposed as an upgrade of PEP at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center will require a highly reliable and efficient injection system. The conceptual design has shown the feasibility of extracting 9 GeV electrons and 3.1 GeV positrons from the existing linac and injecting equal charges into 1658 buckets in each of the two rings of the collider. An injection study group has continued the development and study of this proposal and has generated workable designs for many related systems and subsystems. (author) 3 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  20. Enginnering development of coal-fired high performance power systems phase II and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) >47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; cost of electricity <90% of present plants. Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R ampersand D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase II, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update

  1. Conceptual design of a neutral-beam injection system for the TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlers, K.W.; Berkner, K.H.; Cooper, W.S.; Hooper, E.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Stearns, J.W.

    1975-11-01

    The neutral-beam injection requirements for heating and fueling the next generation of fusion reactor experiments far exceed those of present devices; the neutral-beam systems needed to meet these requirements will be large and complex. A conceptual design of a TFTR tokamak injection system to produce 120 keV deuterium-ion beams with a total power of about 80 MW is given

  2. Evaluation of High Pressure Components of Fuel Injection Systems Using Speckle Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Basara, Adis

    2007-01-01

    The modern high pressure fuel injection systems installed in engines provide a highly efficient combustion process accompanied by low emissions of exhaust gases and an impressive level of dynamic response. The design and development of mechanical components for such systems pose a great challenge, since they have to operate under extremely high fluctuating pressures (e.g. up to 2000 bar) for a long lifetime (more than 1000 injections per minute). The permanent change between a higher and a lo...

  3. An integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines--Wireless Sensor Network subsystem with multi-parameter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wei; Han, Dongsheng; Kim, Young-Il

    2014-07-21

    Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS) as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between the WSN and the CMS. In order to implement the WSN for underground coal mines, two work modes are designed: periodic inspection and interrupt service; the relevant supporting technologies, such as routing mechanism, collision avoidance, data aggregation, interconnection with the CMS, etc., are proposed and analyzed. As WSN nodes are limited in energy supply, calculation and processing power, an integrated network management scheme is designed in four aspects, i.e., topology management, location management, energy management and fault management. Experiments were carried out both in a laboratory and in a real underground coal mine. The test results indicate that the proposed integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines is feasible and all designs performed well as expected.

  4. An Integrated Environment Monitoring System for Underground Coal Mines—Wireless Sensor Network Subsystem with Multi-Parameter Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wei; Han, Dongsheng; Kim, Young-Il

    2014-01-01

    Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS) as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between the WSN and the CMS. In order to implement the WSN for underground coal mines, two work modes are designed: periodic inspection and interrupt service; the relevant supporting technologies, such as routing mechanism, collision avoidance, data aggregation, interconnection with the CMS, etc., are proposed and analyzed. As WSN nodes are limited in energy supply, calculation and processing power, an integrated network management scheme is designed in four aspects, i.e., topology management, location management, energy management and fault management. Experiments were carried out both in a laboratory and in a real underground coal mine. The test results indicate that the proposed integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines is feasible and all designs performed well as expected. PMID:25051037

  5. An Integrated Environment Monitoring System for Underground Coal Mines—Wireless Sensor Network Subsystem with Multi-Parameter Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between the WSN and the CMS. In order to implement the WSN for underground coal mines, two work modes are designed: periodic inspection and interrupt service; the relevant supporting technologies, such as routing mechanism, collision avoidance, data aggregation, interconnection with the CMS, etc., are proposed and analyzed. As WSN nodes are limited in energy supply, calculation and processing power, an integrated network management scheme is designed in four aspects, i.e., topology management, location management, energy management and fault management. Experiments were carried out both in a laboratory and in a real underground coal mine. The test results indicate that the proposed integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines is feasible and all designs performed well as expected.

  6. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Preliminary investigation of interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.; Lappa, D.A.; Smith, C.F.; Sacks, I.J.

    1983-01-01

    The rich diversity of ideas and techniques for analyzing interconnected systems interaction has presented the NRC with the problem of identifying methods appropriate for their own review and audit. This report presents the findings of a preliminary study using the Digraph Matrix Analysis method to evaluate interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3. The analysis effort in this study was subjected to NRC constraints regarding the use of Boolean logic, the construction of simplified plant representations or maps, and the development of heuristic measures as specified by the NRC. The map and heuristic measures were found to be an unsuccessful approach. However, from the effort to model and analyze the Indian Point-3 safety injection system, including Boolean logic in the model, singleton and doubleton cut-sets were identified. It is recommended that efforts excluding Boolean logic and utilizing the NRC heuristic measures not be pursed further and that the Digraph Matrix approach (or other comparable risk assessment technique) with Boolean logic included to conduct the audit of the Indian Point-3 systems interaction study

  8. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2004-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. This document, the second in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 330 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 1.0% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR system for NOx control and a spray dryer absorber for SO{sub 2} control followed by a baghouse unit for particulate emissions control. Four sampling tests were performed in March 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. Due to mechanical problems with the boiler feed water pumps, the actual gross output was between 195 and 221 MW during the tests. The results showed that the SCR/air heater combination oxidized nearly 95% of the elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a

  9. [Strategy of constructing post-market integral evaluation system of traditional Chinese medicine injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Yan-Ping; Lin, Li-Kai; Shang, Hong-Cai; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2017-08-01

    As an important representative of modern Chinese medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injzection has become an indispensable part of the Chinese medicine industry. However, its development is now restricted by the bottleneck of insufficient core competitiveness, low-level research and production, even injection quality and the safe use are not guaranteed. Thus, it is urgent to reevaluate post-marketing TCM injection generally and to make secondary development. Under current circumstances, taking major brands which have good clinical and market foundation, as well as research value, as the main subject of cultivation and evaluation is an important approach to innovative development of TCM injection industry. Unlike oral proprietary Chinese medicine, the cultivatation of major brands of TCM injection needs higher technical support, quality standards and more timely feedback. Therefore, a post-market integral evaluation system adaptive to TCM injection is required. This article discussed some key points on the construction of a post-market integral evaluation system of TCM injection in three levels: optimizing evaluation methods, building synergistic innovation platforms which combine the medical research institutions and pharmaceutical enterprises, and finally constructing the integral evaluation system. A "five to one" structure has been proposed to enhance TCM injection effectiveness, safety and adaptability on the whole, which are from the following aspects: mechanism research, clinical evidence validation, literature information mining, sustainable development of resources and industrialization operation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Rates of fuel discharge as affected by the design of fuel-injection systems for internal-combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelalles, A G; Marsh, E T

    1933-01-01

    Using the method of weighing fuel collected in a receiver during a definite interval of the injection period, rates of discharge were determined, and the effects noted, when various changes were made in a fuel-injection system. The injection system consisted primarily of a by-pass controlled fuel pump and an automatic injection valve. The variables of the system studied were the pump speed, pump-throttle setting, discharge-orifice diameter, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, and injection-tube length and diameter.

  11. Optimal coal import strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Shih, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the main power company in Taiwan has shifted the primary energy resource from oil to coal and tried to diversify the coal supply from various sources. The company wants to have the imported coal meet the environmental standards and operation requirements as well as to have high heating value. In order to achieve these objectives, establishment of a coal blending system for Taiwan is necessary. A mathematical model using mixed integer programming technique is used to model the import strategy and the blending system. 6 refs., 1 tab

  12. Conditions for testing the corrosion rates of ceramics in coal gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, J.P.; Nowok, J.W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Coal gasifier operating conditions and gas and ash compositions affect the corrosion rates of ceramics used for construction in three ways: (1) through direct corrosion of the materials, (2) by affecting the concentration and chemical form of the primary corrodents, and (3) by affecting the mass transport rate of the primary corrodents. To perform an accurate corrosion test on a system material, the researcher must include all relevant corrodents and simulate conditions in the gasifier as closely as possible. In this paper, the authors present suggestions for conditions to be used in such corrosion tests. Two main types of corrosion conditions are discussed: those existing in hot-gas cleanup systems where vapor and dry ash may contribute to corrosion and those experienced by high-temperature heat exchangers and refractories where the main corrodent will be coal ash slag. Only the fluidized-bed gasification systems such as the Sierra Pacific Power Company Pinon Pine Power Project system are proposing the use of ceramic filters for particulate cleanup. The gasifier is an air-blown 102-MWe unit employing a Westinghouse{trademark} ceramic particle filter system operating at as high as 1100{degrees}F at 300 psia. Expected gas compositions in the filter will be approximately 25% CO, 15% H{sub 2}, 5% CO{sub 2}, 5% H{sub 2}O, and 50% N{sub 2}. Vapor-phase sodium chloride concentrations are expected to be 10 to 100 times the levels in combustion systems at similar temperatures, but in general the concentrations of the minor primary and secondary corrodents are not well understood. Slag corrosiveness will depend on its composition as well as viscosity. For a laboratory test, the slag must be in a thermodynamically stable form before the beginning of the corrosion test to assure that no inappropriate reactions are allowed to occur. Ideally, the slag would be flowing, and the appropriate atmosphere must be used to assure realistic slag viscosity.

  13. Sample and injection manifolds used to in-place test of nuclear air-cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Dangui; Li Xinzhi; Hou Jianrong; Qiao Taifei; Wu Tao; Zhang Jirong; Han Lihong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: According to the regulations of nuclear safety rules and related standards, in-place test of the nuclear air-cleaning systems should be carried out before and during operation of the nuclear facilities, which ensure them to be in good condition. In some special conditions, the use of sample and injection manifolds is required to make the test tracer and ventilating duct air fully mixed, so as to get the on-spot typical sample. Methods: This paper introduces the technology and application of the sample and injection manifolds in nuclear air-cleaning system. Results: Multi point injection and multi point sampling technology as an effective experimental method, has been used in a of domestic and international nuclear facilities. Conclusion: The technology solved the problem of uniformly of on-spot injection and sampling,which plays an important role in objectively evaluating the function of nuclear air-cleaning system. (authors)

  14. Initial operation and performance of the PDX neutral-beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Eubank, H.P.; Kozub, T.A.; Rossmassler, J.E.; Schilling, G.; van Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    In 1981, the joint ORNL/PPPL PDX neutral beam heating project succeeded in reliably injecting 7.2 MW of D 0 into the PDX plasma, at nearly perpendicular angles, and achieved ion temperatures up to 6.5 keV. The expeditious achievement of this result was due to the thorough conditioning and qualification of the PDX neutral beam ion sources at ORNL prior to delivery coupled with several field design changes and improvements in the injection system made at PPPL as a result of neutral beam operating experience with the PLT tokamak. It has been found that the operation of high power neutral beam injection systems in a tokamak-neutral beam environment requires procedures and performance different from those required for development operation on test stands. In this paper, we review the installatin of the PDX neutral beam injection system, and its operation and performance during the initial high power plasma heating experiments with the PDX tokamak

  15. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J.E. Locke

    2005-11-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the seventh in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 1,300 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing three percent sulfur. The unit was equipped with an ESP and a limestone-based wet FGD to control particulate and SO2 emissions, respectively. At the time of sampling an SCR was not installed on this unit. Four sampling tests were performed in September 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the FGD inlet flue gas oxidized:elemental mercury ratio was roughly 2:1, with 66% oxidized mercury and 34% elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal

  16. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2006-01-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that these data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the ninth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on Unit 1 at Plant 7, a 566 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 3.6% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO

  17. FY 1999 report on the potential survey of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Potential survey of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the Philippines; 1999 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowa gata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Firipin ni okeru kankyo chowa gata system kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to working out a master plan for the introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the Philippines, analysis was made of the state of coal use/the state of spread by industry mostly including the electric power industry, cement industry and residential/commercial use fuel sector. In the Philippines, the amount of coal use has rapidly been increasing since coal-fired power plants started operation. For the promotion of the use of domestic coals, it is important to reform low grade coal. Moreover, the technology is required which copes with the reinforced regulation against SOx emissions. In the cement industry, coal and coal ash have not yet been effectively used. Therefore, the following measures should be taken to increase the competitive force: energy conservation measures, reinforcement of environmental measures such as dust prevention, and effective use of the fly ash emitted from power plants. In general households and small-/medium-sized industries such as tobacco drying, they still use a large amount of charcoals and firewood, which is approximately 86% of the residential/commercial use energy. There is a growing tendency for the development/spread of coal briquette as substituting energy. (NEDO)

  18. Designing Fault-Injection Experiments for the Reliability of Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Allan L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the long-standing problem of conducting fault-injections experiments to establish the ultra-reliability of embedded systems. There have been extensive efforts in fault injection, and this paper offers a partial summary of the efforts, but these previous efforts have focused on realism and efficiency. Fault injections have been used to examine diagnostics and to test algorithms, but the literature does not contain any framework that says how to conduct fault-injection experiments to establish ultra-reliability. A solution to this problem integrates field-data, arguments-from-design, and fault-injection into a seamless whole. The solution in this paper is to derive a model reduction theorem for a class of semi-Markov models suitable for describing ultra-reliable embedded systems. The derivation shows that a tight upper bound on the probability of system failure can be obtained using only the means of system-recovery times, thus reducing the experimental effort to estimating a reasonable number of easily-observed parameters. The paper includes an example of a system subject to both permanent and transient faults. There is a discussion of integrating fault-injection with field-data and arguments-from-design.

  19. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-04-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign, and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  20. Dynamic simulation model of a coal thermoelectric plant with a flue gas desulphurisation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caselles-Moncho, Antonio; Ferrandiz-Serrano, Liliana; Peris-Mora, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a Dynamic Simulation Model has been used to present the likely responses of the electricity industries' latest perturbations such as: changes in environmental regulations, international fuel market evolution, restriction on fuel supply and increase on fuel prices, liberalisation of the European Electricity Market, and the results of applying energy policies and official tools such as taxes and emission allowances. The case under study refers to the Teruel Power Plant, built after the 1970s oil crisis to ensure national electricity supply; burning domestically produced coal in order to ensure local mining activity. The Teruel Power Plant has made relevant investments in order to meet emission limits, such as a Flue Gas Desulphurisation Plant. The economic viability of the power stations has to be analysed after environmental costs have been internalised. A system is defined that studies the coal-firing Electric Power Plant selling energy to the free electricity market, whenever the generation cost is competitive. A Dynamic Simulation Model would appear to be an accurate tool to optimise power station management within different frameworks

  1. A new shock wave assisted wood preservative injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. S.; Ravikumar, G.; Lai, Ram; Jagadeesh, G.

    Preservative treatment of many tropical hard woods and bamboo pose severe problem. A number of wood preservatives (chemical formulations toxic to wood decay/ destroying organisms like fungi, wood destroying termites, marine borers etc.) and wood impregnating techniques are currently in use for improving bio resistance of timber and bamboo and thereby enhancing service life for different end uses. How ever, some species of tropical hardwoods and many species of bamboo are difficult to treat, posing technical problems. In this paper we report preliminary results of treatment of bamboo with a novel Shockwave assisted injection treatment. Samples (30×2.5×1.00 cm) of an Indian species of bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus prepared from defect free culms of dry bamboo are placed in the driven section of a vertical shock tube filled with the 4Coppepr-Chrome-Arsenic(CCA) preservative solution.The bamboo samples are subjected to repeated shock wave loading (3 shots) with typical over pressures of 30 bar. The results from the study indicate excellent penetration and retention of CCA preservative in bamboo samples. The method itself is much faster compared to the conventional methods like pressure treatment or hot and cold process.

  2. Design and development of a direct injection system for cryogenic engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutumba, Angela; Cheeseman, Kevin; Clarke, Henry; Wen, Dongsheng

    2018-04-01

    The cryogenic engine has received increasing attention due to its promising potential as a zero-emission engine. In this study, a new robust liquid nitrogen injection system was commissioned and set up to perform high-pressure injections into an open vessel. The system is used for quasi-steady flow tests used for the characterisation of the direct injection process for cryogenic engines. An electro-hydraulic valve actuator provides intricate control of the valve lift, with a minimum cycle time of 3 ms and a frequency of up to 20 Hz. With additional sub-cooling, liquid phase injections from 14 to 94 bar were achieved. Results showed an increase in the injected mass with the increase in pressure, and decrease in temperature. The injected mass was also observed to increases linearly with the valve lift. Better control of the injection process, minimises the number of variables, providing more comparable and repeatable sets of data. Implications of the results on the engine performance were also discussed.

  3. Combustion characteristics of a charcoal slurry in a direct injection diesel engine and the impact on the injection system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloiu, Valentin; Lewis, Jeffery; Yoshihara, Yoshinobu; Nishiwaki, Kazuie

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the research results pertaining to the renewable biomass charcoal-diesel slurries and their use as alternative fuels for combustion in diesel generating plants. The utilization of charcoal slurry fuel aims to reduce diesel oil consumption and would decrease fossil green house emissions into the atmosphere. The paper investigates the formulation, emulsification, sprays, combustion, injection system operation, and subsequent wear with charcoal-diesel slurries. In the research, cedar wood chips were used for the production of charcoal to be emulsified with diesel oil. The slurry's viscosity of 27 cP achieved the target ( o C. Charcoal slurry displayed a high vaporization rate of 75% by wt. at 300 o C. Engine investigations showed that the top combustion pressure at 1200 rpm and 100% load (7.8 brake mean effective pressure (bmep)) was 79 bar for diesel fuel and 78 bar for the charcoal slurry fuel. From the injection and heat release history was found an ignition delay of 1.7 ms for diesel that increased to 2.1 ms for the slurry fuel. A higher net heat release for charcoal slurry was observed, up to 180 J/crank angle degrees (CAD) compared with the diesel at 145 J/CAD The maximum combustion temperature reached 2300 K for diesel and 2330 K for slurry. The heat fluxes for both fuels have similar values and trends during the entire cycle showing the good compatibility of charcoal slurry with a diesel type combustion and low soot radiation. The exhaust temperatures were about 40-50 o C higher for charcoal slurry at 19 o before top dead center (BTDC) injection timing. The engine's bsfc increased as expected due to the lower heating value of the slurry fuel. The smoke Bosch no. was lower for the slurry fuel at any load, and is believed that the oxygen from the charcoal had a beneficial effect. The measured emissions of slurry fuel were better at 13 o BTDC than those of diesel fuel with the original engine settings and the remaining 6-10% oxygen content in

  4. Implications of environmental regulation and coal plant retirements in systems with large scale penetration of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, Mohsen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Hug, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade there have been a growing number of federal and state regulations aimed at controlling air emissions at power plants and/or increasing the penetration of renewable resources in the grid. Environmental Protection Agency regulations will likely lead to the retrofit, retirement, or replacement of coal-fired power plants while the state Renewable Portfolio Standards will continue to drive large-scale deployment of renewable energy sources, primarily wind. Combined, these changes in the generation fleet could have profound implications for the operations of the power system. In this paper, we aim to better understand the interaction between coal plant retirements and increased levels of wind power. We extensively analyze the operations of the PJM electricity system under a broad set of scenarios that include varying levels of wind penetration and coal plant retirements. Not surprisingly, we find that without transmission upgrades, retirement of coal-fired power plants will likely result in considerable transmission congestion and higher energy prices. Increased wind penetration, with high geographic diversity, could mitigate some of the negative effects of coal plant retirement and lead to a significant reduction in air emissions, but wind forecast error might impose operational constraints on the system at times of peak load. - Highlights: •Retirement of coal plants may increase transmission congestion and LMP prices. •EPA rules might lead to significant reductions in emission of air pollutants. •Wind geographical diversity may reduce transmission constraints and air emissions. •At times of high peak load, wind may not reduce system stress caused by retirement. •RPS policies can support and mitigate negative impacts of EPA regulations.

  5. Treatment of coal gasification wastewater by membrane bioreactor hybrid powdered activated carbon (MBR–PAC) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Fang, Fang; Zhao, Qian

    2014-12-01

    A laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor hybrid powdered activated carbon (MBR–PAC) system was developed to treat coal gasification wastewater to enhance the COD, total phenols (TPh), NH4+ removals and migrate the membrane fouling. Since the MBR–PAC system operated with PAC dosage of 4 g L−1, the maximum removal efficiencies of COD, TPh and NH4+ reached 93%, 99% and 63%, respectively with the corresponding influent concentrations of 2.27 g L−1, 497 mg L−1 and 164 mg N L−1; the PAC extraction efficiencies of COD, TPh and NH4+ were 6%, 3% and 13%, respectively; the transmembrane pressure decreased 34% with PAC after 50 d operation. The results demonstrate that PAC played a key role in the enhancement of biodegradability and mitigation of membrane fouling.

  6. Commissioning and maintenance experience of in-plant coal handling system of captive power plant at HWP, Manuguru (Paper No. 5.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugappan, K.; Mohan Rao, A.C.; Sastry, M.S.N.

    1992-01-01

    For achieving a non-stop generation of power for a minimum period of one year can be a reality only if due importance is given to inplant coal handling system. The paper highlights the major commissioning and maintenance problem faced and corrective action taken for inplant coal handling system of the captive power plant at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru. (author)

  7. Fiscal 1995 coal production/utilization technology promotion subsidy/clean coal technology promotion business/regional model survey. Study report on `Environmental load reduction measures: feasibility study of a coal utilization eco/energy supply system` (interim report); 1995 nendo sekitan seisan riyo gijutsu shinkohi hojokin clean coal technology suishin jigyo chiiki model chosa. `Kankyo fuka teigen taisaku: sekitan riyo eko energy kyokyu system no kanosei chosa` chosa hokokusho (chukan hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The coal utilization is expected to make substantial growth according to the long-term energy supply/demand plan. To further expand the future coal utilization, however, it is indispensable to reduce environmental loads in its total use with other energies, based on the coal use. In this survey, a regional model survey was conducted as environmental load reduction measures using highly cleaned coal which were taken in fiscal 1993 and 1994. Concretely, a model system was assumed which combined facilities for mixed combustion with coal and other energy (hull, bagasse, waste, etc.) and facilities for effective use of burned ash, and potential reduction in environmental loads of the model system was studied. The technology of mixed combustion between coal and other energy is still in a developmental stage with no novelties in the country. Therefore, the mixed combustion technology between coal and other energy is an important field which is very useful for the future energy supply/demand and environmental issues. 34 refs., 27 figs., 48 tabs.

  8. Economic analysis of coal-based polygeneration system for methanol and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hu; Jin, Hongguang; Gao, Lin; Han, Wei

    Polygeneration system for chemical and power co-production has been regarded as one of promising technologies to use fossil fuel more efficiently and cleanly. In this paper the thermodynamic and economic performances of three types of coal-based polygeneration system were investigated and the influence of energy saving of oxygenation systems on system economic performance was revealed. The primary cost saving ratio (PCS) is presented as a criterion, which represents the cost saving of polygeneration system compared with the single-product systems with the same products outputs, to evaluate economic advantages of polygeneration system. As a result, the system, adopting un-reacted syngas partly recycled to the methanol synthesis reactor and without the shift process, can get the optimal PCS of 11.8%, which results from the trade-off between the installed capital cost saving and the energy saving effects on the cost saving, and represents the optimal coupling relationship among chemical conversion, energy utilization and economic performance. And both of fuel price and the level of equipment capital cost affect on PCS faintly. This paper provides an evaluation method for polygeneration systems based on both technical and economic viewpoints. (author)

  9. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  10. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Coal comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchener, A.

    1991-01-01

    Coal's status as the dominant fuel for electricity generation is under threat because of concern over the environmental impacts of acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. All are produced when coal is burnt. Governments are therefore tightening the emission limits for fossil-fuel power plants. In the United Kingdom phased reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are planned. It will be the responsibility of the power generator to take the necessary steps to reduce the emissions. This will be done using a number of technologies which are explained and outlined briefly - flue gas desulfurization, separation of coal into high and low-sulphur coal, direct desulfurization of coal, circulating fluidised bed combustion, integrated-gasification combined cycle systems and topping cycles. All these technologies are aiming at cleaner, more efficient combustion of coal. (UK)

  12. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chien-Pei [Clive, IA; Short, John [Norwalk, IA; Klemm, Jim [Des Moines, IA; Abbott, Royce [Des Moines, IA; Overman, Nick [West Des Moines, IA; Pack, Spencer [Urbandale, IA; Winebrenner, Audra [Des Moines, IA

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  13. Voltage controlled nano-injection system for single-cell surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, R. Adam; Actis, Paolo; Penfold, Catherine; Maalouf, Michelle; Vilozny, Boaz; Pourmand, Nader

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation and analysis of single cells is the next frontier in understanding processes that control the function and fate of cells. Herein we describe a single-cell injection platform based on nanopipettes. The system uses scanning microscopy techniques to detect cell surfaces, and voltage pulses to deliver molecules into individual cells. As a proof of concept, we injected adherent mammalian cells with fluorescent dyes. PMID:22899383

  14. Servo-driven piezo common rail diesel injection system; Servogetriebene Piezo-Common-Rail-Dieseleinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeppe, Detlev; Stahl, Christian; Krueger, Grit; Dian, Vincent [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Engine Systems

    2012-03-15

    The requirements to be met by future diesel engines represent major challenges for fuel injection technology: Fuel consumption, emissions and noise development are to be further reduced without impairing driving enjoyment. To address these challenges, Continental has developed a new fuel injection system that features a high level of precision and accuracy. The key component is a servo-driven injector that is operated in a closed control circuit. (orig.)

  15. Early Safety Assessment of Automotive Systems Using Sabotage Simulation-Based Fault Injection Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Juez, Garazi; Amparan, Estíbaliz; Lattarulo, Ray; Ruíz, Alejandra; Perez, Joshue; Espinoza, Huascar

    2017-01-01

    As road vehicles increase their autonomy and the driver reduces his role in the control loop, novel challenges on dependability assessment arise. Model-based design combined with a simulation-based fault injection technique and a virtual vehicle poses as a promising solution for an early safety assessment of automotive systems. To start with, the design, where no safety was considered, is stimulated with a set of fault injection simulations (fault forecasting). By doing so, safety strategies ...

  16. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  17. Closed-Loop Tension Control System for Injection Moulding Machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When the mould unit is full, this drive keeps transporting filament materials without proper control. This project developed a closed loop feedback tension control system and it is to replace servo motor drive system for the transportation of filament and it demonstrated a new technological advancement and the theory of ...

  18. Combustion characteristics of a gasoline engine with independent intake port injection and direct injection systems for n-butanol and gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Bang-Quan; Chen, Xu; Lin, Chang-Lin; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Different injection approaches for n-butanol and gasoline affect combustion events. • High n-butanol percentage in the total energy of fuels improves combustion stability. • N-butanol promotes ignition and shortens combustion duration. • Lean burn increases indicated mean effective pressure at fixed total energy of fuels. • Different fuel injection methods slightly affect indicated mean effective pressure. - Abstract: N-butanol, as a sustainable biofuel, is usually used as a blend with gasoline in spark ignition engines. In this study, the combustion characteristics were investigated on a four-cylinder spark ignition gasoline engine with independent port fuel injection and direct injection systems for n-butanol and gasoline in different operating conditions. The results show that in the case of port fuel injection of n-butanol with direct injection gasoline at a given total energy released in a cycle, indicated mean effective pressure is slightly affected by spark timing at stoichiometry while it changes much more with delayed spark timing in lean burn conditions and is much higher in lean burn conditions compared to stoichiometry at given spark timings. With the increase of n-butanol percentage in a fixed total energy released in a cycle at given spark timings, ignition timing advances, combustion duration shortens, indicated mean effective pressure and indicated thermal efficiency increase. For the cases of port fuel injection of n-butanol with direction injection gasoline and port fuel injection of gasoline with direction injection n-butanol at a fixed total energy released in a cycle, their indicated mean effective pressures are close. But their combustion processes are dependent on fuel injection approaches.

  19. Scoping analyses for the safety injection system configuration for Korean next generation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Song, Jin Ho; Park, Jong Kyoon

    1996-01-01

    Scoping analyses for the Safety Injection System (SIS) configuration for Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) are performed in this study. The KNGR SIS consists of four mechanically separated hydraulic trains. Each hydraulic train consisting of a High Pressure Safety Injection (HPSI) pump and a Safety Injection Tank (SIT) is connected to the Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) nozzle located above the elevation of cold leg and thus injects water into the upper portion of reactor vessel annulus. Also, the KNGR is going to adopt the advanced design feature of passive fluidic device which will be installed in the discharge line of SIT to allow more effective use of borated water during the transient of large break LOCA. To determine the feasible configuration and capacity of SIT and HPSl pump with the elimination of the Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) pump for KNGR, licensing design basis evaluations are performed for the limiting large break LOCA. The study shows that the DVI injection with the fluidic device SlT enhances the SIS performance by allowing more effective use of borated water for an extended period of time during the large break LOCA

  20. Injectable In-Situ Gelling Controlled Release Drug Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Kulwant Singh; S. L. HariKumar

    2012-01-01

    The administration of poorly bioavailable drug through parenteral route is regarded the most efficient for drug delivery. Parenteral delivery provides rapid onset even for the drug with narrow therapeutic window, but to maintain the systemic drug level repeated installation are required which cause the patient discomfort. This can be overcome by designing the drug into a system, which control the drug release even through parenteral delivery, which improve patient compliance as well as pharma...

  1. Accident tolerant high-pressure helium injection system concept for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, Caleb; Miller, James; Vasudevamurthy, Gokul

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential helium injection strategy is proposed for LWR accident scenarios. • Multiple injection sites are proposed for current LWR designs. • Proof-of-concept experimentation illustrates potential helium injection benefits. • Computational studies show an increase in pressure vessel blowdown time. • Current LOCA codes have the capability to include helium for feasibility calculations. - Abstract: While the design of advanced accident-tolerant fuels and structural materials continues to remain the primary focus of much research and development pertaining to the integrity of nuclear systems, there is a need for a more immediate, simple, and practical improvement in the severe accident response of current emergency core cooling systems. Current blowdown and reflood methodologies under accident conditions still allow peak cladding temperatures to approach design limits and detrimentally affect the integrity of core components. A high-pressure helium injection concept is presented to enhance accident tolerance by increasing operator response time while maintaining lower peak cladding temperatures under design basis and beyond design basis scenarios. Multiple injection sites are proposed that can be adapted to current light water reactor designs to minimize the need for new infrastructure, and concept feasibility has been investigated through a combination of proof-of-concept experimentation and computational modeling. Proof-of-concept experiments show promising cooling potential using a high-pressure helium injection concept, while the developed choked-flow model shows core depressurization changes with added helium injection. Though the high-pressure helium injection concept shows promise, future research into the evaluation of system feasibility and economics are needed.Classification: L. Safety and risk analysis

  2. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  3. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to conventional'' technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  4. Simulation study of coal mine safety investment based on system dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Lei; Dou Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    To generate dynamic planning for coal mine safety investment, this study applies system dynamics to decision-making, classifying safety investments by accident type. It validates the relationship between safety investments and accident cost, by structurally analyzing the causality between safety investments and their influence factors. Our simulation model, based on Vensim software, conducts simulation anal-ysis on a series of actual data from a coalmine in Shanxi Province. Our results indicate a lag phase in safety investments, and that increasing pre-phase safety investment reduces accident costs. We found that a 24%increase in initial safety investment could help reach the target accident costs level 14 months earlier. Our simulation test included nine kinds of variation trends of accident costs brought by different investment ratios on accident prevention. We found an optimized ratio of accident prevention invest-ments allowing a mine to reach accident cost goals 4 months earlier, without changing its total investment.

  5. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

    2006-02-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions

  6. Injection control development of the JT-60U electron cyclotron heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiranai, Shinichi; Shinozaki, Shin-ichi; Yokokura, Kenji; Moriyama, Shinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Sato, Fumiaki [Nippon Advanced Technology Co., Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, Yasuo [Atomic Energy General Service Co., Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ikeda, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The JT-60U electron cyclotron heating (ECH) System injects a millimeteric wave at 110 GHz into the JT-60 Plasma, and heats the plasma or drives a current locally to enhance the confinement performance of the JT-60 plasma. The system consists of four sets of high power gyrotrons, high voltage power supplies and transmission lines, and two antennas that launch electron cyclotron (EC) beams toward the plasma. The key features of the injection control system are streering of the direction of the EC beam by driving the movable mirror in the antenna, and capability to set any combination of polarization angle and ellipticity by rotating the two grooved mirrors in the polarizers. This report represents the design, fabrication and improvements of the injection control system. (author)

  7. Design and development of the helicity injection system in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, JongYoon; An, Younghwa; Jung, Bongki; Lee, Jeongwon; Lee, HyunYoung; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Na, Yong-Su; Hwang, Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A high current electron gun with single pulse power for both arc and extraction is developed. • The optimal gun operation is confirmed by impedance matching between the PFN and plasma. • The gun injected currents of 0.95 kA with the voltage of ∼410 V for 5 ms with a 1.2 kV PFN. • The helicity injection system using the gun has been developed and tested successfully in VEST. • Toroidal currents of up to 3.8 kA confirm possible relaxation into tokamak-like plasma. - Abstract: A helicity injection system for the Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) has been successfully developed and commissioned. A high current electron gun utilizing hollow cathode and washer stacks has been designed and constructed with a single pulse power system that can provide voltages for both arc discharge and extraction sequentially. Tests for electron gun operation with the single pulse power system have been conducted under various toroidal and poloidal field strengths. The estimated plasma impedance, depending on the injection magnetic field structure, can be utilized for the optimal gun operation by impedance matching between the pulse power system and plasma. With the charging voltage of 1.2 kV, injection current of 0.95 kA has been obtained with the injection voltage of 410 V for about 5 ms. Initial helicity injection experiments have been conducted under various toroidal and poloidal field strengths and a toroidal plasma current of up to 3.8 kA is observed with the current multiplication larger than the geometric stacking ratio, confirming the possibility of relaxation into tokamak-like plasma with closed flux formation.

  8. Design and development of the helicity injection system in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, JongYoon; An, Younghwa; Jung, Bongki; Lee, Jeongwon; Lee, HyunYoung; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Na, Yong-Su; Hwang, Y.S., E-mail: yhwang@snu.ac.kr

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A high current electron gun with single pulse power for both arc and extraction is developed. • The optimal gun operation is confirmed by impedance matching between the PFN and plasma. • The gun injected currents of 0.95 kA with the voltage of ∼410 V for 5 ms with a 1.2 kV PFN. • The helicity injection system using the gun has been developed and tested successfully in VEST. • Toroidal currents of up to 3.8 kA confirm possible relaxation into tokamak-like plasma. - Abstract: A helicity injection system for the Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) has been successfully developed and commissioned. A high current electron gun utilizing hollow cathode and washer stacks has been designed and constructed with a single pulse power system that can provide voltages for both arc discharge and extraction sequentially. Tests for electron gun operation with the single pulse power system have been conducted under various toroidal and poloidal field strengths. The estimated plasma impedance, depending on the injection magnetic field structure, can be utilized for the optimal gun operation by impedance matching between the pulse power system and plasma. With the charging voltage of 1.2 kV, injection current of 0.95 kA has been obtained with the injection voltage of 410 V for about 5 ms. Initial helicity injection experiments have been conducted under various toroidal and poloidal field strengths and a toroidal plasma current of up to 3.8 kA is observed with the current multiplication larger than the geometric stacking ratio, confirming the possibility of relaxation into tokamak-like plasma with closed flux formation.

  9. Optimization of a flow injection analysis system for multiple solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, T.M.; Shelly, D.C.; Warner, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a multistage flow injection analysis solvent extraction system has been optimized. The effect of solvent segmentation devices, extraction coils, and phase separators on performance characteristics is discussed. Theoretical consideration is given to the effects and determination of dispersion and the extraction dynamics within both glass and Teflon extraction coils. The optimized system has a sample recovery similar to an identical manual procedure and a 1.5% relative standard deviation between injections. Sample throughput time is under 5 min. These characteristics represent significant improvements over the performance of the same system before optimization. 6 figures, 2 tables

  10. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  11. Integrated hydraulic and organophosphate pesticide injection simulations for enhancing event detection in water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rafi; Lahav, Ori; Ostfeld, Avi

    2014-10-15

    As a complementary step towards solving the general event detection problem of water distribution systems, injection of the organophosphate pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CP) and parathion (PA), were simulated at various locations within example networks and hydraulic parameters were calculated over 24-h duration. The uniqueness of this study is that the chemical reactions and byproducts of the contaminants' oxidation were also simulated, as well as other indicative water quality parameters such as alkalinity, acidity, pH and the total concentration of free chlorine species. The information on the change in water quality parameters induced by the contaminant injection may facilitate on-line detection of an actual event involving this specific substance and pave the way to development of a generic methodology for detecting events involving introduction of pesticides into water distribution systems. Simulation of the contaminant injection was performed at several nodes within two different networks. For each injection, concentrations of the relevant contaminants' mother and daughter species, free chlorine species and water quality parameters, were simulated at nodes downstream of the injection location. The results indicate that injection of these substances can be detected at certain conditions by a very rapid drop in Cl2, functioning as the indicative parameter, as well as a drop in alkalinity concentration and a small decrease in pH, both functioning as supporting parameters, whose usage may reduce false positive alarms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Causes of coal degradation at working faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1985-01-01

    Coal comminution by shearer loaders at working faces and factors influencing it are analyzed. Three groups of factors are evaluated: coal mechanical properties, design and specifications of shearer loaders and mining schemes. On the basis of analyses, recommendations for increasing proportion of coarse coal and reducing coal comminution in underground coal mines in Poland are made. Increasing output of coarse coal in coal seams with a high proportion of dull coal is most economic. Increasing power of drive systems for shearer loaders to 500 kW or more decisively influences grain size distribution of coal and increases proportion of coarse coal, especially in seams of dull coal. Gradually increasing cutting depth of a shearer loader negatively influences haulage speed and coarse coal output. Replacing gradual cutting depth increase by attack at the full cutting depth increases proportion of coarse coal. When medium or thick coal seams are mined a coal bench from 0.3 to 0.5 m thick should be left in the roof or between 2 benches cut by 2 cutting drums. The coal bench left in the face disintegrates under the influence of gravity and the proportion of coarse coal increases. Optimizing yield strength of powered supports at a working face is a further method for improving grain size distribution of coal and increasing proportion of coarse coal. 2 references.

  13. Analysis of the evaporative towers cooling system of a coal-fired power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laković Mirjana S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the cooling system of a 110 MW coal-fired power plant located in central Serbia, where eight evaporative towers cool down the plant. An updated research on the evaporative tower cooling system has been carried out to show the theoretical analysis of the tower heat and mass balance, taking into account the sensible and latent heat exchanged during the processes which occur inside these towers. Power plants which are using wet cooling towers for cooling condenser cooling water have higher design temperature of cooling water, thus the designed condensing pressure is higher compared to plants with a once-through cooling system. Daily and seasonal changes further deteriorate energy efficiency of these plants, so it can be concluded that these plants have up to 5% less efficiency compared to systems with once-through cooling. The whole analysis permitted to evaluate the optimal conditions, as far as the operation of the towers is concerned, and to suggest an improvement of the plant. Since plant energy efficiency improvement has become a quite common issue today, the evaluation of the cooling system operation was conducted under the hypothesis of an increase in the plant overall energy efficiency due to low cost improvement in cooling tower system.

  14. Computerized information system on the impacts of coal-fired energy development in the Southwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    An important part of the process of assessing the environmental impacts of coal-fired energy development in the Southwest is the transfer of information between electric utilities, federal agencies, and the interested public. There are, however, several problems associated with the transfer of information among the different groups. The acquisition of factual material on power projects by the interested public, for example, is adversely affected by the sufficiency, convenience, and credibility of present sources. Efforts of electric utilities and federal agencies to effectively communicate impact information are hindered by the inability of existing sources to selectively transfer information and to rapidly transmit information on the cumulative impacts of many combinations of power plants. This research concerns the development and evaluation of a computerized information system designed to selectively transfer information on both the cumulative and individual impacts of several electric generating facilities located in the southwestern United States. The information system incorporates features of management information systems, environmental information systems, and an issue-oriented system developed at The University of Illinois, making it a hybrid system capable of communicating impact information derived from a variety of sources

  15. Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. During this quarter, initial char combustion tests were performed at the CETF using a Foster Wheeler commercial burner. These preliminary tests were encouraging and will be used to support the development of an innovative char burner for the HIPPS

  16. Comparison of injection pain caused by the DentalVibe Injection System versus a traditional syringe for inferior alveolar nerve block anaesthesia in paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbay, M; Şermet Elbay, Ü; Yıldırım, S; Uğurluel, C; Kaya, C; Baydemir, C

    2015-06-01

    To compare paediatric patients' pain during needle insertion and injection in inferior alveoler nerve block (IANB) anaesthesia injected by either a traditional syringe (TS) or the DentalVibe Injection Comfort System (DV). the study was a randomised controlled crossover clinical trial, comprised of 60 children aged 6-12 requiring an operative procedure with IANB anaesthesia on their mandibular molars bilaterally. One of the molar teeth was treated with TS and the contralateral tooth was treated with DV. On each visit, subjective and objective pain was evaluated using the Wond-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale (PRS) and the Face, Legg, Cry, Consolability Scale (FLACC Scale). Patients were asked which anaesthesia technique they preferred. Data were analysed using Wilcoxon signed rank, Spearman correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests. There were no statistically significant differences for pain evalution during needle insertion and injection of each injection system. However, a negative correlation was found on the FLACC between age and pain scores during injection after using DV. Paediatric patients experienced similar pain during IANB anaesthesia administered with TS and DV. With increased age, pain values reduced during anaesthetic agent injection with DV according to FLACC. The traditional procedure was preferred to DV in paediatric patients.

  17. Coal use and coal technology study (KIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.; Gerbers, D.; Lako, P.; Rouw, M.; Tiemersma, D.N.

    1991-11-01

    The title study aims to assess the possible role for coal in the Netherlands energy system in the first decades of the next century and the part new coal conversion technologies will play under various conditions. The conditions considered relate to (sectoral) energy demand derived from national scenarios in an international context, to energy prices, to environmental constraints (acidification, solid waste management and disposal) and to the future role for nuclear power production. Targets for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are not explicitly included, but resulting CO 2 emissions are calculated for each variant case. The part that coal can play in the Dutch energy supply is calculated and analyzed by means

  18. Research on the technology of detecting the SQL injection attack and non-intrusive prevention in WEB system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibin

    2017-05-01

    Among numerous WEB security issues, SQL injection is the most notable and dangerous. In this study, characteristics and procedures of SQL injection are analyzed, and the method for detecting the SQL injection attack is illustrated. The defense resistance and remedy model of SQL injection attack is established from the perspective of non-intrusive SQL injection attack and defense. Moreover, the ability of resisting the SQL injection attack of the server has been comprehensively improved through the security strategies on operation system, IIS and database, etc.. Corresponding codes are realized. The method is well applied in the actual projects.

  19. Sensors Based Measurement Techniques of Fuel Injection and Ignition Characteristics of Diesel Sprays in DI Combustion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rehman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Innovative sensor based measurement techniques like needle lift sensor, photo (optical sensor and piezoresistive pressure transmitter are introduced and used to measure the injection and combustion characteristics in direct injection combustion system. Present experimental study is carried out in the constant volume combustion chamber to study the ignition, combustion and injection characteristics of the solid cone diesel fuel sprays impinging on the hot surface. Hot surface ignition approach has been used to create variety of advanced combustion systems. In the present study, the hot surface temperatures were varied from 623 K to 723 K. The cylinder air pressures were 20, 30 and 40 bar and fuel injection pressures were 100, 200 and 300 bar. It is found that ignition delay of fuel sprays get reduced with the rise in injection pressure. The ignition characteristics of sprays much less affected at high fuel injection pressures and high surface temperatures. The fuel injection duration reduces with the increase in fuel injection pressures. The rate of heat release becomes high at high injection pressures and it decreases with the increase in injection duration. It is found that duration of burn/combustion decrease with the increase in injection pressure. The use of various sensors is quite effective, reliable and accurate in measuring the various fuel injection and combustion characteristics. The study simulates the effect of fuel injection system parameters on combustion performance in large heavy duty engines.

  20. Feasibility analysis of nuclear–coal hybrid energy systems from the perspective of low-carbon development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, QianQian; Tang, ZhiYong; Lei, Yang; Sun, YuHan; Jiang, MianHeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We report a nuclear–coal hybrid energy systems. • We address the high-carbon energy resource integrating with a low-carbon energy resource. • We establish a systematic techno-economic model. • Improving both energy and carbon efficiency. • A significantly lower CO 2 emission intensity is achieved by the system. - Abstract: Global energy consumption is expected to increase significantly due to the growth of the economy and population. The utilization of fossil resource, especially coal, will likely be constrained by carbon dioxide emissions, known to be the principal contributor to climate change. Therefore, the world is facing the challenge of how to utilize fossil resource without a large carbon footprint. In the present work, a nuclear–coal hybrid energy system is proposed as a potential solution to the aforementioned challenge. A high-carbon energy such as coal is integrated effectively with a low-carbon energy such as nuclear in a flexible and optimized manner, which is able to generate the chemicals and fuels with low carbon dioxide emissions. The nuclear–coal hybrid energy system is presented in this paper for the detailed analysis. In this case, the carbon resource required by the fuel syntheses and chemical production processes is mainly provided by coal while the hydrogen resource is derived from nuclear energy. Such integration can not only lead to a good balance between carbon and hydrogen, but also improve both energy and carbon efficiencies. More importantly, a significantly lower CO 2 emission intensity is achieved. A systematic techno-economic model is established, and a scenario analysis is carried out on the hybrid system to assess the economic competitiveness based on the considerations of various types of externalities. It is found that with the rising carbon tax and coal price as well as the decreasing cost of nuclear energy, the hybrid energy system will become more and more economically competitive with the

  1. Neutral beam injection system design for KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B.H.; Lee, K.W.; Chung, K.S.; Oh, B.H.; Cho, Y.S.; Bae, Y.D.; Han, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The NBI system for KSTAR (Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) has been designed based on conventional positive ion beam technology. One beam line consists of three ion sources, three neutralizers, one bending magnet, and one drift tube. This system will deliver 8 MW deuterium beam to KSTAR plasma in normal operation to support the advanced experiments on heating, current drive and profile control. The key technical issues in this design were high power ion source(120 kV, 65 A), long pulse operation (300 seconds; world record is 30 sec), and beam rotation from vertical to horizontal direction. The suggested important R and D points on ion source and beam line components are also included. (author). 7 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Performance Evaluation of a Software Engineering Tool for Automated Design of Cooling Systems in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauregui-Becker, Juan M.; Tosello, Guido; van Houten, Fred J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a software tool for automating the design of cooling systems for injection moulding and a validation of its performance. Cooling system designs were automatically generated by the proposed software tool and by applying a best practice tool engineering design approach. The two...

  3. Blistering effects in neutral injection systems operated with helium and hydrogen gases: a preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The practical effects of blistering and flaking in neutral injection systems are studied. These effects will soon be more important because of energy increases in systems now under development and because of their operation with fast helium ions as well as hydrogen and deuterium ions. Two main effects were studied: enhanced erosion rate and possible voltage breakdown from sharp flakes and gas emission

  4. Mathematics of an automatic control system for ventilation of gassy coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puchkov, L.A.; Bakhvalov, L.A.; Kravchenko, A.G.

    1987-09-01

    Describes and presents a circuit diagram of an automatic control system introduced to control ventilation in the Kommunist mine belonging to the Oktyabr'ugol' coal mining association. The system comprises: sensors to register the parameters of the mine atmosphere (e.g. methane and air flow rate); communications channels and remote control devices to convert and transmit the data; a CM-4 computer with a high-speed processor, an 128-256 kByte operating memory, external memory devices, polydiaphragm air flow controllers, devices for controlling the electric drive of the main ventilation system, devices for collecting, processing and displaying the data. This system uses two groups of algorithms: algorithms for a data subsystem responsible for centralized control of the mine atmosphere parameters and a control subsystem which forms and implements the necessary control commands. The main software is the DISMAIN program. Introducing this system increased the productivity of the mine by 2%, reduced energy consumption by 5-7% and increased safety levels. 2 refs

  5. A Reduced Order Model for the Design of Oxy-Coal Combustion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Rowan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxy-coal combustion is one of the more promising technologies currently under development for addressing the issues associated with greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants. Oxy-coal combustion involves combusting the coal fuel in mixtures of pure oxygen and recycled flue gas (RFG consisting of mainly carbon dioxide (CO2. As a consequence, many researchers and power plant designers have turned to CFD simulations for the study and design of new oxy-coal combustion power plants, as well as refitting existing air-coal combustion facilities to oxy-coal combustion operations. While CFD is a powerful tool that can provide a vast amount of information, the simulations themselves can be quite expensive in terms of computational resources and time investment. As a remedy, a reduced order model (ROM for oxy-coal combustion has been developed to supplement the CFD simulations. With this model, it is possible to quickly estimate the average outlet temperature of combustion flue gases given a known set of mass flow rates of fuel and oxidant entering the power plant boiler as well as determine the required reactor inlet mass flow rates for a desired outlet temperature. Several cases have been examined with this model. The results compare quite favorably to full CFD simulation results.

  6. Design of the Injection and extraction system and related machine protection for the Clic Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Apsimon, Robert; Barnes, Mike; Borburgh, Jan; Goddard, Brennan; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Uythoven, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Linear machines such as CLIC have relatively low rates of collision between bunches compared to their circular counterparts. In order to achieve the required luminosity, a very small spot size is envisaged at the interaction point, thus a low emittance beam is needed. Damping rings are essential for producing the low emittances needed for the CLIC main beam. It is crucial that the beams are injected and extracted from the damping rings in a stable and repeatable fashion to minimise emittance blow-up and beam jitter at the interaction point; both of these effects will deteriorate the luminosity at the interaction point. In this paper, the parameters and constraints of the injection and extraction systems are considered and the design of these systems is optimised within this parameter space. Related machine protection is considered in order to prevent damage from potential failure modes of the injection and extraction systems.

  7. Computer Aided Design of The Cooling System for Plastic Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan GÜRÜN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of plastic injection molds and their cooling systems affect both the dimension, the shape, the quality of a plastic part and the cycle time of process and the cost of mold. In this study, the solid model design of a plastic injection mold and the design of cooling sysytem were possibly carried out without the designer interaction. Developed program permited the use of three types of the cooling system and the different cavity orientations and the multible plastic part placement into the mold cores. The program which was developed by using Visual LISP language and the VBA (Visual BASIC for Application modules, was applicated in the AutoCAD software domain. Trial studies were presented that the solid model design of plastic injection molds and the cooling systems increased the reliability, the flexibility and the speed of the design.

  8. Optics of ion beams for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, G. Q.; Lei, G. J.; Cao, J. Y.; Duan, X. R. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, 610041 (China)

    2012-07-15

    The ion beam optics for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak is studied by two- dimensional numerical simulation program firstly, where the emitting surface is taken at 100 Debye lengths from the plasma electrode. The mathematical formulation, computation techniques are described. Typical ion orbits, equipotential contours, and emittance diagram are shown. For a fixed geometry electrode, the effect of plasma density, plasma potential and plasma electron temperature on ion beam optics is examined, and the calculation reliability is confirmed by experimental results. In order to improve ion beam optics, the application of a small pre-acceleration voltage ({approx}100 V) between the plasma electrode and the arc discharge anode is reasonable, and a lower plasma electron temperature is desired. The results allow optimization of the ion beam optics in the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak and provide guidelines for designing future neutral beam injection system on HL-2M Tokomak.

  9. Optics of ion beams for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, G Q; Lei, G J; Cao, J Y; Duan, X R

    2012-07-01

    The ion beam optics for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak is studied by two- dimensional numerical simulation program firstly, where the emitting surface is taken at 100 Debye lengths from the plasma electrode. The mathematical formulation, computation techniques are described. Typical ion orbits, equipotential contours, and emittance diagram are shown. For a fixed geometry electrode, the effect of plasma density, plasma potential and plasma electron temperature on ion beam optics is examined, and the calculation reliability is confirmed by experimental results. In order to improve ion beam optics, the application of a small pre-acceleration voltage (∼100 V) between the plasma electrode and the arc discharge anode is reasonable, and a lower plasma electron temperature is desired. The results allow optimization of the ion beam optics in the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak and provide guidelines for designing future neutral beam injection system on HL-2M Tokomak.

  10. PLT and Doublet III neutral beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haselton, H.H.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Schechter, D.E.; Stewart, L.D.; Stirling, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The design program is being supported by experimental work with all beam line components: gas cells, bending magnets, beam stops, magnetic shielding, and high speed-high throughput cryopumping systems. Stray toroidal fields and fields produced by external transmission or mirror magnets are under study to determine the optimum means of removing the unneutralized component from the beam. Concepts utilizing materials with high permeability are adequate to provide the source with the necessary magnetic shielding. Beam stops capable of dissipating a power density of 10 to 40 kW/cm 2 are required for ion dumps, diagnostics, and on line ion source conditioning

  11. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  12. Fate(s) of injected CO2 in a coal-bearing formation, Louisiana, Gulf Coast Basin: Chemical and isotopic tracers of microbial-brine-rock-CO2 interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.

    2013-01-01

    Coal beds are one of the most promising reservoirs for geologic carbon dioxide (CO₂) sequestration, as CO₂ can strongly adsorb onto organic matter and displace methane; however, little is known about the long-term fate of CO₂ sequestered in coal beds. The "2800' sand" of the Olla oil field is a coal-bearing, oil and gas-producing reservoir of the Paleocene–Eocene Wilcox Group in north-central Louisiana. In the 1980s, this field, specifically the 2800' sand, was flooded with CO₂ in an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project, with 9.0×10⁷m³ of CO₂ remaining in the 2800' sand after injection ceased. This study utilized isotopic and geochemical tracers from co-produced natural gas, oil and brine from reservoirs located stratigraphically above, below and within the 2800' sand to determine the fate of the remaining EOR-CO₂, examining the possibilities of CO₂ migration, dissolution, mineral trapping, gas-phase trapping, and sorption to coal beds, while also testing a previous hypothesis that EOR-CO₂ may have been converted by microbes (CO₂-reducing methanogens) into methane, creating a microbial "hotspot". Reservoirs stratigraphically-comparable to the 2800' sand, but located in adjacent oil fields across a 90-km transect were sampled to investigate regional trends in gas composition, brine chemistry and microbial activity. The source field for the EOR-CO₂, the Black Lake Field, was also sampled to establish the δ¹³C-CO₂ value of the injected gas (0.9‰ +/- 0.9‰). Four samples collected from the Olla 2800' sand produced CO₂-rich gas with δ¹³C-CO₂ values (average 9.9‰) much lower than average (pre-injection) conditions (+15.9‰, average of sands located stratigraphically below the 2800' sand in the Olla Field) and at much higher CO₂ concentrations (24.9 mole %) than average (7.6 mole %, average of sands located stratigraphically below the 2800' sand in the Olla Field), suggesting the presence of EOR-CO₂ and gas-phase trapping as

  13. A systems approach to risk assessment: Application to methylmercury from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saroff, L. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) asked Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to perform a probabilistic assessment of the health risks associated with Hg from coal-fired power plants. The objective of the assessment is to estimate the incremental health risks that might ensue from a typical coal-fired power plant, together with their uncertainties, taking into account existing background levels and the actual adverse health effects that have previously been associated with exposure to various Hg species. Mercury has a long history of association with adverse neurological effects at high exposure levels. The most important current exposure pathway has been found to be ingestion of fish containing methylmercury (MeHg), which is the end product of bioconcentration moving up the aquatic food chain. Mercury can enter natural waters from either industrial discharges or from atmospheric deposition of various inorganic Ho. compounds. Because of the worldwide background and the existence of local emissions sources, Hg deposition must be considered on local, regional and global scales. The regulatory technical challenge presented by methy1mercury is to protect public health without foreclosing an appreciable a portion of the food supply or impacting on the lifestyles of North American native populations. This paper presents an abbreviated account of the DOE/BNL risk assessment, as viewed from a systems perspective. We review the structure of the model, the sources of data used, the assumptions that were made, and the interpretation of the findings. Since publication of the first risk assessment report, we have refined our estimates of local atmospheric dispersion and deposition and {open_quotes}calibrated{close_quotes} the pharmacokinetic portion of the model against observations.

  14. Investigation of a separation process involving liquid-water-coal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jr, D V; Burry, W

    1987-01-01

    A liquid-liquid-solid separation procedure wherein a water-oil-coal-mineral matter slurry is allowed to come to equilibrium through mechanical agitation has for many years been applied to the separation of coal from mineral matter. The product is a black cottage cheese-like mass of agglomerated coal particles and oil suspended in the excess water which supports the dispersed mineral matter particles. A liquid bridge model which was proposed by earlier investigators is reviewed critically and used to estimate the free energy per unit area of the separation of coals of different ranks. Observations of the kinetics of the process suggest that the simple liquid bridge model is insufficient, probably due to the heterogeneous surfaces of the coal. An alternative model is proposed. 14 references.

  15. Techno-Economic Analysis of Scalable Coal-Based Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Steven S. C. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Researchers at The University of Akron (UA) have demonstrated the technical feasibility of a laboratory coal fuel cell that can economically convert high sulfur coal into electricity with near zero negative environmental impact. Scaling up this coal fuel cell technology to the megawatt scale for the nation’s electric power supply requires two key elements: (i) developing the manufacturing technology for the components of the coal-based fuel cell, and (ii) long term testing of a kW scale fuel cell pilot plant. This project was expected to develop a scalable coal fuel cell manufacturing process through testing, demonstrating the feasibility of building a large-scale coal fuel cell power plant. We have developed a reproducible tape casting technique for the mass production of the planner fuel cells. Low cost interconnect and cathode current collector material was identified and current collection was improved. In addition, this study has demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of carbon can take place on the Ni anode surface and the CO and CO2 product produced can further react with carbon to initiate the secondary reactions. One important secondary reaction is the reaction of carbon with CO2 to produce CO. We found CO and carbon can be electrochemically oxidized simultaneously inside of the anode porous structure and on the surface of anode for producing electricity. Since CH4 produced from coal during high temperature injection of coal into the anode chamber can cause severe deactivation of Ni-anode, we have studied how CH4 can interact with CO2 to produce in the anode chamber. CO produced was found able to inhibit coking and allow the rate of anode deactivation to be decreased. An injection system was developed to inject the solid carbon and coal fuels without bringing air into the anode chamber. Five planner fuel cells connected in a series configuration and tested. Extensive studies on the planner fuels

  16. Coal structure construction system with construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation; Kochiku chishiki to bubunteki energy hyoka ni yoru sekitan bunshi kozo kochiku system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okawa, T.; Sasai, T.; Komoda, N. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The computer aided coal structure construction system is proposed, and a computational construction example is presented. The coal structure construction engine of this system fabricates molecular structure by connecting fragments sequentially inputted through a user interface. The best structure candidate is determined using construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation every addition of one fragment, and this process is subsequently repeated. The structure evaluation engine analyzes the 3-D conformation candidate by molecular dynamics, and evaluates the conformation by determining the energy value of an optimum structure. As an example, this system was applied to construction of coal molecular structure based on the actual data of partial structure composed of 26 structures from 2l kinds of aromatic cluster structures, 27 bonds from 2 kinds of bridged bonds, and 16 groups from 2 kinds of terminal substitutional groups. As a result, this system could construct a superior structure according to expert knowledge from the viewpoint of energy. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Role of passive valves & devices in poison injection system of advanced heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapra, M.K.; Kundu, S.; Vijayan, P.K.; Vaze, K.K.; Sinha, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a 300 MWe pressure tube type boiling light water (H 2 O) cooled, heavy water (D 2 O) moderated reactor. The reactor design is based on well-proven water reactor technologies and incorporates a number of passive safety features such as natural circulation core cooling; direct in-bundle injection of light water coolant during a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) from Advanced Accumulators and Gravity Driven Water Pool by passive means; Passive Decay Heat Removal using Isolation Condensers, Passive Containment Cooling System and Passive Containment Isolation System. In addition to above, there is another passive safety system named as Passive Poison Injection System (PPIS) which is capable of shutting down the reactor for a prolonged time. It is an additional safety system in AHWR to fulfill the shutdown function in the event of failure of wired shutdown systems i.e. primary and secondary shut down systems of the reactor. When demanded, PPIS injects the liquid poison into the moderator by passive means using passive valves and devices. On increase of main heat transport (MHT) system pressure beyond a predetermined value, a set of rupture disks burst, which in-turn actuate the passive valve. The opening of passive valve initiates inrush of high pressure helium gas into poison tanks to push the poison into the moderator system, thereby shutting down the reactor. This paper primarily deals with design and development of Passive Poison Injection System (PPIS) and its passive valves & devices. Recently, a prototype DN 65 size Poison Injection Passive Valve (PIPV) has been developed for AHWR usage and tested rigorously under simulated conditions. The paper will highlight the role of passive valves & devices in PPIS of AHWR. The design concept and test results of passive valves along with rupture disk performance will also be covered. (author)

  18. Optimization of parameters for the inline-injection system at Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.; Ko, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    We present some of our parameter optimization results utilizing code PARMLEA, for the ATF Inline-Injection System. The new solenoid-Gun-Solenoid -- Drift-Linac Scheme would improve the beam quality needed for FEL and other experiments at ATF as compared to the beam quality of the original design injection system. To optimize the gain in the beam quality we have considered various parameters including the accelerating field gradient on the photoathode, the Solenoid field strengths, separation between the gun and entrance to the linac as well as the (type size) initial charge distributions. The effect of the changes in the parameters on the beam emittance is also given

  19. External injection systems applied in modern cyclotrons designed and manufactured in NIIEFA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, P.V.; Vasilchenko, I.N.; Veresov, O.L.; Gavrish, Yu.N.; Grigorenko, S.V.; Zuev, Yu.V.; Kozienko, M.T.; Mudrolyubov, V.G.; Strokach, A.P.; Tsygankov, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    The main parameters and design features of the external injection systems applied in modern cyclotrons designed and manufactured in NIIEFA and intended for production of radionuclides for medicine are presented. The use of these external injection systems instead of a traditional internal source allows the current of the accelerated beam to be significantly increased and the in-leakage of the working gas to the acceleration chamber to be reduced, which results in reduced beam losses in the process of acceleration and lower equipment activation.

  20. Health risk assessment linked with purified biogas injection in a natural gas distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroux, Carole; Modelon, Hugues; Rousselle, Christophe; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Evanno, Sebastien

    2009-06-01

    This document provides for the opinion of the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (Afsset) expressed after the collective expertise carried out for the evaluation of the health risk linked with biogas injection in the natural gas distribution system. Following the recommendations issued by the Afsset, works have been started in order to collect the sludge-derived biogas and to analyse its composition. These data will be used to assess accidental risks (resulting from biogas valorisation, pipeline transport, industrial and domestic energy valorisation) as well as health risks for users (resulting from the injection in the natural gas distribution system)

  1. Global thermal coal trade outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, E.

    2008-01-01

    Wood Mackenzie operates coal consulting offices in several cities around the world and is the number one consulting company in terms of global coal coverage. The company offers a unique mine-by-mine research methodology, and owns a proprietary modeling system for coal and power market forecasting. This presentation provided an overview of global thermal markets as well as recent market trends. Seaborne markets have an impact on price far greater than the volume of trade would imply. Research has also demonstrated that the global thermal coal market is divided between the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. The current status of several major coal exporting countries such as Canada, the United States, Venezuela, Colombia, Indonesia, Australia, China, South Africa, and Russia was displayed in an illustration. The presentation included several graphs indicating that the seaborne thermal coal market is highly concentrated; traditional coal flow and pricing trends shift as Asian demand growth and supply constraints lead to chronic under supply; coal prices have risen to historic highs in recent times; and, the Asian power sector demand is a major driver of future growth. The correlation between oil and gas markets to thermal coal was illustrated along with two scenarios of coal use in the United States in a carbon-constrained world. The impact of carbon legislation on coal demand from selected coal regions in the United States was also discussed. Wood Mackenzie forecasts a very strong growth in global thermal coal demand, driven largely by emerging Asian economies. tabs., figs

  2. Comprehensive characterizations of nanoparticle biodistribution following systemic injection in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Yin; Li, Hui-Jing; Chang, Ming-Yao; Tang, Alan C. L.; Hoffman, Allan S.; Hsieh, Patrick C. H.

    2013-10-01

    Various nanoparticle (NP) properties such as shape and surface charge have been studied in an attempt to enhance the efficacy of NPs in biomedical applications. When trying to undermine the precise biodistribution of NPs within the target organs, the analytical method becomes the determining factor in measuring the precise quantity of distributed NPs. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) represents a more powerful tool in quantifying NP biodistribution compared to conventional analytical methods such as an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). This, in part, is due to better curve linearity offered by HPLC than IVIS. Furthermore, HPLC enables us to fully analyze each gram of NPs present in the organs without compromising the signals and the depth-related sensitivity as is the case in IVIS measurements. In addition, we found that changing physiological conditions improved large NP (200-500 nm) distribution in brain tissue. These results reveal the importance of selecting analytic tools and physiological environment when characterizing NP biodistribution for future nanoscale toxicology, therapeutics and diagnostics.Various nanoparticle (NP) properties such as shape and surface charge have been studied in an attempt to enhance the efficacy of NPs in biomedical applications. When trying to undermine the precise biodistribution of NPs within the target organs, the analytical method becomes the determining factor in measuring the precise quantity of distributed NPs. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) represents a more powerful tool in quantifying NP biodistribution compared to conventional analytical methods such as an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). This, in part, is due to better curve linearity offered by HPLC than IVIS. Furthermore, HPLC enables us to fully analyze each gram of NPs present in the organs without compromising the signals and the depth-related sensitivity as is the case in IVIS measurements. In addition, we found that changing physiological

  3. Attack methodology Analysis: SQL Injection Attacks and Their Applicability to Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bri Rolston

    2005-09-01

    Database applications have become a core component in control systems and their associated record keeping utilities. Traditional security models attempt to secure systems by isolating core software components and concentrating security efforts against threats specific to those computers or software components. Database security within control systems follows these models by using generally independent systems that rely on one another for proper functionality. The high level of reliance between the two systems creates an expanded threat surface. To understand the scope of a threat surface, all segments of the control system, with an emphasis on entry points, must be examined. The communication link between data and decision layers is the primary attack surface for SQL injection. This paper facilitates understanding what SQL injection is and why it is a significant threat to control system environments.

  4. FY 1999 report on the potential survey of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Potential survey of the spread of high efficiency coal boiler; 1999 nendo kankyo chowa gata sekitan system kanosei chosa. Kokoritsu sekitan boira fukyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the coal consumption amount and reducing the emission amount of environmental pollutants, study of small stoker boilers in China was made in terms of sampling of the data on changes in boiler efficiency caused by combustion conditions and how to improve efficiency. As objects of survey, one boiler use plant in Beijing city and two in Taiyuan city, Shanxi province, were selected to make site survey on the state of installation and operational management of coal boiler. As a result of the actual measurement of boiler efficiency at the plants, the boiler efficiency was the maximum, about 76%, in Beijing city and the minimum, about 51%, in Taiyuan city. In China, the number of boiler with the Beijing city level was extremely small, and most of the boilers were the same as the Taiyuan city level. As a result of studying how to improve efficiency based on the survey results, the following were cited as the main measures for improvement: selection of coal by boiler type and supply of the secondary air, strengthening of the combustion management by controlling furnace pressure and air amount, etc. For the selection of coal, it is necessary to set up a system to be supported by the whole country or the whole department. (NEDO)

  5. Integrated engineering and cost model for management of coal combustion byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevim, H. [Department of Mining Engineering, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois (United States); Renninger, S. [US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States)

    1998-07-01

    An integrated engineering and cost model has been developed as a part of an overall research project for exploring the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of disposing coal combustion byproducts and flue gas desulfurisation products in underground coal mines in Illinois. The features of the model have been keyed in user-friendly software. In this paper, the purpose and the structure of the model are described. The capabilities of the software are illustrated through an example involving transportation of byproducts in containers from a power plant to a mine site, and subsequent placement of the byproducts in a abandoned underground coal mine using a hydraulic injection system. 3 refs.

  6. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1997--September 27, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Morrison, J.L. [and others

    1998-01-06

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Phase I was completed on November 1, 1995. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included performing pilot-scale air toxics (i.e., trace elements and volatile organic compounds) testing and evaluating a ceramic filtering device on the demonstration boiler. Also, a sodium bicarbonate duct injection system was installed on the demonstration boiler. An economic analysis was conducted which investigated the benefits of decreased dependence on imported oil by using new coal combustion technologies. Work related to coal preparation and utilization was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, and surface-based separation processes. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included receiving three cleaned coals from Cyprus-Amax.

  7. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  8. Assessment of an atmospheric fluidized-bed coal-combustion gas-turbine cogeneration system for industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R. L.; Holcomb, R. S.; Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-10-01

    This study was initiated to provide information on the future potential industrial market for a cogeneration system consisting of a fluidized-bed coal combustor coupled to a gas-turbine (Brayton cycle) power system that uses air as the working fluid. In assessing the potential applications for the system, the process heat energy consumption by industry is identified, with special detail included on the six most energy-intensive industries. The potential impact on the nation's oil and natural gas consumption that would result from wide-spread utilization of coal for process heat is also estimated. The fraction of industrial process heat that the system could feasibly satisfy from a thermodynamic viewpoint is estimated, and the performance (potential fuel efficiency and heat/power ratio) of the atmospheric fluidized-bed gas-turbine system is calculated. Also treated are several specific case studies of industries in which the system could be incorporated. Major parameters are specified, and flow sheets are derived for systems that would satisfy the heat and power requirements of the process or industry. The overall fuel utilization efficiency, thermal power rating, and potential number of installations are specified for these case studies. The findings of the study indicate that there is a sizable potential market for the system, with over 1000 possible installations disclosed after reviewing only 8 specific industries from 6 major Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. The potential displacement of oil and gas by coal in process heating is shown to be about 1.60 m/sup 3//sec (870,000 bbl/d) of oil and 4590 m/sup 3//sec (14.0 billion ft/sup 3//d) of natural gas for all industries combined. Continued development of the fluidized-bed coal combustor and power system is recommended so that this potential may be at least partially realized.

  9. Emission potentials of future diesel fuel injection systems; Emissionspotentiale zukuenftiger Diesel-Einspritzsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schommers, J.; Breitbach, H.; Stotz, M.; Schnabel, M. [DaimlerChrysler AG (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The historical evolution of the diesel engine correlates strongly with fuel injection system developments. Mercedes-Benz contributed significantly to the recent success of the diesel engine, being one of the first car manufacturers to introduce a modern common rail diesel engine in the Mercedes C220 CDI in 1997. The excellent characteristics of modern diesel engines resulted in a 50% market share in newly registered cars in Germany. These characteristics have to be further improved in the next years to keep the diesel engine attractive. Emissions and at the same time fuel consumption and noise need to be further reduced, while engine power has to go up. For Mercedes-Benz key steps to reach these goals are lower compression ratio, higher boost pressures, higher exhaust gas recirculation rates and better EGR cooling, multiple injection patterns and components with stable application parameters over lifetime. Important requirements for future fuel injection systems are high spray momentum, good stability over lifetime, good robustness of injected quantities for varying injection patterns and a low shot-to-shot variation of injected quantities. The high spray momentum has to be achieved especially for small injections and for part load operating points with low pressures. Therefore, the needle opening and closing velocities are of special importance. With special focus on the above requirements, different injector concepts were hydraulically evaluated. Both concepts in serial production and under development from system suppliers, as well as Mercedes-Benz developed prototype injector concepts were chosen. The concepts analysed are a servo-hydraulically driven injector with control piston, two servo-hydraulically driven injectors without control piston with differently adjusted hydraulics, and a direct driven injector, where the needle is driven directly from an actuator without servo-hydraulic amplification. The hydraulic investigations show an excellent performance of

  10. Physical Watermarking for Securing Cyber-Physical Systems via Packet Drop Injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozel, Omur [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Weekrakkody, Sean [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sinopoli, Bruno [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-10-23

    Physical watermarking is a well known solution for detecting integrity attacks on Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) such as the smart grid. Here, a random control input is injected into the system in order to authenticate physical dynamics and sensors which may have been corrupted by adversaries. Packet drops may naturally occur in a CPS due to network imperfections. To our knowledge, previous work has not considered the role of packet drops in detecting integrity attacks. In this paper, we investigate the merit of injecting Bernoulli packet drops into the control inputs sent to actuators as a new physical watermarking scheme. With the classical linear quadratic objective function and an independent and identically distributed packet drop injection sequence, we study the effect of packet drops on meeting security and control objectives. Our results indicate that the packet drops could act as a potential physical watermark for attack detection in CPSs.

  11. UNEP Demonstrations of Mercury Emission Reduction at Two Coal-fired Power Plants in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozewicz W.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP partnership area “Mercury releases from coal combustion” (The UNEP Coal Partnership has initiated demonstrations of mercury air emission reduction at two coal-fired power plants in Russia. The first project has modified the wet particulate matter (PM scrubber installed in Toliatti thermal plant to allow for addition of chemical reagents (oxidants into the closedloop liquid spray system. The addition of oxidant resulted in significant improvement of mercury capture from 20% total mercury removal (without the additive up to 60% removal (with the additive. It demonstrates the effectiveness of sorbent injection technologies in conjunction with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP. ESPs are installed at 60%, while wet PM scrubbers are installed at 30% of total coal-fired capacity in Russia. Thus, the two UNEP Coal Partnership projects address the majority of PM emission control configurations occurring in Russia.

  12. FY 2000 Feasibility study on the environmentally-friendly coal utilization systems as part of the international project for coal utilization measures. Feasibility study on supporting introduction of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization systems in Vietnam (Model project for introduction of advanced coal preparation systems); 2000 nendo kokusai sekitan riyo taisaku jigyo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa jigyo Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (kodo sentan system donyu model jigyo kanosei chosa jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    The feasibility study was conducted on a model project in Vietnam, aimed at solving the environmental pollution problems resulting from use of coal by demonstrating and disseminating the Japan's environmental technologies in the Southeast Asian countries. The feasibility study was conducted for the Cua Ong Coal Preparation Enterprise, which has the largest coal preparation capacity in Vietnam and port facilities. It is treating raw coal from 10 coal mines for classification and preparation, and shipping coal of various types that meet the standards for domestic use and export. The survey results point out that unrecovered coal remains in waste water discharged from the coal preparation plants to pollute the sea area, and that quantity of the refuse increases because of the unrecovered coal it contains. The environmental technologies needed to introduce include modification to variable wave pattern type jigging separator, refuse height measuring instrument and automatic controller, circulating heavy medium gravimeter, highly functional settling pond, and flocculent facilities. (NEDO)

  13. Development of a Universal Safety Behavior Management System for Coal Mine Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Jizu; LI, Yuejiao; LIU, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    Background: In China, over 80% of all work-related deaths in the mining industry occur in coal mines and human factors constitute 85% of the direct causes of coal mine accidents, which indicates that significant shortcomings currently exist in the safety behavior management of Chinese coal mine workers. We aimed to verify the impact of human psychological behavior in coal mine accidents systematically through experimental study, theoretical analysis and management application. Methods: Four test instruments (Sensory and cognitive capacity test, Sixteen-Personal Factor Questionnaire, Symptom Checklist 90 Questionnaire and the supervisors’ evaluation) were employed from November 2013 to June 2014 to identify unsafe behavior factors, the self-established Questionnaire of Safety Behavior Norms (QSBN) was also used to propose the safety behavior countermeasures of coal mine employees. Results: The mental health of most coal mine workers’ is relatively poor. The sensory and cognitive capacity of those in different work posts varies greatly, as does the sense of responsibility. Workers are susceptible to external influences, and score low in site management. When the 16-PF and SCL-90 sensory and cognitive assessments were combined, the psychological index predictive power was greatest for estimating sense of efficiency and degree of satisfaction in internal evaluations, while at the same time lowest for estimating control of introversion-extroversion and stress character. Conclusion: The psychological indicators can predict part of employee safety behavior, and assist a coal mine enterprise to recruit staff, develop occupational safety norms and improve the working environment. PMID:26258088

  14. Bioenergy for District Bioheating System (DBS) from eucalyptus residues in a European coal-producing region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes-Sánchez, José P.; López-Ochoa, Luis M.; López-González, Luis M.; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper introduces a combined method to evaluate bioenergy. • Forest biomass needs to be studied as a fuel supplier and carbon sink. • The forests under study produce about 28 kt dry and 0.15 Mt CO 2 per year. • Examined a District Bioheating System (DBS) with the available biomass. - Abstract: Since forest biomass can substitute for CO 2 -emitting fossil fuels in the energy sector, forest management can greatly affect the global carbon cycle. Eucalyptus globulus has adapted very well in the coal region of the Principality of Asturias (Northwestern Spain) and has become highly regarded as a valuable raw material for the pulp and paper industry. In the present work, the Eucalyptus globulus is studied as a key natural energy source in order to improve existing methods and develop new ways of optimizing the evaluation and use of both forest biomass and woody residue in energy systems, in accordance with sustainable forestry industry safety and environmental requirements. The feasibility of utilizing forest biomass instead of natural gas in a District Bioheating System (DBS) has been examined based on an analysis of its economical and environmental impacts.

  15. [Disorders of locomotor system and effectiveness of physiotherapy in coal miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilski, Bartosz; Bednarek, Agata

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the survey was to analyze the efficacy of physiotherapy applied in coal miners as well as to assess their locomotor system load and the effects of working conditions in mines. The questionnaire survey covered a group of 51 miners, aged 28-76 years (mean, 54 years), undergoing physiotherapeutic procedures in the mine out-patient clinic during the first quarter of 2003. The survey revealed that lumbosacral disorders were the most frequent locomotor system complaints reported by miners, especially those who work in a bending down position. According to the clinical data, spondylosis and allied disorders were the main reasons for pain in this part of the body. Having analyzed the relationship between age and occurrence of back pains, the majority of complaints were found in the 46-55 age group (two complaints per one respondent). The analysis of the association between back pains and duration of employment revealed that the complaints for the locomotor system occurred already after a five-year employment. The survey showed that the application of physiotherapeutic procedures diminished the back pain in the study group by 2.83 on average on the 0-10 scale. It was also found that magnetotherapy proved to be the most effective method in treating the spinal degenerative changes.

  16. Direct vessel inclined injection system for reduction of emergency core coolant direct bypass in advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang H.; Lee, Jong G.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2006-01-01

    Multidimensional thermal hydraulics in the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe) downcomer during a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) plays a pivotal role in determining the capability of the safety injection system. APR1400 adopts the direct vessel injection (DVI) method for more effective core penetration of the emergency core cooling (ECC) water than the cold leg injection (CLI) method in the OPR1000 (Optimized Power Reactor 1000 MWe). The DVI method turned out to be prone to occasionally lack in efficacious delivery of ECC to the reactor core during the reflood phase of a LBLOCA, however. This study intends to demonstrate a direct vessel inclined injection (DVII) method, one of various ideas with which to maximize the ECC core penetration and to minimize the direct bypass through the break during the reflood phase of a LBLOCA. The 1/7 scaled down THETA (Transient Hydrodynamics Engineering Test Apparatus) tests show that a vertical inclined nozzle angle of the DVII system increases the downward momentum of the injected ECC water by reducing the degree of impingement on the reactor downcomer, whereby lessening the extent of the direct bypass through the break. The proposed method may be combined with other innovative measures with which to ensure an enough thermal margin in the core during the course of a LBLOCA in APR1400

  17. Local Helicity Injection Systems for Non-solenoidal Startup in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. M.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Lewicki, B. T.; Redd, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    Local helicity injection is being developed in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment for non-solenoidal startup in spherical tokamaks. The effective loop voltage due to helicity injection scales with the area of the injectors, requiring the development of electron current injectors with areas much larger than the 2 cm2 plasma arc injectors used to date. Solid and gas-effused metallic electrodes were found to be unusable due to reduced injector area utilization from localized cathode spots and narrow operational regimes. An integrated array of 8 compact plasma arc sources is thus being developed for high current startup. It employs two monolithic power systems, for the plasma arc sources and the bias current extraction system. The array effectively eliminates impurity fueling from plasma-material interaction by incorporating a local scraper-limiter and conical-frustum bias electrodes to mitigate the effects of cathode spots. An energy balance model of helicity injection indicates that the resulting 20 cm2 of total injection area should provide sufficient current drive to reach 0.3 MA. At that level, helicity injection drive exceeds that from poloidal induction, which is the relevant operational regime for large-scale spherical tokamaks. Future placement of the injector array near an expanded boundary divertor region will test simultaneous optimization of helicity drive and the Taylor relaxation current limit. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  18. South Blackwater Coal`s maintenance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, J. [South Blackwater Coal Limited, Blackwater, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-09-01

    The South Blackwater operation consists of two opencut mining areas and two underground mines (Laleham and Kenmure) near Blackwater in central Queensland, all of which supply coal to a central coal preparation plant. South Blackwater Coal Ltd. recently developed a maintenance improvement programme, described in this article. The programme involved implementation systems of key performance indicators (KPIs), benchmaking, condition monitoring, work planning and control, failure analysis and maintenance audit. Some improvements became almost immediately apparent, others were quite gradual. Major results included: improved availability (and reliability) of all opencast fleets, improvements in rear dump availability; reduced maintenance man-hours for opencast fleets; and increased availability of the coal handling and preparation plant. The paper is an edited version of that presented at the `Maintenance in mining conference` 16-19 March 1998, held in Bali, Indonesia. 4 figs., 2 photos.

  19. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Zamansky; Vitali Lissianski; Pete Maly; Richard Koppang

    2002-09-10

    economic benefits of the FFR technology. Two options to gasify coal were considered: one included a common gasifier and another included a gasifier injector at each injection location. Economic analysis suggested that an FFR system with a common gasifier was more economic than a conventional reburning system and had NO{sub x} reduction cost similar to that of the major competing technology, LNB/SOFA system, for all economic scenarios.

  20. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir Zamansky; Vitali Lissianski; Pete Maly; Richard Koppang

    2002-01-01

    technology. Two options to gasify coal were considered: one included a common gasifier and another included a gasifier injector at each injection location. Economic analysis suggested that an FFR system with a common gasifier was more economic than a conventional reburning system and had NO x reduction cost similar to that of the major competing technology, LNB/SOFA system, for all economic scenarios

  1. Effect of structural discontinuities on coal pillar strength as a basis for improving safety in the design of coal pillar systems.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esterhuizen, GS

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability of underground coal mines depends on the integrity of the pillars which are required to support the overlying strata. Should the pillars collapse, the safety of the persons in the workings will be threatened. The strength of a coal...

  2. Safety Psychology Applicating on Coal Mine Safety Management Based on Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baoyue; Chen, Fei

    In recent years, with the increase of intensity of coal mining, a great number of major accidents happen frequently, the reason mostly due to human factors, but human's unsafely behavior are affected by insecurity mental control. In order to reduce accidents, and to improve safety management, with the help of application security psychology, we analyse the cause of insecurity psychological factors from human perception, from personality development, from motivation incentive, from reward and punishment mechanism, and from security aspects of mental training , and put forward countermeasures to promote coal mine safety production,and to provide information for coal mining to improve the level of safety management.

  3. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  4. The development of an air injection system for the forced response testing of axial compressors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wegman, Erik J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A phase-controllable, air injection exciter system was developed to enable measurement of the forced response properties of a transonic axial compressor blisk. The project was performed as part of the FP7 European framework program project FUTURE...

  5. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mantas Smolnikovas; Gintas Viselga; Greta Viselgaitė; Algirdas Jasinskas

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  6. Fault Diagnosis Of A Water For Injection System Using Enhanced Structural Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten; Blanke, Mogens; Düstegör, Dilek

    2008-01-01

    A water for injection system supplies chilled sterile water as solvent to pharmaceutical products. There are ultimate requirements to the quality of the sterile water, and the consequence of a fault in temperature or in flow control within the process may cause loss of one or more batches...

  7. Simulation of the injection damping and resonance correction systems for the HEB of the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Zhang, P.; Machida, S.

    1993-02-01

    An injection damping and resonance correction system for the High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) was investigated by means of multiparticle tracking. For an injection damping study, the code Simpsons is modified to utilize two Beam Position Monitors (BPM) and two dampers. ne particles of 200 Gev/c, numbered 1024 or more, with Gaussian distribution in 6-D phase space are injected into the HEB with certain injection offsets. The whole bunch of particles is then kicked in proportion to the BPM signals with some upper limit. Tracking these particles up to several hundred turn while the damping system is acting shows the turn-by-turn emittance growth, which is caused by the tune spread due to nonlinearity of the lattice and residual chromaticity with synchrotron oscillations. For a resonance correction study, the operating tune is scanned as a function of time so that a bunch goes through a resonance. The performance of the resonance correction system is demonstrated. We optimize the system parameters which satisfy the emittance budget of the HEB, taking into account the realistic hardware requirement.

  8. Simulation of the injection damping and resonance correction systems for the HEB of the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Zhang, P.; Machida, S. (Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory, Dallas, Texas 75237 (United States))

    1993-12-25

    An injection damping and resonance correction system for the High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) was investigated by means of multiparticle tracking. For an injection damping study, the code Simpsons is modified to utilize two Beam Position Monitors (BPM) and two dampers. The particles of 200 Gev/c, numbered 1024 or more, with Gaussian distribution in 6-D phase space are injected into the HEB with certain injection offsets. The whole bunch of particles is then kicked in proportion to the BPM signals with some upper limit. Tracking these particles up to several hundred turns while the damping system is acting shows the turn-by-turn emittance growth, which is caused by the tune spread due to nonlinearity of the lattice and residual chromaticity with synchrotron oscillations. For a resonance correction study, the operating tune is scanned as a function of time so that a bunch goes through a resonance. The performance of the resonance correction system is demonstrated. We optimize the system parameters which satisfy the emittance budget of the HEB, taking into account the realistic hardware requirement.

  9. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Smolnikovas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  10. Development of an automated flow injection analysis system for determination of phosphate in nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadağ, Sevinç; Görüşük, Emine M; Çetinkaya, Ebru; Deveci, Seda; Dönmez, Koray B; Uncuoğlu, Emre; Doğu, Mustafa

    2018-01-25

    A fully automated flow injection analysis (FIA) system was developed for determination of phosphate ion in nutrient solutions. This newly developed FIA system is a portable, rapid and sensitive measuring instrument that allows on-line analysis and monitoring of phosphate ion concentration in nutrient solutions. The molybdenum blue method, which is widely used in FIA phosphate analysis, was adapted to the developed FIA system. The method is based on the formation of ammonium Mo(VI) ion by reaction of ammonium molybdate with the phosphate ion present in the medium. The Mo(VI) ion then reacts with ascorbic acid and is reduced to the spectrometrically measurable Mo(V) ion. New software specific for flow analysis was developed in the LabVIEW development environment to control all the components of the FIA system. The important factors affecting the analytical signal were identified as reagent flow rate, injection volume and post-injection flow path length, and they were optimized using Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology. The optimum point for the maximum analytical signal was calculated as 0.50 mL min -1 reagent flow rate, 100 µL sample injection volume and 60 cm post-injection flow path length. The proposed FIA system had a sampling frequency of 100 samples per hour over a linear working range of 3-100 mg L -1 (R 2  = 0.9995). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.09% and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.34 mg L -1 . Various nutrient solutions from a tomato-growing hydroponic greenhouse were analyzed with the developed FIA system and the results were found to be in good agreement with vanadomolybdate chemical method findings. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system -- combustion development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    This topical report summarizes the combustor development work accomplished under the subject contract. The objective was to develop a combustion system for the Solar 4MW Type H Centaur gas turbine generator set which was to be used to demonstrate the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine in a 100 hour proof-of-concept test. This program started with a design configuration derived during the CSC program. The design went through the following evolution: CSC design which had some known shortcomings, redesigned CSC now designated as the Two Stage Slagging Combustor (TSSC), improved TSSC with the PRIS evaluated in the IBSTF, and full scale design. Supporting and complimentary activities included computer modelling, flow visualization, slag removal, SO{sub x} removal, fuel injector development and fuel properties evaluation. Three combustor rigs were utilized: the TSSC, the IBSTF and the full scale rig at Peoria. The TSSC rig, which was 1/10th scale of the proposed system, consisted of a primary and secondary zone and was used to develop the primary zone performance and to evaluate SO{sub x} and slag removal and fuel properties variations. The IBSTF rig which included all the components of the proposed system was also 1/10th scale except for the particulate removal system which was about 1/30th scale. This rig was used to verify combustor performance data obtained on the TSSC and to develop the PRIS and the particulate removal system. The full scale rig initially included the primary and secondary zones and was later modified to incorporate the PRIS. The purpose of the full scale testing was to verify the scale up calculations and to provide a combustion system for the proof-of-concept engine test that was initially planned in the program.

  12. Neural control systems for alternatively fuelled vehicles and natural gas fuel injection for DACIA NOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulatisky, M. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Ghelesel, A. [BC Gas International, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The elements of natural gas vehicle conversion technology are described as background to a discussion of the development of bi-fuel injection system for the Rumanian-manufactured DACIA-NOVA automobile. The bi-fuel injection system mirrors the fueling system installed by the original equipment manufacturer; it can also be easily installed on Ford, General Motors and DaimlerChrysler vehicles as well as on most imports.To meet emission standards after 2000, it is envisaged to install on the DACIA NOVA a neural control system (NCS) and a completely adaptive linear control system (ACLS). Details of natural gas vehicles development and the development of NCS and ACLS are discussed, including short-term and long-term objectives.

  13. The role of diatomite particles in the activated sludge system for treating coal gasification wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.Q.; Rao, P.H.; Zhang, H.; Xu, J.L. [Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai (China)

    2009-02-15

    Diatomite is a kind of natural low-cost mineral material. It has a number of unique physical properties and has been widely used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment. This study was conducted to investigate the aerobic biodegradation of coal gasification wastewater with and without diatomite addition. Experimental results indicated that diatomite added in the activated sludge system could promote the biomass and also enhance the performance of the sludge settling. The average mixed-liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) is increased from 4055 mg.L{sup -1} to 4518 mg.L{sup -1} and the average settling volume (SV) are changed only from 45.9% to 47.1%. Diatomite additive could enhance the efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenols removal from the wastewater. The COD removal increased from 73.3% to near 80% and the total phenols removal increased from 81.4% to 85.8%. The mechanisms of the increase of biomass and pollutants removal may correlated to the improvement of bioavailability and sludge settlement characteristics by diatomite added. Micrograph of the sludge in the diatomite-activated sludge system indicated that the diatomite added could be the carrier of the microbe and also affect the biomass and pollutant removal.

  14. Experimental coal dust suppression system installed at the Nikola Tesla thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzijan, D [Rudarski Institut, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Zavod za Ventilaciju i Tehnicku Zastitu

    1988-01-01

    Describes a project conducted at the Nikola Tesla thermal power plant by the Mining Institute of Belgrade to reduce the high levels of dust concentrations in overloading stations on coal conveyors and hoppers. A mathematical model was developed to determine the ventilation capacity required at each of the 18 overloading stations with the hoppers considered successively: empty, 1/3 full, 2/3 full and completely full. Shows how this model enabled an efficient dust suppression system to be developed and subsequently installed by the Termovent company in Belgrade using 4 axial ventilators supplied by the Ventilator Company in Zagreb. The ventilators were powered by means of 5.5 kW electric motors and provided 440 Pa pressure at 950 rpm. Gives the result of dust concentration measurements indicating that the installed system achieved the results predicted by the mathematical model and that the levels were well below the statutory limit. A description of the complete installation is included. 3 refs.

  15. Seed recovery and regeneration in coal-fired, open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, A.C.; Jackson, D.M.; Attig, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power systems not only have high cycle efficiency, but they also have an inherent sulfur removal capability. The potassium compound uses as ''seed'' plays a dual role. It 1) increases the electrical conductivity of the plasma needed to produce power in the MHD electrical topping cycle, and 2) reacts with sulfur dioxide to form potassium sulfate, thereby eliminating most of the sulfur oxides from the gaseous effluent. For economical reasons, the spent seed must be recovered, desulfurized and recycled to the MHD power plant. This paper reviews some of the available experimental results and literature relating to SO 2 removal and seed recovery, and will also discuss several potential seed regeneration processes. Three methods of potassium extraction are discussed, i.e., hot aqueous digestion with CA(OH) 2 /NaOH, acid washing, and aqueous extraction. The selected candidate regeneration systems are discussed from the viewpoint of energy and process water requirements and environmental considerations such as waste discharges and emissions of gaseous, particulate and trace element pollutants

  16. Development of the computer-aided process planning (CAPP system for polymer injection molds manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tepić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-aided design (CAD, computer-aided process planning (CAPP and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM technologies.

  17. Induction Heating System Applied to Injection Moulding of Micro and Nano Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano

    The present Ph.D. thesis contains a study concerning induction heating system applied to injection moulding of micro and nano structures. The overall process chain was considered and investigated during the project including part design, simulation, conventional and non-conventional tooling...... part. In fact one of the main problems in micro injection moulding is the premature freezing of the polymer flow inside the cavity and often is not possible to obtain a full replica of the nano/micro structures embed on the surfaces. Some other defects that can be avoided with the use of an additional...

  18. Design features and operational characteristics of the PEP beam-transport and injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.M.; Brown, K.L.; Truher, J.B.

    1981-03-01

    The PEP beam-transport system was designed to transmit 4-to-15 GeV electron and positron beams from the SLAC linac within a +- 0.8% momentum band, to have flexible tuning of the betatron and off-momentum functions for matching into the PEP storage ring, and to have convenient operating characteristics. The transport lines were brought into operation quickly and have operated well. Electron injection has been consistent and efficient and relatively easy to accomplish. Positron injection also has been satisfactory but is variable and more sensitive to ring conditions

  19. Effect of Juglone foliar injection on Superoxide dismutases antioxidant system in two Musa spp cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Leiva Mora

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Some diseases in higher plants cause formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS which acts like mediator on tolerance to oxidative stress. Several phytotoxins produced by plant pathogen fungus induce ROS by different mechanisms which damage plant cell tissues. This paper was focused to determine juglone impact (Psedocercospora fijiensis toxin on Superoxide dismutases antioxidant system in Fougamou (ABB and Grande naine (AAA by native Poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE 10%. Samples of proteins were collected at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 48h after juglone injection on both Musa cultivar and 65 μl of them (120 μg of total protein were applied to gels. Gels were incubated in staining solution (25 mg.ml-1 de Nitrobluetetrazolium (NTB and 0.1 mg.ml-1 de riboflavin and were exposured to fluorescent light. In both cultivars it was observed changes in expression patterns of superoxide dismutases between injected and not injected plants. On Grande naine (AAA 4 h after injection an isoform of SOD disappeared respect to control. Nevertheless on Fougamou (ABB, 2 h after injection it was activated a new isoform which was observed until 48 h. In the present work it was observed a correspondence between protein patterns expression of SOD isoforms and tolerance to oxidative stress caused by the effect of juglone on Musa spp. Key words: antioxidant enzymes, Mycosphaerella fijiensis,oxidative stress, toxins

  20. Investigation of Amourphous Deposits and Potential Corrosion Mechanisms in Offshore Water Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eroini, Violette; Oehler, Mike Christian; Graver, Britt Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    Increasing incidence of amorphous deposits in both production and water injection systems has caused considerable problems for offshore oil fields. Amorphous deposits, which are a widely recognized, but often poorly explained phenomenon, are typically comprised of both organic (biological...... or hydrocarbons) and inorganic material, but with compositions that vary considerably. One recurrent form of deposits, found in offshore water injection flowlines and wells, consisting mainly of magnetite as the corrosion product, was further investigated with the objectives of explaining its formation......, composed of both organic and inorganic compounds, has caused concerns within operating assets due to the detrimental effect on production and injection, in addition to challenges with intervention and integrity. The variety of deposits and poor understanding of their nature has led to confusion...

  1. Hip Inflammation MRI Scoring System (HIMRISS) to predict response to hyaluronic acid injection in hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deseyne, Nicolas; Conrozier, Thierry; Lellouche, Henri

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess predictors of response, according to hip MRI inflammatory scoring system (HIMRISS), in a sample of patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) treated by hyaluronic acid (HA) injection. METHOD: Sixty patients with hip OA were included. Clinical outcomes were assessed at baseline...... SP=0.97, sensitivity SN=0.39, and positive and negative predictive values of 0.91 and 0.64, respectively. CONCLUSION: HIMRISS is reliable for total scores and sub-domains. It permits identification of responders to HA injection in hip OA patients........64, 0.83 and 0.78. Associations between MRI features and clinical data were assessed. Logistic regression (univariate and multivariate) was used to explore associations between MRI features and response to HA injection, according to WOMAC50 response at three months. RESULTS: In total, 45.5% of patients...

  2. Micro Injection Molding of Thin Walled Geometries with Induction Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    To eliminate defects and improve the quality of molded parts, increasing the mold temperature is one of the applicable solutions. A high mold temperature can increase the path flow of the polymer inside the cavity allowing reduction of the number of injection points, reduction of part thickness...... and moulding of smaller and more complex geometries. The last two aspects are very important in micro injection molding. In this paper a new embedded induction heating system is proposed and validated. An experimental investigation was performed based on a test geometry integrating different aspect ratios...... of small structures. ABS was used as material and different combinations of injection velocity, pressure and mold temperature were tested. The replicated test objects were measured by means of an optical CMM machine. On the basis of the experimental investigation the efficacy of the embedded induction...

  3. Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

  4. Coal fueled diesel system for stationary power applications-technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The use of coal as a fuel for diesel engines dates back to the early days of the development of the engine. Dr. Diesel envisioned his concept as a multi-fuel engine, with coal a prime candidate due to the fact that it was Germany`s primary domestic energy resource. It is interesting that the focus on coal burning diesel engines appears to peak about every twenty years as shortages of other energy resources increase the economic attractiveness of using coal. This periodic interest in coal started in Germany with the work of Diesel in the timeframe 1898-1906. Pawlikowski carried on the work from 1916 to 1928. Two German companies commercialized the technology prior to and during World War II. The next flurry of activity occurred in the United States in the period from 1957-69, with work done at Southwest Research Institute, Virginia Polytechnical University, and Howard University. The current period of activity started in 1978 with work sponsored by the Conservation and Renewable Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy. This work was done at Southwest Research Institute and by ThermoElectron at Sulzer Engine in Switzerland. In 1982, the Fossil Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy, through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) initiated a concentrated effort to develop coal burning diesel and gas turbine engines. The diesel engine work in the METC sponsored program was performed at Arthur D. Little (Cooper-Bessemer as subcontractor), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (now NIPER), Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel Corporation, General Motor Corporation (Electromotive Division), General Electric, Southwest Research Institute, and various universities and other research and development organizations. This DOE-METC coal engine RD & D initiative which spanned the 1982-1993 timeframe is the topic of this review document. The combustion of a coal-water fuel slurry in a diesel engine is described. The engine modifications necessary are discussed.

  5. The Injection System of the INFN-SuperB Factory Project: Preliminary Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, Roberto; /INFN, Rome; Guiducci, Susanna; /INFN, Rome; Preger, Miro; /INFN, Rome; Raimondi, Pantaleo; /INFN, Rome; Chance, Antoine; /Saclay; Dadoun, Olivier; /Orsay, LAL; Poirier, Freddy; /Orsay, LAL; Variola, Alessandro; /Orsay, LAL; Seeman, John; /SLAC

    2012-07-05

    The ultra high luminosity B-factory (SuperB) project of INFN requires a high performance and reliable injection system, providing electrons at 4 GeV and positrons at 7 GeV, to fulfil the very tight requirements of the collider. Due to the short beam lifetime, continuous injection of electron and positron bunches in both LER and HER rings is necessary to maintain an high average luminosity. Polarized electrons are required for experiments and must be delivered by the injection system, due to the beam lifetime shorter than the ring polarization build-up: they will be produced by means of a SLAC-SLC polarized gun. The emittance and the energy spread of the e{sup -}/e{sup +} beams are reduced in a 1 GeV Damping Ring (DR) before injection in the main rings. Two schemes for positron production are under study, one with e{sup -}/e{sup +} conversion at low energy (< 1 Gev) and one with conversion at 6 GeV and a recirculation line to bring the positrons back to the DR. Acceleration through the Linac is provided by a 2856 MHz RF system made of travelling wave (TW), room temperature accelerating structures.

  6. CRISPR-Cas systems exploit viral DNA injection to establish and maintain adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Joshua W; Jiang, Wenyan; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2017-04-06

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas systems provide protection against viral and plasmid infection by capturing short DNA sequences from these invaders and integrating them into the CRISPR locus of the prokaryotic host. These sequences, known as spacers, are transcribed into short CRISPR RNA guides that specify the cleavage site of Cas nucleases in the genome of the invader. It is not known when spacer sequences are acquired during viral infection. Here, to investigate this, we tracked spacer acquisition in Staphylococcus aureus cells harbouring a type II CRISPR-Cas9 system after infection with the staphylococcal bacteriophage ϕ12. We found that new spacers were acquired immediately after infection preferentially from the cos site, the viral free DNA end that is first injected into the cell. Analysis of spacer acquisition after infection with mutant phages demonstrated that most spacers are acquired during DNA injection, but not during other stages of the viral cycle that produce free DNA ends, such as DNA replication or packaging. Finally, we showed that spacers acquired from early-injected genomic regions, which direct Cas9 cleavage of the viral DNA immediately after infection, provide better immunity than spacers acquired from late-injected regions. Our results reveal that CRISPR-Cas systems exploit the phage life cycle to generate a pattern of spacer acquisition that ensures a successful CRISPR immune response.

  7. A coal combine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlachovsky, I; Bartos, J

    1980-02-15

    A design is presented for a coal combine, equipped with two drum operational units, on whose both ends of the upper surface of the body, two coal saws are mounted with the help of a lever system. These saws, found in an operational position, form a gap in the block of the coal block, which is not embraced by the drum operational unit. The coal block, found between the gap and the support, falls down onto the longwall scraper conveyor. The lever system of each coal saw is controlled by two hydraulic jacks. One of the jacks is mounted vertically on the facial wall of the body of the combine and is used for the hoisting for the required height of the horizontal arm of the lever, reinforced by one end in the hinge on the body of the combine. On the ''free'' end of that lever, a coal saw is mounted in a hinge-like fashion and which is connected by the hydraulic jack to the horizontal arm of the lever system. This hydraulic jack is used for the clamping of the coal saw to the face.

  8. Analytical model for performance verification of liquid poison injection system of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansal, Anuj Kumar; Maheshwari, Naresh Kumar; Vijayan, Pallippattu Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • One-dimensional modelling of shut down system-2. • Semi-empirical correlation poison jet progression. • Validation of code. - Abstract: Shut down system-2 (SDS-2) in advanced vertical pressure tube type reactor, provides rapid reactor shutdown by high pressure injection of a neutron absorbing liquid called poison, into the moderator in the calandria. Poison inside the calandria is distributed by poison jets issued from holes provided in the injection tubes. Effectiveness of the system depends on the rate and spread of the poison in the moderator. In this study, a transient one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic code, COPJET is developed, to predict the performance of system by predicting progression of poison jet with time. Validation of the COPJET is done with the data available in literature. Thereafter, it is applied for advanced vertical pressure type reactor

  9. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This report covers work carried out under Task 3, Preliminary Research and Development, and Task 4, Commercial Generating Plant Design, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, {open_quotes}Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System{close_quotes} between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of >47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates {le} 25% NSPS; cost {ge} 65% of heat input; and all solid wastes benign. The report discusses progress in cycle analysis, chemical reactor modeling, ash deposition rate calculations for HITAF (high temperature advanced furnace) convective air heater, air heater materials, and deposit initiation and growth on ceramic substrates.

  10. Comparative efficacy and safety of local and systemic methotrexate injection in cesarean scar pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ping Peng,1 Ting Gui,1 Xinyan Liu,1 Weilin Chen,1 Zhenzhen Liu2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Ultrasonography, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the efficacy of methotrexate (MTX injection in treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP. Method: A randomized controlled study was performed in 104 CSP patients receiving either local or systemic MTX injection at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from the year 2008 to 2013. Results: Complete cure was defined as regression of ultrasonographic findings and normalization of serum β-hCG within 60 days. It was regarded as delayed cure if additional dilation and curettage (D&C was needed. The overall cure rate (complete cure plus delayed cure was 69.2% versus 67.3% for local injection versus systemic administration (P>0.05. The median time for serum β-hCG remission and uterine mass disappearance after systemic administration (42 [21–69] days and 40 [20–67] days were significantly lower than those receiving local injection (56 [24–92] days and 53 [23–88] days, with P=0.029 and 0.046, respectively. The mean pretreatment serum β-hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin level and lesion size in cured group (21,941±18,351 mIU/mL and 2.9±1.3 cm, respectively were significantly lower than those in the failed group (37,047±30,864 mIU/mL and 3.6±1.3 with P=0.038 and 0.044, respectively. Conclusion: MTX injection is effective in CSP treatment. Systemic administration shows similar overall cure rate compared to local injection, but requires shorter time for serum β-hCG remission and uterine mass disappearance. Keywords: cesarean scar pregnancy, methotrexate injection, local, systemic

  11. Systemic embolism produced by subcutaneous injections of liquid silicone for esthetic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconi, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    Even though its use is not recommended, liquid silicone is a substance that has been used illegally for esthetic purposes for a long time. A case report is presented in which a young woman was injected subcutaneously, by an uncertified practitioner, industrial fluid silicone and subsequently developed a case of systemic embolism with pulmonary, skin and ocular complications. This article explains the physiopathology and the different manifestations of systemic embolism produced by fluid silicone. TAC was used. (The author)

  12. Characterization of manganese oxide precipitates from Appalachian coal mine drainage treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Hui; Zhang Gengxin; Heaney, Peter J.; Webb, Samuel M.; Burgos, William D.

    2010-01-01

    The removal of Mn(II) from coal mine drainage (CMD) by chemical addition/active treatment can significantly increase treatment costs. Passive treatment for Mn removal involves promotion of biological oxidative precipitation of manganese oxides (MnO x ). Manganese(II) removal was studied in three passive treatment systems in western Pennsylvania that differed based on their influent Mn(II) concentrations (20-150 mg/L), system construction (±inoculation with patented Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria), and bed materials (limestone vs. sandstone). Manganese(II) removal occurred at pH values as low as 5.0 and temperatures as low as 2 deg. C, but was enhanced at circumneutral pH and warmer temperatures. Trace metals such as Zn, Ni and Co were removed effectively, in most cases preferentially, into the MnO x precipitates. Based on synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and Mn K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, the predominant Mn oxides at all sites were poorly crystalline hexagonal birnessite, triclinic birnessite and todorokite. The surface morphology of the MnO x precipitates from all sites was coarse and 'sponge-like' composed of nm-sized lathes and thin sheets. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), MnO x precipitates were found in close proximity to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The greatest removal efficiency of Mn(II) occurred at the one site with a higher pH in the bed and a higher influent total organic C (TOC) concentration (provided by an upstream wetland). Biological oxidation of Mn(II) driven by heterotrophic activity was most likely the predominant Mn removal mechanism in these systems. Influent water chemistry and Mn(II) oxidation kinetics affected the relative distribution of MnO x mineral assemblages in CMD treatment systems.

  13. Coal bottom ash and pine wood peelings as root substrates in a circulating nutriculture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, M A; Bearce, B C; Cluskey, S; Townsend, E [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Plant and Soil Science

    1993-06-01

    'Inca Yellow' marigolds ([ital Tagetes erecta L.]) were planted in polyethylene bags containing coal bottom ash (CBA), pine wood peelings (PWP), a mixture of 1 CBA: 1 PWP (v/v), and loose Grodan Rockwool (RW) and grown in a circulating nutriculture system. Three fertigation frequencies of 12,6, or 4 cycles per 12-hour light period were set with a duration of 5 minutes each. Flower diameters of marigolds grown in CBA, PWP, and CBA-PWP exceeded flower diameters of RW-grown marigolds, and days from planting to harvest were less in CBA and CBA-PWP than in the other two media. There was no interaction between medium and fertigation frequency. Foliar analysis showed no significant differences in plant elemental composition among root media or fertigation frequencies. Postharvest PWP water extracts contained higher P levels than extracts of other media, and CBA-PWP water extracts contained higher K, Ca, and Mg. In the CBA-PWP mixture, decomposition products from PWP may have increased P solubility and solubilized the K, Ca, and Mg in CBA.

  14. Coal-based oxy-fuel system evaluation and combustor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacAdam, S.; Biebuyck, C.; Anderson, R.; Pronske, K. [Clean Energy Systems Inc., Rancho Cordova, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The core of the Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) process is an oxy-combustor adapted from rocket engine technology. This combustor burns gaseous or liquid fuels with gaseous oxygen in the presence of water. Fuels include syngas from coal, refinery residues, or biomass; natural gas; landfill gas; glycoal solutions and oil/water emulsions. The combustion is performed at near-stoichiometric conditions in the presence of recycled water to produce a steam/CO{sub 2} mixture at high temperature and pressure. These combustion products power conventional or advanced steam turbines and may use modified gas turbines operating at high-temperatures for expansion at intermediate pressures. The gas exiting the turbines enter a condenser/separator where it is cooled, separating into its components, water and CO{sub 2}. The recovered CO{sub 2} is conditioned and purified as appropriate and sold or sequestered. Most of the water is recycled to the gas generator but excess high-purity water is produced and available for export. The development, evaluation and demonstration of the CES combustor are described. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Coal bottom ash and pine wood peelings as root substrates in a circulating nutriculture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, M.A.; Bearce, B.C.; Cluskey, S.; Townsend, E. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Plant and Soil Science)

    1993-06-01

    'Inca Yellow' marigolds ([ital Tagetes erecta L.]) were planted in polyethylene bags containing coal bottom ash (CBA), pine wood peelings (PWP), a mixture of 1 CBA: 1 PWP (v/v), and loose Grodan Rockwool (RW) and grown in a circulating nutriculture system. Three fertigation frequencies of 12,6, or 4 cycles per 12-hour light period were set with a duration of 5 minutes each. Flower diameters of marigolds grown in CBA, PWP, and CBA-PWP exceeded flower diameters of RW-grown marigolds, and days from planting to harvest were less in CBA and CBA-PWP than in the other two media. There was no interaction between medium and fertigation frequency. Foliar analysis showed no significant differences in plant elemental composition among root media or fertigation frequencies. Postharvest PWP water extracts contained higher P levels than extracts of other media, and CBA-PWP water extracts contained higher K, Ca, and Mg. In the CBA-PWP mixture, decomposition products from PWP may have increased P solubility and solubilized the K, Ca, and Mg in CBA.

  16. CVFA: Coal vendor financial advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goote, W.G.; Andersen, S.

    1992-01-01

    An expert system for determining coal vendor financial viability in fuel purchasing contracts at an electric utility is described. The system blends rules, data objects, and financial knowledge to provide a rational basis for accepting or rejecting coal contracts given the financial capability of the coal vendor. The discussion concludes with a critique of managerial issues in the development of the system and its use in decision making. 3 refs., 1 fig

  17. Emulation study on system characteristic of high pressure common-rail fuel injection system for marine medium-speed diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinpeng; Yang, Jianguo; Xin, Dong; He, Yuhai; Yu, Yonghua

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, based on the characteristic analyzing of the mechanical fuel injection system for the marine medium-speed diesel engine, a sectional high-pressure common rail fuel injection system is designed, rated condition rail pressure of which is 160MPa. The system simulation model is built and the performance of the high pressure common rail fuel injection system is analyzed, research results provide the technical foundation for the system engineering development.

  18. Repetitive laser fusion experiment and operation using a target injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Komeda, Osamu; Mori, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    Since 2008, a collaborative research project on laser fusion development based on a high-speed ignition method using repetitive laser has been carried out with several collaborative research institutes. This paper reports the current state of operation of high repetition laser fusion experiments, such as target introduction and control based on a target injection system that allows free falling under 1 Hz, using a high repetition laser driver that has been under research and development, as well as the measurement of targets that freely fall. The HAMA laser driver that enabled high repetition fusion experiments is a titanium sapphire laser using a diode-pumped solid-state laser KURE-I of green light output as a driver pump light source. In order to carry out high repetition laser fusion experiments, the target injection device allows free falling of deuterated polystyrene solid sphere targets of 1 mm in diameter under 1 Hz. The authors integrated the developed laser and injection system, and succeeded first in the world in making the nuclear fusion reaction continuously by hitting the target to be injected with laser, which is essential technology for future laser nuclear fusion reactor. In order to realize repetition laser fusion experiments, stable laser, target synchronization control, and target position measurement technologies are indispensable. (A.O.)

  19. A Novel Real-Time Coal Miner Localization and Tracking System Based on Self-Organized Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of information technology, we envision that the key of improving coal mine safety is how to get real-time positions of miners. In this paper, we propose a prototype system for real-time coal miner localization and tracking based on self-organized sensor networks. The system is composed of hardware and software platform. We develop a set of localization hardware devices with the Safety Certificate of Approval for Mining Products include miner node, wired fixed access station, and base with optical port. On the software side, we develop a layered software architecture of node application, server management, and information dissemination and broadcasting. We also develop three key localization technologies: an underground localization algorithm using received signal strength indication- (RSSI- verifying algorithm to reduce the influence of the severe environment in a coal mine; a robust fault-tolerant localization mechanism to improve the inherent defect of instability of RSSI localization; an accurate localization algorithm based on Monte Carlo localization (MCL to adapt to the underground tunnel structure. In addition, we conduct an experimental evaluation based on a real prototype implementation using MICA2 motes. The results show that our system is more accurate and more adaptive in general than traditional localization algorithms.

  20. Experiment on performance of upper head injection system with ROSA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    Thermo-hydraulic behavior in the primary cooling system of a pressurized water reactor with an upper head injection system (UHI) in a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has been studied with ROSA-II test facility. Simulated UHI and internal structures of the pressure vessel were installed to the facility for the experiment. Nine maximum-sized double-ended break tests and one medium-sized split break test were performed for the cold-leg break condition. The results are as follows: (1) Fluid mixing in the upper head is not perfect. (2) Cold water injection into the steam or two-phase fluid causes violent depressurization due to the condensation. Flow pattern in the primary cooling system is largely influenced by the above two. (auth.)