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Sample records for coal injection pci

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  2. Charcoal injection in blast furnaces (Bio-PCI: CO2 reduction potential and economic prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Feliciano-Bruzual

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The steel industry is under pressure to reduce its CO2 emissions, which arise from the use of coal. In the long-term, the injection of pulverized particles of charcoal from biomass through blast furnace tuyeres, in this case called Bio-PCI, is an attractive method from both an environmental and metallurgical viewpoint. The potential of Bio-PCI has been assessed in terms of its CO2 abatement potential and economic viewpoint. A cost objective function has been used to measure the impact of biochar substitution in highly fuel-efficient BF among the top nine hot metal producers; estimations are based on the relevant cost determinants of ironmaking. This contribution aims to shed light on two strategic questions: Under what conditions is the implementation of Bio-PCI economically attractive? Additionally, where is such a techno-economic innovation likely to be taken up the earliest? The results indicate the potential for an 18–40% mitigation of CO2. Findings from the economic assessment show that biochar cannot compete with fossil coal on price alone; therefore, a lower cost of biochar or the introduction of carbon taxes will be necessary to increase the competitiveness of Bio-PCI. Based on the current prices of raw materials, electricity and carbon taxes, biochar should be between 130.1 and 236.4 USD/t and carbon taxes should be between 47.1 and 198.7 USD/t CO2 to facilitate the substitution of Bio-PCI in the examined countries. In regard to implementation, Brazil, followed by India, China and the USA appeared to be in a better position to deploy Bio-PCI.

  3. Effect of High Coal Injection on Low Silicon Ironmaking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yong-long; XU Nan-ping; WU Shi-ying

    2003-01-01

    The effects of different coal ratios and reaction temperatures on silicon content in hot metal were studied under the condition of high powder coal injection (PCI) ratio in laboratory. The samples of coke taken from tuyere were analyzed by chemical methods. According to the remnant silicon dioxide in different samples, the effect of PCI ratio on silicon content in hot metal was studied in tuyere area. The results can not only certify the traditional theory, but also explain the relation between high PCI ratio and low silicon.

  4. Reactivity to CO{sub 2} of chars prepared in O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures for pulverized coal injection (PCI) in blast furnace in relation to char petrographic characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlmann, Juliana G.; Osorio, Eduardo; Vilela, Antonio C.F. [Iron and Steelmaking Laboratory, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Borrego, Angeles G. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) is employed in blast furnace tuyeres in order to increase the injection rate without increasing the amount of unburned char inside the stack. When coal is injected with air in the region of tuyeres, the resolidified char will burn in an atmosphere with progressively lower oxygen content and higher CO{sub 2} concentration. In this study, an experimental approach comprising refiring has been followed to separate the combustion process into two distinct devolatilization and combustion steps. A drop tube furnace (DTF) operating at 1300 C in an atmosphere with low oxygen concentration was used to simulate devolatilization and then the char was refired into DTF at the same temperature under two different atmospheres O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (typical combustion) and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} (oxy-combustion) with the same oxygen concentration. Coal injection was also performed under a higher oxygen concentration in both typical combustion and oxy-combustion atmospheres. The fuels tested comprised a petroleum coke and coals ranging in rank from high to low volatile bituminous, currently used for PCI injection. Specific surface areas, reactivity to CO{sub 2} and char petrography have been used to chars characterization. The morphology and appearance of the chars generated under oxy-fuel (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) and conventional combustion (O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) conditions with similar amount of oxygen were similar for each parent coal. Vitrinite-rich particles generated cenospheres with anisotropic optical texture increasing in size with increasing coal rank, whereas inertinite yielded a variety of morphologies and optical textures. The apparent reactivity to CO{sub 2} measured at high temperature (1000 C) tended to increase with burnout reflecting the operation under a regime controlled by internal diffusion in which surface area also increased. This may have a significant effect in the reactivity to CO{sub 2} of the chars inside the stack of the blast furnace

  5. Reactivity of brazilian coal, charcoal, imported coal and blends aiming to their injection into blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Gonçalves Maria da Silva Machado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available For about 10 years the steel industry in Brazil has used pulverized coal injection (PCI technology in the blast furnaces based on imported coals. In order to decrease the dependence on imported coals, Brazilian coal, which has limited use due to high ash content, was suggested to be mixed with imported coal and charcoal. The aim was to examine the reactivity of the samples. The charcoal use in the steel industry contributes to the CO2 emission reduction, since it represents a renewable source of energy. The reactivity of the coals, charcoal and mixtures was evaluated through simultaneous thermal analyses. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  6. PCI coals: quality parameters for an efficient usage; Carvoes para PCI: parametros de qualidade para uma utilizacao eficiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcombe, D.; Coin, C.D.A. [Australian Coal Industry Research Labs., Riverview, QLD (Australia); Caldeira Filho, J.G [P.D.C.A. Consultoria Empresarial, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    The technology of chemical reduction in blast furnaces has been presenting an increase in coke injection rates during the last five years. Even though the blast furnaces have been achieving excellent production rates, there is still a discussion in the community concerning which types of coke are more appropriate to the operation as well as the limits of coke injection through the blasts. This work discusses the role of PCI in metallurgy as well as its limitations giving special emphasis to the several quality parameters in the process 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Ramping up PCI production

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    Bergsma, D.; Kieftenbeld, B.; Bol, L. [Corus Strip Products IJmuiden (Netherlands). Blast Furnace Dept.

    2008-07-01

    This paper described the improvements at the Corus Strip Products IJmuiden coal preparation plant and injection facilities that have resulted in ultra high productivities and very low coke rates of the blast furnaces. Pulverized coal injection (PCI) began at the steelmaking plant 25 years ago. Since then, an increased coal preparation output has been realized each year. The capacity of the mills and the injection systems were increased from about 70 tons/h to over 200 tons/h, thereby allowing a steady decrease in coke rate per ton of hot metal with a considerable increase in hot metal production from the blast furnaces. Many modifications were in hardware, but much of the increase in productivity was due to increasing the aimed pulverized coal (PC) particle size, selecting different coals and improving process control in both milling and injection facilities. Depending on the coal variety, the specific PCI-rates could reach over 250 kg/thm. The excellent performance was made possible by improving key factors such as burden quality, burdening, cast house performance and installation reliability. The modifications also solved constraints in working pressure; uptake pulverized coal moisture content; inlet and outlet air temperature; and injection rate stability. Coal selection was based on handlability, chemical composition and economics. 1 tab., 9 figs.

  8. Pretreatment of biomass by torrefaction and carbonization for coal blend used in pulverized coal injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shan-Wen; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lucas, John A

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the utility potential of pretreated biomass in blast furnaces, the fuel properties, including fuel ratio, ignition temperature, and burnout, of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, sugarcane bagasse, and Madagascar almond undergoing torrefaction and carbonization in a rotary furnace are analyzed and compared to those of a high-volatile coal and a low-volatile one used in pulverized coal injection (PCI). The energy densities of bamboo and Madagascar almond are improved drastically from carbonization, whereas the increase in the calorific value of rice husk from the pretreatment is not obvious. Intensifying pretreatment extent significantly increases the fuel ratio and ignition temperature of biomass, but decreases burnout. The fuel properties of pretreated biomass materials are superior to those of the low-volatile coal. For biomass torrefied at 300°C or carbonized at temperatures below 500°C, the pretreated biomass can be blended with coals for PCI.

  9. Effect of intracoronary injection of tirofiban combined with anisodamine on myocardial perfusion in patients with STEMI after PCI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Gang Zhu; Li-Yue Wang; Hao-Jin Ren; Jin-Hua Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of intracoronary injection of tirofiban combined with anisodamine on myocardial perfusion in patients with STEMI after PCI.Methods:A total of 78 patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who received PCI therapy in our hospital were randomly divided into control group and observation group, control group accepted routine PCI treatment, observation group received intracoronary injection of tirofiban and anisodamine in PCI, and myocardial perfusion of two groups was compared.Results: QRS duration values of observation group the instant after PCI and 4h after PCI were less than those of control group (P<0.05);99mTc-MIBI and18F-FDG intake of observation group after PCI were more than those of control group (P<0.05); serum MCP-1, sFas, Copeptin, OPN and vWF levels of observation group 4 h after PCI were lower than those of control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Intracoronary injection of tirofiban combined with anisodamine can optimize myocardial perfusion in patients with STEMI after PCI, and has positive clinical significance.

  10. BIO-PCI, Charcoal injection in Blast Furnaces: State of the art and economic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliciano-Bruzual, C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The injection of grinded particles of charcoal through the tuyeres in Blast Furnaces, here coined Bio-PCI, presents as an attractive and plausible alternative to significantly reduce the CO2 emissions generated during hot metal production. In this contribution a summary of the technological fundaments, benefits and limitations of the incorporation of Bio-PCI is presented. Additionally the principal economic challenges of renewables fuel in ironmaking are exposed, with especial interest in the main productions costs of charcoal making. In this sense, a strategic question arises: can the residual biomass drive the emergence of Bio-PCI?, our analysis leads to conclude that the use of residual biomass (e.g. agricultural and forestry residues may significantly reduce the production cost in 120-180 USD/t in comparison to primary woods sources, this naturally increment the economical attractiveness of Bio-PCI substitution.La inyección de carbón vegetal por toberas en Altos Hornos, aqui denominada Bio-PCI, se presenta como una forma atractiva y realista de reducir significativamente las emisiones de CO2 generadas durante la producción de arrabio. En esta contribución se presenta un resumen de los fundamentos tecnológicos, los beneficios y las limitaciones de la incorporación de la tecnología del Bio-PCI. Adicionalmente se exponen los retos económicos que enfrentan los combustibles renovables a los fósiles, con especial interés en los principales costos de producción del carbón vegetal. En este sentido se plantea una pregunta estratégica: ¿puede la biomasa residual impulsar el desarrollo de la Bio-PCI?. Nuestro análisis conlleva a concluir que la utilización de biomasa residual (residuos forestales y agrícolas puede reducir sensiblemente el costo del carbón vegetal entre 120-180 USD/t en comparación con biomasa primaria, incrementando su competitividad frente al carbón mineral.

  11. Pulverized coal injection in blast furnaces at ArcelorMittal Tubarao (AMT)

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    Klein, C.A.; Fujihara, F.K.; Defendi, G.A.; Tauffer Barros, R.J. [ArcelorMittal Tubarao, Serra (Brazil). Ironmaking Dept.

    2008-07-01

    The main factors that influence the performance of coal injected into blast furnaces include coal properties, combustion conditions and the equipment used in the plants for grinding, transportation and injection of coal. This paper focused on coal properties and the main operational control changes in the no.1 blast furnace at ArcelorMittal Tubarao. The furnace was modified from an all coke operation to a pulverized coal injection (pci) operation in order to ensure high productivity, low fuel consumption and longer service life. ArcelorMittal Tubarao has developed a coal buying model based on energy balance and the chemical analysis of ash. In the energy balance, the ratio between the heat supplied by carbon combustion and the heat consumed by the cracking of water and volatiles results in the potential rate of coke replacement by coal. 5 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  12. Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Ilha Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

  13. Pulverized coal injection on the blast furnaces at U.S. Steel Kosice, S.R.O.

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    Baran, P.; McCoy, M.; Szalona, T. [United States Steel Corp., Kosice (Slovakia)

    2008-07-01

    United States Steel Corporation at Kosice built a new modern PCI facility that meets environmental criteria and provides a replacement for financially demanding metallurgical coke with a less expensive pulverized coal. The pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology was applied to blast furnaces no. 2 and 3 in 1993 and has resulted in the following improvements: production has increased an average of 400 to 500 tons/day; pig iron production economics have improved not only because of replacing the metallurgical coke with PCI, but also due to a decrease in the total fuel rate for producing 1 ton of hot metal; blast furnace gas utilization increased with ETA CO values around 48 per cent; and the blast furnace operation is more stable by regular burden descend. The most distinguished change has been in the way raw materials are charged to the furnaces. This paper outlined the coal quality requirements for PCI and presented a basic technological description of PCI preparation. The operational experience of the 2 blast furnaces were presented for the period of 2000 to 2007. Recommendations for PCI rate increase were also presented. It was concluded that using PCI technology in blast furnace no. 1 may bring the greatest economic efficiency for United Steel Corporation at Kosice. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  14. Pulverized coal injection at BF N5 during campaign extension period : ArcelorMittal South Africa, Newcastle Works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, V. [ArcelorMittal South Africa, Newcastle, KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    Blast furnace no. 5 at ArcelorMittal South Africa's Newcastle facility was constructed in 1976 and designed to produce 5000 thm/day, with a hearth diameter of 10.14 m and a working volume of 2017 m{sup 3}. In April 2005, it began using pulverized coal (PC) following a planned maintenance shutdown. Initially, the PC was injected at a rate of 70 kg/thm, but within 5 months, the PC injection (PCI) rate was increased to 160 kg/thm. This was achieved with good replacement ratios, despite a burden that consisted of 40 per cent lump ore. However, the success was brief because of the high rate of unprepared burden, inadequate raw material quality and an aging hearth. The coke rate was therefore increased to reduce hearth wear while maintaining decent hot metal production, resulting in a lower than expected PCI rate of 100 kg/thm. The injection coal rate of 160 kg/thm will be targeted again once the hearth is replaced. Very few changes had been made in the PCI blend in the past because of the low-cost local supply of high volatile, medium ash coals. However, a new coal mine that opened in Newcastle in July 2007 made it possible to partially replace the coal in use. This paper described the operating parameters for the campaign extension period, which required a less than standard injection practice to reduce the amount of production outages. The hearth and stave conditions during the campaign extension were found to be the major barriers to injecting high PCI rates. It was concluded that it is important to re-evaluate the raw material cost for all the fuels used on a regular basis, since the costs to produce coke for higher injection rates could outweigh the advantages at the blast furnace. 3 refs., 1 tabs., 3 figs.

  15. Quality criteria for blast-furnace injection coals

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    Lherbier, L.W.Jr.; Serrano, E.J. [United States Steel Corp., Munhall, PA (United States). Research and Technology Center

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviewed the history of coal injection at United States Steel Corporation. Currently, pulverized coal (PC) is injected on 10 blast furnaces at the company's facilities at 5 different plants in the United States, Canada and Slovakia. Although low-volatile bituminous coal was used extensively at several sites in the past, all the furnaces now inject high-volatile bituminous coal. The choice of coal injection depends on cost, physical and chemical properties an intended application. Any type of coal can be used for low injection levels. As injection rates increase however, the choice of coal or coal blends depend on more complex characteristics such as combustibility, char reactivity and flow characteristics. Although low-volatile, higher rank bituminous coals usually provide higher coke replacement ratios, they can be more difficult to convey and burn. In contrast, high-volatile, lower rank coals are typically more reactive and easier to convey, but offer lower coke replacement ratios and could even contribute to furnace instability. This paper presented lessons learned with various types of injection coal. It also reviewed existing and emerging standards for choosing injection coals. The parameters that must be considered when choosing from a set of coals include moisture and hardness; carbon and hydrogen content; oxygen content; impurities; coal value; coal rank; conveying properties; reactivity; and coal type and injection rate. Coals with less ash, sulphur and alkali are usually preferred. For ironmaking, coals ranging in rank from anthracite to high-volatile bituminous coal are suitable for low to moderate injection rates. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  16. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  17. High PCI and low coke rate BF operation in ArcelorMittal Flat Carbon Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauwels, G.; Clairay, S.; Hess, E.; Janz, J.; Goimard, J.C.; Eymond, J.L. [ArcelorMittal (France)

    2008-07-01

    Coke production capacity within ArcelorMittal is not sufficient to provide the amount of coke needed for the total hot metal production. In order to address the challenges regarding coke availability, ArcelorMittal Flat Carbon Europe (FCE) sector has applied a low coke operation pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology to 17 of its blast furnaces across Europe. This paper described the charging pattern, blast conditions, hearth drainage and burden quality needed for high PCI rates. The coal injection rates of the different blast furnaces has been increased from 150-180 kg/thm to 180-200 kg/thm with a good replacement ratio. The lessons learned from high coal injection rate operations were discussed. The long term objective for FCE is to average a coal injection level of 200-220 kg/thm. This paper also discussed issues of coal quality, such as selection of coal; influence of coal quality on the blast furnace operation; and influence of coke quality on hearth drainage and hot metal quality. Coke quality was also discussed in terms of coke requirements and new global coke quality parameters. The difficulties in increasing PCI rate were shown to be associated with ferrous burden quality, particularly sinter. Adjustments to coke layer thickness can prevent instabilities. 8 refs., 23 figs.

  18. Permeability variation characteristics of coal after injecting carbon dioxide into a coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Xiaoming; Li Quanzhong; Wang Yanbin; Gao Shasha

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical basis for the optimization of carbon dioxide injection parameters and the development of the drainage system can be provided by identifying the permeability change characteristic of coal and rock after injection of carbon dioxide into the coal seam. Sihe, Yuwu, and Changcun mines were used as research sites. Scanning electron microscopy and permeability instruments were used to measure coal properties such as permeability and surface structure of the coal samples at different pH values of carbon dioxide solution and over different timescales. The results show that the reaction between minerals in coal and carbonate solution exhibit positive and negative aspects of permeability-the dissolution reaction between carbonate minerals in coal and acid solution improves the conductivity of coal whilst, on the other hand, the clay minerals in the coal (mainly including montmorillonite, illite and kaolinite) exhibit expansion as a result of ion exchange with the H+in acid solution, which has a negative effect on the per-meability of the coal. The permeability of coal samples increased at first and then decreased with immer-sion time, and when the soaking time is 2–3 months the permeability of the coal reached a maximum. In general, for coals with permeabilities less than 0.2 mD or greater than 2 mD, the effect on the permeabil-ity is low;when the permeability of the coal is in the range 0.2–2 mD, the effect on the permeability is highest. Research into permeability change characteristics can provide a theoretical basis for carbon diox-ide injection under different reservoir permeability conditions and subsequent drainage.

  19. Gray Comprehensive Evaluation Method on Coal Seam Water Injection in Order of Difficulty

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the coal mine water injection accurately, the gray comprehensive evaluation is applied in this paper, the depth of coal seam, the development degree of coal seam crack, porosity, gas pressure in coal seam, wetting edge of coal, firmness coefficient of coal are chosen as the main index to evaluate the method of water injection into coal mine. The results show that the gray comprehensive evaluation model has a relatively high reliability and accuracy, which can be used to p...

  20. Nitrogen Injection To Flush Coal Seam Gas Out Of Coal: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Aziz, Naj; Ren, Ting; Nemcik, Jan; Tu, Shihao

    2015-12-01

    Several mines operating in the Bulli seam of the Sydney Basin in NSW, Australia are experiencing difficulties in reducing gas content within the available drainage lead time in various sections of the coal deposit. Increased density of drainage boreholes has proven to be ineffective, particularly in sections of the coal seam rich in CO2. Plus with the increasing worldwide concern on green house gas reduction and clean energy utilisation, significant attention is paid to develop a more practical and economical method of enhancing the gas recovery from coal seams. A technology based on N2 injection was proposed to flush the Coal Seam Gas (CSG) out of coal and enhance the gas drainage process. In this study, laboratory tests on CO2 and CH4 gas recovery from coal by N2 injection are described and results show that N2 flushing has a significant impact on the CO2 and CH4 desorption and removal from coal. During the flushing stage, it was found that N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CH4 than CO2. Comparatively, during the desorption stage, the study shows gas desorption after N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CO2 than CH4.

  1. Gray Comprehensive Evaluation Method on Coal Seam Water Injection in Order of Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the coal mine water injection accurately, the gray comprehensive evaluation is applied in this paper, the depth of coal seam, the development degree of coal seam crack, porosity, gas pressure in coal seam, wetting edge of coal, firmness coefficient of coal are chosen as the main index to evaluate the method of water injection into coal mine. The results show that the gray comprehensive evaluation model has a relatively high reliability and accuracy, which can be used to predict the difficulty degree of water injection.

  2. CTO PCI Procedural Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Nicholas J; Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Kandzari, David E

    2012-07-01

    Chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO PCI) procedural planning involves much thought and deliberation before one actually attempts to cross the CTO lesion in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Careful preprocedural angiographic assessment is a key to successful CTO PCI. CTO PCI represents the most complex PCI one can perform, and thus operator and staff training as well as the concept of CTO days are all essential for a successful CTO PCI program. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Coal-fueled diesel technology development -- Fuel injection equipment for coal-fueled diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N.; Hayden, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the abrasive and corrosive nature of coal water slurries, the development of coal-fueled diesel engine technology by GE-Transportation Systems (GE-TS) required special fuel injection equipment. GE-Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD) undertook the design and development of fuel injectors, piston pumps, and check valves for this project. Components were tested at GE-CRD on a simulated engine cylinder, which included a cam-actuated jerk pump, prior to delivery to GE-TS for engine testing.

  4. PCI bus demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus is the dominant bus system used to connect the different elements making up today''s high-performance computer systems. Different PCI implementations have also been developed for such applications as telecommunications and embedded computing. If an application calls for high speed, high reliability, flexible configuration, and bus mastering, then PCI is the only logical bus choice. This book is an applications-oriented introduction to the PCI bus, with an emphasis on implementing PCI in a variety of computer architectures. Special attention is given to industrial and mission-critical applications of PCI bus.·Fully describes PCI electrical specifications, mechanical requirements, and signal types·Covers advanced topics through numerous design examples to increase the readers understanding of the subject ·Includes updated coverage of PCI-X 2.0

  5. Injection nozzle materials for a coal-fueled diesel locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehan, R.L.; Leonard, G.L.; Johnson, R.N.; Lavigne, R.G.

    1990-12-31

    In order to identify materials resistant to coal water mixture (CWM) erosive wear, a number of materials were evaluated using both orifice slurry and dry air erosion tests. Both erosion tests ranked materials in the same order, and the most erosion resistant material identified was sintered diamond compact. Based on operation using CWM in a single-cylinder locomotive test, superhard nozzle materials such as diamond, cubic boron nitride, and perhaps TiB{sub 2} were found to be necessary in order to obtain a reasonable operating life. An injection nozzle using sintered diamond compacts was designed and built, and has operated successfully in a CWM fired locomotive engine.

  6. Study on Permeability Change Rule of Different Rank Coals by Injecting Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an experimental support for increasing the flow conductivity of coal reservoir by identifying permeability change rule caused by reactions with different minerals in coal after injecting carbon dioxide. Based on measurement of nitrogen adsorption, mineral composition and permeability of medium-high rank coal in Tunlan mine and Sihe mine, it is used to investigate the permeability change rule caused by reactions with different minerals in coal and its improving effect after injecting carbon dioxide. A permeability change model was established by making a nonlinear regression analysis of the initial permeability, the reaction time and the improved permeability. The results showed that as a result of CO2-water-rock interaction, permeability of medium-high rank coal increases at first and then decreases with time going by after injecting carbon dioxide. The permeability of Sihe coal samples reaches maximum value earlier than that of Tunlan coal samples. Improving effect of permeability of Sihe coal samples is better than that of Tunlan coal samples. The initial permeability which is too large or too small is insensitive to the change of permeability, while the medium permeability within 0.1--0.2×10-3μm2 is more favorable. The reliability of the mathematical model is verified by the experiment. The results can also provide a theoretical basis for the analysis of permeability change after injecting carbon dioxide.

  7. Lance for injecting highly-loaded coal slurries into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, D.

    1991-10-29

    A lance is used to inject fuel oil into a blast furnace. This simple design permits conversion of coal water and coal tar slurries to a fine mist at very low flow rates. This design prevents the build-up of deposits which increases service life and steadies the flow rate.

  8. The past, present and future of pulverized coal injection at ThyssenKrupp Steel AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, M.; Korthas, B.; Schmole, P. [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG., Duisburg (Germany). Hot Metal Production-Metallurgy Division

    2008-07-01

    Coal injection has been used to optimize blast furnace operation at the ThyssenKrupp Steel (TKS) plants in Germany for over 25 years. The main TKS plants are located at Duisburg on the Rhine river with optimum logistical conditions for raw materials and finished products. This presentation described the long history of blast furnace operation at TKS and the optimization of the combustion process in the raceway. The key factors for controlling coal combustion were coal properties; lance design; partial pressure of oxygen in the raceway; amount of nitrogen for the pneumatic coal transport; and additives to the coal. When changing over from the all-coke to the pulverized coal (PC)-coke mode of operation, the main attention was directed to blast velocity and burden distribution. Initially, 2 injection systems were developed in 1982 for a blast furnace pilot facility in Hamborn where coal was injected through 3 tuyeres of the blast furnace. The experience gained at the pilot facility was used for other production facilities. They were evaluated in terms of plant wear, pneumatic conveying characteristics, and behaviour of the system when using different types of coal. In 1987, the Schwelgern blast furnace was equipped with the dense flow system and the blast furnace in Ruhrort was equipped with an entrained flow system and metering valves. In February 1991, blast furnace no. 9 in Hamborn was equipped with the dense flow for all 28 tuyeres and is designed for an injection rate of 250 kg/THM. 21 figs.

  9. Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shan-Wen [Steel and Aluminum Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 812 (China); Chen, Wei-Hsin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China); Lucas, John A. [School of Engineering of the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals departing from the general trend. One of the coals with the fuel ratio of 6.22 has shown its merit in combustion, implying that the blending ratio of the coal in PCI operation can be raised for a higher coke replacement ratio. The experiments also suggested that increasing blast temperature was an efficient countermeasure for promoting the combustibility of the injected coals. Higher fuel burnout could be achieved when the particle size of coal was reduced from 60-100 to 100-200 mesh. However, once the size of the tested coals was in the range of 200 and 325 mesh, the burnout could not be improved further, resulting from the agglomeration of fine particles. Considering coal blend reactions, the blending ratio of coals in PCI may be adjusted by the individual coal burnout rather than by the fuel ratio. (author)

  10. Blast furnace granular coal injection at Bethlehem Steel's Burns Harbor Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Gregory Hill; Leo I.E. Makovsky; Thomas A. Sarkus; Howard G. McIlvried [Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Chesterton, IN (USA)

    2004-03-01

    The paper discusses the demonstration of the British Steel/CPC-Macawber Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection (BFGCI) technology that was installed on the blast furnaces at Bethlehem Steel's Burns Harbor Plant in Indiana as a highly successful Clean Coal Technology project, cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. In the BFGCI process, granular coal (10%-30% through a 200-mesh screen) is injected into a blast furnace as a fuel supplement to decrease coke requirements, thus reducing costs. Tests run to determine the effect of process variables on furnace operations showed that granular coal works as well as pulverized coal and is easier to handle and cheaper to produce because of reduced grinding costs.

  11. Practice of promoting pulverized coal injection rate at no.4 blast furnace of China Steel Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, N.W.; Chang, C.T [China Steel Corp., Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2008-07-01

    In 2006, the China Steel Corporation (CSC) upgraded the injection system of its no.4 blast furnace to increase the pulverized coal (PC) rate which averaged 136 to 143 kg/thm. This paper described the scheduled shutdown of the furnace in May 2007 in order to modify it from a dilute phase injection system to a dense phase system using the technology of the Kuettner Company. Through proper burden distribution and operational parameter adjustments, the pulverized coal (PC) rate was increased to 178 kg/thm by November 2007, corresponding to a 65 t/hr injection rate with a productivity of 2.58 t/m{sup 3}/d. This paper described the challenges encountered following commissioning as well as the strategies of process control. The main differences between the existing and new injection system were that nitrogen was used to substitute compressed air as the conveying gas and the coal to gas ratio was increased from about 10 to 30 kg/kg. As a result, the transport method and the operation pressure had to be reassessed. This paper described the coal blend injection; screening facility for coal preparation; location of the distributor; and coal accumulation in the coal flow meter. The blast furnace adjustments included burden thickness control; burden distribution adjustment; improvement of raw material quality; and theoretical flame temperature adjustment. The upgrade project has proven to be very successful and has improved the competitiveness of CSC blast furnace no.4 significantly. Plans to upgrade the no.2 and no.3 blast furnaces are underway. Once completed, the operating cost and coke consumption of the blast furnaces will be reduced considerably. The modification to dense phase conveying system has shown that coal with high Hardgrove Index requires a higher driving force in the pneumatic dense phase transport and that coal mill equipped with a rotating classifier is recommended along with screens at the upstream of the feed tank. 3 refs., 6 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. Using ground and intact coal Samples to evaluate hydrocarbon fate during supercritical CO2 injection into coal beds: effects of particle size and coal moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jon; Hackley, Paul C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Warwick, Peter D.; Burruss, Robert

    2015-01-01

    accessibility of supercritical CO2 to coal matrix porosity, limiting the extent to which hydrocarbons are mobilized. Conversely, the enhanced recovery of some surrogates from core plugs relative to dry, ground coal samples might indicate that, once mobilized, supercritical CO2 is capable of transporting these constituents through coal beds. These results underscore the need for using intact coal samples, and for better characterization of forms of water in coal, to understand fate and transport of organic compounds during supercritical CO2 injection into coal beds.

  13. Swelling-induced changes in coal microstructure due to supercritical CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihuai; Lebedev, Maxim; Sarmadivaleh, Mohammad; Barifcani, Ahmed; Iglauer, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Enhanced coalbed methane recovery and CO2 geostorage in coal seams are severely limited by permeability decrease caused by CO2 injection and associated coal matrix swelling. Typically, it is assumed that matrix swelling leads to coal cleat closure, and as a consequence, permeability is reduced. However, this assumption has not yet been directly observed. Using a novel in situ reservoir condition X-ray microcomputed tomography flooding apparatus, for the first time we observed such microcleat closure induced by supercritical CO2 flooding in situ. Furthermore, fracturing of the mineral phase (embedded in the coal) was observed; this fracturing was induced by the internal swelling stress. We conclude that coal permeability is drastically reduced by cleat closure, which again is caused by coal matrix swelling, which again is caused by flooding with supercritical CO2.

  14. Production of gas from coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland in the post-injection period of an ECBM pilot site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, F. van; Krzystolik, P.; Wageningen, N. van; Pagnier, H.; Jura, B.; Skiba, J.; Winthaegen, P.; Kobiela, Z.

    2009-01-01

    A pilot site for CO2 storage in coal seams was set-up in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland in the scope of the RECOPOL project, funded by the European Commission. About 760 tons CO2 were injected into the reservoir from August 2004 to June 2005. Breakthrough of the injected CO2 was established

  15. Production of gas from coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland in the post-injection period of an ECBM pilot site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, F. van; Krzystolik, P.; Wageningen, N. van; Pagnier, H.; Jura, B.; Skiba, J.; Winthaegen, P.; Kobiela, Z.

    2009-01-01

    A pilot site for CO2 storage in coal seams was set-up in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland in the scope of the RECOPOL project, funded by the European Commission. About 760 tons CO2 were injected into the reservoir from August 2004 to June 2005. Breakthrough of the injected CO2 was established

  16. A novel model for cost performance evaluation of pulverized coal injected into blast furnace based on effective calorific value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐润生; 张建良; 左海滨; 李克江; 宋腾飞; 邵久刚

    2015-01-01

    The combustion process of pulverized coal injected into blast furnace involves a lot of physical and chemical reactions. Based on the combustion behaviors of pulverized coal, the conception of coal effective calorific value representing the actual thermal energy provided for blast furnace was proposed. A cost performance evaluation model of coal injection was built up for the optimal selection of various kinds of coal based on effective calorific value. The model contains two indicators: coal effective calorific value which has eight sub-indicators and coal injection cost which includes four sub-indicators. In addition, the calculation principle and application of cost performance evaluation model in a Chinese large-scale iron and steel company were comprehensively introduced. The evaluation results finally confirm that this novel model is of great significance to the optimal selection of blast furnace pulverized coal.

  17. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project public design report. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The public design report describes the Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection (BFGCI) project under construction at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. The project is the first installation in the United States for the British Steel technology using granular coal in blast furnaces. The objective is to demonstrate that granular coal is an economic and reliable fuel which can successfully be applied to large North American blast furnaces. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I-Design; Phase II-Procurement & Construction; and Phase III-Operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in April 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began August 1993. Construction is expected to be complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by a demonstration test program (Phase III).

  18. Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

    1982-04-30

    A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

  19. Numerical Investigation on Performance of Coal Gasifier of 150kW under Various Injection Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyeongyeong; Suh, Jaeseung [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lho, Taihyeop [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) has gained a lot of interest because they can produce cleaner gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane. This study focuses on the 150kW gasifier which is used in the National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) plant. It is a fusion plasma technology to existing coal gasifier for better efficiency of low-carbon fuels. The cold gas is generated by reacting oxidants to coal with plasma technology of high temperature. The purpose of this study is to get the highest cold gas efficiency varied according to oxidant/coal injection amount, location and feeding gas. It is considerably complicated and expensive that cold gas efficiency is experimentally compared for all cases. It is possible to predict flow patterns, tracks of particles, combustion characteristics, temperature distributions and chemical distributions using the commercial CFD solver ANSYS/FLUENT. This study has numerical investigation for the phenomena of coal gasification for coal gasifier of 150kW at various operating conditions. The results are summarized in table 6. The air as feeding gas is more efficient than carbon dioxide, and the amount of coal that is important to find the appropriate value for the capacity of the gasifier than strictly greater.

  20. Bethlehem Steel Corporation Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    Construction of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on air quality, noise, and land use at the Burns Harbor Plant area. Operation of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on the environment at the Burns Harbor Plant area. An increase of approximately 30 tons/yr for NO{sub x} and approximately 13 tons/yr for particulate matter (from the coal storage area) is expected. These emissions are within the currently permitted levels. Carbon dioxide emissions, which are unregulated, would increase by about 220,000 tons/yr at the Burns Harbor Plant. Water withdrawn and returned to Lake Michigan would increase by 1.3 million gal/d (0.4 percent of existing permitted discharge) for non-contact cooling water. No protected species, floodplains, wetlands, or cultural resources would be affected by operation of the proposed facility. Small economic benefits would occur from the creation of 5 or 6 permanent new jobs during the operation of the proposed demonstration project and subsequent commercial operation. Under the No Action Alternative, the proposed project would not receive cost-shared funding support from DOE.

  1. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

  2. Experimental Evaluation of Permeability of Coal in Supercritical CO2 and N2 Injection Under Stress and Strain Restricted Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KIYAMA, Tamotsu; NISHIMOTO, Soshi; FUJIOKA, Masaji; XUE, Zique; MIYAZAWA, Daisuke; ISHIJIMA, Yoji

    2010-01-01

    .... In this study, the strain and stress constraint conditions were created in-laboratory and N2 and supercritical CO2 were injected repeatedly in a coal specimen for observation of the permeability, Vp...

  3. PCI-SIG推出PCI Express新规范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    负责PCI Express业界标准I/O技术的特别兴趣小组PCI—SIG日前官布,推出PCI Express ExpressModule规范。这个PCI Express规范定义了可热插拔的I/O扩展模块标准,能够大幅度提高企业级服务器和工作站平台的可靠性及设计灵活性。符合ExpressModule规范的产品有望于2005年底面市。在PCI—SIG规范中,

  4. Assessment of in-furnace dry sorbent injection experimental results burning low sulphur content coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, F.J. [Univ. de Zaragoza (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    In an effort to adjust the SO{sub 2} emissions of coal power stations to the current air pollutant standards, established by the EC, flue gas desulfurization tests with in-furnace dry sorbent injection technology in the Spanish coal power station ``Litoral`` (tangentially-fired) were performed. The measured retentions were lower than predicted through a one-dimensional model. Then, it was thought that a CFD 3D simulation of the injection would help to understand the complex relationships of the process. The simulation was divided in two stages: in the first one, the turbulent velocity and the temperature field were solved. In the second one, representative sorbent particles were injected in the turbulent field previously solved, the focus of this work being the global sulphur capture modeling and its validation through the experimental measurements obtained. After a revision of the models proposed in the specialized literature, a global sulfation model is chosen, being compared with the experimental data obtained in the power station. Because of the main results of this work, the authors can highlight the testing of the laboratory-scale correlations against full-scale results, and can mitigate the difficulty of estimating the actual temperature profile by experimenting with the particle and its residence time without the aid of a CFD code.

  5. Variations in coal characteristics and their possible implications for CO2 sequestration: Tanquary injection site, southeastern Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, D.G.; Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Rupp, J.A.; Harpalani, S.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Regional Sequestration Partnership program, the potential for sequestering CO2 in the largest bituminous coal reserve in United States - the Illinois Basin - is being assessed at the Tanquary site in Wabash County, southeastern Illinois. To accomplish the main project objectives, which are to determine CO2 injection rates and storage capacity, we developed a detailed coal characterization program. The targeted Springfield Coal occurs at 274m (900ft) depth, is 2.1m (7ft) thick, and is of high volatile B bituminous rank, having an average vitrinite reflectance (Ro) of 0.63%. Desorbed Springfield Coal gas content in cores from four wells ~15 to ~30m (50 to 100ft) apart varies from 4.7-6.6cm3/g (150 to 210scf/ton, dmmf) and consists, generally, of >92% CH4 with lesser amounts of N2 and then CO2. Adsorption isotherms indicate that at least three molecules of CO2 can be stored for each displaced CH4 molecule. Whole seam petrographic composition, which affects sequestration potential, averages 76.5% vitrinite, 4.2% liptinite, 11.6% inertinite, and 7.7% mineral matter. Sulfur content averages 1.59%. Well-developed coal cleats with 1 to 2cm spacing contain partial calcite and/or kaolinite fillings that may decrease coal permeability. The shallow geophysical induction log curves show much higher resistivity in the lower part of the Springfield Coal than the medium or deep curves because of invasion by freshwater drilling fluid, possibly indicating higher permeability. Gamma-ray and bulk density vary, reflecting differences in maceral, ash, and pyrite content. Because coal properties vary across the basin, it is critical to characterize injection site coals to best predict the potential for CO2 injection and storage capacity. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Kinetic characteristics of coal gas desorption based on the pulsating injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Guanhua; Lin Baiquan; Zhai Cheng; Li Quangui; Peng Shen; Li Xianzhong

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the kinetic characteristics of coal gas desorption based on the pulsating injection (PI), the research experimentally studied the kinetic process of methane desorption in terms of the PI and hydrostatic injection (HI). The results show that the kinetic curves of methane desorption based on PI and HI are consistent with each other, and the diffusion model can best describe the characteristics of meth-ane desorption. Initial velocity, diffusion capacity and ultimate desorption amount of methane desorption after PI are greater than those after HI, and the ultimate desorption amount increases by 16.7-39.7%. Methane decay rate over the time is less than that of the HI. The PI influences the diffusion model param-eters, and it makes the mass transfer Biot number B0i decrease and the mass transfer Fourier series F00 increase. As a result, PI makes the methane diffusion resistance in the coal smaller, methane diffusion rate greater, mass transfer velocity faster and the disturbance range of methane concentration wider than HI. Therefore, the effect of methane desorption based on PI is better than that of HI.

  7. Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved d,emonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. `At each site where

  8. Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection - Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved demonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOx. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOx to diatomic nitrogen (N2). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (SI) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot

  9. Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved d,emonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. `At each site where

  10. Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection - Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved demonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOx. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOx to diatomic nitrogen (N2). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (SI) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot

  11. Synchronized droplet size measurements for Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, K. D.; Terracina, D. P.; Payne, S. E.; Caton, J. A.

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMD's near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 (mu)m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

  12. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates

  13. Dry sorbent injection of trona to control acid gases from a pilot-scale coal-fired combustion facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. B. Yelverton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Gaseous and particulate emissions from the combustion of coal have been associated with adverse effects on human and environmental health, and have for that reason been subject to regulation by federal and state governments. Recent regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency have further restricted the emissions of acid gases from electricity generating facilities and other industrial facilities, and upcoming deadlines are forcing industry to consider both pre- and post-combustion controls to maintain compliance. As a result of these recent regulations, dry sorbent injection of trona to remove acid gas emissions (e.g. HCl, SO2, and NOx from coal combustion, specifically 90% removal of HCl, was the focus of the current investigation. Along with the measurement of HCl, SO2, and NOx, measurements of particulate matter (PM, elemental (EC, and organic carbon (OC were also accomplished on a pilot-scale coal-fired combustion facility. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a coal-fired combustor burning bituminous coal and using dry sorbent injection were the focus of the current study. From this investigation it was shown that high levels of trona were needed to achieve the goal of 90% HCl removal, but with this increased level of trona injection the ESP and BH were still able to achieve greater than 95% fine PM control. In addition to emissions reported, measurement of acid gases by standard EPA methods were compared to those of an infrared multi-component gas analyzer. This comparison revealed good correlation for emissions of HCl and SO2, but poor correlation in the measurement of NOx emissions.

  14. Management of solid wastes from the Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) clean coal technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musiol, W.F. Jr.; Czuczwa, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to characterize by-products from a pilot Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) process and to develop processes directed toward the safe and economic use or disposal of these wastes. Because LIDS is a developing Clean Coal technology, a database of chemical and physical characteristics of the by-product was first developed. During the course of this project, it was found that the waste alone did not form high-strength products sufficient for use in construction and engineering applications. Therefore, the project was redirected to evaluate the by-product as a soil-cement and Portland cement raw material, agricultural liming agent, backfill/landfill material component, and mine reclamation/neutralizing agent. Based on these evaluations, the most viable uses for the LIDS byproduct include use in mine reclamation or as a neutralization agent. If soluble sulfites can be minimized by avoiding a dolomitic LIDS reagent, use as an agricultural liming agent has promise. Interest from an Ohio utility in the LIDS process suggests possible application of results at the demonstration or commercial stages.

  15. Fe-burden quality at high coal injection rates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muelheims, K.; Rosenplaenter, R.; Hess, E.; Lectard, E.; Sert, D.; Pastore, M.; Lindert, M.Te.; Matthews, T. [TKS, Duisburg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the project, funded by the ECSC, was to investigate the chemical and physical properties of different production and laboratory sinter and to improve the sinter quality to characterise the quality requirements for high coal injection rates in the blast furnace. Studies on synthetically prepared material have shown that softening is triggered by the initial formation of metal within the core region of partly reduced iron bearing material. The temperatures at which the deformation of pellets or sinter started do not correspond with the temperatures detected by the differential thermal analysis on single phases. From sinter pot and sinter plant test results it could be confirmed that sinter disintegration can be influenced by its chemical composition. The basicity has a dominant influence on the sinter quality. The sinter degradation decreases as the FeO content increases and the porosity decreases. Results from the melting down tests showed that the reduction of sinter at different temperatures progresses faster as the porosity increases. Further on, the beginning of the melting down temperature increases as the reduction degree increases. Pilot blast furnace trials increased confidence in the validity of the melting down test in evaluating key material parameters and assisted in establishing realistic gas/temperature reducing cycles. The ASAM tests highlighted the importance of gangue composition in determining the sinter's melting/dripping qualities.

  16. Future of the PCI Readmission Metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfy, Jason H; Yeh, Robert W

    2016-03-01

    Between 2013 and 2014, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the National Cardiovascular Data Registry publically reported risk-adjusted 30-day readmission rates after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a pilot project. A key strength of this public reporting effort included risk adjustment with clinical rather than administrative data. Furthermore, because readmission after PCI is common, expensive, and preventable, this metric has substantial potential to improve quality and value in American cardiology care. Despite this, concerns about the metric exist. For example, few PCI readmissions are caused by procedural complications, limiting the extent to which improved procedural technique can reduce readmissions. Also, similar to other readmission measures, PCI readmission is associated with socioeconomic status and race. Accordingly, the metric may unfairly penalize hospitals that care for underserved patients. Perhaps in the context of these limitations, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has not yet included PCI readmission among metrics that determine Medicare financial penalties. Nevertheless, provider organizations may still wish to focus on this metric to improve value for cardiology patients. PCI readmission is associated with low-risk chest discomfort and patient anxiety. Therefore, patient education, improved triage mechanisms, and improved care coordination offer opportunities to minimize PCI readmissions. Because PCI readmission is common and costly, reducing PCI readmission offers provider organizations a compelling target to improve the quality of care, and also performance in contracts involve shared financial risk.

  17. Modeling the resolution of inexpensive, novel non-seismic geophysical monitoring tools to monitor CO2 injection into coal beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperikova, E.; Hoversten, G.M.

    2008-09-01

    A sensitivity study of gravity and electromagnetic (EM) techniques, and amplitude vs. angle (AVA) analysis for CO{sub 2} movement in coal beds was based on the SECARB pilot test planned in the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. In the area of interest, coalbed methane is produced mainly from the Black Creek, Mary Lee, and Pratt coal zones at depths between 400 and 700 m and approximately 3 m thick on average. The permeability of coal in the Black Warrior basin decreases exponentially with depth as overburden stress increases. The permeability of the top layer is 100 mD, while the permeability of the deepest layer is around 1 mD. The pilot field test will include injecting a total of 1000 tons of CO{sub 2} into these three coal zones ({approx}300 tons to each zone). The density, sonic and resistivity well-logs from a deep disposal well a couple of miles from the pilot test site were used to create background (pre-injection) models. Our laboratory measurements of seismic velocity and electrical resistivity as a function of CO{sub 2} saturation on coal core samples were used to provide a link between the coalbed CO{sub 2} flow simulation models and the geophysical models. The sensitivity studies showed that while the response to the 300 tons of CO{sub 2} injected into a single layer wouldn't produce measurable surface response for either gravity or EM, the response due to an industrial-size injection would produce measurable surface signal for both techniques. Gravity inversion results illustrated that, provided we can collect high-quality gravity data in the field and we have some a priori information about the depth of the reservoir, we can recover the spatial location of CO{sub 2} plume correctly, although with the smoothing constraint of the inversion, the area was slightly overestimated, resulting in an underestimated value of density change. AVA analysis showed that by inverting seismic and EM data jointly, much better estimates of CO{sub 2} saturation can be

  18. Assessment of industrial operation at low coke rate and coal injection in excess of 220 kg/tHM. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sert, D.; Godijn, R. [IRSID, Maizieres-les-Metz (France)

    2002-07-01

    High coal injection rates have been achieved on several blast furnaces, but only for limited periods. The aim of this project was to establish the required conditions for achieving very low coke rates (greater than 300 kg/tHM) and coal rate in excess of 220 kg/tHM, under long-term industrial conditions. But despite some improvement in the coke and coal ratio ratios, the search for safe operation, on the one hand, and some technological problems, on the other, did not enable the initial objectives to be reached. Despite this result, various studies undertaken during the course of the project produced some interesting conclusions related to the search for high coal rate operation. These studies dealt with: the comparison of the burden at both plants; the way to promote coal combustion; evaluation of the thermo-chemical conditions of the shaft at coal rates around 18 kg/tHM; monitoring the evolution in time of the hearth ocnditions at high coal injection practice; the blast furnace process at high coal injection rate.

  19. PAPP-A and IGFBP-4 fragment levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with heparin and PCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Circulating levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) predict outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Unfortunately, administration of heparin to patients with ACS increases circulating PAPP-A, probably by a detachment of PAPP-A from cell surfaces......-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Prior to PCI, patients were injected with 10,000IU of unfractionated heparin (UFH). Blood samples were collected immediately before PCI, but after UFH-injection, immediately after PCI and on day 1 and day 2...

  20. Wettability determination by contact angle measurements: hvbB coal-water system with injection of synthetic flue gas and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojai Kaveh, Narjes; Rudolph, E Susanne J; Wolf, Karl-Heinz A A; Ashrafizadeh, Seyed Nezameddin

    2011-12-01

    Geological sequestration of pure carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in coal is one of the methods to sequester CO(2). In addition, injection of CO(2) or flue gas into coal enhances coal bed methane production (ECBM). The success of this combined process depends strongly on the wetting behavior of the coal, which is function of coal rank, ash content, heterogeneity of the coal surface, pressure, temperature and composition of the gas. The wetting behavior can be evaluated from the contact angle of a gas bubble, CO(2) or flue gas, on a coal surface. In this study, contact angles of a synthetic flue gas, i.e. a 80/20 (mol%) N(2)/CO(2) mixture, and pure CO(2) on a Warndt Luisenthal (WL) coal have been determined using a modified pendant drop cell in a pressure range from atmospheric to 16 MPa and a constant temperature of 318 K. It was found that the contact angles of flue gas on WL coal were generally smaller than those of CO(2). The contact angle of CO(2) changes from water-wet to gas-wet by increasing pressure above 8.5 MPa while the one for the flue gas changes from water-wet to intermediate-wet by increasing pressure above 10 MPa.

  1. Applicability of a dense-medium cyclone and Vorsyl separator for upgrading non-coking coal fines for use as a blast furnace injection fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.K. Majumder; H. Shah; S. Choubey; J.P. Barnwal; A.K. Kundu; P.S. Dhillon [Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute, Bhopal (India)

    2009-01-15

    Replacement of metallurgical coke by high injection rates of thermal coal into the blast furnace is an important technology as it reduces the cost of hot metals significantly. However, one of the main problems that prevents the use of thermal coals is their high mineral-matter contents. Although, the ash content of coals to be injected in a blast furnace should be as low as possible, a maximum of 16% ash is acceptable. A non-coking coal sample from Chhattisgarh area, India, having a feed ash content of around 27% was collected for beneficiation studies to a grade acceptable for the injection purposes. A series of experiments were conducted in a 76-mm diameter dense-medium cyclone (DMC) and a Vorsyl separator (VS). It is observed that a clean coal having around 16% ash can be produced using both the cyclones if the variables are properly optimized. Further, it is observed that at the same ash level the yield of clean coal was 5%-6% more in VS than in DMC. It has also been demonstrated that at the same ash level, the magnetite medium stability in a VS was better than a DMC. 4 refs.

  2. A Field Study on Simulation of CO2 Injection and ECBM Production and Prediction of CO2 Storage Capacity in Unmineable Coal Seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 sequestration into a coal seam project was studied and a numerical model was developed in this paper to simulate the primary and secondary coal bed methane production (CBM/ECBM and carbon dioxide (CO2 injection. The key geological and reservoir parameters, which are germane to driving enhanced coal bed methane (ECBM and CO2 sequestration processes, including cleat permeability, cleat porosity, CH4 adsorption time, CO2 adsorption time, CH4 Langmuir isotherm, CO2 Langmuir isotherm, and Palmer and Mansoori parameters, have been analyzed within a reasonable range. The model simulation results showed good matches for both CBM/ECBM production and CO2 injection compared with the field data. The history-matched model was used to estimate the total CO2 sequestration capacity in the field. The model forecast showed that the total CO2 injection capacity in the coal seam could be 22,817 tons, which is in agreement with the initial estimations based on the Langmuir isotherm experiment. Total CO2 injected in the first three years was 2,600 tons, which according to the model has increased methane recovery (due to ECBM by 6,700 scf/d.

  3. PCI compliance understand and implement effective PCI data security standard compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Branden R

    2012-01-01

    The credit card industry established the PCI Data Security Standards to provide a minimum standard for how vendors should protect data to ensure it is not stolen by fraudsters. PCI Compliance, 3e, provides the information readers need to understand the current PCI Data Security standards, which have recently been updated to version 2.0, and how to effectively implement security within your company to be compliant with the credit card industry guidelines and protect sensitive and personally identifiable information. Security breaches continue to occur on a regular basis, affecting millions of

  4. PCI Opens Tile Adhesives Plant in Foshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jenny Du

    2007-01-01

    @@ On October 22nd, 2007 BASF celebrated the inauguration of Asia's first PCI tilead hesives plant in Foshan, Guangdong Province. The plant is designed to provide a platform for the transfer of cutting-edge tiling systems technologies and solutions from Germany to China to benefit local construction chemicals sector.

  5. Underground Coal Mine Methane Displacement by Injecting Low-pressure Gas into the Meta-anthracite Seam: Laboratory and Field Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the strong adsorption capacity of meta-anthracite, the gas content of a meta-anthracite seam can be as high as 10 m3/t, with a gas pressure lower than 0.74 MPa; this results in low efficiency of gas extraction in underground mines. To enhance low-pressure methane extraction efficiency in meta-anthracite seams, a new approach – methane displacement by gas injection – has been developed, investigated in the laboratory, and then applied in the field in the Fuyanshan coal mine. Laboratory results show that when the gas content of the coal seam is high, methane displacement by nitrogen injection is difficult. The volume of methane displaced is directly related to the pressure difference between the coal seam gas pressure and the injection gas pressure. If the total gas pressure is greater than 0.5 MPa after nitrogen injection, then the methane displacement efficiency will be greatly enhanced. It is also confirmed that the displacement efficiency can be improved by injecting inert gas to change the partial pressure of the methane. Field test data show quite good methane displacement efficiency.

  6. PCI DSS a practical guide to implementing and maintaining compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This newly revised, practical guide, gives you a step by step guide to achieving Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) compliance - showing you how to create, design and build a PCI compliance framework.

  7. 新峪矿综放工作面注氮气泡沫防灭火技术应用%Application of fire fighting technology of nitrogen foam injection on fully mechanized coal face in Xin Yu mine coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红俊; 陈军伟; 康怀宇

    2011-01-01

    氮气防灭火技术是防治煤层内因火灾的有效技术措施之一,但氮气轻,易流失,本文针对新峪矿5110综放工作面的实际情况,采用了氮气泡沫结合的方法进行防灭火,对注氮设备、注氮方式、注氮工艺、进行了详细的阐述,并对防灭火效果进行了深入分析。%Fire fighting technology of nitrogen injection is one of the most effective technical measures in preventing coal seam fire.However,nitrogen is light and loses easily.Regarding the practical situation on 5110 fully mechanized coal face of Xin Yu mine coal,this thesis analyzes the combination of nitrogen and foam for firefighting technology.It elaborates the nitrogen produce equipment,nitrogen injection way,and nitrogen injection technology.Furthermore,it analyzes the fire control results in details.

  8. Risk management of energy efficiency projects in the industry - sample plant for injecting pulverized coal into the blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Filip P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the applicability of well-known risk management methodologies in energy efficiency projects in the industry. The possibilities of application of the selected risk management methodology are demonstrated within the project of the plants for injecting pulverized coal into blast furnaces nos. 1 and 2, implemented by the company US STEEL SERBIA d.o.o. in Smederevo. The aim of the project was to increase energy efficiency through the reduction of the quantity of coke, whose production requires large amounts of energy, reduction of harmful exhaust emission and increase productivity of blast furnaces through the reduction of production costs. The project was complex and had high costs, so that it was necessary to predict risk events and plan responses to identified risks at an early stage of implementation, in the course of the project design, in order to minimise losses and implement the project in accordance with the defined time and cost limitations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179081: Researching contemporary tendencies of strategic management using specialized management disciplines in function of competitiveness of Serbian economy

  9. Full scale calcium bromide injection with subsequent mercury oxidation and removal within wet flue gas desulphurization system: Experience at a 700 MW coal-fired power facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mark Simpson

    The Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule, which requires that existing power plants reduce mercury emissions to meet an emission rate of 1.2 lb/TBtu on a 30-day rolling average and that new plants meet a 0.0002 lb/GWHr emission rate. This translates to mercury removals greater than 90% for existing units and greater than 99% for new units. Current state-of-the-art technology for the control of mercury emissions uses activated carbon injected upstream of a fabric filter, a costly proposition. For example, a fabric filter, if not already available, would require a 200M capital investment for a 700 MW size unit. A lower-cost option involves the injection of activated carbon into an existing cold-side electrostatic precipitator. Both options would incur the cost of activated carbon, upwards of 3M per year. The combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors and wet flue gas desulphurization (wet FGD) systems have demonstrated the ability to substantially reduce mercury emissions, especially at units that burn coals containing sufficient halogens. Halogens are necessary for transforming elemental mercury to oxidized mercury, which is water-soluble. Plants burning halogen-deficient coals such as Power River Basin (PRB) coals currently have no alternative but to install activated carbon-based approaches to control mercury emissions. This research consisted of investigating calcium bromide addition onto PRB coal as a method of increasing flue gas halogen concentration. The treated coal was combusted in a 700 MW boiler and the subsequent treated flue gas was introduced into a wet FGD. Short-term parametric and an 83-day longer-term tests were completed to determine the ability of calcium bromine to oxidize mercury and to study the removal of the mercury in a wet FGD. The research goal was to show that calcium bromine addition to PRB coal was a viable approach for meeting the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule

  10. PCI Compliance Understand and Implement Effective PCI Data Security Standard Compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Chuvakin, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Identity theft and other confidential information theft have now topped the charts as the #1 cybercrime. In particular, credit card data is preferred by cybercriminals. Is your payment processing secure and compliant?. Now in its second edition, PCI Compliance has been revised to follow the new PCI DSS standard 1.2.1. Also new to this edition: Each chapter has how-to guidance to walk you through implementing concepts, and real-world scenarios to help you relate to the information and better grasp how it impacts your data. This book provides the information that you need to understand the curre

  11. Real-time tracking of CO₂ injected into a subsurface coal fire through high-frequency measurements of the ¹³CO₂ signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevor, Samuel C M; Ide, Taku; Benson, Sally M; Orr, Franklin M

    2011-05-01

    CO₂ was injected into a coal fire burning at a depth of 15 m in the subsurface in southwestern Colorado, USA. Measurements were made of the ¹³CO₂ isotopic signature of gas exhaust from an observation well and two surface fissures. The goal of the test was to determine (1) whether CO₂ with a distinct isotopic signature could be used as a tracer to identify flow pathways and travel times in a combustion setting where CO₂ was present in significant quantities in the gases being emitted from the coalbed fire, and (2) to confirm the existence of a self-propagating system of air-intake and combustion gas exhaust that has been previously proposed. CO₂ was injected in three separate periods. The ¹³CO₂ isotopic signature was measured at high frequency (0.5 Hz) before, during, and after the injection periods for gas flowing from fissures over the fire and from gas entering an observation well drilled into the formation just above the fire but near the combustion zone. In two cases, a shift in the isotopic signature of outgassing CO₂ provided clear evidence that injected CO₂ had traveled from the injection well to the observation point, while in a third case, no response was seen and the fissure could not be assumed to have a flowpath connected with the injection well. High-frequency measurements of the ¹³CO₂ signature of gas in observation wells is identified as a viable technique for tracking CO₂ injected into subsurface formations in real-time. In addition, a chimney-like coupled air-intake and exhaust outlet system feeding the combustion of the coal seam was confirmed. This can be used to further develop strategies for extinguishing the fire.

  12. Development of 8-lane PCI-Express protocol using VHDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Harish

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Flosolver Mk 8 is the latest family member of the Flosolver series of parallel computers in CSIR-NAL that is currently being developed, to have a performance of 10 TFLOPS with 1024 processors in it. It is based on distributed memory concept, using quad core xeon processors[11]. Each cluster consists of 8 processors, a FPGA based Floswitch, and 4 PCI cards. The inter Cluster communication is carried out through optical transceivers to provide high speed communication. PCI is used for interface between the server and the FloSwitch. Unlike any other switch, the Floswitch has the capability of performing information processing operation which is a unique feature, along with message passing[12]. To this existing system the project intends to replace the PCI card with 8- lane PCI-Express add-on card. The PCI-Express defines a line rate of 2.5Gbps per lane. The basic goal of this project entitled “Development of PCI Express protocol using VHDL” is to Design and Develop a PCI-Express protocol for a 8x PCI-e card, with an optical transceiver and DPM (Dual Port Memory as an external interfaces. The development includes the generation of 8 x PCI-e cores and interfacing the core for optical transaction and also for the DPM transaction. The PCI-Express add-on card contains a FPGA (Virtex V– XC5VLX110T and the card supports 8X lane. FPGA provides an interface between the PCI-Express signals, the DPM and the optical transceiver module. The protocol has to be developed using VHDL and simulated using model sim 6.1f

  13. PCI Embedded Computer Systems公司CPU板

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    PCI Embedded Computer Systems推出面向低功耗嵌入式系统的传导冷却XMC CPU板。AMD Geode LX 800处理器系列以基于x86的嵌入式处理器提供了所需的性能和功耗适应性,工作频率为500MHz时,最大功耗3.9W,典型功耗1.8W。Geode LX处理器提供了毫无折损地设计创新产品所需的低功耗x86性能。在AMD Geode CS5536伴随器件的配合下,

  14. [Current strategy in PCI for CTO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yasushi

    2011-02-01

    Recently, CTO PCI has come into wide use all over the world and it has been standardized. The 1st step is an antegrade approach using single wire. The 2nd strategy would be parallel wire technique. And the next would be a retrograde approach. In this method, retrograde wiring with Corsair is done at first. If it is successful, externalization is established using 300 cm wire, and this system is able to provide strong back-up support. If it fails, reverse CART technique is the next step. IVUS guided wiring is a last resort. The 2nd wire is manipulated with IVUS guidance. Now, initial success rate is more than 90% with these methods.

  15. Coordinated CSN-UNESA research plan (PCI); Plan coordinado de investigacion CSN-UNESA (PCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incinillas, J.

    2001-07-01

    This article contains a description of the essence and current status of the Coordinated Research Plan (PCI), beginning with details on the general specifications of the Framework Agreement signed by CSN and UNESA in September 1997, with an initial duration of four years and extendable on a yearly basis. The section on PCI Management describes the governing bodies, the mechanisms for including a project, tracking of projects underway, and the mechanisms for concluding projects. The Plan's generic goals are to acquire and increase technological skills and tools to guarantee operation of the nuclear park, take advantage of the synergies of the plants as a whole, and optimize the regulatory framework from the standpoint of safety and efficiency. In addition, strategic targets concerning efficiency, technological development and environment are defined. The current project status, overall budget and project completed to data are described. (Author)

  16. 邯钢高炉喷吹煤粉的快速热解机制%Flash Pyrolysis of Pulverized Injection Coal at Hansteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘然; 高永亮; 王杏娟; 吕庆; 杜林森; 王竹民

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at increasing pulverized coal injection at Handan Steel,the pyrolysis of coal in raceway was simulated.The coal of CL and DW were selected and the decomposition rate was calculated by plasma pyrolysis.Gas products were analyzed by gas chromatography and morphology of residues were observed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM).The results show that CL and DW decomposition rate is 43.10% and 52.04% respectively and gas products of coal after plasma pyrolysis,which are different from general pyrolysis,consist of CO,H2,CH4,C2H2 and small content of C2H4,etc.Pyrolysis product has changed evidently,particle size become smaller.The vesicular structure occurs in coal grains when DW is added in the sample,which makes the specific surface area of coal grain increase.The solid carbon combustion ratio in tuyeres can be enhanced,which will provide the theoretical basis for pulverized coal combustion rate.%为了提高邯钢高炉喷吹煤比,模拟煤粉在高炉内的热解。以邯钢喷吹用长治煤(以下简称CL)和大湾煤(以下简称DW)为原料,采用等离子体进行快速热解,计算反应后煤粉的分解率,利用气相色谱仪对气体产物进行分析以及用扫描电镜(SEM)观察反应产物的形貌特征。试验结果表明,CL和DW的分解率分别为43.10%和52.04%,气相产物主要为CO、H2、CH4、C2H2及少量C2H4等气体,热解产物的粒径减小,形貌发生明显变化。在CL煤的基础上配加不同比例的DW后,煤粉颗粒出现了孔状结构,因此可以提高炉内风口回旋区固定碳颗粒的燃烧率,为提高煤粉燃烧率提供理论依据。

  17. The inherent catastrophic traps in retrograde CTO PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Eugene B; Tsuchikane, Etsuo

    2017-05-04

    When we learn to drive, our driving instructor tells us how to check the side mirror and turn your head to check the blind spot before changing lanes. He tells us how to stop at stop signs, how to drive in slippery conditions, the safe stopping distances, and these all make our driving safe. Similarly, when we learn PCI, our mentors teach us to seat the guiding catheter co-axially, to wire the vessel safely, to deliver balloon and stents over the wire, to watch the pressure of the guiding, in order that we perform PCI safely and evade complications. In retrograde CTO PCI, there is no such published teaching. Also many individual mentors have not had the wide experience to see all the possible complications of retrograde CTO PCI and, therefore, may not be able to warn their apprentice. As the number of retrograde procedures increase worldwide, there is a corresponding increase in catastrophic complications, many of which, we as experts, can see are easily avoidable. To breach this gap in knowledge, this article describes 12 commonly met inherent traps in retrograde CTO PCI. They are inherent because by arranging our equipment in the manner to perform retrograde CTO PCI, these complications are either induced directly or happen easily. We hope this work will enhance safety of retrograde CTO PCI and avoid many catastrophic complications for our readers and operators. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Assessment of PCDD/F and PBDD/F emissions from coal-fired power plants during injection of brominated activated carbon for mercury control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutson, N.D.; Ryan, S.P.; Touati, A. [US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The effect of the injection of brominated powdered activated carbon (Br-PAC) on the emission of brominated and chlorinated dioxins and furans in coal combustion flue gas has been evaluated. The sampling campaigns were performed at two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) demonstration sites where brominated PAC was being injected for control of mercury emissions. The results of the sampling campaigns showed that injection of the brominated PAC upstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) did not increase the emissions of total and Toxic Equivalent (TEQ) chlorinated and brominated dioxin compounds. Rather, the data suggested the sorbent may capture these compounds and reduce their concentration in the flue gas stream. This effect, when seen, was small, and independent of the type of plant emission controls, temperature at the point of injection, or fuel-chlorine content. The addition of the brominated PAC sorbent resulted in slight increases the total content of chlorinated dioxins and furan in the particulate matter (ash) collected in the ESP, but did not increase its overall toxicity.

  19. Dry sorbent injection of trona to control acid gases from a pilot-scale coal-fired combustion facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from the combustion of coal have been associated with adverse effects on human and environmental health, and have for that reason been subject to regulation by federal and state governments. Recent regulations by the United States Environmental ...

  20. Event-driven timing system based on MRF cPCI hardware for HLS-II

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李川; 王季刚; 宣科; 刘功发; 王琳; 李为民; 李京袆

    2015-01-01

    Hefei Light Source (HLS)-II is a vacuum ultraviole (VUV) synchrotron light source. A major upgrade of the light source was finished at the end of 2014. The timing system was rebuilt using compact peripheral component interconnect (cPCI) event-driven hardware to meet synchronization requirements of the machine. In the new system, the cPCI event-driven products manufactured by the micro-research finland (MRF) Oy are employed to achieve about 100 output signals with different interfaces. Device supports and drivers developed for common Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) records are used to access the registers on the timing modules. Five cPCI-bus input/output controllers (IOCs) distributed in different areas of the light source host timing modules for various subsystems. The delay resolution of this system is 9.8 ns for most channels and 9 ps for the channels used for triggering the electron gun and the injection kickers. The measured rms jitter of the output signal is less than 27 ps. Using the bucket chooser, this system enables the HLS-II to fill the storage ring with any designated bunch pattern. Benefitting from this upgrade, brightness and performance of the light source are significantly improved.

  1. 丹红注射液治疗ST段抬高型心肌梗死直接经皮冠状动脉介入术后无复流/慢血流的研究%Danhong Injection in Patients with No-reflow/Slow-flow Following Pri-mary PCI of ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨靖; 崔海明; 任雨笙; 吴宗贵

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨丹红注射液治疗ST段抬高型心肌梗死( STEMI)直接经皮冠状动脉介入术( PCI)术后无复流/慢血流的有效性、安全性以及机制。方法选择2012年10月-2014年9月罹患STEMI并符合入选标准的患者,随机分配至丹红注射液治疗组和对照组,持续治疗10 d。测定血清心肌坏死标志物、IRA血流速度、血清BNP以及ET-1浓度;记录症状、住院期间病死率和不良反应。结果(1)共入选57例,随机分为丹红组28例,对照组29例,两组间的基线资料无统计学差异;(2)术后3 d心肌坏死标志物峰值,丹红组显著低于对照组;(3)术后10 d IRA的DPV、DMV、DDT≥600 ms比率、STR≥70%的比率以及LVEF,丹红组均显著高于对照组;血清BNP、ET-1水平,丹红组显著低于对照组(;4)住院期间心绞痛/心衰症状发生率,丹红组低于对照组,而病死率两组间比较,差异无统计学意义(;5)丹红组有2例发生轻度副反应。结论丹红注射液能改善直接PCI术后无复流/慢血流的血流速度、减小心梗面积、减轻左室重构及促进左室功能的恢复,该疗效与其降低ET-1水平有关。%Objective To investigate efficacy,safety and mechanism of Danhong Injection( DI)in treatment of patients with no -reflow/ slow -flow phenomenon following primary PCI( PPCI)of STEMI. Methods Patients with STEMI and receiving emergent PPCI in Changzheng hospital from October,2012 to September,2014,meeting inclusion criteria of no-reflow/ slow-flow in infarction related artery(IRA)docu-mented by angiography following PPCI,were assigned randomly to DI group and control group. All patients re-ceived standard treatment,including dual anti-platelet therapy,according to the guideline recommendations. The efficacy endpoints were elevation of serum myocardial biomarkers,restoration of microvascular-myocar-dial perfusion by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography and

  2. Time-recovering PCI-AER interface for bio-inspired spiking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Vicente, R.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Cascado, D.; Vicente, S.; Jimenez, G.; Civit, A.

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. When building multi-chip muti-layered AER systems it is absolutely necessary to have a computer interface that allows (a) to read AER interchip traffic into the computer and visualize it on screen, and (b) inject a sequence of events at some point of the AER structure. This is necessary for testing and debugging complex AER systems. This paper presents a PCI to AER interface, that dispatches a sequence of events received from the PCI bus with embedded timing information to establish when each event will be delivered. A set of specialized states machines has been introduced to recovery the possible time delays introduced by the asynchronous AER bus. On the input channel, the interface capture events assigning a timestamp and delivers them through the PCI bus to MATLAB applications. It has been implemented in real time hardware using VHDL and it has been tested in a PCI-AER board, developed by authors, that includes a Spartan II 200 FPGA. The demonstration hardware is currently capable to send and receive events at a peak rate of 8,3 Mev/sec, and a typical rate of 1 Mev/sec.

  3. Bivalirudin started during emergency transport for primary PCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steg, Philippe Gabriel; van 't Hof, Arnoud; Hamm, Christian W;

    2013-01-01

    Bivalirudin, as compared with heparin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, has been shown to reduce rates of bleeding and death in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Whether these benefits persist in contemporary practice characterized by prehospital initiation...

  4. Evolution und Zukunftsperspektiven der perkutanen Koronarintervention (PCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Die kathetergestützte Behandlung der Koronaren Herzkrankheit (PCI hat aus der vorwiegend diagnostischen Disziplin Kardiologie eine halbchirurgische gemacht. Als Geburtsstunde dieser sogenannten interventionellen Kardiologie gilt der 16. September 1977, als in Zürich durch Grüntzig zum ersten Mal ein Herzkranzgefäß aufgeweitet wurde. Dem damals 38-jährigen Patienten geht es auch heute, 33 Jahre später, ausgezeichnet. Zwischenzeitlich ist dieser Eingriff zum wesentlichsten medizinischen Eingriff schlechthin geworden. Man schätzt seine Frequenz global auf 2–3 Millionen pro Jahr. In Österreich werden jährlich über 20.000 solche Eingriffe durchgeführt. Etwa 34 österreichische Zentren bieten diesen Eingriff an. Heute werden solche Eingriffe etwa 2- bis 4- mal mehr durchgeführt als klassische herzchirurgische Bypass-Operationen, welche es seit den 1960er-Jahren gibt. Die zunehmende Frühabklärung der Koronaren Herzkrankheit führt dazu, dass sie meistens im noch wenig fortgeschrittenen Stadium entdeckt wird, welches durch kathetergestützte Behandlung ausreichend therapiert werden kann. Späte Stadien benötigen nach wie vor die offene Herzoperation. In den gut 3 Jahrzehnten ihres Bestehens hat die Koronardilatation mit dem Einsatz des Koronarstents ab 1986 eine wesentliche Verbesserung erfahren. Seit ca. 7 Jahren geben diese Metallgitterchen ein Medikament ab, welches eine überschießende Narbenbildung verhindert und damit die Notwendigkeit für erneute Eingriffe vermindert. Andere Verfahren, mit der Absicht den Ballon zu ersetzen (Laser, Bohrgeräte etc. haben sich nicht durchgesetzt. Die Koronardilatation bleibt im Sandwich zwischen einer rein medikamentösen Therapie bei leichter Koronarer Herzkrankheit und der chirurgischen Therapie bei fortgeschrittener Koronarer Herzkrankheit. Die jeweiligen Grenzen sind Grauzonen, die nicht von allen Fachleuten gleich gehandhabt werden.

  5. Effects of primary PCI and facilitated PCI on myocardial viability and ventricular systolic synchrony in acute myocardial infarction patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷新顺; 傅向华; 马宁

    2003-01-01

    Effects of primary PCI and facilitated PCI on myocardial viability and ventricular systolic synchrony in acute myocardial infarction patients!石家庄050000$河北医科大学第二医院@谷新顺 !石家庄050000$河北医科大学第二医院@傅向华 !石家庄050000$河北医科大学第二医院@马宁

  6. Mercury Emissions Capture Efficiency with Activated Carbon Injection at a Russian Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA-led project, conducted in collaboration with UNEP, the Swedish Environmental Institute and various Russian Institutes, that demonstrates that the mercury emission control efficiencies of activated carbon injection technologies applied at a Russian power plant burning Rus...

  7. Mercury Emissions Capture Efficiency with Activated Carbon Injection at a Russian Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA-led project, conducted in collaboration with UNEP, the Swedish Environmental Institute and various Russian Institutes, that demonstrates that the mercury emission control efficiencies of activated carbon injection technologies applied at a Russian power plant burning Rus...

  8. Measurement of human acupoints bioimpedance based on PCI8335B%一种基于PCI8335B的人体穴位生物阻抗的测量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昱; 洪文学

    2011-01-01

    Acupoints are the positions for the Qi and Blood to be injected into human body. The changes in Qi and Blood of human body could be shown as the changes of the corresponding acupoints, such as the changes of electric properties of these acupoints. This paper designsed a hardware system based on the acquisition card PCI8335B, which is mainly composed of AD9833, AD620 and AD8302. To measure the acupoints impedance, VB language is adopted to program the PCI8335B and to collect the electric signal from acupoints.%穴位是人体经络脏腑之气血输注的部位,体内气血的变化可反应于相应的穴位,尚可表现为相应穴位电学特性的改变.设计了一种基于采集卡PCI8335B控制并采集信号,主要由AD9833,AD620,AD8302等组成的硬件系统,通过VB语言编写PCI8335B的控制信号并采集硬件产生的穴位阻抗电信号,实现穴位阻抗的测量.

  9. [Military assistance in transportation of patients for an emergency PCI intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmann, Susani; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Eriksen, Jon Lindskov

    2011-12-01

    Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) or fibrinolysis. pPCI is superior to fibrinolysis when initiated timely. However, geography and weather sometimes become obstacles for transporting the patient to a PCI centre. In this case story teamwork between hospital instances and the military enabled transport to a PCI centre for a PCI intervention even though the weather conditions were unfavourable.

  10. Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Analysis of Exploiting Coal Methane by Heat Injection%煤层气注热开采的热-流-固耦合作用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤婕; 吴宇; 茅献彪; 张丽萍; 姚邦华

    2012-01-01

    Improving coal methane production is an important subject in the current research for coal methane exploration.Some researches show that, coal methane exist mainly as adsorption state in coal seam pores.Improving coal seam temperature can make gas change into free forms from adsorption forms.and improve its seepage-diffusion ability. According to the thermoelasticity, nonlinear Darcy seepage theory and porous medium thermodynamics principle, this paper studied the mechanism of im-proving coal methane production by heat injection. The multiphysical coupling equations were been es-tablished, including coal deformation equation,gas percolation equation and heat transfer equation. By means of COMSOL numerical software ,the numerical solution of coupling model was been pro-ceeded .The results demonstrated that rising injecting heat could promote desorption of coal methane, improve the permeability, achieve the purpose of improving coal methane production. The research re-sults could provide corresponding theoretical basis for engineering practices of exploiting coal methane by heat injection.%如何提高煤层气产量是目前煤层气开采研究中的重要课题.煤层气在煤层孔隙中主要以吸附状态存在,提高煤层温度可以促使气体由吸附态转变为游离态,增加其渗流扩散能力.根据热弹性力学、非线性达西渗流理论和多孔介质热力学原理,对在煤层中注热提高煤层气产量的机理进行了系统研究,建立了包含煤的变形方程、气体渗流方程、热传导方程的热流固多物理场耦合数学模型.在此基础上利用COMSOL Multiphysics数值软件,对耦合模型进行了数值求解,结果表明:注热后煤层温度升高可以促进煤层气解吸、提高煤层渗透率,增加煤层气产量.研究成果可为煤层中注热开采煤层气的工程实践提供相应的理论基础.

  11. PCI-SS: MISO dynamic nonlinear protein secondary structure prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboul-Magd Mohammed O

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the function of a protein is largely dictated by its three dimensional configuration, determining a protein's structure is of fundamental importance to biology. Here we report on a novel approach to determining the one dimensional secondary structure of proteins (distinguishing α-helices, β-strands, and non-regular structures from primary sequence data which makes use of Parallel Cascade Identification (PCI, a powerful technique from the field of nonlinear system identification. Results Using PSI-BLAST divergent evolutionary profiles as input data, dynamic nonlinear systems are built through a black-box approach to model the process of protein folding. Genetic algorithms (GAs are applied in order to optimize the architectural parameters of the PCI models. The three-state prediction problem is broken down into a combination of three binary sub-problems and protein structure classifiers are built using 2 layers of PCI classifiers. Careful construction of the optimization, training, and test datasets ensures that no homology exists between any training and testing data. A detailed comparison between PCI and 9 contemporary methods is provided over a set of 125 new protein chains guaranteed to be dissimilar to all training data. Unlike other secondary structure prediction methods, here a web service is developed to provide both human- and machine-readable interfaces to PCI-based protein secondary structure prediction. This server, called PCI-SS, is available at http://bioinf.sce.carleton.ca/PCISS. In addition to a dynamic PHP-generated web interface for humans, a Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP interface is added to permit invocation of the PCI-SS service remotely. This machine-readable interface facilitates incorporation of PCI-SS into multi-faceted systems biology analysis pipelines requiring protein secondary structure information, and greatly simplifies high-throughput analyses. XML is used to represent the input

  12. Continuous coal processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryason, P. R.

    1980-06-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  13. Soap operas and social marketing: the PCI strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, I

    This article presents the impact of soap operas and social marketing efforts, developed by Population Communications International (PCI), on changing the attitude and behavior of individuals toward family planning, health, women empowerment, and pro-social issues. The objective of the program is to motivate individuals and communities to make reproductive health and development choices which will contribute significantly in slowing population growth. In addition, these were designed to complement the efforts of those providing health services in several countries. PCI is responsible in training creative talent, research in determining the issues and arrangements necessary for a program to be aired. After following the methods promoted by the PCI, reports on the Tanzania and Kenya programs further confirm that the mass media education programs for changing behavior are effective. During the two conferences organized by PCI, three American production organizations initiated new storylines based on the issues discussed. Moreover, several countries expressed their desire to develop similar conferences in their countries. To end, PCI is designing additional soaps in other countries; wherein, the problem lies not on contraceptive availability, but on deeply held fears, superstitions, and culture equating having children with man's virility and dominance.

  14. An extended multi-zone combustion model for PCI simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodavasal, Janardhan; Keum, SeungHwan; Babajimopoulos, Aristotelis

    2011-12-01

    Novel combustion modes are becoming an important area of research with emission regulations more stringent than ever before, and with fuel economy being assigned greater importance every day. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) modes in particular promise better fuel economy and lower emissions in internal combustion engines. Multi-zone combustion models have been popular in modelling HCCI combustion. In this work, an improved multi-zone model is suggested for PCI combustion modelling. A new zoning scheme is suggested based on incorporating the internal energy of formation into an earlier conventional HCCI multi-zone approach, which considers a two-dimensional reaction space defined by equivalence ratio and temperature. It is shown that the added dimension improves zoning by creating more representative zones, and thus reducing errors compared to the conventional zoning approach, when applied to PCI simulation.

  15. Magnetic field control of hysteretic switching in Co/Al2O3 multilayers by carrier injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kalitsov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a theoretical model of magnetic field dependence of hysteretic switching in magnetic granular system. The model is based on the self-trapped electrons mechanism. Our calculations show that the switching voltage may be significantly decreased with increasing the magnetic field. The underlying mechanism is the influence of the magnetic field on electron occupation of the conduction band, which depends on the materials used in magnetic granular system, concentration of magnetic granules in the insulating matrix, applied voltage, and the charge accumulation on the granules. We support our theoretical calculations by measuring the magnetic field dependence of resistive switching behaviour in Co/Al2O3 granular multilayers. Our experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the proposed theory.

  16. Optimal catchment area and primary PCI centre volume revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel Malby; Pedersen, Frants; Holmvang, Lene

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The currently stated optimal catchment population for a pPCI centre is 300,000-1,100,000, resulting in 200-800 procedures/year. pPCI centres are increasing in number even within small geographic areas. We describe the organisation and quality of care after merging two high-volume centres....... The quality of a centre reflects governance, training, resources and pre-hospital triage, rather than catchment population and STEMI incidence, as long as a minimum volume is guaranteed. Resources can be utilised better by merging neighbouring centres, without negative effects on quality of care....

  17. Production practice of the coal injection with addition of carbon powder on Tangsteel blast furnace%唐钢高炉喷吹煤粉配加碳粉的生产实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少宁; 司新国; 黄亚玲; 胡金波; 高华

    2016-01-01

    对唐钢高炉喷吹煤粉中配加碳粉进行生产实践研究,研究表明喷吹煤粉中配加5%碳粉能够满足高炉喷吹条件,并且使混煤成本降低6.2元/t。根据高炉日常生产数据的比较分析,喷吹碳粉以后高炉能够稳定顺行,未对高炉日常生产造成不良的影响。%The production practice of the coal injection with addition of carbon powder on Tangsteel blast furnace was researched, the research indicated that coal injection with addition of 5% of the car-bon powder can meet the injection in the blast furnace conditions, and lower the mixed coal cost 6. 2 yuan/t. According to the daily production data of comparative analysis of blast furnace, carbon powder injection after the blast furnace can stabilize anterograde, without adverse effects on the daily produc-tion of blast furnace.

  18. A Poromechanical Model for Coal Seams Injected with Carbon Dioxide: From an Isotherm of Adsorption to a Swelling of the Reservoir Un modéle poromécanique pour l’injection de dioxyde de carbone dans des veines de charbon : d’une isotherme d’adsorption à un gonflement du réservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoosokhan S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Injecting carbon dioxide into deep unminable coal seams can enhance the amount of methane recovered from the seam. This process is known as CO2-Enhanced Coal Bed Methane production (CO2-ECBM. The seam is a porous medium whose porous system is made of cleats (small natural fractures and of coal pores (whose radius can be as small as a few angström. During the injection process, the molecules of CO2 get adsorbed in the coal pores. Such an adsorption makes the coal swell, which, in the confined conditions that prevail underground, induces a closure of the cleat system of the coal bed reservoir and a loss of injectivity. In this work, we develop a poromechanical model which, starting from the knowledge of an adsorption isotherm and combined with reservoir simulations, enables to estimate the variations of injectivity of the coal bed reservoir over time during the process of injection. The model for the coal bed reservoir is based on poromechanical equations that explicitly take into account the effect of adsorption on the mechanical behavior of a microporous medium. We consider the coal bed reservoir as a dual porosity (cleats and coal porosity medium, for which we derive a set of linear constitutive equations. The model requires as an input the adsorption isotherm on coal of the fluid considered. Reversely, the model provides a way to upscale an adsorption isotherm into a meaningful swelling of the coal bed reservoir at the macroscopic scale. The parameters of the model are calibrated on data on coal samples available in the literature. Reservoir simulations of an injection of carbon dioxide in a coal seam are performed with an in-house finite volume and element code. The variations of injection rate over time during the process of injection are obtained from the simulations. The effect of the compressibility of the coal matrix on those variations is discussed. L’injection de dioxyde de carbone dans des veines de charbon profondes peut augmenter

  19. Failure Mechanism and Material Requirements for Coal Lance in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Wei; JIA Juan; CHEN Jia-chao; SHANG He-ming

    2012-01-01

    Pulverized coal injection(PCI) is a key technology in modern ironmaking by blast furnace(BF) and the life of injection lance has a great influence on PCI operation and on normal running of blast furnace.It is found that the main reasons for the failure of the lances are their outer surface oxidation and the inner surface erosion through monitoring some lances used in BF.The outer surface oxidation of the lances made of lCr18Ni9Ti is inevitable under high hot blast temperature condition through thermodynamics analysis.A mathematical model for calculating the temperature of common monocular coal lance had been developed according to the principles of mass and energy balance.Increasing temperature and flow velocity of the hot blast would cause a rise in the lance temperature.The influence of hot blast temperature is more obvious.The lance temperature would decline when compressed air flux increases.Conveying technology of dense phase pulverized coal is beneficial to extending lance’s life because decreasing solid-gas ratio would intensify erosion and burning loss.The anti-oxidation temperature of lance materials needs to be over 1000 ℃ for BF intensified smelting.In order to increase the resistance to oxidation of the coal lance’s outer surface,oxidation-resistant steel or Al coating stainless steel is the appropriate material for BF use.Employing the metal surface treatment technology to enhance the hardness of the coal lance’s internal surface could prolong the service life of coal lance

  20. Predictors of Interventional Success of Antegrade PCI for CTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chun; Huang, Meiping; Li, Jinglei; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Qun; Liu, Hui; Liu, Zaiyi; Qu, Yanji; Jiang, Jun; Zhuang, Jian

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to identify significant lesion features of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) that predict failure of antegrade (A) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using pre-procedure coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) combined with conventional coronary angiography (CCA). The current predictors of successful A-PCI in the setting of CTOs are uncertain. Such knowledge might prompt early performance of a retrograde (R)-PCI approach if predictors of A-PCI failure are present. Consecutive patients confirmed to have at least 1 CTO of native coronary arteries underwent coronary CTA- and CCA-guided PCI in which computed tomography and fluoroscopic images were placed side by side before or during PCI. The study included 103 patients with 108 CTOs; 80 lesions were successfully treated with A-PCI and 28 lesions failed this approach, for an A-PCI success rate of 74%. A total of 15 of 28 failed cases underwent attempted R-PCI. Only 1 case also failed R-PCI; thus, the total PCI success rate was 87%. By multivariable analysis, the factors significantly predictive of failed A-PCI included negative remodeling (odds ratio [OR]: 137.82) and lesion length >31.89 mm on coronary CTA (OR: 7.04), and ostial or bifurcation lesions on CCA (OR: 8.02). R-PCI was successful in 14 of 15 patients (93.3%), in whom good appearance of the occluded distal segment and well-developed collateral vessels were present. Morphologic predictors of failed A-PCI on the basis of pre-procedure coronary CTA and CCA imaging may be identified, which may assist in determining which patients with CTO lesions would benefit from an early R-PCI strategy. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of VME-PCI Interfaces with Linux Drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schossmater, K; CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Abstract This report summarises the performance measurements and experiences recorded by testing three commercial VME-PCI interfaces with their Linux drivers. These interfaces are manufactured by Wiener, National Instruments and SBS Bit 3. The developed C programs are reading/writing a VME memory in different transfer modes via these interfaces. A dual processor HP Kayak XA-s workstation was used with the CERN certified Red Hat Linux 6.1 running on it.

  2. Application of PCI9052 in CPU Unit%PCI9052在CPU单元中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩洪丽

    2009-01-01

    文章主要介绍了PCI9052芯片在H20-20交换机系统CPU单元中的应用,详细介绍了在交换机系统CPU单元中利用PCI9052芯片将PCI访问转换为ISA访问的工作原理和具体实现过程.该芯片的应用使得H20-20交换机系统CPU的升级换代成为可能,大大提高了交换机CPU单元的处理速度和性能,为交换机增值业务的研发提供了平台,增强了H20-20交换机产品的市场竞争力.

  3. Effect of Injection Flow Rate on Product Gas Quality in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG Based on Laboratory Scale Experiment: Development of Co-Axial UCG System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Hamanaka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal gasification (UCG is a technique to recover coal energy without mining by converting coal into a valuable gas. Model UCG experiments on a laboratory scale were carried out under a low flow rate (6~12 L/min and a high flow rate (15~30 L/min with a constant oxygen concentration. During the experiments, the coal temperature was higher and the fracturing events were more active under the high flow rate. Additionally, the gasification efficiency, which means the conversion efficiency of the gasified coal to the product gas, was 71.22% in the low flow rate and 82.42% in the high flow rate. These results suggest that the energy recovery rate with the UCG process can be improved by the increase of the reaction temperature and the promotion of the gasification area.

  4. Fractional flow reserve versus angiography for guidance of PCI in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (FAME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Nunen, Lokien X; Zimmermann, Frederik M; Tonino, Pim A L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Fractional Flow Reserve Versus Angiography for Multivessel Evaluation (FAME) study, fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) improved outcome compared with angiography-guided PCI for up to 2 years of follow-up. The aim in this study...... artery disease were randomly assigned to undergo angiography-guided PCI or FFR-guided PCI. Before randomisation, stenoses requiring PCI were identified on the angiogram. Patients allocated to angiography-guided PCI had revascularisation of all identified stenoses. Patients allocated to FFR-guided PCI had...

  5. 100 Gbps PCI-Express Readout for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, Paolo; Schwemmer, Rainer; Marconi, Umberto; Balbi, Gabriele; Lax, Ignazio

    2015-01-01

    We present a new data acquisition system under development for the next upgrade of the LHCb experiment at CERN. We focus in particular on the design of a new common readout board, the PCIe40, and on the viability of PCI-Express as an interconnect technology for high speed readout. We describe a new high-performance DMA controller for data acquisition, implemented on an FPGA, coupled with a custom software module for the Linux kernel. Lastly, we describe how these components can be leveraged to achieve a throughput of 100 Gbit/s per readout board.

  6. Influence of Injection Angle of Oxygen on Velocity Field in Conversion Furnace of Coal-methanol%氧气喷射角度对煤制甲醇转化炉内速度场的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李曙阳; 伍永福

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the influence of injection angle of oxygen on velocity field in conversion furnace of coal-methanol, the mathematical model of conversion furnace of coal-methanol was built with ANSYS and Fluent. The pressure field of conversion furnace of coal-methanol was simulated as the injection angle was 0°,8°,11° or 15°.The results show that the minimum velocity gradient can appear as the injection angle is 0°,the high speed area is the smallest and the region extends along the axial direction, the combustion of coke oven gas is the stablest,the quenching of flame is not easy to happen.%为了研究氧气喷射角度对煤制甲醇转化炉中速度场的影响,利用 ANSYS 和 Fluent 软件构建煤制甲醇转化炉模型,研究了氧气喷射角度在0°、8°、11°和15°时对转化炉内速度分布变化,发现氧气喷射角度在0°时,转化炉内速度梯度最小,高速区域最小且沿轴向延展,火焰最稳定,不易出现火焰淬灭现象。

  7. Validation and incremental value of the hybrid algorithm for CTO PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershad, Ashish; Eddin, Moneer; Girotra, Sudhakar; Cotugno, Richard; Daniels, David; Lombardi, William

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the outcomes and benefits of using the hybrid algorithm for chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The hybrid algorithm harmonizes antegrade and retrograde techniques for performing CTO PCI. It has the potential to increase success rates and improve efficiency for CTO PCI. No previous data have analyzed the impact of this algorithm on CTO PCI success rates and procedural efficiency. Retrospective analysis of contemporary CTO PCI performed at two high-volume centers with adoption of the hybrid technique was compared to previously published CTO outcomes in a well matched group of patients and lesion subsets. After adoption of the hybrid algorithm, technical success was significantly higher in the post hybrid algorithm group 189/198 (95.4%) vs the pre-algorithm group 367/462 (79.4%) (P CTO PCI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Macrophage mediated PCI enhanced gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Catherine E.; Zamora, Genesis; Kwon, Young J.; Berg, Kristian; Madsen, Steen J.; Hirschberg, Henry

    2015-03-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a photodynamic therapy-based approach for improving the delivery of macromolecules and genes into the cell cytosol. Prodrug activating gene therapy (suicide gene therapy) employing the transduction of the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) gene into tumor cells, is a promising method. Expression of this gene within the target cell produces an enzyme that converts the nontoxic prodrug, 5-FC, to the toxic metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). 5-FC may be particularly suitable for brain tumors, because it can readily cross the bloodbrain barrier (BBB). In addition the bystander effect, where activated drug is exported from the transfected cancer cells into the tumor microenvironment, plays an important role by inhibiting growth of adjacent tumor cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are frequently found in and around glioblastomas. Monocytes or macrophages (Ma) loaded with drugs, nanoparticles or photosensitizers could therefore be used to target tumors by local synthesis of chemo attractive factors. The basic concept is to combine PCI, to enhance the ex vivo transfection of a suicide gene into Ma, employing specially designed core/shell NP as gene carrier.

  9. 基于DMI校验的PCI ROM保护算法%A PCI ROM protection algorithm based on DMI verify

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙大勇

    2008-01-01

    PCI ROM广泛存在于显卡、网卡、RAID卡、硬盘保护卡等PCI设备中.通过对PCI、SMBIOS、DMI规范和相关算法的研究,介绍了DMI的功用,探讨了DMI在BIOS中的位置及通过SMBIOS访问DMI的方式,说明了POST代码处理ROM的流程.针对PCI ROM保护的问题,提出了一种通过校验DMI来决定是否执行PCI ROM的方法.

  10. Observer-based Coal Mill Control using Oxygen Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; S., Tom;

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to coal flow estimation in pulverized coal mills, which utilizes measurements of oxygen content in the flue gas. Pulverized coal mills are typically not equipped with sensors that detect the amount of coal injected into the furnace. This makes control of the c......This paper proposes a novel approach to coal flow estimation in pulverized coal mills, which utilizes measurements of oxygen content in the flue gas. Pulverized coal mills are typically not equipped with sensors that detect the amount of coal injected into the furnace. This makes control...... into the furnace and oxygen concentration in the flue gas is designed to estimate the actual coal flow injected into the furnace. With this estimate, it becomes possible to close an inner loop around the coal mill itself, thus giving a better disturbance rejection capability. The approach is validated against...

  11. Pci e migrazioni interne nella Torino del “miracolo”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelangela Di Giacomo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing the evolution of the Communist Italian Party’s theoretical and political approach with the reference to the internal migrations occurred in Italy during the ’60s. The point of view is Turin, the capital of the automotive industry, where politicians had to manage the social, economic and urban transformations brought by a significant flood of people moving from the South. Our thesis is the following: firstly interested in internal immigration for electoral reasons, afterwards the PCI increased its interest, and it started considering immigrants as a specific part of society with its own needs. The consequence was a double approach: in the factory identifying immigrants with the working class through the same struggle against owners; in the city, enhancing immigrants’ unrest and protecting their claims.

  12. Robotic PCI – Has It Come of Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Last issue of the Journal contained an article on the benefits of robotic telesurgery. Now we would like to examine another aspect of robotics in medicine - Robotic enhanced percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. The first-in-humans pilot clinical trial involving 18 patients was published in 2006. In this study angioplasty guidewire, balloon and stents were navigated by a computerized system. The guidewire could cross the lesion successfully in 17 cases and 15 of these cases could be successfully completed by remote navigation. The remaining 3 cases were completed manually. The proposed advantages of the system was a significantly lower radiation exposure to the operator and possibly more precise positioning of the coronary stent. There was no increase in fluoroscopy time.

  13. 7,528 patients treated with PCI - a Scandinavian real-life scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.; Galatius, S.; Bech, J.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Analyze clinical, temporal and procedural characteristics from 7,528 consecutive percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients in one of the largest published contemporary European PCI-database during a 6-year period. METHOD: Retrospective study design. Period: 1998-2004. Temporal...

  14. 47 CFR 61.45 - Adjustments to the PCI for Local Exchange Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the time the PCI was updated to PCIt−1 * base period demand) + Z, all divided by R. PCIt = The new PCI... the CMT basket will equal 6.5%, and all End User Common Line charges, rates and nominal caps, will be... change in base period demand and inclusion of new services for that annual filing, the absolute level...

  15. THE DETERMINATION OF MERCURY SPECIES AND MULTIPLE METALS IN COAL COMBUSTION EMISSIONS USING IODINE-BASED IMPINGERS AND DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION - INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from coal utilities are difficult to control. Hg eludes capture by most air pollution control devices (APCDs). To determine the gaseous Hg species in stack gases, U.S. EPA Method 5 type sampling is used. In this type of sampling a hole is drilled into th...

  16. Coal-Face Fracture With A Two-Phase Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    In new method for mining coal without explosive, two-phase liquid such as CO2 and water, injected at high pressure into deeper ends of holes drilled in coal face. Liquid permeates coal seam through existing microfractures; as liquid seeps back toward face, pressure eventually drops below critical value at which dissolved gas flashvaporizes, breaking up coal.

  17. Drum-type steel-ball coal grinders for a direct-injection black-coal-dust combustor. Planning, performance and operation experience at the heating power plant Herne III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitmueller, W.; Strauss, K.; Thelen, F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report on the retrofitting of the combustion system of the 300 MW unit of the Herne heating power plant which was necessitated by the application of large quantities of low-volatile coal. They review the new design concept and its resulting requirements, the switching regime of the grinding and firing system, the design mode of operation, construction and positioning of the drum-type steel-ball coal grinder, and discuss in detail the design configurations of and initial operating results gained with grinder neck, sifter, sifter characteristics, ground materials recirculation, liner of grinding drume, hydrostatic slide bearing, grinder drive and findings for a further development of this type of ball grinder. (HAG).

  18. Study of the mechanism of increasing production of [KH*2D]exploitation coal bed methane by gas injection%注气开采煤层气增产机制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴世跃; 郭勇义

    2001-01-01

    依据扩散渗流和多组分吸附平衡理论,研究了注气开采煤层气的增产机制.研究表明,注气增加储层能量,提高储层压力传导系数并产生竞争吸附置换效应,从而提高煤层气开采时的单产量及回收率.文中还导出了注气时回收率的计算公式.所得结论对注气开采煤层气设计和评价具有指导意义.%According to theory of diffusion and permeation,and theory of adsorpt ion equilibrium of commixture gas,the mechanism of increasing coalbed methane production by gas injection is studied, with which it is illustrated for enhancing energy of storing gas stratum, heightening pressure conduction coefficient of storing gas stratum and binging domino effect of competition adsorption by gas injection, consequently yield and ratio of recovery of coal bed methane are also enhanced. The calculation formulas of ratio of recovery are deduced. These conclusions have guidance significance to exploitation coalbed methane by gas injection.

  19. Shared decision making in patients with stable coronary artery disease: PCI choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Coylewright

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI and optimal medical therapy (OMT are comparable, alternative therapies for many patients with stable angina; however, patients may have misconceptions regarding the impact of PCI on risk of death and myocardial infarction (MI in stable coronary artery disease (CAD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We designed and developed a patient-centered decision aid (PCI Choice to promote shared decision making for patients with stable CAD. The estimated benefits and risks of PCI+OMT as compared to OMT were displayed in a decision aid using pictographs with natural frequencies and text. We engaged patients, clinicians, health service researchers, and designers with over 20 successive iterations of the decision aid, which were field tested during real-world clinical encounters involving clinicians and patients. The decision aid is intended to facilitate knowledge transfer, deliberation based on patient values and preferences, and shared decision making. CONCLUSIONS: We describe the methods and outcomes of the design and development of a decision aid (PCI Choice to promote shared decision making between clinicians and patients regarding the choice of PCI+OMT vs. OMT for treatment of stable CAD. We will evaluate the impact of PCI Choice on patient knowledge, decisional conflict, participation in decision-making, and treatment choice in an upcoming randomized trial.

  20. Feasibility and safety of 7-Fr radial approach for complex PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egred, Mohaned

    2011-10-01

    Although the transradial approach is well established for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), it is perceived as being not suitable for 7-Fr complex PCI, which is traditionally performed from the femoral approach. To evaluate the procedural success and outcome of 7-Fr transradial complex PCI. Retrospective review and analysis of all patients undergoing 7-Fr transradial complex PCI from August 2008 until October 2010 in a tertiary cardiac center setting. Transradial 7-Fr complex PCI was performed in 77 patients after manual assessment of the radial pulse and size. The radial access was obtained successfully in all 77 patients. The age range was 39-88 years with 16 patients (23.4%) over 80 years of age and 14 females (18.1%). There were 30 left main stem PCI (39%), 31 (40.2%) chronic total occlusion (CTO), and 13 (16.8%) rotational atherectomy. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was used in 17 (22%) cases, cutting balloons in 16 (20.7%), and LASER PCI in 2 (2.6%) cases. Procedural success was achieved in 76 of 77 (98.7%) with 1 failure to canalize a CTO. There was 1 patient with type I coronary perforation managed conservatively. There was no in-hospital mortality. All radial pulses were present 6 hours after the procedure and only 23 patients were seen for follow-up, and all had patent radial artery 4-6 months following the procedure. A 7-Fr transradial complex PCI is feasible and can be carried out safely and successfully with excellent results. In suitable patients, male or female, complex PCI need not always be performed from the femoral approach.  ©2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Late Double-Barrel Lumen Following Successful CTO-PCI Using the Crossboss Stingray System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, James; Rees, David; Ramsay, David; Weaver, James

    2017-02-01

    There remains limited randomized controlled trials on long-term clinical outcomes after chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO-PCI). New techniques involving dissection of the subintimal space and reentry into the true lumen increase success rates in CTO-PCI. However, their longer-term safety and efficacy remain unknown and poorly studied. We present a case of double-lumen formation seen at 1 year post CTO-PCI using subintimal dissection reentry with late restoration of major side branches.

  2. Predictors of subjective health status 10 years post-PCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. van den Berge

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: SF-36 scores at baseline, age, and previous PCI were significant predictors of subjective health status 10 years post-PCI. Specifically, the SF-36 score at baseline was an important predictor. Thus assessment of subjective health status at baseline is useful as an indicator to predict long-term subjective health status. Subjective health status becomes better by optimal medical treatment, cardiac rehabilitation and psychosocial support. This is the first study determining predictors of subjective health status 10 years post-PCI.

  3. Dehydrocoupling of dimethylamine borane catalyzed by Rh(PCy3)2H2Cl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Laura J; Huertos, Miguel A; Dickinson, Molly E; Weller, Andrew S; Lloyd-Jones, Guy C

    2013-04-15

    The Rh(III) species Rh(PCy3)2H2Cl is an effective catalyst (2 mol %, 298 K) for the dehydrogenation of H3B·NMe2H (0.072 M in 1,2-F2C6H4 solvent) to ultimately afford the dimeric aminoborane [H2BNMe2]2. Mechanistic studies on the early stages in the consumption of H3B·NMe2H, using initial rate and H/D exchange experiments, indicate possible dehydrogenation mechanisms that invoke turnover-limiting N-H activation, which either precedes or follows B-H activation, to form H2B═NMe2, which then dimerizes to give [H2BNMe2]2. An additional detail is that the active catalyst Rh(PCy3)2H2Cl is in rapid equilibrium with an inactive dimeric species, [Rh(PCy3)H2Cl]2. The reaction of Rh(PCy3)2H2Cl with [Rh(PCy3)H2(H2)2][BAr(F)4] forms the halide-bridged adduct [Rh(PCy3)2H2(μ-Cl)H2(PCy3)2Rh][BAr(F)4] (Ar(F) = 3,5-(CF3)2C6H3), which has been crystallographically characterized. This dinuclear cation dissociates on addition of H3B·NMe2H to re-form Rh(PCy3)2H2Cl and generate [Rh(PCy3)2H2(η(2)-H3B·NMe2H)][BAr(F)4]. The fate of the catalyst at low catalyst loadings (0.5 mol %) is also addressed, with the formation of an inactive borohydride species, Rh(PCy3)2H2(η(2)-H2BH2), observed. On addition of H3B·NMe2H to Ir(PCy3)2H2Cl, the Ir congener Ir(PCy3)2H2(η(2)-H2BH2) is formed, with concomitant generation of the salt [H2B(NMe2H)2]Cl.

  4. Patient Selection for Diagnostic Coronary Angiography and Hospital-Level PCI Appropriateness: Insights from the NCDR®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Steven M.; Spertus, John A.; Kennedy, Kevin F.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Chan, Paul S.; Patel, Manesh R.; Bryson, Chris L.; Malenka, David J.; Rumsfeld, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Diagnostic coronary angiography in asymptomatic patients may lead to inappropriate percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) due to a diagnostic to therapeutic cascade. Understanding the relationship between patient selection for coronary angiography and PCI appropriateness may inform strategies to minimize inappropriate procedures. Objective To determine if hospitals that frequently perform coronary angiography in asymptomatic patients, a clinical scenario wherein the benefit of angiography is less clear, are more likely to perform inappropriate PCI. Design, Setting and Participants Multicenter observational study of 544 hospitals participating in the CathPCI Registry® between July 2009 and September 2013. Measures Hospital proportion of asymptomatic patients at diagnostic coronary angiography and a hospital's rate of inappropriate PCI, as defined by 2012 Appropriate Use Criteria for coronary revascularization. Results Of 1,225,562 patients who underwent elective coronary angiography, 308,083 (25.1%) were asymptomatic. The hospital proportion of angiograms in asymptomatic patients ranged from 1.0% to 73.6% (median 24.7%, interquartile range 15.9% to 35.9%). By hospital quartiles of asymptomatic patients at angiography, hospitals with higher rates of asymptomatic patients at angiography had higher median rates of inappropriate PCI (14.8% vs. 20.2% vs. 24.0 vs. 29.4% from lowest to highest quartile, P<.001 for trend). This was attributable to more frequent use of PCI in asymptomatic patients at hospitals with higher rates of angiography in asymptomatic patients (inappropriate and asymptomatic PCI; 5.4% vs. 9.9% vs. 14.7% vs. 21.6% from lowest to highest quartile, P<.001 for trend). Hospitals with higher rates of asymptomatic patients at angiography also had lower rates of appropriate PCI (38.6% vs. 33.0% vs. 32.3% vs. 32.9%% from lowest to highest quartile, P<.001 for trend). Conclusions and Relevance In a national sample of hospitals, performing coronary

  5. Seismic new PCI system for C.N. Almaraz. Design, installation and testing; Nuevo sistema de PCI Sismico para C. N. Almaraz. diseno, montaje y pruebas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eugenio Poza, J. M. de; Arguello Tara, A.; Galan Herranz, D.

    2014-07-01

    Through an important design modification has been installed in the Almaraz nuclear power plant a new system capable of meeting PCI the requirements of paragraph 3.6.4. the NFPA-805. This new system is capable of covering all areas of fire of the station with equipment necessary for the safe stop with a water supply of functional fire protection after an earthquake of stop secure (SSE). In addition, this new seismic PCI system is capable of replacing the volume lost by evaporation of pools of storage of spent fuel to events beyond the design basis. (Author)

  6. Incidence, predictors and prognostic importance of bleeding after primary PCI for ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanides, R.S.; Ottervanger, J.P.; Dambrink, J.H.; Boer, M.J. de; Hoorntje, J.C.A.; Gosselink, A.T.M.; Suryapranata, H.; Hof, A.W. van 't

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate incidence, predictors and prognosis of bleeding in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS AND RESULTS: A large scale, prospective, observational study was performed between 1991 and 2004 in a

  7. CompactPCI/Linux Platform in FTU Slow Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Iannone; L.Wang; C.Centioli; M.Panella; G.Mazza; V.Vitale

    2004-01-01

    In large fusion experiments, such as tokamak devices, there is a common trend for slow control systems. Because of complexity of the plants, the so-called 'Standard Model' (SM) in slow control has been adopted on several tokamak machines. This model is based on a three-level hierarchical control: 1) High-Level Control (HLC) with a supervisory function; 2) Medium-Level Control (MLC) to interface and concentrate I/O field equipments; 3) Low-Level Control (LLC)with hard real-time I/O function, often managed by PLCs.FTU control system designed with SM concepts has underwent several stages of developments in its fifteen years duration of runs. The latest evolution was inevitable, due to the obsolescence of the MLC CPUs, based on VME-MOTOROLA 68030 with OS9 operating system. A large amount of C code was developed for that platform to route the data flow from LLC, which is constituted by 24 Westinghouse Numalogic PC-700 PLCs with about 8000 field-points, to HLC, based on a commercial Object-Oriented Real-Time database on Alpha/CompaqTru64 platform.Therefore, we have to look for cost-effective solutions and finally a CompactPCI-Intel x86platform with Linux operating system was chosen. A software porting has been done, taking into account the differences between OS9 and Linux operating system in terms of Inter/Network Processes Communications and I/O multi-ports serial driver.This paper describes the hardware/software architecture of the new MLC system, emphasizing the reliability and the low costs of the open source solutions. Moreover, a huge amount of software packages available in open source environment will assure a less painful maintenance, and will open the way to further improvements of the system itself.

  8. PCI for Unstable Angina in Elderly Patients%PCI 治疗高龄不稳定性心绞痛的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂晓文; 苏涛; 黄国明; 王洪如; 乔怀宇

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨经皮冠状动脉介入(PCI)治疗高龄不稳定性心绞痛的临床疗效。方法将118例不稳定性心绞痛患者按是否行 PCI 治疗分为2组:PCI 组(65例)和 ODT 组(53例)。PCI 组患者采用 PCI 治疗,术后采用阿司匹林肠溶片、硫酸氢氯吡格雷治疗。ODT 组患者采用阿司匹林肠溶片、硫酸氢氯吡格雷治疗,同时采用单纯优化药物治疗。观察2组患者治疗6个月后血清肾素活性(PRA)、血管紧张素Ⅱ(AngⅡ)、醛固酮(ALD)、去甲肾上腺素(NE)、肾上腺素(E)、肌酐(Cr)及左心室舒张内径(LVDD)、左心室射血分数(LVEF)差值,胸痛缓解率、生存率、再次住院率和主要不良心血管事件(非致死性心肌梗死、脑卒中)。结果PCI 组患者治疗6个月后血清 PRA、Ang Ⅱ、ALD、NE、E 及 LVEF 差值、再次住院率均明显低于 ODT 组,LVDD 差值、胸痛症状缓解率均明显高于 ODT 组(均P <0.05)。结论PCI 较 ODT 能够显著降低高龄不稳定性心绞痛患者心脏相关神经内分泌因子的水平,PCI 的治疗疗效明显优于单纯优化药物治疗。%ABSTRACT:Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)for unstable angina in elderly patients.Methods A total of 118 elderly patients with unsta-ble angina were divided into two groups.Patients in PCI group(n=65)were given PCI and post-operative treatment with enteric-coated aspirin tablets and clopidogrel bisulfate.Patients in ODT group(n=53)were treated with enteric-coated aspirin tablets,clopidogrel bisulfate and optimal drug therapy(ODT).Serum renin activity,angiotensin Ⅱ (AngⅡ),aldosterone(ALD),norepi-nephrine(NE),epinephrine(E),creatinine(Cr),left ventricular diastolic inner diameter(LVDD) difference,left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF)difference,chest pain remission rate,survival rate,readmission rate,and incidence of adverse

  9. 12th international conference on coal science. Coal - contributing to sustainable world development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The theme of the conference was: coal - contributing to sustainable world. Papers dealt with combustion, coal cleaning, surface analysis, coal sustainability and research, metallurgical coke, structural studies, ash utilization, SEM analysis, liquefaction, pulverized coal injection, power plant emissions, analytical techniques, gasification, thermal analysis, weathering, self-heating and dust explosion, low rank coal gasification, geochemistry and trace elements, petrographic studies, CO{sub 2} mitigation, low rank coal pyrolysis, gas sorption, pyrolysis, synthesis gas, low rank coal drying, biomass pyrolysis, gas cleaning, underground gasification, activated carbon, pyrolysis and char reactivity, gasification model studies, agglomerated and slurry fuels, co-pyrolysis, and tar products and effluents. The poster papers are also included. The papers have been abstracted separately on the IEA Clean Coal Centre Coal Abstracts database.

  10. Influence of thrombus aspiration combined tirofiban on patients with acute STEMI after primary PCI%血栓抽吸联合替罗非班对急性 STEMI 直接 PCI 术后的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓长金; 金露萍; 成威; 魏国政; 徐晓东; 邵玲; 彭娜

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the influence of thrombus aspiration combined tirofiban on patients with acute ST seg-ment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Methods:A total of 98 patients,who received primary PCI because of STEMI in our hospital from Jan 2012 to Mar 2013,were selected.They were divided into thrombus aspiration group (n=48,received pure thrombus aspiration)and com-bined treatment group (n = 50,received thrombus aspiration combined intracoronary tirofiban injection during PCI).Coronary angiography (CAG)instantly after PCI and follow-up condition during hospitalization and six months after discharge were compared between two groups.Results:(1)Compared with thrombus aspiration group after PCI,there were significant rise in TIMI blood flow grade [(2.3±0.6)grades vs.(2.7±0.3)grades],per-centage of TIMI flow grade 3 (72.9% vs.90.0%)and ST segment regression >50% rate within 90min after PCI (52.1% vs.74.0%),P < 0.05 or < 0.01,and significant reduction in percentage of postoperative no-reflow (18.8% vs.4.0%,P =0.038)in combined treatment group in hospital;(2)After six-month follow-up,left ven-tricular ejection fraction (LVEF)of combined treatment group was significantly higher than that of thrombus aspi-ration group [(58±6.3)% vs.(51±5.6)%,P <0.05].Conclusion:Thrombus aspiration combined tirofiban can effectively reduce coronary thrombus burden and improve cardiac function in STEMI patients during primary PCI.%目的:研究血栓抽吸联合使用替罗非班对急性 ST 段抬高型心肌梗死(STEMI)直接冠脉介入治疗术(PCI)术后的影响。方法:选择荆门市第一人民医院2012年1月至2013年3月因 STEMI 行直接 PCI 治疗患者98例,其中单纯行血栓抽吸48例 (血栓抽吸组),术中应用血栓抽吸联合冠脉内注入替罗非班50例(联合治疗组),比较两组患者术后即刻冠状动脉造影以及住院期间和出院后6个

  11. Emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the care of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D A; Berman, M; El-Amin, O; McLaughlin, R T; Bates, E R

    2007-10-01

    the thienopyridine, clopidogrel, to aspirin use), and bare-metal stents (BMS), for a broad range of STEMI patients. The added value of drug-eluting stents (DES) to bare-metal stents (BMS), primarily in terms of reducing restenosis and repeat revascularization, is supported by several randomized trials, and a number of registries, despite its being off-label' from a regulatory standpoint. The recognition of late stent thrombosis (LST) has raised additional issues, in choosing between these two options for specific STEMI patients. The added value of a number of other mechanical approaches to coronary thrombus, such as thrombus removal devices, and/or distal protection, are more controversial, and perhaps, patient specific. Whether intravascular ultrasound guidance (IVUS) for stent use should be used for the majority, or even a specific minority, of STEMI patients, is also controversial; late-stent thrombosis provides a counter-point. The advantages of developing a network approach to STEMI care, so as to optimize the number of patients receiving timely reperfusion, have been demonstrated in Prague, Denmark, and Minneapolis, among many places. The benefits of both bivalirudin (anti-thrombin drug with efficacy against clot-bound thrombin, which does not appear to stimulate platelets) and abciximab (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor which is antibody to platelet receptors), as PCI adjuncts generally, and for STEMI patients, in particular, are supported by multiple trials. The specific choice of administering the bolus dose of either, or both, drugs via intra-coronary (IC) injection follows the precedents' of IC thrombolytics, and IC small-vessel vasodilators for no-reflow', but it has not been tested by prospective, randomized trials. Although rapid reperfusion is the first objective, one cannot ignore the other components of the oxygen delivery chain, and the importance of each of these components to on-going delivery of oxygen to all vital organs. A balance must be struck

  12. Independent predictors of retrograde failure in CTO-PCI after successful collateral channel crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoriyasu; Muto, Makoto; Yamane, Masahisa; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Okamura, Atsunori; Igarashi, Yasumi; Fujita, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Shigeru; Oida, Akitsugu; Tsuchikane, Etsuo

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate factors for predicting retrograde CTO-PCI failure after successful collateral channel crossing. Successful guidewire/catheter collateral channel crossing is important for the retrograde approach in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO). A total of 5984 CTO-PCI procedures performed in 45 centers in Japan from 2009 to 2012 were studied. The retrograde approach was used in 1656 CTO-PCIs (27.7%). We investigated these retrograde procedures to evaluate factors for predicting retrograde CTO-PCI failure even after successful collateral channel crossing. Successful guidewire/catheter collateral crossing was achieved in 77.1% (n = 1,276) of 1656 retrograde CTO-PCI procedures. Retrograde procedural success after successful collateral crossing was achieved in 89.4% (n = 1,141). Univariate analysis showed that the predictors for retrograde CTO-PCI failure were in-stent occlusion (OR = 1.9829, 95%CI = 1.1783 - 3.3370 P = 0.0088), calcified lesions (OR = 1.9233, 95%CI = 1.2463 - 2.9679, P = 0.0027), and lesion tortuosity (OR = 1.5244, 95%CI = 1.0618 - 2.1883, P = 0.0216). On multivariate analysis, lesion calcification was an independent predictor of retrograde CTO-PCI failure after successful collateral channel crossing (OR = 1.3472, 95%CI = 1.0614 - 1.7169, P = 0.0141). The success rate of retrograde CTO-PCI following successful guidewire/catheter collateral channel crossing was high in this registry. Lesion calcification was an independent predictor of retrograde CTO-PCI failure after successful collateral channel crossing. Devices and techniques to overcome complex CTO lesion morphology, such as lesion calcification, are required to further improve the retrograde CTO-PCI success rate. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Protein C inhibitor (PCI) binds to phosphatidylserine exposing cells with implications in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and activated platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Daniela; Assinger, Alice; Einfinger, Katrin; Sokolikova, Barbora; Geiger, Margarethe

    2014-01-01

    Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) is a secreted serine protease inhibitor, belonging to the family of serpins. In addition to activated protein C PCI inactivates several other proteases of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, suggesting a regulatory role in hemostasis. Glycosaminoglycans and certain negatively charged phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, bind to PCI and modulate its activity. Phosphatidylerine (PS) is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells and known as a phagocytosis marker. We hypothesized that PCI might bind to PS exposed on apoptotic cells and thereby influence their removal by phagocytosis. Using Jurkat T-lymphocytes and U937 myeloid cells, we show here that PCI binds to apoptotic cells to a similar extent at the same sites as Annexin V, but in a different manner as compared to live cells (defined spots on ∼10-30% of cells). PCI dose dependently decreased phagocytosis of apoptotic Jurkat cells by U937 macrophages. Moreover, the phagocytosis of PS exposing, activated platelets by human blood derived monocytes declined in the presence of PCI. In U937 cells the expression of PCI as well as the surface binding of PCI increased with time of phorbol ester treatment/macrophage differentiation. The results of this study suggest a role of PCI not only for the function and/or maturation of macrophages, but also as a negative regulator of apoptotic cell and activated platelets removal.

  14. Protein C inhibitor (PCI binds to phosphatidylserine exposing cells with implications in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and activated platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rieger

    Full Text Available Protein C Inhibitor (PCI is a secreted serine protease inhibitor, belonging to the family of serpins. In addition to activated protein C PCI inactivates several other proteases of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, suggesting a regulatory role in hemostasis. Glycosaminoglycans and certain negatively charged phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, bind to PCI and modulate its activity. Phosphatidylerine (PS is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells and known as a phagocytosis marker. We hypothesized that PCI might bind to PS exposed on apoptotic cells and thereby influence their removal by phagocytosis. Using Jurkat T-lymphocytes and U937 myeloid cells, we show here that PCI binds to apoptotic cells to a similar extent at the same sites as Annexin V, but in a different manner as compared to live cells (defined spots on ∼10-30% of cells. PCI dose dependently decreased phagocytosis of apoptotic Jurkat cells by U937 macrophages. Moreover, the phagocytosis of PS exposing, activated platelets by human blood derived monocytes declined in the presence of PCI. In U937 cells the expression of PCI as well as the surface binding of PCI increased with time of phorbol ester treatment/macrophage differentiation. The results of this study suggest a role of PCI not only for the function and/or maturation of macrophages, but also as a negative regulator of apoptotic cell and activated platelets removal.

  15. Multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with stable angina: a common approach? Lessons learned from the EHS PCI registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Timm; Möllmann, Helge; Zeymer, Uwe; Hochadel, Matthias; Nef, Holger; Weidinger, Franz; Zahn, Ralf; Hamm, Christian W; Marco, Jean; Gitt, Anselm K

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, procedural details, and outcomes of patients undergoing elective multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (MV-PCI) in Europe. A total of 7113 patients with stable coronary artery disease and at least two major epicardial vessels with ≥ 70% stenosis were included in this analysis of the contemporary Euro Heart Survey PCI registry. Patients undergoing MV-PCI (n = 3376, 47.5%) were compared with those with single-vessel PCI (SV-PCI) (n = 3737, 52.5%). Patients with MV-PCI were more likely to have congestive heart failure, whereas those with SV-PCI more often suffered from noncardiac comorbidities. Hospital mortality (0.1% vs 0.3%) and the incidence of nonfatal postprocedural myocardial infarction (1.0% vs 0.7%) were low in patients with MV-PCI and SV-PCI. In the multivariate analysis, no significant difference in the incidence of hospital death (odds ratio (OR) 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-1.27) could be observed between the two groups. However, the risk for postprocedural myocardial infarction (OR 1.57, 95% CI 0.93-2.67) tended to be higher among patients undergoing MV-PCI. Independent determinants for performing MV-PCI were age, comorbidities, and coronary anatomy. In Europe almost half of all patients with multivessel disease were treated with MV-PCI. Hospital complications were low, but a trend toward a higher rate of postprocedural myocardial infarctions was seen in patients with MV-PCI.

  16. Use and outcome of thrombus aspiration in patients with primary PCI for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: results from the multinational Euro Heart Survey PCI Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weipert, Kay F; Bauer, Timm; Nef, Holger M; Möllmann, Helge; Hochadel, Matthias; Marco, Jean; Weidinger, Franz; Zeymer, Uwe; Gitt, Anselm K; Hamm, Christian W

    2016-09-01

    The clinical benefit of thrombus aspiration (TA) in patients presenting with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not well defined. Furthermore, there is a large variation in the use of TA in real-world registries. Between 2005 and 2008, a total of 7146 consecutive patients with acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI were prospectively enrolled into the PCI Registry of the Euro Heart Survey Programme. For the present analysis, patients treated additionally with TA (n = 897, 12.6 %) were compared with those without TA (n = 6249, 87.4 %). Patients with hemodynamic instability at initial presentation (15.1 vs. 11.0 %; p < 0.001) and resuscitation prior to PCI (10.4 vs. 7.4 %; p = 0.002) were more frequently treated with TA. TIMI flow grade 0/1 before PCI was more often found among those with TA (73.5 vs. 58.6 %; p < 0.001). After adjustment for confounding factors in the propensity score analysis, TA was not associated with improved in-hospital survival (risk difference -1.1 %, 95 % confidence interval -2.7 to 0.6 %). In this European real-world registry, the rate of TA use was low. Hemodynamically unstable patients were more likely to be treated with TA. Consistent with the results of the TASTE study and the TOTAL trial, TA was not associated with a significant reduction in short-term mortality.

  17. 低渗透煤层气注热开采热-流-固耦合数学模型及数值模拟%Numerical simulation of the coupled thermal-fluid-solid mathematical models during extracting methane in low-permeability coal bed by heat injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨新乐; 任常在; 张永利; 郭仁宁

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain seepage rules and production of coal-bed methane in the process of heat injection exploitation,a coupled thermal-fluid-solid mathematical models of coal-bed mathane was established based on results that permeability,porosity of coal increases with temperature,stress and thermal conductivity coefficient of gas,Young' s modulus,Poisson' s ratio as a function of the temperature,combined with seepage mechanics,rock mechanics,heat transfer and so on.Multi-well exploitation way was used to simulate seepage rules during extracting methane in low-permeability coal bed by heat injection after three fields were discreted.The numerical simulation results show that after 10 d heat injection and 100 d coal-bed methane mining,the average velocity of heat transfer is 66.25 mm/h in coal bed under the action of conductivity of coal bed and convection of coal-bed methane,and pressure drop of reservoir cauesd by heat injection is 2.45 times without heat injection,and production of coal-bed methane under the conditons of heat injection is 2.2 time without heat injection.It is a effective way to production improvement of low permeability coal-bed methane.%为得到低渗透煤层气藏注热开采过程中煤层气渗流运移规律,探索原地煤层在注入蒸汽加热后对煤层气产量的影响,基于煤体渗透率、孔隙度随温度、应力,气体导热系数、杨氏模量、泊松比随温度变化的关系,综合运用渗流力学、岩石力学、传热学等相关理论,建立了低渗透煤层气注热开采过程煤层气渗流热-流-固多物理场耦合数学模型,采用多井开采方式进行了注热开采过程煤层气渗流规律的数值模拟.数值模拟结果表明:煤层注热10 d抽采100 d后,由于煤层的导热并伴有煤层气的对流传热,煤层平均传热速度为66.25 mm/h,注热开采造成储层压力降是无注热抽采压力降的2.45倍,在温度应力耦合作用下,煤层气注热抽

  18. Depression and Anxiety after Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated by Primary PCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Petr; Hudakova, Nela; Jurajda, Michal; Kasparek, Tomas; Ustohal, Libor; Parenica, Jiri; Sebo, Marek; Holicka, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Aims The main objective of the study was to find out prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms in the population of patients with AMI with ST-segment elevation (STEMI), treated with primary PCI (pPCI). Secondary target indicators included the incidence of sleep disorders and loss of interest in sex. Methods and results The project enrolled 79 consecutive patients with the first AMI, aged <80 years (median 61 years, 21.5% of women) with a follow-up period of 12 months. Symptoms of depression or anxiety were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory II tests (BDI-II, cut-off value ≥14) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS, cut-off ≥ 45) within 24 hours of pPCI, before the discharge, and in 3, 6 and 12 months). Results with the value p<0.05 were considered as statistically significant. The BDI-II positivity was highest within 24 hours after pPCI (21.5%) with a significant decline prior to the discharge (9.2%), but with a gradual increase in 3, 6 and 12 months (10.4%; 15.4%; 13.8% respectively). The incidence of anxiety showed a relatively similar trend: 8.9% after pPCI, and 4.5%, 10.8% and 6.2% in further follow-up. Conclusions Patients with STEMI treated by primary PCI have relatively low overall prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety. A significant decrease in mental stress was observed before discharge from the hospital, but in a period of one year after pPCI, prevalence of both symptoms was gradually increasing, which should be given medical attention. PMID:27074002

  19. Comparison of Energy Consumption and Environmental Impact of Replacement of Coal with Straw Injection into Blast Furnace%秸秆替代煤高炉喷吹的能源消耗及环境影响比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊玮; 王国强; 周绍轩

    2013-01-01

    Comparison of energy consumption and environmental impact was made when coal was substituted partially by straw injecting into blast furnace. Considering the effect of basicity load on normal blast furnace operation, the maximum proportion of straw in mixture was about 10%. Energy consumption of straw injection was higher, and coal consumption had doubled or more, and oil consumption increased almost 4 times. In comparison with coal, discharge amount of pollutants was larger, and it was about 7times especially in the process of grinding straw. The discharge amount of pollutants including CO2, CO and blast furnace slag was about the same in the process of injection. CO2 emission would reduce 23 kg producing a ton of hot metal because biomass straw is carbon-neutral. Based on pollution discharge fee and market price of international CO2 emission indicator, environmental cost was reduced by 2.23 yuan producing a ton of hot met al. For a blast furnace of 2 500 m3 inner volume, the amount of CO2 emission could reduce 56 300 tons, and total environmental cost reduced by 5.5 million yuan per year.%以秸秆替代部分煤进行高炉喷吹,对收集、运输、破碎和喷吹等过程进行了能源消耗和环境影响的差异性比较.考虑到碱负、荷对高炉顺行的影响,秸秆在煤中的混人比最大应在10%左右.秸秆喷吹的能耗较高,与煤相比,原煤消耗量增加了1倍以上,原油消耗量增加了4倍左右.从秸秆的收集到破碎,污染物排放量都比煤高,尤其在破碎过程,各种污染物的排放量是煤的7倍左右.在高炉喷吹利用过程中,秸秆与煤的CO2、CO和高炉渣的排放量相差不大.由于秸秆生物质的碳循环特点,冶炼1t铁水可减少CO2排放量23 kg.根据我国排污费标准和国际CO2排放指标交易市场价,用秸秆替代煤喷吹,生产1t铁水可降低环境成本2.23元.对于一座2 500 m3高炉,每年可减排CO25.63万t,总环境成本可以降低550万元.

  20. Coal 95; Kol - 95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-12-31

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO{sub 2} removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO{sub x} cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO{sub x} burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs.

  1. Angiographic and Clinical Impact of Successful Manual Thrombus Aspiration in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Primary PCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shehata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetes mellitus is associated with worse angiographic and clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Aim. To investigate the impact of manual thrombus aspiration on in-stent restenosis (ISR and clinical outcome in patients treated by bare-metal stent (BMS implantation for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. Methods. 100 diabetic patients were prospectively enrolled. They were randomly assigned to undergo either standard primary PCI (group A, 50 patients or PCI with thrombus aspiration using Export catheter (group B, 50 patients. The primary endpoint was the rate of eight-month ISR. The secondary endpoint included follow-up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE. Results. Mean age of the study cohort was 59.86±8.3 years, with 64 (64% being males. Baseline characteristics did not differ between both groups. Eight-month angiogram showed that group B patients had significantly less late lumen loss (0.17±0.35 versus 0.60±0.42 mm, P<0.001, with lower incidence of ISR (4% versus 16.6%, P<0.001. There was a trend towards lower rate of MACE in the same group of patients. Conclusion. In diabetic patients undergoing primary PCI, manual thrombus aspiration (compared with standard PCI was associated with better ISR rate after BMS implantation.

  2. Cardiac rehabilitation outcomes following a 6-week program of PCI and CABG Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert F Jelinek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery events requiring intervention are associated with depressed cardiac autonomic function. Whether a 6-week cardiac rehabilitation (CR differs in effectiveness in improving exercise capacity (6MWT, cardiorespiratory function (peakVO2 and autonomic function (HRV following either cardiac bypass surgery (CABG or percutaneous coronary revascularization (PCI is unknown. The current study therefore compared the change in 6MWT and peak VO2 to HRV variables following a 6-week cardiac rehabilitation program and with patients having either PCI or CABG. Thirty-eight patients, (PCI, n=22 and CABG, n=16 participated in the CR program and results for pre and post six minute walk test (6MWT, peakVO2 and heart rate variability (HRV were obtained. Our study has shown that a six weeks program following either PCI or CABG improves function. However the effect on post-CABG differs to that of post-PCI patients. The change in distance walked (6MWT, metres was higher in the CABG (Δ6MWT: 61, p

  3. Protection effects of Sigmart for no-reflow or myocardial reperfusion injury after undergoing PCI surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Peng Wu; Xuan-Qi Wang; Lei-Sen Han; Chong-Zhen Wang; Yin-Juan Mao; Wei-Jie Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the protection effects of Sigmart for lack of reflow or myocardial myocardial reperfusion injury after undergoing PCI surgery.Methods: A total of 150 patients undergoing PCI surgery were selected and divided into control group and observation group with 75 cases in each group. After undergoing the surgery, both groups were given low molecular heparin 4 100 IU for 3 d, 100 mg + aspirin + atorvastatin 20 mg + clopidogrel 75 mg. 5 mL of blood specimen were collected for detection of troponin I (TnI), myocardial enzyme spectrum (CK, CK-MB) level to evaluate myocardial myocardial reperfusion injury after undergoing PCI surgery. Also electrocardiogram (ECG) were detected. Six months after the surgery, effects of Sigmart for lack of reflow or myocardial myocardial reperfusion injury after undergoing PCI surgery were evaluated.Results: 1, 6, 12, 24 h after the surgery, TnI, Mb, CK-Mb levels of were significant different from those before undergoing the surgery, and these levels of the observation group were significant higher than that of the control group. ST segment elevation at 2, 12, and 24 h after undergoing the surgery were significant obvious than that of the control group. According to the follow up, incidence of comprehensive end point event was significant higher than that of the control group. SAQ and SF-36 scores of the two groups were significant different. Conclusion: Sigmart shows good protection effects for lack of reflow or myocardial myocardial reperfusion injury after undergoing PCI surgery.

  4. Myocardium-protective effect of ticagrelor combined with emergency PCI treatment of acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Jun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the myocardium-protective effect of ticagrelor combined with emergency PCI treatment of acute myocardial infarction and explore the possible molecular mechanisms. Methods:A total of 84 patients with acute myocardial infarction who received emergency PCI treatment in our hospital from February 2014 to October 2015 were selected for study and randomly divided into and ticagrelor group and clopidogrel group that received different perioperative anti-platelet therapy. Degree of myocardial cell damage, cardiac pump function as well as blood perfusion and platelet aggregation function of two groups were evaluated. Results:Before as well as 10 min and 24 h after PCI, plasma CK-MB and cTnI levels as well as maximum platelet aggregation rate and P2Y12 reaction unit of ticagrelor group were significantly lower than those of clopidogrel group, and ADP-way platelet inhibition rate were higher than those of clopidogrel group; after PCI, TIMI blood flow grade, TMP myocardial perfusion grade and LVEF of ticagrelor group were significantly higher than those of clopidogrel group, LVEDD was significantly lower than that of clopidogrel group and the number of cases with no reflow/slow flow was less than that of clopidogrel group. Conclusions:The myocardium-protective effect of ticagrelor combined with emergency PCI treatment of acute myocardial infarction is better than that of clopidogrel, and ticagrelor can enhance the anti-platelet aggregation effect to exert myocardium-protective effect.

  5. Controversies in the treatment of patients with STEMI and multivessel disease: is it time for PCI of all lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Peter; Sechtem, Udo

    2016-06-01

    Several randomized trials have suggested a benefit for multivessel PCI in patients with STEMI and multivessel disease. However, none of the studies compared multivessel PCI with a staged PCI-approach which is the current guideline recommended approach. The results of the trials may overestimate the beneficial effect of the multivessel PCI approach because the control group did not receive any ischaemia testing for evaluation of the significance of remaining lesions. Thus, unfavourable aspects of the multivessel PCI approach such as overestimation of non-culprit lesions at the time of acute coronary angiography, complications associated with PCI of the non-culprit lesion (i.e. dissection, no-reflow, acute stent thrombosis) or increased risk for contrast induced nephropathy may have gone unnoticed as the comparative management pathway was unusual and likely inferior to the guideline recommended approach. We believe that culprit lesion only PCI and staged evaluation of remaining areas of myocardial ischaemia with subsequent PCI is still preferable in patients with STEMI and multivessel disease but a randomized study comparing this approach with multivessel PCI is needed.

  6. 微型计算机PCI总线浅析%On Microcomputer PCI Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝菊; 孙景瑞; 刘艳

    2001-01-01

    较系统地分析了PCI总线的定义、分类及特点,论述了PCI总线的读写时序及总线仲裁问题,并将PCI总线应用在图象处理等方面,解决了数据通量的瓶颈问题.%This article analyses the definition,classification andpeculiarity of PCI bus systematically. And it expounds the problem of reading and writing proc ession and arbiitration of PCI bus. Further more, the PCI bus has been used in the im age treatment and any other fields,solving the difficult problem of data flux.

  7. Short- and Long-Term Cause of Death in Patients Treated With Primary PCI for STEMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frants; Butrymovich, Vitalij; Kelbæk, Henning

    2014-01-01

    ,804 consecutive patients with STEMI (age 63 ± 13 years, 72% males) treated with primary PCI. RESULTS: Patients were followed up for a median of 4.7 years. During a total of 13,447 patient-years, 717 patients died. Main causes of death within the first 30 days were cardiogenic shock and anoxic brain injury after......BACKGROUND: Short-term mortality has been studied thoroughly in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), whereas long-term cause of death in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study...... was to describe the association between time and cause of death in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. METHODS: A centralized civil registration system, patient files, and public disease and death cause registries with an accurate record linkage were used to trace time and cause of death in 2...

  8. Risk prediction models for major adverse cardiac event (MACE) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI): A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, Norhafizah A.; Abidin, Basir

    2015-02-01

    Five percent of patients who went through Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) experienced Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACE) after PCI procedure. Risk prediction of MACE following a PCI procedure therefore is helpful. This work describes a review of such prediction models currently in use. Literature search was done on PubMed and SCOPUS database. Thirty literatures were found but only 4 studies were chosen based on the data used, design, and outcome of the study. Particular emphasis was given and commented on the study design, population, sample size, modeling method, predictors, outcomes, discrimination and calibration of the model. All the models had acceptable discrimination ability (C-statistics >0.7) and good calibration (Hosmer-Lameshow P-value >0.05). Most common model used was multivariate logistic regression and most popular predictor was age.

  9. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141574 Chen Hao(Exploration and Development Research Institute,Daqing Oilfield Company,Daqing 163712,China)High-Resolution Sequences and Coal Accumulating Laws in Nantun Formation of Huhe Lake Sag(Petroleum Geology&Oilfield Development in Daqing,ISSN1000-3754,CN23-1286/TQ,32(4),2013,p.15-19,5 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:coal accumulation regularity,coal

  10. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091159 Gao Yan(No.3 Prospecting Team of Anhui Bureau of Coal Geology,Suzhou 234000,China) Effect of Depositional Environment of Coal-Bearing Stratum on Major Coal Seams in Suntan Coalmine,Anhui Province(Geology of Anhui,ISSN 1005- 6157,CN34-1111/P,18(2),2008,p.114 -117,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)

  11. FFR result post PCI is suboptimal in long diffuse coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskas, Arvydas; Peace, Aaron; Kibarskis, Aleksandras; Shannon, Joanne; Abraitis, Vytautas; Bajoras, Vilhelmas; Bilkis, Valdas; Aidietis, Audrius; Laucevicius, Aleksandras; Davidavicius, Giedrius

    2016-12-20

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional result immediately post PCI and at nine-month follow-up, and to ascertain how often a functionally optimal result of >0.95 can be achieved in long coronary lesions treated with long second- or newer-generation DES. Patients receiving DES measuring ≥30 mm with FFR value ≤0.8 were included in the study. Stent length was defined as long (30 to 49 mm; L-DES) and ultra-long (≥50 mm; UL-DES). Angiographic and FFR evaluation was performed before and after PCI and at nine-month follow-up. A total of 74 patients each received a mean stent length of 50.72±14.6 mm. Mean FFR post PCI was 0.88±0.06. An optimal post PCI FFR value of >0.95 was achieved in only 9/74 patients (12.2%), and was not achieved in any UL-DES patients. Only 12/74 (16.2%) had FFR post PCI of 0.91 to 0.95; 8/74 (10.8%) patients remained ischaemic (≤0.8). FFR gradient across the stent was higher in UL-DES patients compared to L-DES patients (0.07±0.03 vs. 0.04±0.03; p=0.001). At follow-up, the angiographic restenosis rate was 4.7%, and the functional restenosis rate was 15.1%. The FFR result post PCI was suboptimal in the majority of patients treated with long DES and was particularly poor when the total stent length exceeded 50 mm.

  12. Design and Verification for PCS Layer of PCI Express Using VHDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Soni Mr. Vikas Gupta Mrs. Deepti Agrawal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and verify the physical layer implementation by using ISE 8.1 from Xilinx and Spartan 3 FPGA to reduce the cost and hardware as well without affecting the performance and reliability of PCI Express. PCI is the third generation high performance I/O bus used to interconnect peripheral devices in applications such as computing and communicating platform. PCI Express is an all in compassing I/O device interconnect bus that has application in the Mobile, Desktop, Workstation, Server, Embedded computing and communication platform. PCS is the sub layer of the physical layer of PCI Express 1.0. The major constituents of this layer are transmitter and receiver. Transmitter comprises of 8b/10b encoder. The Primary purpose of this scheme is to embed a clock into the serial bit stream of transmitter lanes with advancement in the design by reducing the utilized hardware resources within FPGA. No clock is transmitted along with the serial data bit stream. This eliminates EMI noise and provides DC balance. Receiver comprises of special symbol detector, elastic buffer and 8b/10b decoder. . 8b/10b decoder gives 8bit character and data/control signals. Disparity error and Decode error can be known though this module. If any error is present in the received data then loopback signal is generated. This work uses VHDL to model different blocks of the PCS of physical layer of PCI Express. The RTL code is simulated, synthesized and implemented using the ISE 8.1 from Xilinx and the Spartan 3 FPGA was targeted for implementation. In this paper we have reduced the hardware as well as cost of total system without affecting the speed of the PCI Express.

  13. Chronic Total Occlusion - Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (CTO-PCI) Experience in a Single, Multi-operator Australian Centre: Need for dedicated CTO-PCI programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BoganaShanmugam, Vimalraj; Psaltis, Peter J; Wong, Dennis T; Seneviratne, Sujith; Cameron, James; Meredith, Ian T; Malaiapan, Yuvaraj

    2016-07-01

    Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent a unique set of lesions for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) because of the complexity of techniques required to treat them. We retrospectively reviewed the CTO-PCI experience between January 2010 and December 2012, in a multi-operator single centre, which is one of the largest volume PCI centres in Australia. Eighty-two patients (62.6±11.3 years, 85% males) who had CTO-PCIs were included. The most common site of CTO was the right coronary artery (44%), followed by the left circumflex (30%) and left anterior descending (26%) arteries. Using the Japanese CTO scoring system, 34% of lesions were classified as easy, 37% intermediate, 23% difficult and 6% very difficult. All PCIs were performed by antegrade approach. Selected procedural characteristics included: re-attempt procedure 10%; multiple access sites 21%; more than one guidewire 77%; additional support modality 60%; drug-eluting stents 97%; stent number 1.6±0.8; total stent length 40.1±24.5mm; fluoroscopy time 33±17min; contrast volume 257.2±110.8mL. Overall CTO success rate was 60%. In-hospital adverse outcomes included 1.2% mortality, 9.8% peri-procedural myocardial infarction, 4.9% emergency bypass surgery, 3% cardiac tamponade and 4.9% contrast induced nephropathy. We report modest success rates in a single Australian centre experience in a relatively conservative cohort of CTO-PCI prior to the initiation of a dedicated CTO revascularisation program. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. LabVIEW and PCI DAQ Card Based HTS Test and Control Platforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Bin Zhao; Jian-Xun Jin; Pu-Chun Jiang; Wen-Hui Gao; Zi-Lu Liang

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the relevant parameters and related characteristics of the LabVIEW and PCI6221 data acquisition (DAQ) card, describes in detail the approach of building the measure and control platform of virtual instrument (VI) using LabVIEW and PCI6221, specifically discusses the system's application in high temperature superconductor (HTS) research including the test of HTS volt-ampere characteristics and the HTS magnetic energy storage. The experiments prove that the VI test and control system is easy to build and convenient to use.

  15. The association between type D personality, and depression and anxiety ten years after PCI

    OpenAIRE

    AL-Qezweny, M.N.A.; Utens, E.M.W.J.; Dulfer, K.; Hazemeijer, B.A.F.; van Geuns, R-J.; Daemen, J.; van Domburg, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There are indications that type D personality and depression are associated in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, at present it is unclear whether this relationship holds in the long term. This study’s aim was to investigate the association between type D personality at 6 months post-PCI (baseline), and depression at 10-year follow-up. A secondary aim was to test the association between type D personality at baseline and anxiety at 10-year follo...

  16. Hospital PCI Appropriateness and In-Hospital Procedural Outcomes: Insights from the NCDR®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Steven M.; Chan, Paul S.; Spertus, John A.; Kennedy, Kevin F.; Douglas, Pamela S.; Patel, Manesh R.; Anderson, H. Vernon; Ting, Henry H.; Rumsfeld, John S.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Measurement of hospital quality has traditionally focused on processes of care and post-procedure outcomes. Appropriateness measures for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) assess quality as it relates to patient selection in the context of anticipated benefits relative to potential harm. The association, if any, between patient selection for PCI and processes of care and post-procedural outcomes is unknown. Defining whether these measures are redundant or complementary can inform the optimal range of metrics for monitoring quality. Methods We included patients undergoing non-acute (elective) PCI within the NCDR CathPCI Registry® between July 2009 and April 2011. We examined the association between a hospital’s proportion of non-acute PCIs categorized as inappropriate by the 2009 Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for Coronary Revascularization and in-hospital mortality, bleeding complications, and use of optimal guideline-directed medical therapy at discharge (i.e. aspirin, thienopyridines, and statins). Results A total of 203,531 non-acute PCIs from 779 hospitals were classified by the AUC. Of these, 101,779 (50.0%) were classified as appropriate, 77,220 (35.5%) as uncertain, and 24,532 (12.1%) as inappropriate. When categorized as hospital tertiles, the range of inappropriate PCI was 0.0 to 8.1% in the lowest-tertile, 8.1 to 15.2% in the middle-tertile, and 15.2 to 58.6% in the highest-tertile. Compared with lowest-tertile hospitals, mortality was not significantly different at middle-tertile (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73 to 1.19) or highest-tertile hospitals (OR 1.12; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.43; p=0.35 for differences between any tertile). Similarly, risk-adjusted bleeding did not vary significantly (middle-tertile OR 1.13; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.16; highest-tertile OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.91 to 1.16; p=0.07 for differences between any tertile) nor did use of optimal therapy at discharge after PCI (85.3% vs. 85.7% vs. 85.2%; P=0

  17. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C.

    2000-07-01

    in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping waste of rubber is mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1998 was 370 SEK/ton or the same as in 1997. For the world, the average import price fell about 6 USD/ton to 32 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1999 as a result of the crisis in Asia but are now stabilising as a result of increasing oil prices. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO{sub 2}-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, in Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a catalytic NO{sub x}-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NO{sub x}- burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO{sub x}-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 700 tons in 1998, a minor decrease compared to 1997. The trade, however, has increased about 3 % to 520 mill tons. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1,7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong

  18. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131668 Chang Huizhen(Key Laboratory of Coalbed Methane Resources and Reservoir Formation Process,CUMT,Ministry of Edu-cation,School of Resource and Earth Science,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Qin Yong Differences in of Pore Structure of Coals and Their Impact on the Permeability of Coals from the

  19. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C.

    2000-07-01

    in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping waste of rubber is mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1998 was 370 SEK/ton or the same as in 1997. For the world, the average import price fell about 6 USD/ton to 32 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1999 as a result of the crisis in Asia but are now stabilising as a result of increasing oil prices. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO{sub 2}-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, in Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a catalytic NO{sub x}-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NO{sub x}- burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO{sub x}-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 700 tons in 1998, a minor decrease compared to 1997. The trade, however, has increased about 3 % to 520 mill tons. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1,7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong

  20. Real-time fusion of coronary CT angiography with X-ray fluoroscopy during chronic total occlusion PCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Takx, Richard A.P. [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Stone, Luke L.; Yeh, Robert W.; Jaffer, Farouc A. [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac Cathetrization Laboratory, Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Girard, Erin E. [Siemens Healthcare, Princeton, NJ (United States); Brilakis, Emmanouil S. [Cardiology Division, Dallas VA Medical Center and UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Lombardi, William L. [University of Washington, Cardiology Division, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of real-time fusion of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) centreline and arterial wall calcification with X-ray fluoroscopy during chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients undergoing CTO PCI were prospectively enrolled. Pre-procedural CT scans were integrated with conventional coronary fluoroscopy using prototype software. We enrolled 24 patients who underwent CTO PCI using the prototype CT fusion software, and 24 consecutive CTO PCI patients without CT guidance served as a control group. Mean age was 66 ± 11 years, and 43/48 patients were men. Real-time CTA fusion during CTO PCI provided additional information regarding coronary arterial calcification and tortuosity that generated new insights into antegrade wiring, antegrade dissection/reentry, and retrograde wiring during CTO PCI. Overall CTO success rates and procedural outcomes remained similar between the two groups, despite a trend toward higher complexity in the fusion CTA group. This study demonstrates that real-time automated co-registration of coronary CTA centreline and calcification onto live fluoroscopic images is feasible and provides new insights into CTO PCI, and in particular, antegrade dissection reentry-based CTO PCI. (orig.)

  1. PCI Based Read-out Receiver Card in the ALICE DAQ System

    CERN Document Server

    Carena, W; Dénes, E; Divià, R; Schossmaier, K; Soós, C; Sulyán, J; Vascotto, Alessandro; Van de Vyvre, P

    2001-01-01

    The Detector Data Link (DDL) is the high-speed optical link for the ALICE experiment. This link shall transfer the data coming from the detectors at 100 MB/s rate. The main components of the link have been developed: the destination Interface Unit (DIU), the Source Interface Unit (SIU) and the Read-out Receiver Card (RORC). The first RORC version is based on the VME bus. The performance tests show that the maximum VME bandwidth could be reached. Meanwhile the PCI bus became very popular and is used in many platforms. The development of a PCI-based version has been started. The document describes the prototype version in three sections. An overview explains the main purpose of the card: to provide an interface between the DDL and the PCI bus. Acting as a 32bit/33MHz PCI master the card is able to write or read directly to or from the system memory from or to the DDL, respectively. Beside these functions the card can also be used as an autonomous data generator. The card has been designed to be well adapted to ...

  2. Answer the call: let's make 2015 the year of magical thinking in CTO PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Richard R

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of chronic total occlusions (CTO's) is as high as 50% in angiographic series Patients are helped with successful recanalization of CTO's In spite of current improved success rates in CTO percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), only 10-12% of CTO's are currently attempted. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Molecular analysis of the replication origin of the Lactococcus lactis plasmid pCI305

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foley, S; Bron, S; Venema, G; Daly, C; Fitzgerald, GF

    1996-01-01

    The replication origin region, ori, of the Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis plasmid pCI305 contains three-and-one-half directly repeated 22-bp sequences and two inverted repeat sequences, IR1 and IR2. These inverted repeat sequences overlap the promoter of the repB gene, which encodes a protein (Rep

  4. PCI express bus design of large format array IRFPA high-speed acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zewu; Zheng, Xing; Zeng, Xingxin; Liu, Ziji

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a novel solution of PCI Express Bus was designed to improve the data transfer rate for large format array infrared imaging acquisition system. In this structure, an embedded PCI Express hard intellectual property (IP) block of Stratix IV GX FPGA was used, and the protocol stack module is totally compliant with PCI Express base specification Gen 2.0 which includes PHY-MAC, Data Link, and transaction layers. In order to communicate with CPU through computer PCIe root port, a pipeline structure was established with two SSRAMs to carry out the function of real-time data process. The DMA mode was adopted for the high-speed data transmission on the PCI Express Bus. Some other control logic parts such as detector drive signal generator - display controller and PCIe configuration module were also designed and introduced in this paper. According to the evaluation, the data transmission speed was up to 5.6Gbps, which means that this system could meet the qualifications of infrared imaging data acquisition. Compared with traditional infrared imaging data acquisition systems, this solution is more integrated and faster, so it is suitable for larger format and higher frame rate of infrared focal plane image acquisition in nowadays and future.

  5. Lack of consensus in biomarker measurement to diagnose PCI-related myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Dakhiel, Zaid; Rune Larsen, Søren; Svenstrup Poulsen, Tina

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate if biomarker sampling in PCI has adhered to the 2 000 consensus document for the diagnosis of procedure-related myocardial infarction (MI). Design. Firstly, a review of relevant papers from 2000 to September 2007 was done. Secondly, in October 2007, a questionnaire addressing...

  6. Prehospital diagnosis in STEMI patients treated by primary PCI : the key to rapid reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R. P.; Jaarsma, T.; Hanenburg, F. G. A.; Nannenberg, J. W.; Jessurun, G. A. J.; Zijlstra, F.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Primary coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction should be performed as quickly as possible, with a door-to-balloon time of less then 90 minutes. However, in daily practice this cannot always be achieved. Prehospital diagnosis of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STE

  7. Quality of life after PCI with drug-eluting stents or coronary-artery bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Cohen (David J.); B.A. van Hout (Ben); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); F.W. Mohr (Friedrich); C.M. Miguel (Carlos); P. den Heijer (Peter); M.M. Vrakking (M. M.); K.K. Wang (Kenneth); E.M. Mahoney (Elizabeth M.); S. Audi (Salma); K. Leadly (Katrin); K.D. Dawkins (Keith); A.P. Kappetein (Arie Pieter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that among patients undergoing multivessel revascularization, coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG), as compared with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) either by means of balloon angioplasty or with the use of bare-metal stents, results in

  8. Quality of life after PCI with drug-eluting stents or coronary-artery bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Cohen (David J.); B.A. van Hout (Ben); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); F.W. Mohr (Friedrich); C.M. Miguel (Carlos); P. den Heijer (Peter); M.M. Vrakking (M. M.); K.K. Wang (Kenneth); E.M. Mahoney (Elizabeth M.); S. Audi (Salma); K. Leadly (Katrin); K.D. Dawkins (Keith); A.P. Kappetein (Arie Pieter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that among patients undergoing multivessel revascularization, coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG), as compared with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) either by means of balloon angioplasty or with the use of bare-metal stents, results in

  9. Insights into the Proton Transfer Mechanism of a Bilin Reductase PcyA Following Neutron Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Masaki; Ishikawa-Suto, Kumiko; Kusaka, Katsuhiro; Tamada, Taro; Hagiwara, Yoshinori; Sugishima, Masakazu; Wada, Kei; Yamada, Taro; Tomoyori, Katsuaki; Hosoya, Takaaki; Tanaka, Ichiro; Niimura, Nobuo; Kuroki, Ryota; Inaka, Koji; Ishihara, Makiko; Fukuyama, Keiichi

    2015-04-29

    Phycocyanobilin, a light-harvesting and photoreceptor pigment in higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, is synthesized from biliverdin IXα (BV) by phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA) via two steps of two-proton-coupled two-electron reduction. We determined the neutron structure of PcyA from cyanobacteria complexed with BV, revealing the exact location of the hydrogen atoms involved in catalysis. Notably, approximately half of the BV bound to PcyA was BVH(+), a state in which all four pyrrole nitrogen atoms were protonated. The protonation states of BV complemented the protonation of adjacent Asp105. The "axial" water molecule that interacts with the neutral pyrrole nitrogen of the A-ring was identified. His88 Nδ was protonated to form a hydrogen bond with the lactam O atom of the BV A-ring. His88 and His74 were linked by hydrogen bonds via H3O(+). These results imply that Asp105, His88, and the axial water molecule contribute to proton transfer during PcyA catalysis.

  10. Invasive measurement of coronary microvascular resistance in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated by primary PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amier, Raquel P; Teunissen, Paul F A; Marques, Koen M; Knaapen, Paul; van Royen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Up to 40% of patients with acute myocardial infarction develop microvascular obstruction (MVO) despite successful treatment with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The presence of MVO is linked to negative remodelling and left ventricular dysfunction, leading to decreased long-term survival, increased morbidity and reduced quality of life. The acute obstruction and dysfunction of the microvasculature can potentially be reversed by pharmacological treatment in addition to the standard PCI treatment. Identifying patients with post-PCI occurrence of MVO is essential in assessing which patients could benefit from additional treatment. However, at present there is no validated method to identify these patients. Angiographic parameters like myocardial blush grade or corrected Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow do not accurately predict the occurrence of MVO as visualised by MRI in the days after the acute event. Theoretically, acute MVO can be detected by intracoronary measurements of flow and resistance directly following the PCI procedure. In MVO the microvasculature is obstructed or destructed and will therefore display a higher coronary microvascular resistance (CMVR). The methods for intracoronary assessment of CMVR are based on either thermodilution or Doppler-flow measurements. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the currently available methods and parameters for assessing CMVR, with special attention given to their use in clinical practice and information provided by clinical studies performed in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  11. Impaired health status in Type D patients following PCI in the drug-eluting stent era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan; Ong, Andrew T L

    2007-01-01

    Drug-eluting stenting reduces restenosis post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but subgroups of patients may not benefit optimally from this procedure. We examined the impact of Type D personality on health status over time and the clinical relevance of Type D as a predictor of impaired ...

  12. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, John L.; Smith, William C.; Friggens, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  13. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping; Mou, Junhui; Jin, Kan; Cui, Jie

    2015-01-01

    To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index). Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption) index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar occurrence conditions

  14. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Jiang

    Full Text Available To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index. Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar

  15. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111053 Chen Jian(School of Earth and Environment,Anhui University of Science and Technology,Huainan 232001,China);Liu Wenzhong Organic Affinity of Trace Elements in Coal from No.10 Coal-Bed at Western Huagou,Guoyang(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(4),2010,p.16-20,24,3 illus.,3 tables,19 refs.)Key words:coal,minor elements,Anhui Province In order to study the organic affinity of trace elements in coal from No.10 coal-bed at western Huagou,Guoyang,10 borehole samples were collected at exploration area of Huaibei mining area.The contents of 12 kinds of trace elements were determined by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS),the total organic carbon(TOC)of coal was determined by LECO carbon and sulfur analyzer,and the organic affinity of trace elements were deduced from the correlations between contents and TOCs.The results showed that the contents of V,Cr,Co,Ni,Mo,Cd,Sb,Pb and Zn were lower than

  16. British coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, M.

    2009-03-15

    The paper describes a visit to UK's Daw Mill in north Warwickshire to find out about a planned expansion of the coal mine. Daw Mill, 10 km west of Coventry is the UK's largest underground coal mine. The coal is extracted by an Eckhoff Sl500 coal shearer that traverses the coalface. Overarching the shearer is a series of electro-hydraulically operated powered roof supports (PRS) over the roof and coalface that are advanced forward after each pass of the shearer. The void behind the PRS is then allowed to collapse. The coalface is currently 295 m long, but there are plans to extend the replacement coalface to 357 m. Under the shearer is an armored face conveyor (AFC) that receives and transports the coal along the coalface and deposits it onto the beam stage loader, which sits at 90{sup o} to the AFC. The coal is turned by a deflector plough on the AFC headframe and is transferred to the belt conveyor to begin its journey out of the mine. Last year two significant records were broken at Daw Mill - the fastest million tonnes achieved and the European record for a single face of 3.2 Mt. The 300s area of the mine has already been mapped out and development teams are constructing roadways to facilitate more mining. To maintain annual production in excess of three million tonnes will require at least 5,000 m of roadways to access the coal, and install equipment. These investments are supported by proven reserves. Seismic surveys and borehole drilling has shown approximately 20 Mt of extractable coal in the 300s area which extends over 15 km{sup 2}. These panels will be the next to be mined in a sequence that extends to 2014. 2 photos.

  17. Coal mining: coal in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Arguelles Martinez, A.; Lugue Cabal, V.

    1984-01-01

    The Survey of Spanish Coal Resources published by the Centre for Energy Studies in 1979 is without doubt the most serious and full study on this subject. The coal boom of the last few years and the important role it will play in the future, as well as the wealth of new information which has come to light in the research carried out in Spanish coalfields by both the public and private sector, prompted the General Mine Management of the Ministry of Industry and Energy to commission IGME to review and update the previous Survey of Spanish Coal Resources of November 1981.

  18. Continued improvement of clinical outcome and cost effectiveness following intravascular ultrasound guided PCI: insights from a prospective, randomised study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaster, A L; Slothuus Skjoldborg, U; Larsen, J; Korsholm, L; von Birgelen, C; Jensen, S; Thayssen, P; Pedersen, K E; Haghfelt, T H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in a prospective randomised study both long term clinical effects and cost effectiveness of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) with or without intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance. Methods: 108 male patients with stable angina referred for PCI of a significant coronary lesion were randomly assigned to IVUS guided PCI or conventional PCI. Individual accumulated costs of the entire follow up period were calculated and compared in the randomisation groups. Effectiveness of treatment was measured by freedom from major adverse cardiac events. Results: Cost effectiveness of IVUS guided PCI that was noted at six months was maintained and even accentuated at long term follow up (median 2.5 years). The cumulated cost level was found to be lower for the IVUS guided group, with a cumulated cost of &163 672 in the IVUS guided group versus &313 706 in the coronary angiography group (p = 0.01). Throughout the study, mean cost per day was lower in the IVUS guided PCI group (&2.7 v &5.2; p = 0.01). In the IVUS group, 78% were free from major adverse cardiac events versus 59% in the coronary angiography group (p = 0.04) with an odds ratio of 2.5 in favour of IVUS guidance. Conclusion: IVUS guidance results in continued improvement of long term clinical outcome and cost effectiveness. The results of this study suggest that IVUS guidance may be used more liberally in PCI. PMID:12923023

  19. Blended coals for improved coal water slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Tian-ye; WU Guo-guang; LI Qi-hui; SUN Zhi-qiang; ZENG Fang; WANG Guang-you; MENG Xian-liang

    2008-01-01

    Three coal samples of different ranks were used to study the effect of coal blending on the preparation of Coal Water Slurry (CWS). The results show that by taking advantage of two kinds of coal, the coal concentration in slurry made from hard-to-pulp coal can be effectively improved and increased by 3%-5% generally. DLT coal (DaLiuTa coal mine) is very poor in slurryability and the stability and rheology of the resulting slurry are not very good. When the amount of easily slurried coal is more than 30%, all properties of the CWS improve and the CWS meets the requirements for use as fuel. Coalification, porosity, surface oxygenic functional groups, zeta potential and grindability have a great effect on the performance of blended coal CWS. This leads to some differences in performance between the slurry made from a single coal and slurry made from blended coal.

  20. Design of PCI Express Interface Card Based on Nios Ⅱ%基于NiosⅡ的PCI Express接口卡的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晴晴; 孟令军; 尹维汉; 李鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a design of PCI Express interface card based on Nios H is presented. The composition theory of Nios Q soft - core processor and the process of LVDS signal processing and application PCIE bus communication arc introduced. Each functional module and the specific of the design principium are given a detailed discussion. Functional realization of the system was tested one by one. The test results show that the stable interface card can complete the data transfer effectively.%根据NiosⅡ软核处理器的组成原理,提出了一种基于 NiosⅡ的PCI- Express(简称PCIE)接口卡的设计方法,研究了系统对LVDS信号的处理和应用PCIE总线接口通信的过程;详细讨论了系统各功能模块的实现原理,并对各模块进行了实际的分析和测试,测试结果表明该接口卡性能稳定,可以有效地完成数据传输.

  1. 扩张PCI-E显卡阵容 盈通X600Pro系列显卡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    盈通向市场提供全面的PCI-E产品.2款PCI-E显卡新品面世——镭龙RX600Pro豪华版、镭龙RX600Pro MAX。两款显卡都采用集成HSI桥接功能的RX600Pro芯片.性能跟R9600XT差距不大.最大不同在于它完整支持PCI-Ex16接口标准.使用0.11微米工艺制造。

  2. Study on Calibration System for Electronic Transformers Based on High-Accuracy PCI Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With preliminary applying of Electronic Transformer (ET based on IEC 61850 standards in power grid, the calibrations of tested transformers have attracted extensive research attention. This study proposes a novel Calibration System of ET (CSET based on high-accuracy card. Data acquisition of ET and Standard Trans-former (ST is gotten by optic Ethernet and PCI-4462 data acquisition card, respectively. Meanwhile, the synchronized sampling between ET and ST is completed on the optic/electronic pulse signal of PCI synchronization card. The signals processing and human interface are realized by Labview software. The system proposed in the study is feasible for calibrating Electronic Voltage/Current Transformers (EVT/ECT of different voltage classes. System tests show that the precision of the system can get to 0.2°.

  3. Study on Calibration System for Electronic Transformers Based on High-Accuracy PCI Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With preliminary applying of Electronic Transformer (ET based on IEC 61850 standards in power grid, the calibration of tested transformers has attracted extensive research attention. This study proposes a novel Calibration System of ET (CSET based on high-accuracy card. Data acquisition of ET and standard trans-former (ST is gotten by optic Ethernet and PCI-4462 data acquisition card, respectively. Meanwhile, the synchronized sampling between ET and ST is completed on the optic/electronic pulse signal of PCI synchronization card. The signals processing and human interface are realized by Lab view software. The system proposed in the study is feasible for calibrating Electronic Voltage/Current Transformers (EVT/ECT of different voltage classes. System tests show that the precision of the system can get to 0.2°.

  4. 掌握PCI Express电源管理机能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乃塘

    2004-01-01

    PCI Express电潦管理的终极目标,自然就是做好省电的控制,并在不使用时就进入体眠或中止模式,一旦要回复过来,也必须通过唤醒(Wake)的过程。PCI Express定义了LO.LOs、L1、L2以及L3等连接状态,也就是电源管理的具体实现方式。而所谓的。PME-power management event信息”.就是唤醒的运用之道。

  5. Prediction Study on PCI Failure of Reactor Fuel Based on a Radial Basis Function Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pellet-clad interaction (PCI is one of the major issues in fuel rod design and reactor core operation in water cooled reactors. The prediction of fuel rod failure by PCI is studied in this paper by the method of radial basis function neural network (RBFNN. The neural network is built through the analysis of the existing experimental data. It is concluded that it is a suitable way to reduce the calculation complexity. A self-organized RBFNN is used in our study, which can vary its structure dynamically in order to maintain the prediction accuracy. For the purpose of the appropriate network complexity and overall computational efficiency, the hidden neurons in the RBFNN can be changed online based on the neuron activity and mutual information. The presented method is tested by the experimental data from the reference, and the results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  6. Single-chip correlator implementation for PCI-bus personal computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Perlmutter, Stephen H.; Wolt, Barry

    2000-03-01

    We have previously reported on the design and operation of a novel single-chip optical correlator prototype. Two ferroelectric liquid crystal SLMs and a high-speed APS camera were built into a single CMOS integrated circuit. Diffractive Fourier transform lenses were fabricated onto the surface of a window which was mounted on top of the chip. We are now working towards implementing the correlator as a business card-sized module mounted on a PCI card which can be plugged into the motherboard of industry standard PCs. We are also upgrading the SLMs to have analog optical modulation capability. The PCI card contains input and output image buffers, plus high-speed circuitry which digitizes the four analog output channels of the correlator's camera. This paper describes the system we are developing, some of the electronic and optical engineering issues involved, and the present status of our work.

  7. Comparison of the PCI distortion effects on the Auger lineshape for electron and photon impact ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paripas, B. [Department of Physics, University of Miskolc, 3515 Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary)]. E-mail: fizpari@gold.uni-miskolc.hu; Vitez, G. [Department of Physics, University of Miskolc, 3515 Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary); Vikor, Gy. [Department of Atomic Physics, Stockholm University, 10405 (Sweden); Tokesi, K. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Sankari, R. [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Calo, A. [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2005-05-01

    The distortion effects of the post-collision interaction (PCI) on the Ar LMM Auger electron lineshape for electron and photon impact ionization have been calculated. The calculations were based on the eikonal model of Kuchiev and Sheinerman [Sov. Phys. - Tech. Phys. 32 (1987) 879]. It is shown that the Auger peak asymmetry depends on the emission angle of the Auger electron relative to the primary beam (and the polarization vector of the photon beam). At a given excess energy, defined as the difference between the impact energy and the binding energy, the absolute value of the Auger peak asymmetry is always larger for electron impact ionization than for photoionization. At the same time, the angular dependence of the PCI distortion is stronger for photoionization. In both cases the Auger peak asymmetry has a maximum when the energy of the ejected electron and that of the Auger electron are nearly equal. The calculations are in good agreement with our previous experimental results.

  8. CMS Tracker Readout Prototype Front-End Driver PCI Mezzanine Card (Mk1) (connector side)

    CERN Multimedia

    J.Coughlan

    1998-01-01

    The tracking system of the CMS detector at the LHC employs Front End Driver (FED) cards to digitise, buffer and sparsify analogue data arriving via optical links from on detector pipeline chips. This paper describes a prototype version of the FED based upon the popular commercial PCI bus Mezzanine Card (PMC) form factor. The FED-PMC consists of an 8 channel, 9 bit ADC, card, providing a 1 MByte data buffer and operating at the LHC design frequency of 40 MHz. The core of the card is a re-programmable FPGA which allows the functionality of the card to be conveniently modified. The card is supplied with a comprehensive library of C routines.The PMC form factor allows the card to be plugged onto a wide variety of processor carrier boards and even directly into PCI based PCs. The flexibility of the FPGA based design permits the card to be used in a variety of ADC based applications.

  9. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medroxyprogesterone intramuscular (into a muscle) injection and medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous (under the skin) injection are used to prevent pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which ...

  10. Pentamidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentamidine injection is used to treat pneumonia caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis carinii. It is in ... Pentamidine injection comes as powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) ...

  11. Fractional flow reserve-guided PCI for stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruyne, Bernard; Fearon, William F; Pijls, Nico H J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that in patients with stable coronary artery disease and stenosis, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed on the basis of the fractional flow reserve (FFR) would be superior to medical therapy. METHODS: In 1220 patients with stable coronary artery disease, we......-therapy group (8.1% vs. 19.5%; hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.57; Pratio, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.38; P

  12. Determine Operating Reactor to Use for the 2016 PCI Level 1 Milestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-30

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) (CASL) Level 1 milestone to “Assess the analysis capability for core-wide [pressurized water reactor] PWR Pellet- Clad Interaction (PCI) screening and demonstrate detailed 3-D analysis on selected sub-region” (L1:CASL.P13.03) requires a particular type of nuclear power plant for the assessment. This report documents the operating reactor and cycles chosen for this assessment in completion of the physics integration (PHI) milestone to “Determine Operating Reactor to use for PCI L1 Milestone” (L3:PHI.CMD.P12.02). Watts Bar Unit 1 experienced (at least) one fuel rod failure in each of cycles 6 and 7, and at least one was deemed to be duty related rather than being primarily related to a manufacturing defect or grid effects. This brief report documents that the data required to model cycles 1–12 of Watts Bar Unit 1 using VERA-CS contains sufficient data to model the PHI portion of the PCI challenge problem. A list of additional data needs is also provided that will be important for verification and validation of the BISON results.

  13. Comparison of radial to femoral PCI in acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sumeet; Kakar, Ron; Overgaard, Christopher B

    2015-07-01

    In randomized control trials and meta-analyses in patients with acute MI undergoing PCI, the radial artery (RA) approach compared to the femoral artery (FA) approach has shown to safely reduce access site related bleeding, length of hospitalization, and major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rates. However, these studies have excluded patients with cardiogenic shock. A systematic search was conducted to retrieve studies that investigated the safety of RA to FA PCI in patients with AMI and cardiogenic shock. Primary outcomes of interest was the pooled relative risk ratio (RR) of access site related bleeding. Secondary outcomes included (i) 30-day all cause mortality, (ii) major bleeding, (iii) final TIMI 3 flow, (iv) fluoroscopy time, and (v) amount of contrast volume administered. 6 observational studies with 7,753 patients met inclusion; 5,347 (69 %) with STEMI, 2,406 (31 %) with non-STEMI. In comparison of RA to FA PCI, there was less access site related bleeding (relative risk (RR) 0.11, p = 0.001), less 30-day mortality (RR 0.65, p = 0.0 cardiogenic shock.

  14. Analysis of Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard [PCI DSS] Compliance by Confluence of COBIT 5 Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Ukidve

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS aims to enhance the security of cardholder data and is required when cardholder data or authentication data are stored, processed or transmitted. The implementation of enabling processes from COBIT 5 can complement compliance to PCI DSS. COBIT 5 assists enterprises in governance and management of enterprise IT and, at the same time, supports the need to meet security requirements with supporting processes and management activities. This paper provides analysis of mapping of COBIT 5 supporting processes to PCI DSS 3.0 security requirements. It also presents domains which support the simultaneous application of COBIT 5 and PCI DSS 3.0 which would help create collaborations within the enterprise

  15. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091749 Cai Hou’an(College of Energy Geology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin SHRIMP U-Pb Isotope Age of Volcanic Rocks Distributed in the Badaohao Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,36(4),2008,p.17-20,2 illus.,1 table,16 refs.)Key words:coal measures,volcanic rocks,U-Pb dating,LiaoningA set of andesite volcanic rocks distributes in the Badaohao area in Heishan County,Liaoning Province.It’s geological age and stratigraphy sequence relationship between the Lower Cretaceous Badaohao Formation and the volcanic rocks can not make sure till now and is influencing the further prospect for coals.Zircon

  16. Americas coal conference. Conference documentation and information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Ten papers are presented with the following titles: the impact of mergers in the North American coal industry (R. McCormick); mine developments and port options for Colombian producers (M. InesCastro); mine operations and port options for the Guaare Basin (J. Albornoz); the impact of the Asian crisis and currency changes on the European steam market (D. Rousseau and M. Walters). Aceralia's experience with pulverized coal injection (A. Garcia); Barranguilla's coke plant, an investment opportunity (H. Celedon and E. Thiers); the impact of greenhouse gas controls on European coal markets (P. Horrocks); over the counter (OTC) coal trading in the US - is the South American market next? (S. Doyle); developing the role for rail in Colombia's coal exports (L. Diego); and prospects for US imports (D. Edwards and F. Hill). Most of the papers consist of a printout of the overheads/viewgraphs.

  17. The "Taste of Turnover" Exhibit Monitoring System Based on PCI-1751%基于PCI-1751的模拟翻车展项监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟汉如; 罗建华

    2008-01-01

    设计了一种新型的展项监控系统,在模拟翻车展项平台的应用中解决了现场信号的抗干扰问题.本系统采用PCI-1751卡进行数据采集,完成特定对象的数据处理,从而控制变频电机的平稳运行,实现汽车的回旋翻转,具有良好的可靠性和极高的准确性;同时系统用VB设计了后台控制程序和友好的人机界面.

  18. A High-Speed DMA Transmission System Based on PCI Express Bus%一种基于PCI Express总线的DMA高速传输系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯杭呈; 王忆文; 李辉

    2013-01-01

    A high speed transmission system based on PCI Express bus was described,together with the design of DMA.Two FIFOs were fitted at both ends of the transmission card to provide standard FIFO interface,which was connected with fiber channel data,CT image acquisition data,A/D sampling data,etc.Experimental results verified the reliability of transmission in DMA read/write modes,and the speed of DMA transaction was measured.It has been shown that the high speed transmission system based on lane 8 PCI express bus had a DMA transaction speed up to 1 000 MB/s for a DMA transfer size of 1 M byte,which meets the requirement of most high speed data transmission applications.%介绍了DMA高速传输系统的结构以及DMA的设计,搭建了×8通道的PCIE系统.在整个系统的板卡终端,连接了两个FIFO,提供标准的FIFO接口,能连接光纤数据、CT图像采集数据、A/D采样数据等.实验验证了DMA读和DMA写两种传输方式的可靠性,测试了DMA读写的传输速度.实验表明,在单次DMA传输大小达到1MB时,×8通道的PCIE系统DMA读和写速度均能达到1 000 MB/s,可满足大部分高速数据传输的要求.

  19. Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

  20. Relationship of the distance between non-PCI hospitals and primary PCI centers, mode of transport, and reperfusion time among ground and air interhospital transfers using NCDR's ACTION Registry-GWTG: a report from the American Heart Association Mission: Lifeline Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Benjamin D; Dhindsa, Harinder S; Roe, Matthew T; Chen, Anita Y; Jollis, James G; Kontos, Michael C

    2014-12-01

    ST-segment myocardial infarction patients frequently present to non-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) hospitals and require interhospital transfer for primary PCI. The effect of distance and mode of transport to the PCI center and the frequency that recommended primary PCI times are met are not clear. Data from the ACTION Registry(®)-GWTG™ were used to determine the distance between the Non-PCI and PCI center and first door time to balloon time based on transfer mode (ground and air) for patients having interhospital transfer for primary PCI. From July 1, 2008, to December 31, 2012, 17 052 ST-segment myocardial infarction patients were transferred to 413 PCI hospitals. The median distance from the non-PCI hospital to the primary PCI center was 31.9 miles (Q1, Q3: 19.1, 47.9; ground 25.2 miles; air 43.9 miles; P40 miles air transport predominanted. Median first door time to balloon time time for patients transferred for primary PCI was 118 minutes (Q1, Q3: 95 152), with time for patients transported by air significantly longer (median 124 versus 113 minutes; respectively, Ptransfer for primary PCI is associated with prolonged reperfusion times. These delays should prompt increased consideration of fibrinolytic therapy, emergency medical services hospital bypass protocols, and improved systems of care for ST-segment myocardial infarction patients requiring transfer. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  2. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  3. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  4. Further validation of the hybrid algorithm for CTO PCI; difficult lesions, same success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basir, Mir B; Karatasakis, Aris; Alqarqaz, Mohammad; Danek, Barbara; Rangan, Bavana V; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Kim, Henry; O'Neill, William W; Alaswad, Khaldoon

    To evaluate the success rates and outcome of the hybrid algorithm for chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) by a single operator in two different clinical settings. We compared 279 consecutive CTO PCIs performed by a single, high-volume operator using the hybrid algorithm in two different clinical settings. Data were collected through the PROGRESS CTO Registry. We compared 145 interventions performed in a community program (cohort A) with 134 interventions performed in a referral center (cohort B). Patient in cohort B had more complex lesions with higher J-CTO (3.0 vs. 3.41; pCTO (1.5 vs.1.8, P=0.003) scores, more moderate to severe tortuosity (38% vs. 64%; pCTO PCI attempts (15% vs. 35%; p=0.001). Both technical (95% vs. 91%; p=0.266) and procedural (94% vs. 88%; p=0.088) success rates were similar between the two cohorts despite significantly different lesion complexity. Overall major adverse cardiovascular events were higher in cohort B (1.4% vs. 7.8%; p=0.012) without any significant difference in mortality (0.7% vs. 2.3%, p=0.351). In spite of higher lesion complexity in the setting of a quaternary-care referral center, use of the hybrid algorithm for CTO PCI enabled similarly high technical and procedural success rates as compared with those previously achieved by the same operator in a community-based program at the expense of a higher rate of MACE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Specified Procedure for Distress Identification and Assessment for Urban Road Surfaces Based on PCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Loprencipe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simplified procedure for the assessment of pavement structural integrity and the level of service for urban road surfaces is presented. A sample of 109 Asphalt Concrete (AC urban pavements of an Italian road network was considered to validate the methodology. As part of this research, the most recurrent defects, those never encountered and those not defined with respect to the list collected in the ASTM D6433 have been determined by statistical analysis. The goal of this research is the improvement of the ASTM D6433 Distress Identification Catalogue to be adapted to urban road surfaces. The presented methodology includes the implementation of a Visual Basic for Application (VBA language-based program for the computerization of Pavement Condition Index (PCI calculation with interpolation by the parametric cubic spline of all of the density/deduct value curves of ASTM D6433 distress types. Also, two new distress definitions (for manholes and for tree roots and new density/deduct curve values were proposed to achieve a new distress identification manual for urban road pavements. To validate the presented methodology, for the 109 urban pavements considered, the PCI was calculated using the new distress catalogue and using the ASTM D6433 implemented on PAVERTM. The results of the linear regression between them and their statistical parameters are presented in this paper. The comparison of the results shows that the proposed method is suitable for the identification and assessment of observed distress in urban pavement surfaces at the PCI-based scale.

  6. Improvement in PCI property of PWR fuel cladding by texture control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, S. (Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)); Abeta, S.; Ozawa, M.; Takahashi, T.

    1993-09-01

    Effects of texture on out-of-pile Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) resistance in Zircaloy fuel cladding tube and the Pellet-Clad Interaction (PCI) property of a fuel rod using texture controlled cladding tube under power ramp conditions are described. The cladding tube with radial texture, which means that the c-axis of hcp crystal of Zr is highly concentrated in the radial direction of the tube, showed excellent performance in out-of-pile SCC tests and power ramp tests. (author).

  7. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such ... if you are allergic to doripenem injection; other carbapenem antibiotics such as imipenem/cilastatin (Primaxin) or meropenem ( ...

  8. Methotrexate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methotrexate injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat gestational trophoblastic tumors (a ... in bones) after surgery to remove the tumor. Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis ( ...

  9. Bendamustine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendamustine injection is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white ... injection. You should use birth control to prevent pregnancy in yourself or your partner during your treatment ...

  10. Caspofungin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspofungin injection is used in adults and children 3 months of age and older to treat yeast ... people with a weakened ability to fight infection. Caspofungin injection is in a class of antifungal medications ...

  11. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temozolomide is used to treat certain types of brain tumors. Temozolomide is in a class of medications called alkylating ... Temozolomide injection comes as a powder to be added to fluid and injected over 90 minutes intravenously ( ...

  12. Pembrolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with ... who have a specific type of melanoma tumor. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain ...

  13. Lacosamide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants like lacosamide injection to treat various conditions during ...

  14. Midazolam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called benzodiazepines. It works by slowing activity in the brain ... breast-feeding.talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of receiving midazolam injection if you ...

  15. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  16. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  17. Etanercept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will be using the prefilled syringe or automatic injection device, tell your doctor if you or the person who will be injecting the medication for you are allergic to rubber or latex.tell your doctor and pharmacist what ...

  18. Cyclosporine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyclosporine injection is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by ... who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat people ...

  19. Estrogen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estradiol cypionate and estradiol valerate forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot ... should consider a different treatment. These forms of estrogen injection are also sometimes used to treat the ...

  20. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefotaxime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory ... skin, blood, bone, joint, and urinary tract infections. Cefotaxime injection may also be used before surgery, and ...

  1. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  2. Coal - proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-14

    This Standard establishes a practice for the proximate analysis of coal, that is, the coal is analysed for the content of moisture, ash and volatile matter; fixed carbon is calculated. The standard provides a basis for the comparison of coals.

  3. Ustekinumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do not inject into an area where the skin is tender, bruised, red, or hard or where you have scars or stretch marks.Your doctor or pharmacist will ... injection.you should know that ustekinumab injection may decrease your ability ... new or changing skin lesions, minor infections (such as open cuts or ...

  4. Ranitidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranitidine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be mixed with another fluid and injected intravenously (into a vein) over 5 to 20 minutes. Ranitidine may also be injected into a muscle. It is usually given every 6 to 8 hours, but may also be given ...

  5. 井下注气强化煤层气抽采效果的工程试验与数值模拟%Test and numerical simulation on effect of enhanced coalbed methane drawing by injecting gas under coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志强; 王兆丰

    2011-01-01

    为提高特低渗透煤层的煤层气抽采效果,在重庆天府矿业公司850 m深井,采用注入组分为78%的N2的方法,进行了强化注抽煤层气的工业性试验.分别试验了单孔与多孔干扰情况下自然涌出、负压抽采、注气涌出、边注边抽和间歇注气试验.结果表明:在常规抽采达到极限后进行注气,甲烷抽采时间-浓度曲线呈现先上升后下降的单峰波形状态,间歇注抽的甲烷浓度高于边注边抽的甲烷浓度,但衰减较快,注气距离短,长时边注边抽的注抽效果好于间歇注抽效果.注气孔网间距4 m,渗透率1.112×10-4mD的煤层,连续注抽5 d后,抽采率由卸压后负压极限抽采的52.4%提高到58.6%.建立了空气注采甲烷的渗流理论方程,计算了合理的注气孔网间距、注气时间、压力等技术参数,讨论了注气技术方法的适用条件和辅助技术,为推广这一技术提供了工程与理论参考.同时,提出了抽采后注气的变定解条件渗流方程解算的科学问题.%In order to improve the extraction effect of ultra-low permeability coalbed methane, injecting and drawing industry test of enhanced coalbed methane recovery is carried out by injecting concentration 78% N2 under 850 m depth coal mine of Tianfu Mining Co. Ltd. , in Chongqing. The experiments of free methane emission, vacuum pumping, side injecting and side emission, side injecting and side drawing and intermittent injecting are tested under the condition of single hole and multi holes respectively. The testing results indicate that time-concentration curve of methane drawing is a single peak wave curve which increases and decreases during injecting N2 after reaching the limits of ordinary extraction. The methane concentration of intermittent injecting gas is greater than that of side injecting and side drawing. However, the former declines rapidly and has a shorter migration distance than the latter. The injecting effect of long time side

  6. A validation study of the Brazilian version of the pornography consumption inventory (PCI) in a sample of female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; Luísa de Souza Gatti, Ana; Henrique de Oliveira, Vitor; Junqueira Aguiar, Ana Saito; Almeida de Souza Aranha e Silva, Renata

    2016-02-01

    Although men constitute the widest consumer group of pornography, the Internet has facilitated both the production of and access to pornographic material by women as well. However, few measures are available to examine pornography-use constructs, which can compromise the reliability of statements regarding the harmful use of pornography. Our study aimed to confirm the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Pornography Consumption Inventory (PCI) in a sample of female university students in Brazil. The PCI is a four-factor, 15-item, five-point Likert-type scale. After translation and back-translation of the PCI, it was administered to 105 female medical students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the construct validity. The results supported the four-factor model of the PCI. The model showed adequate internal reliability and good fit indices (comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.95, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.94, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.07 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.04-0.09), and standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.08). Overall, the findings from this study support the use of the PCI in Portuguese-speaking women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Three-dimensional virtual surgery models for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hujun; Liu, Jinghua; Zheng, Xu; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Xuwei; Peng, Hongyu; Silber-Li, Zhanghua; Li, Mujun; Liu, Liyu

    2015-06-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially coronary stent implantation, has been shown to be an effective treatment for coronary artery disease. However, in-stent restenosis is one of the longstanding unsolvable problems following PCI. Although stents implanted inside narrowed vessels recover normal flux of blood flows, they instantaneously change the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution on the vessel surface. Improper stent implantation positions bring high possibilities of restenosis as it enlarges the low WSS regions and subsequently stimulates more epithelial cell outgrowth on vessel walls. To optimize the stent position for lowering the risk of restenosis, we successfully established a digital three-dimensional (3-D) model based on a real clinical coronary artery and analysed the optimal stenting strategies by computational simulation. Via microfabrication and 3-D printing technology, the digital model was also converted into in vitro microfluidic models with 3-D micro channels. Simultaneously, physicians placed real stents inside them; i.e., they performed “virtual surgeries”. The hydrodynamic experimental results showed that the microfluidic models highly inosculated the simulations. Therefore, our study not only demonstrated that the half-cross stenting strategy could maximally reduce restenosis risks but also indicated that 3-D printing combined with clinical image reconstruction is a promising method for future angiocardiopathy research.

  8. LabVIEW Interface for PCI-SpaceWire Interface Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James; Loya, Frank; Bachmann, Alex

    2005-01-01

    This software provides a LabView interface to the NT drivers for the PCISpaceWire card, which is a peripheral component interface (PCI) bus interface that conforms to the IEEE-1355/ SpaceWire standard. As SpaceWire grows in popularity, the ability to use SpaceWire links within LabVIEW will be important to electronic ground support equipment vendors. In addition, there is a need for a high-level LabVIEW interface to the low-level device- driver software supplied with the card. The LabVIEW virtual instrument (VI) provides graphical interfaces to support all (1) SpaceWire link functions, including message handling and routing; (2) monitoring as a passive tap using specialized hardware; and (3) low-level access to satellite mission-control subsystem functions. The software is supplied in a zip file that contains LabVIEW VI files, which provide various functions of the PCI-SpaceWire card, as well as higher-link-level functions. The VIs are suitably named according to the matching function names in the driver manual. A number of test programs also are provided to exercise various functions.

  9. Comparative analysis for performance of brown coal combustion in a vortex furnace with improved design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasinsky, D. V.

    2016-09-01

    Comparative study of 3D numerical simulation of fluid flow and coal-firing processes was applied for flame combustion of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal in a vortex furnace of improved design with bottom injection of secondary air. The analysis of engineering performance of this furnace was carried out for several operational modes as a function of coal grinding fineness and coal input rate. The preferable operational regime for furnace was found.

  10. Queensland coal inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-01

    Australia's black coal resources rank in the top five globally, around 50% of which are located in the sedimentary basins of Queensland. The Bowen Basin is the most prolific coal repository, hosting over 60% of the currently established resource inventory. Large volumes of thermal coal are present in the Surat and Galilee basins as well as small extensional and pull apart basins such as Blair Athol and Tarong. The article examines Queensland's coal industry from a government perspective. It first discusses the current coal market, then introduces the concept of inventory coal and explains the Australia Joint Ore Reserves Committee (JORC) code - a resource evaluation system. The stratigraphy of each of Queensland's coal basins is then discussed in sections headed Permian coals, Triassic coals, Jurassic and Cretaceous coals, and Tertiary coals. 3 figs.

  11. The Application of PCI-1712 Data Acquisition Card in Impact Testing Machine%PCI-1712数据采集卡在冲击试验机上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海

    2007-01-01

    文章介绍了一款性能优异的多功能数据采集卡PCI-1712.针对RPSW摆锤示波冲击试验机计算机数据采集及处理系统存在的问题,用PCI-1712对设备数据采集系统硬件进行了改造.本文主要阐述了这款数据采集卡在Visual Basic环境下进行数据采集的一些主要方法.

  12. Coal-derived carbon nanotubes by thermal plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, Y.L.; Wang, B.J.; Ji, W.J.; Zhang, Y.F.; Xie, K.C. [Nanjing University, Nanjing (China). Dept. of Physics

    2004-07-01

    A coal/arc-jet technique by directly and successively injecting coal fine particles into the arc plasma jet instead of arcing graphite or coal-based electrodes for producing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from coal was developed. The derived carbon products by this technique were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrum. The experimental results clearly indicated that certain metal catalysts favored the growth of CNTs in the process, and the relevant growth mechanism was discussed in terms of the characterizations.

  13. Subepicardial haematoma, a rare and potentially lethal complication of CTO-PCI: case of an exceptional recovery after conservative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Annemiek M J; van der Schaaf, Rene J

    2014-10-09

    We present the case of an 82-year-old woman undergoing high-risk chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO-PCI) of the right coronary artery. Hours after the procedure, a subepicardial haematoma was diagnosed as a result of coronary perforation during the procedure. This rare and potentially lethal complication evolved exceptionally benignly after conservative management; our patient fully recovered. Increasingly complex procedures in high-risk patient categories warrant awareness of procedural complications, especially those that are subtle and appear relatively late, and are therefore most hazardous. Recognition of this rare complication and choosing the optimal strategy is of the utmost importance when dealing with patients who undergo PCI. We here describe the rare case of a potential lethal complication in high-risk CTO-PCI, which evolved relatively benignly. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Sodium pump distribution is not reversed in the DBA/2FG-pcy, polycystic kidney disease model mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, G; Nagao, S; Yamamoto, A; Omori, K; Komatz, Y; Takahashi, H; Tashiro, Y

    1994-06-01

    Recently, it has been reported that Na,K-ATPase in the renal epithelia of human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and cpk mouse, a murine model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, mislocates to apical plasma membrane and that mislocated Na,K-ATPase causes the cyst formation. Whether the DBA/2FG-pcy mice, which are presumably a suitable model for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, also exhibit the reversal polarity of Na,K-ATPase localization was examined. Kidneys of newborn DBA/2FG-pcy mice, and those at early and late stages of cyst development were examined by immunohistochemical techniques. At any stage, abnormal distribution of Na,K-ATPase on the apical membranes of tubular epithelial cells could not be detected. It is suggested that cysts can be formed without reversed polarity of Na,K-ATPase distribution in pcy mice.

  15. PCI总线从接口的设计与验证%Design and Verification of PCI-slave Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫福鑫; 许志宏; 刘佑宝

    2012-01-01

    讨论了一种包括配置空间和I/0空间的从PCI( PCI -slave)接口电路的Verilog HDL设计.重点介绍了顶层的系统架构,对其进行了功能分析和结构划分,并详细阐述了各子模块电路的设计和实现.根据PCI总线交易时序,给出使用有限状态机实现接收总线信号控制本地逻辑的方法.针对PCI时序的复杂性,提出了一种新颖实用的PCI系统验证方法,并重点讲述了组建验证平台的方法及其优点.通过编写测试激励程序完成了功能仿真,仿真和验证的结果表明,该接口电路在功能和时序上符合PCI技术规范,达到了预定的目标.%The Verilog HDL design for PCI-slave interface including configuration space and I/O space is discussed. A general overview of the top-level architecture is provided, the thought and the function of each module are also introduced in detail. The timing simulation is implemented and the method of using the state machine is put forward to ensure the proper completion of the bus operation. A new verification methodology for PCI system is discussed. In addition, the approach to test bench and it's advantage are also emphasized. The result of timing simulation and experiment shows that the design of PCI-slave interface complies with PCI local bus specification revision and achieves the expectation.

  16. Duct injection technology prototype development: Evaluation of engineering data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development Project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2}emissions control method to existing coal-fired power plants. The necessary engineering design and scale-up criteria will be developed for the commercialization of duct injection technology for the control of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers in the utility industry. The primary focus of the analyses summarized in this Topical Report is the review of the known technical and economic information associated with duct injection technology. (VC)

  17. Long-term outcome of FFR-guided PCI for stable coronary artery disease in daily clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Biasco, Luigi; Lønborg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Our aim was to investigate the strength of fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for stable coronary artery disease (CAD) in daily practice. METHODS AND RESULTS: For this study, 3,512 patients with stable CAD and at least one 50-89% coronary stenosis...... were identified; those patients thought to require PCI (n=1,716) were selected. Of these, 962 (56%) were treated based on angiography (XA) alone, whereas 754 patients (44%) had an FFR-guided treatment. In the latter group, 321 patients (43%) were reallocated to another treatment, predominantly medical...

  18. Efficient photocarrier injection in a transition metal oxide heterostructure

    CERN Document Server

    Muraoka, Y; Ueda, Y; Hiroi, Z

    2002-01-01

    An efficient method for doping a transition metal oxide (TMO) with hole carriers is presented: photocarrier injection (PCI) in an oxide heterostructure. It is shown that an insulating vanadium dioxide (VO sub 2) film is rendered metallic under light irradiation by PCI from an n-type titanium dioxide (TiO sub 2) substrate doped with Nb. Consequently, a large photoconductivity, which is exceptional for TMOs, is found in the VO sub 2 /TiO sub 2 :Nb heterostructure. We propose an electronic band structure where photoinduced holes created in TiO sub 2 :Nb can be transferred into the filled V 3d band via the low-lying O 2p band of VO sub 2. (letter to the editor)

  19. Applied coal petrology: the role of petrology in coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isabel Suarez-Ruiz; John Crelling [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    This book is an integrated approach towards the applications of coal (organic) petrology and discusses the role of this science in the field of coal and coal-related topics. Contents are: Introduction 2. Basic factors controlling coal quality and technological behaviour of coal 3. Mining and benefication 4. Coal combustion 5. Coal gasification 6. Coal liquefaction 7. Coal carbonisation 8. Coal-derived carbons 9. Coal as a Petroleum source rock and reservoir rock 10. Environmental and health aspects 11. Other applications of coal petrology.

  20. Gender Related Survival Differences in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Treated with Primary PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanic, Vojko; Vollrath, Maja; Naji, Franjo Husam; Sinkovic, Andreja

    2016-01-01

    Data about gender as an independent risk factor for death in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients is still contrasting. Aim was to assess how gender influences in-hospital and long-term all-cause mortality in STEMI patients with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in our region. We analysed data from 2069 STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI in our institution from January 2009-December 2014, of whom 28.9% were women. In-hospital and long-term mortality were observed in women and men. The effect of gender on in-hospital mortality was assessed by binary logistic regression modelling and by Cox regression analysis for long-term mortality. Women were older (68.3±61.8 vs 61.8±12.0 years; p<0.0001), with a higher prevalence of diabetes (13.7% vs 9.9%; p=0.013) and tend to be more frequently admitted in cardiogenic shock (8.4% vs 6.3%; p =0.085). They were less frequently treated with bivalirudin (15.9% vs 20.3%; p=0.022). In-hospital mortality was higher among women (14.2% vs 7.8%; p<0.0001). After adjustment, age (adjusted OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.08; p < 0.001) and cardiogenic shock at admission (adjusted OR: 24.56; 95% CI: 11.98 to 50.35; p < 0.001), but not sex (adjusted OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 0.80 to 2.71) were identified as prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality. During the median follow-up of 27 months (25th, 75th percentile: 9, 48) the mortality rate (23.6% vs 15.1%; p<0.0001) was significantly higher in women. The multivariate adjusted Cox regression model identified age (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.04-1.07; p<0.0001), cardiogenic shock at admission (HR 6.09; 95% CI 3.78-9.81; p<0.0001), hypertension (HR 1.49; 95% CI 1.02-2.18; p<0.046), but not sex (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.74-1.47) as independent prognostic factors of follow-up mortality. Older age and worse clinical presentation rather than gender may explain the higher mortality rate in women with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.

  1. Switching from Clopidogrel to Prasugrel in patients undergoing PCI: A meta-analytic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoia, Monica; Barbieri, Lucia; Suryapranata, Harry; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated benefits of Prasugrel, a new generation thienopyridine, in the prevention of thrombotic complications after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) for Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS), its use is still precluded to those many patients arriving to the cath lab pre-treated with Clopidogrel. Conclusive data on the strategy of switching from Clopidogrel to Prasugrel are still missing, therefore we aimed to perform a meta-analysis of current studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of switching from Clopidogrel to Prasugrel (PS) as compared to a standard thienopyridine therapy with Clopidogrel or Prasugrel in patients undergoing PCI. Literature archives and main scientific sessions' abstracts were scanned for studies comparing a switching strategy from Clopidogrel to Prasugrel vs. Prasugrel or Clopidogrel. Primary efficacy endpoint was overall mortality. Secondary endpoints were: non-fatal myocardial infarction and definite/probable stent thrombosis. Safety endpoint was the rate of major bleedings according to a per-protocol definition. A total of 12 studies, involving 3956 patients, were included. Among them, 1396 patients (35.3%), received Prasugrel after a Clopidogrel treatment (PS), while 2560 (64.7%) received either Prasugrel or Clopidogrel. The switch from Clopidogrel to Prasugrel was in the majority of the studies periprocedural. The mortality was numerically lower, but not statistically significant, in the PS group as compared with patients who did not switch (1.7% vs. 3.8%, OR [95% CI] = 0.68 [0.40,1.15], p = 0.15, phet = 0.61), without any relationship with patients' risk profile (r = -0.68 [-2.09, 0.73], p = 0.35). Similar results were obtained for secondary efficacy endpoints and at sensitivity analysis in the majority of subgroups evaluated. Moreover, the PS strategy did not increase major bleedings as compared with standard therapy (1.4% vs. 2.5%, OR [95% CI = 0.70 [0.39, 1.25], p = 0.23, phet = 0.6). The present meta

  2. Coal-fueled diesel technology development: Nozzle development for coal-fueled diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N.; Lee, M.; White, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Direct injection of a micronized coal water mixture fuel into the combustion chambers of a diesel engine requires atomizing an abrasive slurry fuel with accurately sized orifices. Five injector orifice materials were evaluated: diamond compacts, chemical vapor deposited diamond tubes, thermally stabilized diamond, tungsten carbide with cobalt binder, and tungsten carbide with nickel binder with brazed and mechanically mounted orifice inserts. Nozzle bodies were fabricated of Armco 17-4 precipitation hardening stainless steel and Stellite 6B in order to withstand cyclic injection pressures and elevated temperatures. Based on a total of approximately 200 cylinder hours of engine operation with coal water mixture fuel diamond compacts were chosen for the orifice material.

  3. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...

  4. Development of a PCI Based Data Acquisition Platform for High Intensity Accelerator Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Higuchi, T; Ikeno, M; Igarashi, Y; Inoue, E; Itoh, R; Kodama, H; Murakami, T; Nakao, M; Nakayoshi, K; Saitoh, M; Shimazaki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Tanaka, M; Tauchi, K; Yamauchi, M; Yasu, Y; Varner, G; Nagasaka, Y; Katayama, T; Watanabe, K; Ishizuka, M; Onozawa, S; Li, C J

    2003-01-01

    Data logging at an upgraded KEKB accelerator or the J-PARC facility, currently under commission, requires a high density data acquisition platform with integrated data reduction CPUs. To follow market trends, we have developed a DAQ platform based on the PCI bus, a choice which permits a fast DAQ and a long expected lifetime of the system. The platform is a 9U-VME motherboard consisting of four slots for signal digitization modules, readout FIFOs for data buffering, and three PMC slots, on one of which resides a data reduction CPU. We have performed long term and thermal stability tests. The readout speed on the platform has been measured up to 125 MB/s in DMA mode.

  5. Introduzione al carteggio Benelli-Gozzini, ovvero sulla militanza dei credenti nel Pci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giambattista Scirè

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Questo contributo propone lo scambio epistolare tra il cardinale di Firenze Giovanni Benelli e l’intellettuale fiorentino Mario Gozzini, con una introduzione che, alla luce delle carte conservate nel Fondo Gozzini, permette di capire il contesto in cui avvenne il significativo carteggio. Il tema affrontato è il rapporto tra cristianesimo e marxismo, tra credenti e Partito comunista italiano. La vicenda va collocata tra la fine degli anni Settanta e gli inizi degli anni Ottanta, quando un intenso dibattito sul declino della politica e della cultura cattolica nella società contemporanea animava il mondo cattolico italiano (intellettuali, politici e sacerdoti e, in particolare, quello della città di Firenze. In questo contesto di crisi del partito cattolico, le proposte di ‘riaggregazione’ dell’area cattolica si scontrano con la nascita del gruppo parlamentare della Sinistra indipendente, eletto nelle file del Pci.

  6. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  7. Colombian coal focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warden-Fernandez, J.; Rodriguez, L.E. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-01

    The paper reviews the development of Colombia's coal industry over recent years. Colombia has recently modernised its mining code, Law 685 of 2001 concerning mineral rights and including the concept of sustainable development. The article discusses the legislation, analyses trends in Columbia's income from the coal and mineral industries (nickel, gold, emerald), and briefly discusses coal reserves, mining projects, coal exports and markets for Colombian coal. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Coal markets in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romer, R.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Colorado's coal industry, and the implementation of a nine point mining plan announced in 1988. This plan includes an environmental regulatory review, coal royalty reform, production and marketing incentives, clean coal and clean air issues, and promotion of the coal industry. Other issues to be addressed are abandoned mine reclamation, abandoned mine safety and land reclamation after surface mining. International markets for Colorado coal are also discussed.

  9. Coal combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  10. Injection MD

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Drosdal, L; Gianfelice, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Papaphilippou, Y; Vanbavinckhove, G

    2012-01-01

    This note summarizes the results obtained at injection during the 2nd MD block and the floating MD block in July. Highlights are presented for injection in the LHC with the Q20 SPS optics, influence of the supercycle and injection with 25 ns bunch spacing. Beams were successfully injected into the LHC using the Q20 optics [1, 3]. Small corrections were needed to steer the beam in the transfer lines. Dispersion measurements were conducted for both beams. The horizontal normalized dispersion in TI2 was a factor 2 smaller for Q20 with respect to Q26, for TI8 on the other hand the opposite was observed. The results for injection loss dependency on super cycle composition show only a small increase in losses for beam 2. The losses observed must therefore mainly come from other sources such as shot-by-shot stability or quality of scraping. For the injection with 25 ns bunch spacing bunches were injected for both beams. For B1 up to the maximum of 288 bunches. For B2 on the other only up to 144 bunches were injected...

  11. 急诊 PCI 术前服美托洛尔降低再灌注心律失常发生率%Metoprolol administration before emergency PCI can decrease incidence rate of reperfusion arrhythmia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周榕; 周贻

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore whether metoprolol administration before emergency percutaneous coronary inter‐vention (PCI) can reduce incidence rate of reperfusion arrhythmia (RA) or not .Methods :According to random number table ,a total of 80 patients with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction (age70 beats/min ,no PR interval prolongation ) were randomly and equally divided into routine treatment group (didn't receive metoprolol tartrate tablet before emergency PCI ) and metoprolol group (received metoprolol tartrate tablet 25 mg before emergency PCI ) .Incidence rate of RA after PCI was compared between two groups .Results:In metoprolol group ,a total of 32 cases received PCI and eight cases received percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA);in routine treatment group ,a total of 35 case received PCI and five cases received PTCA ,suc‐cess rates of both groups were 100% .In metoprolol group , RA occurred in 4 cases ,including one case with ventric‐ular fibrillation (VF);in routine treatment group , RA occurred in 15 cases ,including four cases with VF .Inci‐dence rate of RA after emergency PCI in metoprolol group was significantly lower than that of routine treatment group (10.0% vs .37.5% ,P=0.032) .Conclusion:Metoprolol administration before emergency PCI can reduce in‐cidence rate of reperfusion arrhythmia in patients with acute myocardial infarction .%目的:观察探讨急诊经皮冠脉介入治疗(PCI )术前服用美托洛尔是否可降低再灌注心律失常(RA )的发生率。方法:根据随机数字表法,80例急性前间壁心肌梗死(年龄<75岁、基础心率>70次/分、无 PR间期延长)患者被随机均分为常规治疗组(急诊PCI前未给予酒石酸美托洛尔片)和美托洛尔组(急诊PCI前给予酒石酸美托洛尔片25 mg嚼服)。观察并比较两组术后RA发生率。结果:美托洛尔组中32例行PCI术,8例行经腔经皮冠状动脉血管成形

  12. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  13. Independent Predictors of Bleeding Complications in Patients Undergoing PCI With Concomitant Treatment With Bivalirudin in Clinical Practice Results From the Improver Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koeth, Oliver; Gulba, Dietrich; Huber, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Bleeding complications are associated with an adverse outcome after a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is performed. Traditional risk factors for bleeding complications are age, gender, underweight, hypertension, and renal impairment. The aim of our study was to identify the independent...... predictors of bleeding complications in patients undergoing a PCI with concomitant treatment with bivalirudin....

  14. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  15. Development and start up of a co-injection system of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace no. 4; Desarrollo y puesta en operacion de un sistema de co-inyeccion de alquitran/gas natural en el alto horno no. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon Rodriguez, Manuel I.; Mata Esparza, Hector Rolando; Arevalo Ballesteros, Gerardo [Altos Hornos de Mexico S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The crisis has attracted the world`s attention on the need for energy conservation and the development in a greater extent the utilization of carbon base fuels and other energy sources (nuclear energy). Being a blast furnace, not only an energy consumer but also an energy producer, the greatest contribution to the pig iron cost is the energy needed to melt and reduce to metallic state the iron ores, this energy is mainly derived from coke. The dependence on coal via the coking plant to produce first fusion iron is incremented day after day as a result of the high levels of production. Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA), contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of pig iron is pending. The injection of fuels into a blast furnace through its nozzles is a technology used for the diminishing the coke consumption of coke, its use implies a change in the philosophy of the blast furnace operation, and is currently employed in most of the blast furnaces of the world. AHMSA taking advantage of coal tar production (approx. 130 tons/day) in its coking plants decided the design and put into operation a co-injection system of coal tar and natural gas. The activities tending to carry out this project were initiated on April 1993, performing all of them with its own resources, completing them on July 18, 1993, day on which the injection of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace No. 4 in a stable form. To date (October 1993), the coal tar injection has been increased up to 36 kg/ton of pig iron. During the injection periods, the presence of operational, mechanical and instrumentation problems have not been an obstacle for the evolution on the injection, fulfilling its function of substituting coke in a replacing relationship of 1:1, i.e. 1 kg of coal tar per each kg of coke, without affecting the product quality

  16. Development and start up of a co-injection system of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace no. 4; Desarrollo y puesta en operacion de un sistema de co-inyeccion de alquitran/gas natural en el alto horno no. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon Rodriguez, Manuel I.; Mata Esparza, Hector Rolando; Arevalo Ballesteros, Gerardo [Altos Hornos de Mexico S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The crisis has attracted the world`s attention on the need for energy conservation and the development in a greater extent the utilization of carbon base fuels and other energy sources (nuclear energy). Being a blast furnace, not only an energy consumer but also an energy producer, the greatest contribution to the pig iron cost is the energy needed to melt and reduce to metallic state the iron ores, this energy is mainly derived from coke. The dependence on coal via the coking plant to produce first fusion iron is incremented day after day as a result of the high levels of production. Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA), contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of pig iron is pending. The injection of fuels into a blast furnace through its nozzles is a technology used for the diminishing the coke consumption of coke, its use implies a change in the philosophy of the blast furnace operation, and is currently employed in most of the blast furnaces of the world. AHMSA taking advantage of coal tar production (approx. 130 tons/day) in its coking plants decided the design and put into operation a co-injection system of coal tar and natural gas. The activities tending to carry out this project were initiated on April 1993, performing all of them with its own resources, completing them on July 18, 1993, day on which the injection of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace No. 4 in a stable form. To date (October 1993), the coal tar injection has been increased up to 36 kg/ton of pig iron. During the injection periods, the presence of operational, mechanical and instrumentation problems have not been an obstacle for the evolution on the injection, fulfilling its function of substituting coke in a replacing relationship of 1:1, i.e. 1 kg of coal tar per each kg of coke, without affecting the product quality

  17. Choice of technological regimes of a blast furnace operation with injection of hot reducing gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich, A. I.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Injection rate of fossil fuels is limited because of drop in the flame temperature in the raceway and problems in the deadman region and the cohesive zone. The next step for obtaining a considerable coke saving, a better operation in the deadman as an well as increase in blast furnace productivity and minimizing the environmental impact due to a decrease in carbon dioxide emmision would be injection by tuyeres of hot reducing gases (HRG which are produced by low grade coal gasification or top gas regenerating. Use of HRG in combination with high pulverized coal inyection PCI rate and oxigen enrichment in the blast could allow to keep and to increase the competitiveness of the blast furnace process. Calculations using a mathematical model show that the HRG injection in combination with pulverized coal (PC and enriching blast with oxigen can provide an increase in PC rate up to 300-400 kg/tHM and a rise in the furnace productivity by 40-50 %. Blast furnace operation with full oxigen blast (100 % of process oxigen with the exception for the hot blast is possible when HRG is injected.

    La tasa de inyección de combustibles fósiles está limitada a causa de la caída de la temperatura de llama en el raceway (cavidad frente a las toberas y a problemas en la región del "hombre muerto" y en la zona cohesiva. La inyección por tobera de gases reductores calientes (GRC, que se producen por gasificación de carbón de bajo grado o generación de gas de tragante, será la próxima etapa para lograr un considerable ahorro adicional de coque, una zona del "hombre muerto" bien definida, además de un aumento en la productividad del horno alto y para minimizar el impacto ambiental debido a una disminución de la emisión de dióxido de carbono. El uso de GRC en combinación con una tasa elevada de inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP con viento enriquecido en oxígeno, podrá permitir mantener y aumentar la competitividad del proceso del horno

  18. Smokers with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and short time to treatment have equal effects of PCI and fibrinolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Kelbæk, Henning; Madsen, Jan Kyst

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared to fibrinolysis in smokers and non-smokers with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Smokers seem to have less atherosclerosis but are more prone to thrombotic disease...

  19. «Il Pci è un partito finito». Video-documentario sulla scomparsa della “piazza rossa”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisella Gaspari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Attraverso immagini di manifestazioni a sfondo politico nelle piazze di Bologna, il video-documentario illustra una trasformazione delle forme di partecipazione collettiva alla vita pubblica, che negli anni Settanta ha visto un ridimensionamento del ruolo dei partiti di massa, e in particolare del Pci.

  20. Treatment referral before and after the introduction of the Liverpool Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) into routine head and neck oncology outpatient clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Naseem; Kanatas, Anastasios; Langley, Daniel J R; Scott, Barry; Lowe, Derek; Rogers, Simon N

    2011-11-01

    Holistic needs assessment is a key recommendation in improving supportive and palliative care in adults with cancer. The Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) is a holistic needs assessment tool designed for head and neck cancer survivors in outpatient setting. Routine screening of potential unmet needs in a clinic may result in increased onward referrals, thus placing a burden on existing healthcare services. The aim of this study was to compare the referral trends following consultation in the time periods before and after introduction of PCI in an oncology outpatient clinic. A cross-sectional cohort of disease-free survivors of oral/oropharyngeal cancers of a single consultant was prospectively exposed to PCI from July 2007 to April 2009. The PCI is a self-completed questionnaire consisting of 55 items of patient needs/concern and a list of multidisciplinary professionals, whom patients may wish to talk to or be referred to. Retrospective analysis of referral patterns from clinic letters in two periods in the pre-PCI and post-PCI exposure was performed. Prospective analysis of consultations was performed to determine the outcome of PCI-highlighted items. There was no change in the prevalence of onward referral with the introduction of PCI, i.e. 21 referrals per 100 patients seen in outpatients. However, the proportion of referrals to oral rehabilitation and psychological support increased. Referrals to certain services, e.g. speech and language and dentistry, remained consistently in demand. Many PCI-highlighted needs were dealt in a clinic with by the consultant and/or other professionals during a multidisciplinary consultation. Routine use of PCI promotes target efficiency by directing and apportioning appropriate services to meet the needs for supportive care of head and neck cancer survivors.

  1. Relationship between treatment delay and final infarct size in STEMI patients treated with abciximab and primary PCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tödt Tim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the impact of time to treatment on myocardial infarct size have yielded conflicting results. In this study of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, we set out to investigate the relationship between the time from First Medical Contact (FMC to the demonstration of an open infarct related artery (IRA and final scar size. Between February 2006 and September 2007, 89 STEMI patients treated with primary PCI were studied with contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (ceMRI 4 to 8 weeks after the infarction. Spearman correlation was computed for health care delay time (defined as time from FMC to PCI and myocardial injury. Multiple linear regression was used to determine covariates independently associated with infarct size. Results An occluded artery (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction, TIMI flow 0-1 at initial angiogram was seen in 56 patients (63%. The median FMC-to-patent artery was 89 minutes. There was a weak correlation between time from FMC-to-patent IRA and infarct size, r = 0.27, p = 0.01. In multiple regression analyses, LAD as the IRA, smoking and an occluded vessel at the first angiogram, but not delay time, correlated with infarct size. Conclusions In patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI we found a weak correlation between health care delay time and infarct size. Other factors like anterior infarction, a patent artery pre-PCI and effects of reperfusion injury may have had greater influence on infarct size than time-to-treatment per se.

  2. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  3. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  4. Mepolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or do not go away: pain, redness, swelling, warmth, burning, or itching in the place mepolizumab was injected headache dry and itchy skin with or without red, scaly rashes back pain muscle spasms Some side ...

  5. Metoclopramide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and feeling of fullness that lasts long after meals. Metoclopramide injection is also used to prevent nausea ... tranylcypromine (Parnate); narcotic medications for pain; sedatives; sleeping pills; tetracycline (Bristacycline, Sumycin); tranquilizers. Your doctor may need ...

  6. Ramucirumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dose of ramucirumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse if you experience any of the following while you receive ramucirumab: uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body; back pain or spasms; chest pain and tightness; chills; flushing; ...

  7. Alemtuzumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemtuzumab injection is used to treat B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (a slowly developing cancer in which ... of white blood cell accumulate in the body). Alemtuzumab is in a class of medications called monoclonal ...

  8. Ferumoxytol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  9. Fludarabine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludarabine injection is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white ... a reliable method of birth control to prevent pregnancy during this time. Talk to your doctor for ...

  10. Insulin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or buttocks. Do not inject insulin into muscles, scars, or moles. Use a different site for each ... you are using insulin.Alcohol may cause a decrease in blood sugar. Ask your doctor about the ...

  11. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a person who was not in the hospital), skin infections, and infections of the abdomen (area between the ... that developed in people who were in a hospital or foot infections in people who have diabetes. Tigecycline injection is ...

  12. Golimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golimumab injection is used alone or with other medications to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders ( ... did not help or could not be tolerated. Golimumab is in a class of medications called tumor ...

  13. Albiglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will develop tumors of the thyroid gland, including medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). ... symptoms or those listed in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, stop using albiglutide injection and call your doctor ...

  14. Dexamethasone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body tissues,) gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Dexamethasone injection is also used for diagnostic testing. ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  15. Hydrocortisone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own organs), gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Hydrocortisone injection is also used to treat certain ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  16. Methylprednisolone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own organs), gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Methylprednisolone injection is also used to treat certain ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  17. Glatiramer Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To inject glatiramer, follow these steps: Remove one blister pack from the carton of glatiramer syringes and place ... paper label and remove the syringe from the blister pack. Check your prefilled syringe to be sure it ...

  18. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are ...

  19. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... autoinjector in hot water, microwave, or place in sunlight.Before you use evolocumab injection, look at the ... chills pain or burning during urination muscle or back pain dizziness stomach pain Some side effects can be ...

  20. Cidofovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidofovir injection is used along with another medication (probenecid) to treat cytomegaloviral retinitis (CMV retinitis) in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Cidofovir is in a class of medications called antivirals. ...

  1. Brivaracetam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... older. Brivaracetam in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants like brivaracetam injection to treat various conditions during ...

  2. Diphenhydramine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not to use diphenhydramine injection if you are breastfeeding because of the risk of harm to infants.tell your doctor if you have or have ever had asthma or other types of lung disease; glaucoma (a ...

  3. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valve, respiratory tract (including pneumonia), biliary tract, and urinary tract infections. Cefazolin injection also may be used before, during, ... to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website ( ...

  4. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin, blood, bone, joint, female genital tract, and urinary tract infections. Ceftazidime injection is in a class of medications ... to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website ( ...

  5. Fluconazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fungal infections of the eye, prostate (a male reproductive organ), skin and nails. Fluconazole injection is ... Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan); oral contraceptives (birth control pills); oral medication for diabetes such ...

  6. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available.Moxifloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause ... you are allergic to moxifloxacin, other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available ...

  7. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available. Levofloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ... severe reaction to levofloxacin; any other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available ...

  8. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available. Ciprofloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ... reaction to ciprofloxacin or any other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic such as gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available in the ...

  9. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...

  10. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an arm or leg sudden changes in vision pain with eye movement Chloramphenicol injection may cause a condition called gray syndrome in premature and newborn infants. There have also been reports of gray ...

  11. Steam pretreatment for coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Olga

    The objectives of this work are to test the application of steam pretreatment to direct coal liquefaction, to investigate the reaction of model compounds with water, and to explore the use of zeolites in these processes. Previous work demonstrated the effectiveness of steam pretreatment in a subsequent flash pyrolysis. Apparently, subcritical steam ruptures nearly all of the ether cross links, leaving a partially depolymerized structure. It was postulated that very rapid heating of the pretreated coal to liquefaction conditions would be required to preserve the effects of such treatment. Accordingly, a method was adopted in which coal slurry is injected into a hot autoclave containing solvent. Since oxygen is capable of destroying the pretreatment effect, precautions were taken for its rigorous exclusion. Tests were conducted with Illinois No. 6 coal steam treated at 340sp°C, 750 psia for 15 minutes. Both raw and pretreated samples were liquified in deoxygenated tetralin at high severity (400sp°C, 30 min.) and low severity (a: 350sp°C, 30 min., and b: 385sp°C, 15 min.) conditions under 1500 psia hydrogen. Substantial improvement in liquid product quality was obtained and the need for rapid heating and oxygen exclusion demonstrated. Under low severity conditions, the oil yield was more than doubled, going from 12.5 to 29 wt%. Also chemistry of the pretreatment process was studied using aromatic ethers as model compounds. alpha-Benzylnaphthyl ether (alpha-BNE), alpha-naphthylmethyl phenyl (alpha-NMPE), and 9-phenoxyphenanthrene were exposed to steam and inert gas at pretreatment conditions and in some cases to liquid water at 315sp°C. alpha-BNE and alpha-NMPE showed little difference in conversion in inert gas and in steam. Hence, these compounds are poor models for coal in steam pretreatment. Thermally stable 9-phenoxyphenanthrene, however, was completely converted in one hour by liquid water at 315sp°C. At pretreatment conditions mostly rearranged starting

  12. Monitoring of Underground Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wagoner, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramirez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-08-31

    For efficient and responsible UCG operations, a UCG process must be monitored in the following three categories: 1) process parameters such as injection and product gas flow rates, temperature, pressure and syngas content and heating value; 2) geomechanical parameters, e.g., cavity and coal seam pressures, cavity development, subsidence and ground deformation; and 3) environmental parameters, e.g., groundwater chemistry and air quality. This report focuses on UCG monitoring with geophysical techniques that can contribute to monitoring of subsurface temperature, cavity development, burn front, subsidence and deformation.

  13. Simulation Experiment and Acoustic Emission Study on Coal and Gas Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Feng, Zengchao; Zhao, Dong; Duan, Dong

    2017-08-01

    A coal and gas outburst is an extreme hazard in underground mining. The present paper conducts a laboratory simulation of a coal and gas outburst combined with acoustic emission analysis. The experiment uses a three-dimensional stress loading system and a PCI-2 acoustic emission monitoring system. Furthermore, the development of a coal and gas outburst is numerically studied. The results demonstrate that the deformation and failure of a coal sample containing methane under three-dimensional stress involves four stages: initial compression, elastic deformation, plastic deformation and failure. The development of internal microscale fractures within a coal sample containing methane is reflected by the distribution of acoustic emission events. We observed that the deformation and failure zone for a coal sample under three-dimensional stress has an ellipsoid shape. Primary acoustic emission events are generated at the weak structural surface that compresses with ease due to the external ellipsoid-shaped stress. The number of events gradually increases until an outburst occurs. A mathematical model of the internal gas pressure and bulk stress is established through an analysis of the internal gas pressure and bulk stress of a coal sample, and it is useful for reproducing experimental results. The occurrence of a coal and gas outburst depends not only on the in situ stress, gas pressure and physical and mechanical characteristics of the coal mass but also on the free weak surface of the outburst outlet of the coal mass. It is more difficult for an outburst to occur from a stronger free surface.

  14. An advanced coal gasification desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Rehmat, A. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Leppin, D. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (USA)); Banerjee, D.D. (Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal, Carterville, IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is in the process of developing an advanced coal gasification desulfurization process in which a calcium-based sorbent such as limestone or dolomite is injected into the fluidized-bed gasifier with coal to achieve in-bed desulfurization of coal as it is converted into clean fuel gas. The reactions involving calcium-based sorbents takes place in two steps. In the first step, the desulfurization reaction takes place between hydrogen sulfide and calcium oxide in the reducing zone of the reactor to produce calcium sulfide. The latter subsequently reacts with oxygen in the oxidizing zone of the reactor to produce calcium sulfate which can be safely disposed of along with the coal ash. This process will reduce the capital requirement for coal gasification plants and provide cost effective alternatives to scrubbers for industrial and utility use of high-sulfur coal. This paper addresses the basic research being conducted at IGT to confirm the viability of this process. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  16. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  17. Evaluation of coal structure and permeability with the aid of geophysical logging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuehai Fu; Yong Qin; Geoff G.X. Wang; Victor Rudolph [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2009-11-15

    Coal structures and the associated permeability were studied by a combined investigation of geophysical logging data and well tests from coal reservoirs of Huainan and Huaibei coalfields in China. A large amount of the site observations on coal sections of mining faces and the macroscopic investigations on textures of drilling coal cores were carried out, providing experimental information for classification of coal structures. Geophysical log was implemented in 600 boreholes for exploration of coal and coalbed methane (CBM) resources, including 10 CBM wells which were used for permeability tests. The permeability tests were conducted by using injection/fall-off method. The results, together with the log data obtained from geophysical log technologies, have been analysed by using geological statistics, permitting correlation of the permeability of coal seams to the log responses. The correlation developed in this study provides better evaluation of coal reservoir permeability, resulting in an improved CBM exploration in the given coalfields. 17 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Competition between adsorption-induced swelling and elastic compression of coal at CO2 pressures up to 100 MPa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, S.; Spiers, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced Coalbed Methane production (ECBM) by CO2 injection frequently proves ineffective due to rapidly decreasing injectivity. Adsorption-induced swelling of the coal matrix has been identified as the principal factor controlling this reduction. To improve understanding of coal swelling in

  19. Coal fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  20. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  2. Fluidized coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  3. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  4. Chemicals from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  5. The clinical effect of nicorandil on perioperative myocardial protection in patients undergoing elective PCI: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ziliang; Su, Qiang; Li, Lang

    2017-01-01

    Many scholars have studied the effect of nicorandil on perioperative myocardial protection in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but results are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis. Finally, 16 articles, including 1616 patients, were included into this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis results showed that: (1) Nicorandil can reduce the level of CK-MB after PCI, including at 6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours and 24 hours. (2) Nicorandil can reduce the level of TnT after PCI, including at 6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours and 24 hours. (3) Nicorandil can reduce the incidence of adverse reactions after PCI. (4) Nicorandil cannot reduce the level of MVP after PCI, including at 12 hours and 24 hours. (5) Subgroup analysis showed that nicorandil can reduce CK-MB and TnT level at 24 hours after PCI for Chinese’s population (P  0.05). Our meta-analysis indicate that nicorandil can reduce myocardial injury and reduce the incidence of adverse reaction caused by PCI for Chinese’s population, but is not obvious for non Chinese’s population. However, this conclusion still needs to be confirmed in the future. PMID:28322321

  6. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  7. PCI-9111DG数据采集卡在液压元件CAT实验中的应用%Application of PCI-9111DG Data Acquisition Card in the CAT System Of Hydraulic Element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 张国贤

    2003-01-01

    首先介绍了ADLink-PCI-9111DG数据采集卡的特性,对该采集卡的一些基本功能进行了介绍.然后结合液压元件CAT系统,介绍了PCI-9111DG卡的软硬件安装和ADLink提供的ActiveX控件在软件开发中的部分用法.表明PCI-9111DG数据采集卡提供的软件包具有很强的功能,大大降低了开发难度,缩短了开发周期,而且其采样性能和精度能够满足实验台的要求.

  8. RuvBL2 is involved in histone deacetylase inhibitor PCI-24781-induced cell death in SK-N-DZ neuroblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglei Zhan

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is the second most common solid tumor diagnosed during infancy. The survival rate among children with high-risk neuroblastoma is less than 40%, highlighting the urgent needs for new treatment strategies. PCI-24781 is a novel hydroxamic acid-based histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor that has high efficacy and safety for cancer treatment. However, the underlying mechanisms of PCI-24781 are not clearly elucidated in neuroblastoma cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that PCI-24781 treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth at very low doses in neuroblastoma cells SK-N-DZ, not in normal cell line HS-68. However, PCI-24781 caused the accumulation of acetylated histone H3 both in SK-N-DZ and HS-68 cell line. Treatment of SK-N-DZ with PCI-24781 also induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and activated apoptosis signaling pathways via the up-regulation of DR4, p21, p53 and caspase 3. Further proteomic analysis revealed differential protein expression profiles between non-treated and PCI-24781 treated SK-N-DZ cells. Totally 42 differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS system. Western blotting confirmed the expression level of five candidate proteins including prohibitin, hHR23a, RuvBL2, TRAP1 and PDCD6IP. Selective knockdown of RuvBL2 rescued cells from PCI-24781-induced cell death, implying that RuvBL2 might play an important role in anti-tumor activity of PCI-24781 in SK-N-DZ cells. The present results provide a new insight into the potential mechanism of PCI-24781 in SK-N-DZ cell line.

  9. Simulation of coal pyrolysis in plasma jet by CPD model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Y.; Xie, K.; Zhu, S.; Fletcher, T.H. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab. of C1 Chemistry and Technology

    2001-12-01

    Reaction of coal in a plasma jet is complex and extremely rapid, and acetylene and carbon monoxide are the main products in the pyrolysis gas. Coal pyrolysis is assumed as the first step reaction when coal is injected into hot plasma jet with initial average temperature of 3700 K. Chemical percolation devolatalization (CPD) is employed first to simulate this procedure in mechanism. The calculation results indicate coal pyrolysis rate in plasma jet is very fast and the retention time of coal staying in reactor is only several milliseconds. Comparing the calculation with experiment result, it was concluded that the CPD agree with the experiment well when the coal feed rate is larger than about 2.0 g s{sup -1}. As the coal feed rate was increased, the average temperature of coal particle during staying in reactor was reduced and the residual time became long, but it was not found that the residual time influenced the coal conversion evidently. 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Economic assessment of coal-burning locomotives: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    The General Electric Company embarked upon a study to evaluate various alternatives for the design and manufacture a coal fired locomotive considering various prime movers, but retaining the electric drive transmission. The initial study was supported by the Burlington-Northern and Norfolk-Southern railroads, and included the following alternatives: coal fired diesel locomotive; direct fired gas turbine locomotives; direct fired gas turbine locomotive with steam injection; raw coal gasifier gas turbine locomotive; and raw coal fluid bed steam turbine locomotive. All alternatives use the electric drive transmission and were selected for final evaluation. The first three would use a coal water slurry as a fuel, which must be produced by new processing plants. Therefore, use of a slurry would require a significant plant capital investment. The last two would use classified run-of-the-mine (ROM) coal with much less capital expenditure. Coal fueling stations would be required but are significantly lower in capital cost than a coal slurry plant. For any coal fired locomotive to be commercially viable, it must pass the following criteria: be technically feasible and environmentally acceptable; meet railroads' financial expectations; and offer an attractive return to the locomotive manufacturer. These three criteria are reviewed in the report.

  11. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 οC and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  12. Considerations on coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  13. Prediction of coal hydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labuschagne, B.C.J. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). Div. of Energy Technology; Wheelock, T.D.; Guo, R.K.; David, H.T. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States); Markuszewski, R. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

    1988-12-31

    Many coals exhibit a certain degree of native hydrophobicity. The more hydrophobic coals (the higher-rank coals) are easily beneficiated by froth flotation or oil agglomeration, while the more hydrophilic coals (the lower-rank coals) are floated or agglomerated with difficulty. Coals of different ranks and often even of the same rank sometimes differ greatly in hydrophobicity as measured by contact angle or natural floatability. Although the degree of hydrophobicity of a coal is related to its rank and has been correlated with other surface properties of the coal , the known information is still not sufficient to allow a good estimation to be made of the hydrophobicity of a given coal and does not explain the variation of coal hydrophobicity as a function of rank. A statistical analysis of previously published data, as well as newly acquired data, shows that coal hydrophobicity correlates better with moisture content than with carbon content, and better with the moisture/carbon molar ratio than with the hydrogen/carbon or oxygen/carbon atomic ratios. These findings indicate that there is a strong association between hydrophobicity and coal moisture content.

  14. Coal production 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  15. Cultura politica di partito e cultura politica nazionale: il caso del Pci nella Prima Repubblica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Millefiorini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we are explaining those aspects of the Italian Communist Party, that, thanks to the particular organized structure, contributed, in a meaningful way, to outline some characteristic features of the Italian political culture. There are four aspects of them: the first one was represented by a strong level of ideologism that for reaction and contamination passed from its main centre of diffusion (which was just the P.C.I to the other actors of the Italian party system, whose high level of ideologization produced models of interpretation of problems and of decisions, elaboration and planning, about not so much pragmatic plans; on the contrary, concerning rhetoric or propagandistic approaches.A second, relevant effect to which contributed in this case not only the political communist culture, we are analyzing above all from this point of view: it was constituted by the leadership exerced by the political parties that acquired in the symbolic values of the Italians universe as regards the other components of the Political system; the consequences of this situation we are going to analyze in the paper.A third element was the strong statalism which constituted the political culture of the country at least till the end of seventies.The fourth factor spread by the political communist culture was given by the egualitarianism. It assumed a relevant role at the organizing and structural level concerning the burocratic machinery; the values connected to it not always produced good results in efficiency, in resources optimization and productivity.

  16. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  17. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, A.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  18. National Coal Board Medical Service annual report 1981-82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Sections report on: medical examinations and consultations; protection from health hazards, such as pneumoconiosis and other prescribed diseases; problems such as vitamin D in miners' blood, Legionnaires' disease, rehabilitation and physiotherapy, high pressure injection injuries, pump packing; National Coal Board (Coal Products) Ltd.; injuries and treatment; and nursing service. A list of staff and their publications and a supplement on occupational toxicology are included.

  19. 双显卡玩游戏 不要迷信PCI-E通道速度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    家骏

    2010-01-01

    苗苗是个"准"游戏发烧友,最近在攒机时却卡在了主板选购的环节上。要组建一套双显卡游戏平台,虽然X58贵了一些但支持双X16的PCI-E通道,而P55则只能在可怜的双X8模式下运行。那么,双X16和双X8的PCI-E通道到底有多少差别?普通游戏玩家需要为高速埋单吗?

  20. The Observation on Efficacy of Angio-seal Closure Device in the Femoral Arterial Puncture Site after PCI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Bin; Jin Lijun; Wei Shuishen; Fang Xianhong; Wu Handong; Dong Taiming; Yan hong; Liao Hongtao

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluatereliability and safety of Angio-seal hemostasis device applied to the femoral arterial puncture site after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods In 40 patients after PCI in our institute during the period between May 2002 and December 2003, Angioseal device were used to seal the femoral arterial puncture site. Results All the Angioseal devices were successfully deployed in 40 patients (successful rate:100%); the mean time to hemostasis was 45±12 sec;the mean time to ambulate after angioseal closure was 1.9±0.5 hours. No major groin and systemic complication was observed. There was minor groin oozing in 2 cases and small hemotoma in 1 patient.Conclusions Angio-seal closure device of the femoral artery puncture site after a percutaneous coronary procedure is safe. It can shorten the time to hemostasis,leads to early mobilization, and reduce groin complication. The disadvantage is relatively expensive.

  1. 七彩虹携手VIA推出国内首款K8 PCI-E平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    七彩虹近日推出了国内首款K8 PCI-E平台,基于VIA K8T890+VT8237R芯片组的“飞龙勇士C.K8T890 MAX”。此款主板支持Socket 939的Athlon64处理器、1GHz HyperTransport总线传输、双通道DDR400内存模式、x16 PCI—Express图形串行总线接口、4条x1 PCI Expreess串行接口、提供2个Serial ATA硬盘接口,

  2. An Organic Geochemical Assessment of CO2-Coal Interactions During Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jonathan J.; Burruss, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Three well-characterized coal samples of varying rank were extracted with supercritical CO2 to determine the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that could be mobilized during simulated CO2 injection/sequestration in deep coal beds. The supercritical CO2 extractions were conducted at 40?C and 100 bars, roughly corresponding to a depth of 1 km. The greatest amount of PAHs was extracted from the high-volatile C bituminous coal sample. Extracts from the subbituminous C and anthracite coal samples contained lower concentrations of these compounds. The effectiveness of supercritical CO2 in liberating PAHs from the coal sample was evaluated in a comparison with a parallel series of Soxhlet extractions using 100% dichloromethane. More PAHs were extracted from the lower rank coal samples with dichloromethane than with supercritical CO2. The results from this investigation indicate that, regardless of coal rank, CO2 injection into deep coal beds may mobilize PAHs from the coal matrix. However, more PAHs could be mobilized during CO2 sequestration in a high-volatile C bituminous coal bed than in either of the other two coal ranks studied.

  3. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the

  4. The catalytic performance of Ru–NHC alkylidene complexes: PCy3 versus pyridine as the dissociating ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Krehl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of NHC-ligated Ru-indenylidene or benzylidene complexes bearing a tricyclohexylphosphine or a pyridine ligand in ring closing metathesis (RCM, cross metathesis, and ring closing enyne metathesis (RCEYM reactions is compared. While the PCy3 complexes perform significantly better in RCM and RCEYM reactions than the pyridine complex, all catalysts show similar activity in cross metathesis reactions.

  5. Routine diversion of patients with STEMI to high-volume PCI centres: modelling the financial impact on referral hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Elizabeth Barnett; Comins, Meg M; Forsyth, Colin J.; Strom, Joel A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify possible revenue losses from proposed ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patient diversion policies for small hospitals that lack high-volume percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) capability status (ie, ‘STEMI referral hospitals’). Background Negative financial impacts on STEMI referral hospitals have been discussed as an important barrier to implementing regional STEMI bypass/transfer protocols. However, there is little empirical data available that directly ...

  6. The economics of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Global aspects of the production, consumption and trade in coal are described. World reserves and resources, production (both by region and country), international trade (exporters and importers), coal consumption (by region and sector), and the demand for primary energy (1960-1979). Each of the producing and consuming countries are discussed individually. The electricity sector and its future demand for coal, and the future demand for coking coal are covered. Prices for metallurgical and steam coal are also given. Statistics are presented in tables.

  7. Radionuclides in US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  8. Sarilumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the needle. Do not try to warm the medication by heating it in a microwave, placing it in warm water or in direct sunlight, or through any other method.Before injecting, check the prefilled syringe to be sure that the expiration date printed on the package has not passed. Look ...

  9. Enfuvirtide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inject enfuvirtide into any skin that has a tattoo, scar, bruise, mole, a burn site, or has ... Enfuvirtide may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: itching, swelling, pain, tingling, discomfort, ...

  10. Fluorouracil Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer. Treatment with fluorouracil injection may cause serious side effects. ... this medication.If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor ... (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/ ...

  11. Lanreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanreotide injection is used to treat people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features; joint pain; and other symptoms) who have not successfully, or cannot be treated ...

  12. Paliperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body slow movements or shuffling walk painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours cough, chills and/or other signs of infection Paliperidone injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.If you experience a ...

  13. Ziprasidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stiffness falling confusion sweating loss of consciousness painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours Ziprasidone injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while receiving this medication.If you experience a ...

  14. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control slow movements or shuffling walk falling painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours Risperidone extended-release injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while receiving this medication.If you experience a ...

  15. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, M.L.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

  16. Association of monocyte to HDL cholesterol level with contrast induced nephropathy in STEMI patients treated with primary PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağ, Saim; Yıldız, Abdülmecit; Aydin Kaderli, Aysel; Gül, Bülent Cuma; Bedir, Ömer; Ceğilli, Ercan; Özdemir, Bülent; Can, Fatma Ezgi; Aydınlar, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) has been proven to be a clinical condition related to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In recent studies, the monocyte to high density lipoprotein ratio (MHR) has been postulated as a novel parameter associated with adverse renal and cardiovascular outcomes. In this study we investigated the association of MHR with CIN in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Consecutive STEMI patients treated with primary PCI were prospectively recruited. Subjects were categorized into two groups; as patients who developed CIN (CIN+) and patients who did not develop CIN (CIN-) during hospitalization. CIN was defined as either a 25% increase in serum creatinine from baseline or 44.20 µmol/L increase in absolute value, within 72 h of intravenous contrast administration. A total number of 209 patients were included in the study. Thirty-two patients developed CIN (15.3%). In the CIN (+) patients, monocytes were higher [1.02 (0.83-1.39) vs. 0.69 (0.53-0.90) 109/L, pMHR was significantly higher in the CIN (+) group [1.16 (0.89-2.16) vs. 0.72 (0.53-0.95) 109/mmol, pMHR, Mehran score, AGEF score and CV/eGFR were independently correlated with CIN. Higher MHR levels may predict CIN development after primary PCI in STEMI patients.

  17. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  18. The CIS coal summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The presentations (overhead/viewgraphs) include: the impacts of EU environmental legislation on Russian coal market (A. Sankovski); how Caterpillar and Cat dealers create value in the global mining industry (D. Mohr); new coal preparation technology and application in the Russian coal market (D. Morris); UK demand outlook and import growth (G. Parker); new technologies in blasting operations and services (J. Petzold and others); a global bank's view of the coal sector (M. Seleznev); ELGA coal deposit, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia (M. Tsikanov); Russia's economic outlook (P. Forrest); Renaissance Capital (investment bank) (R. Edwards); Russian coal for Korean gencos (S. Kim); and coking coal in Ukraine (V. Khilko).

  19. The coal cleat system: A new approach to its study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After a general analysis regarding the concept of coal “cleat system”, its genetic origin and practical applications to coalbed methane (CBM commercial production and to CO2 geological sequestration projects, the authors have developed a method to answer, quickly and accurately in accordance with the industrial practice and needs, the following yet unanswered questions: (1 how to define the spatial orientation of the different classes of cleats presented in a coal seam and (2 how to determine the frequency of their connectivites. The new available and presented techniques to answer these questions have a strong computer based tool (geographic information system, GIS, able to build a complete georeferentiated database, which will allow to three-dimensionally locate the laboratory samples in the coalfield. It will also allow to better understand the coal cleat system and consequently to recognize the best pathways to gas flow through the coal seam. Such knowledge is considered crucial for understanding what is likely to be the most efficient opening of cleat network, then allowing the injection with the right spatial orientation, of pressurized fluids in order to directly drain the maximum amount of gas flow to a CBM exploitation well. The method is also applicable to the CO2 geological sequestration technologies and operations corresponding to the injection of CO2 sequestered from industrial plants in coal seams of abandoned coal mines or deep coal seams.

  20. Comparison in curative effects of facilitated PCI and primary PCI on acute myocardial infarction:a Meta-analysis%急性心肌梗死易化PCI与直接PCI治疗效果比较的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱张国; 刘廷筑; 李羚; 毛华; 文美

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review systematically the difference in curative effects and safety between facilitated PCI and primary PCI in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods The databases of Cochrane Library, PubMed, CBM and WangFang Database were retrieved for collecting randomized controlled trials (RCT) or clinical controlled trials (CCT) about the curative effects of facilitated PCI and primary PCI taken AMI as research objects. The outcomes were compared and given Meta-analysis by using RevMan4.2 software. Results There were totally 17 RCT included involving 1498 cases, and the results of Meta-analysis showed as follows:①Compared with primary PCI group, the patency rate of infarction related artery (IRA) before PCI was significantly higher in facilitated PCI group (OR=3.51, 95%CI:2.60-4.73), especially the TIMI 3 flow of IRA (OR=4.31, 95%CI:2.88-6.45). ②There were no statistical differences in mortality, incidence of cardiac events and no-reflow during hospitalization between two groups (OR=1.14, 95%CI:0.50-2.61;OR=1.05, 95%CI:0.60-1.84;OR=0.41, 95%CI:0.13-1.30). ③The amelioration of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was much better in facilitated PCI group than that in primary PCI group (WMD=4.89, 95%CI:1.49-7.44). Conclusion Facilitated PCI is safe and has better curative effect in the treatment of AMI compared with primary PCI indicated by current data. Because the quality of total included RCT is lower, more RCT with higher quality are required for further identifying the results.%目的:系统评价易化PCI与直接PCI治疗急性心肌梗死疗效和安全性的差异。方法检索1990年1月~2012年12月Cochrane图书馆、PUBMED、生物医学文献数据库、万方数据库,以急性心肌梗死为研究对象,比较易化PCI与直接PCI治疗效果的随机对照试验或临床对照试验文献,并对研究结果采用RevMan4.2软件进行Meta分析。结果共纳入17项研究结果,包括1498例患者。Meta

  1. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo [Shanghai Univ. of Electric Power (China); Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  2. 基于压水试验的杨村煤矿底板断层带渗流性质研究%Research on Seepage Characteristics of Floor Fault Zone Based on Water Injection Test in Yangcun Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵明喜; 官云章; 曹思文; 张鑫; 刘近国; 吕先阳; 孙晓倩

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the seepage characteristics of the floor fault zone in Yangcun Mine, water injection test method was used for the measurement of Fault 5 and a number of measured data were obtained. Analysis results showed that the permeability of this fault was bad and its permeation resistance was relatively strong in the original state. Four water injection tests on this fault were carried out, and from the comparison of the permeability changing curves in four water injection tests it was found out that the repeated water injection can lead failure of the fault zone, which in turn improved its permeability. The relation between test pressure and flow rate(p—Q) of F5 fault was a dilation or erosion type, the fissures in this fault zone developed and many filling materials existed in it, so it has stronger resistance to seepage.%为研究杨村煤矿底板断层带的渗流性质,采用现场压水试验方法对底板F5断层进行了测试并获取了大量的实测数据,分析结果表明:该断层在原始状态下渗流能力较差,阻渗性较强。对该断层进行了4次压水试验,对比4次压水试验的渗透系数变化曲线可知,重复压水可导致断层带明显渗透破坏,由此造成其导渗性能的进一步增强;F5断层带两段压渗试验压力和流量关系( p—Q )为扩张或冲蚀型,该断层带裂隙发育,裂隙中间有较多充填物,阻渗能力较好。

  3. 3D Geological Modeling of CoalBed Methane (CBM) Resources in the Taldykuduk Block Karaganda Coal Basin, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, Raman; Kiponievich Ogay, Evgeniy; Royer, Jean-Jacques; Zhapbasbayev, Uzak; Panfilova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Coal Bed Methane (CBM) is gas stored in coal layers. It can be extracted from wells after hydraulic fracturing and/or solvent injection, and secondary recovery techniques such as CO2 injection. Karaganda Basin is a very favorable candidate region to develop CBM production for the following reasons: (i) Huge gas potential; (ii) Available technologies for extracting and commercializing the gas produced by CBM methods; (iii) Experience in degassing during underground mining operations for safety reasons; (iv) Local needs in energy for producing electricity for the industrial and domestic market. The objectives of this work are to model the Taldykuduk block coal layers and their properties focusing on Coal Bed Methane production. It is motivated by the availability of large coal bed methane resources in Karaganda coal basin which includes 4 300 Bm3 equivalent 2 billion tons of coal (B = billion = 109) with gas content 15-25 m3/t of coal (for comparison San Juan basin (USA) has Methane (CH4) can be considered as an environmentally-friendly fuel compared to coal. Actually, the methane extracted during mining is released in the atmosphere, collecting it for recovering energy will reduce CO2 equivalent emissions by 36 Mt, good news regarding climate warming issues. The exploitation method will be based on a EOR technology consisting in injecting CO2 which replaces methane in pores because it has a higher adsorption capacity than CH4; exploiting CBM by CO2 injection provides thus a safe way to sequestrate CO2 in adsorbed form. The 3D geological model was built on Gocad/Skua using the following available data set: 926 wells and large area (7 x 12 km). No seismic data; coal type and chemical components (S, ash, …); unreliable available cross-section & maps due to old acquisition; quality mature coal; complex heterogeneous fractures network reported on geological cross sections; and utilization issues of the water extracted in the early stages of exploitation. The resulting

  4. Optimization of enhanced coal-bed methane recovery using numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, M. S. A.; Ranjith, P. G.; Ranathunga, A. S.; Koay, A. Y. J.; Zhao, J.; Choi, S. K.

    2015-02-01

    Although the enhanced coal-bed methane (ECBM) recovery process is one of the potential coal bed methane production enhancement techniques, the effectiveness of the process is greatly dependent on the seam and the injecting gas properties. This study has therefore aimed to obtain a comprehensive knowledge of all possible major ECBM process-enhancing techniques by developing a novel 3D numerical model by considering a typical coal seam using the COMET 3 reservoir simulator. Interestingly, according to the results of the model, the generally accepted concept that there is greater CBM (coal-bed methane) production enhancement from CO2 injection, compared to the traditional water removal technique, is true only for high CO2 injection pressures. Generally, the ECBM process can be accelerated by using increased CO2 injection pressures and reduced temperatures, which are mainly related to the coal seam pore space expansion and reduced CO2 adsorption capacity, respectively. The model shows the negative influences of increased coal seam depth and moisture content on ECBM process optimization due to the reduced pore space under these conditions. However, the injection pressure plays a dominant role in the process optimization. Although the addition of a small amount of N2 into the injecting CO2 can greatly enhance the methane production process, the safe N2 percentage in the injection gas should be carefully predetermined as it causes early breakthroughs in CO2 and N2 in the methane production well. An increased number of production wells may not have a significant influence on long-term CH4 production (50 years for the selected coal seam), although it significantly enhances short-term CH4 production (10 years for the selected coal seam). Interestingly, increasing the number of injection and production wells may have a negative influence on CBM production due to the coincidence of pressure contours created by each well and the mixing of injected CO2 with CH4.

  5. Research and application of coal and gas outburst control measure based on hydraulic extrusion in roadway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.; Pan, H.; Li, Y.; Hu, B.; Chen, W. [Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo (China)

    2007-02-15

    The technology system and equipment of hydraulic extrusion were presented. Based on the actual conditions of Liyi Coal Mine, reasonable parameters of injecting water were studied. The measure caused the stress concentration region of the coal seam to move forward, the pressure relief region was widened, and gas was released efficiently. The remarkable effect of coal and gas outburst prevention was achieved and the roadway driving speed was increased by 1.5 times. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Use and outcomes of multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (from the EHS-PCI Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Timm; Zeymer, Uwe; Hochadel, Matthias; Möllmann, Helge; Weidinger, Franz; Zahn, Ralf; Nef, Holger M; Hamm, Christian W; Marco, Jean; Gitt, Anselm K

    2012-04-01

    The value of multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (MV-PCI) in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) and multivessel disease (MVD) is still unclear because randomized controlled trials are missing. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the impact of MV-PCI on in-hospital outcomes of patients with MVD presenting with CS: 336 patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by CS and ≥70% stenoses in ≥2 major epicardial vessels were included in this analysis of the Euro Heart Survey PCI registry. Patients undergoing MV-PCI (n = 82, 24%) were compared to those with single-vessel PCI (n = 254, 76%). The rate of 3-vessel disease (60% vs 57%, p = 0.63) was similar in the 2 cohorts. Presentation with resuscitation (48 vs 46%, p = 0.76) and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (83 vs 87%, p = 0.31) was frequent in patients with MV-PCI and single-vessel PCI. Patients with ventilation were more likely to receive MV-PCI (30% vs 19%, p = 0.05). There was a tendency toward a higher hospital mortality in patients with MV-PCI (48.8% vs 37.4%, p = 0.07). After adjustment for confounding variables, no significant difference for in-hospital mortality (odd ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72 to 2.28) could be observed between the 2 groups. Age (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.77), 3-vessel disease (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.03), ventilation (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.59 to 5.68), and previous resuscitation (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.39) were independent predictors of hospital death. In conclusion, MV-PCI is currently used in only 1/4 of patients with CS and MVD. An additional nonculprit PCI was not associated with a survival benefit in these high risk patients.

  7. Value research on thromboelastogram(TEG) in the monitoring of platelet activity variation tendency of PCI surgery patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-Bin Zou; He Huang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the value research on thromboelastogram (TEG) in the monitoring of platelet activity variation tendency of PCI surgery patients.Method:180 cases of patients with coronary heart disease who have proceeded PCI surgery were selected and divided into AMI group, UAP group and AP group. To compare the coagulation indicator, TEG and pathological changes of these three groups; all patients were adopted conventional therapy, after operation, divided them into anti-platelet low reaction group (platelet high reaction group) and normal group according to platelet aggregation rate monitored by TEG, and compared the clotting all items, clinical indicator, PCI postoperative platelet aggregation inhibition rate and clinical ischemia cases occurrence rate within 6 months follow up visit of both groups.Results: TEG parametric R value and K value in AMI group and UAP group were obviously lower than that in AP group, MA value and angle value were obviously higher than AP group, significant difference; TEG image in AMI group and UAP group mainly featured hypercoagulability, while TEG image had no hypercoagulability in AP group; Chi-square test showed that hypercoagulability image percentage differences between these three groups had statistical significance; ADP and AA induced platelet inhibition rate determined by TEG in high reaction group was obviously lower than that in normal group; 6 cases in platelet high reaction group: CK-MB rose and exceeded normal value upper limit (10.90%), 9 cases: cTnI rose and exceeded normal value upper limit (19.6%), compared with normal group (3 cases, 2.4%; 5 cases, 4%), the value in platelet high reaction group was higher, and the difference was significant; platelet high reaction group: totally 10 cases of ischemia, occurrence rate was 10.5%, while platelet normal reaction group: totally 3 cases (2.4%), chi-square test showed that the difference between these two groups had statistical significance

  8. Subcutaneous (SQ) injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    SQ injections; Sub-Q injections; Diabetes subcutaneous injection; Insulin subcutaneous injection ... NIH. Giving a subcutaneous injection . Rockville, MD. National ... of Health and Human Services NIH publications; 2015. Available ...

  9. Producing a highly concentrated coal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokudzu, K.; Atsudzima, T.; Kiyedzuka, Y.

    1983-06-03

    Coal from wet and dry grinding is loaded into a mixer with a mixer arm with the acquisition of a highly concentrated suspension. Foamers (for instance, alkylbenzolsulfonate) and foam stabilizers (for instance diethanolamide of lauric acid) are added in a ratio of 10 to (2 to 5). The high fluidity of the suspension is maintained by injecting air into the suspension and an 80 percent concentration of the suspension is achieved.

  10. CALCULATION AND USE OF THE PEDOCLIMATIC INDEX (PCI IN THE ESTIMATION AND MODELLING OF WHEAT PRODUCTION DEPENDING ON THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES INTENSITY (TPI IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai BERCA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pedoclimatic Index (PCI calculated by us is the product between the Aridity Index (AR and the soil fertility status expressed through number of creditworthiness points (CWS – Creditworthiness of Soil: PCI = AR x CWS .Was used AR calculated after UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme instead of the older De Martonne index. Determinations were performed in 6 different pedoclimatic areas, in which PCI has varied from 12 to 47. Taking into account that AR varies between 0,20 and 1,00 in Romania, while CWS is between 0 and 100, theoretically PCI can range in the interval 0-100 and practically from 10 to 50. For each PCI was calculated the wheat production according to the Technological Processes Intensity (TPI, Creditworthiness (CWS, them also with marks from 1 to 10, and the wheat production pattern was made based on the two parameters. It appears that at a very reduced and reduced index of the technological processes (TPI between 1-4 the wheat yields level is very slightly influenced by the pedoclimatic quality of the culture area. In the areals of culture with PCI below 15 the production can’t reach 30 q/ha, irrespective of the quality of technological processes. At PCI of over 40 the production achieves 60 q/ha if there are applied superior technologies and if the working capital is optimum used. At PCI between 30 and 40 the maximum yield that can be reached in conditions of highest technical and qualitative value of production slightly exceeds 50 q/ha. All these models and nomograms are useful to agricultural management in order to estimate the production, but also for her optimization

  11. Effect of salvianolate combined with meglumine adenosine cyclphosphate on blood viscosity, inflammatory factors and NT-proBNP in angina pectoris patients after PCI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Peng; Li Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of salvianolate combined with meglumine adenosine cyclphosphate on blood viscosity, inflammatory factors and NT-proBNP in angina pectoris patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Methods:A total of 130 angina pectoris patients who received PCI treatment in our hospital from May 2012 to October 2015 were selected for study, patients' medical records were retrospectively analyzed, they were divided into the experimental group and the control group based on the different medication schemes after PCI, experimental group received routine treatment combined with salvianolate and meglumine adenosine cyclphosphate treatment after operation, and control group received conventional medical treatment after operation. The changes of perioperative blood viscosity, inflammatory factor and NT-proBNP content were compared between two groups.Results:After PCI, the blood viscosity indexes as well as inflammatory factor and NT-proBNP levels of experimental group were significantly lower than those before PCI (P0.05), inflammatory factor and NT-proBNP levels were significantly lower than those before PCI (P<0.05); 7 days after PCI, the high-shear whole blood viscosity, low-shear whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and aggregation index as well as TNF-α, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, LP-PLA2, NT-proBNP, D-dimer and PTEN levels of experimental group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05).Conclusions: Salvianolate combined with meglumine adenosine cyclphosphate can reduce the blood viscosity of patients with angina pectoris after PCI, and can also reduce inflammation and improve heart pump function.

  12. Correlation between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on China's coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hong-guan; YUAN Jian; SONG Ji-yong; LENG Shu-wei

    2007-01-01

    It is highly important to investigate relationship between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on coal in the fields of coalbed methane recovery. Based on data examination of coal quality indexes collected from the literatures, regression equations for Langmuir adsorption constants, VL or VL/PL, and coal quality indexes for selected coal samples were developed with multiple linear regression of SPSS software according to the degree of coal metamorphosis. The regression equations built were tested with data collected from some literatures, and the influences of coal quality indexes on CH4 adsorption on coals were studied with investigation of regression equations, and the reasons of low accuracy to Langmuir constants calculated with regression equation for a few coal samples were investigated. The results show that the regression equations can be employed to predict Langmuir constants for methane adsorption isotherms on coals obtained using volumetric gas adsorption experiments, which are conducted at 30 ℃ on a wet or dried coal samples with less than 30% ash content in coal. The influence of same coal quality index with various coal rank or influence of various coal quality indexes for same coal rank on CH4 adsorption is not consistent. The regression equations have different accuracy to different coal rank, in which the VL equations supply better prediction accuracy for anthracite and higher prediction error for lower metamorphosis coal, and the PL prediction error with VL and VL/PL equations is lower to bituminous coal and higher to anthracite.

  13. Effect of rosuvastatin on serum cTNI, Cys-C, Hcy and myocardial enzyme, Inflammatory cytokines in acute myocardial infarction with PCI surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Shen; Zeng-Xin Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of rosuvastatin on serum cTNI, Cys-C, Hcy and myocardial enzyme, inflammatory factors in acute myocardial infarction with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) surgery.Methods:A total of 80 patients with acute myocardial infarction were randomly divided into control group (40 cases) and experiment group (40 cases), the control group were given atorvastatin on the basis of basic therapy, and the experiment group were given rosuvastatin on the basis of basic therapy. The change of serum cTNI, Cys-C, Hcy, LDH, CK, CK-MB, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 in 24 hours and 8 weeks after PCI surgery of two groups were compared.Results:The serum cTNI, Cys-C, Hcy, LDH, CK, CK-MB, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 in 8 weeks after PCI surgery of two groups were significantly lower than that of 24 hours after PCI surgery (P<0.05). The serum cTNI, Cys-C, Hcy, LDH, CK, CK-MB, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 in 8 weeks after PCI surgery of experiment group were significantly lower than that of 8 weeks in control group (P<0.05).Conclusions: Rosuvastatin can significantly decrease the myocardial enzyme, inflammatory cytokines in acute myocardial infarction with PCI surgery. It plays an important role in protecting the heart function, reversing myocardial damage, and inhibiting cardiac remodeling.

  14. Stress-strain-sorption behaviour of coal matrix material exposed to CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, S.

    2011-01-01

    Coal swells when it adsorbs carbon dioxide (CO2). The stress-strain behaviour associated with adsorption is of key importance in determining the feasibility of extracting methane (CH4) from coal via Enhanced Coalbed Methane production. ECBM involves injection of preferentially sorbing CO2 into the t

  15. Study on acetylene preparation from coal conversion directly by plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, W.; Lu, Y.; Cao, Q.; Xie, K. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2004-10-01

    To develop an innovative method for directly converting coal into an important chemical acetylene, arc plasma technology was applied to the direct conversion of coal. The powdered coal from Datong was injected into a hydrogen-enriched plasma reactor for pyrolysis. The results show that the coal conversion and the acetylene yield and the special energy consumption (SEC) of acetylene are decreased as coal feed rate is increased, but the concentration of acetylene in production gas is increased. The yield of acetylene is not obviously affected by the formation of CO in production gas. Since oxygen can compete with the active atomic carbon, therefore, the high content oxygen in coal is disadvantageous to the formation of acetylene. Under the experimental conditions selected, the coal conversion rate reach 38.42%, the concentration of acetylene in product gas is 9.30% and the selectivity of acetylene in hydrocarbon is above 70% when the coal fed is 5.0 g/s. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Cofiring coal-water slurry fuel with pulverized coal as a NOx reduction strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Morrison, J.L.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A low solids, low viscosity coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) was formulated and produced from impounded bituminous coal fines and burned in a utility-scale boiler to investigate NOx emissions reduction during the cofiring of CWSF with pulverized coal. Tests were conducted at the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) Seward Station, located near Seward, Pennsylvania in a Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), front-wall fired, pulverized coal boiler (34 MWe). Two B and W pulverizers feed coal to six burners (two burner levels each containing three low-NOx burners). Approximately 20% of the thermal input was provided by CWSF, the balance by pulverized coal. There was a significant reduction of NOx emissions when cofiring CWSF and pulverized coal as compared to firing 100% pulverized coal. The level of reduction was dependent upon the cofiring configuration (i.e., cofiring in the upper three, lower three, or all six burners), with NOx emissions being reduced by as much as 26.5%. The reduction in NOx emissions was not due to the tempering effect of the water in the CWSF, because a greater reduction in NOx occurred when cofiring CWSF than when injecting the same quantity of water at the same boiler firing rate. This paper discusses the tests in detail and the proposed reburn mechanism for the NOx reduction. In addition, combustion test results from the front-wall fired unit at the Seward Station will be compared to CWSF cofire tests that have been conducted at cyclone-fired units at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Paradise Station (704 MWe), Drakesboro, Kentucky and Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC) Marion, Illinois Station (33 MWe).

  17. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  18. Beneficiated coals' char morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

  19. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  20. Coal: ditching the dirt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, E.

    2006-01-01

    At the time when the British government is considering building new nuclear power plants, this article gives an overview of how the coal industry has been developing technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase combustion efficiency which make coal a more attractive power source that should not be overlooked. Technologies mentioned include integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed combustion, low NOx burners, and combustion control. Research is under way on capturing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels. Use of fly ash in cement manufacture help reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Clean coal technologies in the UK are supported by the IEA Clean Coal Centre, the World Coal Institute and the Coal Research Forum. 3 photos. 3 figs.

  1. Arthropod cuticles in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartram, K.M.; Jeram, A.J.; Selden, P.A.

    1987-05-01

    An abundance of scorpion cuticles from Westphalian (Upper Carboniferous) coals of Yorkshire is described, and other records of arthropod cuticles in coals are reviewed. The absence of cuticles assignable to arthropod groups other than scorpions is thought to be due to preferential preservation of the unique exocuticle of scorpions; it alone is preserved and appears to retain an organic nature. The cuticle is recovered from all the lithotypes of humic bituminous coals although it is most common in coals rich in inertinite macerals. From the present study it is uncertain whether the scorpions were aquatic or terrestrial. The recognition of arthropod cuticle as a coal maceral could aid environmental interpretations. The abundance of arthropod cuticle in the coals studied indicates its potential use in correlation and in determining the thermal maturity of sediments. 37 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  3. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  4. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  5. Demonstration of the Safety and Feasibility of Robotically Assisted Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Complex Coronary Lesions: Results of the CORA-PCI Study (Complex Robotically Assisted Percutaneous Coronary Intervention).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Ehtisham; Naghi, Jesse; Ang, Lawrence; Harrison, Jonathan; Behnamfar, Omid; Pourdjabbar, Ali; Reeves, Ryan; Patel, Mitul

    2017-07-10

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility and technical success of robotically assisted percutaneous coronary intervention (R-PCI) for the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) in clinical practice, especially in complex lesions, and to determine the safety and clinical success of R-PCI compared with manual percutaneous coronary intervention (M-PCI). R-PCI is safe and feasible for simple coronary lesions. The utility of R-PCI for complex coronary lesions is unknown. All consecutive PCI procedures performed robotically (study group) or manually (control group) over 18 months were included. R-PCI technical success, defined as the completion of the procedure robotically or with partial manual assistance and without a major adverse cardiovascular event, was determined. Procedures ineligible for R-PCI (i.e., atherectomy, planned 2-stent strategy for bifurcation lesion, chronic total occlusion requiring hybrid approach) were excluded for analysis from the M-PCI group. Clinical success, defined as completion of the PCI procedure without a major adverse cardiovascular event, procedure time, stent use, and fluoroscopy time were compared between groups. A total of 315 patients (mean age 67.7 ± 11.8 years; 78% men) underwent 334 PCI procedures (108 R-PCIs, 157 lesions, 78.3% type B2/C; 226 M-PCIs, 336 lesions, 68.8% type B2/C). Technical success with R-PCI was 91.7% (rate of manual assistance 11.1%, rate of manual conversion 7.4%, rate of major adverse cardiovascular events 0.93%). Clinical success (99.1% with R-PCI vs. 99.1% with M-PCI; p = 1.00), stent use (stents per procedure 1.59 ± 0.79 with R-PCI vs. 1.54 ± 0.75 with M-PCI; p = 0.73), and fluoroscopy time (18.2 ± 10.4 min with R-PCI vs. 19.2 ± 11.4 min with M-PCI; p = 0.39) were similar between the groups, although procedure time was longer in the R-PCI group (44:30 ± 26:04 min:s vs. 36:34 ± 23:03 min:s; p = 0.002). Propensity-matched analysis confirmed that procedure time was longer

  6. CLEANER ENERGY FROM COAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-MilenaTĂTAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing demand for coal, particularly in the developing world, the use of low emission coal technologies becomes increasingly important if international targets on climate change are to be achieved. The two principal avenues for reducing carbon emissions from coal-fired power generation are through use of high efficiency, low emission power plantsand carbon capture, use and storage.

  7. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  8. THROMBOLYSIS OR PRIMARY PCI FOR MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION WITH ST-SEGMENT ELEVATION? THE STREAM TRIAL (STRATEGIC REPERFUSION EARLY AFTER MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sulimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguous data about comparability regarding clinical outcomes for prehospital thrombolysis, coupled with timely coronary angiography, and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in the early after acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, there are now.In the STREAM trial 1892 patients with STEMI diagnosed within 3 hours after onset of symptoms, and whom it was impossible to perform primary PCI within 1 h after the first medical contact, were randomly assigned into two treatment groups: a primary PCI b prehospital thrombolytic therapy with bolus tenecteplase (dose decreased by half in patients aged ≥75 years in combination with clopidogrel and enoxaparin followed by admission to the hospital, where it was possible to perform PCI. Emergency coronary angiography performed if thrombolysis failed. Coronary angiography and PCI of the infarct-related artery were performed in the period from 6 to 24 hours after randomization and thrombolytic therapy in the case of an effective thrombolysis. Primary endpoints include a composite of death, shock, congestive heart failure, or reinfarction up to 30 days.The primary endpoint occurred in 116 of 939 patients (12.4 % of the thrombolysis group and in 135 of 943 patients (14.3% of the primary PCI group (relative risk in the group thrombolysis 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.68-1.09, p=0.21. Emergency angiography was required in 36.3% of patients in the thrombolysis, and the remaining patients, coronary angiography and PCI were performed at a mean of 17 hours after randomization and thrombolytic therapy. Thrombolysis group had more intracranial hemorrhages than primary PCI group (1.0% vs 0.2%, p=0.04; after correction protocol and dose reduction by half of tenecteplase in patients ≥75 years: 0.5% vs. 0.3%, p=0.45. The rate of non- intracranial bleeding in two treatment groups did not differ.Prehospital thrombolysis followed by coronary angiography and timely PCI provide effective

  9. THROMBOLYSIS OR PRIMARY PCI FOR MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION WITH ST-SEGMENT ELEVATION? THE STREAM TRIAL (STRATEGIC REPERFUSION EARLY AFTER MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sulimov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguous data about comparability regarding clinical outcomes for prehospital thrombolysis, coupled with timely coronary angiography, and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in the early after acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, there are now.In the STREAM trial 1892 patients with STEMI diagnosed within 3 hours after onset of symptoms, and whom it was impossible to perform primary PCI within 1 h after the first medical contact, were randomly assigned into two treatment groups: a primary PCI b prehospital thrombolytic therapy with bolus tenecteplase (dose decreased by half in patients aged ≥75 years in combination with clopidogrel and enoxaparin followed by admission to the hospital, where it was possible to perform PCI. Emergency coronary angiography performed if thrombolysis failed. Coronary angiography and PCI of the infarct-related artery were performed in the period from 6 to 24 hours after randomization and thrombolytic therapy in the case of an effective thrombolysis. Primary endpoints include a composite of death, shock, congestive heart failure, or reinfarction up to 30 days.The primary endpoint occurred in 116 of 939 patients (12.4 % of the thrombolysis group and in 135 of 943 patients (14.3% of the primary PCI group (relative risk in the group thrombolysis 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.68-1.09, p=0.21. Emergency angiography was required in 36.3% of patients in the thrombolysis, and the remaining patients, coronary angiography and PCI were performed at a mean of 17 hours after randomization and thrombolytic therapy. Thrombolysis group had more intracranial hemorrhages than primary PCI group (1.0% vs 0.2%, p=0.04; after correction protocol and dose reduction by half of tenecteplase in patients ≥75 years: 0.5% vs. 0.3%, p=0.45. The rate of non- intracranial bleeding in two treatment groups did not differ.Prehospital thrombolysis followed by coronary angiography and timely PCI provide effective

  10. Five-year outcomes of percutaneous versus surgical coronary revascularization in patients with diabetes mellitus (from the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marui, Akira; Kimura, Takeshi; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Hanyu, Michiya; Shiomi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shiro; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2015-04-15

    We investigated the impact of diabetes mellitus on long-term outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the drug-eluting stent era versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in a real-world population with advanced coronary disease. We identified 3,982 patients with 3-vessel and/or left main disease of 15,939 patients with first coronary revascularization enrolled in the Coronary Revascularization Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2 (patients without diabetes: n = 1,984 [PCI: n = 1,123 and CABG: n = 861], and patients with diabetes: n = 1,998 [PCI: n = 1,065 and CABG: n = 933]). Cumulative 5-year incidence of all-cause death after PCI was significantly higher than after CABG both in patients without and with diabetes (19.8% vs 16.2%, p = 0.01, and 22.9% vs 19.0%, p = 0.046, respectively). After adjusting confounders, the excess mortality risk of PCI relative to CABG was no longer significant (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88 to 1.54; p = 0.29) in patients without diabetes, whereas it remained significant (HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.70; p = 0.04) in patients with diabetes. The excess adjusted risks of PCI relative to CABG for cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and any coronary revascularization were significant in both patients without (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.51, p = 0.047; HR 2.16, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.87, p = 0.01; and HR 3.30, 95% CI 2.55 to 4.25, p <0.001, respectively) and with diabetes (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.51, p = 0.047; HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.31 to 4.08, p = 0.004; and HR 3.70, 95% CI 2.91 to 4.69, p <0.001, respectively). There was no interaction between diabetic status and the effect of PCI relative to CABG for all-cause death, cardiac death, MI, and any revascularization. In conclusion, in both patients without and with diabetes with 3-vessel and/or left main disease, CABG compared with PCI was associated with better 5-year outcomes in terms of cardiac death, MI, and any coronary

  11. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  12. Petrographers fingerprint coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, D.E. [Pearson and Associates Ltd. (USA)

    2001-05-01

    A new system of coal fingerprinting called Digipet generates reflectance profiles by using an automated digital imaging system in which tens of millions of individual reflectance measurements are obtained. Images are conditioned to generate a detailed smooth histogram which convey information on the coal sample's provenance and history. Expert interpretation can reveal further information. The article gives details of the instrument and shows sample reflectance profiles. It discusses some applications in sampling coal charged to coke ovens of the Indiana Harbor Coke Co, and at a Midwest generating plant where it detected the presence of rogue high volatile coal. 3 figs.

  13. The Research and Implementation of Data Acquisition System Based on PC104 and FPGA%基于PCI04和FPGA的数据采集系统的研究和实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程艳; 孙树敏; 张海涛; 李广磊; 袁帅; 赵鹏; 毛庆波

    2012-01-01

    In order to detect the operating state of the dynamic reactive power compensation devicein wind farm, the im plementation of data acquisition system,which is based on PCI04 and FPGA ,has been proposed. PCI04, which is the system host, is merely responsible for the function of date reception and procession ,network communication ,Human Machine Interface, etc.; FPGA, which is the auxiliary equipment, is mainly used to complete the synchronous collection of voltage and electric current signal, and then send the signals to PCI04 by PCI9054 , which is the interface chip of PCI. PCI04 and FPGA have implemented bidirectional data transmission through PCI9054. The connection between FPGA and four six-channel high-speed synchronous A/D can realize the synchronous acquisition of up to twenty-four channel analog.%为了检测风电场动态无功补偿装置的运行状态,提出了基于PCI04工控机和FPGA的数据采集系统的实现方法。以PCI04为系统主机,主要负责数据的接收与处理、网络通信,人机接口等功能;以FPGA为从机,主要完成电压、电流信号的同步采集并通过PCI接口芯片PCI9054传送至PCI04、PCI04和FPGA通过PCI9054实现双向数据传输。FPGA与四片六通道高速同步A/D连结,可以实现最多二十四路模拟量的同步采集。

  14. Clean coal technologies market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  15. Previous hypertensive hemorrhage increases the risk for bleeding and ischemia for PCI patients on dual antiplatelet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Manli; Bi, Qi; Fu, Paul; Wang, Yixin; Song, Zhe; Guo, Fang

    2017-06-01

    The use of antiplatelet therapy after intracerebral hemorrhage remains controversial, while the use of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is required after cardiac stenting. In this study, we examine the risk of bleeding and ischemic events for PCI patients with a history of hypertensive hemorrhage on DAPT. A total of 128 cases and 153 controls were selected from Chinese patients with cardiac stenting on dual anti-platelet therapy for a single-center retrospective case-control study. Patients with a history of hypertensive hemorrhage were selected for the case group, while patients with a history of hypertension were chosen as control. All patients were on aspirin 100 mg and clopidogrel 75 mg after cardiac stenting, and were followed for a duration of 12-48 months. The primary outcomes were intracerebral hemorrhage, major bleeding, and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. A history of previous hypertensive hemorrhage was not found to be a risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage and major bleeding while on dual anti-platelet therapy. However, a history of either hypertensive hemorrhage or coronary artery disease was independently found to be risk factors for major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. On sub-group analysis, patients with a history of hypertensive hemorrhage within 12 months were found to be at higher risk for bleeding on dual anti-platelet therapy, while patients with history of hypertensive hemorrhage outside of 12 months on dual anti-platelet therapy did not have the same increased risk. A history of hypertensive hemorrhage and coronary heart disease were two independent risk factors for major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in PCI patients taking DAPT. A history of hypertensive hemorrhage less than 12 months had an increased risk for recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage and major bleeding in PCI patients taking DAPT.

  16. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction at Non-PCI Capable Hospitals in 2007 and in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egle Kalinauskiene

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is little known about whether characteristics and outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI have changed over the years in non-PCI capable hospitals in real-life. Our aim was to assess them between 2007 and 2014. Methods. It was a retrospective cohort study. Characteristics and in-hospital mortality (standardized in cases of different characteristics between the groups by original simple method were assessed for all patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI and ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI at two non-PCI capable hospitals: one in 2007 (n=104 and another in 2014 (n=58. Results. In 2014, females were older than in 2007 (80.18 ± 7.54 versus 76.15 ± 8.77, p=0.011, males were younger (71.61 ± 11.22 versus 79.20 ± 7.63, p=0.019, less had renal failure (RF (19% versus 34.6%, p<0.0001 and reinfarction (13.8% versus 35.6%, p<0.0001, and the proportion of males (31% versus 43.3%, p=0.001 and the proportion of NSTEMI (60.3 versus 69.2, p<0.0001 decreased. In cases of STEMI there were no differences in patient characteristics. STEMI (18.8% versus 21.7% and standardized mortalities by gender, RF, and reinfarction NSTEMI (19.47%, 15.34%, and 17.5%, resp., versus 17.1% showed no differences between 2007 and 2014. Conclusions. There were some differences in patient characteristics but not in mortality for AMI at non-PCI capable hospitals between 2007 and 2014.

  17. Coke, char and organic waste behaviour in the blast furnace with high injection rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudenau, H. W.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Blast furnace operation with low coke rate, high amount of auxiliary hydrocarbons and use of nut coke causes a change in coke quality requirements. In particular, not burned in the raceway residues of injected substances (char and ash can influence the coke behaviour. Therefore combustion efficiency of various organic wastes with and without pulverized coal injection (PCI and coal char has been investigated under the raceway simulation conditions. Mixing of various substances improves their combustion efficiency. Study on coke gasification by carbon dioxide in the presence of char showed that with the increase of char concentration, coke strength reduction becomes smaller. The reactivity of char with CO2 is higher than that of coke. Therefore char is consumed preferentially. In presence of injected char, total pore volume in coke and its wear resistance were increased. Coke reactivity and microstructure in the presence of various kinds of ash has been studied. Many ash spheres were observed on the surface of coke matrix and its size was dependent on ash properties.

    La operación del horno alto con una tasa baja de coque, una cantidad elevada de hidrocarburos auxiliares y el empleo de coque calibrado, origina un cambio en las necesidades de calidad del coque. En particular, pueden influir en el comportamiento del coque los residuos inquemados en el raceway (cavidad enfrente a las toberas del horno de las sustancias que se inyectan (char y cenizas. El char es el residuo de carbón que se origina después que el carbón libera sus sustancias volátiles. Por tanto, se ha investigado la eficiencia de la combustión de varios residuos orgánicos con y sin inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP y char, bajo las condiciones de simulación del raceway. La mezcla de varias sustancias mejora la eficiencia a la combustión. El estudio de la gasificación del coque por el dióxido de carbono en la

  18. Acid gas injection : reservoir engineering considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pooladi-Darvish, M. [Fekete Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This study discussed reservoir engineering considerations related to acid gas injection, including the effects of pressure. A map of acid gas injection sites in Alberta was presented. The WASP Nisku acid gas project is a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration project located in a dolomitized aquifer close to coal-fired power plants. Analytical solutions developed at the site include a multi-well injectivity procedure for infinite reservoirs. Analytical considerations at the site included low water compressibility, strong interference, and a lack of flow boundaries. Chromatographic separation techniques were used to address the compositional effects of the reservoir in relation to the injection wells. Techniques developed at the CO{sub 2} sequestration sites are being used to develop procedures for acid gas storage in depleted gas pools and beneath the ocean floor. tabs., figs.

  19. Supported-sorbent injection. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S. Jr.

    1997-07-01

    A new retrofitable, wastefree acid-rain control concept was pilot-tested at Ohio Edison`s high-sulfur coal-fired R.E. Burger generating station at the 2-MWe level. During the project, moistened {open_quotes}supported{close_quotes} sorbents, made from a combination of lime and vermiculite or perlite, were injected into a humidified 6,500-acfm flue-gas slipstream. After the sorbents reacted with the sulfur dioxide in the flue gas, they were removed from ductwork with a cyclone and baghouse. The $1.0 million project was co-funded by Sorbent Technologies Corporation, the Ohio Edison Company, and the Ohio Coal Development Office. The project included a preliminary bench-scale testing phase, construction of the pilot plant, parametric studies, numerous series of recycle tests, and a long-term run. The project proceeded as anticipated and achieved its expected results. This duct injection technology successfully demonstrated SO{sub 2}-removal rates of 80 to 90% using reasonable stoichiometric injection ratios (2:1 Ca:S) and approach temperatures (20-25F). Under similar conditions, dry injection of hydrated lime alone typically only achieves 40 to 50% SO{sub 2} removal. During the testing, no difficulties were encountered with deposits in the ductwork or with particulate control, which have been problems in tests of other duct-injection schemes.

  20. Influence of liquid water on coalbed methane adsorption: An experimental research on coal reservoirs in the south of Qinshui Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG Shuxun; ZHU Yanming; ZHANG Jing; ZHANG Xiaodong; ZHANG Shiyin

    2005-01-01

    Using Isothermal Adsorption/Desorption System Model IS-100 and Electrohydraulic Servo Rock System Model MTS815 as the main apparatuses and collecting samples from the major coal reservoirs in the south of Qinshui Basin, a hot point region of coalbed methane exploration, the paper carries out systematical comparisons of the isothermal adsorption experimental data for injection water coal sampies, equilibrium moisture samples and dry coal samples,probes and establishes an experimental method of injection water coal sample preparation and isothermal experiment to simulate real reservoir conditions, and then summaries the experimental regulations and discusses the mechanism of liquid water influencing coal methane adsorption. Results of the experiment indicate that: The Langmuir volume of injection water coal samples is notably larger than that of equilibrium moisture samples, as well as larger than or equivalent to that of dry coal samples; the Langmuir pressure of injection water coal samples is the highest, the next is equilibrium moisture samples, while the dry samples is the lowest, of which the experimental results of injection water samples to simulate real reservoir conditions are more close to the fact.Under the conditions of in-position reservoirs, liquid water in coals has evident influence on methane adsorption ability of coal matrix, which can increase the adsorbability of coal and make the adsorption regulation fit to Langmuir model better.Its major reason is the increase of wetting coal matrix adsorbability. The above experimental results overthrow the conventional cognition that liquid water has no influence on coalbed methane adsorption, which may lead to an improvement of the coalbed methane isothermal adsorption experimental method and of the reliability of coalbed methane resource evaluation and prediction.

  1. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  2. Underground coal gasification: An overview of groundwater contamination hazards and mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Joshua A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-13

    Underground coal gasification is the in situ conversion of coal into an energy-rich product gas. It takes place deep underground, using chemical reactions to consume the coal and grow a cavity. Gas wells, drilled into the coal seam, inject reactant air, oxygen, and/or steam to sustain the reactions. Production wells then extract the product gas. Careful analysis and understanding of likely failure modes will help prevent and minimize impacts. This document provides a general description of the relevant processes, potential failure modes, and practical mitigation strategies. It can guide critical review of project design and operations.

  3. 基于PCI9118数据采集卡的车削力测量系统设计%The Design of the Cutting Force Measuring System Based on PCI 9118 Data Acquisition Card

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭浩泽

    2015-01-01

    采用基于应变片式测力仪、PCI9118数据采集卡及Visual Basic编程语言的车削力测量系统,实现了对采集来的切削数据的向间标定系数的基于一元线性回归方程的计算,并分析了数据的相关性;通过实际加工测量,利用标定系数得到了实际切削力的大小,求出了3个方向的关于进给量和背吃刀量的切削力经验公式,为车削加工提供了参考数据。%By using the cutting force measuring system based on strain gage type cutting dynamometer, PCI 9118 data acquisition card and Visual Basic programming language, this paper realizes the monadic linear regression equation based calculation of the interphase calibration coefficient of the collected cutting data, and analyzes the correlation of the data, and th ough the actual processing measurement, obtains the size of the actual cutting force by using the calibration coefficient, establishes the cutting force experience formulas of the cutting feed and back cutting depth on the three directions,providing the reference data for the lathe work.

  4. 基于PCI-1712数据采集卡的骨质疏松治疗仪上位软件设计%Software Design of the Osteoporosis Treatment Therapy Based on PCI-1712 Data Acquisition Card

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树东; 宋国辉; 高学洪; 周盛成; 王恒星; 何巍

    2012-01-01

    This article introduce a superior performance of multi-function high-speed acquisition card PCI-1712, and apply to the actual project osteoporosis treatment therapy control system. The paper mainly describe the system architecture and the software architecture and the design method in the VB environment, and the software realize remote control of the device, a variety of waveform output, data collection, data preservation functions and waveform display. The actual running shows that the control system is running stable, reliable, and present intelligent features, belong to the field of advanced medjcal products, with good prospects.%介绍了一款性能优越的多功能高速采集卡PCI-1712,并运用到实际项目骨质疏松治疗仪的控制系统中.主要阐述了系统的结构和在VB环境下软件的结构和设计方法,软件实现了对设备的远程控制、各种波形输出、数据的采集、数据的保存与波形显示等功能.实际运行表明,系统稳定、可靠、并呈现智能化特性,属于医疗领域先进产品,有着很好的发展前景.

  5. Interfaz para censar velocidad en un motor utilizando la tarjeta de adquisición de datos PCI-6025E; Interface for Measure Motor Velocity Used the Adquisition Target PCI-6025E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Garrido Díaz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se implementa la elaboración de una interfaz para censar la velocidad de un motor. Se utilizaun taco generador TDP 0,09 LT 3 que se encuentra acoplado al eje de un motor asincrónico y se elabora uncircuito electrónico impreso para adecuar la señal obtenida por este taco generador a una señal que puedaser interpretada por la tarjeta de adquisición de datos de National Instrument: PCI-6025E. Se plantea unpequeño ejemplo de la utilización de esta interfaz desde un instrumento virtual desarrollado en Labview 5.1sobre Linux .  Its article is about the implementation of an interface for measure motor velocity. Is used a TDP 0,09 LT 3tachogenerator  situated in the  asynchrony motor and is elaborated a printed electronic circuit to adequatethe censor signal to a signal that can be read  for  a PCI-6025E National Instrument acquisition target. Itsshow an example of  the used of  this interface from a software based in Labview 5.1 over Linux

  6. 基于PCI-1713模块的高速数据采集系统的设计%The high-speed data acquisition system based on PCI-1713 module design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛宁

    2014-01-01

    数据采集指将模拟信号采集,转换成数字信号后,再由计算机进行存储、处理、显示和输出的过程。数据采集系统的(DAS)是模拟量与数字量之间的转换接口,在自动测试、通信、信号处理领域占有重要地位。本设计利用PCI-1713完成高速数据采集系统的设计。%Data acquisition refers to convert analog signal acquisition,into digital signal after,again by the computer for storage,processing,display and output of the process.Data acquisition system (DAS)is the conversion between analog and digital interface,the automatic testing,communications,occupies an important position in the field of signal processing.This design using the PCI - 1713 high speed data acquisition system design.

  7. Deep coal seams as a greener energy source: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunga, A. S.; Perera, M. S. A.; Ranjith, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    Today, coal and oil are the main energy sources used in the world. However, these sources will last for only a few decades. Hence, the investigation of possible energy sources to meet this crisis has become a crucial task. Coal bed methane (CBM) is a potential energy source which can be used to fulfil the energy demand. Since the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted to the atmosphere from the use of CBM is comparatively very low compared to conventional energy sources, it is also a potential mitigation option for global warming. This paper reviews CBM recovery techniques with particular emphasis on CO2-enhanced coal bed methane (CO2-ECBM) recovery. The paper reviews (1) conventional CBM recovery techniques and problems associated with them, (2) CBM production-enhancement methods, including hydro-fracturing and enhanced CBM recovery techniques, such as N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM, (3) the importance of the CO2-ECBM technique compared to other methods and problems with it, (4) the effect of CO2 injection during the CO2-ECBM process on coal seam permeability and strength and (5) current CO2-ECBM field projects and their progress. Although conventional CBM recovery methods are simple (basically related to the drawdown of the reservoir pressure to release methane from it), they are inefficient for the recovery of a commercially viable amount of methane from coal seams. Therefore, to enhance methane production, several methods are used, such as hydro-fracturing and ECBM (N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM). The CO2-ECBM process has a number of advantages compared to other methane recovery techniques, as it contributes to the mitigation of the atmospheric CO2 level, is safer and more economical. However, as a result of CO2 injection into the coal seam during the CO2-ECBM process, coal mass permeability and strength may be crucially changed, due to the coal matrix swelling associated with CO2 adsorption into the coal matrix. Both injecting CO2 properties (gas type, CO2 phase and pressure

  8. Use of fluid injection of Krylamin D for control of water influx to underground workings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postawa, J.; Stryczek, S.; Rakoczy, W.

    1987-05-01

    Water influx to a 270 m deep mine roadway in the Jaworzno black coal mine is associated with a tectonic fault. Injection of Krylamin D urea-formaldehyde resin was used to control water influx. Injection boreholes, 42 mm in diameter, were drilled perpendicular to the roadway axis. Resin consumption rate ranged from 50-150 dm/sup 3/ in coal to 30-80 dm/sup 3/ in shales. About 5 t of resin were used for water influx control in a 5.0 m long roadway section. Resin injection equipment and distribution of injection boreholes are discussed.

  9. COAL USE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world's coal reserves have been estimated to be about one exagram accessible with current extraction technology. The energy content has been valued at 290 zettajourles. Using a value of 15 terawatt as the current global energy consumption, the coal supply could global needs f...

  10. Coal Industry Burns Hot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JadaFu

    2003-01-01

    After a rapid boom last year, China's coal industry has continued to grow in 2003. The country has produced 177.27 million tons of coal in the first two months of the year, a year-on-year rise of 17.7 percent.

  11. Improving coal handling effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S.

    2003-10-01

    Appropriate coal handling systems are essential for successful coal utilisation. The paper looks at some of the options available, including crushers and hammer mills, wear-resistant liners for chutes and wagons, and dewatering systems. These are individual components within larger systems such as stockyard stacking and reclaiming installations. 5 photos.

  12. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  13. Apparatus and method for feeding coal into a coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Larry A.; Friggens, Gary R.; McGee, James P.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed to a system for feeding coal into a gasifier operating at high pressures. A coal-water slurry is pumped to the desired pressure and then the coal is "dried" prior to feeding the coal into the gasifier by contacting the slurry with superheated steam in an entrained bed dryer for vaporizing the water in the slurry.

  14. 水果补钾预防 PCI 围手术期低钾血症的效果观察%Effect of fruit potassium supplement on preventing hypokalemia at peri-PCI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕丽君; 余同珍; 古良

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨水果补钾预防经皮冠状动脉支架植入术(percutanous coronary intervention,PCI)围手术期低钾血症的效果。方法选择2011年7~12月本院收治的90例低钾血症拟行PCI的冠心病患者,在常规口服药物补钾治疗基础上,给予吃橙子和香蕉,每天各吃500 g,分早、中、晚3次进食,持续至术前。观察患者入院时及手术当天、术后第1 d、第3 d 血钾情况。结果患者术前口服水果补钾时间为12~45 h,平均(28�84±11�70)h;患者手术当天及术后第1 d、第3 d 血钾水平比入院当天明显升高(均 P <0�05),而且维持在正常水平。结论进食香蕉和橙子可帮助患者快速纠正低钾血症,有效预防PCI 围手术期低钾血症。%  Objective To investigate the effects of fruit potassium supplement on hypokalemia at in the perioperative period of percutanous coronary intervention(PCI)� Methods Ninety cronary herat disease patients with hypokalemia undergoing PCI during July to December 2011 involved the study� Since admission,the patients were administered with oranges and bananas each 500 g daily until the third day after PCI,on the basis of oral administration of potassium� Serum potassium was assessed in all patients at time points of the day at PCI,the first day and third day after PCI� Results The time range for the patients to take potassium supplement by eating fruits was 12-45 hours,averaged(28�84 ± 11�70)hours� The serum potassium levels on days 1 and 3 were significantly higher than that on the day for the admission(P < 0�05 for both)and even maintained at the normal level� Conclusion The oral complement of potassium by eating bananas and oranges can help patients to correct and prevent hypokalemia during the perioperative period of PCI�

  15. Assessing CO2 interaction with cement and steel over a two-year injection period: current state and future risks for the MovECBM project in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loizzo, M.; Bressers, P.; Benedictus, T.; Guen, Y. le; Poupard, O.

    2009-01-01

    On the site of Kaniow (Poland) a new well was used to inject supercritical CO2 into coal seams over a two year period. The injection was part of an experiment on Enhanced Coal-Bed Methane recovery sponsored by the RECOPOL and MovECBM European project. Part of the interest in ECBM is the possibility

  16. Assessing CO2 interaction with cement and steel over a two-year injection period: current state and future risks for the MovECBM project in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loizzo, M.; Bressers, P.; Benedictus, T.; Guen, Y. le; Poupard, O.

    2009-01-01

    On the site of Kaniow (Poland) a new well was used to inject supercritical CO2 into coal seams over a two year period. The injection was part of an experiment on Enhanced Coal-Bed Methane recovery sponsored by the RECOPOL and MovECBM European project. Part of the interest in ECBM is the possibility

  17. Identification and Treatment of Psychological Disorders during the Perioperative Period of PCI%PCI术前术后的心理障碍识别与处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶贵周; 毛慧子

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines the high incidence of coronary heart disease with psychological disorders during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) . These psychological disorders influence on development and prognosis of coronary heart disease ,This article analyzes the causes ,mechanisms and factors of anxiety ,depression and other psychological disorders in patients during the operation of PCI .It is high time to appeal heart physicians identify the psychological disorders in patients during PCI .Treat these symptoms by psychology and psychiatry combine cardiovascular medical treatment .That is so-called psychocardiacology .We should diagnosis and treat the patient who had a not obvious curative efficacy treated by PCI and cardiovascular medicine with psychology and psychiatry .In this way ,we can facilitate the rehabilitation and prognosis of patients undergoing PCI ,meanwhile reduce unnecessary medical examination and treatment .%概述冠心病经皮冠状动脉介入治疗(PCI)术前术后患者合并心理障碍的较高发生率以及心理障碍对冠心病发生、发展及预后的影响,分析 PCI 术前术后患者出现焦虑抑郁等心理障碍的原因、产生机制及影响因素,强调心内科医生应及时识别 PCI 术前术后患者出现的心理障碍,并以“双心医学”方式对其进行心理精神医学及心血管专科医学治疗,同时对心血管专科医学治疗效果不明显的冠心病 PCI 患者,进行相关的鉴别诊断后也要进行心理精神医学的诊断和治疗,以便有利于 PCI 术患者的康复和预后,减少不必要的检查和治疗。

  18. Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.

    1992-03-01

    Project tasks: Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and test the logs produced from Task 1. Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. Prepare a final report for DOE.

  19. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  20. (Coal utilization in India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, R.P.

    1991-01-15

    Under the Phase II, Alternative Energy Resources Development (AERD) project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of India (GOI), five collaborative coal projects have been initiated in the areas of: (1) NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control from coal-fired power plants, (2) slagging combustor development for high-ash Indian coals, (3) characterization of Indian coals for combustion and gasification, (4) diagnostic studies for prediction of power plant life expectancy, and (5) environmental and natural resource analysis of coal cycle. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) has the implementation responsibility for these projects. The Indian collaborative institutions identified for these projects are the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), Trichy, (Projects 1--4), and the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for Project 5. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing cross-cut technical coordination and support for these five projects.

  1. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  2. Pyrolysis of Indonesian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachimoellah; Endah [Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopemba, Surabaya (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering; Karaman, N.; Kusuma, S.A. [UPN Surabaya, (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1997-04-01

    It has been estimated that there is 36 billion tons of coal resource potential in Indonesia. Over 21.4 billion tons is classified as low rank (lignitic) coal. The coal deposits are located mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan. As an energy source, low rank coals are not widely used, because of their high moisture content, low calorific value and variable ash content. One of the key questions for utilizing low rank coal is whether lignite can be upgraded into another form which is more economically viable. In this study tests were carried out in a pilot plant fixed bed pyrolysis reactor unit provided with hopper, electric heater, coolers and product receivers. The yield of char, tar and gases was found to depend on temperature which also affected the composition of gas produced. Results also indicated the temperature and particle size giving maximum tar yield, gas concentration, and the atmosphere of inert nitrogen. 1 tab., 2 figs., 10 refs.

  3. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  4. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  5. ASSESSMENT OF ISTRIAN COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION POSSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Klanfar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential of coal bed methane has not been evaluated in Croatia so far. For several selected sites in Labin basin data on the composition of coal and the depths and thicknesses of coal layers were collected. Assessment and comparison of the methane content in coal by using the Langmuir isotherm, the general curves of sorption and Kim's method was made and evaluation of the quality of each assessment as well. The analysis resulted with coal bed methane content between 9.5 m3/t 11.73 m3/t calculated by Kim's equation. By comparing the sorption of pure methane and sorption of CO2, in order to maintain the pressure in a coal bed and higher recovery of methane, the CO2 could be one of the options for injecting fluid. Geometry of coal layers was not defined and therefore it is not possible to estimate the total content of methane (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Hydraulic and Seismic Properties of Methane-Bearing Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, T. J.; Gritto, R.; Tomutsa, L.

    2002-12-01

    In the last 10 years, coalbed methane (CBM) has transformed from being a coal mine hazard to a low-risk source of long term dry natural gas. The benefit of this clean burning natural gas as an energy source in conjunction with vast amounts stored in coal basins has led to the development of an industry that produces CBM. Reduction of carbon emissions to the atmosphere through carbon dioxide injection into coal has added another benefit to the production of CMB, as carbon dioxide may be used to desorb methane from coal seams. In order to successfully produce CBM, more information is needed on the migration of methane through fractures and cleats and on the replacement of methane by carbon dioxide in the coal seam. Laboratory experiments are underway to address these questions. Tests on core samples are being performed under in-situ pressure to gain insights on processes occurring in CBM extraction and carbon dioxide sequestration. A variety of techniques are being used including measuring physical properties, electrical resistivity, and saturation and phase location using x-ray computed tomography. Simultaneously measurements of seismic waves are performed including P- and S-wave velocities as well as amplitudes of body waves as a function of methane and carbon dioxide concentration in coal. The results can be used to design an experiment to monitor time-lapse changes and thus the production of gas from a coal seam during methane production.

  7. Interfase para censar temperatura en un motor utilizando la tarjeta de adquisición de datos PCI-6025E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Garrido Díaz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se implementa la elaboración de una interfase para censar la temperatura de un motor . Se utiliza un censorPhilips KTY84-130 colocado en el interior de un motor asincrónico y se elabora un circuito electrónico impresopara adecuar la señal obtenida por este censor a una señal que pueda ser interpretada por la tarjeta de adquisiciónde datos de National Instrument: PCI-6025E. Se confeccionan software desarrollados en Labview 5.1 sobreLinux , para el diseño y ajuste del circuito impreso y se plantea un pequeño ejemplo de la utilización de estainterfase desde un instrumento virtual desarrollado en Labview 5.1 sobre Linux.  Its article is about the implementation of a temperature censor interface for measure motor temperature. Is useda Philips KTY84-130 censor situated inside of an asynchrony motor an is elaborated an printed electronic circuitto adequate the censor signal   to a signal that can be read  for  a PCI-6025E National Instrument acquisitiontarget. Is been construed a   software based in  Labview 5.1 over Linux.

  8. Effect of small dose of EPO after PCI on cardiac function and myocardial injury in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Min Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of small dose of erythropoietin (EPO) after PCI on cardiac function and myocardial injury in patients with acute myocardial infarction.Methods:A total of 86 patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction who received percutaneous coronary intervention in our hospital from April 2012 to June 2015 were selected and randomly divided into EPO group and control group, serum was collected 1 week after operation to determine myocardial injury indexes, inflammation indexes, oxidative stress indexes and ventricular remodeling indexes, and color Doppler echocardiography was conducted 6 months after surgery to determine ventricular systolic and diastolic function indexes.Results:One week after operation, serum LDH, CK, CK-MB, cTnI, cTnT, sCD40L, E-selectin, P-selectin, sICAM-1, MDA, O2-, ox-LDL, PICP, CITP and PIIINP levels of EPO group were significantly lower than those of control group while GSH-Px and SOD levels were significantly higher than those of control group; 6 months after operation, LVEF of EPO group was significantly higher than that of control group while LVEDVI and LVESVI were significantly lower than those of control group.Conclusions:Small dose of EPO after PCI can alleviate myocardial damage, relieve inflammation and oxidative stress, and improve myocardial remodeling and cardiac diastolic and systolic function in patients with AMI.

  9. Economic Limit of Coal Mining Closedown in Restructuring Coal Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    One of the key points in restructuring the coal industry is to close some deficient coal mines which haveneither economic result nor social benefit. Based on the relationship among production, cost, and profit, differenteconomic limits for closing coal mines in different cases were put forward. The relationship between the profit andclosedown cost of deficient coal mines was analyzed and an overall economic limit for closing a deficient coal minewas also proposed.

  10. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and the…

  11. Transportation of coal by pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Canada's coal resources, technology of long distance coal slurry pipelines, existing and planned coal slurry pipelines, their economics, liquid carbon dioxide, methanol and crude oil instead of water as carrier fluid, and coal slurry research in Canada.

  12. Experience of coal mine operation in the Ukraine in the field of reducing ash content of run-of-mine coal in the tenth five year plan. Opyt raboty shakht minugleproma USSR po snizheniyu zol'nosti dobyvaemykh uglei v desyutoi pyutiletke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A.I.; Krivchenko, A.A.; Kuznetsov, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    In the period from 1975 to 1979 ash content of coal extracted from Ukrainian coal mines increased from 21.2 to 21.9% or by 0.7%, and ash content of run-of-mine coal from 29.1% to 31.7% or by 2.6%. Causes of increasing ash content in coal are analyzed. Investigations carried out in the Ukraine indicate that increasing proportion of coal mined by narrow web coal cutters causes an average increase in ash content in coal of 0.1%. Introducing powered supports causes ash content increase in coal by about 3.3% in comparison to coal mined at faces with hydraulic props. Influence of introducing high capacity heading machines as well as using various types of coal haulage is also analyzed. The results are given in 5 tables. The following measures aimed at reducing ash content in coal are discussed: use of KD-80, KSD, M-88 and M-103 powered supports, K-103, MK-67 and BKT face systems, KSU support systems for face ends, mobile bunker used for selective belt conveyor haulage of rock and coal from development workings, using AZUK, ZAZ, and VSKZ measuring instruments for continuous determination of ash content in coal, selective coal mining, roof bolting combined with chemical methods of reinforcing roofs of coal seams by means of resin injections, leaving a 0.05 to 0.1 m thick protective coal bench in the roof.

  13. Stress and Damage Induced Gas Flow Pattern and Permeability Variation of Coal from Songzao Coalfield in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of coal is a critical parameter in estimating the performance of coal reservoirs. Darcy’s law describes the flow pattern that the permeability has a linear relationship with the flow velocity. However, the stress induced deformation and damage can significantly influence the gas flow pattern and permeability of coal. Coals from Songzao coalfield in Chongqing, southwest China were collected for the study. The gas flow velocities under different injection gas pressures and effective stresses in the intact coal and damaged coal were tested using helium, incorporating the role of gas flow pattern on the permeability of coal. The relationships between the flow velocity and square of gas pressure gradient were discussed, which can help us to investigate the transformation conditions of gas linear flow and gas nonlinear flow in the coal. The results showed that the gas flow in the intact coal existed pseudo-initial flow rate under low effective stress. The low-velocity non-Darcy gas flow gradually occurred and the start-up pressure gradient increased in the coal as the effective stress increased. The gas flow rate in the damaged coal increased nonlinearly as the square of pressure gradient increased under low effective stress. The instability of gas flow caused by high ratio of injection gas pressure over effective stress in the damaged coal contributed to the increase of the gas flow rate. As the effective stress increased, the increase of gas flow rate in coal turned to be linear. The mechanisms of the phenomena were explored according to the experimental results. The permeability of coal was corrected based on the relationships between the flow velocity and square of gas pressure gradient, which showed advantages in accurately estimating the performance of coal reservoirs.

  14. Coal Mines Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Guhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

  15. Industrial role of coal chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierk, E.A.; Stadelhofer, J.W.

    1983-02-07

    The paper is concerned with the production of coal-based chemicals either from the by-products of coal carbonization, or from synthesis gas manufactured from coal. The potential of coal tar as a raw material for chemicals synthesis forms the basis of the paper. Koppers-Totzek and Lurgi gasification processes and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are considered, and, finally, coal liquefaction processes are briefly mentioned.

  16. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  17. A Systematic Analysis of Coal Accumulation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Aiguo

    2008-01-01

    Formation of coal seam and coal-rich zone is an integrated result of a series of factors in coal accumulation process. The coal accumulation system is an architectural aggregation of coal accumulation factors. It can be classified into 4 levels: the global coal accumulation super-system, the coal accumulation domain mega.system, the coal accumulation basin system, and the coal seam or coal seam set sub-system. The coal accumulation process is an open, dynamic, and grey system, and is meanwhile a system with such natures as aggregation, relevance, entirety, purpose-orientated, hierarchy, and environment adaptability. In this paper, we take coal accumulation process as a system to study origin of coal seam and coal-rich zone; and we will discuss a methodology of the systematic analysis of coal accumulation process. As an example, the Ordos coal basin was investigated to elucidate the application of the method of the coal accumulation system analysis.

  18. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  19. Coal potential of Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  20. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  1. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2005-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to perform reservoir simulation and economic sensitivity studies to (1) determine the effects of injection gas composition, (2) determine the effects of injection rate, and (3) determine the effects of coal dewatering prior to CO{sub 2} injection on CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation (LCB) of the Wilcox Group coals in east-central Texas. To predict CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM in LCB coal beds for these three sensitivity studies, we constructed a 5-spot pattern reservoir simulation model and selected reservoir parameters representative of a typical depth, approximately 6,200-ft, of potential LCB coalbed reservoirs in the focus area of East-Central Texas. Simulation results of flue gas injection (13% CO{sub 2} - 87% N{sub 2}) in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern (40-ac well spacing) indicate that LCB coals with average net thickness of 20 ft can store a median value of 0.46 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft, with a median ECBM recovery of 0.94 Bcf and median CO{sub 2} breakthrough time of 4,270 days (11.7 years). Simulation of 100% CO{sub 2} injection in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicated that these same coals with average net thickness of 20 ft can store a median value of 1.75 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft with a median ECBM recovery of 0.67 Bcf and median CO{sub 2} breakthrough time of 1,650 days (4.5 years). Breakthrough was defined as the point when CO{sub 2} comprised 5% of the production stream for all cases. The injection rate sensitivity study for pure CO{sub 2} injection in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern at 6,200-ft depth shows that total volumes of CO{sub 2} sequestered and methane produced do not have significant sensitivity to

  2. A propósito de un caso: terapia oro-facial como tratamiento complementario de la espasticidad en niños con PCI

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Debido a la prevalencia de niños con PCI espástica y buscando el avance en esta patología, siempre será de utilidad la búsqueda de otras alternativas de tratamiento, en este caso en fisioterapia, para poder valernos de un mayor número de herramientas. En este caso, se valorará la eficacia del tratamiento fisioterápico oro-facial en la espasticidad. Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia de la terapia oro-facial en la disminución de la espasticidad en un paciente con PCI. Metodo...

  3. A propósito de un caso: terapia oro-facial como tratamiento complementario de la espasticidad en niños con PCI

    OpenAIRE

    González Alberdi, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Debido a la prevalencia de niños con PCI espástica y buscando el avance en esta patología, siempre será de utilidad la búsqueda de otras alternativas de tratamiento, en este caso en fisioterapia, para poder valernos de un mayor número de herramientas. En este caso, se valorará la eficacia del tratamiento fisioterápico oro-facial en la espasticidad. Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia de la terapia oro-facial en la disminución de la espasticidad en un paciente con PCI. Metodo...

  4. Coal slurry - a problem of the brown coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, H.; Hielscher, R.; Mohry, J.

    1983-01-01

    Technological and economic aspects are examined for processing coal-containing waste water from brown coal preparation plants in the German Democratic Republic. In 1979, 106.8 Mm/sup 3/ of coal slurry were produced by the GDR brown coal industry, with a coal fine content ranging between 7.8 g/l and 20.4 g/l. This amounts to 2.6 Mt/y of coal which is 1% of the annual brown coal production. Technological variants of processing and utilizing coal slurry are discussed. At a number of major coal preparation plants, coal slurry is flushed into sedimentation lakes. After a 2 to 3 year drying period, a 6 to 10 m thick layer of coal is recovered. Technologies of coal slurry processing with the aim of recovering coal fines are enumerated. Equipment for these processes include, filters, centrifuges, dryers, etc. Recovered coal can be used as fuel or processed into fertilizer in combination with fly ash and other waste products. 12 references.

  5. 基于 PCI-E 总线的智能变电站网络记录分析仪研制%Development of a Network Recording Analyzer in the Smart Substation Based on PCI-E Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    檀永; 侯明国; 沈健

    2015-01-01

    The network recording analyzer is a device for recording,monitoring and analyzing network data in the smart substation,which can find weak links and the malfunction equipment of the communication network in advance,prevent failures in the electric power system,and restore the faulty waveform of the primary equipment of the power system as well as the records of the action and behavior of its secondary equipment in case of power system failures,thus facilitating analysis and quick trouble-shooting once an accident happens.Real-time acquisition,high-speed storage and efficient extraction of massive network data in the smart substation are the difficult points in the development of a network recording analyzer.Based on a deep analysis of PCI-E,this paper gives a details introduction of a hardware platform for the network recording analyzer of the smart substation based on PCI-E bus,and briefly describes the key points for the design of the driver software,thus providing a feasible implementation scheme for the acquisition and storage of massive network data in the network recording analyzer.%网络记录分析仪是智能变电站内的网络数据记录、监视、分析设备,它可提前发现通信网络的薄弱环节和故障设备,预防电力系统事故的发生,并在发生电力系统故障时,还原电力系统一次设备故障波形以及二次设备动作行为记录,便于事故发生后进行分析和快速查找故障原因。智能变电站内海量网络数据的实时采集、高速存储、高效提取是研制网络记录分析仪的难点。在深入分析第三代总线通信接口标准 PCI-E 总线的基础上,详细介绍了一种基于 PCI-E 总线的智能变电站网络记录分析仪硬件平台,同时简要概述了驱动软件的设计要点,为网络记录分析仪海量网络数据的采集、存储提供了一个切实可行的实现方案。

  6. 基于PCI-1750 I/O卡的测试枪自动检测系统设计%Design of contact cassette test system based on data acquisition card PCI-1750

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵智峰

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the production capacity, Realize the function of auto test contact cassette off line, we designed the auto test system based on data acquisition PCI-1750 card. Using language of VB.net , we can control the cylinder movement and test the sensor state lively through the function library in control card.%  为了方便线下维修测试枪,提高设备的利用率,设计了基于PCI数据采集控制卡的系统控制方案.通过VB.net 调用数据采集控制卡中的函数库,手动或自动控制气缸运动,测试传感器状态,从而实现测试枪的手动和自动检测。

  7. PCI 手术患者血清 TSH 水平与心血管疾病严重程度的相关性研究%Correlation between serum TSH concentrations and cardiovascular severity in patients undergoing PCI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卫云; 邬升超; 颜红梅; 吴炯; 郭玮; 张春燕; 宋斌斌; 潘柏申

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between serum thyroid-stimulating hormone ( TSH ) concentrations and cardiovascular severity in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Methods Of 1 122 patients undergoing PCI, 1 000 who met inclusion criteria were classified into 3 groups according to serum TSH concentrations: normal,subclinical hypothyroidism and subclinical hyperthyroidism groups.The main outcomes were Gensini score with Gensini scores >50 defined as high cardiac risk and the percentage undergoing stent implantation. Results The percentages of patients with Gensini scores >50 differed significantly in normal and subclinical hypothyroidism groups (P =0.003).Binary Logistic regression analysis showed that subclinical hypothyroidism was an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease [odds ratio (OR) =1.855, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.244-2.766, P =0.002].In contrast,Gensini score >50 and stent implantation did not correlate with TSH concentration in normal group.Conclusions Subclinical hypothyroidism is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients undergoing PCI.The correlation between normal TSH concentrations and cardiovascular disease requires further investigation.%目的:研究经皮冠状动脉介入术(PCI)手术患者血清促甲状腺激素(TSH)水平与心血管疾病严重程度的相关性。方法初次入组1122名行 PCI 术患者,根据所设定的筛选标准最后入组1000名患者。根据 TSH检测结果,将人群分为正常组、亚临床甲状腺功能减退组(简称亚临床甲减组)和亚临床甲状腺功能亢进组(简称亚临床甲亢组)。将 Gensini 积分和患者是否接受支架治疗作为主要的临床终点事件,以 Gensini 积分>50表示心血管疾病严重程度较高。结果正常人群组和亚临床甲减组中,Gensini 积分>50的患者在两人群中的分布情况存在明显差异(P =0.003)。二元 Logistic 回归分析

  8. Abundance and modes of occurrence of mercury in some low-sulfur coals from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingyun; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.

    2008-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the hazardous trace elements in coal. Mercury in coal is almost totally emitted into the atmosphere during coal combustion. Especially for utilities burning low-sulfur coals that do not require scrubbers, Hg reduction will be neglected. Hg abundances of 52 low-sulfur coal samples from different coalfields in six provinces of China were determined by a flow injection mercury system (FIMS). The results show that Hg abundances in selected low-sulfur coals range from 0.03??ppm to 0.79??ppm, with an arithmetic mean of 0.24??ppm, which is higher than that of average Chinese coals (0.19??ppm). Correlation analysis and sequential extraction procedures are performed to study possible modes of occurrence of Hg in low-sulfur coals. Modes of occurrence of Hg are variable in low-sulfur coals, and the sulfide-bound and organic-bound Hg may be the dominant forms. In addition, the silicate-bound Hg may be the main form in some of these coals because of magmatic intrusion. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of coal matrix swelling on enhanced coalbed methane production. A field and laboratory study. Geologica Ultraiectina (315)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, F.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a key technology to reduce worldwide emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). One CCS option is to inject CO2 into subsurface coal beds. When combined with simultaneous, enhanced, production of methane naturally present in the coal, this process is referred t

  10. Tianjin smokeless coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuvid, J.M. [Information Services Trans Europe B.V. (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    A feasibility study was started to evaluate the technical barriers and the commercial possibilities of forming a joint venture between the Tianjin Coal and Building Materials Company (TCBM) and Coalite hereby coal from the Shanxi coalfields would be converted by the Coalite process to a smokeless fuel, which would reduce Taijin`s heavy level of air pollution. The project was, however, aborted in October 1996 because Tianjin had been allocated a connection to domestic natural gas fields. The project did identify the suitability of coals from the Shanxi coalfields for the Coalite process and the likely market acceptability of the product. It demonstrated the necessity of establishing good contacts in the relevant industries and Ministries in China - and highlighted the benefits of an effective collaboration between three types of organisation - an investment and consultancy company with expertise in China, a UK clean coal technology company, and a local consultant. 4 apps.

  11. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  12. Proximate analysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A. [University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (USA)

    2009-02-15

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

  13. Coal terminal directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

  14. Coal log pipeline for twenty-first century coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, T.R.; Liu, H.; Wilkinson, J.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    During the first years of the 21st century coal log pipeline (CLP) technology will be available for long-distance coal transportation. The purpose of this report is to present the state-of-the-art of coal log pipeline technology. Some recent developments are as follows: optimization of coal log compaction procedures, construction of a unique coal log prototype manufacturing machine, and its testing. Coal log abrasion while transported in water-filled pipelines is also discussed. A CLP pilot plant is currently under construction at the University of Missouri. For certain routes in the US a CLP system appears to be cost-competitive.

  15. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  16. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane McVay; Walter Ayers, Jr.; Jerry Jensen; Jorge Garduno; Gonzola Hernandez; Rasheed Bello; Rahila Ramazanova

    2006-08-31

    Injection of CO{sub 2} in coalbeds is a plausible method of reducing atmospheric emissions of CO{sub 2}, and it can have the additional benefit of enhancing methane recovery from coal. Most previous studies have evaluated the merits of CO{sub 2} disposal in high-rank coals. The objective of this research was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in, and enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery from, low-rank coals in the Texas Gulf Coast area. Our research included an extensive coal characterization program, including acquisition and analysis of coal core samples and well transient test data. We conducted deterministic and probabilistic reservoir simulation and economic studies to evaluate the effects of injectant fluid composition (pure CO{sub 2} and flue gas), well spacing, injection rate, and dewatering on CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery in low-rank coals of the Calvert Bluff formation of the Texas Wilcox Group. Shallow and deep Calvert Bluff coals occur in two, distinct, coalbed gas petroleum systems that are separated by a transition zone. Calvert Bluff coals < 3,500 ft deep are part of a biogenic coalbed gas system. They have low gas content and are part of a freshwater aquifer. In contrast, Wilcox coals deeper than 3,500 ft are part of a thermogenic coalbed gas system. They have high gas content and are part of a saline aquifer. CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Calvert Bluff low-rank coals of East-Central Texas must be located in the deeper, unmineable coals, because shallow Wilcox coals are part of a protected freshwater aquifer. Probabilistic simulation of 100% CO{sub 2} injection into 20 feet of Calvert Bluff coal in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicates that these coals can store 1.27 to 2.25 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft, with an ECBM recovery of 0.48 to 0.85 Bcf. Simulation results of flue gas injection (87% N{sub 2}-13% CO{sub 2}) indicate that these same coals can store 0.34 to 0

  17. Coal facies studies in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, Wolfgang D. [Laboratorio de Carvao e de Petrologia Organica, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-04-23

    The present study is a compilation of published data on coal facies studies in Canada based on coal petrological and other methods. The geological age of the coals range from the Devonian coal deposits in Arctic Canada to coals of Tertiary age in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, intermontane British Columbia and Arctic Canada. In terms of rank, the coal deposits studied range from lignite to low volatile bituminous. Coal petrological methods include maceral and microlithotype analyses, frequently integrated with data from palynological and geochemical analyses. Most recently, a number of studies have applied sequence stratigraphic concepts to the coal-bearing strata including the interpretation of coal petrological data in the context of this concept.

  18. COAL QUALITY CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥瑞

    1998-01-01

    Coal storing and loading have much more influence on coal quality. In the paper, a goalprogramming model has been constructed to determine the ideal quantity extracting from stockpileand silos and a quality control model is inferred under the guidance of maximum theory ofdispersed number and practice methods are given to meet production demand, with which a coalmine has achieved a better tech-economic result.

  19. American coal imports 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Kolojeski [TransGlobal Ventures Corp. (United States)

    2007-09-15

    As 2007 ends, the US coal industry passes two major milestones - the ending of the Synfuel tax break, affecting over 100M st annually, and the imposition of tighter and much more expensive safety measures, particularly in deep mines. Both of these issues, arriving at a time of wretched steam coal price levels, promise to result in a major shake up in the Central Appalachian mining sector. The report utilizes a microeconomic regional approach to determine whether either of these two schools of thought have any validity. Transport, infrastructure, competing fuels and regional issues are examined in detail and this forecasts estimates coal demand and imports on a region by region basis for the years 2010 and 2015. Some of the major highlights of the forecast are: Import growth will be driven by steam coal demand in the eastern and southern US; Transport will continue to be the key driver - we believe that inland rail rates will deter imports from being railed far inland and that the great majority of imports will be delivered directly by vessel, barge or truck to end users; Colombian coal will be the overwhelmingly dominant supply source and possesses a costs structure to enable it to compete with US-produced coal in any market conditions; Most of the growth will come from existing power plants - increasing capacity utilization at existing import facilities and other plants making investments to add imports to the supply portfolio - the growth is not dependent upon a lot of new coal fired capacity being built. Contents of the report are: Key US market dynamics; International supply dynamics; Structure of the US coal import market; and Geographic analysis.

  20. Indicators of coal metamorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, A.E.

    1982-06-01

    Important in determining metamorphism of coal is the reliability of indicators of coalification. Both the reflection of vitrinite and emission of volatile matter have been used for this purpose. To determine which indicator more accurately characterizes metamorphism of coal, their conformity to the following demands was established: 1. uniformity in direction of change of parameters with degree of metamorphism; 2. independence of the indicator of the genetic characteristics of coal (petrographic composition, reduction and oxidation of coal); 3. sensitivity of indicator. Both indicators conform to the first requirement. Emission of volatile substance decreases and reflective capacity of vitrinite increases uniformly with degree of metamorphism. However, the reflectivity of vitrinite is not influenced by petrographic composition of coals and is less dependent on the oxidation and reduction of coal than emission of volatile matter. It is also a more sensitive indicator distinguishing more degrees of metamorphism than emission of volatile matter. Reflectivity of vitrinite is a more reliable indicator of metamorphism than emission of volatile matter. However, in many laboratories this indicator is not measured with sufficient accuracy. To correct this, measuring equipment must be standardized.

  1. Coal in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConville, L.; Broadbent, J.; Rousaki, K.

    1999-01-01

    Bulgaria`s national energy strategy includes plans to restructure the energy sector by introducing competition and privatisation, to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection and to prepare the country for integration into the EU energy market. Energy prices are still under government control and coal mining is heavily subsidised. Bulgaria is a major producer of coal, all of which is consumed locally. Most of the domestic production is low quality lignite used for electricity generation. Demand for hard coal is met by imports, mainly from the former USSR and the USA. Bulgaria generates almost half of its electricity needs from coal. Total reserves of lignite are estimated at 2.5 Gt. Coal production declined between 1987 and 1991 reflecting the economic disturbance following the break up of the USSR. In 1996, production was 32 Mt. The mining industry is being restructured as Bulgaria is slowly moving from a centrally-controlled economy to a market-based economy. Environmental damage as a result of coal production has been serious in Bulgaria, due to the use of low grade high sulphur content lignite. 84 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) successfully applied in one patient in same sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, Jawaid Akbar; Farman, Muhammad Tariq; Saghir, Tahir; Zaman, Khan Shah

    2011-01-01

    Sixty years old male with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS), presented with dyspnoea New York Heart Association (NHYA) class III to IV. Coronary angiogram revealed severe occlusive coronary artery disease in left anterior coronary artery (LAD). Percutaneous Transvenous Mitral Commissurotomy (PTMC) and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) of Left Anterior Descurery (LAD) were done in same sitting. Both procedures were successful and ended without complication. After, half an hour while shifting to coronary care unit (CCU) patient developed cardiac tamponade, which was managed successfully. Patient was followed up for three month, he is doing well and recent echocardiogram showed mild mitral stenosis with normal left ventricular function. This case demonstrates the feasibility of the combined appliance on interventional techniques in selected patients as an alternative to cardiac surgery.

  3. New projects for CCGTs with coal gasification (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkhovskii, G. G.

    2016-10-01

    Perspectives of using coal in combined-cycle gas turbine units (CCGTs), which are significantly more efficient than steam power plants, have been associated with preliminary coal gasification for a long time. Due to gasification, purification, and burning the resulting synthesis gas at an increased pressure, there is a possibility to intensify the processes occurring in them and reduce the size and mass of equipment. Physical heat evolving from gasification can be used without problems in the steam circuit of a CCGT. The downside of these opportunities is that the unit becomes more complex and expensive, and its competitiveness is affected, which was not achieved for CCGT power plants with coal gasification built in the 1990s. In recent years, based on the experience with these CCGTs, several powerful CCGTs of the next generation, which used higher-output and cost-effective gas-turbine plants (GTPs) and more advanced systems of gasification and purification of synthesis gas, were either built or designed. In a number of cases, the system of gasification includes devices of CO vapor reforming and removal of the emitted CO2 at a high pressure prior to fuel combustion. Gasifiers with air injection instead of oxygen injection, which is common in coal chemistry, also find application. In this case, the specific cost of the power station considerably decreases (by 15% and more). In units with air injection, up to 40% air required for separation is drawn from the intermediate stage of the cycle compressor. The range of gasified coals has broadened. In order to gasify lignites in one of the projects, a transfer reactor was used. The specific cost of a CCGT with coal gasification rose in comparison with the period when such units started being designed, from 3000 up to 5500 dollars/kW.

  4. Journal of Coal Science & Engineering(China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Guide for Authors Journal of Coal Science & Engineering(English Edition), a comprehensive academic periodical of the China Coal Society, covers the fields of coal science and technology including coal geology, exploration,mine survey, mine project assessment, mine construction, coal mining, coal mine electrical machinery,mine safety, coal processing and utilization, coal mine environmental protection, etc. It reflects the latest research results and findings.

  5. EVALUATION OF BIOMSS AND COAL SLURRIES AS FUEL-LEAN REBURN FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijay K. Sethi

    2006-11-06

    Breen Energy Solutions (BES) and Western Research Institute (WRI) tested biomass and coal slurries and other carbonaceous substances such as fuel oil/water emulsions as NO{sub x} reburn fuel in the combustion test facility (CTF). The overall goal of the project was to determine the NO{sub x} reduction potential of various biomass and coal reburn fuels, and to identify the optimum conditions for NO{sub x} control. Specific objectives were to inject biomass, biosolids, coal, biomass/coal, and biosolids/coal slurries into the upper furnace of CTF and determine the resulting NO{sub x} reductions and CO emissions, to identify optimum injection rates and injection locations for these reburn fuels, and to install a reaction zone stabilizer device in CTF and determine its effectiveness in reducing CO and further reducing NO{sub x}. Combustion tests achieved 40% to 60% NO{sub x} reductions with 10% to 20% reburn fuel heat input. The project has demonstrated the technical feasibility of in-situ gasification of slurries including pulverized coal and 75% pulverized coal/25% biosolids by weight, and the ability to utilize the gasification products as NO{sub x} reburn fuel. This work also demonstrated that pulverized coal/water slurries can be successfully gasified and used as reburn fuels, and there is no need for use of micronized coal. Very good burnout of the pulverized coal slurry was demonstrated in this work. Similarly, the project has demonstrated the technical feasibility of in-situ gasification of oil/water emulsion and the ability to utilize the associated gasification products as NO{sub x} reburn fuel.

  6. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  7. Coal facies studies in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [INCAR (CSIC), Ap. Co., 73, 33080, Oviedo (Spain); Jimenez, Amalia [Geology, University of Oviedo, 33005, Oviedo (Spain)

    2004-04-23

    This work is a synthesis of the distribution of the main coal basins and sub-basins in Spain as well as the research carried out on their coal facies. The coal fields are distributed through the Paleozoic (mainly Pennsylvanian), Mesozoic (Cretaceous) and Cenozoic times. Peats also exist in the southeast Spain (Granada area), although these types of deposits are not included in this review. Spanish coal basins are both of a paralic and intramontane type and the coal rank is highly variable, from lignite in the case of the younger coal seams to anthracite for those of Carboniferous age.

  8. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to treat ... in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications ...

  9. Long-term clinical outcome in STEMI patients treated with primary PCI and drug-eluting or bare-metal stents: insights from a high-volume single-center registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune; Galatius, Soren; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Use of drug-eluting stents (DES) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during routine primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) is controversial.......Use of drug-eluting stents (DES) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during routine primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) is controversial....

  10. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  11. Underground coal gasification - the acceptable face of coal mining?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryburgh, P.

    2009-11-15

    There is growing interest in underground coal gasification, whereby energy is accessed from coal in a cleaner way than traditional combustion methods. The paper looks at the benefits of UCG. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  12. Raton Coal Basin boundary, 1999 Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shape file contains a polygon representing the extent of the Raton Coal Basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  13. Denver Coal Basin boundary from 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representing the extent of the Denver coal basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  14. Coal recovery from a coal waste dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozanski Zenon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities and efficiency of coal recovery from the waste material located at the Central Coal Waste Dump in Poland were presented in this paper. The waste material includes significant amount of fly ash. Research conducted into determination of energetic properties of such wastes showed that the average ash content was 75.75% and the average gross calorific value was 7.81 MJ/kg. Coal was gravitationally separated from the waste material in a pulsatory jig and in a spiral washer including size fractions: 30-5 and 8-0 mm (this was crushed to a size <3.2 mm, respectively. The application of the pulsatory jig (pulse classifier allowed to obtain a high-quality energetic concentrate with the ash content lower than 12% and the gross calorific value higher than 26 MJ/kg (with average yield 7.8%. The spiral separator gave much worse results. The average gross calorific value for the concentrate was 11.6 MJ/kg, with the high ash content 56.5% and yield approximately 26%.

  15. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allergic to iron dextran injection; any other iron injections such as ferric carboxymaltose (Injectafer), ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron sucrose (Venofer), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit);any other ...

  16. A firmware implementation of a Quad HOLA S-LINK to PCI Express interface for use in the ATLAS Trigger DAQ system

    CERN Document Server

    Slenders, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The firmware for a PCI Express interface card with four on-board high-speed optical S-LINKS (FILAREXPRESS) has been developed. This was done for an Altera Stratix II GX FPGA. Furthermore, detection of the available channels through a pull-up resistor and a readout of the on-board temperature sensor were implemented.

  17. Use of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in diabetics undergoing PCI for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: impact of clinical status and procedural characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Bauer (Timm); H. Möllmann (Helge); F. Weidinger (Franz); U. Zeymer (Uwe); R. Seabra-Gomes (Ricardo); F.R. Eberli (Franz Robert); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); A. Vahanian (Alec); S. Silber (Sigmund); W. Wijns (William); M. Hochadel (Matthias); H.M. Nef (Holger); C.W. Hamm (Christian); J. Marco (Jean); A.K. Gitt (Anselm)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The most recent ESC guidelines for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) recommend the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) in high risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), particularly in diabetics. Little is known about th

  18. Platelet HPA-1 a/HPA-1 b polymorphism and the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction in patients undergoing elective PCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdoia, M.; Secco, G.G.; Barbieri, L.; Cassetti, E.; Schaffer, A.; Sinigaglia, F.; Marino, P.; Suryapranata, H.; Luca, G. De

    2014-01-01

    Periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) represents a relatively common complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and large interests have been focused on platelets in order to prevent such a complication. The single nucleotide polymorphism Leu33Pro of platelet glycoprotein IIIa has

  19. PCI in AMI: concern and objective appraisal%急性心梗患者的介入治疗:考虑及客观评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建; 齐向前

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Stent thrombosis PCI has become the most frequently used method of myocardial revascularization:Within 2 years of being introduced,4.5 million DES were implanted worldwide,helping to treat 3 million patient.No permanent,implantable medical device has experienced such rapid market penetration and acceptance.

  20. The relationship between admission monocyte HDL-C ratio with short-term and long-term mortality among STEMI patients treated with successful primary PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Gökhan; Kundi, Harun; Bozbay, Mehmet; Yayla, Cagrı; Uyarel, Hüseyin

    2016-05-01

    Monocyte to HDL-C ratio (MHR) represents a simple assessment method for inflammatory status. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether MHR may be of short-term and long-term prognostic value in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients who have undergone a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 682 consecutive STEMI patients who underwent successful primary PCI between March 2013 and September 2015 were included in this study. Patients were divided into groups according to their admission MHR values. Clinical follow-up data of participating patients were obtained through an outpatient examination 30 months after PCI. The study population included 172 patients with an MHR less than 1.16 (Q1), 169 patients with an MHR 1.16-1.59 (Q2), 161 patients with an MHR 1.60-2.21 (Q3), and 180 patients with an MHR greater than 2.21 (Q4). Rates of in-hospital mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, dialysis, use of inotropic agents, shock, late mortality, target vessel revascularization, stroke, and reinfarct were higher in the Q4 group compared with the other MHR quartile groups. The results of this study have indicated that admission MHR is associated independently and significantly with short-term and long-term mortality in STEMI patients who undergo successful primary PCI.

  1. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  2. From in situ coal to the final coal product: A case study of the Danville Coal Member (Indiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Padgett, P.L.

    1999-01-01

    A surface coal mine operation and preparation plant in southwestern Indiana was sampled to examine variations in coal quality and coal petrography parameters for the Danville Coal Member of the Dugger Formation (Pennsylvanian-Desmoinesian, Westphalian D). Representative samples from in situ coal, preparation plant feeds, and a final coal product were collected in order to compare coal quality, coal petrography, trace element concentrations, and ash chemistry of the coal to those of the product. Coal quality parameters of the in situ samples and various feeds, coarse refuse, and final product were variable. The quality of the final coal product was best predicted by the coal quality of the clean coal feed (from the middle portions of the seam). Some trace element contents, especially lead and arsenic, varied between the coal feeds and the product. Lead contents increased in the feeds and product compared to the channel sample of the raw coal, possibly due to contamination in the handling process.A surface coal mine operation and preparation plant in southwestern Indiana was sampled to examine variations in coal quality and coal petrography parameters for the Danville Coal Member of the Dugger Formation (Pennsylvanian-Desmoinesian, Westphalian D). Representative samples from in situ coal, preparation plant feeds, and a final coal product were collected in order to compare coal quality, coal petrography, trace element concentrations, and ash chemistry of the coal to those of the product. Coal quality parameters of the in situ samples and various feeds, coarse refuse, and final product were variable. The quality of the final coal product was best predicted by the coal quality of the clean coal feed (from the middle portions of the seam). Some trace element contents, especially lead and arsenic, varied between the coal feeds and the product. Lead contents increased in the feeds and product compared to the channel sample of the raw coal, possibly due to contamination in

  3. Achieving timely percutaneous reperfusion for rural ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients by direct transport to an urban PCI-hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennin, Charles-Lwanga K; Ibrahim, Saif; Al-Saffar, Farah; Box, Lyndon C; Strom, Joel A

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) guidelines recommend reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) ≤ 90 min from time of first medical contact (FMC). This strategy is challenging in rural areas lacking a nearby PCI-capable hospital. Recommended reperfusion times can be achieved for STEMI patients presenting in rural areas without a nearby PCI-capable hospital by ground transportation to a central PCI-capable hospital by use of protocol-driven emergency medical service (EMS) STEMI field triage protocol. Methods Sixty STEMI patients directly transported by EMS from three rural counties (Nassau, Camden and Charlton Counties) within a 50-mile radius of University of Florida Health-Jacksonville (UFHJ) from 01/01/2009 to 12/31/2013 were identified from its PCI registry. The STEMI field triage protocol incorporated three elements: (1) a cooperative agreement between each of the rural emergency medical service (EMS) agency and UFHJ; (2) performance of a pre-hospital ECG to facilitate STEMI identification and laboratory activation; and (3) direct transfer by ground transportation to the UFHJ cardiac catheterization laboratory. FMC-to-device (FMC2D), door-to-device (D2D), and transit times, the day of week, time of day, and EMS shift times were recorded, and odds ratio (OR) of achieving FMC2D times was calculated. Results FMC2D times were shorter for in-state STEMIs (81 ± 17 vs. 87 ± 19 min), but D2D times were similar (37 ± 18 vs. 39 ± 21 min). FMC2D ≤ 90 min were achieved in 82.7% in-state STEMIs compared to 52.2% for out-of-state STEMIs (OR = 4.4, 95% CI: 1.24–15.57; P = 0.018). FMC2D times were homogenous after adjusting for weekday vs. weekend, EMS shift times. Nine patients did not meet FMC2D ≤ 90 min. Six were within 10 min of target; all patient achieved FMC2D ≤ 120 min. Conclusions Guideline-compliant FMC2D ≤ 90 min is achievable for rural STEMI patients within a 50 mile radius of a PCI-capable hospital by use

  4. Sulfur release from Ohio coals and sorbent kinetics in pulverized coal flames. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essenhigh, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Robinson Lab.

    1992-08-01

    In this report we describe the results of investigations into the structure of combustion and sulfur release profiles from coal burning in One-Dimensional P.C. flames using a furnace of unique design for the measurements. Selected measurements were also-carried out in a special high-intensity furnace also of unique design. The formal project work started in late Fall 1989, with unfunded preliminary work in the months prior to that. The process of limestone injection into the flame to control sulfur oxides emissions is a long-standing concept that has been given particular formulation in the LIMB process, and studies of such systems provide bases for commercial system economics. Problems with LIMB and related systems indicated need for better understanding of, jointly, the sulfur release from the coal and the sorbent behavior by the limestone. The investigations as reported in Vol. 1 of this Report used 14 different coals under a range of different initial and operating conditions, and the resulting measurements have provided a database of major proportions, as tabulated in the attached Volumes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 of this report. This database consists of sets of measurements totalling about 45,000 entries for all independent and dependent parameters involved. The independent parameters included: coal type (analysis), firing rate, stoichiometry (fuel/air ratio), and sorbent content of the

  5. Enhanced coal bed methane production and sequestration of CO2 in unmineable coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, James [CONSOL Energy Inc., South Park, PA (United States); Winschel, Richard [CONSOL Energy Inc., South Park, PA (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The Marshall County Project was undertaken by CONSOL Energy Inc. (CONSOL) with partial funding from the U. S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Carbon Storage Program (CSP). The project, initiated in October 2001, was conducted to evaluate opportunities for carbon dioxide CO2 sequestration in an unmineable coal seam in the Northern Appalachian Basin with simultaneous enhanced coal bed methane recovery. This report details the final results from the project that established a pilot test in Marshall County, West Virginia, USA, where a series of coal bed methane (CBM) production wells were developed in an unmineable coal seam (Upper Freeport (UF)) and the overlying mineable Pittsburgh (PIT) seam. The initial wells were drilled beginning in 2003, using slant-hole drilling procedures with a single production leg, in a down-dip orientation that provided limited success. Improved well design, implemented in the remaining wells, allowed for greater CBM production. The nearly-square-shaped project area was bounded by the perimeter production wells in the UF and PIT seams encompassing an area of 206 acres. Two CBM wells were drilled into the UF at the center of the project site, and these were later converted to serve as CO2 injection wells through which, 20,000 short tons of CO2 were planned to be injected at a maximum rate of 27 tons per day. A CO2 injection system comprised of a 50-ton liquid CO2 storage tank, a cryogenic pump, and vaporization system was installed in the center of the site and, after obtaining a Class II underground injection permit (UIC) permit from the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP), CO2 injection, through the two center wells, into the UF was initiated in September 2009. Numerous complications limited CO2 injection continuity, but CO2 was injected until breakthrough was encountered in September 2013, at which point the project had achieved an injection total of 4,968 tons of CO2. During the injection and post-injection

  6. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  7. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  8. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  9. Clean coal - a national urgency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.M.; Sahai, R. [Indian Bureau of Mines, Nagpur (India). Technical Consultancy Division

    2000-07-01

    India is the third largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Coal generally has a high ash content, thereby requiring that it be cleaned for proper use. Technological advances now make it possible to reduce pollution considerably, even as energy use increases. However, to reduce environmental impacts, technologies for cleaning coal before combustion need to be developed. The paper focuses on the need for clean coal production and the benefits associated with it. Although the country is rich in coal reserves, the generally inferior quality of coal will lead to its depletion if it is not used cleanly. Increasing the proportion of prepared coal from the current level of less than 5% (i.e. 10-11 million tonnes per annum) of all coal consumed will lead to a massive saving. This can be achieved if new washeries are set up, preferably near the coalfields. 2 figs.

  10. China's post-coal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ye; Stern, Nicholas; Wu, Tong; Lu, Jiaqi; Green, Fergus

    2016-08-01

    Slowing GDP growth, a structural shift away from heavy industry, and more proactive policies on air pollution and clean energy have caused China's coal use to peak. It seems that economic growth has decoupled from growth in coal consumption.

  11. Information Needs in Relation to Physical Activity among Angina Patients before Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI at a Private Hospital in Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Siew Eng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Episodes experienced by angina patients are potentially frightening and life threatening. Angina patients lack awareness regarding Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI as a prognostic benefit. Aim and Objectives: To identify the information needs in relation to physical activity among angina patients before PCI at a private hospital in Penang, Malaysia. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to July 2016; 150 respondents who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited. A 16-item questionnaire related to physical limitations was adapted and modified from Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ. Results: The findings reported that majority of respondents (103; 69% possessed more than one co-morbidity, while 47respondents (31% single co-morbidity. Those with secondary level education showed (M=15.98, SD±6.14 while tertiary level education reported (M=16.61, SD±6.11, with no significant difference (t= -0.623, p= 0.534 between respondents' education level and physical activity. In terms of occupation, employed (M=15.58, SD±6.42 and unemployed (M=17.31, SD±5.52 also reported significant difference with (t= -1.70, p= 0.04. There was likewise a significant difference between respondents with single co-morbidity (M=18.09, SD±6.88 and multiple co-morbidity (M=15.46, SD± 5.58 with (t= 2.475, p= 0.01.However, there was no significant difference between respondents with previous admission and physical activity (t= 0.868, p= 0.387, as well as respondents' age group with physical activity (t=-0.675, p= 0.501.Conclusion: In conclusion, respondents' information needs regarding PCI are significantly associated with occupation and co-morbidity towards physical activity before PCI. Age, educational level and previous admission did not have any effect on respondents' physical activity before PCI.

  12. Techno-Economic Analysis of Scalable Coal-Based Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Steven S. C. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Researchers at The University of Akron (UA) have demonstrated the technical feasibility of a laboratory coal fuel cell that can economically convert high sulfur coal into electricity with near zero negative environmental impact. Scaling up this coal fuel cell technology to the megawatt scale for the nation’s electric power supply requires two key elements: (i) developing the manufacturing technology for the components of the coal-based fuel cell, and (ii) long term testing of a kW scale fuel cell pilot plant. This project was expected to develop a scalable coal fuel cell manufacturing process through testing, demonstrating the feasibility of building a large-scale coal fuel cell power plant. We have developed a reproducible tape casting technique for the mass production of the planner fuel cells. Low cost interconnect and cathode current collector material was identified and current collection was improved. In addition, this study has demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of carbon can take place on the Ni anode surface and the CO and CO2 product produced can further react with carbon to initiate the secondary reactions. One important secondary reaction is the reaction of carbon with CO2 to produce CO. We found CO and carbon can be electrochemically oxidized simultaneously inside of the anode porous structure and on the surface of anode for producing electricity. Since CH4 produced from coal during high temperature injection of coal into the anode chamber can cause severe deactivation of Ni-anode, we have studied how CH4 can interact with CO2 to produce in the anode chamber. CO produced was found able to inhibit coking and allow the rate of anode deactivation to be decreased. An injection system was developed to inject the solid carbon and coal fuels without bringing air into the anode chamber. Five planner fuel cells connected in a series configuration and tested. Extensive studies on the planner fuels

  13. Coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

  14. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  15. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, P. C.; Wijffels, J.-B.; Zuideveld, P. L.

    Features of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants are described against the backdrop of the development and first commercial application of the shell coal gasification process. Focus is on the efficiency and excellent environmental performance of the integrated coal gasification combined power plants. Current IGCC projects are given together with an outline of some of the options for integrating coal gasification with combined cycles and also other applications of synthesis gas.

  16. Coal gasification characteristics in a downer reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.J.; Lee, S.H.; Kim, S.D. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Energy & Environmental Research Center

    2001-10-26

    Subbituminous coal (Shenwha) was gasified at atmospheric pressure in a downer reactor (0.1 m.I.D. x 5.0 high). The effects of reaction temperature (750-850{degree}C), steam/coal mass ratio (0.23 - 0.86), O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O mole ratio (0.81) and coal feeding rate (5.3-9.0 kg h{sup -1}) on the composition of product gas, carbon conversion, cold gas efficiency, gas yield and calorific value have been determined. In the case of steam injection into the loop-seal, compositions of the product gas (vol. %; N{sub 2} free basis) in the gasification ration are H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 3}H{sub 6} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} with a calorific value of 13.0-15.2 MJ/m{sup 3}. By changing the reactant gas supplied into the loop-seal for solid circulating from steam to air, product gas yield and carbon conversion increase, whereas calorific value of the product gas decreases from 13.0-15.2 to 6.3-10.6 with reaction temperature. 22 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Mechanism of Rock Burst Occurrence in Specially Thick Coal Seam with Rock Parting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-chao; Jiang, Fu-xing; Meng, Xiang-jun; Wang, Xu-you; Zhu, Si-tao; Feng, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Specially thick coal seam with complex construction, such as rock parting and alternative soft and hard coal, is called specially thick coal seam with rock parting (STCSRP), which easily leads to rock burst during mining. Based on the stress distribution of rock parting zone, this study investigated the mechanism, engineering discriminant conditions, prevention methods, and risk evaluation method of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP through setting up a mechanical model. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) When the mining face moves closer to the rock parting zone, the original non-uniform stress of the rock parting zone and the advancing stress of the mining face are combined to intensify gradually the shearing action of coal near the mining face. When the shearing action reaches a certain degree, rock burst easily occurs near the mining face. (2) Rock burst occurrence in STCSRP is positively associated with mining depth, advancing stress concentration factor of the mining face, thickness of rock parting, bursting liability of coal, thickness ratio of rock parting to coal seam, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal, whereas negatively associated with shear strength. (3) Technologies of large-diameter drilling, coal seam water injection, and deep hole blasting can reduce advancing stress concentration factor, thickness of rock parting, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal to lower the risk of rock burst in STCSRP. (4) The research result was applied to evaluate and control the risk of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP.

  18. Coal type and burnout performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, E.; Cloke, M. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    1999-07-01

    A variety of coals underwent refire tests in a drop tube furnace. Characteristics of the coal fractions, the pyrolysed char fractions and the refired char fractions were compared to determine links between coal composition, intermediate char products and burnout. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  20. Measuring Apparatus for Coal Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measuring apparatus for coal powder, equipped with radioactive source, is a set of device andcan be used to measure the density in the pipes and cumulative consumed amount of coal powder in apower plant, and to examine and display the status of the coal powder input system. It is sketched asFig. 1.

  1. Service Modules for Coal Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangal, M. D.; Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Service train follows group of mining machines, paying out utility lines as machines progress into coal face. Service train for four mining machines removes gases and coal and provides water and electricity. Flexible, coiling armored carriers protect cables and hoses. High coal production attained by arraying row of machines across face, working side by side.

  2. Coal mining in socioeconomic aspect

    OpenAIRE

    ZALOZNOVA YU. S.

    2014-01-01

    The article investigate the correlation of economic and social factors in the development of coal mining on example of vertically integrated companies with both domestic and foreign assets. The effect of socioeconomic aspects which have led to the American paradox of coal is studied to understand the essence of the coal mining industry at the present stage of the global economic management.

  3. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipuleucel-T injection is used to treat certain types of advanced prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T injection is in a class of medications called ... Sipuleucel-T injection comes as a suspension (liquid) to be injected over about 60 minutes into a vein ...

  4. Pyrolysis of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  5. Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis (5-year outcomes of the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marui, Akira; Kimura, Takeshi; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Hanyu, Michiya; Shiomi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shiro; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2014-08-15

    Ischemic heart disease is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, long-term benefits of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) relative to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in those patients is still unclear in the drug-eluting stent era. We identified 388 patients with multivessel and/or left main disease with end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis among 15,939 patients undergoing first coronary revascularization enrolled in the Coronary REvascularization Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2 (PCI: 258 patients and CABG: 130 patients). The CABG group included more patients with 3-vessel (38% vs 57%, p <0.001) and left main disease (10% vs 34%, p <0.001). Preprocedural Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery score in the CABG group was significantly higher than that in the PCI group (23.5 ± 8.7 vs 29.4 ± 11.0, p <0.001). Unadjusted 30-day mortality was 2.7% for PCI and 5.4% for CABG. Cumulative 5-year all-cause mortality was 52.3% for PCI and 49.9% for CABG. Propensity score-adjusted all-cause mortality was not different between PCI and CABG (hazard ratio [HR] 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85 to 2.09, p = 0.219). However, the excess risk of PCI relative to CABG for cardiac death was significant (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.96, p = 0.02). The risk of sudden death was also higher after PCI (HR 4.83, 95% CI 1.01 to 23.08, p = 0.049). The risk of myocardial infarction after PCI tended to be higher than after CABG (HR 3.30, 95% CI 0.72 to 15.09, p = 0.12). The risk of any coronary revascularization after PCI was markedly higher after CABG (HR 3.78, 95% CI 1.91 to 7.50, p <0.001). Among the 201 patients who died during the follow-up, 94 patients (47%) died from noncardiac morbidities such as stroke, respiratory failure, and renal failure. In patients with multivessel and/or left main disease undergoing dialysis, 5-year

  6. An analysis of new generation coal gasification projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kreynin Efim Vulfovich

    2012-01-01

    The global trends of increasing oil and gas costs have compelled coal possessing countries to start long term underground coal gasification (UCG) projects.These enhance national energy security and are among the cleanest,ecologically safest coal utilization technologies.This paper delineates the major characteristics of such technologies and analyzes technical solutions.Highlighting the desire to develop large scale industrial UCG plants,pilot level projects are presented using a new UCG method developed in Russia by Joint Stock Company Gazprom Promgaz.This method is distinct for its high controllability,stability,and energy efficiency.New,efficient technical solutions have been developed over the last 10-15 years and are patented in Russia.They guarantee controllability and stability of UCG gas production.Over one hundred injection and gas production wells have been operated simultaneously.

  7. Determination of Sectional Constancy of Organic Coal-Water Fuel Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrienko Margarita A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To use widespreadly the waste of coals and oils processing in the great and the small-scale power generation, the key parameter, which is sectional constancy of promising organic coal-water fuels (OCWF, was studied. The compo-sitions of OCWF from brown and bituminous coals, filter cakes, used motor, turbine and dielectrical oils, water-oil emul-sion and special wetting agent (plasticizer were investigated. Two modes of preparation were considered. They are with homogenizer and cavitator. It was established that the constancy did not exceed 5–7 days for the compositions of OCWF with brown coals, and 12–15 days for that compositions with bituminous coals and filter cakes. The injection of used oils in a composition of OCWF led to increase in viscosity of fuel compositions and their sectional constancy.

  8. Biological CO2 mitigation from coal power plant by Chlorella fusca and Spirulina sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jessica Hartwig; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Radmann, Elisângela Martha; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2017-06-01

    CO2 biofixation by microalgae and cyanobacteria is an environmentally sustainable way to mitigate coal burn gas emissions. In this work the microalga Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and the cyanobacteria Spirulina sp. LEB 18 were cultivated using CO2 from coal flue gas as a carbon source. The intermittent flue gas injection in the cultures enable the cells growth and CO2 biofixation by these microorganisms. The Chlorella fusca isolated from a coal power plant could fix 2.6 times more CO2 than Spirulina sp. The maximum daily CO2 from coal flue gas biofixation was obtained with Chlorella fusca (360.12±0.27mgL(-1)d(-1)), showing a specific growth rate of 0.17±Spirulina sp. LEB 18 potential to fix CO2 from coal flue gas, and sequential biomass production with different biotechnological destinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Crossing point temperature of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Xuyao; Deming Wang; James A. Milke; Xiaoxing Zhong

    2011-01-01

    A further understanding of the self-heating of coal was obtained by investigating the crossing point temperature (CPT) of different ranks of coal. The tests were carried out using a self-designed experimental system for coal self-heating. 50 g (±0.01 g) of coal particles ranging from 0.18 mm to 0.38 mm in size were put into a pure copper reaction vessel attached to the center of a temperature programmed enclosure. The temperature program increased the temperature at a rate of 0.8 ℃/min. Dry air was permitted to flow into the coal reaction vessel at different rates. The surrounding temperature and the coal temperature were monitored by a temperature logger. The results indicate that CPT is affected by coal rank, moisture, sulfur,and the experimental conditions. Higher ranked coals show higher CPT values. A high moisture content causes a delay phenomenon during the self-heating of the coal. Drying at 40 ℃ decreases the effects of moisture. The reactivity of sulfur components in the coal is low under dry and low-temperature conditions.These components form a film that covers the coal surface and slightly inhibits the self-heating of the coal.The flow rate of dry air, and the heating rate of the surroundings, also affect the self-heating of the coal. The most appropriate experimental conditions for coal samples of a given weight and particle size were determined through contrastive analysis. Based on this analysis we propose that CPTs be determined under the same, or nearly the same conditions, for evaluation of the spontaneous combustion of coal.

  10. Assessments of whole body scan images (PCI) obtained in patients undergoing treatment of radioiodine (pre and post-treatment); Avaliacoes das imagens de pesquisa de corpo inteiro (PCI) obtidas em pacientes submetidos ao tratamento de radioiodoterapia (pre e pos-tratamento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Fernanda Karolina Mendonca da; Lopes Filho, Ferdinand de Jesus; Vieira, Jose Wilson; Souza, Milena Thays Barbosa de, E-mail: fernanda.radiologia8@gmail.com, E-mail: milena_thays@hotmail.com, E-mail: jose.wilson59@uol.com.br, E-mail: ferdinand.lopes@oi.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty used for diagnosis and therapy of some diseases. For the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (papillary and follicular) Radioiodine therapy is employed, in order to eliminate the rest of thyroid tissue after removal of the thyroid (thyroidectomy). In radioiodine therapy is used radioisotope iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) as Sodium Iodide (NaI). The amount of the activity (dose) of {sup 131}I administered is generally the responsibility of nuclear medicine, which is based on an image Research Length of the patient (pre-dose therapy PCI). PCI is also used after treatment (post-PCI therapeutic dose) to evaluate possible metastasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of biokinetic {sup 131}I at length and in some organs of the patient, in order to note any similarity. Exams PCI pre-dose and post-dose were analyzed, the anterior and posterior projections of ten patients. Contours in these images (ROI - Region Of Interest) were made in the whole body and in areas with high uptake of {sup 131}I. The total score was used in the calculation to obtain the percentage distribution of {sup 13I} in the organs of the patient. The results showed that there similarity on the biodistribution of {sup 131}I between pre-dose and post-dose PCI. Therefore, it was found that it is valuable images of PCI pre-dose therapy as a way to assist the nuclear medicine physician in choosing the best activity to be administered to the patient in order to minimize the dose to adjacent organs. (author)

  11. The 1997 Americas coal conference. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Papers are presented which cover the following topics: Colombian exports of coal; Colombian coal organizations; mining prospects; markets; Venezuela`s mining policy and private coal industry; security situation in Colombia and its effect on the energy industry; transportation; steam coal markets, including USA, Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean, and for high sulfur coal; and innovations in the coal market. 18 papers have been abstracted separately on the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  12. Latent methane in fossil coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Alexeev; E.V. Ulyanova; G.P. Starikov; N.N. Kovriga [Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine). Institute for Physics of Mining Processes

    2004-07-01

    It is established experimentally using 1H NMR wide line spectroscopy that methane can exist in coals not only in open or closed porosity and fracture systems but also in solid solutions in coal substance, in particular, under methane pressure 2 MPa or higher. Methane dissolved in coal minerals reversibly modifies their lattice parameters as determined from X-ray diffraction analysis. Co-existence of these methane forms in fossil coals causes multi-step desorption kinetics. It is shown experimentally that the long-term latent methane desorption is effected mainly by closed porosity, which in turn is determined by coal rank. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Coal facies studies in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosdale, Peter J. [Coalseam Gas Research Institute, School of Earth Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Qld 4814 (Australia)

    2004-04-23

    Despite the economic importance of coal to the Australian economy, detailed studies of controls on variation in coal type are remarkably few. However, important contributions have been made in the understanding of coal facies development. Tertiary lignite deposits of the Gippsland Basin provide key insights into the development of lithotype cyclicity and its relationship to relative sea-level changes, with individual paling-up cycles being correlated to parasequences. Studies of Permian hard coals have identified relationships between coal type and surrounding sediments. Unfortunately, these relationships have been widely over-interpreted in a manner that has diminished their real value.

  14. Uncertainty Analysis using Experimental Design Methods for Assessing CO2 Sequestration and Coal Bed Methane Production Potential of Subbituminous Coals of the Nenana Basin, Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, N.; Ahmadi, M.; Hanks, C.; Awoleke, O.

    2016-12-01

    Naturally fractured, unmineable coal seam reservoirs are attractive targets for geological sequestration of CO2 because of their high CO2-adsorption capacities and possible cost offsets from enhanced coal bed methane production (ECBM). In this study, we have investigated CO2 sequestration and CH4 production potential of the subbituminous Healy Creek Formation coals through preliminary sensitivity analyses, experimental design methods and fluid flow simulations. Our primary sensitivity analyses indicated that the total cumulative volumes of CO2 sequestered and CH4 produced from the Healy Creek coals are mostly sensitive to bottomhole injection pressure, coal matrix porosity, fracture porosity and permeability, and coal volumetric strain. The results of Plackett-Burman experimental design were used to further constrain the most influential reservoir parameters and generate proxy models for probabilistic reservoir forecasts. Our probabilistic estimates for the mature, subbituminous Healy Creek coals in the entire Nenana basin indicate that it is possible to sequestrate between 0.87 TCF (P10) and 0.2 TCF (P90) of CO2 while producing between 0.29 TCF (P10) and 0.1 TCF (P90) of CH4 at the end of 20-year forecast. Our study demonstrated application of experimental design methods and Monte Carlo analysis in reducing these uncertainties in reservoir properties and quantifying their effect on reservoir performance. In addition, the results of fluid flow scenarios show that the CO2 sequestration through a primary reservoir depletion method is the most effective way to inject CO2 in the coals of the Nenana basin. Including a horizontal well instead of the vertical well resulted in relatively high average gas production rates and subsequent faster production decline. Our CO2 buoyancy scenario suggested that the effect of CO2 buoyancy and the nature of the caprock should be considered when identifying potential geologic sites for CO2 sequestration and in CO2 storage capacity

  15. Two-phase flow in a swirling circulating fluidized bed (SCFB) coal combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilias, S.; Govind, R. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (USA). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1988-01-01

    Coal combustors are difficult to model accurately due to their inherent complexities of coal devolatization, char combustion and volatile combustion with simultaneous momentum, heat and mass transfer effects. A fluidized bed which takes the advantages of tangential injection of secondary air, termed as Swirling Circulating Fluidized Bed is being developed at the University of Cincinnati. Preliminary experimental studies on coal combustion using the pilot plant and hydrodynamics using a cold model have been conducted. The system has also been simulated. Results of these studies are presented in this paper. Results on three dimensional behavior of the fluid-particle system in the SCFB are presented.

  16. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  17. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  18. The coal cleat system:A new approach to its study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.F. Rodrigues; C.Laiginhas; M. Fernandes; M.J. Lemos de Sousa; M.A.P.Dinis

    2014-01-01

    After a general analysis regarding the concept of coal “cleat system”, its genetic origin and practical applications to coalbed methane (CBM) commercial production and to CO2 geological sequestration projects, the authors have developed a method to answer, quickly and accurately in accordance with the industrial practice and needs, the following yet unanswered questions: (1) how to define the spatial orientation of the different classes of cleats presented in a coal seam and (2) how to determine the frequency of their connectivites. The new available and presented techniques to answer these questions have a strong computer based tool (geographic information system, GIS), able to build a complete georeferentiated database, which will allow to three-dimensionally locate the laboratory samples in the coalfield. It will also allow to better understand the coal cleat system and consequently to recognize the best pathways to gas flow through the coal seam. Such knowledge is considered crucial for under-standing what is likely to be the most efficient opening of cleat network, then allowing the injection with the right spatial orientation, of pressurized fluids in order to directly drain the maximum amount of gas flow to a CBM exploitation well. The method is also applicable to the CO2 geological sequestration technologies and operations corresponding to the injection of CO2 sequestered from industrial plants in coal seams of abandoned coal mines or deep coal seams.

  19. Nitric oxide emissions from a coal-fueled engine: Numerical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caton, J.A.; Schmidt, J.; Roth, J.; Bachman, F.

    1988-01-01

    A cycle simulation for coal-fueled, reciprocating, internal combustion engines has been expanded to include calculations of nitric oxide exhaust emissions. Calculations have been completed for a diesel oil and a coal-water slurry fuel. The fuels were assumed to be direct injected and compression ignited. The numerical simulation was based on a thermodynamic analysis with models for the injection, ignition, mixing, combustion, and heat transfer. The calculations of the nitric oxide formation and reduction reactions were based on the Zel'dovich mechanism. The engine performance parameters were in good agreement with published values in the literature. The computed exhaust nitric oxide concentrations for both the diesel and coal-water slurry fuels were in fair agreement with recent preliminary experimental values from the literature. In general, the exhaust nitric oxide concentrations were lower for the coal-water slurry fuel relative to the diesel fuel. The thermal nitric oxide production for the coal-water slurry fuel was a strong function of the coal/water mass ratio for the conditions examined. Also, rough estimates indicated that the nitric oxide from fuel-bound nitrogen could be significant for typical coal-water slurry fuels.

  20. On Maximal Injectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yi WANG; Guo ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    A right R-module E over a ring R is said to be maximally injective in case for any maximal right ideal m of R, every R-homomorphism f : m → E can be extended to an R-homomorphism f' : R → E. In this paper, we first construct an example to show that maximal injectivity is a proper generalization of injectivity. Then we prove that any right R-module over a left perfect ring R is maximally injective if and only if it is injective. We also give a partial affirmative answer to Faith's conjecture by further investigating the property of maximally injective rings. Finally, we get an approximation to Faith's conjecture, which asserts that every injective right R-module over any left perfect right self-injective ring R is the injective hull of a projective submodule.