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Sample records for coal injection pci

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) to Blast Furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Chenn

    2008-01-01

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process

  2. Charcoal injection in blast furnaces (Bio-PCI: CO2 reduction potential and economic prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Feliciano-Bruzual

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The steel industry is under pressure to reduce its CO2 emissions, which arise from the use of coal. In the long-term, the injection of pulverized particles of charcoal from biomass through blast furnace tuyeres, in this case called Bio-PCI, is an attractive method from both an environmental and metallurgical viewpoint. The potential of Bio-PCI has been assessed in terms of its CO2 abatement potential and economic viewpoint. A cost objective function has been used to measure the impact of biochar substitution in highly fuel-efficient BF among the top nine hot metal producers; estimations are based on the relevant cost determinants of ironmaking. This contribution aims to shed light on two strategic questions: Under what conditions is the implementation of Bio-PCI economically attractive? Additionally, where is such a techno-economic innovation likely to be taken up the earliest? The results indicate the potential for an 18–40% mitigation of CO2. Findings from the economic assessment show that biochar cannot compete with fossil coal on price alone; therefore, a lower cost of biochar or the introduction of carbon taxes will be necessary to increase the competitiveness of Bio-PCI. Based on the current prices of raw materials, electricity and carbon taxes, biochar should be between 130.1 and 236.4 USD/t and carbon taxes should be between 47.1 and 198.7 USD/t CO2 to facilitate the substitution of Bio-PCI in the examined countries. In regard to implementation, Brazil, followed by India, China and the USA appeared to be in a better position to deploy Bio-PCI.

  3. CFD modelling and analysis of pulverized coal injection in blast furnace: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yansong; Yu, Aibing [Laboratory for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems, School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Zulli, Paul [BlueScope Steel Research (BSR), P.O. Box 202, Port Kembla, NSW 2505 (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    In order to understand the complicated phenomena of pulverized coal injection (PCI) process in blast furnace (BF), several mathematical models have been developed by the UNSW and BSR cooperation. These models are featuring from coal combustion in a pilot-scale test rig, to coal combustion in a real BF, and then to coal/coke combustion in a real BF, respectively. This paper reviews these PCI models in aspects of model developments and model applicability. The model development is firstly discussed in terms of model formulation, their new features and geometry/regions considered. The model applicability is then discussed in terms of main findings followed by the model evaluation on their advantages and limitations. It is indicated that the three PCI models are all able to describe PCI operation qualitatively. The model of coal/coke combustion in a real BF is more reliable for simulating in-furnace phenomena of PCI operation qualitatively and quantitatively. Such model gives a more reliable burnout prediction over the raceway surface, which could better represent the amount of unburnt char entering the coke bed. These models are useful for understanding the flow-thermo-chemical behaviours and then optimising the PCI operation in practice. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Effect of kudiezi injection on stent thrombosis and matrix metalloproteinase in patients with PCI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhihui; Zhang Jing; Xing Yue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of Kudiezi injection on stent thrombosis and the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) and thromboxane B 2 (TXB2) in elderly patients with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and investigate the mechanism of Kudiezi on the decrease of stent thrombosis. Methods: Forty elderly patients were divided into two groups (Kudiezi group and control group) after PCI. Kudiezi were administered into patients in Kudiezi group and the patients in control group were treated with regular medication. The angioraphic and clinic follow-up outcomes of 40 elderly patients with PCI there retrospectively analyze. Stent thrombosis (ST) was confirmed by angiography. The levels MMPs and TXB2 in Kudiezi group (n=20) and control group (n=20) were determined before stent implantation and after 6 months. Major cardiac events (restenosis, cardiac death, myocardiac infarction, revasculation) were observed during follow-up. Results: The levels of MMPs and TXB2 in Kudiezi and control group decreased significantly after PCI. The levels of MMPs and TXB2 in Kudiezi group were less than that in control group after PCI. The levels of MMPs and TXB 2 in all patients group were significantly different between pre-procedure and post-procedure (P 2 . (authors)

  5. Effect of intracoronary nitroprusside injection on flow recovery during primary PCI in acute STEMI patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixia; Mu, Lihua; Sun, Linhui; Qi, Feng; Guo, Ruiwei

    2017-04-01

    The no/slow reflow phenomenon during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) causes the destruction of the coronary microcirculation and further myocardial damage. Some studies have shown that intracoronary nitroprusside infusion is a safe and effective method for managing the no/slow reflow phenomenon. However, it is uncertain whether the injection of nitroprusside at a specific time point during PPCI can most effectively prevent no-reflow. In this study, we investigated the effect of the timing of an intracoronary nitroprusside injection on flow recovery during PPCI in patients with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). One hundred twenty consecutive patients with STEMI who underwent PPCI were enrolled in the study. Patients who fulfilled the eligibility criteria were randomly allocated to three groups: control group (N.=40) received no nitroprusside before they completed PCI; the second group (N.=40) received nitroprusside before balloon dilatation; and the third group (N.=40) received nitroprusside after each balloon dilatation and before contrast agent refilling. The baseline clinical variables and the details of the PCI procedure were collected. The thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grades and the corrected TIMI frame count (cTFC) were evaluated immediately after stent implantation was completed. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics, antithrombotic drugs given before PCI, and details of the PCI procedure among the three groups (P>0.05). The incidence of TIMI grade 3 after PCI was significantly higher in the nitroprusside group than in the control group (P=0.025), whereas cTFC was significantly lower in the nitroprusside group (26.6±15.2) than in the control group (38.1±21.3, P=0.001). The incidence of TIMI grade 3 after PCI was significantly higher in the third group than in the second group (P=0.045), and cTFC was significantly lower in the third group (21.5±9.5) than in the second

  6. Effect of intracoronary injection of tirofiban combined with anisodamine on myocardial perfusion in patients with STEMI after PCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Gang Zhu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of intracoronary injection of tirofiban combined with anisodamine on myocardial perfusion in patients with STEMI after PCI. Methods: A total of 78 patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI who received PCI therapy in our hospital were randomly divided into control group and observation group, control group accepted routine PCI treatment, observation group received intracoronary injection of tirofiban and anisodamine in PCI, and myocardial perfusion of two groups was compared. Results: QRS duration values of observation group the instant after PCI and 4h after PCI were less than those of control group (P<0.05; 99mTc-MIBI and 18F-FDG intake of observation group after PCI were more than those of control group (P<0.05; serum MCP-1, sFas, Copeptin, OPN and vWF levels of observation group 4 h after PCI were lower than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Intracoronary injection of tirofiban combined with anisodamine can optimize myocardial perfusion in patients with STEMI after PCI, and has positive clinical significance.

  7. Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Ilha Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

  8. BIO-PCI, Charcoal injection in Blast Furnaces: State of the art and economic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliciano-Bruzual, C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The injection of grinded particles of charcoal through the tuyeres in Blast Furnaces, here coined Bio-PCI, presents as an attractive and plausible alternative to significantly reduce the CO2 emissions generated during hot metal production. In this contribution a summary of the technological fundaments, benefits and limitations of the incorporation of Bio-PCI is presented. Additionally the principal economic challenges of renewables fuel in ironmaking are exposed, with especial interest in the main productions costs of charcoal making. In this sense, a strategic question arises: can the residual biomass drive the emergence of Bio-PCI?, our analysis leads to conclude that the use of residual biomass (e.g. agricultural and forestry residues may significantly reduce the production cost in 120-180 USD/t in comparison to primary woods sources, this naturally increment the economical attractiveness of Bio-PCI substitution.La inyección de carbón vegetal por toberas en Altos Hornos, aqui denominada Bio-PCI, se presenta como una forma atractiva y realista de reducir significativamente las emisiones de CO2 generadas durante la producción de arrabio. En esta contribución se presenta un resumen de los fundamentos tecnológicos, los beneficios y las limitaciones de la incorporación de la tecnología del Bio-PCI. Adicionalmente se exponen los retos económicos que enfrentan los combustibles renovables a los fósiles, con especial interés en los principales costos de producción del carbón vegetal. En este sentido se plantea una pregunta estratégica: ¿puede la biomasa residual impulsar el desarrollo de la Bio-PCI?. Nuestro análisis conlleva a concluir que la utilización de biomasa residual (residuos forestales y agrícolas puede reducir sensiblemente el costo del carbón vegetal entre 120-180 USD/t en comparación con biomasa primaria, incrementando su competitividad frente al carbón mineral.

  9. Coal char combustion under a CO{sub 2}-rich atmosphere: Implications for pulverized coal injection in a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrego, A.G.; Casal, M.D. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC. P.O. Box 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Osorio, E.; Vilela, A.C.F. [Laboratorio de Siderurgia, DEMET/PPGEM - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. P.O. Box 15021, 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) is employed in blast furnace tuyeres attempting to maximize the injection rate without increasing the amount of unburned char inside the stack of the blast furnace. When coal is injected with air through the injection lance, the resolidified char will burn in an atmosphere with a progressively lower oxygen content and higher CO{sub 2} concentration. In this study an experimental approach was followed to separate the combustion process into two distinct devolatilization and combustion steps. Initially coal was injected into a drop tube furnace (DTF) operating at 1300 C in an atmosphere with a low oxygen concentration to ensure the combustion of volatiles and prevent the formation of soot. Then the char was refired into the DTF at the same temperature under two different atmospheres O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (typical combustion) and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} (oxy-combustion) with the same oxygen concentration. Coal injection was also performed under a higher oxygen concentration in atmospheres typical for both combustion and oxy-combustion. The fuels tested comprised a petroleum coke and coals currently used for PCI injection ranging from high volatile to low volatile bituminous rank. Thermogravimetric analyses and microscopy techniques were used to establish the reactivity and appearance of the chars. Overall similar burnouts were achieved with N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} for similar oxygen concentrations and therefore no loss in burnout should be expected as a result of enrichment in CO{sub 2} in the blast furnace gas. The advantage of increasing the amount of oxygen in a reacting atmosphere during burnout was found to be greater, the higher the rank of the coal. (author)

  10. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  11. Temperature field distribution of coal seam in heat injection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Zhizhen; Peng Weihong; Shang Xiaoji; Wang Kun; Li Heng; Ma Wenming

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we present a natural boundary element method (NBEM) to solve the steady heat flow problem with heat sources in a coal seam. The boundary integral equation is derived to obtain the temperature filed distribution of the coal seam under the different injecting conditions.

  12. Use of coal-water mixtures in blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malgarini, G; Giuli, M; Davide, A; Carlesi, C [Centro Sviluppo Materiali, Rome (Italy); Italsider, Genoa [Italy; Deltasider, Piombino [Italy

    1989-03-01

    At the present time, an ironworks blast furnace employing a pulverized coal injection (PCI) system is in operation at the Piombino Works (Italy). A wide development, within this industry, of PCI techniques is expected in the near future to limit, as much as possible, the rebuilding of coke ovens. Research activities and industrial trials aimed at maximizing the use of coal injection into blast furnaces are in course of development. This paper uses flowsheets to illustrate such a system and provides graphs to indicate the economic convenience of PCI systems as compared with systems using naphtha as an injected fuel.

  13. Case study on ground surface deformation induced by CO2 injection into coal seam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Tang Chun'an

    2010-01-01

    To monitor a geomechanical response of injecting CO 2 into relatively shallow coal seams, tiltmeters were set as an array to cover the ground surface area surrounding the injection well, and to measure the ground deformation during a well fracturing stimulation and a short-term CO 2 injection test. In this paper, an attempt to establish a quantitative relationship between the in-situ coal swelling and the corresponding ground deformation was made by means of numerical simulation study. (authors)

  14. Lance for injecting highly-loaded coal slurries into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, D.

    1991-10-29

    A lance is used to inject fuel oil into a blast furnace. This simple design permits conversion of coal water and coal tar slurries to a fine mist at very low flow rates. This design prevents the build-up of deposits which increases service life and steadies the flow rate.

  15. PCI-kortin muuntaminen PCI Express -kortiksi

    OpenAIRE

    Vilander, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa yritykselle PCI-väylään kytkettävän kortin tilalle jokin modernimpi vaihtoehto kuitenkin tekemällä uuden laitteen toiminnasta yhteensopiva kohdelaitteen kanssa. Kortin muuntaminen PCI Express -väylän kanssa yhteensopivaksi oli lopulta kaikkein miellyttävin ratkaisu. Opinnäytetyössä perehdytään PCI- ja PCI Express -väylien toimintaan sekä elektroniikka– ja piirilevysuunnitteluun liittyviin asioihin. The purpose of this thesis is ...

  16. Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shan-Wen [Steel and Aluminum Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 812 (China); Chen, Wei-Hsin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China); Lucas, John A. [School of Engineering of the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals departing from the general trend. One of the coals with the fuel ratio of 6.22 has shown its merit in combustion, implying that the blending ratio of the coal in PCI operation can be raised for a higher coke replacement ratio. The experiments also suggested that increasing blast temperature was an efficient countermeasure for promoting the combustibility of the injected coals. Higher fuel burnout could be achieved when the particle size of coal was reduced from 60-100 to 100-200 mesh. However, once the size of the tested coals was in the range of 200 and 325 mesh, the burnout could not be improved further, resulting from the agglomeration of fine particles. Considering coal blend reactions, the blending ratio of coals in PCI may be adjusted by the individual coal burnout rather than by the fuel ratio. (author)

  17. Three-dimensional simulation of flow and combustion for pulverised coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, B.Y.; Zulli, P.; Rogers, H.; Mathieson, J.G.; Yu, A.B. [BlueScope Steel Research, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of pulverised coal injection has been developed for simulating coal flow and combustion in the tuyere and raceway of a blast furnace. The model has been used to simulate previously reported combustion tests, which feature an inclined co-axial lance with an annular cooling gas. The predicted coal burnout agrees well with that measured for three coals with volatile contents and particle size ranging between 20.2-36.4% and particle sizes 1-200 {mu}m. Many important phenomena including flow asymmetry, recirculating flow and particle dispersion in the combustion chamber have been predicted. The current model can reproduce the experimental observations including the effects on burnout of coal flowrate and the introduction of methane for lance cooling.

  18. Control of spontaneous combustion of coal in goaf at high geotemperatureby injecting liquid carbon dioxide: inertand cooling characteristics of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenling; Wen, Hu; Yu, Zhijin; Wang, Chao; Ma, Li

    2018-02-01

    The spontaneous combustion of coal in goaf at high geo temperatures is threatening safety production in coalmine. The TG-DSC is employed to study the variation of mass and energy at 4 atmospheres (mixed gases of N2, O2 and CO2) and heating rates (10°C/min) during oxidation of coal samples. The apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor of coal oxidation decrease rapidly with increasing theCO2 concentration. Furthermore, its reaction rate is slow, its heat released reduces. Based on the conditions of 1301 face in the Longgucoalmine, a three-dimensional geometry model is developed to simulate the distributions stream field and temperature field and the variation characteristics ofCO2 concentration field after injecting liquidCO2. The results indicate that oxygen reached to depths of˜120m in goaf, 100m in the side of inlet air, and 10m in the side of outlet air before injecting liquidCO2. After injecting liquidCO2for 28.8min, the width of oxidation and heat accumulation zone is shortened by 20m, and the distance is 80m in the side of working face and 40˜60m in goafin the direction of dip affected by temperature.

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A TANGENTIALLY COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (YORKTOWN LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes activities conducted and results achieved in an EPA-sponsored program to demonstrate Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on a tangentially fired coal-burning utility boiler, Virginia Power's 180-MWe Yorktown Unit No. 2. his successfully d...

  20. Impact of thermal processes on CO2 injectivity into a coal seam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H Y; Liu, J S; Pan, Z J; Connell, L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate how thermal gradients, caused by CO2 injection, expansion and adsorption, affect the permeability and adsorption capacity of coal during CO2 sequestration. A new permeability model is developed in which the concept of elastic modulus reduction ratio is introduced to partition the effective strain between coal matrix and fracture. This model is implemented into a fully coupled mechanical deformation, gas flow and heat transport finite element simulator. To predict the amount of CO2 sequested, the extended Langmuir sorption model is used, with parameters values taken from the literature. The coupled heat and gas flow equations, are solved in COMSOL using the finite element method. The simulation results for a constant volume reservoir demostrate that thermal strain acts to significantly reduce both CO2 injectivity and adsorption capacity. These impacts need to be considered in the calculation of the optimum injection rate and the total sequestration capacity.

  1. Fractalkine levels are elevated early after PCI-treated ST-elevation myocardial infarction; no influence of autologous bone marrow derived stem cell injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njerve, Ida Unhammer; Solheim, Svein; Lunde, Ketil; Hoffmann, Pavel; Arnesen, Harald; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg

    2014-09-01

    Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation. There is limited knowledge of fractalkine levels during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stem cell treatment. We aimed to investigate the time profile of circulating fractalkine and gene expression of its receptor CX3CR1 during AMI, and the influence of intracoronary autologous bone marrow stem cell (mBMC) transplantation (given 6 days after AMI) on fractalkine levels. We examined fractalkine levels at different time points by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 20 patients with AMI, and 10 patients with stable angina pectoris (AP) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and in 100 patients included in the randomized Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation in Acute Myocardial Infarction (ASTAMI) trial. Patients with AMI had significantly elevated levels 3- and 12 h after PCI compared to patients with stable AP. After 12 h levels were similar in the two groups. An inverse pattern was observed in gene expression levels. No correlation between fractalkine levels and myocardial injury or infarct size was seen. We could not demonstrate any influence of autologous mBMC transplantation on fractalkine levels. Fractalkine levels are elevated the first 12 h after PCI in patients with AMI, however, not correlated to infarct size. The inverse pattern in gene expression of fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) might be a compensatory mechanism. No effect of autologous mBMC transplantation given 6 days after AMI on fractalkine levels was observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An injection technique for in-situ remediation of abandoned underground coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canty, G.A.; Everett, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Remediation of underground mines can prove to be a difficult task, given the physical constraints associated with introducing amendments to a subterranean environment. An acid mine abatement project involving in-situ chemical treatment method was conducted by the University of Oklahoma. The treatment method involved the injection of an alkaline coal combustion by-product (CCB) slurry into a flooded mine void (pH 4.4) to create a buffered zone. Injection of the CCB slurry was possible through the use of equipment developed by the petroleum industry for grouting recovery wells. This technology was selected because the CCB slurry could be injected under significant pressure and at a high rate. With higher pressure and rates of injection, a large quantity of slurry can be introduced into the mine within a limited amount of time. Theoretically, the high pressure and rate would improve dispersal of the slurry within the void. In addition, the high pressure is advantageous in fracturing or breaking-down obstructions to injection. During the injection process, a total of 418 tons of CCB was introduced within 15 hours. The mine did not refuse any of the material, and it is likely that a much larger mass could have been added. One injection well was drilled into a pillar of coal. Normally this would pose a problem when introducing a slurry; however, the coal pillar was easily fractured during the injection process. Currently, the pH of the mine discharge is above 6.5 and the alkalinity is approximately 100 mg/L as CACO 3

  3. CABG Versus PCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Robert H.; Dimitrova, Kamellia R.; Badour, Sanaa A.; Yammine, Maroun B.; El-Hage-Sleiman, Abdul-Karim M.; Hoffman, Darryl M.; Geller, Charles M.; Schwann, Thomas A.; Tranbaugh, Robert F.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Treatment of multivessel coronary artery disease with traditional single-arterial coronary artery bypass graft (SA-CABG) has been associated with superior intermediate-term survival and reintervention compared with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using either bare-metal stents (BMS) or drug-eluting stents (DES). OBJECTIVES This study sought to investigate longer-term outcomes including the potential added advantage of multiarterial coronary artery bypass graft (MA-CABG). METHODS We studied 8,402 single-institution, primary revascularization, multivessel coronary artery disease patients: 2,207 BMS-PCI (age 66.6 ± 11.9 years); 2,381 DES-PCI (age 65.9 ± 11.7 years); 2,289 SA-CABG (age 69.3 ± 9.0 years); and 1,525 MA-CABG (age 58.3 ± 8.7 years). Patients with myocardial infarction within 24 h, shock, or left main stents were excluded. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression were used to separately compare 9-year all-cause mortality and unplanned reintervention for BMS-PCI and DES-PCI to respective propensity-matched SA-CABG and MA-CABG cohorts. RESULTS BMS-PCI was associated with worse survival than SA-CABG, especially from 0 to 7 years (p = 0.015) and to a greater extent than MA-CABG was (9-year follow-up: 76.3% vs. 86.9%; p PCI hazard ratios (HR) were as follows: versus SA-CABG, HR: 0.87; and versus MA-CABG, HR: 0.38. DES-PCI showed similar survival to SA-CABG except for a modest 0 to 3 years surgery advantage (HR: 1.06; p = 0.615). Compared with MA-CABG, DES-PCI exhibited worse survival at 5 (86.3% vs. 95.6%) and 9 (82.8% vs. 89.8%) years (HR: 0.45; p PCI for all comparisons (all p PCI or DES-PCI, resulted in substantially enhanced death and reintervention-free survival. Accordingly, MA-CABG represents the optimal therapy for multivessel coronary artery disease and should be enthusiastically adopted by multidisciplinary heart teams as the best evidence-based therapy. PMID:26403338

  4. Volatile release and particle formation characteristics of injected pulverized coal in blast furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Yang, Tsung-Han

    2007-01-01

    Volatiles release and particle formation for two kinds of pulverized coals (a high volatile bituminous coal and a low volatile bituminous coal) in a drop tube furnace are investigated to account for the reactions of pulverized coal injected in blast furnaces. Two different sizes of feed particles are considered; one is 100-200 mesh and the other is 200-325 mesh. By evaluating the R-factor, the devolatilization extent of the larger feed particles is found to be relatively poor. However, the swelling behavior of individual or two agglomerated particles is pronounced, which is conducive to gasification of the chars in blast furnaces. In contrast, for the smaller feed particles, volatiles liberated from the coal particles can be improved in a significant way as a result of the amplified R-factor. This enhancement can facilitate the performance of gas phase combustion. Nevertheless, the residual char particles are characterized by agglomeration, implying that the reaction time of the char particles will be lengthened, thereby increasing the possibility of furnace instability. Double peak distributions in char particle size are observed in some cases. This possibly results from the interaction of the plastic state and the blowing effect at the particle surface. Considering the generation of tiny aerosols composed of soot particles and tar droplets, the results indicate that their production is highly sensitive to the volatile matter and elemental oxygen contained in the coal. Comparing the reactivity of the soot to that of the unburned char, the former is always lower than the latter. Consequently, the lower is the soot formation, the better is the blast furnace stability

  5. Toward an understanding of coal combustion in blast furnace tuyere injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Mathieson; John S. Truelove; Harold Rogers [BlueScope Steel Research, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    The former Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited, along with its successors BlueScope Steel and BHP Billiton, like many of their iron and steel making counterparts, has had a long history of investigating pulverised coal injection and combustion under the conditions of blast furnace tuyere injection. A succession of pilot scale hot models and combustion test rigs have been constructed and operated at the company's Newcastle Laboratories beginning with the pilot scale hot raceway model in 1981. Each successive generation of test rig has attempted to provide a closer approximation to the actual blast furnace situation with the current test rig (1998 to present) seeking to promote an 'expanding' combusting coal plume. Test rig configuration is demonstrated to have a significant effect on coal burnout at a nominal transit time of 20 ms. The development of the combustion test rigs has been supported through the co-development of a range of sampling and measuring techniques and the application of a number of numerical combustion models. This paper reviews some of the milestones along the path of these investigations, the current understandings and what the future potentially holds. It's not solved yet! 17 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Antiplatelet therapy in PCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanaroff, Alexander; Rao, Sunil

    2018-01-01

    Platelets play a key role in mediating stent thrombosis, the major cause of ischemic events in the immediate period following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). For this reason, antiplatelet therapy, started at the time of PCI and continued for at least 30 days afterwards, is the cornerstone of antithrombotic therapy after PCI. However, the use of antiplatelet agents increase bleeding risk, with more potent antiplatelet agents further increasing bleeding risk. For this reason, balancing prevention of ischemic events with risk of bleeding is fundamental to the effective use of antiplatelet agents. In the past 5 years, potent and fast-acting P2Y12 inhibitors have been introduced, and have augmented the antiplatelet armamentarium available to interventional cardiologists. In this review, we review the preclinical and clinical data surrounding these new agents, and discuss the significant questions and controversies that still exist regarding the optimal antiplatelet strategy. PMID:28582206

  7. Massive injection of coal and superoxygenated blast into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toxopeus, H.L.; Danloy, G.; Franssen, R.; Havelange, O. [Corus, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present project was to demonstrate the industrial feasibility of a massive injection of coal, {+-}270 kg/tHM, combined with a high O{sub 2} enrichment of the blast. The coke rate would thus be reduced to well below 250 kg/tHM. A reference level of 200-220 kg coal/tHM was successfully accomplished. However, the technical condition of the blast furnace hearths overruled all ambitions, the anticipated trial scheme had to be abandoned and no further trials were performed. A very short trial was aborted shortly after reaching an injection level of around 265 coal/tHM, due to excessive generation of very fine sludge originating from incomplete combustion. This forced the operators to investigate the merits of combustion more in depth. At the aimed low coke-rate detailed information about the gas distribution is of utmost importance. Therefore, in conjunction with the industrial tests, CRM designed a gas tracing method. Measurement of the transfer time between the injection point (a tuyere) and the sampling points (on an above-burden probe) would allow deduction of the radial gas distribution. CRM made the design and the start-up of an installation built by Hoogovens on blast furnace 7 of IJmuiden. Since then, repeated measurements have shown that the gas transfer time profiles are consistent with the data measured at the blast furnace top and at the wall. The modifications of the moveable armour position are reflected better and faster on the gas distribution as measured by helium tracing than on the skin flow temperatures.

  8. Optimal scheduling for enhanced coal bed methane production through CO2 injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuping; Zheng, Qipeng P.; Fan, Neng; Aminian, Kashy

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel deterministic optimization model for CO 2 -ECBM production scheduling. • Maximize the total profit from both sales of natural gas and CO 2 credits trading in the carbon market. • A stochastic model incorporating uncertainties and dynamics of NG price and CO 2 credit. - Abstract: Enhanced coal bed methane production with CO 2 injection (CO 2 -ECBM) is an effective technology for accessing the natural gas embedded in the traditionally unmineable coal seams. The revenue via this production process is generated not only by the sales of coal bed methane, but also by trading CO 2 credits in the carbon market. As the technology of CO 2 -ECBM becomes mature, its commercialization opportunities are also springing up. This paper proposes applicable mathematical models for CO 2 -ECBM production and compares the impacts of their production schedules on the total profit. A novel basic deterministic model for CO 2 -ECBM production including the technical and chemical details is proposed and then a multistage stochastic programming model is formulated in order to address uncertainties of natural gas price and CO 2 credit. Both models are nonlinear programming problems, which are solved by commercial nonlinear programming software BARON via GAMS. Numerical experiments show the benefits (e.g., expected profit gain) of using stochastic models versus deterministic models

  9. Injection of alkaline ashes into underground coal mines for acid mine drainage abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljoe, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    The injection of alkaline coal combustion waste products into abandoned underground coal mines for acid mine drainage (AMD) abatement has obvious conceptual appeal. This paper summarizes the findings of the baseline hydrogeologic and water quality evaluations at two sites--one in West Virginia and one in Maryland--where field demonstrations of the technique are being pursued in cooperative efforts among State and Federal agencies and/or private companies. The West Virginia site produces severe AMD from three to seven AMD sources that are spaced over about a 1.2 km stretch of the down-dip side of the mine workings. By completely filling the most problematic portion of the mine workings with coal combustion ashes, the State expects that the costs and problems associated with AMD treatment will be greatly reduced. At the Maryland site, it is expected that the AMD from a relatively small target mine will be eliminated completely by filling the entire mine void with a grout composed of a mixture of fly ash, fluidized-bed combustion ash, and flue gas desulfurization sludge. This project will also demonstrate the potential cost-effectiveness of the technique at other sites, both for the purpose of AMD remediation and control of land subsidence

  10. Damage Effects and Fractal Characteristics of Coal Pore Structure during Liquid CO2 Injection into a Coal Bed for E-CBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pore structure has a significant influence on coal-bed methane (CBM enhancement. Injecting liquid CO2 into coal seams is an effective way to increase CBM recovery. However, there has been insufficient research regarding the damage effects and fractal characteristics of pore structure at low temperature induced by injecting liquid CO2 into coal samples. Therefore, the methods of low-pressure nitrogen adsorption-desorption (LP-N2-Ad and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP were used to investigate the damage effects and fractal characteristics of pore structure with full aperture as the specimens were frozen by liquid CO2. The adsorption isotherms revealed that the tested coal samples belonged to type B, indicating that they contained many bottle and narrow-slit shaped pores. The average pore diameter (APD; average growth rate of 18.20%, specific surface area (SSA; average growth rate of 7.38%, and total pore volume (TPV; average growth rate of 18.26% increased after the specimens were infiltrated by liquid CO2, which indicated the generation of new pores and the transformation of original pores. Fractal dimensions D1 (average of 2.58 and D2 (average of 2.90 of treated coal samples were both larger the raw coal (D1, average of 2.55 and D2, average of 2.87, which indicated that the treated specimens had more rough pore surfaces and complex internal pore structures than the raw coal samples. The seepage capacity was increased because D4 (average of 2.91 of the treated specimens was also higher than the raw specimens (D4, average of 2.86. The grey relational coefficient between the fractal dimension and pore structure parameters demonstrated that the SSA, APD, and porosity positively influenced the fractal features of the coal samples, whereas the TPV and permeability exerted negative influences.

  11. Enchancing the use of coal by gas reburning and sorben injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, R.T.; Hong, C.C.; Opatrny, J.C.; Sommer, T.M.; Folsom, B.A.; Payne, R.; Ritz, H.J.; Pratapas, J.M.; May, T.J.; Krueger, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) Process was demonstrated on a 71 MWe net tangentially fired boiler at Hennepin, Illinois, and is being demonstrated on a 33 MWe net cyclone-fired boiler at Springfield, Illinois as a Clean Coal Technology Round I demonstration project. The Hennepin demonstration was completed after more than 2,000 hours of successful operation. In long-term demonstration testing at a Ca/S molar ratio of 1.75 an 19 percent gas heat input, 53 percent SO 2 reduction and 67 percent NO x reduction were achieved without any adverse impacts on boiler performance or electrostatic precipitator performance with flue gas humidification. These achievements exceeded the project goals of 50 and 60 percent, respectively. The CO 2 reduction due to the use of 18 percent natural gas was 8 percent

  12. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  13. Injection of FGD Grout to Abate Acid Mine Drainage in Underground Coal Mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mafi, S.; Damian, M.T.; Senita, R.E.; Jewitt, W.C.; Bair, S.; Chin, Y.C.; Whitlatch, E.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1997-07-01

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from abandoned underground coal mines in Ohio is a concern for both residents and regulatory agencies. Effluent from these mines is typically characterized by low pH and high iron and sulfate concentrations and may contaminate local drinking-water supplies and streams. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of injecting cementitious alkaline materials, such as Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) material to mitigate current adverse environmental impacts associated with AMD in a small, abandoned deep mine in Coshocton County Ohio. The Flue Gas Desulfurization material will be provided from American Electric Power`s (AEP) Conesville Plant. It will be injected as a grout mix that will use Fixated Flue Gas Desulfurization material and water. The subject site for this study is located on the border of Coshocton and Muskingum Counties, Ohio, approximately 1.5 miles south-southwest of the town of Wills Creek. The study will be performed at an underground mine designated as Mm-127 in the Ohio Department of Natural Resources register, also known as the Roberts-Dawson Mine. The mine operated in the mid-1950s, during which approximately 2 million cubic feet of coal was removed. Effluent discharging from the abandoned mine entrances has low pH in the range of 2.8-3.0 that drains directly into Wills Creek Lake. The mine covers approximately 14.6 acres. It is estimated that 26,000 tons of FGD material will be provided from AEP`s Conesville Power Plant located approximately 3 miles northwest of the subject site.

  14. Injection of FGD Grout to Abate Acid Mine Drainage in Underground Coal Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafi, S.; Damian, M.T.; Senita, R.E.; Jewitt, W.C.; Bair, S.; Chin, Y.C.; Whitlatch, E.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1997-07-01

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from abandoned underground coal mines in Ohio is a concern for both residents and regulatory agencies. Effluent from these mines is typically characterized by low pH and high iron and sulfate concentrations and may contaminate local drinking-water supplies and streams. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of injecting cementitious alkaline materials, such as Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) material to mitigate current adverse environmental impacts associated with AMD in a small, abandoned deep mine in Coshocton County Ohio. The Flue Gas Desulfurization material will be provided from American Electric Power's (AEP) Conesville Plant. It will be injected as a grout mix that will use Fixated Flue Gas Desulfurization material and water. The subject site for this study is located on the border of Coshocton and Muskingum Counties, Ohio, approximately 1.5 miles south-southwest of the town of Wills Creek. The study will be performed at an underground mine designated as Mm-127 in the Ohio Department of Natural Resources register, also known as the Roberts-Dawson Mine. The mine operated in the mid-1950s, during which approximately 2 million cubic feet of coal was removed. Effluent discharging from the abandoned mine entrances has low pH in the range of 2.8-3.0 that drains directly into Wills Creek Lake. The mine covers approximately 14.6 acres. It is estimated that 26,000 tons of FGD material will be provided from AEP's Conesville Power Plant located approximately 3 miles northwest of the subject site

  15. Synchronized droplet size measurements for Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, K. D.; Terracina, D. P.; Payne, S. E.; Caton, J. A.

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMD's near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 (mu)m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

  16. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates

  17. Method of cutting steeply falling coal beds. [Bacteria, which only grow on methane, are injected into the coal bed and form low viscosity polysaccharides: as a result the coal collapses into the haulage gallery and is hauled away

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gretsinger, B Ye; Chernyshenko, D V; Levin, A D; Malashenko, Yu R; Shinkovskiy, V A; Shurova, Z P; Volkov, V I

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to reduce outlays for collapse and output of coal by creating artificial cavities of sliding along the coal bed in the surrounding rocks. This goal is achieved because in the well drilled in the bed for the entire height of the level, a suspension of cells of methane-oxidizing microorganisms is injected. The methane-oxidizing microorganisms used are, for example, the thermophilic culture Methylococcus thermophilus of strains ShP which grow at 45-65/sup 0/ C, or the mesophilic culture Methanomonas rubna of strains 15 Sh growing at 20-37/sup 0/ C. As a result of the vital activity of these cultures, polysaccharides are formed with viscosity of 5-7 and 3-4 St respectively. The mine pressure disrupts the blocks between the wells, and the outline section of the steeply dropping coal bed, being destroyed, slides on the products of vital activity of the microorganisms to the haulage gallery. Then the coal drops on cross cuts to the field gallery through which it is transported. Studies established that the only coal substrate which is suitable for growth of these microorganism cultures is methane. The synthesis of one g of absolutely dry substance of these microorganism requires 1.78 g of methane and 4.7 g of oxygen. The cultures are resistant to hydrostatic pressure from 20 to 150 atm and short-term pressure of gradient drops which occur during injection of the cellular suspension into the coal bed. They are filtered through the coal with preservation of the oxidizing and reproductive properties and are cultivated on the methane contained in the bed and form considerable number of exopolysaccarides. The polysaccarides weaken the bond between the bed and the surrounding rocks and serve as a unique lubricant promoting the sliding towards the haulage gallery of the coal blocks destroyed by mine pressure.

  18. Plan for injection of coal combustion byproducts into the Omega Mine for the reduction of acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, T.A.; Moran, T.C.; Broschart, D.W.; Smith, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Omega Mine Complex is located outside of Morgantown, West Virginia. The mine is in the Upper Freeport Coal, an acid-producing coal seam. The coal was mined in a manner that has resulted in acid mine drainage (AMD) discharges at multiple points. During the 1990's, the West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) assumed responsibility for operating a collection and treatment system for the AMD. Collection and treatment costs are approximately $300,000 per year. Injecting grout into the mine workings to reduce AMD (and thus reducing treatment costs) is proposed. The procedure involves injecting grout mixes composed primarily of coal combustion byproducts (CCB's) and water, with a small quantity of cement. The intention of the injection program is to fill the mine voids in the north lobe of the Omega Mine (an area where most of the acidity is believed to be generated) with the grout, thus reducing the contact of air and water with potentially acidic material. The grout mix design consists of an approximate 1:1 ratio of fly ash to byproducts from fluidized bed combustion. Approximately 100 gallons of water per cubic yard of grout is used to achieve flowability. Observation of the mine workings via subsurface borings and downhole video camera confirmed that first-mined areas were generally open while second-mined areas were generally partially collapsed. The injection program was developed to account for this by utilizing closer injection hole spacing in second-mined areas. Construction began in January 1998, with grout injection expected to commence in mid-April 1998

  19. Dry sorbent injection of trona to control acid gases from a pilot-scale coal-fired combustion facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. B. Yelverton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Gaseous and particulate emissions from the combustion of coal have been associated with adverse effects on human and environmental health, and have for that reason been subject to regulation by federal and state governments. Recent regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency have further restricted the emissions of acid gases from electricity generating facilities and other industrial facilities, and upcoming deadlines are forcing industry to consider both pre- and post-combustion controls to maintain compliance. As a result of these recent regulations, dry sorbent injection of trona to remove acid gas emissions (e.g. HCl, SO2, and NOx from coal combustion, specifically 90% removal of HCl, was the focus of the current investigation. Along with the measurement of HCl, SO2, and NOx, measurements of particulate matter (PM, elemental (EC, and organic carbon (OC were also accomplished on a pilot-scale coal-fired combustion facility. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a coal-fired combustor burning bituminous coal and using dry sorbent injection were the focus of the current study. From this investigation it was shown that high levels of trona were needed to achieve the goal of 90% HCl removal, but with this increased level of trona injection the ESP and BH were still able to achieve greater than 95% fine PM control. In addition to emissions reported, measurement of acid gases by standard EPA methods were compared to those of an infrared multi-component gas analyzer. This comparison revealed good correlation for emissions of HCl and SO2, but poor correlation in the measurement of NOx emissions.

  20. Risk management of energy efficiency projects in the industry - sample plant for injecting pulverized coal into the blast furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Filip P.; Berić Ivana M.; Jovanović Petar M.; Jovanović Aca D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the applicability of well-known risk management methodologies in energy efficiency projects in the industry. The possibilities of application of the selected risk management methodology are demonstrated within the project of the plants for injecting pulverized coal into blast furnaces nos. 1 and 2, implemented by the company US STEEL SERBIA d.o.o. in Smederevo. The aim of the project was to increase energy efficiency through the reductio...

  1. Successful continuous injection of coal into gasification and PFBC system operating pressures exceeding 500 psi - DOE funded program results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, T.; Aldred, D.; Rutkowski, M. [Stamet Inc., North Holywood, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The current US energy program is focussed towards commercialisation of coal-based power and IGCC technologies that offer significant improvements in efficiency and reductions in emissions. For gasification and pressurised fluidized bed combustors to be widely accepted, certain operational components need to be significantly improved. One of the most pressing is provision of reliable, controlled and cost-effective solid fuel feeding into the pressure environment. The US Department of Energy has funded research to develop the unique Stamet 'Posimetric{reg_sign} Solids Pump' to be capable of feeding coal into current gasification and PFBC operating pressures. The research objective is a mechanical rotary device able to continuously feed and meter coal into pressured environments of at least 34 bar (500 psi). The research program comprised an initial design and testing phase to feed coal into 20 bar (300 psi) and a second phase for feeding into 34 bar (500 psi). The first phase target was achieved in December 2003. Following modification and optimization, in January 2005, the Stamet Pump achieved a world-record pressure level for continuous injection of coal of 38 bar (560 psi). Research is now targeting 69 bar (1000 psi). The paper reviews the successful pump design, optimisations and results of the testing. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. A study of the solid and gaseous products generated by a dc plasma torch under coal and steam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuthe, T.G.; Chang, J.S.; Irons, G.A.; Lu, W.K.; Berezin, A.A.; Chu, E.Y.

    1988-01-01

    In this work, the solid and gaseous products generated by a DC plasma torch under simultaneous coal powder and supersaturated steam injection are examined. A range of steam (0.75[g/min]) and coal powder (0-10[g/min]) were injected into the hot argon plasma and the product gases were analyzed by gas chromatographic techniques, an optical multichannel analyzer and infrared CO and CO/sub 2/ analyzers. The solid product generated by the present process was analyzed using neutron activation analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that the most common product constituents consisted of simple compounds such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Detailed analysis using infra-red analyzers and gas chromatographic techniques showed that the product gas contained significant amounts of H/sub 2/(--2[%], CO(0.5-4.5[%]) and CO/sub 2/(0.5-1.0[%]) gases, where approximately 80 (%) was still argon gas. Evidence was found of slight amounts of OH, but no significant amount of CH/sub 2/ compounds were detected. The energy yields of the CO/sub 2/ and CO production rates were in the range of 4-10 and 5-25 [g/kWhr] respectively. The produced gas CO:CO/sub 2/ concentration ratio was approximately in the order of 10. Neutron activation analysis shows that the solid product generated in the present process is significantly different from the ash produced by a conventional coal fired furnace. The overall concentrations of trace oxides are significantly lower in the solid product than in conventional ash, tending to support the hypothesis that the solid product is a coke rather than an ash. The conditions in the plasma torch also seem to favour the removal of Ca, S and Si oxides from the coal. Downstream temperature analysis indicates the product gas can be heated from 600 to 1500(K) depending on the torch operating conditions and injectant flowrates

  3. Wettability determination by contact angle measurements: hvbB coal-water system with injection of synthetic flue gas and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojai Kaveh, Narjes; Rudolph, E Susanne J; Wolf, Karl-Heinz A A; Ashrafizadeh, Seyed Nezameddin

    2011-12-01

    Geological sequestration of pure carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in coal is one of the methods to sequester CO(2). In addition, injection of CO(2) or flue gas into coal enhances coal bed methane production (ECBM). The success of this combined process depends strongly on the wetting behavior of the coal, which is function of coal rank, ash content, heterogeneity of the coal surface, pressure, temperature and composition of the gas. The wetting behavior can be evaluated from the contact angle of a gas bubble, CO(2) or flue gas, on a coal surface. In this study, contact angles of a synthetic flue gas, i.e. a 80/20 (mol%) N(2)/CO(2) mixture, and pure CO(2) on a Warndt Luisenthal (WL) coal have been determined using a modified pendant drop cell in a pressure range from atmospheric to 16 MPa and a constant temperature of 318 K. It was found that the contact angles of flue gas on WL coal were generally smaller than those of CO(2). The contact angle of CO(2) changes from water-wet to gas-wet by increasing pressure above 8.5 MPa while the one for the flue gas changes from water-wet to intermediate-wet by increasing pressure above 10 MPa. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy and exergy analysis of alternating injection of oxygen and steam in the low emission underground gasification of deep thin coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Ali Akbar; Wolf, Karl Heinz; Rogut, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that by coupling the underground coal gasification (UCG) with the carbon capture and storage (CCS), the coal energy can be economically extracted with a low carbon footprint. To investigate the effect of UCG and CCS process parameters on the feasibility of the UCG-CCS pr....... Additionally, we show that the zero-emission conversion of unmineable deep thin coal resources in a coupled UCG-CCS process, that is not practical with the current state of technology, can be realized by increasing the energy efficiency of the carbon dioxide capture process.......-CCS process, we utilize a validated mathematical model, previously published by the same authors, that can predict the composition of the UCG product, temperature profile, and coal conversion rate for alternating injection of air and steam for unmineable deep thin coal layers. We use the results of the model...

  5. Behandling av akutt hjerteinfarkt : Trombolyse versus PCI

    OpenAIRE

    Grut, Harald

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Title: Treatment of acute myocardial infarction: Trombolysis versus PCI Background: Acute myocardial infarction is a frequent cause of mortality and morbidity in Norway and other Western countries. The main objective was to examine which treatment would give the best result in the case of an acute myocardial infarction, trombolysis or PCI, considering both mortality and morbidity. I also wanted to compare PCI to facilitated PCI and prehospital trombolysis. Methods: This ...

  6. Potential for visible plume formation at a coal-fired boiler using ammonia injection for non-catalytic NOx control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, T.

    1993-01-01

    Circulating fluidized bed boilers utilizing ammonia injection for non-catalytic NO x reduction have been highly successful in reducing NO x emissions to very low levels. However, one limitation on this technology is the potential for the formation of visible plumes. One plant, with uncontrolled NO x of about 190 ppm, reduces NO x concentrations to the 20-25 ppm range by injecting ammonia in the boiler's cyclones. However, infrequent, short-lived, white, detached plumes have been noted extending for short distances downwind of the stack. Because unreacted ammonia is present in the flue gas along with HCl from coal combustion, the formation of solid NH 4 Cl in the atmosphere was suspected to be the most likely cause of the visible plume. Simple thermodynamic calculations predict the formation of solid ammonium chloride very soon after the flue gas mixes with cooler ambient air and plume optical density calculations are in reasonable agreement with observed plume density. Stack testing and other tests have been conducted during both plume and non-plume events to confirm that NH 4 Cl formation is the most likely cause of the capacity. As presented in this paper, the test data and theoretical calculations indicate that a visible plume may be expected when as little as 5 ppm of ammonia and HCl are present in the flue gas, depending on observation conditions. Analyses of fuel samples taken during stack tests show about 40% of the chlorine in the low chloride coal fired, typically less than 0.04%, is released from the stack as HCl. Ammonia slip is somewhat variable depending on combustion conditions in the boiler and the temperature at the ammonia injection points

  7. Assessment of PCDD/F and PBDD/F Emissions from Coal-fired Power Plants during Injection of Brominated Activated Carbon for Mercury Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the injection of brominated powdered activated carbon (Br-PAC) on the emission of brominated and chlorinated dioxins and furans in coal combustion flue gas has been evaluated. The tests were performed at two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) demonstration sites where ...

  8. The fate of injectant coal in blast furnaces: The origin of extractable materials of high molecular mass in blast furnace carryover dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, S.N.; Wu, L.; Paterson, N.; Herod, A.A.; Dugwell, D.R.; Kandiyoti, R. [University of London Imperial College of Science & Technology, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the work was to investigate the fate of injectant coal in blast furnaces and the origin of extractable materials in blast furnace carryover dusts. Two sets of samples including injectant coal and the corresponding carryover dusts from a full sized blast furnace and a pilot scale rig have been examined. The samples were extracted using 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) solvent and the extracts studied by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The blast furnace carryover dust extracts contained high molecular weight carbonaceous material, of apparent mass corresponding to 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} u, by polystyrene calibration. In contrast, the feed coke and char prepared in a wire mesh reactor under high temperature conditions did not give any extractable material. Meanwhile, controlled combustion experiments in a high-pressure wire mesh reactor suggest that the extent of combustion of injectant coal in the blast furnace tuyeres and raceways is limited by time of exposure and very low oxygen concentration. It is thus likely that the extractable, soot-like material in the blast furnace dust originated in tars is released by the injectant coal. Our results suggest that the unburned tars were thermally altered during the upward path within the furnace, giving rise to the formation of heavy molecular weight (soot-like) materials.

  9. Modelling of limestone injection for SO2 capture in a coal fired utility boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacik, G.J.; Reid, K.; McDonald, M.M.; Knill, K.

    1997-01-01

    A computer model was developed for simulating furnace sorbent injection for SO 2 capture in a full scale utility boiler using TASCFlow TM computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The model makes use of a computational grid of the superheater section of a tangentially fired utility boiler. The computer simulations are three dimensional so that the temperature and residence time distribution in the boiler could be realistically represented. Results of calculations of simulated sulphur capture performance of limestone injection in a typical utility boiler operation were presented

  10. Future of the PCI Readmission Metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfy, Jason H; Yeh, Robert W

    2016-03-01

    Between 2013 and 2014, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the National Cardiovascular Data Registry publically reported risk-adjusted 30-day readmission rates after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a pilot project. A key strength of this public reporting effort included risk adjustment with clinical rather than administrative data. Furthermore, because readmission after PCI is common, expensive, and preventable, this metric has substantial potential to improve quality and value in American cardiology care. Despite this, concerns about the metric exist. For example, few PCI readmissions are caused by procedural complications, limiting the extent to which improved procedural technique can reduce readmissions. Also, similar to other readmission measures, PCI readmission is associated with socioeconomic status and race. Accordingly, the metric may unfairly penalize hospitals that care for underserved patients. Perhaps in the context of these limitations, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has not yet included PCI readmission among metrics that determine Medicare financial penalties. Nevertheless, provider organizations may still wish to focus on this metric to improve value for cardiology patients. PCI readmission is associated with low-risk chest discomfort and patient anxiety. Therefore, patient education, improved triage mechanisms, and improved care coordination offer opportunities to minimize PCI readmissions. Because PCI readmission is common and costly, reducing PCI readmission offers provider organizations a compelling target to improve the quality of care, and also performance in contracts involve shared financial risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Risk management of energy efficiency projects in the industry - sample plant for injecting pulverized coal into the blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Filip P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the applicability of well-known risk management methodologies in energy efficiency projects in the industry. The possibilities of application of the selected risk management methodology are demonstrated within the project of the plants for injecting pulverized coal into blast furnaces nos. 1 and 2, implemented by the company US STEEL SERBIA d.o.o. in Smederevo. The aim of the project was to increase energy efficiency through the reduction of the quantity of coke, whose production requires large amounts of energy, reduction of harmful exhaust emission and increase productivity of blast furnaces through the reduction of production costs. The project was complex and had high costs, so that it was necessary to predict risk events and plan responses to identified risks at an early stage of implementation, in the course of the project design, in order to minimise losses and implement the project in accordance with the defined time and cost limitations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179081: Researching contemporary tendencies of strategic management using specialized management disciplines in function of competitiveness of Serbian economy

  12. Full scale calcium bromide injection with subsequent mercury oxidation and removal within wet flue gas desulphurization system: Experience at a 700 MW coal-fired power facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mark Simpson

    The Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule, which requires that existing power plants reduce mercury emissions to meet an emission rate of 1.2 lb/TBtu on a 30-day rolling average and that new plants meet a 0.0002 lb/GWHr emission rate. This translates to mercury removals greater than 90% for existing units and greater than 99% for new units. Current state-of-the-art technology for the control of mercury emissions uses activated carbon injected upstream of a fabric filter, a costly proposition. For example, a fabric filter, if not already available, would require a 200M capital investment for a 700 MW size unit. A lower-cost option involves the injection of activated carbon into an existing cold-side electrostatic precipitator. Both options would incur the cost of activated carbon, upwards of 3M per year. The combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors and wet flue gas desulphurization (wet FGD) systems have demonstrated the ability to substantially reduce mercury emissions, especially at units that burn coals containing sufficient halogens. Halogens are necessary for transforming elemental mercury to oxidized mercury, which is water-soluble. Plants burning halogen-deficient coals such as Power River Basin (PRB) coals currently have no alternative but to install activated carbon-based approaches to control mercury emissions. This research consisted of investigating calcium bromide addition onto PRB coal as a method of increasing flue gas halogen concentration. The treated coal was combusted in a 700 MW boiler and the subsequent treated flue gas was introduced into a wet FGD. Short-term parametric and an 83-day longer-term tests were completed to determine the ability of calcium bromine to oxidize mercury and to study the removal of the mercury in a wet FGD. The research goal was to show that calcium bromine addition to PRB coal was a viable approach for meeting the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule

  13. PAPP-A and IGFBP-4 fragment levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with heparin and PCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Lindberg, Søren; Hoffmann, Søren

    2015-01-01

    -segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Prior to PCI, patients were injected with 10,000IU of unfractionated heparin (UFH). Blood samples were collected immediately before PCI, but after UFH-injection, immediately after PCI and on day 1 and day 2....... Plasma IGFBP-4, CT-IGFBP-4 and NT-IGFBP-4 levels were determined by specific, novel immunoassays, and PAPP-A and IGF-I by commercial immunoassays. RESULTS: Plasma PAPP-A was strongly elevated upon STEMI, UFH-administration and PCI with mean concentrations (95%-confidence interval) pre-PCI, post-PCI, day...... 1, and day 2 of 13.0 (11.2;15.2), 14.8 (13.1;16.8), 1.03 (0.90;1.18), and 1.08 (0.92;1.28) μg/L, respectively (pPCI concentrations of IGFBP-4, CT-IGFBP-4 and NT-IGFBP-4 were 154 (142;166), 53 (47;60) and 136 (122;150) μg/L, and levels were unaltered post-PCI. Concentrations increased...

  14. Transradial PCI and Same Day Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfandi, Ali; Safirstein, Jordan G

    2018-02-24

    The evolution of cardiac catheterization has led to the development of well-refined, more effective, and safer devices that allow cardiovascular interventionalists to deliver high-quality percutaneous interventions (PCI). Transradial PCI (TRI) has gained more popularity in the USA over the past 10 years, and as experience and volume of TRI grow, studies adopting same day radial PCI protocols have emerged and are showing promising results. We sought to review the current literature on TRI and same day discharge (SDD). This literature review was performed to evaluate the studies that were published over the last 17 years regarding TRI and SDD. A literature search using PubMed, Cochran database, Google Scholar, and Embase was performed for studies evaluating TRI and SDD from January 1, 2000, to August 1, 2017. Observational studies, randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and consensus statements were included in our review. We used the following terms in our search: "same day," "same day discharge," "outpatient," and "ambulatory radial PCI." Articles with data pertinent to the subject matter were included. We did not limit our searches to specific journals. The available literature supports SDD for selected radial PCI patients. The advancement in PCI devices and pharmacology has enhanced the safety of post-PCI disposition leading to the evolution from traditional overnight stays to the development of same day discharge programs. We conclude that outpatient TRI for appropriately selected patients will be the standard of care in the future. This will lead to increased patient satisfaction, improved hospital throughput, and reduced hospital costs, without increased procedural complications.

  15. PCI. Mechanism, measures, rules for reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.; Bender, G.; Dewes, P.; Wensauer, A.

    2009-01-01

    Though modern and advanced fuel assembly designs for BWR as AREVA's ATRIUM trademark 10 fuel assemblies show a high reliability, fuel failures are still encountered. The ZTF (Zero Tolerance for Failures) initiative was launched by AREVA to further upgrade BWR fuel assembly reliability towards failure free fuel. The introduction of the zirconium liner cladding has greatly reduced pellet cladding interaction (PCI) failures. However the phenomenon of PCI in reactor operation was not completely eliminated. There were failures in AREVA's BWR fuel with liner cladding attributed to PCI, but when subject to hot cell examinations, all these have been attributed to ''non-classical'' PCI, where local cladding stress is amplified due to missing pellet surface (MPS). However, in order to support the efforts to eliminate all possible root causes for fuel failures, AREVA NP addresses PCI with a ''multi-track'' strategy. First, and most important, the development of chromia doped pellets and more favorable pellet geometries aim at fuel that by design is protected as much as possible against PCI. A high pellet quality is further assured by the final assessment of the pellet appearance by an automatic visual inspection system in the pellet manufacturing lines. In order to support these hardware improvements, AREVA NP provides software aimed to minimize PCI risks. Two main approaches are described in this paper: - The ''classical'' PCI operation and maneuvering guidelines restrict power maneuvering and limit the ramping rates with the goal to control the stress level of the cladding. AREVA's guidelines are based on ramp tests as well as on extensive power plant experience, and are updated to reflect the performance of liner cladding. - Additional effort is made to further understand the PCI phenomenon, e.g. by the use of detailed fuel rod thermal-mechanical codes that provide far better insight of the state variables that control the process of rupture due to stress corrosion

  16. Multiscale Characterization and Quantification of Arsenic Mobilization and Attenuation During Injection of Treated Coal Seam Gas Coproduced Water into Deep Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Bhasker; Siade, Adam J.; Donn, Michael J.; Helm, Lauren; Morris, Ryan; Davis, James A.; Berg, Michael; Prommer, Henning

    2017-12-01

    Coal seam gas production involves generation and management of large amounts of co-produced water. One of the most suitable methods of management is injection into deep aquifers. Field injection trials may be used to support the predictions of anticipated hydrological and geochemical impacts of injection. The present work employs reactive transport modeling (RTM) for a comprehensive analysis of data collected from a trial where arsenic mobilization was observed. Arsenic sorption behavior was studied through laboratory experiments, accompanied by the development of a surface complexation model (SCM). A field-scale RTM that incorporated the laboratory-derived SCM was used to simulate the data collected during the field injection trial and then to predict the long-term fate of arsenic. We propose a new practical procedure which integrates laboratory and field-scale models using a Monte Carlo type uncertainty analysis and alleviates a significant proportion of the computational effort required for predictive uncertainty quantification. The results illustrate that both arsenic desorption under alkaline conditions and pyrite oxidation have likely contributed to the arsenic mobilization that was observed during the field trial. The predictive simulations show that arsenic concentrations would likely remain very low if the potential for pyrite oxidation is minimized through complete deoxygenation of the injectant. The proposed modeling and predictive uncertainty quantification method can be implemented for a wide range of groundwater studies that investigate the risks of metal(loid) or radionuclide contamination.

  17. PCI compliance understand and implement effective PCI data security standard compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Branden R

    2012-01-01

    The credit card industry established the PCI Data Security Standards to provide a minimum standard for how vendors should protect data to ensure it is not stolen by fraudsters. PCI Compliance, 3e, provides the information readers need to understand the current PCI Data Security standards, which have recently been updated to version 2.0, and how to effectively implement security within your company to be compliant with the credit card industry guidelines and protect sensitive and personally identifiable information. Security breaches continue to occur on a regular basis, affecting millions of

  18. PCI DSS a practical guide to implementing and maintaining compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This newly revised, practical guide, gives you a step by step guide to achieving Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) compliance - showing you how to create, design and build a PCI compliance framework.

  19. Mercury Emissions Capture Efficiency with Activated Carbon Injection at a Russian Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA-led project, conducted in collaboration with UNEP, the Swedish Environmental Institute and various Russian Institutes, that demonstrates that the mercury emission control efficiencies of activated carbon injection technologies applied at a Russian power plant burning Rus...

  20. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  1. Coordinated CSN-UNESA research plan (PCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incinillas, J.

    2001-01-01

    This article contains a description of the essence and current status of the Coordinated Research Plan (PCI), beginning with details on the general specifications of the Framework Agreement signed by CSN and UNESA in September 1997, with an initial duration of four years and extendable on a yearly basis. The section on PCI Management describes the governing bodies, the mechanisms for including a project, tracking of projects underway, and the mechanisms for concluding projects. The Plan's generic goals are to acquire and increase technological skills and tools to guarantee operation of the nuclear park, take advantage of the synergies of the plants as a whole, and optimize the regulatory framework from the standpoint of safety and efficiency. In addition, strategic targets concerning efficiency, technological development and environment are defined. The current project status, overall budget and project completed to data are described. (Author)

  2. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  3. PCI Compliance Understand and Implement Effective PCI Data Security Standard Compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Chuvakin, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Identity theft and other confidential information theft have now topped the charts as the #1 cybercrime. In particular, credit card data is preferred by cybercriminals. Is your payment processing secure and compliant?. Now in its second edition, PCI Compliance has been revised to follow the new PCI DSS standard 1.2.1. Also new to this edition: Each chapter has how-to guidance to walk you through implementing concepts, and real-world scenarios to help you relate to the information and better grasp how it impacts your data. This book provides the information that you need to understand the curre

  4. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  5. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nitin; O'Brien, Susan

    2013-08-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is essential for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell survival. Many kinases in the BCR signaling pathway are being studied as potential therapeutic targets. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) is a novel first-in-class selective inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase. Preclinical evidence suggests that ibrutinib inhibits CLL cell survival and proliferation and affects CLL cell migration and homing. Early clinical data in patients with CLL and non-Hodgkin lymphoma is encouraging. It is likely that ibrutinib and other drugs targeting the BCR pathway will become an integral component of CLL therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    Energi, Haesselbyverket, has now invested in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping wastes of rubber are mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1997 was 370 SEK/ton or 10 per cent higher than in 1996. For the world, the average import price fell to 46 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1998 as a result of the crisis in Asia. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO 2 -removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, Vaesteraas, has newly invested in a ca talytic NO x -cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NO x -burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 800 tons in 1997, a minor increase compared to 1996. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1.7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian countries and the developing countries. However, greater efforts to minimize the

  7. A Poromechanical Model for Coal Seams Injected with Carbon Dioxide: From an Isotherm of Adsorption to a Swelling of the Reservoir Un modéle poromécanique pour l’injection de dioxyde de carbone dans des veines de charbon : d’une isotherme d’adsorption à un gonflement du réservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoosokhan S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Injecting carbon dioxide into deep unminable coal seams can enhance the amount of methane recovered from the seam. This process is known as CO2-Enhanced Coal Bed Methane production (CO2-ECBM. The seam is a porous medium whose porous system is made of cleats (small natural fractures and of coal pores (whose radius can be as small as a few angström. During the injection process, the molecules of CO2 get adsorbed in the coal pores. Such an adsorption makes the coal swell, which, in the confined conditions that prevail underground, induces a closure of the cleat system of the coal bed reservoir and a loss of injectivity. In this work, we develop a poromechanical model which, starting from the knowledge of an adsorption isotherm and combined with reservoir simulations, enables to estimate the variations of injectivity of the coal bed reservoir over time during the process of injection. The model for the coal bed reservoir is based on poromechanical equations that explicitly take into account the effect of adsorption on the mechanical behavior of a microporous medium. We consider the coal bed reservoir as a dual porosity (cleats and coal porosity medium, for which we derive a set of linear constitutive equations. The model requires as an input the adsorption isotherm on coal of the fluid considered. Reversely, the model provides a way to upscale an adsorption isotherm into a meaningful swelling of the coal bed reservoir at the macroscopic scale. The parameters of the model are calibrated on data on coal samples available in the literature. Reservoir simulations of an injection of carbon dioxide in a coal seam are performed with an in-house finite volume and element code. The variations of injection rate over time during the process of injection are obtained from the simulations. The effect of the compressibility of the coal matrix on those variations is discussed. L’injection de dioxyde de carbone dans des veines de charbon profondes peut augmenter

  8. PETROBRAS green petroleum coke used as partial replacement for coal injected mixtures in blast furnaces; Utilizacao do coque verde de petroleo da PETROBRAS em substituicao parcial ao carvao mineral das misturas injetadas em altos fornos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Agenor Medrado da; Medrado, Swami Botelho; Noblat, Sebastiao Jorge Xavier [Companhia Siderurgia Nacional. CSN. Gerencia Geral de Processos Siderurgicos. RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: ams@csn.com.br, swami@csn.com.br, s.noblat@csn.com.br; Carvalho Junior, Joao Andrade de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho. Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta. Departamento de Energia, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: joao@feg.unesp.br

    2010-04-15

    The PETROBRAS produced green petroleum coke (GPC) is a carbon rich fuel, virtually ash-free, with low sulfur content and is a fuel suitable to replace metallurgical coke in blast furnaces. The GPC was tested in a pulverized coal injection simulator built in the Volta Redonda research center. It presented a low burning efficiency due to low volatile material content and high substitution rate by the carbon content. The industrial-scale tests were carried out in blast furnaces with up to 50% PETROBRAS GPC in the coal blends, which has never been done before in the steel industry. The injected coal/CVP mixtures produced no negative side effects in the blast furnace grinding systems, pneumatic conveying or operating process. The mixture burning process inside the blast furnace, showed a decrease in fuel consumption, with a significant reduction in metallurgical coke consumption. The industrial-scale tests of the GPC mixtures did not reach the 70% maximum for lack of the GPC feedstock, it being necessary to continue with standard coal mixtures. (author)

  9. Optimal catchment area and primary PCI centre volume revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel Malby; Pedersen, Frants; Holmvang, Lene

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The currently stated optimal catchment population for a pPCI centre is 300,000-1,100,000, resulting in 200-800 procedures/year. pPCI centres are increasing in number even within small geographic areas. We describe the organisation and quality of care after merging two high-volume centres...

  10. Absence of mutations in the PCI gene in subfertile men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gianotten, Judith; Schimmel, Alinda W. M.; van der Veen, Fulco; Lombardi, M. Paola; Meijers, Joost C. M.

    2004-01-01

    The molecular aetiology of male subfertility is still unknown in the majority of cases and it is thought that multiple genes are involved. One of the genes that might play a role in male reproductive function is the protein C inhibitor (PCI) gene. In mice the presence of PCI is an absolute

  11. Predictors of subjective health status 10 years post-PCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berge, Jan C.; Dulfer, Karolijn; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Hartman, Eline M. J.; Daemen, Joost; van Geuns, Robert J.; van Domburg, Ron T.

    2016-01-01

    Subjective health status is an increasingly important parameter to assess the effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in clinical practice. Aim of this study was to determine medical and psychosocial predictors of poor subjective health status over a 10 years' post-PCI period. We included

  12. PCISIM - A Simulation Tool for PCI Bus Based Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    1999-01-01

    This document describes a PCI bus simulator for use in evaluating the feasibility of system designs based on this bus.......This document describes a PCI bus simulator for use in evaluating the feasibility of system designs based on this bus....

  13. Verkkokauppa PCI DSS - standardin mukaiseksi : case Scandinavian Outdoor

    OpenAIRE

    Kiiski, Tomi

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on selvittää, mitä toimia verkkokaupalta vaaditaan PCI DSS - standardin mukaisuuteen sekä mikä PCI DSS -standardi on ja mitä se sisältää. Työn toimeksiantaja on Scandinavian Outdoor Oy. Toimeksiantajan edellinen PCI DSS -auditointi on suoritettu standardin vanhalla versiolla ja standardista on nyt uusi versio. Työn teoriaosa käsittelee yleisesti PCI DSS -standardia, sen sisältöä sekä vaatimuksia. Työn tärkeimpänä lähteenä on käytetty PCI SSC:n ju...

  14. PCI-OGRAMS: application of CANDU fuelogram methodology to PCI data from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The FUELOGRAM model was derived to predict PCI defect probablilities for CANDU fuel bundles that had experienced power increases after being irradiated to burnups mostly in the range 100 +- 60 MW.h/kg U. It is inappropriate to extrapolate the FUELOGRAM model to predict the performance of differently designed fuels at burnups up to 600 MW.h/kg U Therefore data obtained from the operaton of a Boiling Water Reactor were analyzed using the FUELOGRAM methodology to assess fuel performance criteria at high burnups. The resultant PCI-OGRAMS evaluate defect probabilities in terms of power increase (ΔP), ramped power (P), and the burnup (ω) of the most highly rated rod in a fuel assembly. Defect probability also depends on the dwell time (t), of fuel at the ramped power. The predictions of the PCI-OGRAM, FUELOGRAM and other models are compared in three-dimensional sketches of P, ΔP, and ω with the dwell time t held constant. (author)

  15. Superior long term outcome associated with native vessel versus graft vessel PCI following secondary PCI in patients with prior CABG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudis, Chrysostomos A; Kotecha, Tushar; Chehab, Omar; Hudson, Jonathan; Rakhit, Roby D

    2017-02-01

    Secondary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery is increasingly common. Graft vessel PCI has higher rates of adverse events compared with native coronary vessel PCI. To investigate the clinical outcomes of patients with prior CABG who underwent secondary PCI of either a graft vessel (GV), a native coronary vessel (NV) or both graft and native (NG) vessels. 220 patients (84% male) who underwent PCI in our institution to either GV (n=89), NV (n=103) or both GV and NV (NG group) (n=28) were studied. The study population underwent 378 procedures (GV group; n=126, NV group; n=164 and NG group; n=88). Median follow up was for 36months [range 2-75months]. Target vessel revascularisation (TVR) occurred in 12.5% of the GV group and 3.6% in the NV group [p=0.0004], and was predominantly due to in-stent restenosis. Patients who had PCI due to TVR were more likely to suffer from diabetes and peripheral vascular disease. History of chronic renal failure was associated with higher risk (HR 2.21, p=0.005) whereas preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with lower risk (HR 0.17, p=0.0007) of death. The median survival (interval between CABG and end of follow-up period) was lower in the GV compared with the NV group (315 vs 372months p=0.005). This registry demonstrates inferior long term outcome for patients undergoing secondary PCI of GV versus NV. Where possible, a strategy of NV rather than GV target PCI should be considered in patients with prior CABG. Secondary PCI in patients with prior CABG surgery is increasingly common. Graft vessel PCI has inferior outcomes with high rates of restenosis and occlusion compared with native coronary vessel PCI. We studied the clinical outcomes of 220 patients with prior CABG who underwent secondary PCI to either a graft vessel (GV), a native coronary vessel (NV) or both graft and native (NG) vessels. Target vessel revascularisation was 5 times higher in the GV

  16. A+-Helix of Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) Is a Cell-penetrating Peptide That Mediates Cell Membrane Permeation of PCI*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hanjiang; Wahlmüller, Felix Christof; Sarg, Bettina; Furtmüller, Margareta; Geiger, Margarethe

    2015-01-01

    Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a serpin with broad protease reactivity. It binds glycosaminoglycans and certain phospholipids that can modulate its inhibitory activity. PCI can penetrate through cellular membranes via binding to phosphatidylethanolamine. The exact mechanism of PCI internalization and the intracellular role of the serpin are not well understood. Here we showed that testisin, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored serine protease, cleaved human PCI and mouse PCI (mPCI) at their reactive sites as well as at sites close to their N terminus. This cleavage was observed not only with testisin in solution but also with cell membrane-anchored testisin on U937 cells. The cleavage close to the N terminus released peptides rich in basic amino acids. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the released peptides of human PCI (His1–Arg11) and mPCI (Arg1–Ala18) functioned as cell-penetrating peptides. Because intact mPCI but not testisin-cleaved mPCI was internalized by Jurkat T cells, a truncated mPCI mimicking testisin-cleaved mPCI was created. The truncated mPCI lacking 18 amino acids at the N terminus was not taken up by Jurkat T cells. Therefore our model suggests that testisin or other proteases could regulate the internalization of PCI by removing its N terminus. This may represent one of the mechanisms regulating the intracellular functions of PCI. PMID:25488662

  17. A millennium approach to data acquisition: SCI and PCI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Hans; Bogaerts, A.; Lindenstruth, V.

    1996-01-01

    The international SCI standard IEEE/ANSI 1596 a is on its way to become the computer interconnect of the year 2000 since for a first time, low latency desktop multiprocessing and cluster computing can be implemented at low cost. The PCI bus is todays's dominating local bus extension for all major computer platforms as well as buses like VMEbus. PCI is a self configuring memory and I/O system for peripheral components with a hierarchical architecture. SCI is a scalable, bus-like interconnect for distributed processors and memories. It allows for optionally coherent data caching and assures error free data delivery. First measurement with commercial SCI products (SBUS-SCI) confirm simulations that SCI can handle even the highest data rates of LHC experiments. The event builder layer for a millennium very high rate DAQ system can therefore be viewed as a SCI network (bridges, cables and switches) interfaced between PCI buses on the front end (VME b ) side and on the processor farm Multi-CPU) side. Such a combination of SCI and PCI enables PCI-PCI memory access, transparently across SCI. It also allows for a novel, low level trigger technique: the trigger algorithm can access VME data buffers with bus-like latencies like local memory, full data transfers become redundant. The first prototype of a PCI-SCI bridge for DAQ is presented as starting point for a test system with built-in scalability. (author)

  18. The inherent catastrophic traps in retrograde CTO PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Eugene B; Tsuchikane, Etsuo

    2018-05-01

    When we learn to drive, our driving instructor tells us how to check the side mirror and turn your head to check the blind spot before changing lanes. He tells us how to stop at stop signs, how to drive in slippery conditions, the safe stopping distances, and these all make our driving safe. Similarly, when we learn PCI, our mentors teach us to seat the guiding catheter co-axially, to wire the vessel safely, to deliver balloon and stents over the wire, to watch the pressure of the guiding, in order that we perform PCI safely and evade complications. In retrograde CTO PCI, there is no such published teaching. Also many individual mentors have not had the wide experience to see all the possible complications of retrograde CTO PCI and, therefore, may not be able to warn their apprentice. As the number of retrograde procedures increase worldwide, there is a corresponding increase in catastrophic complications, many of which, we as experts, can see are easily avoidable. To breach this gap in knowledge, this article describes 12 commonly met inherent traps in retrograde CTO PCI. They are inherent because by arranging our equipment in the manner to perform retrograde CTO PCI, these complications are either induced directly or happen easily. We hope this work will enhance safety of retrograde CTO PCI and avoid many catastrophic complications for our readers and operators. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. PCI hardware support in LIA-2 control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolkhovityanov, D.; Cheblakov, P.

    2012-01-01

    The control system of the LIA-2 accelerator is built on cPCI crates with *86- compatible processor boards running Linux. Slow electronics is connected via CAN-bus, while fast electronics (4 MHz and 200 MHz fast ADCs and 200 MHz timers) are implemented as cPCI/PMC modules. Several ways to drive PCI control electronics in Linux were examined. Finally a user-space drivers approach was chosen. These drivers communicate with hardware via a small kernel module, which provides access to PCI BARs and to interrupt handling. This module was named USPCI (User-Space PCI access). This approach dramatically simplifies creation of drivers, as opposed to kernel drivers, and provides high reliability (because only a tiny and thoroughly-debugged piece of code runs in kernel). LIA-2 accelerator was successfully commissioned, and the solution chosen has proven adequate and very easy to use. Besides, USPCI turned out to be a handy tool for examination and debugging of PCI devices direct from command-line. In this paper available approaches to work with PCI control hardware in Linux are considered, and USPCI architecture is described. (authors)

  20. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  1. Time-recovering PCI-AER interface for bio-inspired spiking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Vicente, R.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Cascado, D.; Vicente, S.; Jimenez, G.; Civit, A.

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. When building multi-chip muti-layered AER systems it is absolutely necessary to have a computer interface that allows (a) to read AER interchip traffic into the computer and visualize it on screen, and (b) inject a sequence of events at some point of the AER structure. This is necessary for testing and debugging complex AER systems. This paper presents a PCI to AER interface, that dispatches a sequence of events received from the PCI bus with embedded timing information to establish when each event will be delivered. A set of specialized states machines has been introduced to recovery the possible time delays introduced by the asynchronous AER bus. On the input channel, the interface capture events assigning a timestamp and delivers them through the PCI bus to MATLAB applications. It has been implemented in real time hardware using VHDL and it has been tested in a PCI-AER board, developed by authors, that includes a Spartan II 200 FPGA. The demonstration hardware is currently capable to send and receive events at a peak rate of 8,3 Mev/sec, and a typical rate of 1 Mev/sec.

  2. Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib (PCI-32765).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Jan A; Buggy, Joseph J

    2013-11-01

    Over the past 3 years, ibrutinib (PCI-32765) has emerged as a breakthrough in targeted therapy for patients with certain types of B cell malignancies. Early stage clinical trials found ibrutinib to be particularly active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), providing the rationale for ongoing phase 3 trials. In contrast to conventional chemo-immunotherapy, ibrutinib is not myelosuppressive, and responses are not affected by disease features that predict failure to respond to or short remission durations after chemo-immunotherapy, such as del17p. In CLL, ibrutinib characteristically causes an early redistribution of tissue-resident CLL cells into the blood, with rapid resolution of enlarged lymph nodes, along with a surge in lymphocytosis. Later, after weeks to months of continuous ibrutinib therapy, the growth- and survival-inhibitory activities of ibrutinib result in the normalization of lymphocyte counts and remissions in a majority of patients. This review discusses the discovery, preclinical and clinical development of ibrutinib, its pathophysiological basis, and outlines perspectives for future use of ibrutinib.

  3. CANSAR. Analytical irradiation for PCI analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruet, M.; Lemaignan, C.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of ''CANSAR'' analytical irradiation is to evaluate the various mechanisms expected to be active during PCI failures (local concentration of fission products, fuel expansion, stress concentration induced by fuel fragment relocation, etc.). Two identical test pins, similar to classical PWR pins, but shorter, will be power-ramped in parallel. They will be filled with fuel pellets machined in various ways in order to simulate pellet fracture, relocation and preferential fission product migration path. One pin is highly instrumented with fission gas analysis, centre-line temperature and strain gauges on the cladding. The other can be unloaded between the pile cycles to perform other measurements such as diameter change, eddy currents, hot cell γ scanning. The gauges are necessary to obtain valuable information on cladding stresses. However, they induce significant modification of the thermal and mechanical behaviour of the cladding. Extensive finite element computation has been undertaken to estimate the temperature shift and the cladding reinforcement due to the gauges. Details of this work performed to design and implement the experiment will be presented. This included, in particular, high precision machining of UO 2 sectors to obtain ''precracked'' pellets and computation of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the cladding with the gauges. (author)

  4. PCI DSS: Security Standard and Security in Fact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kuzin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS requirements and practices, especially it’s issues and disadvantages to achieve the main goal — security of payment cards infrastructure.

  5. PCI DSS: Security Standard and Security in Fact

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Kuzin

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) requirements and practices, especially it’s issues and disadvantages to achieve the main goal — security of payment cards infrastructure.

  6. PCI Express Over Optical Links for Data Acquisition and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Bellato, M; Meng, G; Passaseo, M; Rampazzo, G; Triossi, A; Ventura, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    PCI Express is a new I/O technology for desktop, mobile, server and communications platforms designed to allow increasing levels of computer system performance. The serial nature of its links and the packet based protocols allows an easy geographical decoupling of a peripheral device. We have investigated the possibility of using an optical physical layer for the PCI Express, and we have built a bus adapter which can bridge remote busses (> 100m) to a single host computer without even the need of a specialized driver, given the legacy PCI compatibility of the PCI Express hardware. This adapter has been made tolerant to harsh environmental conditions, like strong magnetic fields or radiation fluxes, as the data acquisition needs of high energy physics experiments often require.

  7. Bivalirudin Started during Emergency Transport for Primary PCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steg, Philippe Gabriel; van 't Hof, Arnoud; Hamm, Christian W

    2013-01-01

    Bivalirudin, as compared with heparin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, has been shown to reduce rates of bleeding and death in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Whether these benefits persist in contemporary practice characterized by prehospital initiation...... of treatment, optional use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and novel P2Y12 inhibitors, and radial-artery PCI access use is unknown....

  8. Security Assessment of Payment Systems under PCI DSS Incompatibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bahtiyar , Şerif; Gür , Gürkan; Altay , Levent

    2014-01-01

    Part 9: Malicious Behavior and Fraud; International audience; With the ubiquitous proliferation of electronic payment systems, data and application security has become more critical for financial operations. The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) has been developed by the payment industry to provide a widely-applicable and definitive security compliance among all components in electronic payment infrastructure. However, the security impact of PCI DSS incompatibilities and ...

  9. Parallel data grabbing card based on PCI bus RS422

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenghui; Shen Ji; Wei Dongshan; Chen Ziyu

    2005-01-01

    This article briefly introduces the developments of the parallel data grabbing card based on RS422 and PCI bus. It could be applied for grabbing the 14 bits parallel data in high speed, coming from the devices with RS422 interface. The methods of data acquisition which bases on the PCI protocol, the functions and their usages of the chips employed, the ideas and principles of the hardware and software designing are presented. (authors)

  10. An overview of PCI in the very elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vimalraj Bogana; Harper, Richard; Meredith, Ian; Malaiapan, Yuvaraj; Psaltis, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease, and in particular ischemic heart disease (IHD), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the very elderly (> 80 years) worldwide. These patients represent a rapidly growing cohort presenting for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), now constituting more than one in five patients treated with PCI in real-world practice. Furthermore, they often have greater ischemic burden than their younger counterparts, suggesting that they have greater scope of benefit from coronary revascularization therapy. Despite this, the very elderly are frequently under-represented in clinical revascularization trials and historically there has been a degree of physician reluctance in referring them for PCI procedures, with perceptions of disappointing outcomes, low success and high complication rates. Several issues have contributed to this, including the tendency for older patients with IHD to present late, with atypical symptoms or non-diagnostic ECGs, and reservations regarding their procedural risk-to-benefit ratio, due to shorter life expectancy, presence of comorbidities and increased bleeding risk from antiplatelet and anticoagulation medications. However, advances in PCI technology and techniques over the past decade have led to better outcomes and lower risk of complications and the existing body of evidence now indicates that the very elderly actually derive more relative benefit from PCI than younger populations. Importantly, this applies to all PCI settings: elective, urgent and emergency. This review discusses the role of PCI in the very elderly presenting with chronic stable IHD, non ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome, and ST-elevation myocardial infarction. It also addresses the clinical challenges met when considering PCI in this cohort and the ongoing need for research and development to further improve outcomes in these challenging patients. PMID:25870621

  11. PCI-SS: MISO dynamic nonlinear protein secondary structure prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboul-Magd Mohammed O

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the function of a protein is largely dictated by its three dimensional configuration, determining a protein's structure is of fundamental importance to biology. Here we report on a novel approach to determining the one dimensional secondary structure of proteins (distinguishing α-helices, β-strands, and non-regular structures from primary sequence data which makes use of Parallel Cascade Identification (PCI, a powerful technique from the field of nonlinear system identification. Results Using PSI-BLAST divergent evolutionary profiles as input data, dynamic nonlinear systems are built through a black-box approach to model the process of protein folding. Genetic algorithms (GAs are applied in order to optimize the architectural parameters of the PCI models. The three-state prediction problem is broken down into a combination of three binary sub-problems and protein structure classifiers are built using 2 layers of PCI classifiers. Careful construction of the optimization, training, and test datasets ensures that no homology exists between any training and testing data. A detailed comparison between PCI and 9 contemporary methods is provided over a set of 125 new protein chains guaranteed to be dissimilar to all training data. Unlike other secondary structure prediction methods, here a web service is developed to provide both human- and machine-readable interfaces to PCI-based protein secondary structure prediction. This server, called PCI-SS, is available at http://bioinf.sce.carleton.ca/PCISS. In addition to a dynamic PHP-generated web interface for humans, a Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP interface is added to permit invocation of the PCI-SS service remotely. This machine-readable interface facilitates incorporation of PCI-SS into multi-faceted systems biology analysis pipelines requiring protein secondary structure information, and greatly simplifies high-throughput analyses. XML is used to represent the input

  12. Preventive PCI versus culprit lesion stenting during primary PCI in acute STEMI: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Anil; Aryal, Madan Raj; Aryal Pandit, Aashrayata; Hakim, Fayaz Ahmad; Giri, Smith; Mainali, Naba Raj; Sharma, Prashant; Lee, Howard R; Fortuin, F David; Mookadam, Farouk

    2014-01-01

    Aim The benefit of preventive percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been shown in randomised trials. However, all the randomised trials are underpowered to detect benefit in cardiac death. We aim to systematically review evidence on the cardiac mortality benefit of preventive PCI in patients presenting with acute STEMI in randomised patient populations. Methods PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane and clinicaltrials.gov databases were searched for studies published until 30 September 2013. The studies were limited to randomised clinical trials. Independent observers abstracted the data on outcomes, characteristics and qualities of studies included. Fixed effect model was employed for meta-analysis. Heterogeneity of studies included was analysed using I2 statistics. Results In three randomised clinical trials published, involving 748 patients with acute STEMI and multivessel disease, 416 patients were randomised to preventive PCI and 332 to culprit-only PCI. Patients undergoing preventive PCI had significant lower risk of cardiovascular deaths (pooled OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.83, p=0.01, I2=0%), repeat revascularisation (pooled OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.44, p=0.00001, I2=0%) and non-fatal myocardial infarction (pooled OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.75, p=0.005, I2=0%) compared with culprit-only revascularisation. Conclusions In patients presenting with acute STEMI and significant multivessel coronary artery disease, based on our data, preventive PCI is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular mortality compared with primary PCI of only the culprit artery. This finding needs to be confirmed in larger adequately powered randomised clinical trials. PMID:25332779

  13. The Indonesian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.; Daulay, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this comprehensive article the authors describe the origins and progress of the Indonesian coal industry and the role it plays, and will play, in the domestic energy scene and world coal trade. In the '80s, the Indonesian coal industry laid the basis for major expansion such that coal production rose from under a million tonnes in 1983 to 10.6 million tonnes in 1990, 50.9 million tonnes by 1996 and 61.2 million tonnes in 1992. At the same time, exports have increased from 0.4 million tonnes to 44.8 million tonnes. Current export levels are higher than originally expected, due in part to a slow down in the construction of electric power stations and a partial switch to natural gas. This has slowed the rate at which domestic coal demand has built up. The majority of coals currently exported are low rank steam coals, but some of the higher rank and very low ash coals are used for blast furnace injection, and a very small proportion may even be used within coking blends, even though they have poor coking properties. The Indonesian coal industry has developed very rapidly over the last six years to become a significant exporter, especially within the ASEAN context. The resources base appears to be large enough to support further increases in production above those already planned. It is probable that resources and reserves can be increased above the current levels. It is likely that some reserves of high value coals can be found, but it is also probable that the majority of additions to reserves will be lower in rank (and therefore quality) compared with the average of coals currently being mined. Reserves of qualities suitable for export will support that industry for a considerable period of time. However, in the longer term, the emphasis of production will increasingly swing to the domestic market

  14. 100 Gbps PCI-Express readout for the LHCb upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, P.; Neufeld, N.; Schwemmer, R.; Balbi, G.; Marconi, U.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new data acquisition system under development for the next upgrade of the LHCb experiment at CERN. We focus in particular on the design of a new generation of readout boards, the PCIe40, and on the viability of PCI-Express as an interconnect technology for high speed readout. We show throughput measurements across the PCI-Express bus, on Altera Stratix 5 devices, using a DMA mechanism and different synchronization schemes between the FPGA and the readout unit. Finally we discuss hardware and software design considerations necessary to achieve a data throughput of 100 Gbps in the final readout board

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Complex PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustino, Gennaro; Chieffo, Alaide; Palmerini, Tullio; Valgimigli, Marco; Feres, Fausto; Abizaid, Alexandre; Costa, Ricardo A; Hong, Myeong-Ki; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Jang, Yangsoo; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Park, Kyung Woo; Gilard, Martine; Morice, Marie-Claude; Sawaya, Fadi; Sardella, Gennaro; Genereux, Philippe; Redfors, Bjorn; Leon, Martin B; Bhatt, Deepak L; Stone, Gregg W; Colombo, Antonio

    2016-10-25

    Optimal upfront dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) duration after complex percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES) remains unclear. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of long-term (≥12 months) versus short-term (3 or 6 months) DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel according to PCI complexity. The authors pooled patient-level data from 6 randomized controlled trials investigating DAPT durations after PCI. Complex PCI was defined as having at least 1 of the following features: 3 vessels treated, ≥3 stents implanted, ≥3 lesions treated, bifurcation with 2 stents implanted, total stent length >60 mm, or chronic total occlusion. The primary efficacy endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or stent thrombosis. The primary safety endpoint was major bleeding. Intention-to-treat was the primary analytic approach. Of 9,577 patients included in the pooled dataset for whom procedural variables were available, 1,680 (17.5%) underwent complex PCI. Overall, 85% of patients received new-generation DES. At a median follow-up time of 392 days (interquartile range: 366 to 710 days), patients who underwent complex PCI had a higher risk of MACE (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50 to 2.60; p PCI group (adjusted HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.89) versus the noncomplex PCI group (adjusted HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.75 to 1.35; p interaction  = 0.01). The magnitude of the benefit with long-term DAPT was progressively greater per increase in procedural complexity. Long-term DAPT was associated with increased risk for major bleeding, which was similar between groups (p interaction  = 0.96). Results were consistent by per-treatment landmark analysis. Alongside other established clinical risk factors, procedural complexity is an important parameter to take into account in tailoring upfront duration of DAPT. Copyright © 2016 American College

  16. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  17. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Design of gamma camera data acquisition system based on PCI9810

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yuanyuan; Zhao Shujun; Liu Yang

    2004-01-01

    This paper describe the design of gamma camera's data acquisition system, which is based on PCI9810 data acquisition card of ADLink Technology Inc. The main function of PCI9810 and the program of data acquisition system are described. (authors)

  19. Effect of platelet inhibition with cangrelor during PCI on ischemic events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatt, D.L.; Stone, G.W.; Mahaffey, K.W.; Gibson, C.M.; Steg, P.G.; Hamm, C.W.; Price, M.J.; Leonardi, S.; Gallup, D.; Bramucci, E.; Radke, P.W.; Widimsky, P.; Tousek, F.; Tauth, J.; Spriggs, D.; McLaurin, B.T.; Angiolillo, D.J.; Genereux, P.; Liu, T.; Prats, J.; Todd, M.; Skerjanec, S.; White, H.D.; Harrington, R.A.; Verheugt, F.W.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The intensity of antiplatelet therapy during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is an important determinant of PCI-related ischemic complications. Cangrelor is a potent intravenous adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-receptor antagonist that acts rapidly and has quickly reversible effects.

  20. Associations Between Complex PCI and Prasugrel or Clopidogrel Use in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Who Undergo PCI: From the PROMETHEUS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Baber, Usman; Sartori, Samantha; Aquino, Melissa; Kini, Annapoorna S; Rao, Sunil; Weintraub, William; Henry, Timothy D; Farhan, Serdar; Vogel, Birgit; Sorrentino, Sabato; Ge, Zhen; Kapadia, Samir; Muhlestein, Joseph B; Weiss, Sandra; Strauss, Craig; Toma, Catalin; DeFranco, Anthony; Effron, Mark B; Keller, Stuart; Baker, Brian A; Pocock, Stuart; Dangas, George; Mehran, Roxana

    2018-03-01

    Potent P2Y 12 inhibitors might offer enhanced benefit against thrombotic events in complex percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We examined prasugrel use and outcomes according to PCI complexity, as well as analyzing treatment effects according to thienopyridine type. PROMETHEUS was a multicentre observational study that compared clopidogrel vs prasugrel in acute coronary syndrome patients who underwent PCI (n = 19,914). Complex PCI was defined as PCI of the left main, bifurcation lesion, moderate-severely calcified lesion, or total stent length ≥ 30 mm. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or unplanned revascularization. Outcomes were adjusted using multivariable Cox regression for effect of PCI complexity and propensity-stratified analysis for effect of thienopyridine type. The study cohort included 48.9% (n = 9735) complex and 51.1% (n = 10,179) noncomplex patients. Second generation drug-eluting stents were used in 70.1% complex and 66.2% noncomplex PCI patients (P PCI was associated with greater adjusted risk of 1-year MACE (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.39; P PCI patients (P = 0.30). Compared with clopidogrel, prasugrel significantly decreased adjusted risk for 1-year MACE in complex PCI (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.92) but not noncomplex PCI (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.77-1.08), albeit there was no evidence of interaction (P interaction = 0.281). Despite the use of contemporary techniques, acute coronary syndrome patients who undergo complex PCI had significantly higher rates of 1-year MACE. Adjusted magnitude of treatment effects with prasugrel vs clopidogrel were consistent in complex and noncomplex PCI without evidence of interaction. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Experimental investigation of mouse kidney aging with SR PCI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yifeng, P.; Zehua, Z.; Guohao, D.; Tiqiao, X.; Hongjie, X.; Peiping, Z.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Basing on the coherence character of the Synchrotron radiation (SR), the mouse kidney study is performed using the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging (PCI) technology which as one approach of the phase contrasts imaging (PCI). The aim of this paper was to visualize the kidney at different ages and evaluate the latent value of aging mechanism with SR phase contrast imaging technology. Methods. The experiments were performed at the BL13W1 line of the SSRF (the Shanghai synchrotron radiation facility), the samples were soaked in 10% formalin solution, the mouse kidneys at different ages were imaged on the shelf in the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging setup and captured with CCD. The captured images were analyzed and compared. Results. When the distance is 50 cm between the samples and imaging plate, good contrast and high resolution were obtained in the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging (PCI), as such renal capsule revealed well, and the resolution reach to 30 micron; there is significant difference in the shape and vessels structures among the mouse kidneys at different age. Conclusion. The PCI is good for the applying of main light element organization imaging, the difference in shape and vessels structure between the young and old mouse kidney maybe indicated at some extent with the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging technology.

  2. Prognostic relevance of PCI-related myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudstra, Pier; Grundeken, Maik J.; van de Hoef, Tim P.; Wallentin, Lars; Fox, Keith A.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Damman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Procedure-related myocardial infarction (pMI) is directly associated with a coronary revascularization procedure, such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or CABG surgery. In contrast to spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI), the prognostic relevance of pMI is the subject of ongoing debate.

  3. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  4. The foundation of NCVD PCI Registry: the Malaysia's first multi-centre interventional cardiology project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, H B; Rosli, M A; Wan Azman, W A; Robaayah, Z; Sim, K H

    2008-09-01

    The National Cardiovascular Database for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (NCVD PCI) Registry is the first multicentre interventional cardiology project, involving the main cardiac centres in the country. The ultimate goal of NCVD PCI is to provide a contemporary appraisal of PCI in Malaysia. This article introduces the foundation, the aims, methodology, database collection and preliminary results of the first six-month database.

  5. Vocational Education Program/Course Inventory Form PCI. Explanation and Instructional Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Sacramento.

    This manual for teachers, administrators, and counselors both explains the Program/Course Inventory (PCI), a data collection instrument, and provides instructions for completing the PCI form. The first section describes the PCI developed by the Ventura County Superintendent of Schools staff to collect data that define vocational education…

  6. 47 CFR 61.45 - Adjustments to the PCI for Local Exchange Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustments to the PCI for Local Exchange... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.45 Adjustments to the PCI... adjustments to the PCI for each basket as part of the annual price cap tariff filing, and shall maintain...

  7. Fate(s) of injected CO2 in a coal-bearing formation, Louisiana, Gulf Coast Basin: Chemical and isotopic tracers of microbial-brine-rock-CO2 interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.

    2013-01-01

    Coal beds are one of the most promising reservoirs for geologic carbon dioxide (CO₂) sequestration, as CO₂ can strongly adsorb onto organic matter and displace methane; however, little is known about the long-term fate of CO₂ sequestered in coal beds. The "2800' sand" of the Olla oil field is a coal-bearing, oil and gas-producing reservoir of the Paleocene–Eocene Wilcox Group in north-central Louisiana. In the 1980s, this field, specifically the 2800' sand, was flooded with CO₂ in an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project, with 9.0×10⁷m³ of CO₂ remaining in the 2800' sand after injection ceased. This study utilized isotopic and geochemical tracers from co-produced natural gas, oil and brine from reservoirs located stratigraphically above, below and within the 2800' sand to determine the fate of the remaining EOR-CO₂, examining the possibilities of CO₂ migration, dissolution, mineral trapping, gas-phase trapping, and sorption to coal beds, while also testing a previous hypothesis that EOR-CO₂ may have been converted by microbes (CO₂-reducing methanogens) into methane, creating a microbial "hotspot". Reservoirs stratigraphically-comparable to the 2800' sand, but located in adjacent oil fields across a 90-km transect were sampled to investigate regional trends in gas composition, brine chemistry and microbial activity. The source field for the EOR-CO₂, the Black Lake Field, was also sampled to establish the δ¹³C-CO₂ value of the injected gas (0.9‰ +/- 0.9‰). Four samples collected from the Olla 2800' sand produced CO₂-rich gas with δ¹³C-CO₂ values (average 9.9‰) much lower than average (pre-injection) conditions (+15.9‰, average of sands located stratigraphically below the 2800' sand in the Olla Field) and at much higher CO₂ concentrations (24.9 mole %) than average (7.6 mole %, average of sands located stratigraphically below the 2800' sand in the Olla Field), suggesting the presence of EOR-CO₂ and gas-phase trapping as

  8. Predictors of Interventional Success of Antegrade PCI for CTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chun; Huang, Meiping; Li, Jinglei; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Qun; Liu, Hui; Liu, Zaiyi; Qu, Yanji; Jiang, Jun; Zhuang, Jian

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to identify significant lesion features of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) that predict failure of antegrade (A) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using pre-procedure coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) combined with conventional coronary angiography (CCA). The current predictors of successful A-PCI in the setting of CTOs are uncertain. Such knowledge might prompt early performance of a retrograde (R)-PCI approach if predictors of A-PCI failure are present. Consecutive patients confirmed to have at least 1 CTO of native coronary arteries underwent coronary CTA- and CCA-guided PCI in which computed tomography and fluoroscopic images were placed side by side before or during PCI. The study included 103 patients with 108 CTOs; 80 lesions were successfully treated with A-PCI and 28 lesions failed this approach, for an A-PCI success rate of 74%. A total of 15 of 28 failed cases underwent attempted R-PCI. Only 1 case also failed R-PCI; thus, the total PCI success rate was 87%. By multivariable analysis, the factors significantly predictive of failed A-PCI included negative remodeling (odds ratio [OR]: 137.82) and lesion length >31.89 mm on coronary CTA (OR: 7.04), and ostial or bifurcation lesions on CCA (OR: 8.02). R-PCI was successful in 14 of 15 patients (93.3%), in whom good appearance of the occluded distal segment and well-developed collateral vessels were present. Morphologic predictors of failed A-PCI on the basis of pre-procedure coronary CTA and CCA imaging may be identified, which may assist in determining which patients with CTO lesions would benefit from an early R-PCI strategy. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    ACR's Coal 1992, the successor to the ACR Coal Marketing Manual, contains a comprehensive set of data on many aspects of the Australian coal industry for several years leading up to 1992. Tables and text give details of coal production and consumption in New South Wales, Queensland and other states. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, China, Colombia, Poland and ex-USSR. Also listed are prices of Australian coking and non-coking coal, Australian coal stocks (and those of other major countries), loading port capacities, freight rates and coal quality requirements (analysis of coals by brand and supplier). A listing of Australian coal exporting companies is provided. A description of the spot Coal Screen Dealing System is given. World hard coal imports are listed by country and coal imports by major Asian countries tabulated. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is included.

  10. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  11. Assessment of VME-PCI Interfaces with Linux Drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schossmater, K; CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Abstract This report summarises the performance measurements and experiences recorded by testing three commercial VME-PCI interfaces with their Linux drivers. These interfaces are manufactured by Wiener, National Instruments and SBS Bit 3. The developed C programs are reading/writing a VME memory in different transfer modes via these interfaces. A dual processor HP Kayak XA-s workstation was used with the CERN certified Red Hat Linux 6.1 running on it.

  12. A counting-card circuit based on PCI bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jing; Li Yong; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou; Su Hong; Dong Chengfu; Li Xiaogang; Ma Xiaoli

    2004-01-01

    A counting-card circuit based on PCI bus that we developed recently used for advanced personal computer will be introduced in this paper briefly. The maximum count capacity of this counting-card is 10 9 -1, ranging from 0 to 999 999 999, the maximum counting time range, 1 x 10 6 s, can be set in 1 cycle, the maximum counting rate is 20 MHz for positive input. (authors)

  13. Implementing the Payment Card Industry (PCI Data Security Standard (DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O' Raw

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Underpinned by the rise in online criminality, the payment card industry (PCI data security standards (DSS were introduced which outlines a subset of the core principals and requirements that must be followed, including precautions relating to the software that processes credit card data. The necessity to implement these requirements in existing software applications can present software owners and developers with a range of issues. We present here a generic solution to the sensitive issue of PCI compliance where aspect orientated programming (AOP can be applied to meet the requirement of masking the primary account number (PAN. Our architecture allows a definite amount of code to be added which intercepts all the methods specified in the aspect, regardless of future additions to the system thus reducing the amount of work required to the maintain aspect. We believe that the concepts here will provide an insight into how to approach the PCI requirements to undertake the task. The software artefact should also serve as a guide to developers attempting to implement new applications, where security and design are fundamental elements that should be considered through each phase of the software development lifecycle and not as an afterthought.

  14. Use and outcome of radial versus femoral approach for primary PCI in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction without cardiogenic shock: results from the ALKK PCI registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Timm; Hochadel, Matthias; Brachmann, Johannes; Schächinger, Volker; Boekstegers, Peter; Zrenner, Bernhard; Zahn, Ralf; Zeymer, Uwe

    2015-10-01

    This study sought to compare the use and outcome of radial versus femoral access in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in clinical practice. The radial approach for PCI in patients with STEMI has been suggested to have a lower rate of complications and bleeding and to improve prognosis compared with the femoral approach. However, there still is a large regional and national variation in its use. Between 2008 and 2012 a total of 17,865 patients with STEMI without cardiogenic shock undergoing primary PCI were prospectively enrolled in the observational German PCI registry of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft leitende kardiologische Krankenhausärzte (ALKK). Transfemoral (TF) access was used in 15,270 (85.5%), transradial (TR) access in 2,530 (14.2%), and other access in 65 (0.3%) patients. In this analysis, 10,264 patients from 20 centers that had performed at least 5 TR-PCI for STEMI were included. This study compared TR-PCI (n = 2,454 23.9%) with TF-PCI (n = 7,810, 76.1%). Procedural success was high in both cohorts. Hospital mortality (1.8 vs. 5.1%, P PCI can be performed with excellent procedural success in selected STEMI patients and is associated with a lower rate of vascular access complications and hospital mortality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Thrombolysis in the age of Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Mini-Review and Meta-analysis of Early PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shammeri, O; Garcia, LA

    2013-01-01

    Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is the treatment of choice for ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) if performed within 90 minutes from first medical contact. However, primary PCI is only available for less than 25% of patients with STEMI. Early PCI or Pharmaco-invasive strategy has evolved from facilitated PCI but with more delayed timing from thrombolysis to PCI. Assess the safety and effectiveness of Early PCI. We reviewed the data of the available therapy options for patients with STEMI. Then we performed a meta-analysis for all randomized controlled trials of early PCI versus standard therapy. Five studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Our meta-analysis showed improved cardiovascular events with early PCI compared to standard therapy (odd ratio of 0.54; 95% Confidence interval 0.47-0.7, pearly PCI 4 to 24 hours after successful thrombolysis. Early PCI should be done to all STEMI patients within 24 hours after successful thrombolysis.

  16. Factors Associated With Ineligibility for PCI Differ Between Inpatient and Outpatient ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaski, Brian E; Grigoriadis, Christopher E; Dai, Xuming; Meredith, Richard D; Ortiz, Bryan C; Stouffer, George A; Thomas, Lorie; Smith, Sidney C

    2016-08-01

    Without early revascularization, both inpatient and outpatient STEMIs have poor outcomes. Reasons for denying PCI for STEMI, however, remain uncertain. This single-center retrospective cohort study compares factors and outcomes associated with ineligibility for PCI between inpatients and outpatients following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). A total of 1,759 STEMI patients between June 2009 and January 2015 were assessed. Individual medical records were reviewed to obtain reasons for PCI ineligibility for STEMI patients who did not receive reperfusion therapy. Compared to outpatients with STEMI (n = 1,688), inpatients (n = 71) were less likely to receive coronary angiography (60.6% vs 95.9%; P PCI (50.7% vs 80.9%; P PCI and procedural success were seen in both groups. Principal contraindication for PCI was risk of bleeding within the inpatient population and complex coronary artery disease within the outpatient population. Total in-hospital mortality was higher in inpatient STEMIs compared to outpatients (42.2% vs 10.0%; P PCI in both groups. Reasons for PCI ineligibility differ between inpatient and outpatient STEMIs. Inpatients have increased risks of bleeding, lower coronary angiography and PCI use, and higher in-hospital mortality. Especially for inpatients, specific PCI STEMI protocols that anticipate and overcome types of ineligibility and delay for cardiac catheterization may improve outcomes. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Predictors of subjective health status 10 years post-PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berge, Jan C; Dulfer, Karolijn; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Hartman, Eline M J; Daemen, Joost; van Geuns, Robert J; van Domburg, Ron T

    2016-06-01

    Subjective health status is an increasingly important parameter to assess the effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in clinical practice. Aim of this study was to determine medical and psychosocial predictors of poor subjective health status over a 10 years' post-PCI period. We included a series of consecutive PCI patients (n = 573) as part of the RESEARCH registry, a Dutch single-center retrospective cohort study. These patients completed the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) at baseline and 10 years post-PCI. We found 6 predictors of poor subjective health status 10 years post-PCI: SF-36 at baseline, age, previous PCI, obesity, acute myocardial infarction as indication for PCI, and diabetes mellitus (arranged from most to least numbers of sub domains). SF-36 scores at baseline, age, and previous PCI were significant predictors of subjective health status 10 years post-PCI. Specifically, the SF-36 score at baseline was an important predictor. Thus assessment of subjective health status at baseline is useful as an indicator to predict long-term subjective health status. Subjective health status becomes better by optimal medical treatment, cardiac rehabilitation and psychosocial support. This is the first study determining predictors of subjective health status 10 years post-PCI.

  18. Coal 95; Kol - 95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C

    1996-12-31

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO{sub 2} removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO{sub x} cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO{sub x} burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs.

  19. Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  20. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  1. Venezuelan coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, L.U.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

  2. 128 Channel PCI-based data acquisition system for MDSplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llobet, Xavier E-mail: xavier.llobet@epfl.ch; Duval, Basil P. E-mail: basil.duval@epfl.ch

    2002-06-01

    With the increasing demand for analogue channel acquisition on the TCV tokamak, a new PCI based acquisition has been specified, designed, built and installed into our MDSplus acquisition environment. The design criteria were to not only improve the cost/channel, as compared to our conventional hub based acquisition (CAMAC), but to provide some distributed processing power to avoid the associated acquisition server saturation, both in terms of CPU and network bandwidth. These units were initially intended to satisfy the requirements of general variable rate acquisition from a variety of sources, and many channel acquisition from modern multi-channel diagnostics. Hosted by a i386-Linux PC in a crate with four available PCI slots, each single-PCI slot 32-channel digitiser features sampling frequencies up to 200 kHz, and 64 MB of memory, providing 1 Msample of 16-bit data per channel. The local hard disk is used for immediate local storage of all the acquired data from the selected channels into a local MDSplus database. The host is then accessed as a MDS/IP server that provides, on demand, down-sampled and software filtered traces. The local hard disk capacity is used for medium to long-term storage and availability of the full data set with optional mirror technology to guard against hard disk failure. We have thus obtained a general solution for high resolution, multi-channel routine acquisition using the multi-platform MDSplus environment, in which different software and hardware architectures are intelligently linked across a standard TCP/IP network. The implementation presented here uses ONLY standard components of the MDSplus environment.

  3. 128 Channel PCI-based data acquisition system for MDSplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llobet, Xavier; Duval, Basil P.

    2002-01-01

    With the increasing demand for analogue channel acquisition on the TCV tokamak, a new PCI based acquisition has been specified, designed, built and installed into our MDSplus acquisition environment. The design criteria were to not only improve the cost/channel, as compared to our conventional hub based acquisition (CAMAC), but to provide some distributed processing power to avoid the associated acquisition server saturation, both in terms of CPU and network bandwidth. These units were initially intended to satisfy the requirements of general variable rate acquisition from a variety of sources, and many channel acquisition from modern multi-channel diagnostics. Hosted by a i386-Linux PC in a crate with four available PCI slots, each single-PCI slot 32-channel digitiser features sampling frequencies up to 200 kHz, and 64 MB of memory, providing 1 Msample of 16-bit data per channel. The local hard disk is used for immediate local storage of all the acquired data from the selected channels into a local MDSplus database. The host is then accessed as a MDS/IP server that provides, on demand, down-sampled and software filtered traces. The local hard disk capacity is used for medium to long-term storage and availability of the full data set with optional mirror technology to guard against hard disk failure. We have thus obtained a general solution for high resolution, multi-channel routine acquisition using the multi-platform MDSplus environment, in which different software and hardware architectures are intelligently linked across a standard TCP/IP network. The implementation presented here uses ONLY standard components of the MDSplus environment

  4. Dual Antithrombotic Therapy with Dabigatran after PCI in Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Christopher P; Bhatt, Deepak L; Oldgren, Jonas; Lip, Gregory Y H; Ellis, Stephen G; Kimura, Takeshi; Maeng, Michael; Merkely, Bela; Zeymer, Uwe; Gropper, Savion; Nordaby, Matias; Kleine, Eva; Harper, Ruth; Manassie, Jenny; Januzzi, James L; Ten Berg, Jurrien M; Steg, P Gabriel; Hohnloser, Stefan H

    2017-10-19

    Triple antithrombotic therapy with warfarin plus two antiplatelet agents is the standard of care after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients with atrial fibrillation, but this therapy is associated with a high risk of bleeding. In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 2725 patients with atrial fibrillation who had undergone PCI to triple therapy with warfarin plus a P2Y 12 inhibitor (clopidogrel or ticagrelor) and aspirin (for 1 to 3 months) (triple-therapy group) or dual therapy with dabigatran (110 mg or 150 mg twice daily) plus a P2Y 12 inhibitor (clopidogrel or ticagrelor) and no aspirin (110-mg and 150-mg dual-therapy groups). Outside the United States, elderly patients (≥80 years of age; ≥70 years of age in Japan) were randomly assigned to the 110-mg dual-therapy group or the triple-therapy group. The primary end point was a major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding event during follow-up (mean follow-up, 14 months). The trial also tested for the noninferiority of dual therapy with dabigatran (both doses combined) to triple therapy with warfarin with respect to the incidence of a composite efficacy end point of thromboembolic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or systemic embolism), death, or unplanned revascularization. The incidence of the primary end point was 15.4% in the 110-mg dual-therapy group as compared with 26.9% in the triple-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.63; Pdual-therapy group as compared with 25.7% in the corresponding triple-therapy group, which did not include elderly patients outside the United States (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.88; Pdual-therapy groups combined as compared with 13.4% in the triple-therapy group (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.29; P=0.005 for noninferiority). The rate of serious adverse events did not differ significantly among the groups. Among patients with atrial fibrillation who had undergone PCI, the risk of bleeding was

  5. 100 Gbps PCI-Express Readout for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, Paolo; Schwemmer, Rainer; Marconi, Umberto; Balbi, Gabriele; Lax, Ignazio

    2015-01-01

    We present a new data acquisition system under development for the next upgrade of the LHCb experiment at CERN. We focus in particular on the design of a new common readout board, the PCIe40, and on the viability of PCI-Express as an interconnect technology for high speed readout. We describe a new high-performance DMA controller for data acquisition, implemented on an FPGA, coupled with a custom software module for the Linux kernel. Lastly, we describe how these components can be leveraged to achieve a throughput of 100 Gbit/s per readout board.

  6. [EARLY RATHER THAN IMMEDIATE PCI IN NSTEMI; IS TIME EQUAL TO MUSCLE ONCE AGAIN?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasso, Shemy; Nassar, Ali; Kuzniec, Fabio; Hazanov, Yevgeni; Salman, Nabeeh; Halhla, Yussra; Amir, Offer; Ghanem, Diab

    2017-10-01

    Current guidelines advocate immediate vs. non-immediate percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategy in ST elevation vs. non ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, NSTEMI). There is however increasing concern that "next-day PCI" in NSTEMI may adversely affect LV systolic and/or diastolic function and a more urgent aggressive approach should be taken in NSTEMI, similar to that in STEMI. In the current study we compared echocardiographic data between patients with STEMI and NSTEMI who had either primary or early PCI respectively. Prospective data of 165 consecutive patients with an acute MI were analyzed. Patients had primary PCI if they had STEMI and non-emergent PCI if they had NSTEMI. Demographic information, laboratory test results, procedure time and post-PCI echocardiographic assessment were compared between the two groups. Patients with STEMI were younger compared to patients with NSTEMI. Time to intervention was significantly longer in NSTEMI, reflecting guideline derived intervention strategy (1.9±1.7days, (median 1day) vs. 30±15min, for NSTEMI and STEMI, respectively, pPCI up to 72 hours in patients with NSTEMI did not adversely affect left ventricular systolic and/or diastolic function compared to immediate PCI in patients with STEMI. Based on current data, we conclude that early PCI intervention rather than an immediate one is appropriate in NSTEMI patients.

  7. Higher plasma level of STIM1, OPG are correlated with stent restenosis after PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibin; Jiang, Zhian; Liu, Xiangdong; Yang, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is one of the most effective treatments for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), but the high rate of In Stent Restenosis (ISR) has plagued clinicians after PCI. We aim to investigate the correlation of plasma Stromal Interaction Molecular 1 (STIM1) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) level with stent restenosis after PCI. A total of 100 consecutive patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) received PCI procedure were recruited. Coronary angiography was performed 8 months after their PCI. Then patients were divided into 2 groups: observation group was composed by patients who existing postoperative stenosis after intervention; Control group was composed by patients with no postoperative stenosis. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG in all patients were tested before and after intervention. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analysis the correlation between STIM, OPG level and postoperative stenosis. 35 cases were divided into observation group and other 65 were divided into control group. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG have no statistical difference before their PCI procedure, but we observed higher level of High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) existed in observation group. We observed higher level of plasma STIM, OPG in observation group when compared with control group after PCI procedure (P PCI, which could provide useful information for the restenosis control after PCI.

  8. The mechanism of exogenous adiponectin in the prevention of no-reflow phenomenon in type 2 diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction during PCI treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C-J; Deng, Y-Z; Lei, Y-H; Zhao, J-B; Wei, W; Li, Y-H

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the mechanism of exogenous adiponectin in the prevention of no-reflow phenomenon in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) treatment. 66 patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group, 33 cases in each group. According to the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) emergency treatment principle, patients from the control group were treated with an intracoronary injection of adenosine combined with a micro-pump intravenous infusion of tirofiban. Patients from the observation group were injected with exogenous adiponectin in addition to the adenosine and tirofiban treatments. There were no significant differences in gender, age, location of the target lesion, degree of stenosis, stent implantation number, length and the inner diameter between control and observation group (p > 0.05). Lower frequent of slow blood flow and no-reflow and shorter interventional procedures were observed in observation group compared with those of control group (p Exogenous adiponectin further reduced the no-reflow phenomenon during PCI treatment of the patients with T2DM combined with AMI. The function of exogenous adiponectin is associated with the reduced myocardial and endothelial cell injury and the inhibited inflammation and apoptosis. The application of exogenous adiponectin can significantly improve the clinical outcomes.

  9. Coal summit II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Various papers were presented on world coal trade. Papers include: Poland as a producer and exporter of coal; the dynamics of world coal trade; Cerrejon coal production perspectives; present state of the Australian coal industry; present state of the EC coal market and future prospects; prospects of US coal exports to Europe; forecast of Italian coal supply and demand through 1990; statistics from coal transportation outlook; status of world coal ports.

  10. The effect of power change on the PCI failure threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipush, P J; Kaiser, R S [Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel Division, Pittsburg, PA (United States)

    1983-06-01

    Investigations of the PCI mechanism have led to the conclusion that the failure threshold is best defined by the power change ({delta}P) during the ramp, rather than the final power achieved at the end of the ramp. The data base studied was comprehensive and includes a wide variety of water reactor systems and fuel designs. It has also been found that operating parameters have a more significant effect on failure susceptibility than fuel rod design variables. The most significant operating variable affecting the failure threshold was found to be the base irradiation history, indicating that fission product release and migration prior to the ramp (during base irradiation) is an important consideration. It can be shown that fuel irradiated at relatively higher linear heat ratings ends to fail at lower {delta}P. This effect has also been independently verified by statistical analyses which will also be discussed. Industry out-of-pile internal gas pressurization tests with irradiated tubing in the absence of simulated fission product species and at low stress levels, also tends to indicate the importance of the prior irradiation history on PCI performance. Other parameters that affect the power ramping performance are the initial ramping power and the pellet power distribution which is a function of fuel enrichment and burnup. (author)

  11. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C

    2000-07-01

    in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping waste of rubber is mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1998 was 370 SEK/ton or the same as in 1997. For the world, the average import price fell about 6 USD/ton to 32 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1999 as a result of the crisis in Asia but are now stabilising as a result of increasing oil prices. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO{sub 2}-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, in Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a catalytic NO{sub x}-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NO{sub x}- burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO{sub x}-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 700 tons in 1998, a minor decrease compared to 1997. The trade, however, has increased about 3 % to 520 mill tons. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1,7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong

  12. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  13. Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B. [BlueScope Steel Research Laboratories, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. PCI Strategies in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction and Cardiogenic Shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, Holger; Akin, Ibrahim; Sandri, Marcus; Fuernau, Georg; de Waha, Suzanne; Meyer-Saraei, Roza; Nordbeck, Peter; Geisler, Tobias; Landmesser, Ulf; Skurk, Carsten; Fach, Andreas; Lapp, Harald; Piek, Jan J.; Noc, Marko; Goslar, Tomaž; Felix, Stephan B.; Maier, Lars S.; Stepinska, Janina; Oldroyd, Keith; Serpytis, Pranas; Montalescot, Gilles; Barthelemy, Olivier; Huber, Kurt; Windecker, Stephan; Savonitto, Stefano; Torremante, Patrizia; Vrints, Christiaan; Schneider, Steffen; Desch, Steffen; Zeymer, Uwe; Tebbe, Ulrich; Wöhrle, Jochen; Pachinger, Otmar; Busch, Clemens; Pfeiffer, Nathalie; Neumer, Alexander; Ouarrak, Taoufik; Reimer, Thomas; Lober, Christiane; Clemmensen, Peter; Follath, Ferenc; Wegscheider, Karl; Zeitouni, M.; Overtchouk, P.; Guedeney, P.; Hage, G.; Hauguel-Moreau, N. N.; Eitel, Ingo; Weinschenk, Sabrina; Borggrefe, Martin; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Ferenc, Miroslaw; Olbrich, Hans-Gerd; Hopf, Hans-Bernd; Kastrati, Adnan; de Waha, Antoinette; Schunkert, Heribert; Richardt, Gert; Schwarz, Bettina; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Toelg, Ralph; Geist, Volker; Bahnsen-Maaß, Monika; Hennersdorf, Marcus; Graf, Jochen; Riemann, Urs; Scharpf, Dominik; Empen, Klaus; Busch, Mathias C.; Werdan, Karl; Nuding, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Fiehn, Eduard; Gitt, Anselm K.; Mark, Bernd; Winkler, Ralph; Lauer, Bernward; Möbius-Winkler, Sven; Schulze, Christian; Minden, Hans-Heinrich; Braun-Dullaeus, Rüdiger C.; Schmeißer, Alexander; Strasser, Ruth H.; Ebner, Bernd; Ertl, Georg; Mudra, Harald; Hug, Martin; Endemann, Dierk; Hamm, Christian; Walther, Claudia; Liebetrau, Christoph; Menck, Niels; Mehilli, Julinda; Orban, Martin; Hausleiter, Jörg; Massberg, Steffen; Prondzinsky, Roland; Gielen, Stephan; Gawaz, Meinrad; Pauschinger, Matthias; Ademaj, Fadil; Bode, Christoph; Nickenig, Georg; Fichtlscherer, Stephan; Zeiher, Andreas; Viertel, Achim; Kelm, Malte; Jung, Christian; Sydow, Carsten; Karakas, Mahir; Rudolph, Volker; Baldus, Stephan; Jacobshagen, Claudius; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Pfeiffer, Dietrich; Buchter, Björn; Hügl, Burkhard; Nef, Holger; Dörr, Oliver; Reinig, Karsten; Kuck, Karl Heinz; Ghanem, Alexander; Katus, Hugo; Gori, Tommaso; Münzel, Thomas; Schnupp, Steffen; Brachmann, Johannes; Ferrari, Markus; Achenbach, Stephan; Carrié, Didier; Henry, Patrick; Manzo-Silberman, Stephane; Ledermann, Bertrand; Cayla, Guillaume; Bonnet, Jean-Louis; Windecker, Stefan; Frenk, André; Jeger, Raban; Eeckhout, Eric; Henriques, Jose P.; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Voskuil, Michiel; Bax, M.; van der Harst, Pim; Serpytis, Rokas; Jarasuniene, Dalia; Lang, Irene Marthe; Pichler, Philipp; Weidinger, Franz; Zaruba, Marc-Michael; Dudek, Darius; Depukat, Rafal; Witkowski, Adam; Milewski, Krzysztof; Prokopczuk, Janusz; Gąsior, Mariusz; Gorycki, Bogdan; Ochała, Andrzej; Piatti, Luigi; Galvani, Marcello; Bossi, Irene; Emilia, Reggio; Pignatelli, Gianluca; Greenwood, John; Lockie, Tim; Mamas, Mamas

    2017-01-01

    In patients who have acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock, early revascularization of the culprit artery by means of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) improves outcomes. However, the majority of patients with cardiogenic shock have multivessel disease, and whether PCI should be

  15. Impaired health status in Type D patients following PCI in the drug-eluting stent era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan; Ong, Andrew T L

    2007-01-01

    Drug-eluting stenting reduces restenosis post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but subgroups of patients may not benefit optimally from this procedure. We examined the impact of Type D personality on health status over time and the clinical relevance of Type D as a predictor of impaired...... health status at 12 months in unselected post-PCI patients....

  16. Design of device driver program for PCI data acquisition adapters based on WDM of windows 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Weihua; Qiao Weimin; Jing Lan; Zhu Haijun

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the design of device driver program for PCI data acquisition adapters based on WDM of Windows 2000. Give an actual example of PCI6208. Now, several data acquisition adapters based in this method are using in national big science engineer HIRFL-CSR. (authors)

  17. Converting coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avigliano, A. [Bedeschi (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    In September 2005, Bedeschi was commissioned to design and supply a coal unloading, conveying and storage facility for a new raw coal line system within Hatien II Cement Co. The new plant is composed of a grab unloader, a conveyor system, a storage shed with stacking and reclaiming facilities, a complete dedusting system and civil and steel structure engineering. The scope of supply includes a local fabrication portion; however, main components will be imported. The project will be completed in 21 months. The paper looks into the mechanics of loading and unloading coal. 4 figs., 4 photos.

  18. Small cell lung cancer and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI): perhaps the question is not who needs PCI but who wants PCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Chevalier, T.; Arriagada, R. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Medicine Dept., Villejuif, 94 (France)

    1997-10-01

    With 175 000 new cases annually, lung cancer is the most frequent malignancy in adults in the European Community. Approximately 20% of these tumours are of the small cell subtype and roughly a third, chiefly when disease is confined to the thorax, will be in complete remission after aggressive induction therapy combining multidrug chemotherapy (CT) and thoracic radiation therapy. However, the majority of these patients will relapse and ultimately only 15-20% of complete responders will be long-term survivors (i.e. alive beyond 30 months). The central nervous system (CNS) is one of the main organs invaded by small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and a frequent site of relapse. CNS metastases are found in up to 65% of patients at autopsy with the brain traditionally being considered a sanctuary for tumour cells. Although the blood-brain barrier is supposed to bar the entry to harmful substances (in particular most cytotoxic agents) and thus protect the CNS, this shield does not function systematically since dramatic responses to CT have been achieved in brain metastases from SCLC and brain metastases also arise even when clear responses are being observed at all other sites. Alternatively, the spectacular radiosensitivity of SCLC, which has been well established for decades, prompted the strategy of delivering prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) during induction treatment in order to prevent the development of metastases and their cohort of clinical symptoms. (author).

  19. Small cell lung cancer and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI): perhaps the question is not who needs PCI but who wants PCI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Chevalier, T.; Arriagada, R.

    1997-01-01

    With 175 000 new cases annually, lung cancer is the most frequent malignancy in adults in the European Community. Approximately 20% of these tumours are of the small cell subtype and roughly a third, chiefly when disease is confined to the thorax, will be in complete remission after aggressive induction therapy combining multidrug chemotherapy (CT) and thoracic radiation therapy. However, the majority of these patients will relapse and ultimately only 15-20% of complete responders will be long-term survivors (i.e. alive beyond 30 months). The central nervous system (CNS) is one of the main organs invaded by small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and a frequent site of relapse. CNS metastases are found in up to 65% of patients at autopsy with the brain traditionally being considered a sanctuary for tumour cells. Although the blood-brain barrier is supposed to bar the entry to harmful substances (in particular most cytotoxic agents) and thus protect the CNS, this shield does not function systematically since dramatic responses to CT have been achieved in brain metastases from SCLC and brain metastases also arise even when clear responses are being observed at all other sites. Alternatively, the spectacular radiosensitivity of SCLC, which has been well established for decades, prompted the strategy of delivering prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) during induction treatment in order to prevent the development of metastases and their cohort of clinical symptoms. (author)

  20. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  1. 7,528 patients treated with PCI - a Scandinavian real-life scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.; Galatius, S.; Bech, J.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Analyze clinical, temporal and procedural characteristics from 7,528 consecutive percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients in one of the largest published contemporary European PCI-database during a 6-year period. METHOD: Retrospective study design. Period: 1998-2004. Temporal...... and referral changes in a Danish PCI-registry were analyzed. Demographic and angiographic variables were compared with data from randomized clinical trials, US-registries and current guidelines. RESULTS: 22,214 patients were examined with coronary angiography and 7,528 patients were treated with PCI....... The annual number of PCI's increased by 15%. Over time, the fraction of patients with risk factors increased, median age increased from 61 to 64 years and the coronary pathology was significantly worsened. ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients primarily admitted to hospitals without facilities...

  2. Lack of consensus in biomarker measurement to diagnose PCI-related myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Dakhiel, Zaid; Rune Larsen, Søren; Svenstrup Poulsen, Tina

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate if biomarker sampling in PCI has adhered to the 2 000 consensus document for the diagnosis of procedure-related myocardial infarction (MI). Design. Firstly, a review of relevant papers from 2000 to September 2007 was done. Secondly, in October 2007, a questionnaire addressing...... biomarker sampling in routine PCI was sent to Danish PCI centres. Results. Fourteen papers fulfilled the selection criteria. In six studies serial sampling according to the consensus document had been done. Biomarker measuring before PCI was not performed in four studies. All centres answered...... the questionnaire. In none of six centres the proposed 3-sample testing of biomarkers had been followed. A pre-PCI sample was taken in one centre. In approximately half of the centres biomarkers were only measured on clinical indication. Conclusion. Biomarker sampling for procedure-related MI according to the 2 000...

  3. Fractional flow reserve versus angiography for guidance of PCI in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (FAME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Nunen, Lokien X; Zimmermann, Frederik M; Tonino, Pim A L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Fractional Flow Reserve Versus Angiography for Multivessel Evaluation (FAME) study, fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) improved outcome compared with angiography-guided PCI for up to 2 years of follow-up. The aim in this study...... was to investigate whether the favourable clinical outcome with the FFR-guided PCI in the FAME study persisted over a 5-year follow-up. METHODS: The FAME study was a multicentre trial done in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, the UK, and the USA. Patients (aged ≥ 18 years) with multivessel coronary...... artery disease were randomly assigned to undergo angiography-guided PCI or FFR-guided PCI. Before randomisation, stenoses requiring PCI were identified on the angiogram. Patients allocated to angiography-guided PCI had revascularisation of all identified stenoses. Patients allocated to FFR-guided PCI had...

  4. Combining PCI and CABG: the role of hybrid revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kelly D; Lynch, Donald R; Chen, Tyffany P; Zhao, David

    2013-04-01

    Hybrid coronary revascularization combines the benefits of both percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the treatment of multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) by combining the benefits of the LIMA-to-LAD graft and drug eluting stent (DES) to non-LAD regions. Through this approach, a patient receives the long-term benefit of the LIMA graft and avoids the morbidity of a full sternotomy and saphenous vein grafts. Available data related to outcomes following hybrid revascularization is limited to small studies. In this review we seek to provide an overview of hybrid revascularization in the era of modern drug eluting stent technology, discuss appropriate patient selection, and comment on future trial design. Additionally, we review the recent literature pertaining to the hybrid approach.

  5. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  6. Potential of Pseudomonas putida PCI2 for the Protection of Tomato Plants Against Fungal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Nicolás; Masciarelli, Oscar; Fischer, Sonia; Luna, Virginia; Rovera, Marisa

    2016-09-01

    Tomato is one of the most economically attractive vegetable crops due to its high yields. Diseases cause significant losses in tomato production worldwide. We carried out Polymerase Chain Reaction studies to detect the presence of genes encoding antifungal compounds in the DNA of Pseudomonas putida strain PCI2. We also used liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to detect and quantify the production of compounds that increase the resistance of plants to diseases from culture supernatants of PCI2. In addition, we investigated the presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase in PCI2. Finally, PCI2 was used for inoculation of tomato seeds to study its potential biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum MR193. The obtained results showed that no fragments for the encoding genes of hydrogen cyanide, pyoluteorin, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyrrolnitrin, or phenazine-1-carboxylic acid were amplified from the DNA of PCI2. On the other hand, PCI2 produced salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in Luria-Bertani medium and grew in a culture medium containing ACC as the sole nitrogen source. We observed a reduction in disease incidence from 53.33 % in the pathogen control to 30 % in tomato plants pre-inoculated with PCI2 as well as increases in shoot and root dry weights in inoculated plants, as compared to the pathogenicity control. This study suggests that inoculation of tomato seeds with P. putida PCI2 increases the resistance of plants to root rot caused by F. oxysporum and that PCI2 produces compounds that may be involved at different levels in increasing such resistance. Thus, PCI2 could represent a non-contaminating management strategy potentially applicable in vegetable crops such as tomato.

  7. High-risk PCI: how to define it today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Marzo, Vincenzo; D'Amario, Domenico; Galli, Mattia; Vergallo, Rocco; Porto, Italo

    2018-04-11

    Before the percutaneous spread, the mortality rate of patients with coronary heart disease not suitable for cardiac surgery was markedly high. This limit has been progressively exceeded with the advent of minimally invasive approaches, which, although was initially intended exclusively for low risk patients, was then employed in complex patients often too compromised to undergo cardiac surgery. Given to the rising of high-risk population, due to an increase of patients with multiple chronic conditions linked to the best care offered, we are witnessing an expansion of the high-risk percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) population. Despite defining what high-risk is remains still unclear, all proposed definitions of high-risk PCI combine features related to three clinical areas: 1) patient risk factors and comorbidities (incorporating those which preclude surgical or percutaneous revascularization such as diabetes, COPD, CKD, lung disease, frailty, advanced age); 2) location of the disease and complexity of coronary anatomy (including multi-vessel disease, left main disease, CTO, bifurcations); 3) hemodynamic clinical status (ventricular dysfunction, concomitant valvular disease or unstable characteristics). Since cardiologists have ascertained the encouraging results in terms of efficacy and rewards compared to the low-risks patients, the important role of treating high-risk patients is becoming more and more relevant to the point that current guidelines have now changed the appropriateness of percutaneous interventions indications. Considering the complexity in managing higher-risk patients with coronary artery disease, the next step to ensure the best care for this type of patients is to create a team-based model of cooperation in order to properly establish the right treatment for the right patient.

  8. Coal - 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards

  9. Comparative Effectiveness of PCI Education's "PCI Reading Program": Phase 2--A Report of a Comparison Group Study in Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Research Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Empirical Education Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    PCI Education sought scientifically based evidence on the comparative effectiveness of the "PCI Reading Program" through a five-year longitudinal study. Phase 1 of the study consisted of a randomized control trial studying the efficacy of the "PCI Reading Program-Level One" that was conducted in the 2007-2008 in Miami-Dade…

  10. Are PCI Service Volumes Associated with 30-Day Mortality? A Population-Based Study from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Chou, Ying-Yi; Wei, Chung-Jen; Tung, Yu-Chi

    2017-11-09

    The volume-outcome relationship has been discussed for over 30 years; however, the findings are inconsistent. This might be due to the heterogeneity of service volume definitions and categorization methods. This study takes percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as an example to examine whether the service volume was associated with PCI 30-day mortality, given different service volume definitions and categorization methods. A population-based, cross-sectional multilevel study was conducted. Two definitions of physician and hospital volume were used: (1) the cumulative PCI volume in a previous year before each PCI; (2) the cumulative PCI volume within the study period. The volume was further treated in three ways: (1) a categorical variable based on the American Heart Association's recommendation; (2) a semi-data-driven categorical variable based on k-means clustering algorithm; and (3) a data-driven categorical variable based on the Generalized Additive Model. The results showed that, after adjusting the patient-, physician-, and hospital-level covariates, physician volume was associated inversely with PCI 30-day mortality, but hospital volume was not, no matter which definitions and categorization methods of service volume were applied. Physician volume is negatively associated with PCI 30-day mortality, but the results might vary because of definition and categorization method.

  11. Risk of no-reflow in culprit lesion versus culprit vessel PCI in acute STEMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Uğur; Yaman, Mehmet; Kocaoğlu, İbrahim; Turan, Oğuzhan Ekrem; Yücel, Huriye; Aksakal, Aytekin; Günaydin, İlksen Atasoy; Hakan Ateş, Ahmet

    2015-09-01

    The present report describes patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction who had at least two lesions in the culprit vessel (CV) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Here, we aimed to examine two different strategies, namely, PCI of only culprit lesion (CL) versus PCI of all lesions in the CV in the setting of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Patients who underwent primary PCI were examined for the presence of an additional lesion in the infarct-related artery and divided into two groups according to the PCI strategy: CV versus CL groups. Coronary angiograms were examined for coronary thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow and major clinical outcomes were determined. Of 637 patients, 472 (74.1%) underwent primary PCI for the CV (CV group) and 165 (25.9%) underwent primary PCI only for CL (CL group). TIMI flow before primary PCI and after stenting of the CL was similar; however, TIMI flow after completion of the procedure was significantly better in the CL group (P=0.022). The composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and repeat revascularization was significantly better in the CL group (P=0.041) and early stent thrombosis was observed more commonly in the CV group [14 (3.0%) patients vs. 1 (0.6%) patient, P=0.09]. In the presence of an additional lesion in the CV during primary PCI, deferring stenting for the non-CL in the culprit artery after stenting the CL may be considered to prevent the development of no-reflow or slow-reflow, and thus major clinical adverse events may be reduced.

  12. PCI in Patients Supported With CF-LVADs: Indications, Safety, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Emeka C; Ota, Takeyoshi; Sayer, Gabriel; Nathan, Sandeep; Jeevanandam, Valluvan; Shah, Atman; Uriel, Nir

    2016-06-01

    Patients with heart failure supported with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) may require coronary intervention during their support. This case series seeks to explore the indications, safety, and outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in this population. Electronic medical records of patients with LVADs undergoing PCI at a large academic medical center were reviewed. Demographics, reason for PCI, procedural success, complications, and outcomes were collected. From 2010-2014, a total of 6 patients underwent PCI post LVAD implantation. Three patients had PCI in the early postimplantation period (1-3 days post LVAD implantation) while the other three received it later in the LVAD support period. Three indications for PCI were found in the reviewed cases: right ventricular failure (right coronary artery stenting), bridge to left ventricular recovery, and ventricular tachycardia (VT) storm. All patients were maintained on triple blood thinning therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel, and warfarin). There were no acute complications during the interventions; however, 2 patients died in the early intervention period and 2 died much later. The 2 deaths in the early intervention period were related to fatal gastrointestinal bleeding while on dual-antiplatelet therapy and warfarin, and intractable VT that PCI did not correct. The 2 deaths in the late postintervention period occurred due to unknown causes nearly 1 and 2 years post intervention, respectively. PCI was performed in patients with continuous-flow LVAD with several possible indications and without acute complications. The utility of PCI in this patient population, however, is likely limited by the risk of bleeding related to combined antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapies as well as lack of immediate apparent benefit. Further studies are necessary to better characterize this risk as well as quantify any potential long-term benefits.

  13. Photochemical internalization (PCI) of bleomycin is equally effective in two dissimilar leiomyosarcoma xenografts in athymic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellevold, Simen; Peng, Qian; Fremstedal, Ane Sofie Viset; Berg, Kristian

    2017-12-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a novel technique for delivery of active macromolecules into cancerous cells, via light activation of a specific photosensitizer and a low dose systemic drug. Numerous pre-clinical studies and one clinical trial have confirmed the treatment potential in carcinomas. Soft tissue sarcomas are rare and generally resistant to radio- and chemotherapy. Due to treatment resistance and surgical morbidity in sarcoma care, we seek to increase knowledge on PCI effects in sarcomas by studying two different, but closely related leiomyosarcomas. MES-SA and SK-LMS-1 tumours were established in the leg muscles of athymic mice. Treatment effects after AlPcS 2a -PCI of bleomycin, PCI with no drug (photodynamic therapy, PDT) and control groups were evaluated by: 1) assessment of tumour growth, 2) uptake of contrast agent during MRI and 3) histopathology. PCI of bleomycin induced a similar and significant increase in time to reach the end point in both tumour models, while neither responded to AlPcS 2a -PDT. In the MES-SA tumours PCI reduced the growth rate, while in the SK-LMS-1 tumours the growth was blocked for 12days followed by exponential growth close to that of untreated tumours. SK-LMS-1 tumours were more homogenously and better vascularized than MES-SA. After PCI the vascular shutdown was more complete in the SK-LMS-1 tumours than in the MES-SA tumours. AlPcS2a-based PCI, but not PDT, induced significant tumour growth delay in the evaluated sarcomas. Cellular responsiveness to bleomycin and tumour vascularity are identified as predictive markers for PCI treatment effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  15. Observer-based Coal Mill Control using Oxygen Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; S., Tom

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to coal flow estimation in pulverized coal mills, which utilizes measurements of oxygen content in the flue gas. Pulverized coal mills are typically not equipped with sensors that detect the amount of coal injected into the furnace. This makes control...... of the coal flow difficult, causing stability problems and limits the plant's load following capabilities. To alleviate this problem without having to rely on expensive flow measurement equipment, a novel observer-based approach is investigated. A Kalman filter based on measurements of combustion air flow led...... into the furnace and oxygen concentration in the flue gas is designed to estimate the actual coal flow injected into the furnace. With this estimate, it becomes possible to close an inner loop around the coal mill itself, thus giving a better disturbance rejection capability. The approach is validated against...

  16. CABG Versus PCI: Greater Benefit in Long-Term Outcomes With Multiple Arterial Bypass Grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Robert H; Dimitrova, Kamellia R; Badour, Sanaa A; Yammine, Maroun B; El-Hage-Sleiman, Abdul-Karim M; Hoffman, Darryl M; Geller, Charles M; Schwann, Thomas A; Tranbaugh, Robert F

    2015-09-29

    Treatment of multivessel coronary artery disease with traditional single-arterial coronary artery bypass graft (SA-CABG) has been associated with superior intermediate-term survival and reintervention compared with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using either bare-metal stents (BMS) or drug-eluting stents (DES). This study sought to investigate longer-term outcomes including the potential added advantage of multiarterial coronary artery bypass graft (MA-CABG). We studied 8,402 single-institution, primary revascularization, multivessel coronary artery disease patients: 2,207 BMS-PCI (age 66.6 ± 11.9 years); 2,381 DES-PCI (age 65.9 ± 11.7 years); 2,289 SA-CABG (age 69.3 ± 9.0 years); and 1,525 MA-CABG (age 58.3 ± 8.7 years). Patients with myocardial infarction within 24 h, shock, or left main stents were excluded. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression were used to separately compare 9-year all-cause mortality and unplanned reintervention for BMS-PCI and DES-PCI to respective propensity-matched SA-CABG and MA-CABG cohorts. BMS-PCI was associated with worse survival than SA-CABG, especially from 0 to 7 years (p = 0.015) and to a greater extent than MA-CABG was (9-year follow-up: 76.3% vs. 86.9%; p PCI hazard ratios (HR) were as follows: versus SA-CABG, HR: 0.87; and versus MA-CABG, HR: 0.38. DES-PCI showed similar survival to SA-CABG except for a modest 0 to 3 years surgery advantage (HR: 1.06; p = 0.615). Compared with MA-CABG, DES-PCI exhibited worse survival at 5 (86.3% vs. 95.6%) and 9 (82.8% vs. 89.8%) years (HR: 0.45; p PCI for all comparisons (all p PCI or DES-PCI, resulted in substantially enhanced death and reintervention-free survival. Accordingly, MA-CABG represents the optimal therapy for multivessel coronary artery disease and should be enthusiastically adopted by multidisciplinary heart teams as the best evidence-based therapy. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Experimental Research on the pCI Rule and Causal Judgment (in Chinese)

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Z. F.; Wang, J.

    2005-01-01

    This research examined the precision of the pCI rule through three experiments. The results show that first , the tendency of the subjects’ casual judgments was basically similar to the pCI rule. But (a + d) / n predicted human’s casual judgments were even better; second, the increase of subjects’ casual judgments was milder than the pCI rule, and the subjects needed time to construct their own way of judging relationship; finally, different people had different ways of causal judgments, and ...

  18. Distilling coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  19. Influence of operator experience and PCI volume on transfemoral access techniques: A collaboration of international cardiovascular societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Daniel W; Damluji, Abdulla A; Patel, Nish; Valgimigli, Marco; Windecker, Stephan; Byrne, Robert; Nolan, James; Patel, Tejas; Brilakis, Emmanouil; Banerjee, Subhash; Mayol, Jorge; Cantor, Warren J; Alfonso, Carlos E; Rao, Sunil V; Moscucci, Mauro; Cohen, Mauricio G

    2018-03-01

    Transfemoral access (TFA) is widely used for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The influence of operator age, gender, experience, and procedural volume on performance of femoral arterial access has not been studied. A survey instrument was developed and distributed via e-mail from professional societies to interventional cardiologists worldwide from March to December 2016. A total of 988 physicians from 88 countries responded to the survey. TFA is the preferred approach for patients with cardiogenic shock, left main or bifurcation PCI, and procedures with mechanical circulatory support. Older (PCI volume operators (PCI: 57.3%; 100-299 PCI: 58.7%; ≥300 PCI: 64.3%, pPCI volume operators (≥300 PCI: 64.1%; 100-299 PCI: 72.6%; PCI: 67.9%, pPCI volume interventional cardiologists prefer not to use imaging for femoral access or perform femoral angiography during TF procedures. These data highlight opportunities to further reduce TFA complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Real-time fusion of coronary CT angiography with x-ray fluoroscopy during chronic total occlusion PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Takx, Richard A P; Stone, Luke L; Girard, Erin E; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Lombardi, William L; Yeh, Robert W; Jaffer, Farouc A

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of real-time fusion of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) centreline and arterial wall calcification with x-ray fluoroscopy during chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients undergoing CTO PCI were prospectively enrolled. Pre-procedural CT scans were integrated with conventional coronary fluoroscopy using prototype software. We enrolled 24 patients who underwent CTO PCI using the prototype CT fusion software, and 24 consecutive CTO PCI patients without CT guidance served as a control group. Mean age was 66 ± 11 years, and 43/48 patients were men. Real-time CTA fusion during CTO PCI provided additional information regarding coronary arterial calcification and tortuosity that generated new insights into antegrade wiring, antegrade dissection/reentry, and retrograde wiring during CTO PCI. Overall CTO success rates and procedural outcomes remained similar between the two groups, despite a trend toward higher complexity in the fusion CTA group. This study demonstrates that real-time automated co-registration of coronary CTA centreline and calcification onto live fluoroscopic images is feasible and provides new insights into CTO PCI, and in particular, antegrade dissection reentry-based CTO PCI. • Real-time semi-automated fusion of CTA/fluoroscopy is feasible during CTO PCI. • CTA fusion data can be toggled on/off as desired during CTO PCI • Real-time CT calcium and centreline overlay could benefit antegrade dissection/reentry-based CTO PCI.

  1. Conversion of metallurgical coke and coal using a Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) moving bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Siwei; Bayham, Samuel; Zeng, Liang; McGiveron, Omar; Chung, Elena; Majumder, Ankita; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Accumulated more than 300 operation hours were accomplished for the moving bed reducer reactor. • Different reactor operation variables were investigated with optimal conditions identified. • High conversions of sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were achieved without flow problems. • Co-current and counter-current contact modes were tested and their applicability was discussed. - Abstract: The CLC process has the potential to be a transformative commercial technology for a carbon-constrained economy. The Ohio State University Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process directly converts coal, eliminating the need for a coal gasifier oran air separation unit (ASU). Compared to other solid-fuel CLC processes, the CDCL process is unique in that it consists of a countercurrent moving bed reducer reactor. In the proposed process, coal is injected into the middle of the moving bed, whereby the coal quickly heats up and devolatilizes, splitting the reactor roughly into two sections with no axial mixing. The top section consists of gaseous fuel produced from the coal volatiles, and the bottom section consists of the coal char mixed with the oxygen carrier. A bench-scale moving bed reactor was used to study the coal conversion with CO 2 as the enhancing gas. Initial tests using metallurgical cokefines as feedstock were conducted to test the effects of operational variables in the bottom section of the moving bed reducer, e.g., reactor temperature, oxygen carrier to char ratio, enhancer gas CO 2 flow rate, and oxygen carrier flow rates. Experiments directly using coal as the feedstock were subsequently carried out based on these test results. Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and Illinois #6 coal were tested as representative sub-bituminous and bituminous coals, respectively. Nearly complete coal conversion was achieved using composite iron oxide particles as the oxygen carriers without any flow problems. The operational results demonstrated that a

  2. The Concept of Data Collection and Processing System for Audit according to the PCI DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Makrushin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objects of the research are verification procedures meet the requirements of the standard of the documents supporting the information security standard in the payment card industry (PCI DSS.

  3. Optical coherence tomography guided PCI – Initial experience at Apollo Health City, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Chandra Rath

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: OCT makes better visualization of plaque, thrombus, stent malapposition, dissection, plaque prolapse and helps in optimization of PCI results. More extensive, long-term studies will be needed to assess the prognostic implications of these findings.

  4. A new PCI card for readout in high energy physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Floris, M; Marras, D; Usai, G L; David, A

    2004-01-01

    Recently some high energy physics experiments started to adopt readout systems based on the PCI architecture. In this context a new PCI card that can be adapted to several readout schemes has been designed. The card contains a large 64 MB local buffer, programmable FPGA logic and a PLX PCI bridge. The solution to use a PCI bridge external to the programmable logic allows to greatly simplify projects at the level of the on-board local bus. The card is presently used as the basic readout unit of the NA60 experiment. In this context, coupling it to different mezzanine cards it is possible to create interfaces to VME/CAMAC modules or to custom front-end electronics as for the case of the silicon vertex detector. Moreover, it is used as a readout test system for the ALICE muon chambers. (10 refs).

  5. The Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor PCI-32765 ameliorates autoimmune arthritis by inhibition of multiple effector cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The aim was to determine the effect of the Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk)-selective inhibitor PCI-32765, currently in Phase I/II studies in lymphoma trials, in arthritis and immune-complex (IC) based animal models and describe the underlying cellular mechanisms. Methods PCI-32765 was administered in a series of murine IC disease models including collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA), reversed passive anaphylactic reaction (RPA), and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). Clinical and pathologic features characteristic of each model were examined following treatment. PCI-32765 was then examined in assays using immune cells relevant to the pathogenesis of arthritis, and where Btk is thought to play a functional role. These included proliferation and calcium mobilization in B cells, cytokine and chemokine production in monocytes/macrophages, degranulation of mast cells and its subsequent cytokine/chemokine production. Results PCI-32765 dose-dependently and potently reversed arthritic inflammation in a therapeutic CIA model with an ED50 of 2.6 mg/kg/day. PCI-32765 also prevented clinical arthritis in CAIA models. In both models, infiltration of monocytes and macrophages into the synovium was completely inhibited and importantly, the bone and cartilage integrity of the joints were preserved. PCI-32765 reduced inflammation in the Arthus and PCA assays. In vitro, PCI-32765 inhibited BCR-activated primary B cell proliferation (IC50 = 8 nM). Following FcγR stimulation, PCI-32765 inhibited TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 production in primary monocytes (IC50 = 2.6, 0.5, 3.9 nM, respectively). Following FcεRI stimulation of cultured human mast cells, PCI-32765 inhibited release of histamine, PGD2, TNF-α, IL-8 and MCP-1. Conclusions PCI-32765 is efficacious in CIA, and in IC models that do not depend upon autoantibody production from B cells. Thus PCI-32765 targets not only B lymphocytes but also monocytes, macrophages and mast cells

  6. [Effects of PCI-32765 and Dasatinib on the Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemic Cells and Their Mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuan; Tao, Shan-Dong; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Jing-Jing; He, Zheng-Mei; Chen, Yue; Deng, Zhi-Kui; Yu, Liang

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effects of Btk inhibitor (PCI-32765) and BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (Dasatinib) on proliferation and apoptosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines (Sup-B15, RS4;11) and the possible mechanism. RS4;11 and Sup-B15 cells were treated with PCI-32765 and Dasatinib, the cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by CCK-8, the Btk and other apoptotic proteins were detected by Western blot. PCI-32765 could inhibit the proliferation of RS4;11 and Sup-B15 cells in a dose-dependent manner, Sup-B15 cells were more sensitive to PCI-32765 than RS4;11 cells, their IC 50 were 3 µmol/L and 8 µmol/L respectively, the difference between them was statistically significant (PPCI-32765(PPCI-32765 or Dasatinib alone group and the combination group at the different time-point (8, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h), the 2 drugs showed a synergistic effect on cells in a time-dependent manner. After being treated with PCI-32765 and Dasatinib, the RS4;11 and Sup-B15 cells showed that cell shrinkage, increase of cytoplasmic density, nuclear pyknosis, deviation and karyorrhexis, and increase of the apoptotic cells in the combination group, while the promotive effect of low dosage dasatinib on apoptosis of RS4;11 cells was not strong. PCI-32765 and Dasatinib could decrease the expression and activity of BCR-ABL, Btk, Lyn, Src in Sup-B15 and RS4;11 cells. PCI-32765 or Dasatinib can inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of Sup-B15 and RS4;11 cells, PCI-32765 and Dasatinib displayed the synergistic effects. The possible mechanism may be related with the blocking of B cell receptor(BCR) signal pathway, thereby inhibiting the cell proliferation and promoting the cell apoptosis.

  7. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  8. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  9. Timing of intervention in high-risk non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes in PCI versus non-PCI centres : Sub-group analysis of the ELISA-3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badings, E A; Remkes, W S; Dambrink, J-H E; The, S H K; Van Wijngaarden, J; Tjeerdsma, G; Rasoul, S; Timmer, J R; van der Wielen, M L J; Lok, D J A; van 't Hof, A W J

    2016-03-01

    To compare the effect of timing of intervention in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus non-PCI centres. A post-hoc sub-analysis was performed of the ELISA III trial, a randomised multicentre trial investigating outcome of early ( 48 h) angiography and revascularisation in 542 patients with high-risk NSTE-ACS. 90 patients were randomised in non-PCI centres and tended to benefit more from an early invasive strategy than patients included in the PCI centre (relative risk 0.23 vs. 0.85 [p for interaction = 0.089] for incidence of the combined primary endpoint of death, reinfarction and recurrent ischaemia after 30 days of follow-up). This was largely driven by reduction in recurrent ischaemia. In non-PCI centres, patients randomised to the late group had a 4 and 7 day longer period until PCI or coronary artery bypass grafting, respectively. This difference was less pronounced in the PCI centre. This post-hoc analysis from the ELISA-3 trial suggests that NSTE-ACS patients initially hospitalised in non-PCI centres show the largest benefit from early angiography and revascularisation, associated with a shorter waiting time to revascularisation. Improved patient logistics and transfer between non-PCI and PCI centres might therefore result in better clinical outcome.

  10. Comparison Between PCI and Box Girder in BridgesPrestressed Concrete Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Cut; Zainuddin, Z.; Is, Syafridal; Rahim, Robbi

    2018-04-01

    This research is done by comparing PCI and Box Girder types of prestressed concrete design. The method used is load balance. Previous studies have just discussed the differences in terms of effectiveness and economics. In this study, the researchers want to know the design process by comparing the working forces, the resulting moment, and the losses of the prestressed. As the case in this study, the researchers used the bridge with the span of 31 meters. The tendon pulling system was conducted with post-tensioning system The analysis result showed that prestressed of the Girder box type sustained the greatest moment due to the combination of its own weight, additional dead load, lane load, and wind load of 44,029 kNm, while the biggest moment of PCI Girder was 7,556.75 KNm The Girder beam box experiences greater moment and shear force than PCI Girder. This is the effect of the weight of its own Girderboxwaslarger than PCI Girder. The losses ofprestressed style of Girderboxand PCI Girder type were 24.85% and 26.32%, respectively.Moreover, it showed that the type of Girder box is cheaper, easier, and more efficient than PCI Girder.

  11. Operation with monosequences in ASEA-ATOM BWR. A way of reducing the impact of PCI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, S.

    1981-01-01

    The energy loss due to PCI restrictions for a start-up after refuelling (or after sequence exchange) is about 18 EFPH (Effective Full Power Hours). All ASEA-ATOM BWRs are equipped with fine motion control rod drives (FMCRD), which makes it possible to withdraw control rods at full power in acceptably small steps (1.8 cm) from the PCI point of view. Thus burnup compensation can always be done without any energy loss due to PCI-restrictions. The ASEA-ATOM PCI-related operating restrictions are described and their implication on the operations of an ASEA-ATOM BWR is discussed. It was shown how the energy generation losses due to PCI-restrictions could be reduced to a minimum, by proper use of continuous motion screw-type control rod drives and high-capacity recirculation pumps, together with advanced use of burnable absorber, and refined refuelling schemes. Monosequence Operation (MSO) has reduced energy generation losses due to PCI-restrictions from about 1% to about 0.4%. MSO has been in routine use in Swedish BWRs since 1977 and during 1980 the fourteenth successful MSO-cycle has been completed

  12. Mortality in patients with TIMI 3 flow after PCI in relation to time delay to reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichova, Teodora; Maly, Marek; Ulman, Jaroslav; Motovska, Zuzana

    2016-03-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed within 12 h from symptom onset enables complete blood flow restoration in infarct-related artery in 90% of patients. Nevertheless, even with complete restoration of epicardial blood flow in culprit vessel (postprocedural Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade 3), myocardial perfusion at tissue level may be insufficient. We hypothesized that the outcome of patients with STEMI/bundle branch block (BBB)-myocardial infarction and post-PCI TIMI 3 flow is related to the time to reperfusion. Observational study based on a retrospective analysis of population of 635 consecutive patients with STEMI/BBB-MI and post-PCI TIMI 3 flow from January 2009 to December 2011 (mean age 63 years, 69.6% males). Mortality of patients was evaluated in relation to the time from symptom onset to reperfusion. A total of 83 patients (13.07%) with postprocedural TIMI 3 flow after PCI had died at 1-year follow-up. Median TD in patients who survived was 3.92 h (iqr 5.43), in patients who died 6.0 h (iqr 11.42), P = 0.004. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified time delay ≥ 9 h as significantly related to 1-year mortality of patients with STEMI/BBB-MI and post-PCI TIMI 3 flow (OR 1.958, P = 0.026). Other significant variables associated with mortality in multivariate regression analysis were: left ventricle ejection fraction 65 years (P 2 (P PCI.

  13. Pellet cladding interaction (PCI) fuel duty during normal operation of ASEA-ATOM BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaernild, O.; Olsson, S.

    1983-01-01

    Local power changes may under special conditions cause PCI fuel failures in a power reactor. By restricting the local power increase rate in certain situations it is possible to prevent PCI failures. Fine motion control rod drives, large operating range of the main recirculation pumps and an advanced burnable absorber design have minimized the impact of the PCI restrictions. With current ICFM schemes the power of an assembly is due to the burnup of the gadolinia gradually increasing during the first cycle of operation. After this the power is essentially decreasing monotonously during the remaining life of the assembly. Some assemblies are for short burnup intervals operated at very low power in control cells. The control rods in these cells may however be withdrawn without restrictions leading to energy production losses. Base load operation would in the normal case lead to very minor PCI loads on the fuel regardless of any PCI related operating restrictions. At the return to full power after a short shutdown or in connection with load follow operation, the xenon transient may cause PCI loads on the fuel. To avoid this a few hoursholdtime before going back to full power is recommended. (author)

  14. Pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) fuel duty during normal operation of ASEA-ATOM BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaernild, O.; Olsson, S.

    1985-01-01

    Local power changes may, under special conditions, cause PCI fuel failures in a power reactor. By restricting the local power increase rate in certain situations it is possible to prevent PCI failures. Fine motion control rod drives, large operating range of the main recirculation pumps and an advanced burnable absorber design have minimized the impact of the PCI restrictions. With current ICFM schemes the power of an assembly is due to the burnup of the gadolinia gradually increasing during the first cycle of operation. After this the power is essentially decreasing monotonously during the remaining life of the assembly. Some assemblies are for short burnup intervals operated at very low power in control cells. The control rods in these cells may, however, be withdrawn without restrictions leading to energy production losses. Base load operation would in the normal case lead to very minor PCI loads on the fuel regardless of any PCI-related operating restrictions. At the return to full power after a short shutdown or in connection with load follow operation, the xenon transient may cause PCI loads on the fuel. To avoid this a few hours hold-time before going back to full power is recommended. (author)

  15. Single-Staged Compared With Multi-Staged PCI in Multivessel NSTEMI Patients: The SMILE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardella, Gennaro; Lucisano, Luigi; Garbo, Roberto; Pennacchi, Mauro; Cavallo, Erika; Stio, Rocco Edoardo; Calcagno, Simone; Ugo, Fabrizio; Boccuzzi, Giacomo; Fedele, Francesco; Mancone, Massimo

    2016-01-26

    A lack of clarity exists about the role of complete coronary revascularization in patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The aim of our study was to compare long-term outcomes in terms of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events of 2 different complete coronary revascularization strategies in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel coronary artery disease: 1-stage percutaneous coronary intervention (1S-PCI) during the index procedure versus multistage percutaneous coronary intervention (MS-PCI) complete coronary revascularization during the index hospitalization. In the SMILE (Impact of Different Treatment in Multivessel Non ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients: One Stage Versus Multistaged Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial, 584 patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 manner to 1S-PCI or MS-PCI. The primary study endpoint was the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, which were defined as cardiac death, death, reinfarction, rehospitalization for unstable angina, repeat coronary revascularization (target vessel revascularization), and stroke at 1 year. The occurrence of the primary endpoint was significantly lower in the 1-stage group (1S-PCI: n = 36 [13.63%] vs. MS-PCI: n = 61 [23.19%]; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.549 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.363 to 0.828]; p = 0.004). The 1-year rate of target vessel revascularization was significantly higher in the MS-PCI group (1S-PCI: n = 22 [8.33%] vs. MS-PCI: n = 40 [15.20%]; HR: 0.522 [95% CI: 0.310 to 0.878]; p = 0.01; p log-rank = 0.013). When the analyses were limited to cardiac death (1S-PCI: n = 9 [3.41%] vs. MS-PCI: n = 14 [5.32%]; HR: 0.624 [95% CI: 0.270 to 1.441]; p = 0.27) and myocardial infarction (1S-PCI: n = 7 [2.65%] vs. MS-PCI: n = 10 [3.80%]; HR: 0.678 [95% CI: 0.156 to 2.657]; p = 0.46), no significant differences were observed between groups. In multivessel

  16. Fiscal 1996 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Potentiality of the general coal market and the subjects; 1996 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Ippantan shijo no kanosei to sono kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper examined thoughts of a method to determine the general coal price based on the hearing from coal users and coal suppliers and considered a potentiality of the general coal market in the Asia/Pacific area and the subjects. Electric power companies of Japan and coal companies of Australia which now own long-term contracts for general coal consider continuing the benchmark system also in the future. At New York Commodity Exchange and Sidney Futures Transaction, the listing of futures of general coal is studied, and Barlow Jonker opened a membership futures transaction system for general coal/PCI coal using internet. The paper investigated response of the industry circle to such moves of market trade/futures transaction of general coal. In the hearing, comments were mostly negative. It was pointed out that with the development of the spot market of coal, there is a possibility of the market trade form developing. In the future, the spot market is steadily developing, but it is thought that supplying to major general coal users in Japan, Korea and Taiwan will continue to be based mostly on long-term contracts. 42 refs., 38 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) Binds to Phosphatidylserine Exposing Cells with Implications in the Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells and Activated Platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Daniela; Assinger, Alice; Einfinger, Katrin; Sokolikova, Barbora; Geiger, Margarethe

    2014-01-01

    Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) is a secreted serine protease inhibitor, belonging to the family of serpins. In addition to activated protein C PCI inactivates several other proteases of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, suggesting a regulatory role in hemostasis. Glycosaminoglycans and certain negatively charged phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, bind to PCI and modulate its activity. Phosphatidylerine (PS) is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells and known as a phagocytosis marker. We hypothesized that PCI might bind to PS exposed on apoptotic cells and thereby influence their removal by phagocytosis. Using Jurkat T-lymphocytes and U937 myeloid cells, we show here that PCI binds to apoptotic cells to a similar extent at the same sites as Annexin V, but in a different manner as compared to live cells (defined spots on ∼10–30% of cells). PCI dose dependently decreased phagocytosis of apoptotic Jurkat cells by U937 macrophages. Moreover, the phagocytosis of PS exposing, activated platelets by human blood derived monocytes declined in the presence of PCI. In U937 cells the expression of PCI as well as the surface binding of PCI increased with time of phorbol ester treatment/macrophage differentiation. The results of this study suggest a role of PCI not only for the function and/or maturation of macrophages, but also as a negative regulator of apoptotic cell and activated platelets removal. PMID:25000564

  18. Thrombolysis in the age of Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Mini-Review and Meta-analysis of Early PCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shammeri, O; Garcia, LA

    2013-01-01

    Objective Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is the treatment of choice for ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) if performed within 90 minutes from first medical contact. However, primary PCI is only available for less than 25% of patients with STEMI. Early PCI or Pharmaco-invasive strategy has evolved from facilitated PCI but with more delayed timing from thrombolysis to PCI. Aim Assess the safety and effectiveness of Early PCI. Patients and Method We reviewed the data of the available therapy options for patients with STEMI. Then we performed a meta-analysis for all randomized controlled trials of early PCI versus standard therapy Results Five studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Our meta-analysis showed improved cardiovascular events with early PCI compared to standard therapy (odd ratio of 0.54; 95% Confidence interval 0.47-0.7, pPCI 4 to 24 hours after successful thrombolysis Conclusion Early PCI should be done to all STEMI patients within 24 hours after successful thrombolysis. PMID:23559909

  19. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  20. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  1. Compact PCI/Linux platform in FTU slow control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannone, F.; Centioli, C.; Panella, M.; Mazza, G.; Vitale, V.; Wang, L.

    2004-01-01

    In large fusion experiments, such as tokamak devices, there is a common trend for slow control systems. Because of complexity of the plants, the so-called 'Standard Model' (SM) in slow control has been adopted on several tokamak machines. This model is based on a three-level hierarchical control: 1) High-Level Control (HLC) with a supervisory function; 2) Medium-Level Control (MLC) to interface and concentrate I/O field equipment; 3) Low-Level Control (LLC) with hard real-time I/O function, often managed by PLCs. FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) control system designed with SM concepts has underwent several stages of developments in its fifteen years duration of runs. The latest evolution was inevitable, due to the obsolescence of the MLC CPUs, based on VME-MOTOROLA 68030 with OS9 operating system. A large amount of C code was developed for that platform to route the data flow from LLC, which is constituted by 24 Westinghouse Numalogic PC-700 PLCs with about 8000 field-points, to HLC, based on a commercial Object-Oriented Real-Time database on Alpha/CompaqTru64 platform. Therefore, authors have to look for cost-effective solutions and finally a CompactPCI-Intel x86 platform with Linux operating system was chosen. A software porting has been done, taking into account the differences between OS9 and Linux operating system in terms of Inter/Network Processes Communications and I/O multi-ports serial driver. This paper describes the hardware/software architecture of the new MLC system, emphasizing the reliability and the low costs of the open source solutions. Moreover, a huge amount of software packages available in open source environment will assure a less painful maintenance, and will open the way to further improvements of the system itself. (authors)

  2. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  3. Coal marketing manual 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This manual provides information on the international coal market in tabulated format. Statistics are presented for the Australian coal industry, exports, currency movements, world coal production, coal and coke imports and exports. Detailed information is provided on the Australian coal industry including mine specific summaries. Pricing summaries for thermal and coking coal in 1987, coal quality standards and specifications, trends in coal prices and stocks. Imports and exports for World coal and coke, details of shipping, international ports and iron and steel production. An exporters index of Australian and overseas companies with industry and government contacts is included. 15 figs., 67 tabs.

  4. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  5. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  6. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  7. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  8. Coal and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  9. PCI Strategies in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction and Cardiogenic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Holger; Akin, Ibrahim; Sandri, Marcus; Fuernau, Georg; de Waha, Suzanne; Meyer-Saraei, Roza; Nordbeck, Peter; Geisler, Tobias; Landmesser, Ulf; Skurk, Carsten; Fach, Andreas; Lapp, Harald; Piek, Jan J; Noc, Marko; Goslar, Tomaž; Felix, Stephan B; Maier, Lars S; Stepinska, Janina; Oldroyd, Keith; Serpytis, Pranas; Montalescot, Gilles; Barthelemy, Olivier; Huber, Kurt; Windecker, Stephan; Savonitto, Stefano; Torremante, Patrizia; Vrints, Christiaan; Schneider, Steffen; Desch, Steffen; Zeymer, Uwe

    2017-12-21

    In patients who have acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock, early revascularization of the culprit artery by means of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) improves outcomes. However, the majority of patients with cardiogenic shock have multivessel disease, and whether PCI should be performed immediately for stenoses in nonculprit arteries is controversial. In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 706 patients who had multivessel disease, acute myocardial infarction, and cardiogenic shock to one of two initial revascularization strategies: either PCI of the culprit lesion only, with the option of staged revascularization of nonculprit lesions, or immediate multivessel PCI. The primary end point was a composite of death or severe renal failure leading to renal-replacement therapy within 30 days after randomization. Safety end points included bleeding and stroke. At 30 days, the composite primary end point of death or renal-replacement therapy had occurred in 158 of the 344 patients (45.9%) in the culprit-lesion-only PCI group and in 189 of the 341 patients (55.4%) in the multivessel PCI group (relative risk, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 0.96; P=0.01). The relative risk of death in the culprit-lesion-only PCI group as compared with the multivessel PCI group was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.98; P=0.03), and the relative risk of renal-replacement therapy was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.49 to 1.03; P=0.07). The time to hemodynamic stabilization, the risk of catecholamine therapy and the duration of such therapy, the levels of troponin T and creatine kinase, and the rates of bleeding and stroke did not differ significantly between the two groups. Among patients who had multivessel coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock, the 30-day risk of a composite of death or severe renal failure leading to renal-replacement therapy was lower among those who initially underwent PCI of the culprit lesion only than among those

  10. Independent predictors of retrograde failure in CTO-PCI after successful collateral channel crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoriyasu; Muto, Makoto; Yamane, Masahisa; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Okamura, Atsunori; Igarashi, Yasumi; Fujita, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Shigeru; Oida, Akitsugu; Tsuchikane, Etsuo

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate factors for predicting retrograde CTO-PCI failure after successful collateral channel crossing. Successful guidewire/catheter collateral channel crossing is important for the retrograde approach in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO). A total of 5984 CTO-PCI procedures performed in 45 centers in Japan from 2009 to 2012 were studied. The retrograde approach was used in 1656 CTO-PCIs (27.7%). We investigated these retrograde procedures to evaluate factors for predicting retrograde CTO-PCI failure even after successful collateral channel crossing. Successful guidewire/catheter collateral crossing was achieved in 77.1% (n = 1,276) of 1656 retrograde CTO-PCI procedures. Retrograde procedural success after successful collateral crossing was achieved in 89.4% (n = 1,141). Univariate analysis showed that the predictors for retrograde CTO-PCI failure were in-stent occlusion (OR = 1.9829, 95%CI = 1.1783 - 3.3370 P = 0.0088), calcified lesions (OR = 1.9233, 95%CI = 1.2463 - 2.9679, P = 0.0027), and lesion tortuosity (OR = 1.5244, 95%CI = 1.0618 - 2.1883, P = 0.0216). On multivariate analysis, lesion calcification was an independent predictor of retrograde CTO-PCI failure after successful collateral channel crossing (OR = 1.3472, 95%CI = 1.0614 - 1.7169, P = 0.0141). The success rate of retrograde CTO-PCI following successful guidewire/catheter collateral channel crossing was high in this registry. Lesion calcification was an independent predictor of retrograde CTO-PCI failure after successful collateral channel crossing. Devices and techniques to overcome complex CTO lesion morphology, such as lesion calcification, are required to further improve the retrograde CTO-PCI success rate. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Femoral Access PCI in a Default Radial Center Identifies High-Risk Patients With Poor Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Muezz; Bundhoo, Shantu; Mitra, Rito; Ossei-Gerning, Nicholas; Morris, Keith; Anderson, Richard; Kinnaird, Tim

    2015-10-01

    Increasingly the trans-radial route (TRR) is preferred over the trans-femoral route (TFR) for PCI. However, even in high volume default TRR centers a cohort of patients undergo TFR PCI. We examined the demographics, procedural characteristics, and outcomes of patients undergoing PCI via the TF. The patient demographics, procedural data, and outcomes of 5,379 consecutive patients undergoing PCI at a default radial center between 2009 and 2012 were examined. Major bleeding (MB) was classified by ACUITY and BARC definitions. A total of 559 (10.4%) patients underwent PCI via the TFR and 4,820 patients via the TRR (89.6%). Baseline variables associated with TFR were shock, previous CABG, chronic total occlusion intervention, rotablation/laser use, female sex, and renal failure. Sixty-five patients of the TFR cohort (11.6%) experienced MB with 27 (41.5%) being access site related. MB was significantly more frequent than in the radial cohort. The variables independently associated with MB in the TFR cohort were renal failure, acute presentation, shock, and age. In the TFR, patients with MB mortality was high at 30 days (17.2% vs 2.6% for no MB, P default radial PCI center 10% of patients undergo PCI via the femoral artery. These patients have high baseline bleeding risk and undergo complex interventions. As a result the incidence of major bleeding, transfusion and death are high. Alternative strategies are required to optimize outcomes in this select group. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  13. PCI-24781 can improve in vitro and in vivo developmental capacity of pig somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Long; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Guo, Qing; Li, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Yu-Chen; Zhang, Guang-Lei; Xing, Xiao-Xu; Xuan, Mei-Fu; Luo, Qi-Rong; Yin, Xi-Jun; Kang, Jin-Dan

    2016-09-01

    To examine the effect of PCI-24781 (abexinostat) on the blastocyst formation rate in pig somatic cell nuclear transferred (SCNT) embryos and acetylation levels of the histone H3 lysine 9 and histone H4 lysine 12. Treatment with 0.5 nM PCI-24781 for 6 h significantly improved the development of cloned embryos, in comparison to the control group (25.3 vs. 10.5 %, P PCI-24781 treatment led to elevated acetylation of H3K9 and H4K12. TUNEL assay and Hoechst 33342 staining revealed that the percentage of apoptotic cells in blastocysts was significantly lower in PCI-24781-treated SCNT embryos than in untreated embryos. Also, PCI-24781-treated embryos were transferred into three surrogate sows, one of whom became pregnant and two fetuses developed. PCI-24781 improves nuclear reprogramming and the developmental potential of pig SCNT embryos.

  14. Antiplatelet drug selection in PCI to vein grafts in patients with acute coronary syndrome and adverse clinical outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sirker, Alex; Kwok, Chun Shing; Kontopantelis, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate outcomes associated with different P2Y12 agents in Saphenous Vein graft (SVG) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: SVG PCI is associated with greater risks of ischemic complications, compared with native coronary PCI. Outcomes associated...... with the use of potent P2Y12 blocking drugs, Prasugrel and Ticagrelor, in SVG PCI are unknown. METHODS: Patients included in the study underwent SVG PCI in the United Kingdom between 2007 and 2014 for acute coronary syndrome and were grouped by P2Y12 antiplatelet use. In-hospital major adverse cardiac events....... CONCLUSIONS: Our real world national study provides no clear evidence to indicate that use of potent P2Y12 blockers in SVG PCI is associated with improved clinical outcomes....

  15. Coal statistics 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statistical Office of the European Communities

    1978-01-01

    Presents tables of data relating to the coal market in the European Community in 1977. The tables cover hard coal production, supply and trade; briquettes; cokes; lignite, brown coal briquettes and peat; and mines and coke ovens.

  16. Australian coal yearbook 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, A [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This yearbook contains a mine directory; details of coal export facilities and ports; annual coal statistics; a buyers' guide; names and addresses of industry organisations and an index of coal mine owners.

  17. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  18. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  19. Australian black coal statistics 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This second edition of Australian black coal statistics replaces the Joint Coal Board's publication 'Black coal in Australia'. It includes an expanded international coal trade supplement. Sections cover resources of black coal, coal supply and demand, coal production, employment and productivity of mines, export data, coal consumption and a directory of producers.

  20. The impact of a 600-mg loading dose of clopidogrel in diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing elective PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohareb, Mina W; Abd Elghany, Mohamed; Sabry, Nirmeen A; Farid, Samar F

    2016-08-01

    High platelet reactivity (HPR) and suboptimal response to dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) may explain high recurrent rates of ischemic events in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of diabetes mellitus on clopidogrel activity in cardiac patients undergoing PCI. This is an observational study. Patients were categorized according to DM status into diabetic group (N.=30) and non-diabetic group (N.=33). All patients received clopidogrel in a loading dose of 600 mg before PCI. Platelet function was assessed using light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) technique at baseline (before clopidogrel administration), 24 hour after clopidogrel loading dose administration and 7-10 days after PCI. All patients were followed up for at least one year after PCI for recurrence of acute cardiac events. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with respect to 10 µm adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation measured at baseline (P=0.64), 24 hours after PCI (P=0.874), and 7-10 days after PCI (0.643). Diabetics were not significantly different from non-diabetics in terms of post-PCI acute stent thrombosis (P=0.945), sub-acute stent thrombosis (P=0.945), unstable angina (P=0.29) and cardiac death (P=0.64). There was a statistically significant difference between patients with and without post-PCI acute events regarding ADP aggregation measured 24 hours and 7-10 days after PCI. The use of a high loading dose of clopidogrel (600 mg) in patients undergoing elective PCI can overcome the significant increase in post-PCI platelet aggregation and rate of acute cardiac events induced by diabetes mellitus as co-morbidity in those patients.

  1. MERCURY CONTROL IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS AND COAL-FIRED UTILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of mercury (Hg) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) and coal-fired utilities has attracted attention due to current and potential regulations. Among several techniques evaluated for Hg control, dry sorbent injection (primarily injection of activated carbon) h...

  2. 1982 Australian coal conference papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This third Australian coal conference included papers discussing the market for coal, finance and investment, use of computers, mining, coal research, coal preparation and waste disposal, marketing and trade, and the transport of coal. All papers have been individually abstracted.

  3. Controversies in the treatment of patients with STEMI and multivessel disease: is it time for PCI of all lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Peter; Sechtem, Udo

    2016-06-01

    Several randomized trials have suggested a benefit for multivessel PCI in patients with STEMI and multivessel disease. However, none of the studies compared multivessel PCI with a staged PCI-approach which is the current guideline recommended approach. The results of the trials may overestimate the beneficial effect of the multivessel PCI approach because the control group did not receive any ischaemia testing for evaluation of the significance of remaining lesions. Thus, unfavourable aspects of the multivessel PCI approach such as overestimation of non-culprit lesions at the time of acute coronary angiography, complications associated with PCI of the non-culprit lesion (i.e. dissection, no-reflow, acute stent thrombosis) or increased risk for contrast induced nephropathy may have gone unnoticed as the comparative management pathway was unusual and likely inferior to the guideline recommended approach. We believe that culprit lesion only PCI and staged evaluation of remaining areas of myocardial ischaemia with subsequent PCI is still preferable in patients with STEMI and multivessel disease but a randomized study comparing this approach with multivessel PCI is needed.

  4. Primary pci in st elevation myocardial infarction : an experience at afic/nihd rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif, M.; Khan, H.S.; Kha, M.N.; Maken, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the practicability, safety, and efficacy of primary percutaneous coronary intervention as a therapeutic option in acute ST elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology- National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC-NIHD) from 18th October 2011 to 30th November 2011. Patients and Methods: All patients presenting with acute STEMI were offered primary PCI. Patients who chose primary PCI as a mode of reperfusion were included in the study. Informed consent was taken and detailed questionnaire was filled for those patients who fulfilled the study criteria. Results: Our initial experience of primary PCI in 33 patients with ST elevation MI has revealed some favourable statistics. Only 01 (3.0%) patient died during hospital stay following the procedure. Thirty two (97%) patients had an uneventful recovery and were successfully discharged 48-72 hours following PCI. Conclusion: We have shown that primary PCI is a viable therapeutic option and can be performed in public sector tertiary care hospitals with excellent immediate, short and long term outcomes despite relatively long symptom onset to emergency room and door-to-balloon times. (author)

  5. APC-PCI complex levels for screening of AAA in patients with peripheral atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Moncef; Keshavarz, Kave; Lindblad, Bengt; Gottsäter, Anders

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the use of activated protein C-protein C inhibitor (APC-PCI) complex levels for detection of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients with peripheral atherosclerotic disease (PAD). APC-PCI levels and aortic diameter evaluated in 511 PAD patients without previously known AAA followed-up concerning survival for 4.8(0.5) years. AAA was found in 13% of patients. Aortic diameter correlated (r = 0.138; p = 0.002) with APC-PCI levels which were higher (0.40[0.45] vs. 0.30[0.49] μg/l; p = 0.004) in patients with AAA. This difference persisted in multivariate analysis (p = 0.029). A threshold value of APC-PCI ≥0.15 μg/L showed a specificity of 11%, a sensitivity of 97% and a negative predictive value of 96% for an AAA diagnosis. APC-PCI levels were higher in patients with AAA, and showed high sensitivity but low specificity for the diagnosis and can therefore not be considered as a screening tool in PAD patients. An AAA prevalence of 13% in patients with PAD indicates a need for AAA screening within this population.

  6. Ultravitrinite coals from Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapo, A.V.; Letushova, I.A.

    1979-03-01

    Chemical and petrographic analysis was conducted on coals from the Anadyrya and Bukhti Ugol'noi deposits. Characteristics of the most prevalent type of vitrinite coals in both regions are presented here. Anadyrya coals belong to a transitional phase between brown coal and long flame. Ultravitrinite coals predominate. Gas coals from Bukti Ugol'noi have a higher carbon content than Anadyrya coals. They also have a higher hydrogen content and yield of initial resin. In several cases there was also a higher yield of volatile substances. Chukotka coals are characterized by a 10 percent higher initial resin yield than equally coalified Donetsk coals, other indicators were equal to those of Donetsk coals. Because of this, Chukotka coals are suitable for fuel in power plants and as raw materials in the chemical industry. (15 refs.) (In Russian)

  7. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  8. Risk prediction models for major adverse cardiac event (MACE) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI): A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, Norhafizah A.; Abidin, Basir

    2015-02-01

    Five percent of patients who went through Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) experienced Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACE) after PCI procedure. Risk prediction of MACE following a PCI procedure therefore is helpful. This work describes a review of such prediction models currently in use. Literature search was done on PubMed and SCOPUS database. Thirty literatures were found but only 4 studies were chosen based on the data used, design, and outcome of the study. Particular emphasis was given and commented on the study design, population, sample size, modeling method, predictors, outcomes, discrimination and calibration of the model. All the models had acceptable discrimination ability (C-statistics >0.7) and good calibration (Hosmer-Lameshow P-value >0.05). Most common model used was multivariate logistic regression and most popular predictor was age.

  9. Step-by-step manual for planning and performing bifurcation PCI: a resource-tailored approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milasinovic, Dejan; Wijns, William; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Hellig, Farrel; Mohamed, Awad; Stankovic, Goran

    2018-02-02

    As bifurcation PCI can often be resource-demanding due to the use of multiple guidewires, balloons and stents, different technical options are sometimes being explored, in different local settings, to meet the need of optimally treating a patient with a bifurcation lesion, while being confronted with limited material resources. Therefore, it seems important to keep a proper balance between what is recognised as the contemporary state of the art, and what is known to be potentially harmful and to be discouraged. Ultimately, the resource-tailored approach to bifurcation PCI may be characterised by the notion of minimum technical requirements for each step of a successful procedure. Hence, this paper describes the logical sequence of steps when performing bifurcation PCI with provisional SB stenting, starting with basic anatomy assessment and ending with the optimisation of MB stenting and the evaluation of the potential need to stent the SB, suggesting, for each step, the minimum technical requirement for a successful intervention.

  10. Prediction of functional recovery after primary PCI using the estimate of myocardial salvage in gated SPECT early after acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabretta, Raffaella; Castello, Angelo; Linguanti, Flavia; Tutino, Francesca; Ciaccio, Alfonso; Sciagra, Roberto [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences ' ' Mario Serio' ' , Florence (Italy); Giglioli, Cristina [Careggi University Hospital, Cardiothoracovascular Department, Florence (Italy)

    2018-04-15

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) aims to achieve myocardial salvage (MS). Because the reference method for measuring MS requires myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) after tracer injection before PCI, alternative approaches have been proposed, but none has gained wide acceptance. Gated SPECT MPI can assess infarct size (IS), but can also show myocardial stunning. Thus, we compared functional and perfusion abnormalities early after AMI to estimate MS, and to predict left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) recovery at follow-up. We studied 120 patients with AMI. Gated SPECT MPI was performed early (before hospital discharge) and at 6 months after AMI to measure IS, MS and functional outcome. MS was defined as the difference between the number of segments with abnormal thickening (i.e. the stunned area or area at risk) and the number of segments with abnormal perfusion (i.e. the final IS), expressed as a percentage of the total number of segments in the AHA model. LVEF was calculated using quantitative gated SPECT. The area at risk was 40 ± 25%, IS was 17.3 ± 16% and MS was 22 ± 19%. Early LVEF was 46.6 ± 11.6% and late LVEF was 51.4 ± 11.6%, with 54 patients showing at least an increase in LVEF of more than 5 units. ROC analysis showed that MS was able to predict LVEF recovery with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.79 (p < 0.0001), and using a cut off >23% detected LVEF recovery with 74% sensitivity and 71% specificity. Conversely, IS was associated with an AUC 0.53 (not significant). MS assessed by a single early gated SPECT MPI study can accurately predict LVEF evolution after primary PCI for AMI. (orig.)

  11. The Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Revised Prenatal Coping Inventory (Nu-PCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Pasha, Hajar; Khafri, Sorayya; Heidary, Shima

    2017-03-01

    Familiarity with coping strategies is essential for stress management during pregnancy. The Revised Prenatal Coping Inventory (Nu-PCI) was developed to assess coping strategies during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Nu-PCI. After forward-backward translation, the Nu-PCI was administered to 210 pregnant women who were enrolled in two teaching referral clinics in the North of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Babol). The participants completed the Persian Nu-PCI and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ), which was used to determine the validity of the Persian Nu-PCI. To test construct validity of the Persian Nu-PCI, a principal components factor analysis was performed. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation showed a best fitting 3-factor structure similar to the original with three coping subscales: planning-preparation, avoidance, and spiritual-positive coping. The Persian Nu-PCI was internally consistent and within the acceptable range (α=0.89-0.97). The alpha coefficients for the Nu-PCI and the subscales of planning-preparation, avoidance, and spiritual-positive coping were high. Test-retest coefficients for the Nu-PCI and subscales were 0.98-0.99. The Nu-PCI and its subscales correlated with the WCQ in the entire sample and within each trimester. The Persian version of the Nu-PCI and the subscales of planning-preparation, avoidance, and spiritual-positive coping represent the first reliable standardized tool for measuring coping strategies during pregnancy in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Therefore, it can be applied as a quick and accurate preliminary screening tool for evaluating coping strategies throughout pregnancy in clinics and other medical and research settings.

  12. The Road Pavement Condition Index (PCI Evaluation and Maintenance: A Case Study of Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Fareed M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pavement condition index (PCI is a simple, convenient and inexpensive way to monitor the condition of the surface of roads, identify maintenance and rehabilitation (M-and-R needs as well as ensure that road maintenance budgets are spent wisely. In this research, the pavement condition was evaluated in terms of the surface distresses existing at the time of the field evaluation. The PCI procedure was used in this research because it deals with the subject of pavement distress identification most comprehensively and is based on a sound statistical technique of pavement sampling.

  13. Age is not a bar to PCI: Insights from the long-term outcomes from off-site PCI in a real-world setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Robert T; Arri, Satpal S; Mohamed, Mohamed O; Dhillon, Gurpreet; Bandali, Alykhan; Harding, Idris; Gifford, Jeremy; Sandler, Belinda; Corbo, Ben; McWilliams, Eric

    2017-08-01

    We sought to analyze the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) outcomes of very elderly patients (V. Eld. group, age >80 years) and compare their outcomes to a less elderly cohort (Eld. group, age 75-80 years) traditionally reported in the literature. Limited data exist on peri-procedural and long-term outcomes following PCI in the V. Eld. (age >80 years), with under-representation of this cohort in randomized controlled trials. These patients present with advanced complex coronary disease and multiple comorbidities. All 580 consecutive patients aged ≥75 years (age 80 ± 4.9 years, 57.4% males) undergoing PCI between April 2006 and November 2011 were included. A total of 624 consecutive lesions were identified and analyzed. All V. Eld. patients (n = 253) were subsequently selected, and their outcomes compared to Eld. patients (n = 327). Mean follow-up was 30.8 ± 2.7 months with 98% clinical follow-up achieved. All comparative data are expressed as (V. Eld. vs Eld.) unless otherwise specified. All-cause mortality was significantly higher in the V. Eld. group (11.9% vs 6.1%), although this did not translate into a significant difference in cardiac mortality (6.3% vs 3.7%) or major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (16.2% vs 12.5%). The composite incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, definite/probable stent thrombosis, and TIMI major bleed was 4.7%, 1.4% 1.9%, and 6.4%, respectively with no significant difference between both cohorts. This study demonstrates an acceptable occurrence of MI, death, repeat intervention, and stent thrombosis in a high-risk group of V. Eld. patients with de novo lesions. Age alone in the absence of other non-cardiac factors should not prohibit a patient from access to PCI. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Record coking coal settlements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, C.

    2005-02-01

    The US$100/tonne psychological barrier in coking coal prices has been well and truly smashed. The article examines developments in coal pricing. It includes quotes from many senior executives in the coal industry as collected at McCloskey's Australian Coal.04 conference held in Sydney, 18-19 November 2004. 2 photos.

  15. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  16. Granisetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granisetron immediate-release injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and to ... nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with ...

  17. Edaravone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which ... die, causing the muscles to shrink and weaken). Edaravone injection is in a class of medications called ...

  18. Meropenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  19. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  20. Colistimethate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  1. Defibrotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defibrotide injection is used to treat adults and children with hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD; blocked blood ... the body and then returned to the body). Defibrotide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  2. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  3. Coal option. [Shell Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  4. Concerning coal: an anthology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.; Hawse, M.L.; Maloney, P.J. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The anthology takes a humanistic look at coal mining in Illinois. One of its goals is to increase public awareness of coal in American society; it also seeks to enhance understanding of the historical aspects of coal and to study the impact of coal on mining families. Many of the 25 selections in the anthology come from Coal Research Center publications, `Concerning coal` and `Mineral matters`. Articles are arranged in three parts entitled: life in the mining community; mining in folklore, story telling, literature, art and music; and technology as it affected the people of the coal fields. 117 refs., 25 photos. 1 map.

  5. Coal information 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This volume is a comprehensive reference book on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects to 2010. It contains an in-depth analysis of the 1995 international coal market covering prices, demand, trade, supply and production capacity as well as over 450 pages of country specific statistics on OECD and key non-OECD coal producing and consuming countries. The book also includes a summary of environmental policies on climate change and on coal-related air quality issues as well as essential facts on coal-fired power stations in coal-importing regions, on coal ports world-wide and on emission standards for coal-fired boilers in OECD countries. Coal Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Oil and Gas Information and Electricity Information. Coal Information 1995 is published in July 1996. (author)

  6. Coal yearbook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

  7. Real-time fusion of coronary CT angiography with X-ray fluoroscopy during chronic total occlusion PCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Takx, Richard A.P. [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Stone, Luke L.; Yeh, Robert W.; Jaffer, Farouc A. [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac Cathetrization Laboratory, Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Girard, Erin E. [Siemens Healthcare, Princeton, NJ (United States); Brilakis, Emmanouil S. [Cardiology Division, Dallas VA Medical Center and UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Lombardi, William L. [University of Washington, Cardiology Division, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of real-time fusion of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) centreline and arterial wall calcification with X-ray fluoroscopy during chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients undergoing CTO PCI were prospectively enrolled. Pre-procedural CT scans were integrated with conventional coronary fluoroscopy using prototype software. We enrolled 24 patients who underwent CTO PCI using the prototype CT fusion software, and 24 consecutive CTO PCI patients without CT guidance served as a control group. Mean age was 66 ± 11 years, and 43/48 patients were men. Real-time CTA fusion during CTO PCI provided additional information regarding coronary arterial calcification and tortuosity that generated new insights into antegrade wiring, antegrade dissection/reentry, and retrograde wiring during CTO PCI. Overall CTO success rates and procedural outcomes remained similar between the two groups, despite a trend toward higher complexity in the fusion CTA group. This study demonstrates that real-time automated co-registration of coronary CTA centreline and calcification onto live fluoroscopic images is feasible and provides new insights into CTO PCI, and in particular, antegrade dissection reentry-based CTO PCI. (orig.)

  8. The effects of tirofiban infusion on clinical and angiographic outcomes of patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymaz, Cihangir; Keleş, Nurşen; Özdemir, Nihal; Tanboğa, İbrahim Halil; Demircan, Hacer C; Can, Mehmet M; Koca, Fatih; İzgi, İbrahim Akın; Özkan, Alper; Türkmen, Muhsin; Kırma, Cevat; Esen, Ali M

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effects of tirofiban (Tiro) infusion on angiographic measures, ST-segment resolution, and clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI undergoing PCI. Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors are beneficial in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), while the most effective timing of administration is still under investigation. A total of 1242 patients (83.0% males, mean (standard deviation; SD) age: 54.7 (10.9) years) with STEMI who underwent primary PCI were included in this retrospective non-randomized study in four groups, composed of no tirofiban infusion [Tiro (-); n=248], tirofiban infusion before PCI (pre-Tiro; n=720), tirofiban infusion during PCI (peri-Tiro; n=50), and tirofiban infusion after PCI (post-Tiro; n=224). In all Tiro (+) patients, bolus administration of Tiro (10 µg/kg) was followed by infusion (0.15 µg/kg/min) for a mean (SD) duration of 22.4±6.8 hours. The pre-PCI Tiro group was associated with the highest percentage of patients with TIMI 3 flow (99.4%; p75% ST-segment resolution (78.1%; pPCI significantly improves myocardial reperfusion, ST-segment resolution, in-hospital mortality rate, and in-hospital sudden cardiac death in patients with STEMI with no increased risk of major bleeding.

  9. ACR coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is a comprehensive reference document on production, exports, prices and demand of coal in world markets. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is provided. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, Canada, Indonesia, China, C.I.S. and Colombia. A very comprehensive coal quality specification for nearly all the coal brands exported from Australia, as well as leading non-Australian coal brands, is included.

  10. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  11. The Influence of Comprehensive Cardiac Rehabilitation on Heart Rate Variability Indices after CABG is More Effective than after PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielska, Katarzyna; Szmigielska-Kapłon, Anna; Jegier, Anna

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on heart rate variability (HRV) indices in men with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). The study population consisted of 131 male patients with CAD prospectively and consecutively admitted to CR after PCI n = 72, or CABG n = 59. Participants performed cycle ergometer interval training for 45 min three times a week for 8 weeks. At baseline and after 8 weeks, all patients underwent the HRV assessment. HRV indices in CAGB survivals were significantly lower in comparison to PCI patients at baseline. Significant increases were seen for SDNN, rMSSD, and HF in the CABG group and only in HF component in PCI group after 8 weeks of CR. Eight weeks of CR seems to be more effective in CABG patients than patients after PCI.

  12. PCI Based Read-out Receiver Card in the ALICE DAQ System

    CERN Document Server

    Carena, W; Dénes, E; Divià, R; Schossmaier, K; Soós, C; Sulyán, J; Vascotto, Alessandro; Van de Vyvre, P

    2001-01-01

    The Detector Data Link (DDL) is the high-speed optical link for the ALICE experiment. This link shall transfer the data coming from the detectors at 100 MB/s rate. The main components of the link have been developed: the destination Interface Unit (DIU), the Source Interface Unit (SIU) and the Read-out Receiver Card (RORC). The first RORC version is based on the VME bus. The performance tests show that the maximum VME bandwidth could be reached. Meanwhile the PCI bus became very popular and is used in many platforms. The development of a PCI-based version has been started. The document describes the prototype version in three sections. An overview explains the main purpose of the card: to provide an interface between the DDL and the PCI bus. Acting as a 32bit/33MHz PCI master the card is able to write or read directly to or from the system memory from or to the DDL, respectively. Beside these functions the card can also be used as an autonomous data generator. The card has been designed to be well adapted to ...

  13. Condition Assessment of PCI Bridge Girder a Result of The Reduction Prestressing Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suangga Made

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PCI bridge girders is known and widely used for many construction e.g.: bridge, wharf, flyover, and other application. PC Bridge girders have two types: Pre - tensioned girders and post - tensioned girders. In pre tensioned girders, prestressing in carried out first then after that the fresh concrete poured. The prestressing process in only carried off after the concrete has sufficient strength. In this study, analysis was conducted for PCI bridge girder with span is 40 meters. Based on the data geometry bridge dimension girder, material girder, and material strands cable, it will be analyzed to calculate the natural frequencies and moment capacity using finite element program (Midas/Civil program. So it can be estimated how much the percentage reduction prestress force on the bridge until PCI bridge structure collapses. From the calculation, it found that the pattern comparison between reduction prestressing force and natural frequency are linear. These results are also similar for natural frequency versus moment capacity.PCI bridge will collapse when the reduction prestreesing force of 45 % to 50 % from the total loss of prestressing.

  14. Short- and Long-Term Cause of Death in Patients Treated With Primary PCI for STEMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frants; Butrymovich, Vitalij; Kelbæk, Henning

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short-term mortality has been studied thoroughly in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), whereas long-term cause of death in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to des......BACKGROUND: Short-term mortality has been studied thoroughly in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), whereas long-term cause of death in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study...... was to describe the association between time and cause of death in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. METHODS: A centralized civil registration system, patient files, and public disease and death cause registries with an accurate record linkage were used to trace time and cause of death in 2......,804 consecutive patients with STEMI (age 63 ± 13 years, 72% males) treated with primary PCI. RESULTS: Patients were followed up for a median of 4.7 years. During a total of 13,447 patient-years, 717 patients died. Main causes of death within the first 30 days were cardiogenic shock and anoxic brain injury after...

  15. Primary PCI: time to change focus from epicardial reperfusion towards protection of the microvasculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lavieren, Martijn A.; van de Hoef, Tim P.; Piek, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial tissue perfusion remains compromised in 30-40% of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) despite restored epicardial patency after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). This phenomenon is attributed to microvascular dysfunction secondary to numerous

  16. The association between type D personality, and depression and anxiety ten years after PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qezweny, M N A; Utens, E M W J; Dulfer, K; Hazemeijer, B A F; van Geuns, R-J; Daemen, J; van Domburg, R

    2016-09-01

    There are indications that type D personality and depression are associated in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, at present it is unclear whether this relationship holds in the long term. This study's aim was to investigate the association between type D personality at 6 months post-PCI (baseline), and depression at 10-year follow-up. A secondary aim was to test the association between type D personality at baseline and anxiety at 10-year follow-up. A cohort of surviving consecutive patients (N = 534) who underwent PCI between October 2001 and October 2002. Patients completed the type D personality scale (DS14) measuring type D personality at baseline, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) measuring anxiety and depression at baseline and at 10 years post-PCI. At baseline, the prevalence of type D personality was 25 % (135/534). Type D personality patients were more often depressed (42 %) than non-type D personality patients (9 %). Response rate of anxiety and depression questionnaires at 10 years was 75 %. At 10-year follow-up, 31 % of type D personality patients were depressed versus 13 % of non-type D personality patients. After adjustments, baseline type D personality remained independently associated with depression at 10 years (OR = 3.69; 95 % CI [1.89-7.19]). Type D showed a similar association with anxiety at 10 years, albeit somewhat lower (OR = 2.72; 95 % CI [1.31-5.63]). PCI patients with type D personality had a 3.69-fold increased risk for depression and a 2.72-fold increased risk for anxiety at 10 years of follow-up.

  17. Effect of preoperative small dose of tirofiban on PCI treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of preoperative small dose of tirofiban on PCI treatment prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Methods: A total of 108 cases with acute coronary syndrome who received PCI treatment in our hospital from August 2011 to May 2014 were included for study and randomly divided into observation group and control group by half according to different treatment methods. Control group received PCI treatment alone, observation group received small dose of tirofiban combined with PCI treatment, and then differences in hemorheology indicators, platelet function, left ventricular systolic function and left ventricular diastolic function parameters, serum indicators and so on were compared between two groups after treatment. Results: Whole blood high shear viscosity, whole blood low shear viscosity, reduced high shear viscosity, reduced low shear viscosity, plasma ratio viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation index and erythrocyte deformability index of observation group after treatment were all less than those of control group (P<0.05; PAdT, PAgT, CD62p, CD40L and P-selectin values of observation group after treatment were all lower than those of control group (P<0.05; LPER and LPFR values of observation group 1 week after treatment were higher than those of control group while LTPER and LTPFR values were lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum GA, MCP-1, PAI-1, NT-proBNP, PAC-1, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 values of observation group after treatment were all lower than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Small dose of tirofiban combined with PCI treatment for patients with acute coronary syndrome can effectively enhance therapeutic effect, inhibit platelet activity while protect heart function and optimize long-term treatment outcome.

  18. Coal information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  19. COAL DUST EMISSION PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article aims to develop 2D numerical models for the prediction of atmospheric pollution during transportation of coal in the railway car, as well as the ways to protect the environment and the areas near to the mainline from the dust emission due to the air injection installation. Methodology. To solve this problem there were developed numerical models based on the use of the equations of motion of an inviscid incompressible fluid and mass transfer. For the numerical integration of the transport equation of the pollutant the implicit alternating-triangular difference scheme was used. For numerical integration of the 2D equation for the velocity potential the method of total approximation was used. The developed numerical models are the basis of established software package. On the basis of the constructed numerical models it was carried out a computational experiment to assess the level of air pollution when transporting bulk cargo by rail when the railway car has the air injection. Findings. 2D numerical models that belong to the class «diagnostic models» were developed. These models take into account the main physical factors affecting the process of dispersion of dust pollution in the atmosphere during transportation of bulk cargo. The developed numerical models make it possible to calculate the dust loss process, taking into account the use of the air injection of the car. They require a small cost of the computer time during practical realization at the low and medium power machines. There were submitted computational calculations to determine pollutant concentrations and the formation of the zone of pollution near the train with bulk cargo in «microscale» scale taking into account the air curtains. Originality. 2D numerical models taking into account the relevant factors influencing the process of dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere, and the formation of the zone of pollution during transportation of bulk cargo by

  20. PCI is Not Predictive of Survival After Complete CRS/HIPEC in Peritoneal Dissemination from High-Grade Appendiceal Primaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votanopoulos, Konstantinos Ioannis; Bartlett, David; Moran, Brendan; Haroon, Choudry M; Russell, Greg; Pingpank, James F; Ramalingam, Lekshmi; Kandiah, Chandrakumaran; Chouliaras, Konstantinos; Shen, Perry; Levine, Edward A

    2018-03-01

    Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) is a treatment option in patients with carcinomatosis from high-grade appendiceal (HGA) primaries. It is unknown if there is a Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Index (PCI) upper limit above which a complete CRS/HIPEC does not assure long-term survival. Retrospective analysis from three centers was performed. The PCI was used to grade volume of of disease. Survival in relation to PCI was studied on patients with complete cytoreduction. Overall, 521 HGA patients underwent CRS/HIPEC from 1993 to 2015, with complete CRS being achieved in 50% (260/622). Mean PCI was 14.8 (standard deviation 8.7, range 0-36). Median survival for the complete CRS cohort was 6.1 years, while 5- and 10-year survival was 51.7% (standard error [SE] 4.6) and 36.1% (SE 6.3), respectively. Arbitrary cut-off PCI limits with 5-point splits (p = 0.63) were not predictive of a detrimental effect on survival as long as a complete CRS was achieved. A linear effect of the PCI on survival (p = 0.62) was not observed, and single-point PCI cohort splits within a PCI range of  10 were not predictive of survival for complete CRS patients. The PCI correlated with the ability to achieve a complete CRS, with a mean PCI of 14.7 (8.7) for completeness of cytoreduction (CC)0, 22.3 (7.8) for CC1 and 26.1 (9.5) for CC2/3 resections (p = 0.0001, hazard ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.09), with an HR of 1.15 for each 1-unit increase in the PCI score. Only 21% of the cohort achieved a complete CRS with a PCI ≥ 21. The PCI correlates with the ability to achieve a complete CRS in carcinomatosis from HGA. PCI is not associated with survival as long as a complete CRS can be achieved.

  1. "PCI Reading Program": The Final Report of a Three Year Experimental Study in Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby, Megan; Jaciw, Andrew; Ma, Boya; Lipton, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    PCI Education conducted a three-year longitudinal study to determine the comparative effectiveness of the "PCI Reading Program" ("PCI") for students with severe disabilities as implemented in Florida's Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. The primary question addressed by the study is whether students…

  2. Immediate multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention versus culprit lesion intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock: results of the ALKK-PCI registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeymer, Uwe; Hochadel, Mathias; Thiele, Holger; Andresen, Dietrich; Schühlen, Helmut; Brachmann, Johannes; Elsässer, Albrecht; Gitt, Anselm; Zahn, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    Current guidelines recommend immediate multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with cardiogenic shock, despite the lack of randomised trials. We sought to investigate the use and impact on outcome of multivessel PCI in current practice in cardiogenic shock in Germany. Between January 2008 and December 2011 a total of 735 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock and multivessel coronary artery disease underwent immediate PCI in 41 hospitals in Germany. Of these, 173 (23.5%) patients were treated with immediate multivessel PCI. The acute success of PCI with respect to TIMI 3 flow did not differ between the groups (82.5% versus 79.6%). In-hospital mortality with multivessel PCI and culprit lesion PCI was 46.8% and 35.8%, respectively. In multivariate analysis multivessel PCI was associated with an increased mortality (odds ratio 1.5; 95% confidence interval 1.15-1.84). In current clinical practice in Germany multivessel PCI is used only in one quarter of patients with cardiogenic shock treated with primary PCI. We observed an adverse effect of immediate multivessel PCI. Therefore, a randomised trial is needed to determine the definitive role of multivessel PCI in cardiogenic shock.

  3. Development and start up of a co-injection system of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace no. 4; Desarrollo y puesta en operacion de un sistema de co-inyeccion de alquitran/gas natural en el alto horno no. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon Rodriguez, Manuel I; Mata Esparza, Hector Rolando; Arevalo Ballesteros, Gerardo [Altos Hornos de Mexico S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The crisis has attracted the world`s attention on the need for energy conservation and the development in a greater extent the utilization of carbon base fuels and other energy sources (nuclear energy). Being a blast furnace, not only an energy consumer but also an energy producer, the greatest contribution to the pig iron cost is the energy needed to melt and reduce to metallic state the iron ores, this energy is mainly derived from coke. The dependence on coal via the coking plant to produce first fusion iron is incremented day after day as a result of the high levels of production. Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA), contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of pig iron is pending. The injection of fuels into a blast furnace through its nozzles is a technology used for the diminishing the coke consumption of coke, its use implies a change in the philosophy of the blast furnace operation, and is currently employed in most of the blast furnaces of the world. AHMSA taking advantage of coal tar production (approx. 130 tons/day) in its coking plants decided the design and put into operation a co-injection system of coal tar and natural gas. The activities tending to carry out this project were initiated on April 1993, performing all of them with its own resources, completing them on July 18, 1993, day on which the injection of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace No. 4 in a stable form. To date (October 1993), the coal tar injection has been increased up to 36 kg/ton of pig iron. During the injection periods, the presence of operational, mechanical and instrumentation problems have not been an obstacle for the evolution on the injection, fulfilling its function of substituting coke in a replacing relationship of 1:1, i.e. 1 kg of coal tar per each kg of coke, without affecting the product quality

  4. Development and start up of a co-injection system of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace no. 4; Desarrollo y puesta en operacion de un sistema de co-inyeccion de alquitran/gas natural en el alto horno no. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon Rodriguez, Manuel I.; Mata Esparza, Hector Rolando; Arevalo Ballesteros, Gerardo [Altos Hornos de Mexico S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The crisis has attracted the world`s attention on the need for energy conservation and the development in a greater extent the utilization of carbon base fuels and other energy sources (nuclear energy). Being a blast furnace, not only an energy consumer but also an energy producer, the greatest contribution to the pig iron cost is the energy needed to melt and reduce to metallic state the iron ores, this energy is mainly derived from coke. The dependence on coal via the coking plant to produce first fusion iron is incremented day after day as a result of the high levels of production. Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA), contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of pig iron is pending. The injection of fuels into a blast furnace through its nozzles is a technology used for the diminishing the coke consumption of coke, its use implies a change in the philosophy of the blast furnace operation, and is currently employed in most of the blast furnaces of the world. AHMSA taking advantage of coal tar production (approx. 130 tons/day) in its coking plants decided the design and put into operation a co-injection system of coal tar and natural gas. The activities tending to carry out this project were initiated on April 1993, performing all of them with its own resources, completing them on July 18, 1993, day on which the injection of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace No. 4 in a stable form. To date (October 1993), the coal tar injection has been increased up to 36 kg/ton of pig iron. During the injection periods, the presence of operational, mechanical and instrumentation problems have not been an obstacle for the evolution on the injection, fulfilling its function of substituting coke in a replacing relationship of 1:1, i.e. 1 kg of coal tar per each kg of coke, without affecting the product quality

  5. Monitoring of Underground Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wagoner, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramirez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-08-31

    For efficient and responsible UCG operations, a UCG process must be monitored in the following three categories: 1) process parameters such as injection and product gas flow rates, temperature, pressure and syngas content and heating value; 2) geomechanical parameters, e.g., cavity and coal seam pressures, cavity development, subsidence and ground deformation; and 3) environmental parameters, e.g., groundwater chemistry and air quality. This report focuses on UCG monitoring with geophysical techniques that can contribute to monitoring of subsurface temperature, cavity development, burn front, subsidence and deformation.

  6. Trends in Japanese coal trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, S

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses 1) the latest forecast for coal demand in Japan; 2) trends in Japanese steam coal demand, with breakdown by industry; 3) the organization of steam coal supply, with details of the distribution network and of the new coal cartridge system; 4) the demand for metallurgical coal. Other topics outlined include the current status of Japanese coal production, Japanese coal trade, and the development of overseas coal resources. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  7. Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation (PCI) versus Active MRI Surveillance for Small Cell Lung Cancer: The Case for Equipoise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusthoven, Chad G; Kavanagh, Brian D

    2017-12-01

    Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for SCLC offers a consistent reduction in the incidence of brain metastases at the cost of measurable toxicity to neurocognitive function and quality of life, in the setting of characteristic pathologic changes to the brain. The sequelae of PCI have historically been justified by the perception of an overall survival advantage specific to SCLC. This rationale has now been challenged by a randomized trial in extensive-stage SCLC demonstrating equivalent progression-free survival and a trend toward improved overall survival with PCI omission in the context of modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) staging and surveillance. In this article, we critically examine the randomized trials of PCI in extensive-stage SCLC and discuss their implications on the historical data supporting PCI for limited-stage SCLC from the pre-MRI era. Further, we review the toxicity of moderate doses of radiation to the entire brain that underlie the growing interest in active MRI surveillance and PCI omission. Finally, the evidence supporting prospective investigation of radiosurgery for limited brain metastases in SCLC is reviewed. Overall, our aim is to provide an evidence-based assessment of the debate over PCI versus active MRI surveillance and to highlight the need for contemporary trials evaluating optimal central nervous system management in SCLC. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of rosuvastatin intensification therapy on blood lipid metabolism, adipocytokines and plaque stability after PCI in ACS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Quan Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of rosuvastatin intensification therapy on blood lipid metabolism, adipocytokines and plaque stability after PCI in ACS patients. Methods: ACS patients who received PCI in the hospital between July 2015 and January 2017were reviewed and divided into the routine dose group (n=60 who received rosuvastatin routine dose therapy after PCI and the intensification therapy group (n=46 who received rosuvastatin intensification therapy after PCI. The differences in blood lipid metabolism, adipocytokines and plaque stability were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before PCI, the differences in blood lipid metabolism, adipocytokines and plaque stability were not statistically significant between the two groups. 1 month after PCI, lipid metabolism indexes HDL-C and ApoA1 levels in peripheral blood of intensification therapy group were higher than those of routine dose group while LDL-C and ApoB levels were lower than those of routine dose group; adipocytokines APN and Leptin levels in serum were higher than those of routine dose group while Resistin level was lower than that of routine dose group; plaque stability- related indexes ICAM-1, MMP-1 and TIMP-1 levels were lower than those of routine dose group. Conclusion: Rosuvastatin intensification therapy after PCI could effectively regulate the lipid metabolism and increase the plaque stability in ACS patients.

  9. B-type Natriuretic Peptide and RISK-PCI Score in the Risk Assessment in Patients with STEMI Treated by Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanin, Milika; Mrdovic, Igor; Savic, Lidija; Matic, Dragan; Krljanac, Gordana; Vukcevic, Vladan; Orlic, Dejan; Stankovic, Goran; Marinkovic, Jelena; Stankovic, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    RISK-PCI score is a novel score for risk stratification of patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the RISK-PCI score for early risk assessment in patients with STEMI treated by pPCI. In 120 patients with STEMI treated by pPCI, BNP was measured on admission before pPCI. The primary end point was 30-day mortality. The ROC curve analysis revealed that the most powerful predictive factors of 30-day mortality were the plasma level of BNP ≥ 206.6 pg/mL with the sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 87.5% and the RISK-PCI score ≥ 5.25 with the sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 85.7%. Thirty-day mortality was 6.7%. After multivariate adjustment, admission BNP (≥ 206.6 pg/mL) (OR 2.952, 95% CI 1.072 - 8.133, p = 0.036) and the RISK-PCI score (≥ 5.25) (OR 2.284, 95% CI 1.140-4.578, p = 0.020) were independent predictors of 30-day mortality. The area under the ROC curve using the RISK-PCI score and BNP to detect mortality was 0.828 (p = 0.002) and 0.903 (p PCI score increased the area under the ROC to 0.949 (p PCI score for 30-day mortality. BNP on admission and the RISK-PCI score were the independent predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with the STEMI treated by pPCI. BNP in combination with the RISK-PCI score showed the way to more accurate risk assessment in patients with STEMI treated by pPCI.

  10. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  11. Coal marketing manual 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This manual presents information for the use of marketers, consumers, analysts and investors. The information is presented in a series of tables and figures. Statistics are given for: Australian export tonnages and average export values for 1978-1985; international pig iron production 1976 to 1985; and international crude steel production 1979 to 1985. Trends in Australian export tonnages and prices of coal are reviewed. Details of international loading and discharge ports are given, together with a historical summary of shipping freight-rates since 1982. Long term contract prices for thermal and coking coal to Japan are tabulated. A review of coal and standards is given, together with Australian standards for coal and coke. A section on coal quality is included containing information on consumer coal quality preferences and Australian and Overseas coal brands and qualities. Finally an index is given of contact details of Australian and Overseas exporting companies, government departments, and the Australian Coal Association.

  12. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  13. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure ...

  14. Hydromorphone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anyone else to use your medication. Store hydromorphone injection in a safe place so that no one else can use it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how much medication is left so ... with hydromorphone injection may increase the risk that you will develop ...

  15. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an older adult, you should know that ketorolac injection is not as safe as other medications that can be used to treat your condition. Your doctor may choose to prescribe a different medication ... to ketorolac injection.Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the ...

  16. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (pak'' li tax' el)Paclitaxel injection must be given in a hospital or medical facility under the supervision of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer.Paclitaxel injection may cause a large decrease in the number of white blood cells (a type of blood cell ...

  17. Fording Canadian Coal Trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popowich, J.; Millos, R. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This is the first of five slide/overhead presentations presented at the Fording Canadian Coal Trust and Tech Cominco Ltd. investor day and mine tour. The Fording Canadian Coal Trust is described. The Trust's assets comprise six Elk Valley metallurgical coal mines and six wollastonite operations (in the NYCO Group). Trust structure, corporate responsibility, organizational structure, reserves and resources, management philosophy, operating strategies, steel market dynamics, coal market, production expansion, sales and distribution are outlined. 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Coal. [1987 and 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    Despite increases in recently negotiated coal prices in US dollar terms, unit export returns for Australian coal are expected to rise only marginally in 1988-89 due to the anticipated appreciation of the Australian dollar. Australian coal production is expected to recover in 1988-89, after falling in 1987-88. A table summarising coal statistics in 1985-87 is presented. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Review biodepyritisation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, C.; Sukla, L.B.; Misra, V.N. [Regional Research Lab., Orissa (India)

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a detailed summary of the recent and past research activities in the area of biodesulfurisation of coal. It provides information about microorganisms important for biodesulfurisation of coal, with the emphasis on Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The review presents an insight into various methods of desulfurisation of coal combining physical and biological methods. Also, there are discussions on coal structure, distribution, mechanism and kinetics of pyrite oxidation and jarosite precipitation. Finally, areas requiring further research are identified.

  20. Coal dust symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This paper gives a report of the paper presented at the symposium held in Hanover on 9 and 10 February 1981. The topics include: the behaviour of dust and coal dust on combustion and explosion; a report on the accidents which occurred at the Laegerdorf cement works' coal crushing and drying plant; current safety requirements at coal crushing and drying plant; and coal crushing and drying. Four papers are individually abstracted. (In German)

  1. Coal world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A brief analysis of major tendencies in the world market of coal is presented. It is pointed out that recent years, by and large, were favourable for the development of the world coal industry. Prices for coal (both for power-grade and coking one) in 1995 after many years of depressive state increased by nearly 20 % and reached a maximum of the last decade. International coal trading continues to grow and the tendency may persist in the mext two years

  2. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  3. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  4. Coal economics and taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain opening remarks, the luncheon and dinner addresses, list of delegates and the papers presented at the four sessions on Coal Mines cost money - for what.; Coal mines cost money - Where the money comes from; taxation and royalty policies; and the coal industry view on operating costs. Sixteen papers are abstracted separately.

  5. Efficient photocarrier injection in a transition metal oxide heterostructure

    CERN Document Server

    Muraoka, Y; Ueda, Y; Hiroi, Z

    2002-01-01

    An efficient method for doping a transition metal oxide (TMO) with hole carriers is presented: photocarrier injection (PCI) in an oxide heterostructure. It is shown that an insulating vanadium dioxide (VO sub 2) film is rendered metallic under light irradiation by PCI from an n-type titanium dioxide (TiO sub 2) substrate doped with Nb. Consequently, a large photoconductivity, which is exceptional for TMOs, is found in the VO sub 2 /TiO sub 2 :Nb heterostructure. We propose an electronic band structure where photoinduced holes created in TiO sub 2 :Nb can be transferred into the filled V 3d band via the low-lying O 2p band of VO sub 2. (letter to the editor)

  6. Evaluation of a Compact Coaxial Underground Coal Gasification System Inside an Artificial Coal Seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-qiang Su

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Underground Coal Gasification (UCG system is a clean technology for obtaining energy from coal. The coaxial UCG system is supposed to be compact and flexible in order to adapt to complicated geological conditions caused by the existence of faults and folds in the ground. In this study, the application of a coaxial UCG system with a horizontal well is discussed, by means of an ex situ model UCG experiment in a large-scale simulated coal seam with dimensions of 550 × 600 × 2740 mm. A horizontal well with a 45-mm diameter and a 2600-mm length was used as an injection/production well. During the experiment, changes in temperature field and product gas compositions were observed when changing the outlet position of the injection pipe. It was found that the UCG reactor is unstable and expands continuously due to fracturing activity caused by coal crack initiation and extension under the influence of thermal stress. Therefore, acoustic emission (AE is considered an effective tool to monitor fracturing activities and visualize the gasification zone of coal. The results gathered from monitoring of AEs agree with the measured data of temperatures; the source location of AE was detected around the region where temperature increased. The average calorific value of the produced gas was 6.85 MJ/Nm3, and the gasification efficiency, defined as the conversion efficiency of the gasified coal to syngas, was 65.43%, in the whole experimental process. The study results suggest that the recovered coal energy from a coaxial UCG system is comparable to that of a conventional UCG system. Therefore, a coaxial UCG system may be a feasible option to utilize abandoned underground coal resources without mining.

  7. 3D Geological Modeling of CoalBed Methane (CBM) Resources in the Taldykuduk Block Karaganda Coal Basin, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, Raman; Kiponievich Ogay, Evgeniy; Royer, Jean-Jacques; Zhapbasbayev, Uzak; Panfilova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Coal Bed Methane (CBM) is gas stored in coal layers. It can be extracted from wells after hydraulic fracturing and/or solvent injection, and secondary recovery techniques such as CO2 injection. Karaganda Basin is a very favorable candidate region to develop CBM production for the following reasons: (i) Huge gas potential; (ii) Available technologies for extracting and commercializing the gas produced by CBM methods; (iii) Experience in degassing during underground mining operations for safety reasons; (iv) Local needs in energy for producing electricity for the industrial and domestic market. The objectives of this work are to model the Taldykuduk block coal layers and their properties focusing on Coal Bed Methane production. It is motivated by the availability of large coal bed methane resources in Karaganda coal basin which includes 4 300 Bm3 equivalent 2 billion tons of coal (B = billion = 109) with gas content 15-25 m3/t of coal (for comparison San Juan basin (USA) has production in a double porosity model considering two domains: the matrix (m) and the fracture (f) for which the initial and boundary conditions are different. The resulting comprehensive 3D models had helped in better understanding the tectonic structures of the region, especially the relationships between the fault systems.

  8. A registry-based randomized trial comparing radial and femoral approaches in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the SAFE-PCI for Women (Study of Access Site for Enhancement of PCI for Women) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sunil V; Hess, Connie N; Barham, Britt; Aberle, Laura H; Anstrom, Kevin J; Patel, Tejan B; Jorgensen, Jesse P; Mazzaferri, Ernest L; Jolly, Sanjit S; Jacobs, Alice; Newby, L Kristin; Gibson, C Michael; Kong, David F; Mehran, Roxana; Waksman, Ron; Gilchrist, Ian C; McCourt, Brian J; Messenger, John C; Peterson, Eric D; Harrington, Robert A; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2014-08-01

    This study sought to determine the effect of radial access on outcomes in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using a registry-based randomized trial. Women are at increased risk of bleeding and vascular complications after PCI. The role of radial access in women is unclear. Women undergoing cardiac catheterization or PCI were randomized to radial or femoral arterial access. Data from the CathPCI Registry and trial-specific data were merged into a final study database. The primary efficacy endpoint was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding or vascular complications requiring intervention. The primary feasibility endpoint was access site crossover. The primary analysis cohort was the subgroup undergoing PCI; sensitivity analyses were conducted in the total randomized population. The trial was stopped early for a lower than expected event rate. A total of 1,787 women (691 undergoing PCI) were randomized at 60 sites. There was no significant difference in the primary efficacy endpoint between radial or femoral access among women undergoing PCI (radial 1.2% vs. 2.9% femoral, odds ratio [OR]: 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.12 to 1.27); among women undergoing cardiac catheterization or PCI, radial access significantly reduced bleeding and vascular complications (0.6% vs. 1.7%; OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.90). Access site crossover was significantly higher among women assigned to radial access (PCI cohort: 6.1% vs. 1.7%; OR: 3.65; 95% CI: 1.45 to 9.17); total randomized cohort: (6.7% vs. 1.9%; OR: 3.70; 95% CI: 2.14 to 6.40). More women preferred radial access. In this pragmatic trial, which was terminated early, the radial approach did not significantly reduce bleeding or vascular complications in women undergoing PCI. Access site crossover occurred more often in women assigned to radial access. (SAFE-PCI for Women; NCT01406236). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc

  9. Self-scrubbing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  10. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ronald A. Ratti

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  11. CMS Tracker Readout Prototype Front-End Driver PCI Mezzanine Card (Mk1) (connector side)

    CERN Multimedia

    J.Coughlan

    1998-01-01

    The tracking system of the CMS detector at the LHC employs Front End Driver (FED) cards to digitise, buffer and sparsify analogue data arriving via optical links from on detector pipeline chips. This paper describes a prototype version of the FED based upon the popular commercial PCI bus Mezzanine Card (PMC) form factor. The FED-PMC consists of an 8 channel, 9 bit ADC, card, providing a 1 MByte data buffer and operating at the LHC design frequency of 40 MHz. The core of the card is a re-programmable FPGA which allows the functionality of the card to be conveniently modified. The card is supplied with a comprehensive library of C routines.The PMC form factor allows the card to be plugged onto a wide variety of processor carrier boards and even directly into PCI based PCs. The flexibility of the FPGA based design permits the card to be used in a variety of ADC based applications.

  12. The risk of PCI damage to 8x8 fuel rods during limit cycle instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrire, D.; Oguma, R.; Malen, K.

    1994-12-31

    A BWR reactor core may experience thermal-hydraulic instability under certain operating conditions. Generally, the instability results in neutron flux (i e generated neutronic power) and coolant flow and pressure oscillations, which reach a maximum `limit cycle` amplitude. The cladding response to power transients has been studied using noise analysis. These results have been compared to results from code calculations using the fuel code TOODEE 2. From these results the risk for fuel rod failure due to pellet-clad mechanical interaction and possible failure due to stress corrosion cracking (PCI) has been estimated. It turns out that for the oscillation frequencies of interest (0,3-0,5 Hz) the fuel response amplitude reduction makes PCI-failure improbable. 17 refs.

  13. Fractional flow reserve-guided PCI for stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruyne, Bernard; Fearon, William F; Pijls, Nico H J

    2014-01-01

    .80 received medical therapy alone and were included in a registry. The primary end point was a composite of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or urgent revascularization within 2 years. RESULTS: The rate of the primary end point was significantly lower in the PCI group than in the medical......-therapy group (8.1% vs. 19.5%; hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.57; Pgroup (4.0% vs. 16.3%; hazard ratio, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.38; Pgroup differences...... in the rates of death and myocardial infarction. Urgent revascularizations that were triggered by myocardial infarction or ischemic changes on electrocardiography were less frequent in the PCI group (3.4% vs. 7.0%, P=0.01). In a landmark analysis, the rate of death or myocardial infarction from 8 days to 2...

  14. Comparison of the PCI distortion effects on the Auger lineshape for electron and photon impact ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paripas, B.; Vitez, G.; Vikor, Gy.; Tokesi, K.; Sankari, R.; Calo, A.

    2005-01-01

    The distortion effects of the post-collision interaction (PCI) on the Ar LMM Auger electron lineshape for electron and photon impact ionization have been calculated. The calculations were based on the eikonal model of Kuchiev and Sheinerman [Sov. Phys. - Tech. Phys. 32 (1987) 879]. It is shown that the Auger peak asymmetry depends on the emission angle of the Auger electron relative to the primary beam (and the polarization vector of the photon beam). At a given excess energy, defined as the difference between the impact energy and the binding energy, the absolute value of the Auger peak asymmetry is always larger for electron impact ionization than for photoionization. At the same time, the angular dependence of the PCI distortion is stronger for photoionization. In both cases the Auger peak asymmetry has a maximum when the energy of the ejected electron and that of the Auger electron are nearly equal. The calculations are in good agreement with our previous experimental results

  15. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  16. Delay From First Medical Contact to Primary PCI and All‐Cause Mortality: A Nationwide Study of Patients With ST‐Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Sasha; Andell, Pontus; Martinsson, Andreas; Gustav Smith, J.; van der Pals, Jesper; Scherstén, Fredrik; Jernberg, Tomas; Lagerqvist, Bo; Erlinge, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Early reperfusion in the setting of an ST‐elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is of utmost importance. However, the effects of early versus late reperfusion in this patient group undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have so far been inconsistent in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in a nationwide cohort the effects of delay from first medical contact to PCI (first medical contact [FMC]‐to‐PCI) and secondarily delay from symptom‐to‐PCI on clinical outcomes. Methods and Results Using the national Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Register (SCAAR) registry, STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI between the years 2003 and 2008 were screened for. A total of 13 790 patients were included in the FMC‐to‐PCI analysis and 11 489 patients were included in the symptom‐to‐PCI analyses. Unadjusted as well as multivariable analyses showed an overall significant association between increasing FMC‐to‐PCI delay and 1‐year mortality. A statistically significant increase in mortality was noted at FMC‐to‐PCI delays exceeding 1 hour in an incremental fashion. FMC‐to‐PCI delays in excess of 1 hour were also significantly associated with an increase in severe left ventricular dysfunction at discharge. An overall significant association between increasing symptom‐to‐PCI delays and 1‐year mortality was noted. However, when stratified into time delay cohorts, no symptom‐to‐PCI delay except for the highest time delay showed a statistically significant association with increased mortality. Conclusions Delays in FMC‐to‐PCI were strongly associated with increased mortality already at delays of more than 1 hour, possibly through an increase in severe heart failure. A goal of FMC‐to‐PCI of less than 1 hour might save patient lives. PMID:24595190

  17. Combined PCI and minimally invasive heart valve surgery for high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Ramanan; Leacche, Marzia; Petracek, Michael R; Zhao, David X; Byrne, John G

    2009-12-01

    Combined coronary artery valvular heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the adult patient population. The standard treatment for such disease has been open heart surgery in which coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is performed concurrently with valve surgery using a median sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass. With the increasing complexity of patients referred to surgery, some patients may prove to be poor surgical candidates for combined valve and CABG surgery. In certain selected patients who fall into this category, valve surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have been considered a feasible alternative. Conventionally, valve surgery is performed in the cardiac surgical operating room, whereas PCI is carried out in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Separation of these two procedural suites has presented a logistic limitation because it impedes the concomitant performance of both procedures in one setting. Hence, PCI and valve surgery usually have been performed as a "two-stage" procedure in two different operative suites, with the procedures being separated by hours, days, or weeks. Technologic advancements have made possible the construction of a "hybrid" procedural suite that combines the facilities of a cardiac surgical operating room with those of a cardiac catheterization laboratory. This design has enabled the concept of "one-stage" or "one-stop" PCI and valve surgery, allowing both procedures to be performed in a hybrid suite in one setting, separated by minutes. The advantages of such a method could prove to be multifold by enabling a less invasive surgical approach and improving logistics, patient satisfaction, and outcomes in selected patients.

  18. PCI/SCC failure behavior of KWU/CE fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Akira

    1983-10-01

    The Over Ramp (Studsvik Over Ramp-STOR) project is an international power ramping irradiation program for studying PCI/SCC failure behavior of PWR-fuel rods. The project had its activities for about three years (Apr., 1977 - Dec., 1980) as the cooperation works of twelve participants composing nine countries. The present report introduces the irradiation data on the KWU/CE fuel rods in the project and discusses the failure behavior of PWR-fuel rods. (author)

  19. The NERA-PR instrument control software: experience of using the VME-PCI adapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilov, A.S.; Astakhova, N.V.; Murashkevich, S.M.; Petukhova, T.B.; Yudin, V.E.

    2003-01-01

    The intermediate results for modernization of the control system for the NERA-PR instrument on the base of a VME-PCI adapter are considered. The article is mostly devoted to the software of the new system. The structure, the new user interface and the method for remote control are described. A half-year testing showed that the new system is reliable and is attractive for users. (author)

  20. The driving and controlling techniques of compactPCI bus in VxWorks real-time operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Anzong; Ju Xiaodong; Qiao Wenxiao

    2005-01-01

    CompactPCI bus and interface featuring, the content and function of PCI configuration register are introduced herein. The driving and controlling techniques of CompactPCI bus in VxWorks real-time operating system are detailed. Hardware interrupt handling is one of key significance in real-time systems, because it is usually through interrupts that the system is informed of external events. VxWorks allows C functions to be connected to any interrupt. A routine connected to an interrupt in this way is called an interrupt service routine (ISR). For response of interrupt, interrupt control/status register of PCI 9054 interface chip needs to be set. The general-purpose binary semaphore used in ISR is capable of addressing the requirements of both forms of task coordination: mutual exclusion and synchronization. Therefore, the system runs stably and reliably. (authors)

  1. Antiplatelet and anticoagulation regimen in patients with mechanical valve undergoing PCI - State-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajanana, Deepakraj; Rogers, Toby; Iantorno, Micaela; Buchanan, Kyle D; Ben-Dor, Itsik; Pichard, Augusto D; Satler, Lowell F; Torguson, Rebecca; Okubagzi, Petros G; Waksman, Ron

    2018-04-02

    A common clinical dilemma regarding treatment of patients with a mechanical valve is the need for concomitant antiplatelet therapy for a variety of reasons, referred to as triple therapy. Triple therapy is when a patient is prescribed aspirin, a P2Y12 antagonist, and an oral anticoagulant. Based on the totality of the available evidence, best practice in 2017 for patients with mechanical valves undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unclear. Furthermore, the optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after PCI is evolving. With better valve designs that are less thrombogenic, the thromboembolic risks can be reduced at a lower international normalized ratio target, thus decreasing the bleeding risk. This review will offer an in-depth survey of current guidelines, current evidence, suggested approach for PCI in this cohort, and future studies regarding mechanical valve patients undergoing PCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A PWR PCI failure criterion to burnups of 60 GW·d/t using the ENIGMA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, A.P.; Tempest, P.A.; Shea, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    A fuel performance modelling code (ENIGMA) has been used to analyse the empirical PCI failure criterion in terms of a clad failure stress as a function of burnup and fast neutron dose. The Studsvik database has been analysed. Results indicate a rising and then saturating failure stress with burnup and fast neutron dose. Using the PCI failure limits, equivalent to 95/95 confidence limits, an ENIGMA stress-based methodology is used to derive PWR PCI failure limits up to 60 GW·d/t U using a conservative assumption that the failure stress does not increase at high burnup and neutron dose. In addition experimental ramp data on gadolinia-doped fuel rods do not indicate any increased susceptibility to PCI failure implying that the UO 2 criterion can be used for gadolinia doped fuel. (author)

  3. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  4. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  5. Suggestibility, expectancy, trance state effects, and hypnotic depth: II. Assessment via the PCI-HAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekala, Ronald J; Kumar, V K; Maurer, Ronald; Elliott-Carter, Nancy; Moon, Edward; Mullen, Karen

    2010-04-01

    This study sought to determine if self-reported hypnotic depth (srHD) could be predicted from the variables of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory - Hypnotic Assessment Procedure (PCI-HAP) (Pekala, 1995a, 1995b; Pekala & Kumar, 2007; Pekala et al., 2010), assessing several of the processes theorized by researchers to be associated with hypnotism: trance (altered state effects), suggestibility, and expectancy. One hundred and eighty participants completed the PCI-HAP. Using regression analyses, srHD scores were predicted from the PCI-HAP pre-hypnotic and post-hypnotic assessment items, and several other variables. The results suggested that the srHD scores were found to be a function of imagoic suggestibility, expectancy (both estimated hypnotic depth and expected therapeutic efficacy), and trance state and eye catalepsy effects; effects that appear to be additive and not (statistically) interactive. The results support the theorizing of many investigators concerning the involvement of the aforementioned component processes with this particular aspect of hypnotism, the self-reported hypnotic depth score.

  6. Photophysical and photobiological properties of a sulfonated chlorin photosensitiser TPCS(2a) for photochemical internalisation (PCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julie T-W; Berg, Kristian; Høgset, Anders; Bown, Stephen G; MacRobert, Alexander J

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the photophysical and photobiological properties of a new amphiphilic chlorin photosensitiser, disulfonated tetraphenylchlorin (TPCS(2a)), for photochemical internalisation (PCI). The absorption and fluorescence spectra of TPCS(2a) were examined in a range of solvents together with fluorescence lifetime measurements. The fluorescence lifetime of TPCS(2a) was found to be 8.5 ns in methanol, whereas non-exponential decays were observed in distilled water due to sensitiser dimerisation. The singlet oxygen quantum yield of TPCS(2a) was determined as 0.62 in deuterated methanol by direct observation of singlet oxygen phosphorescence. In a human oral squamous carcinoma (HN5) cell line, intracellular co-localisation of TPCS(2a) and Alexa488-labelled saporin, a macromolecular toxin, was observed corresponding predominantly to a lysosomal distribution. Intracellular fluorescence redistribution of TPCS(2a) and Alexa488-saporin was observed after 405 nm irradiation. Using two-photon confocal microscopy at 840 nm, and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), the lifetime was measured as 6 ns in HN5 cells. PCI using TPCS(2a) was shown to be very effective, and a synergistic increase in saporin toxicity was achieved in HN5 cells where viability was significantly reduced after light exposure compared to saporin (25 nM) treatment alone. The results demonstrate the favourable photophysical and photobiological properties of TPCS(2a) for PCI, which induces the relocalisation of a macromolecular anti-cancer toxin inside cells and significantly enhances cell death.

  7. FPGA implementation of PCI to CAMAC interface for Embedded CAMAC Controller (ECC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, K.; Behere, Anita; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    CAMAC controllers are used for control systems and nuclear physics experiments. Control applications need more number of physically distributed crates with regular scanning of all the parameters, the control being with a centralized computer. On the other hand, nuclear physics experiments need a high throughput with a large number of parameters in one or more crates. The nature of events is random hence buffering of data in LIST mode acquisition is needed. For a large number of parameters, this translates to high transfer rate. Hence it is essential that the CAMAC readout time is minimized and also the data transfer speed is improved to achieve maximum effective throughput. The ECC is designed to achieve these objectives using an embedded controller with PC architecture having PCI bus as interface for add on logic. The PCI Add-on to CAMAC interface protocol has been implemented in an AL TERA FPGA and all the functionality coded in VHDL. This paper discusses the design aspects of the FPGA implementation of the PCI to CAMAC interface. (author)

  8. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  9. Washability of Australian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitmore, R L

    1979-06-01

    Australian coals tend to be young in geological age and high in ash by world standards; preparation of the coal before marketing is almost universal. On the basis of float and sink data from 39 locations in the eastern Australian coalfields, the coals are place in four categories representing increasing difficulty in their washability characteristics. These seem to be related neither to the geological age nor the geographical position of the deposit and Hunter Valley coals, for example, span all categories. The influence of crushing on the washability of Australian coals is briefly considered and from limited data it is concluded to be appreciably smaller than for British or North American coals. A strategy for the float and sink analysis of Australian coals is proposed and the influence of washability characteristics on current trends in the selection of separating processes for coking and steaming products is discussed.

  10. Choice of technological regimes of a blast furnace operation with injection of hot reducing gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich, A. I.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Injection rate of fossil fuels is limited because of drop in the flame temperature in the raceway and problems in the deadman region and the cohesive zone. The next step for obtaining a considerable coke saving, a better operation in the deadman as an well as increase in blast furnace productivity and minimizing the environmental impact due to a decrease in carbon dioxide emmision would be injection by tuyeres of hot reducing gases (HRG which are produced by low grade coal gasification or top gas regenerating. Use of HRG in combination with high pulverized coal inyection PCI rate and oxigen enrichment in the blast could allow to keep and to increase the competitiveness of the blast furnace process. Calculations using a mathematical model show that the HRG injection in combination with pulverized coal (PC and enriching blast with oxigen can provide an increase in PC rate up to 300-400 kg/tHM and a rise in the furnace productivity by 40-50 %. Blast furnace operation with full oxigen blast (100 % of process oxigen with the exception for the hot blast is possible when HRG is injected.

    La tasa de inyección de combustibles fósiles está limitada a causa de la caída de la temperatura de llama en el raceway (cavidad frente a las toberas y a problemas en la región del "hombre muerto" y en la zona cohesiva. La inyección por tobera de gases reductores calientes (GRC, que se producen por gasificación de carbón de bajo grado o generación de gas de tragante, será la próxima etapa para lograr un considerable ahorro adicional de coque, una zona del "hombre muerto" bien definida, además de un aumento en la productividad del horno alto y para minimizar el impacto ambiental debido a una disminución de la emisión de dióxido de carbono. El uso de GRC en combinación con una tasa elevada de inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP con viento enriquecido en oxígeno, podrá permitir mantener y aumentar la competitividad del proceso del horno

  11. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

  12. Buprenorphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opiate partial agonists. It works to prevent withdrawal symptoms ... help. If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can't be awakened, ...

  13. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  14. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... haloperidol extended-release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  15. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to decrease the number of asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and ... about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack. If your asthma symptoms get worse or if ...

  16. Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2009-01-01

    The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in 2008. The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on. The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in 2009.

  17. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  18. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  19. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  20. Daptomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work for treating colds, flu, or other viral infections. ...

  1. Ceftaroline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  2. Aztreonam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as aztreonam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  3. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  4. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  5. Cefotetan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotetan injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  6. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  7. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as tigecycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  8. Ertapenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  9. Ceftriaxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.Using ...

  10. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  11. Telavancin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called lipoglycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as telavancin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  12. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  13. Vancomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  14. Octreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carton and protect it from light. Dispose of multi-dose vials of the immediate-release injection 14 ... and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out ...

  15. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using moxifloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  16. Delafloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using delafloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  17. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using levofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  18. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using ciprofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  19. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Alirocumab injection may ...

  20. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibody. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Evolocumab injection may ...

  1. Acyclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  2. Butorphanol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using butorphanol injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  3. Seismic characterization of CO{sub 2} in coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrank, J.; Lawton, D.C. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geoscience, Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology

    2008-07-01

    The Mynheer coal seam was targeted for an enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) experiment. During initial testing of the reservoir permeability, 180 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was injected into the seam. The objective of the study was to characterize the coal zones and to determine if the small volume of CO{sub 2} in the thinly bedded and seismically tuned reservoir can be detected in the 3D surface seismic data. The multi-well pilot project took place in the Pembina Field of west-central Alberta. The Ardley coals were tested for CO{sub 2} injection, enhanced CBM production, and CO{sub 2} sequestration. The seismic survey captured the condition of the reservoir after formation permeability tests. It was concluded that the anomalies seen in the seismic data can be attributed to changes in the physical properties of the coal due to CO{sub 2} adsorption. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Analysis of Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard [PCI DSS] Compliance by Confluence of COBIT 5 Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Ukidve; Ds S SMantha; Milind Tadvalkar

    2017-01-01

    The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) aims to enhance the security of cardholder data and is required when cardholder data or authentication data are stored, processed or transmitted. The implementation of enabling processes from COBIT 5 can complement compliance to PCI DSS. COBIT 5 assists enterprises in governance and management of enterprise IT and, at the same time, supports the need to meet security requirements with supporting processes and management activities. Th...

  5. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1983-02-15

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260/sup 0/ C to 315/sup 0/ C in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275/sup 0/ C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350/sup 0/ C.

  6. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  7. Coal use and coal technology study (KIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.; Gerbers, D.; Lako, P.; Rouw, M.; Tiemersma, D.N.

    1991-11-01

    The title study aims to assess the possible role for coal in the Netherlands energy system in the first decades of the next century and the part new coal conversion technologies will play under various conditions. The conditions considered relate to (sectoral) energy demand derived from national scenarios in an international context, to energy prices, to environmental constraints (acidification, solid waste management and disposal) and to the future role for nuclear power production. Targets for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are not explicitly included, but resulting CO 2 emissions are calculated for each variant case. The part that coal can play in the Dutch energy supply is calculated and analyzed by means

  8. Lowering risk score profile during PCI in multiple vessel disease is associated with low adverse events: The ERACI risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alfredo E; Fernandez-Pereira, Carlos; Mieres, Juan; Pavlovsky, Hernan; Del Pozo, Juan; Rodriguez-Granillo, Alfredo M; Antoniucci, David

    2018-02-13

    In recent years angiographic risk scores have been introduced in clinical practice to stratify different levels of risk after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). The SYNTAX score included all intermediate lesions in vessels ≥1.5 mm, consequently, multiple stent implantation was required. Four years ago, we built a new angiographic score in order to guide PCI strategy avoiding stent deployment both in intermediate stenosis as in small vessels, therefore these were not scored (ERACI risk score). The purpose of this mini review is to validate the strategy of PCI guided by this scoring, taking into account long term follow up outcomes of two observational and prospective registries where this policy was used. With this new risk score we have modified risk profile of our patient's candidates for PCI or coronary artery bypass surgery lowering the risk and PCI. The simple exclusion of small vessels and intermediate stenosis from the revascularization approach resulted in clinical outcome comparable with the one of fractional flow reserve guided revascularization. Low events rate at late follow up observed in both studies was also in agreement with guided PCI by functional lesion assessment observed by Syntax II registry, where investigators found lower events rate in spite of a few number of stents implanted per patient. use of ERACI risk scores may significantly reclassify patients into a lower risk category and be associated with low adverse events rate. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. National Coal Board Medical Service annual report 1981-82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Sections report on: medical examinations and consultations; protection from health hazards, such as pneumoconiosis and other prescribed diseases; problems such as vitamin D in miners' blood, Legionnaires' disease, rehabilitation and physiotherapy, high pressure injection injuries, pump packing; National Coal Board (Coal Products) Ltd.; injuries and treatment; and nursing service. A list of staff and their publications and a supplement on occupational toxicology are included.

  10. Comprehensive report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This project will provide a full-scale demonstration of Micronized Coal Reburn (MCR) technology for the control of NO x on a wall-fired steam generator. This demonstration is expected to reduce NO x emissions by 50 to 60%. Micronized coal is coal that has been very finely pulverized (80% less than 325 mesh). This micronized coal, which may comprise up to 30% of the total fuel fired in the furnace, is fired high in the furnace in a fuel-rich reburn zone at a stoichiometry of 0.8. Above the reburn zone, overfire air is injected into the burnout zone at high velocity for good mixing to ensure complete combustion. Overall excess air is 15%. MCR technology reduces NO x emissions with minimal furnace modifications, and the improved burning characteristics of micronized coal enhance boiler performance

  11. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  12. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo [Shanghai Univ. of Electric Power (China); Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  13. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  14. Coal prices rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  15. Impact of Heat and Mass Transfer during the Transport of Nitrogen in Coal Porous Media on Coal Mine Fires

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Bobo; Zhou, Fubao

    2014-01-01

    The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was pr...

  16. 基于压水试验的杨村煤矿底板断层带渗流性质研究%Research on Seepage Characteristics of Floor Fault Zone Based on Water Injection Test in Yangcun Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵明喜; 官云章; 曹思文; 张鑫; 刘近国; 吕先阳; 孙晓倩

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the seepage characteristics of the floor fault zone in Yangcun Mine, water injection test method was used for the measurement of Fault 5 and a number of measured data were obtained. Analysis results showed that the permeability of this fault was bad and its permeation resistance was relatively strong in the original state. Four water injection tests on this fault were carried out, and from the comparison of the permeability changing curves in four water injection tests it was found out that the repeated water injection can lead failure of the fault zone, which in turn improved its permeability. The relation between test pressure and flow rate(p—Q) of F5 fault was a dilation or erosion type, the fissures in this fault zone developed and many filling materials existed in it, so it has stronger resistance to seepage.%为研究杨村煤矿底板断层带的渗流性质,采用现场压水试验方法对底板F5断层进行了测试并获取了大量的实测数据,分析结果表明:该断层在原始状态下渗流能力较差,阻渗性较强。对该断层进行了4次压水试验,对比4次压水试验的渗透系数变化曲线可知,重复压水可导致断层带明显渗透破坏,由此造成其导渗性能的进一步增强;F5断层带两段压渗试验压力和流量关系( p—Q )为扩张或冲蚀型,该断层带裂隙发育,裂隙中间有较多充填物,阻渗能力较好。

  17. South Blackwater Coal`s maintenance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, J. [South Blackwater Coal Limited, Blackwater, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-09-01

    The South Blackwater operation consists of two opencut mining areas and two underground mines (Laleham and Kenmure) near Blackwater in central Queensland, all of which supply coal to a central coal preparation plant. South Blackwater Coal Ltd. recently developed a maintenance improvement programme, described in this article. The programme involved implementation systems of key performance indicators (KPIs), benchmaking, condition monitoring, work planning and control, failure analysis and maintenance audit. Some improvements became almost immediately apparent, others were quite gradual. Major results included: improved availability (and reliability) of all opencast fleets, improvements in rear dump availability; reduced maintenance man-hours for opencast fleets; and increased availability of the coal handling and preparation plant. The paper is an edited version of that presented at the `Maintenance in mining conference` 16-19 March 1998, held in Bali, Indonesia. 4 figs., 2 photos.

  18. CFD study of temperature distribution in full scale boiler adopting in-furnace coal blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhil, S S A; Hasini, H; Shuaib, N H

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation of temperature characteristics of an in-furnace combustion using different coals in a 700 MW full scale boiler. Single mixture fraction approach is adopted for combustion model of both primary and secondary coals. The primary coal was based on the properties of Adaro which has been used as the design coal for the boiler under investigation. The secondary blend coal was selected based on sub-bituminous coal with higher calorific value. Both coals are simultaneously injected into the furnace at alternate coal burner elevations. The general prediction of the temperature contours at primary combustion zone shows identical pattern compared with conventional single coal combustion in similar furnace. Reasonable agreement was achieved by the prediction of the average temperature at furnace exit. The temperature distribution is at different furnace elevation is non-uniform with higher temperature predicted at circumferential 'ring-like' region at lower burner levels for both cases. The maximum flame temperature is higher at the elevation where coal of higher calorific value is injected. The temperature magnitude is within the accepTable limit and the variations does not differ much compared to the conventional single coal combustion.

  19. The coal cleat system: A new approach to its study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After a general analysis regarding the concept of coal “cleat system”, its genetic origin and practical applications to coalbed methane (CBM commercial production and to CO2 geological sequestration projects, the authors have developed a method to answer, quickly and accurately in accordance with the industrial practice and needs, the following yet unanswered questions: (1 how to define the spatial orientation of the different classes of cleats presented in a coal seam and (2 how to determine the frequency of their connectivites. The new available and presented techniques to answer these questions have a strong computer based tool (geographic information system, GIS, able to build a complete georeferentiated database, which will allow to three-dimensionally locate the laboratory samples in the coalfield. It will also allow to better understand the coal cleat system and consequently to recognize the best pathways to gas flow through the coal seam. Such knowledge is considered crucial for understanding what is likely to be the most efficient opening of cleat network, then allowing the injection with the right spatial orientation, of pressurized fluids in order to directly drain the maximum amount of gas flow to a CBM exploitation well. The method is also applicable to the CO2 geological sequestration technologies and operations corresponding to the injection of CO2 sequestered from industrial plants in coal seams of abandoned coal mines or deep coal seams.

  20. Evaluation of related factors, prediction and treatment drugs of no-reflow phenomenon in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after direct PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Fu, Du-Guan; Liu, Fu-Yuan; Zhou, Heng; Li, Xiao-Mei

    2018-04-01

    This study determined the related factors of no-reflow phenomenon in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) after direct percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and evaluated related factor scores in predicting the occurrence of no-reflow phenomenon and drug treatments. A total of 203 patients with acute STEMI receiving PCI who were admitted to the Department of Cardiovascularology, Xiangyang No. 1 People's Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine (Xiangyang, China) from January 2015 to December 2016 were selected. The clinical and image data were analyzed to determine the related factors of no-reflow phenomenon after operation, and related factor scores were quantified to predict the occurrence of no-reflow phenomenon. Three drugs (diltiazem, nitroglycerin and tirofiban needles) were continuously injected in coronary arteries of patients with no-reflow phenomenon, and the effects of these drugs were analyzed. There were 38 patients (18.7%) with no-reflow phenomenon. The correlation analysis showed that 10 factors were associated with no-reflow phenomenon, in which five factors were identified as risk factors, including IRA open-up time ≥8 h, SBP 18 mg/l, thrombus loads, length of the culprit vessel ≥20 mm. The score analysis of related factors of 38 patients with no-reflow phenomenon was conducted. Three points were set for five risk factors each, and 1 point was set for the other five factors each. It was found that the score was approximately normally distributed. The average was 11.5±1.57 points and the lower limit of 95% confidence interval was >8.93 points. The effective rates of three drugs were different (P<0.05), and the pairwise comparison showed their effective rates were not fully identical (P<0.05). The results showed that: i) Τhere are 10 related factors, including five risk factors; ii) related factors with the score ≥9 points can be used for clinical prediction of STEMI after direct PCI; and iii) it is

  1. Coal reburning technology for cyclone boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagiela, A.S.; Maringo, G.J.; Newell, R.J.; Farzan, H.

    1990-01-01

    Babcock and Wilcox has obtained encouraging results from engineering feasibility and pilot-scale proof-of-concept studies of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO x control. Accordingly, B and W completed negotiations for a clean coal cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to demonstrate coal reburning technology for cyclone boilers. The host site for the demonstration is the Wisconsin Power and Light (WP and L) Company's 100MWe Nelson Dewey Station. Reburning involves the injection of a supplemental fuel (natural gas, oil, or coal) into the main furnace to produce locally reducing stoichiometric conditions which convert the NO x produced therein to molecular nitrogen, thereby reducing overall NO x emissions. There are currently no commercially-demonstrated combustion modification techniques for cyclone boilers which reduce NO x emissions. The emerging reburning technology offers cyclone boiler operators a promising alternative to expensive flue gas cleanup techniques for NO x emission reduction. This paper reviews baseline testing results at the Nelson Dewey Station and pilot-scale results simulating Nelson Dewey operation using pulverized coal (PC) as the reburning fuel. Outcomes of the model studies as well as the full-scale demonstration preliminary design are discussed

  2. Coal comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchener, A.

    1991-01-01

    Coal's status as the dominant fuel for electricity generation is under threat because of concern over the environmental impacts of acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. All are produced when coal is burnt. Governments are therefore tightening the emission limits for fossil-fuel power plants. In the United Kingdom phased reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are planned. It will be the responsibility of the power generator to take the necessary steps to reduce the emissions. This will be done using a number of technologies which are explained and outlined briefly - flue gas desulfurization, separation of coal into high and low-sulphur coal, direct desulfurization of coal, circulating fluidised bed combustion, integrated-gasification combined cycle systems and topping cycles. All these technologies are aiming at cleaner, more efficient combustion of coal. (UK)

  3. Cuttability of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1978-01-01

    The process of cutting dull M, dull bright MB, bright dull BM, and bright B coal under various compressive stress conditions was studied in laboratory tests. The efficiency of ploughs depends much more on the natural mining conditions than does that of shearer-loaders. For seams of medium workability, it is difficult to forecast whether ploughs will be successful. Cuttability tests are a good way of determining whether ploughs can be used. The effort necessary to cut coal in a stressed condition depends not only on such properties as the workability defined by the Protodyakonov index or compressive strength, but also, and mainly, on the petrographic structure and elastic properties of the coal. In bright coals with high elastic strain, and with BM and MB coals, a much greater increment of effort is necessary with increase in compressive stresses. The cuttability of dull coals from difficult mines was not very different.

  4. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  5. Coal-to-liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.W.

    2006-03-15

    With crude oil prices rocketing, many of the oil poor, but coal rich countries are looking at coal-to-liquid as an alternative fuel stock. The article outlines the two main types of coal liquefaction technology: direct coal liquefaction and indirect coal liquefaction. The latter may form part of a co-production (or 'poly-generation') project, being developed in conjunction with IGCC generation projects, plus the production of other chemical feedstocks and hydrogen. The main part of the article, based on a 'survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research' reviews coal-to-liquids projects in progress in the following countries: Australia, China, India, New Zealand, the Philippines, Qatar and the US. 2 photos.

  6. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  7. Coal contract cost reduction through resale of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.

    1990-01-01

    The weak coal market of the 1980's has enabled utilities and other users of coal to enjoy stable or falling prices for coal supplies. Falling prices for coal stimulated the renegotiation of numerous coal contracts in recent years, as buyers look to take advantage of lower fuel prices available in the marketplace. This paper examines the use of coal resale transactions as a means of reducing fuel costs, and analyzes the benefits and risks associated with such transactions

  8. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourillon, C.

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 more than 3.4 billion tonnes of coal was produced, of which half was used to generate over 44 per cent of the world's electricity. The use of coal - and of other fossil fuels- presents several environmental problems such as emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO 2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into the atmosphere. This article reviews the measures now available to mitigate the environmental impacts of coal. (author)

  9. Marketing Canada's coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The topics are presented which were discussed at the 36th Canadian Coal Conference, held in Vancouver, BC in September 1985. The theme was Challenges, today and tomorrow and the conference sought to examine the primary problems confronting the world coal industry today: overcapacity, soft demand, depressed prices and intense global competition. Coal production in Canada was presented and its role in the steelmaking and electric power industries evaluated. A general mood of optimism prevailed.

  10. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  11. Optimal coal import strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Shih, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the main power company in Taiwan has shifted the primary energy resource from oil to coal and tried to diversify the coal supply from various sources. The company wants to have the imported coal meet the environmental standards and operation requirements as well as to have high heating value. In order to achieve these objectives, establishment of a coal blending system for Taiwan is necessary. A mathematical model using mixed integer programming technique is used to model the import strategy and the blending system. 6 refs., 1 tab

  12. Electrostatic beneficiation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, M.K.; Tennal, K.B.; Lindquist, D.

    1994-10-01

    Dry physical beneficiation of coal has many advantages over wet cleaning methods and post combustion flue gas cleanup processes. The dry beneficiation process is economically competitive and environmentally safe and has the potential of making vast amounts of US coal reserves available for energy generation. While the potential of the electrostatic beneficiation has been studied for many years in laboratories and in pilot plants, a successful full scale electrostatic coal cleaning plant has not been commercially realized yet. In this paper the authors review some of the technical problems that are encountered in this method and suggest possible solutions that may lead toward its full utilization in cleaning coal.

  13. Coronary artery ectasia, an independent predictor of no-reflow after primary PCI for ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, H C F; Hemradj, V V; Hermanides, R S; Kedhi, E; Ottervanger, J P

    2018-04-25

    The no-reflow phenomenon is a serious complication after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) may increase the risk of no-reflow, however, only limited data is available on the potential impact of CAE. The aim of this study was to determine the potential association between CAE and no-reflow after primary PCI. A case control study was performed based on a prospective cohort of STEMI patients from January 2000 to December 2011. All patients with TIMI 0-1 flow post primary PCI, in the absence of dissection, thrombus, spasm or high-grade residual stenosis, were considered as no-reflow case. Control subjects were two consecutive STEMI patients after each case, with TIMI flow ≥2 after primary PCI. CAE was defined as dilatation of an arterial segment to a diameter at least 1.5 times that of the adjacent normal coronary artery. In the no-reflow group, frequency of CAE was significantly higher (33.8% vs 3.9%, p PCI (91% vs 71% p = 0.03), less often anterior STEMI (3% vs 37%, p PCI with stenting (47% vs 74%, p = 0.003). After multivariate analysis, CAE remained a strong and independent predictor of no-reflow (OR 13.9, CI 4.7-41.2, p PCI for STEMI. Future studies should assess optimal treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. RAD51 potentiates synergistic effects of chemotherapy with PCI-24781 and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum on gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei-Ling; Li, Yu-Huang; Hou, Wei-Jian; Ke, Zun-Fu; Chen, Xin-Lin; Lu, Li-Ya; Cai, Shi-Rong; Song, Wu; Zhang, Chang-Hua; He, Yu-Long

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore the efficacy of PCI-24781, a broad-spectrum, hydroxamic acid-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor, in the treatment of gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: With or without treatment of PCI-24781 and/or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP), GC cell lines were subjected to functional analysis, including cell growth, apoptosis and clonogenic assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays were used to determine the interacting molecules and the activity of the enzyme. An in vivo study was carried out in GC xenograft mice. Cell culture-based assays were represented as mean ± SD. ANOVA tests were used to assess differences across groups. All pairwise comparisons between tumor weights among treatment groups were made using the Tukey-Kramer method for multiple comparison adjustment to control experimental-wise type I error rates. Significance was set at P PCI-24781 significantly reduced the growth of the GC cells, enhanced cell apoptosis and suppressed clonogenicity, and these effects synergized with the effects of CDDP. PCI-24781 modulated the cell cycle and significantly reduced the expression of RAD51, which is related to homologous recombination. Depletion of RAD51 augmented the biological functions of PCI-24781, CDDP and the combination treatment, whereas overexpressing RAD51 had the opposite effects. Increased binding of the transcription suppressor E2F4 on the RAD51 promoter appeared to play a major role in these processes. Furthermore, significant suppression of tumor growth and weight in vivo was obtained following PCI-24781 treatment, which synergized with the anticancer effect of CDDP. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that RAD51 potentiates the synergistic effects of chemotherapy with PCI-24781 and CDDP on GC. PMID:25110436

  15. Australian coal year book 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This yearbook presents a review of the Australian coal industry during the 1984-85 financial year. Included are details on mines, future prospects, coal export facilities and ports, annual cost statistics and a index of coal mine owners.

  16. Teduglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications ... of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  17. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are taking the medication to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the ...

  18. Triptorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puberty too soon, resulting in faster than normal bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in children 2 years and older. Triptorelin injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. It works by decreasing the amount ...

  19. Australian black coal statistics 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This third edition of Australian black coal statistics covers anthracite, bituminous and subbituminous coals. It includes maps and figures on resources and coal fields and statistics (mainly based on the calendar year 1991) on coal demand and supply, production, employment and productivity in Australian coal mines, exports, prices and ports, and domestic consumption. A listing of coal producers by state is included. A final section presents key statistics on international world trade in 1991. 54 tabs.

  20. Prospects for coal: technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, W G; Peirce, T J

    1983-07-01

    This article summarises the reasons for predicting an increase in the use of coal as an industrial energy source in the United Kingdom. The development of efficient and reliable coal-burning techniques is therefore of great importance. Various techniques are then discussed, including conventional combustion systems, fluidised bed combustion systems, fluidised bed boilers and furnaces, coal and ash handling, coal-liquid mixtures, coal gasification and coal liquefaction. (4 refs.)

  1. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  2. A Specified Procedure for Distress Identification and Assessment for Urban Road Surfaces Based on PCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Loprencipe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simplified procedure for the assessment of pavement structural integrity and the level of service for urban road surfaces is presented. A sample of 109 Asphalt Concrete (AC urban pavements of an Italian road network was considered to validate the methodology. As part of this research, the most recurrent defects, those never encountered and those not defined with respect to the list collected in the ASTM D6433 have been determined by statistical analysis. The goal of this research is the improvement of the ASTM D6433 Distress Identification Catalogue to be adapted to urban road surfaces. The presented methodology includes the implementation of a Visual Basic for Application (VBA language-based program for the computerization of Pavement Condition Index (PCI calculation with interpolation by the parametric cubic spline of all of the density/deduct value curves of ASTM D6433 distress types. Also, two new distress definitions (for manholes and for tree roots and new density/deduct curve values were proposed to achieve a new distress identification manual for urban road pavements. To validate the presented methodology, for the 109 urban pavements considered, the PCI was calculated using the new distress catalogue and using the ASTM D6433 implemented on PAVERTM. The results of the linear regression between them and their statistical parameters are presented in this paper. The comparison of the results shows that the proposed method is suitable for the identification and assessment of observed distress in urban pavement surfaces at the PCI-based scale.

  3. Medical therapy v. PCI in stable coronary artery disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Tomlinson, George; Ko, Dennis T; Dzavik, Vladimir; Krahn, Murray D

    2013-10-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with either drug-eluting stents (DES) or bare metal stents (BMS) reduces angina and repeat procedures compared with optimal medical therapy alone. It remains unclear if these benefits are sufficient to offset their increased costs and small increase in adverse events. Cost utility analysis of initial medical therapy v. PCI with either BMS or DES. . Markov cohort decision model. Data Sources. Propensity-matched observational data from Ontario, Canada, for baseline event rates. Effectiveness and utility data obtained from the published literature, with costs from the Ontario Case Costing Initiative. Patients with stable coronary artery disease, confirmed after angiography, stratified by risk of restenosis based on diabetic status, lesion size, and lesion length. Time Horizon. Lifetime. Perspective. Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care. Interventions. Optimal medical therapy, PCI with BMS or DES. Lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). of Base Case Analysis. In the overall population, medical therapy had the lowest lifetime costs at $22,952 v. $25,081 and $25,536 for BMS and DES, respectively. Medical therapy had a quality-adjusted life expectancy of 10.1 v. 10.26 QALYs for BMS, producing an ICER of $13,271/QALY. The DES strategy had a quality-adjusted life expectancy of only 10.20 QALYs and was dominated by the BMS strategy. This ranking was consistent in all groups stratified by restenosis risk, except diabetic patients with long lesions in small arteries, in whom DES was cost-effective compared with medical therapy (ICER of $18,826/QALY). Limitations. There is the possibility of residual unobserved confounding. In patients with stable coronary artery disease, an initial BMS strategy is cost-effective.

  4. A new experimental method to determine the CO2 sorption capacity of coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, S.; Peach, C.J.; Spiers, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced Coalbed Methane production (ECBM) involves the injection of CO2 to desorb CH4 from coal seams, and offers significant potential for deploying Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). An essential starting parameter, determined in the laboratory, is the absolute CO2 storage potential of the coal

  5. Heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Lu; Chengyun, Xin; Xinyu, Liu

    2018-04-01

    Liquid nitrogen has been working as an important medium in fire extinguishing and prevention, due to its efficiency in oxygen exclusion and heat removal. Such a technique is especially crucial for coal industry in China. We built a tunnel model with a temperature monitor system (with 36 thermocouples installed) to experimentally study heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in non-homogeneous coal porous media (CPM), and expected to optimize parameters of liquid nitrogen injection in engineering applications. Results indicate that injection location and amount of liquid nitrogen, together with air leakage, significantly affect temperature distribution in CPM, and non-equilibrium heat inside and outside of coal particles. The injection position of liquid nitrogen determines locations of the lowest CPM temperature and liquid nitrogen residual. In the deeper coal bed, coal particles take longer time to reach thermal equilibrium between their surface and inside. Air leakage accelerates temperature increase at the bottom of the coal bed, which is a major reason leading to fire prevention inefficiency. Measurement fluctuation of CPM temperature may be caused by incomplete contact of coal particles with liquid nitrogen flowing in the coal bed. Moreover, the secondary temperature drop (STD) happens and grows with the more injection of liquid nitrogen, and the STD phenomenon is explained through temperature distributions at different locations.

  6. Outcomes of PCI in Relation to Procedural Characteristics and Operator Volumes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanaroff, Alexander C; Zakroysky, Pearl; Dai, David; Wojdyla, Daniel; Sherwood, Matthew W; Roe, Matthew T; Wang, Tracy Y; Peterson, Eric D; Gurm, Hitinder S; Cohen, Mauricio G; Messenger, John C; Rao, Sunil V

    2017-06-20

    Professional guidelines have reduced the recommended minimum number to an average of 50 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures performed annually by each operator. Operator volume patterns and associated outcomes since this change are unknown. The authors describe herein PCI operator procedure volumes; characteristics of low-, intermediate-, and high-volume operators; and the relationship between operator volume and clinical outcomes in a large, contemporary, nationwide sample. Using data from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry collected between July 1, 2009, and March 31, 2015, we examined operator annual PCI volume. We divided operators into low- (100 PCIs per year) volume groups, and determined the adjusted association between annual PCI volume and in-hospital outcomes, including mortality. The median annual number of procedures performed per operator was 59; 44% of operators performed PCI procedures per year. Low-volume operators more frequently performed emergency and primary PCI procedures and practiced at hospitals with lower annual PCI volumes. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality was 1.86% for low-volume operators, 1.73% for intermediate-volume operators, and 1.48% for high-volume operators. The adjusted risk of in-hospital mortality was higher for PCI procedures performed by low- and intermediate-volume operators compared with those performed by high-volume operators (adjusted odds ratio: 1.16 for low versus high; adjusted odds ratio: 1.05 for intermediate vs. high volume) as was the risk for new dialysis post PCI. No volume relationship was observed for post-PCI bleeding. Many PCI operators in the United States are performing fewer than the recommended number of PCI procedures annually. Although absolute risk differences are small and may be partially explained by unmeasured differences in case mix between operators, there remains an inverse relationship between PCI operator volume and in-hospital mortality that persisted in risk

  7. Thermal coal utilization for the ESCAP region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A selection of papers is presented originating from talks to coal utilization workshops for the ASEAN region in 1981. The papers cover: planning aspects - economic and technical aspects of coal usage, long term planning for fuel coal needs, planning and coal selection for coal-fired power plants, coal availability and marketing, and economic aspects of coal usage in developing countries; combustion and plant - changing from coal to oil, principles and problems of coal combustion, use of indigenous and imported coals and their effects on plant design, coal pulverizing mills, ash and dust disposal, environmental aspects of coal combustion, industrial sized coal-fired boilers; transport and storage -ocean shipment, coal receival facilities and associated operations, shipping and rail transport, coal handling and transport, environmental issue in the transport and handling of coal, coal preparation and blending; testing and properties - coal types, characterization properties and classification; training power plant operators; the cement industry and coal, the Australian black coal industry.

  8. [Photochemical internalisation (PCI): a further development of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of skin cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Pål; Berg, K; Selbo, P K; Hofbauer, G F L

    2010-11-17

    Recently, several new and non-invasive methods have been introduced for the treatment of skin cancers. Topical creams using the immune modulator imiquimod or the COX inhibitor diclofenac (with hyaluronic acid) are now registered for use against neoplasms such as basal or squamous cell carcinoma. Another modern treatment option is photodynamic therapy (PDT). A refined version of PDT, namely photochemical internalisation, is currently subject to a first clinical trial in patients with osteosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer as well as adenocarcinoma of the breast. Preliminary results from this trial suggest that PCI seems to be a promising treatment.

  9. Effect of platelet inhibition with cangrelor during PCI on ischemic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Deepak L; Stone, Gregg W; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Gibson, C Michael; Steg, P Gabriel; Hamm, Christian W; Price, Matthew J; Leonardi, Sergio; Gallup, Dianne; Bramucci, Ezio; Radke, Peter W; Widimský, Petr; Tousek, Frantisek; Tauth, Jeffrey; Spriggs, Douglas; McLaurin, Brent T; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Généreux, Philippe; Liu, Tiepu; Prats, Jayne; Todd, Meredith; Skerjanec, Simona; White, Harvey D; Harrington, Robert A

    2013-04-04

    The intensity of antiplatelet therapy during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is an important determinant of PCI-related ischemic complications. Cangrelor is a potent intravenous adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-receptor antagonist that acts rapidly and has quickly reversible effects. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 11,145 patients who were undergoing either urgent or elective PCI and were receiving guideline-recommended therapy to receive a bolus and infusion of cangrelor or to receive a loading dose of 600 mg or 300 mg of clopidogrel. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, ischemia-driven revascularization, or stent thrombosis at 48 hours after randomization; the key secondary end point was stent thrombosis at 48 hours. The primary safety end point was severe bleeding at 48 hours. The rate of the primary efficacy end point was 4.7% in the cangrelor group and 5.9% in the clopidogrel group (adjusted odds ratio with cangrelor, 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.93; P=0.005). The rate of the primary safety end point was 0.16% in the cangrelor group and 0.11% in the clopidogrel group (odds ratio, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.53 to 4.22; P=0.44). Stent thrombosis developed in 0.8% of the patients in the cangrelor group and in 1.4% in the clopidogrel group (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.90; P=0.01). The rates of adverse events related to the study treatment were low in both groups, though transient dyspnea occurred significantly more frequently with cangrelor than with clopidogrel (1.2% vs. 0.3%). The benefit from cangrelor with respect to the primary end point was consistent across multiple prespecified subgroups. Cangrelor significantly reduced the rate of ischemic events, including stent thrombosis, during PCI, with no significant increase in severe bleeding. (Funded by the Medicines Company; CHAMPION PHOENIX ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01156571.).

  10. Mechanical modelization of PCI with Fragema and CEA finite element codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, P.; Joseph, J.; Atabek, R.; Chantant, M.

    1982-03-01

    In order to modelize the PCI phenomenon during a power ramp test two finite element codes have been used by FRAGEMA and CEA, TITUS and VERDON. The results given, by the 3D equivalent method developed with TITUS, and VERDON are equivalent, in particular the strains and the equivalent Von Mises stresses at the pellet to pellet interface are quite similar. An evaluation was made to explain experimental ramp tests results. These results come from FRISCA 04bis and FRISCA 104 rods which were ramp tested in SILOE. The choice of the equivalent Von Mises stress seems to be quite a good criterion to explain the failure threshold

  11. Causes of Death Following PCI Versus CABG in Complex CAD: 5-Year Follow-Up of SYNTAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevic, Milan; Head, Stuart J; Parasca, Catalina A; Serruys, Patrick W; Mohr, Friedrich W; Morice, Marie-Claude; Mack, Michael J; Ståhle, Elisabeth; Feldman, Ted E; Dawkins, Keith D; Colombo, Antonio; Kappetein, A Pieter; Holmes, David R

    2016-01-05

    There are no data available on specific causes of death from randomized trials that have compared coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The purpose of this study was to investigate specific causes of death, and its predictors, after revascularization for complex coronary disease in patients. An independent Clinical Events Committee consisting of expert physicians who were blinded to the study treatment subclassified causes of death as cardiovascular (cardiac and vascular), noncardiovascular, or undetermined according to the trial protocol. Cardiac deaths were classified as sudden cardiac, related to myocardial infarction (MI), and other cardiac deaths. In the randomized cohort, there were 97 deaths after CABG and 123 deaths after PCI during a 5-year follow-up. After CABG, 49.4% of deaths were cardiovascular, with the greatest cause being heart failure, arrhythmia, or other causes (24.6%), whereas after PCI, the majority of deaths were cardiovascular (67.5%) and as a result of MI (29.3%). The cumulative incidence rates of all-cause death were not significantly different between CABG and PCI (11.4% vs. 13.9%, respectively; p = 0.10), whereas there were significant differences in terms of cardiovascular (5.8% vs. 9.6%, respectively; p = 0.008) and cardiac death (5.3% vs. 9.0%, respectively; p = 0.003), which were caused primarily by a reduction in MI-related death with CABG compared with PCI (0.4% vs. 4.1%, respectively; p PCI versus CABG was an independent predictor of cardiac death (hazard ratio: 1.55; 95% confidence interval: 1.09 to 2.33; p = 0.045). The difference in MI-related death was seen largely in patients with diabetes, 3-vessel disease, or high SYNTAX (TAXUS Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries) trial scores. During a 5-year follow-up, CABG in comparison with PCI was associated with a significantly reduced rate of MI-related death, which was the

  12. Improved recovery of regional left ventricular function after PCI of chronic total occlusion in STEMI patients: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study of the randomized controlled EXPLORE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Joëlle; van Dongen, Ivo M; Hoebers, Loes P; Ouweneel, Dagmar M; Claessen, Bimmer E P M; Råmunddal, Truls; Laanmets, Peep; Eriksen, Erlend; van der Schaaf, René J; Ioanes, Dan; Nijveldt, Robin; Tijssen, Jan G; Hirsch, Alexander; Henriques, José P S

    2017-07-19

    The Evaluating Xience and left ventricular function in PCI on occlusiOns afteR STEMI (EXPLORE) trial did not show a significant benefit of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the concurrent chronic total occlusion (CTO) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients on global left ventricular (LV) systolic function. However a possible treatment effect will be most pronounced in the CTO territory. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of CTO PCI compared to no-CTO PCI on the recovery of regional LV function, particularly in the CTO territory. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) we studied 180 of the 302 EXPLORE patients with serial CMR (baseline and 4 months follow-up). Segmental wall thickening (SWT) was quantified on cine images by an independent core laboratory. Dysfunctional segments were defined as SWT PCI compared to no-CTO PCI (ΔSWT 17 ± 27% vs 11 ± 23%, p = 0.03). This recovery was most pronounced in the dysfunctional but viable segments(TEI PCI compared with no-CTO PCI is associated with a greater recovery of regional systolic function in the CTO territory, especially in the dysfunctional but viable segments. Further research is needed to evaluate the use of CMR in selecting post-STEMI patients for CTO PCI and the effect of regional LV function recovery on clinical outcome. Trialregister.nl NTR1108 , Date registered NTR: 30-okt-2007.

  13. A validation study of the Brazilian version of the pornography consumption inventory (PCI) in a sample of female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; Luísa de Souza Gatti, Ana; Henrique de Oliveira, Vitor; Junqueira Aguiar, Ana Saito; Almeida de Souza Aranha e Silva, Renata

    2016-02-01

    Although men constitute the widest consumer group of pornography, the Internet has facilitated both the production of and access to pornographic material by women as well. However, few measures are available to examine pornography-use constructs, which can compromise the reliability of statements regarding the harmful use of pornography. Our study aimed to confirm the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Pornography Consumption Inventory (PCI) in a sample of female university students in Brazil. The PCI is a four-factor, 15-item, five-point Likert-type scale. After translation and back-translation of the PCI, it was administered to 105 female medical students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the construct validity. The results supported the four-factor model of the PCI. The model showed adequate internal reliability and good fit indices (comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.95, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.94, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.07 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.04-0.09), and standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.08). Overall, the findings from this study support the use of the PCI in Portuguese-speaking women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Outcomes of Middle Eastern Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: The Primary Analysis of the First Jordanian PCI Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaddad, Imad A; Tabbalat, Ramzi; Khader, Yousef; Al-Mousa, Eyas; Izraiq, Mahmoud; Nammas, Assem; Jarrah, Mohammad; Saleh, Akram; Hammoudeh, Ayman

    2017-01-01

    This is a prospective multicenter registry designed to evaluate the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events in Middle Eastern patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). The registry was also designed to determine the predictors of poor outcomes in such patients. We enrolled 2426 consecutive patients who underwent PCI at 12 tertiary care centers in Jordan between January 2013 and February 2014. A case report form was used to record data prospectively at hospital admission, discharge, and 12 months of follow-up. Mean age was 56 ± 11 years, females comprised 21% of the study patients, 62% had hypertension, 53% were diabetics, and 57% were cigarette smokers. Most patients (77%) underwent PCI for acute coronary syndrome. In-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were 0.78% and 1.94%, respectively. Definite or probable stent thrombosis occurred in 9 patients (0.37%) during hospitalization and in 47 (1.94%) at 1 year. Rates of target vessel repeat PCI and coronary artery bypass graft surgery at 1 year were 3.4% and 0.6%, respectively. The multivariate analysis revealed that cardiogenic shock, congestive heart failure, ST-segment deviation, diabetes, and major bleeding were significantly associated with higher risk of 1-year mortality. In this first large Jordanian registry of Middle Eastern patients undergoing PCI, patients treated were relatively young age population with low in-hospital and 1-year adverse cardiovascular events. Certain clinical features were associated with worse outcomes and may warrant aggressive therapeutic strategies.

  15. Effects of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel on platelet function in fibrinolytic-treated STEMI patients undergoing early PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Payam; Lavoie, Andrea; Lavi, Shahar; Crawford, Jennifer J; Harenberg, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Rodney H; Booker, Jeff; Kelly, Sheila; Cantor, Warren J; Mehta, Shamir R; Bagai, Akshay; Goodman, Shaun G; Cheema, Asim N

    2017-10-01

    Patients undergoing PCI early after fibrinolytic therapy are at high risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. We sought to assess the pharmacodynamic effects of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in the fibrinolytic-treated STEMI patients undergoing early PCI. Patients undergoing PCI within 24 hours of tenecteplase (TNK), aspirin, and clopidogrel for STEMI were randomized to receive additional clopidogrel 300 mg followed by 75 mg daily or ticagrelor 180 mg followed by 90 mg twice daily. The platelet reactivity units (PRU) were measured with the VerifyNow Assay before study drug administration (baseline) at 4 and 24 hours post-PCI. The primary end point was PRU ≤208 at 4 hours. A total of 140 patients (74 in ticagrelor and 66 in clopidogrel group) were enrolled. The mean PRU values at baseline were similar for the 2 groups (257.8±52.9 vs 259.5±56.7, P=.85, respectively). Post-PCI, patients on ticagrelor, compared to those on clopidogrel, had significantly lower PRU at 4 hours (78.7±88 vs 193.6±86.5, respectively, PPCI frequently had PRU >208. In this high-risk population, ticagrelor provides more prompt and potent platelet inhibition compared with clopidogrel (Funded by Astra Zeneca; NCT01930591, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01930591). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. CVIT expert consensus document on primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Yukio; Katagiri, Yuki; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Amano, Tetsuya; Muramatsu, Takashi; Kozuma, Ken; Otsuji, Satoru; Ueno, Takafumi; Shiode, Nobuo; Kawai, Kazuya; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Ueda, Kinzo; Akasaka, Takashi; Hanaoka, Keiichi Igarashi; Uemura, Shiro; Oda, Hirotaka; Katahira, Yoshiaki; Kadota, Kazushige; Kyo, Eisho; Sato, Katsuhiko; Sato, Tadaya; Shite, Junya; Nakao, Koichi; Nishino, Masami; Hikichi, Yutaka; Honye, Junko; Matsubara, Tetsuo; Mizuno, Sumio; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Inohara, Taku; Kohsaka, Shun; Michishita, Ichiro; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Serruys, Patrick W; Ikari, Yuji; Nakamura, Masato

    2018-04-01

    While primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has significantly contributed to improve the mortality in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction even in cardiogenic shock, primary PCI is a standard of care in most of Japanese institutions. Whereas there are high numbers of available facilities providing primary PCI in Japan, there are no clear guidelines focusing on procedural aspect of the standardized care. Whilst updated guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction were recently published by European Society of Cardiology, the following major changes are indicated; (1) radial access and drug-eluting stent over bare metal stent were recommended as Class I indication, and (2) complete revascularization before hospital discharge (either immediate or staged) is now considered as Class IIa recommendation. Although the primary PCI is consistently recommended in recent and previous guidelines, the device lag from Europe, the frequent usage of coronary imaging modalities in Japan, and the difference in available medical therapy or mechanical support may prevent direct application of European guidelines to Japanese population. The Task Force on Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of the Japanese Association of Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics (CVIT) has now proposed the expert consensus document for the management of acute myocardial infarction focusing on procedural aspect of primary PCI.

  17. Geological storage of carbon dioxide in the coal seams: from material to the reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikoosokhan, S.

    2012-01-01

    CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere are recognized to have a significant effect on global warming. Geological storage of CO 2 is widely regarded as an essential approach to reduce the impact of such emissions on the environment. Moreover, injecting carbon dioxide in coal bed methane reservoirs facilitates the recovery of the methane naturally present, a process known as enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM). But the swelling of the coal matrix induced by the preferential adsorption by coal of carbon dioxide over the methane in place leads to a closure of the cleat system (a set of small natural fractures) of the reservoir and therefore to a loss of injectivity. This PhD thesis is dedicated to a study of how this injectivity evolves in presence of fluids. We derive two poro-mechanical dual-porosity models for a coal bed reservoir saturated by a pure fluid. The resulting constitutive equations enable to better understand and model the link between the injectivity of a coal seam and the adsorption-induced swelling of coal. For both models, the pore space of the reservoir is considered to be divided into the macroporous cleats and the pores of the coal matrix. The two models differ by how adsorption of fluid is taken into account: the first model is restricted to surface adsorption, while the second model can be applied for adsorption in a medium with a generic pore size distribution and thus in a microporous medium such as coal, in which adsorption mostly occurs by micropore filling. The latter model is calibrated on two coals with different sorption and swelling properties. We then perform simulations at various scales (Representative Elementary Volume, coal sample, coal seam). In particular, we validate our model on experimental data of adsorption-induced variations of permeability of coal. We also perform simulations of seams from which methane would be produced (CBM) or of methane-free seams into which CO 2 would be injected. We study the effect of various

  18. Dry piston coal feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  19. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  20. Coal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for coal-fired independent power projects in western Canada. The topics of the article include emissions issues, export potential for power produced, and financial and other assistance to independent power producers offered by British Columbia Hydro and coal mining companies in the region, including financing of projects and power distribution services including connecting to the USA grids

  1. Black coal. [Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R

    1973-01-01

    Statistics are given for the Australian black coal industry for 1970-3 (production, value, employment, wages and salaries, productivity, trade, stocks, consumption, export contracts, exploration, etc.). In less detail, world coal trade is reviewed and coke production is mentioned briefly. (LTN )

  2. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Vitali V. Lissianski

    2001-09-07

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR), which combines conventional reburning and Advanced Reburning (AR) technologies with an innovative method of delivering coal as the reburning fuel. The overall objective of this project is to develop engineering and scientific information and know-how needed to improve the cost of reburning via increased efficiency and minimized carbon in ash and move the FFR technology to the demonstration and commercialization stage. Specifically, the project entails: (1) optimizing FFR with injection of gasified and partially gasified fuels with respect to NO{sub x} and carbon in ash reduction; (2) characterizing flue gas emissions; (3) developing a process model to predict FFR performance; (4) completing an engineering and economic analysis of FFR as compared to conventional reburning and other commercial NO{sub x} control technologies, and (5) developing a full-scale FFR design methodology. The project started in August 2000 and will be conducted over a two-year period. The work includes a combination of analytical and experimental studies to identify optimum process configurations and develop a design methodology for full-scale applications. The first year of the program included pilot-scale tests to evaluate performances of two bituminous coals in basic reburning and modeling studies designed to identify parameters that affect the FFR performance and to evaluate efficiency of coal pyrolysis products as a reburning fuel. Tests were performed in a 300 kW Boiler Simulator Facility to characterize bituminous coals as reburning fuels. Tests showed that NO{sub x} reduction in basic coal reburning depends on process conditions, initial NO{sub x} and coal type. Up to 60% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved at optimized conditions. Modeling activities during first year concentrated on the development of coal reburning model and on the prediction of NO{sub x} reduction in reburning by coal gasification products. Modeling predicted that

  3. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamansky, Vladimir M.; Lissianski, Vitali V.

    2001-01-01

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR), which combines conventional reburning and Advanced Reburning (AR) technologies with an innovative method of delivering coal as the reburning fuel. The overall objective of this project is to develop engineering and scientific information and know-how needed to improve the cost of reburning via increased efficiency and minimized carbon in ash and move the FFR technology to the demonstration and commercialization stage. Specifically, the project entails: (1) optimizing FFR with injection of gasified and partially gasified fuels with respect to NO x and carbon in ash reduction; (2) characterizing flue gas emissions; (3) developing a process model to predict FFR performance; (4) completing an engineering and economic analysis of FFR as compared to conventional reburning and other commercial NO x control technologies, and (5) developing a full-scale FFR design methodology. The project started in August 2000 and will be conducted over a two-year period. The work includes a combination of analytical and experimental studies to identify optimum process configurations and develop a design methodology for full-scale applications. The first year of the program included pilot-scale tests to evaluate performances of two bituminous coals in basic reburning and modeling studies designed to identify parameters that affect the FFR performance and to evaluate efficiency of coal pyrolysis products as a reburning fuel. Tests were performed in a 300 kW Boiler Simulator Facility to characterize bituminous coals as reburning fuels. Tests showed that NO x reduction in basic coal reburning depends on process conditions, initial NO x and coal type. Up to 60% NO x reduction was achieved at optimized conditions. Modeling activities during first year concentrated on the development of coal reburning model and on the prediction of NO x reduction in reburning by coal gasification products. Modeling predicted that composition of coal

  4. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  5. The renaissance of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schernikau, Lars

    2013-01-01

    There is hardly another energy resource where public opinion and reality lie as far apart as they do for coal. Many think of coal as an inefficient relic from the era of industrialisation. However, such views underestimate the significance of this energy resource both nationally and globally. In terms of global primary energy consumption coal ranks second behind crude oil, which plays a central role in the energy sector. Since global electricity use is due to rise further, coal, being the only energy resource that can meet a growing electricity demand over decades, stands at the beginning of a renaissance, and does so also in the minds of the political leadership. Coal is indispensable as a bridging technology until the electricity demand of the world population can be met primarily through renewable resources.

  6. Methane of the coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, H.

    1997-01-01

    In the transformation process of the vegetable material to the coal (Carbonization), the products that are generated include CH 4, CO2, N2 and H2. The methane is generated by two mechanisms: below 50 centigrade degree, as product of microbial decomposition, the methanogenic is generated; and above 50 centigrade degree, due to the effects of the buried and increase of the range of the coal, the thermogenic methane is detachment, as a result of the catagenic. The generated methane is stored in the internal surfaces of the coal, macro and micro pores and in the natural fractures. The presence of accumulations of gas of the coal has been known in the entire world by many years, but only as something undesirable for its danger in the mining exploitation of the coal

  7. China's coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmazin, V A

    1988-09-01

    Presents data on China's coal industry. China's coal reserves are estimated to be 4,000 million Mt; annual production is over 800 Mt. Eleven new mining projects have been recently completed. They were financed with participation of foreign capital (US$ 1,400 million). Twenty-five new mines with 32.27 Mt production capacity were planned to be put into operation in 1988. Annual coal production is expected to increase to 870 Mt in 1990 at a cost of US$ 8,500 million. Numerical data on China's individual coal basins, new schemes, capital outlay and foreign capital participation are given. The dynamic development of China's coal industry since 1949 is briefly reviewed and management methods are explained.

  8. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  9. USA coal producer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porco, J. [Alpha Natural Resources, Latrobe, PA (US). Alpha Energy Global Marketing

    2004-07-01

    The focus is on the Central Appalachian coal industry. Alpha Natural Resources was formed in 2002 from Pittston Coal's Virginia and Coastal operations. AMCI's U.S. operations and Mears Enterprises in Pennsylvania were acquired later. The company produces 20-21 million tonnes per year and sells 20 million tonnes of steam coal and 10 million tonnes of exports, including some coal that is brokered. Foundry coke is a major product. Capital investment has resulted in increased productivity. Central Appalachia is expected to continue as a significant coal-producing region for supplying metallurgical coke. Production is expected to stabilize, but not increase; so the mines will have a longer life. 31 slides/overheads are included.

  10. Coal in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sore, J.C.; Coiffard, J.

    1992-01-01

    Mediterranean countries are not traditionally coal producers. In France, the main mines were located in the North and East, and belonged to the great coal fields of northern Europe. Spain is a modest producer (ten million tonnes), as is Turkey with its three million tonnes. The only way most of these mines can stand up to international competition is by an array of protectionistic measures and subsidies. This state of affairs has marked events of quite another nature, as it relates to energy economics. That is, coal has taken on increasing importance in the energy supplies of all the countries of the Mediterranean zone over the past twenty years. In this article, we set out by describing coke supply for the Mediterranean ensemble, and then go on to analyze the development aspects of coal for electrical production, the future of Mediterranean lignite, and the supply of imported coal. 4 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  12. Immediate effects of isolated transmyocardial laser revascularization procedures combined with intramyocardial injection of autologous bone marrow stem cells in patients with terminal stage of coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo A. Bockeria

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions ― TMLR with intramyocardial autologous stem cells injections in patients with end-stage CAD is safe. This procedure can be done in the most severe group of patients who cannot be completely revascularized with either PCI or CABG surgery. Futher investigation is needed to assess the effectiveness of the procedure.

  13. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  14. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of an edoxaban-based antithrombotic regimen in patients with atrial fibrillation following successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent placement: Rationale and design of the ENTRUST-AF PCI trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranckx, Pascal; Lewalter, Thorsten; Valgimigli, Marco; Tijssen, Jan G; Reimitz, Paul-Egbert; Eckardt, Lars; Lanz, Hans-Joachim; Zierhut, Wolfgang; Smolnik, Rüdiger; Goette, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    The optimal antithrombotic treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown. In the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial, edoxaban was noninferior to a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) with respect to the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism and was associated with significantly lower rates of bleeding and cardiovascular death in patients with nonvalvular AF. The effects of edoxaban in combination with single- or dual-antiplatelet therapy in the setting of PCI are unexplored. The ENTRUST-AF PCI trial is a multinational, multicenter, randomized, open-label phase 3b trial with blinded end point evaluation involving 1,500 patients on oral anticoagulation for AF. Patients are randomized between 4 hours and 5 days after successful PCI to either an edoxaban-based strategy (experimental arm; 60 mg [or 30 mg according to dose reduction criteria] once daily plus a P2Y 12 antagonist [default clopidogrel, 75 mg once daily] for 12 months) or a VKA-based strategy (control arm; VKA plus a P2Y 12 antagonist [as above] plus acetylsalicylic acid [100 mg once daily] for 30 days to 12 months). The primary safety end point is the incidence of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis-defined major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. The main efficacy end point is the composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, systemic embolic events, spontaneous myocardial infarction, and definite stent thrombosis. The ENTRUST-AF PCI trial tests the hypothesis that an edoxaban-based antithrombotic strategy reduces the risk of bleeding complications after PCI compared with VKA plus conventional dual-antiplatelet therapy in patients with AF in need of oral anticoagulation. The relative risk of ischemic events between groups will be compared. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Il PCI, Autonomia Operaia e l'emergenza terrorismo: il caso 7 aprile 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Pacifici

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the positions of the Italian Communist Party towards the large political movement that took action on its left, especially “Autonomia Operaia”, in the late seventies, during the terrorism emergency and the crisis of national solidarity governments. The debate, internal to the PCI and between the left parliamentary forces, is analyzed through the documents, the newspaper articles and the declarations about a specific counter-terrorism trial, known as the “7th April case". This trial caused a large and heated public debate on terrorism, democracy and public order that saw two main political positions in opposition to one another. On one side the so called guarantee position represented by the “Partito Radicale”, some intellectuals, journalist and magistrates and on the other those who endorsed the firmness position, especially the PCI. At the same time, within the same communist party, the firmness front wasn't completely unanimous. On 7th April 1979 the deputy public prosecutor of Padua, Pietro Calogero, issued an arrest warrant that led to prison more than a dozen militants from the extra-parliamentary leftist area, “Potere Operaio” and “Autonomia Operaia”, including among others Oreste Scalzone, Franco Piperno, Nanni Balestrini, Emilio Vesce and Antonio Negri.

  16. LabVIEW Interface for PCI-SpaceWire Interface Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James; Loya, Frank; Bachmann, Alex

    2005-01-01

    This software provides a LabView interface to the NT drivers for the PCISpaceWire card, which is a peripheral component interface (PCI) bus interface that conforms to the IEEE-1355/ SpaceWire standard. As SpaceWire grows in popularity, the ability to use SpaceWire links within LabVIEW will be important to electronic ground support equipment vendors. In addition, there is a need for a high-level LabVIEW interface to the low-level device- driver software supplied with the card. The LabVIEW virtual instrument (VI) provides graphical interfaces to support all (1) SpaceWire link functions, including message handling and routing; (2) monitoring as a passive tap using specialized hardware; and (3) low-level access to satellite mission-control subsystem functions. The software is supplied in a zip file that contains LabVIEW VI files, which provide various functions of the PCI-SpaceWire card, as well as higher-link-level functions. The VIs are suitably named according to the matching function names in the driver manual. A number of test programs also are provided to exercise various functions.

  17. Scale-space for empty catheter segmentation in PCI fluoroscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchuwar, Ketan; Cousty, Jean; Vaillant, Régis; Najman, Laurent

    2017-07-01

    In this article, we present a method for empty guiding catheter segmentation in fluoroscopic X-ray images. The guiding catheter, being a commonly visible landmark, its segmentation is an important and a difficult brick for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) procedure modeling. In number of clinical situations, the catheter is empty and appears as a low contrasted structure with two parallel and partially disconnected edges. To segment it, we work on the level-set scale-space of image, the min tree, to extract curve blobs. We then propose a novel structural scale-space, a hierarchy built on these curve blobs. The deep connected component, i.e. the cluster of curve blobs on this hierarchy, that maximizes the likelihood to be an empty catheter is retained as final segmentation. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm on a database of 1250 fluoroscopic images from 6 patients. As a result, we obtain very good qualitative and quantitative segmentation performance, with mean precision and recall of 80.48 and 63.04% respectively. We develop a novel structural scale-space to segment a structured object, the empty catheter, in challenging situations where the information content is very sparse in the images. Fully-automatic empty catheter segmentation in X-ray fluoroscopic images is an important and preliminary step in PCI procedure modeling, as it aids in tagging the arrival and removal location of other interventional tools.

  18. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Rainfall Concentration Using the Gini Index and PCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sangüesa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine if there is variation in precipitation concentrations in Chile. We analyzed daily and monthly records from 89 pluviometric stations in the period 1970–2016 and distributed between 29°12′ S and 39°30′ S. This area was divided into two climatic zones: arid–semiarid and humid–subhumid. For each station, the Gini coefficient or Gini Index (GI, the precipitation concentration index (PCI, and the maximum annual precipitation intensity in a 24-h duration were calculated. These series of annual values were analyzed with the Mann–Kendall test with 5% error. Overall, it was noted that positive trends in the GI are present in both areas, although most were not found to be significant. In the case of PCI, the presence of positive trends is only present in the arid–semiarid zone; in the humid–subhumid zone, negative trends were mostly observed, although none of them were significant. Although no significant changes in all indices are evident, the particular case of the GI in the humid–subhumid zone stands out, where mostly positive trends were found (91.1%, of which 35.6% were significant. This would indicate that precipitation is more likely to be concentrated on a daily scale.

  19. PCI fuel failure analysis: a report on a cooperative program undertaken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, C.L.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Wood, J.C.

    1979-12-01

    Reactor fuel failure data sets in the form of initial power (P/sub i/), final power (P/sub f/), transient increase in power (ΔP), and burnup (Bu) were obtained for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs), boiling water reactors (BWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). These data sets were evaluated and used as the basis for developing two predictive fuel failure models, a graphical concept called the PCI-OGRAM, and a nonlinear regression based model called PROFIT. The PCI-OGRAM is an extension of the FUELOGRAM developed by AECL. It is based on a critical threshold concept for stress dependent stress corrosion cracking. The PROFIT model, developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is the result of applying standard statistical regression methods to the available PCI fuel failure data and an analysis of the environmental and strain rate dependent stress-strain properties of the Zircaloy cladding

  20. Long-term outcome of FFR-guided PCI for stable coronary artery disease in daily clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Biasco, Luigi; Lønborg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Our aim was to investigate the strength of fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for stable coronary artery disease (CAD) in daily practice. METHODS AND RESULTS: For this study, 3,512 patients with stable CAD and at least one 50-89% coronary stenosis...... were identified; those patients thought to require PCI (n=1,716) were selected. Of these, 962 (56%) were treated based on angiography (XA) alone, whereas 754 patients (44%) had an FFR-guided treatment. In the latter group, 321 patients (43%) were reallocated to another treatment, predominantly medical...... treatment. After propensity score matching, the number of indicated lesions was 957 in the XA-guided group and 947 in the FFR-guided group. FFR guidance resulted in PCI deferral in 462 lesions (48.8%). In a seven-day landmark analysis, the rate of periprocedural myocardial infarction (MI) was less than half...

  1. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Zamansky; Vitali Lissianski; Pete Maly; Richard Koppang

    2002-09-10

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR) technology that is an improved version of conventional reburning. In FFR solid fuel is partially gasified before injection into the reburning zone of a boiler. Partial gasification of the solid fuel improves efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction and decreases LOI by increasing fuel reactivity. Objectives of this project were to develop engineering and scientific information and know-how needed to improve the cost of reburning via increased efficiency and minimized LOI and move the FFR technology to the demonstration and commercialization stage. All project objectives and technical performance goals have been met, and competitive advantages of FFR have been demonstrated. The work included a combination of experimental and modeling studies designed to identify optimum process conditions, confirm the process mechanism and to estimate cost effectiveness of the FFR technology. Experimental results demonstrated that partial gasification of a solid fuel prior to injection into the reburning zone improved the efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction and decreased LOI. Several coals with different volatiles content were tested. Testing suggested that incremental increase in the efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction due to coal gasification was more significant for coals with low volatiles content. Up to 14% increase in the efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction in comparison with basic reburning was achieved with coal gasification. Tests also demonstrated that FFR improved efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction for renewable fuels with high fuel-N content. Modeling efforts focused on the development of the model describing reburning with gaseous gasification products. Modeling predicted that the composition of coal gasification products depended on temperature. Comparison of experimental results and modeling predictions suggested that the heterogeneous NO{sub x} reduction on the surface of char played important role. Economic analysis confirmed

  2. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir Zamansky; Vitali Lissianski; Pete Maly; Richard Koppang

    2002-01-01

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR) technology that is an improved version of conventional reburning. In FFR solid fuel is partially gasified before injection into the reburning zone of a boiler. Partial gasification of the solid fuel improves efficiency of NO x reduction and decreases LOI by increasing fuel reactivity. Objectives of this project were to develop engineering and scientific information and know-how needed to improve the cost of reburning via increased efficiency and minimized LOI and move the FFR technology to the demonstration and commercialization stage. All project objectives and technical performance goals have been met, and competitive advantages of FFR have been demonstrated. The work included a combination of experimental and modeling studies designed to identify optimum process conditions, confirm the process mechanism and to estimate cost effectiveness of the FFR technology. Experimental results demonstrated that partial gasification of a solid fuel prior to injection into the reburning zone improved the efficiency of NO x reduction and decreased LOI. Several coals with different volatiles content were tested. Testing suggested that incremental increase in the efficiency of NO x reduction due to coal gasification was more significant for coals with low volatiles content. Up to 14% increase in the efficiency of NO x reduction in comparison with basic reburning was achieved with coal gasification. Tests also demonstrated that FFR improved efficiency of NO x reduction for renewable fuels with high fuel-N content. Modeling efforts focused on the development of the model describing reburning with gaseous gasification products. Modeling predicted that the composition of coal gasification products depended on temperature. Comparison of experimental results and modeling predictions suggested that the heterogeneous NO x reduction on the surface of char played important role. Economic analysis confirmed economic benefits of the FFR

  3. Assessments of whole body scan images (PCI) obtained in patients undergoing treatment of radioiodine (pre and post-treatment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Fernanda Karolina Mendonca da; Lopes Filho, Ferdinand de Jesus; Vieira, Jose Wilson; Souza, Milena Thays Barbosa de

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty used for diagnosis and therapy of some diseases. For the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (papillary and follicular) Radioiodine therapy is employed, in order to eliminate the rest of thyroid tissue after removal of the thyroid (thyroidectomy). In radioiodine therapy is used radioisotope iodine-131 ( 131 I) as Sodium Iodide (NaI). The amount of the activity (dose) of 131 I administered is generally the responsibility of nuclear medicine, which is based on an image Research Length of the patient (pre-dose therapy PCI). PCI is also used after treatment (post-PCI therapeutic dose) to evaluate possible metastasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of biokinetic 131 I at length and in some organs of the patient, in order to note any similarity. Exams PCI pre-dose and post-dose were analyzed, the anterior and posterior projections of ten patients. Contours in these images (ROI - Region Of Interest) were made in the whole body and in areas with high uptake of 131 I. The total score was used in the calculation to obtain the percentage distribution of 13I in the organs of the patient. The results showed that there similarity on the biodistribution of 131 I between pre-dose and post-dose PCI. Therefore, it was found that it is valuable images of PCI pre-dose therapy as a way to assist the nuclear medicine physician in choosing the best activity to be administered to the patient in order to minimize the dose to adjacent organs. (author)

  4. Influence of minor deterioration of renal function after PCI on outcome in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanic, Vojko; Suran, David; Vollrath, Maja; Tapajner, Alojz; Kompara, Gregor

    2017-10-01

    Our aim was to assess the possible impact of a deterioration of renal function (DRF) not fulfilling the criteria for acute kidney injury after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on outcome in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on 30-day and long-term outcomes. Data is lacking on the influence of DRF after PCI on outcome in patients with STEMI. The present study is an analysis of 2572 STEMI patients who underwent PCI. The group with DRF (1022 patients) and the group without DRF (1550 patients) were compared. Thirty-day and long-term all-cause mortality were observed. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Similar mortality was observed in both groups at day 30 (4.2% patients with DRF died vs 3.2% without DRF; ns) but more patients had died in the DRF group (18.9% patients with DRF vs 14.0% without DRF; P = 0.001) by the end of the observation period. After adjustments, DRF did not independently predict long-term mortality. Age more than 70 years, bleeding, hyperlipidemia, renal dysfunction on admission, anemia on admission, diabetes, PCI of LAD, the use of more than 200 mL contrast, but not DRF after PCI, were identified as independent prognostic factors for increased long-term mortality. Renal dysfunction, bleeding, contrast >200 mL, hyperlipidemia, age >70 years, anemia, and PCI LAD predicted DRF. DRF identified patients at increased risk of higher long-term mortality but was not independently associated with mortality. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Use and impact of thrombectomy in primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction with persistent ST-segment elevation: results of the prospective ALKK PCI-registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härle, Tobias; Zeymer, Uwe; Hochadel, Matthias; Schmidt, Karin; Zahn, Ralf; Darius, Harald; Behrens, Steffen; Lauer, Bernward; Mudra, Harald; Schächinger, Volker; Elsässer, Albrecht

    2015-10-01

    Data about the impact of thrombectomy in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are inconsistent. The aim of our study was an evaluation of both the real-world use of thrombectomy and the impact of thrombectomy on outcome in unselected patients treated with primary PCI for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We used the data of the prospective ALKK PCI-registry of 35 hospitals from January 2010 to December 2013. A total of 10,755 patients receiving single-vessel primary PCI for acute STEMI were included. In 2176 patients (20.2 %) thrombectomy was performed. There was a wide range of use of thrombectomy in the different ALKK hospitals from 1.1 to 61.7 % (median 18.6 %, quartiles 6.0 and 40.3 %) with a general increase of use over the first years of the study period. In patients with and without thrombectomy there was TIMI 0 flow present before PCI in 6010 patients, TIMI 1 in 1338, TIMI 2 in 2002, and TIMI 3 in 1405. Patients with acute heart failure or cardiogenic shock received significantly more often thrombectomy. Fluoroscopy time (8.1 vs. 7.3 min, p PCI had significantly higher rates of TIMI 3 flow after PCI when treated with thrombectomy (87.1 vs. 84.1 %, p PCI TIMI 3 flow in patients with TIMI 1, 2 or 3 flow before PCI. Rates of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events were similar in both groups in general and in all subgroups of TIMI flow. The use of thrombectomy in patients with STEMI is heterogenous between hospitals. Overall, there was no impact of thrombectomy on TIMI 3 patency or mortality after PCI. In the subgroup of STEMI patients with TIMI 0 flow before PCI individualized thrombectomy had a positive impact on restoration of normal blood flow.

  6. NMR imaging studies of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Z.R.; Zhang, P.Z.; Ding, G.L.; Li, L.Y.; Ye, C.H. [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    The permeation transportation and swelling behavior of solvents into coal are investigated by NMR imaging using pyridine-d{sub 5} and acetone-d{sub 6}. Images of coal swollen with deuterated solvents illuminate proton distributions of mobile phases within the coal macromolecular networks. More information about the chemical and physical structure of coal can be obtained using NMR imaging techniques.

  7. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  8. Influence of some fabrication parameters and operating conditions on the PCI failure occurrence in LWR fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouffioux, P.

    1980-01-01

    In recent LWR designs, the fuel rod failures are induced by a chemically assisted mechanical process, i.e. stress corrosion cracking. The analytical approach towards the analysis of PCI-SCC failures is mainly based on the predictions of the COMETHE code. The failure criteria rely on the concept of a stress threshold together with fission product availability. In the present paper, the use of the COMETHE code to minimize PCI induced clad failure occurrences is illustrated by parametric studies to define acceptable fuel specifications and reactor operating conditions (steady and transient). (author)

  9. Coal: Less than lackluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerell, P.

    1994-01-01

    Not many in the world coal industry will remember 1993 as a good year. The reasons for the poor state of affairs were first the weak economic climate, and second, the energy glut. For the first time after expanding steadily since the 70s, seaborne trade in hard coal fell by about 4% to 350M mt. Steam coal accounted for a good half of this volume. While demand continued to rise in the newly industrialized countries of the Pacific area, imports into Europe of both coking coal and steam coal fell sharply. The United States, CIS, and Canada had to accept substantial losses of export volume. Australia, as well as South Africa, Colombia, and Indonesia consolidated their market positions and Poland, too, recorded high volumes available for export. The positive news came from Australia, where in mid-December the New South Wales coal industry reported an increase in the net profit after tax from $A83M (about $55M) to $A98M (about $126M) in 1992/1993. This success was however ascribed less to an improvement in the fundamental mining indicators than to the fall in the Australian dollar and the lowering of corporate tax. The reduction in capital investment by 26% down to $A330M (after the previous year when it had also been cut by 25%) is seen by the chairman of the NSW Coal Assoc. as not auguring well for the industry's ability to meet the forecast growth in demand to the year 2000

  10. Coal in competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manners, G

    1985-06-01

    During the past decade world coal consumption has expanded by about 26% whilst energy demands overall have grown by only 17%. This is because of the increased price of oil products, plus a period during which the costs of mining coal in many parts of the world have been moderately well contained. Over-ambitious forecasts of coal demand have encouraged the considerable over-investment in coalmining capacity that exists today. Costs of winning coal and transporting it are low, but sales depend on the rate of growth of a country's demand for energy. Some countries are more successful at marketing coal than others. Amongst the major factors that influence the rate of substitution of one source of energy for another is the nature and age of the boiler stock. The outcome of the developing environmental debate and calls for reduction in SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions from coal-fired boilers is going to affect coal's fortunes in the 1990's.

  11. A coal combine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlachovsky, I; Bartos, J

    1980-02-15

    A design is presented for a coal combine, equipped with two drum operational units, on whose both ends of the upper surface of the body, two coal saws are mounted with the help of a lever system. These saws, found in an operational position, form a gap in the block of the coal block, which is not embraced by the drum operational unit. The coal block, found between the gap and the support, falls down onto the longwall scraper conveyor. The lever system of each coal saw is controlled by two hydraulic jacks. One of the jacks is mounted vertically on the facial wall of the body of the combine and is used for the hoisting for the required height of the horizontal arm of the lever, reinforced by one end in the hinge on the body of the combine. On the ''free'' end of that lever, a coal saw is mounted in a hinge-like fashion and which is connected by the hydraulic jack to the horizontal arm of the lever system. This hydraulic jack is used for the clamping of the coal saw to the face.

  12. Underground coal gasification: An overview of groundwater contamination hazards and mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Joshua A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-13

    Underground coal gasification is the in situ conversion of coal into an energy-rich product gas. It takes place deep underground, using chemical reactions to consume the coal and grow a cavity. Gas wells, drilled into the coal seam, inject reactant air, oxygen, and/or steam to sustain the reactions. Production wells then extract the product gas. Careful analysis and understanding of likely failure modes will help prevent and minimize impacts. This document provides a general description of the relevant processes, potential failure modes, and practical mitigation strategies. It can guide critical review of project design and operations.

  13. Coal desulphurisation as a method of sulphur dioxide emission control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelton, R.L.; Cockshott, A.R.

    1983-11-01

    Three methods of washing power station coal are first described and their effectiveness is discussed. The following wet and dry flue gas desulphurisation processes are discussed briefly: alkali injection, adsorption processes, Davy/Wellman-Lord, lime/limestone, double alkali, citrate, aqueous carbonate, spray absorption and magnesium oxide.

  14. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, P.; Boogerd, F.C.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  15. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  16. Economic outlook for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis Casey.

    1997-01-01

    Coal still a fundamental component of two major industries in New South Wales- electricity production and steel making. Its future will be shaped by its ability to meet expected international increases in demand for thermal coal, and by profitability and possible impact of greenhouse strategy decisions. By 2002 the demand for the State's coal is estimated at a total of 116 million tons and it expected to play an increased role in the fuel mix for electricity generation because of its competitive price, established technologies and abundant supply

  17. Coal potential of Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  18. Extreme coal handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, S; Homleid, D. [Air Control Science Inc. (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Within the journals 'Focus on O & M' is a short article describing modifications to coal handling systems at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska, which is supplied with power and heat from a subbituminous coal-fired central plant. Measures to reduce dust include addition of an enclosed recirculation chamber at each transfer point and new chute designs to reduce coal velocity, turbulence, and induced air. The modifications were developed by Air Control Science (ACS). 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Coal liquefaction becomes viable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    In 2003 the May/June issue of CoalTrans International speculated that coal liquefaction would become viable due to falling coal prices. This has not proved the case but the sustained high oil price is sparking new interest. A survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research during November 2005 revealed a growth in the number of projects under development or at the feasibility stage. The article reports projects in China, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and India. China is commissioning the first wave of large liquefaction plants. The key question is whether other countries, particularly the USA, will follow.

  20. Revival of coal. [France and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    This edition is devoted to the production and consumption of coal in France. It presents a study of the main topics involved, discusses the position of coal in France - under what form should it beused, and deals with coal consumption in cement works role of coal for urban district heating, future of coal gasification in France, France's coal policy, coal industry in the USA, underground gasification of coal, France's coal reserves, etc.. (In French)

  1. Feelings of being disabled as a prognostic factor for mortality in men and women post-PCI up to 12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, M.J.; Utens, E.M.W.J.; de Jager, T.A.J.; Radhoe, S.P.; Daemen, J.; Lenzen, M.J.; van Domburg, R.T.; Dulfer, K.

    2017-01-01

    Background It remains unclear whether feelings of being disabled are a relevant psychological factor that determines long term outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Therefore, we evaluated ‘feelings of being disabled’ as an independent risk factor for mortality 12 years post-PCI.

  2. Feelings of being disabled as a prognostic factor for mortality in men and women post-PCI up to 12years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann, Michael J.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; de Jager, Tom A. J.; Radhoe, Sumant P.; Daemen, Joost; Lenzen, Mattie J.; van Domburg, Ron T.; Dulfer, Karolijn

    2017-01-01

    It remains unclear whether feelings of being disabled are a relevant psychological factor that determines long term outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Therefore, we evaluated 'feelings of being disabled' as an independent risk factor for mortality 12years post-PCI. The study

  3. The clinical effect of nicorandil on perioperative myocardial protection in patients undergoing elective PCI: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ziliang; Su, Qiang; Li, Lang

    2017-03-21

    Many scholars have studied the effect of nicorandil on perioperative myocardial protection in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but results are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis. Finally, 16 articles, including 1616 patients, were included into this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis results showed that: (1) Nicorandil can reduce the level of CK-MB after PCI, including at 6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours and 24 hours. (2) Nicorandil can reduce the level of TnT after PCI, including at 6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours and 24 hours. (3) Nicorandil can reduce the incidence of adverse reactions after PCI. (4) Nicorandil cannot reduce the level of MVP after PCI, including at 12 hours and 24 hours. (5) Subgroup analysis showed that nicorandil can reduce CK-MB and TnT level at 24 hours after PCI for Chinese's population (P PCI for non Chinese's population (P > 0.05). Our meta-analysis indicate that nicorandil can reduce myocardial injury and reduce the incidence of adverse reaction caused by PCI for Chinese's population, but is not obvious for non Chinese's population. However, this conclusion still needs to be confirmed in the future.

  4. Independent Predictors of Bleeding Complications in Patients Undergoing PCI With Concomitant Treatment With Bivalirudin in Clinical Practice Results From the Improver Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koeth, Oliver; Gulba, Dietrich; Huber, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Bleeding complications are associated with an adverse outcome after a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is performed. Traditional risk factors for bleeding complications are age, gender, underweight, hypertension, and renal impairment. The aim of our study was to identify the independent...... predictors of bleeding complications in patients undergoing a PCI with concomitant treatment with bivalirudin....

  5. The Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor PCI-32765 thwarts chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell survival and tissue homing in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponader, Sabine; Chen, Shih-Shih; Buggy, Joseph J.; Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Gandhi, Varsha; Wierda, William G.; Keating, Michael J.; O'Brien, Susan; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is a critical pathway in the pathogenesis of several B-cell malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and can be targeted by inhibitors of BCR-associated kinases, such as Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk). PCI-32765, a selective, irreversible Btk inhibitor, is a novel, molecularly targeted agent for patients with B-cell malignancies, and is particularly active in patients with CLL. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism of action of PCI-32765 in CLL, using in vitro and in vivo models, and performed correlative studies on specimens from patients receiving therapy with PCI-32765. PCI-32765 significantly inhibited CLL cell survival, DNA synthesis, and migration in response to tissue homing chemokines (CXCL12, CXCL13). PCI-32765 also down-regulated secretion of BCR-dependent chemokines (CCL3, CCL4) by the CLL cells, both in vitro and in vivo. In an adoptive transfer TCL1 mouse model of CLL, PCI-32765 affected disease progression. In this model, PCI-32765 caused a transient early lymphocytosis, and profoundly inhibited CLL progression, as assessed by weight, development, and extent of hepatospenomegaly, and survival. Our data demonstrate that PCI-32765 effectively inhibits CLL cell migration and survival, possibly explaining some of the characteristic clinical activity of this new targeted agent. PMID:22180443

  6. Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Interventions for Chronic Total Occlusion Performed by Highly Experienced Japanese Specialists: The First Report From the Japanese CTO-PCI Expert Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoriyasu; Tsuchikane, Etsuo; Katoh, Osamu; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Muto, Makoto; Kishi, Koichi; Hamazaki, Yuji; Oikawa, Yuji; Kawasaki, Tomohiro; Okamura, Atsunori

    2017-11-13

    This report describes the registry and presents an initial analysis of outcomes for the different PCI approaches taken by the specialists. Strategies for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) are complex. The Japanese Board of CTO Interventional Specialists has developed a prospective, nonrandomized registry of patients undergoing CTO-PCIs performed by 41 highly experienced Japanese specialists. Over the study period of January 2014 to December 2015, the registry included 2,846 consecutive CTO-PCI cases undertaken in Japan. The authors compared clinical outcomes between the different PCI approaches, following the intention-to-treat principle. The overall technical success rate of the procedures was 89.9%. The specialists frequently chose a retrograde approach as the primary CTO-PCI strategy (in 27.8% of cases). The technical success rate of the primary antegrade approach was significantly better than that of the primary retrograde approach (91.0% vs. 87.3%; p PCI with a high technical success rate (75.0% to 88.9%). Severe lesion calcification was a strong predictor of failed CTO-PCI. CTO-PCI performed by highly experienced specialists achieved a high technical success rate. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Efficacy of PCI's Reading Program--Level One: A Report of a Randomized Experiment in Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Research Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Empirical Education Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    PCI Education sought scientifically based evidence on the effectiveness of the "PCI Reading Program--Level One" for students with severe disabilities. During the 2007-2008 academic year. Empirical Education conducted a randomized control trial (RCT) in two Florida districts, Brevard and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. For this…

  8. The Efficacy of PCI's "Reading Program--Level One": A Report of a Randomized Experiment in Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby, Megan; Ma, Boya; Jaciw, Andrew; Cabalo, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    PCI Education sought scientifically based evidence on the effectiveness of the "PCI Reading Program--Level One" for students with severe disabilities. During the 2007-2008 academic year. Empirical Education conducted a randomized control trial (RCT) in two Florida districts, Brevard and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. For this…

  9. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  10. Thermal expansion of coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-12-01

    Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.

  11. Description of a Heart Team approach to coronary revascularization and its beneficial long-term effect on clinical events after PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzel, Tassilo; Schächinger, Volker; Dörge, Hilmar

    2016-05-01

    We present a first description of a Heart Team (HT)-guided approach to coronary revascularization and its long-term effect on clinical events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The HT approach is a structured process to decide for coronary bypass grafting (CABG), PCI or conservative therapy in ad hoc situations as well as in HT conferences. As a hypothesis, during the long-term course after a PCI performed according to HT rules, a low number of late revascularizations, especially CABGs, are expected (F-PCI study). In this monocentric study, the HT approach to an all-comer population was first analyzed and described in general with the help of a database. Next the use of a HT approach was described for a more homogeneous subgroup with newly detected CAD (1.CAD). Those patients in whom the HT decision was PCI (which was a 1.PCI) were then studied with the help of questionnaires for clinical events during a very long-term follow-up. Events were CABG, PCI, diagnostic catheterization (DCath) and death. A significant number of patients were presented to HT conferences: 22 % out of all 11,174 catheterizations, 24 % out of all 7867 CAD cases and 35 % out of 3408 1.CAD cases. Most of these patients had multi-vessel disease (MVD). Conference decisions were isolated CABG in 46-66 %, PCI in 10-14 %, valvular surgery in 9-16 %, HTx in 10-21 % (Endstage heart failure candidates for surgery) and conservative therapy (Medical or no therapy, additional diagnostic procedures or no adherence to recommended therapy) in 2-3 %. However, most PCIs, ad hoc and elective, were performed under Heart Team rules, but without conference. During follow-up of 1.PCI patients (Kaplan-Meier analysis), CABG occurred in only 15 % of patients, PCI in 37 % and DCath in 65 %; mortality of any course was 51 %. Mortalities were similar in one-vessel disease and in a population of the same year, matched for age and sex (p PCI patients with MVD (p PCI) rates after a 1.PCI, without

  12. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  13. Coal exports still growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  14. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  15. Coal industry - memoranda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This paper contains 41 memoranda submitted to the UK House of Commons Energy Committee containing views on the UK coal industry and responses to questions from the Select Committee. The following organizations are represented: Department of Energy; National Coal Board; APEX; BACM; NACODS; NUM; UDM; TUC; CEGB; Electricity Council; Northern Ireland Electricity Service; SSEB; British Gas Corporation; BP; Conoco (UK) Ltd.; Costain Mining Ltd.; Shell UK Ltd.; BSC; ICI; Boots; CBI; PSA; Solid Fuel Advisory Service; Domestic Coal Consumers Council; Associated Heat Services; Association of Shell Boilermakers; Babcock Power Ltd.; GEC; Foster Wheeler Power Products; ABMEC; British Longwall Mining Association; Federation of Civil Engineering Contractors; Federation of Small Mines of Great Britain; Chamber of Coal Traders; Coalfield Communities Campaign; Nottinghamshire County Council; Federation of Self-Employed and Small Businesses; the Colombian, Belgian and Netherlands Embassies; and Plaid Cymru.

  16. Coal terminal directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

  17. Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillian, Michael H.

    1992-01-01

    An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

  18. Nanometre-sized pores in coal: Variations between coal basins and coal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurovs, Richard; Koval, Lukas; Grigore, Mihaela; Sokolava, Anna; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Melnichenko, Yuri B.

    2018-01-01

    We have used small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate the differences in methane and hexane penetration in pores in bituminous coal samples from the U.S., Canada, South Africa, and China, and maceral concentrates from Australian coals. This work is an extension of previous work that showed consistent differences between the extent of penetration by methane into 10–20 nm size pores in inertinite in bituminous coals from Australia, North America and Poland.In this study we have confirmed that there are differences in the response of inertinite to methane and hexane penetration in coals sourced from different coal basins. Inertinite in Permian Australian coals generally has relatively high numbers of pores in the 2.5–250 nm size range and the pores are highly penetrable by methane and hexane; coals sourced from Western Canada had similar penetrability to these Australian coals. However, the penetrability of methane and hexane into inertinite from the Australian Illawarra Coal Measures (also Permian) is substantially less than that of the other Australian coals; there are about 80% fewer 12 nm pores in Illawarra inertinite compared to the other Australian coals examined. The inertinite in coals sourced from South Africa and China had accessibility intermediate between the Illawarra coals and the other Australian coals.The extent of hexane penetration was 10–20% less than CD4 penetration into the same coal and this difference was most pronounced in the 5–50 nm pore size range. Hexane and methane penetrability into the coals showed similar trends with inertinite content.The observed variations in inertinite porosity between coals from different coal regions and coal basins may explain why previous studies differ in their observations of the relationships between gas sorption behavior, permeability, porosity, and maceral composition. These variations are not simply a demarcation between Northern and Southern Hemisphere coals.

  19. Coal flotation technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, N. [C. Clarkson & Associates Pty. Ltd., Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    The Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) recently commissioned a study into the status of flotation in coal preparation, in order to direct limited funds to areas of maximum benefit. The primary purpose of the study was the assessment of new flotation technologies, including those commercially available and those still under development. Technologies examined included: the Jameson Cell, Microcel, and Ekof cell. Problems and advantages are discussed, with suggestions for future areas of research. 3 figs.

  20. 1988 coal price negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senmura, Akira

    1988-12-01

    In the negotiation on raw coal price for 1988, which began at the end of 1987, Australia requested price rise of 4 - 5 dollars for the reason of rise of Australian dollars, conditions of mines, price drop in the past five years, and world supply/demand of coal. Japan insisted to maintain the price of preceding year. The talk ended in a dead lock which could last a long time. Negotiation on the Canadian coal price also encountered difficulties but an agreement was obtained in March as Japan accepted the increased price. After which, Japan and Australia agreed to raise the price by 2.90 dollars and an increase over last year. Producing countries also requested a wide price rise as 7.50 dollars for general coal, making in this area very difficult to progress. Finally, they agreed to raise the price by 6.30 dollars and the electric power utility in Japan responded by importing of U.S. coal, which has a lower heat output but is also cheaper. It depends on Australia for 70% of coal supply but started to diversify the source. 3 tabs.

  1. Coal mining in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, L J

    1981-12-01

    In 1959 black coal production in Australia totalled some 21.9 million tonnes per annum, 70% of this being produced from underground mines in the coalfields of New South Wales. By 1980 output levels had increased by nearly 350% to 75.4 million tonnes per annum (54% of which was exported) compared with 5% some 20 years earlier. Because it is blessed with large reserves of coal and other forms of energy, it is inevitable that the Australian coal mining industry will be required to play a major role in the development of the international coal market through to the end of the present century. Experts now predict a need for the black coal output in Australia to be developed from its present level to a minimum of 293 million tonnes per annum by the year 2000. This paper examines the present circumstances in the Australian coal industry and attempts to outline the development which has to be undertaken in order to meet the needs of an energy hungry world.

  2. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, D.J.; Jones, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  3. Mechanical modelling of PCI with FRAGEMA and CEA finite element codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, J.; Bernard, Ph.; Atabek, R.; Chantant, M.

    1983-01-01

    In the framework of their common program, CEA and FRAGEMA have undertaken the mechanical modelization of PCI. In the first step two different codes, TITUS and VERDON, have been tested by FRAGEMA and CEA respectively. Whereas the two codes use a finite element method to describe the thermomechanical behaviour of a fuel element, input models are not the same for the two codes: to take into account the presence of cracks in UO 2 , an axisymmetric two dimensional mesh pattern and the Druecker-Prager criterion are used in VERDON and a 3D equivalent method in TITUS. Two rods have been studied with these two methods: PRISCA 04bis and PRISCA 104 which were ramped in SILOE. The results show that the stresses and strains are the same with the two codes. These methods are further applied to the complete series of the common ramp test rods program of FRAGEMA and CEA. (author)

  4. PCI bus data transmission system based on LabVIEW language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingwei; Wu Jie

    2013-01-01

    Background: The traditional FPGA program is developed with HDL code, which will cost a lot of time and energy in writing and debugging the underlying code. Purpose: We want to use a new approach to develop FPGA program, which will greatly accelerate the FPGA development. And our system can also be compatible with NI (American National Instrument Company) CRIO case. Methods: We also choose FPGA as the core of hardware and use LabVIEW language (a graphical language) to develop FPGA program. Results: We realized a universal data interface platform by LabVIEW, which is different from the traditional FPGA development process using HDL. This system can provide many functions such as data processing, data IO and implementation of the PCI interface communication. Conclusions: FPGA program can also be developed by LabVIEW language, and it can achieve the corresponding data interface functions, and greatly reduce development time. (authors)

  5. [Implementation of control system and software design for limbs rehabilitation training based on PCI-1240].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenchao; Xu, Xiulin; Hu, Xiufang; An, Meijun

    2017-06-01

    This article presents the design of a motion control system for seated lower-limb rehabilitation training. The system is composed of lower limb exoskeleton, motor drive circuit, program of motion control, and so forth. The power of lower limbs joints is provided by six motors. The PCI-1240 motion control card is used as the core. This study achieved repetitive rotation training and gait trajectory training of lower limbs joints, of which the velocity, angle and time can be accurately controlled and adjusted. The experimental results showed that the motion control system can meet the requirement of repetitive rehabilitation training for patients with lower limb dysfunction. This article provides a new method to the research of motion control system in rehabilitation training, which can promote industrial automation technique to be used for health care, and conducive to the further study of the rehabilitation robot.

  6. Power ramping test in the JMTR for PCI study of water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.; Kanbara, M.; Ichikawa, M.

    1984-01-01

    Power ramping test is essential for PCI study of water reactor fuel. Boiling water capsules have been used for the tests in the JMTR. Heat generation of fuel rod in the capsule can be changed by the He-3 power control facility during reactor operation. Four specially designed fuel rods have been ramped to about 41-43 kW/m; two of them have small gaps filled with iodine, the other two are equipped with centerline temperature thermocouple. Fuel rod elongation detector is equipped to each capsule. For the fuel rods with small gap, unique contraction followed by ordinary fuel relaxation behaviour was observed right after the fast ramping. None of them failed. Future programme includes a series of tests of fuel rods irradiated in the high-pressure water loop at the JMTR and a verification test of remedy fuel which allows daily-load-following operation of BWRs. (author)

  7. A PCI time digitizer for the new JET time-of-flight neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, J.; Batista, A.J.N.; Combo, A.; Pereira, R.; Cruz, N.; Carvalho, P.; Varandas, C.A.F.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Kaellne, J.

    2004-01-01

    A PCI time digitizer module with eight independent time-to-digital converter (TDC) channels is being developed for the new time-of-flight spectrometer designed for optimized rate (TOFOR) which diagnoses deuterium plasmas of the EFDA-JET tokamak. The module shall measure with high accuracy the flight-times of 2.5 MeV neutrons in the 100 ns range as given by two groups of scintillation detectors operating at average event rates from the expected 500 kHz up to 5 MHz. The module stores up to 64 million hit-times with a resolution of 0.4 ns and incorporates a digital signal processor and a system-on-chip device which performs the data transfer, the device control/monitoring and may perform statistical, data reduction or control algorithms in real-time

  8. Antithrombotic therapy in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: should we change our practice after the PIONEER AF-PCI and RE-DUAL PCI trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerschmied, D; Brachmann, J; Darius, H; Frey, N; Katus, H A; Rottbauer, W; Schäfer, A; Thiele, H; Bode, C; Zeymer, Uwe

    2018-04-20

    The number of patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is increasing. Since these patients have a CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score of 1 or higher, they should be treated with oral anticoagulation to prevent stroke. However, combination therapy with oral anticoagulation for prevention of embolic stroke and dual platelet inhibition for prevention of coronary thrombosis significantly increases bleeding complications. The optimal combination, intensity and duration of antithrombotic combination therapy is still not known. In the rather small randomized WOEST trial, the combination of a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) and clopidogrel decreased bleeding compared to the conventional triple therapy with VKA, clopidogrel and aspirin. In the PIONEER AF-PCI trial, two rivaroxaban-based treatment regimens significantly reduced bleeding complications compared to conventional triple therapy without increasing embolic or ischemic complications following PCI. Dual therapy with rivaroxaban and clopidogrel appeared to provide an optimal risk-benefit ratio. In the RE-DUAL PCI trial, dual therapy with dabigatran also reduced bleeding complications compared to conventional triple therapy. With respect to the composite efficacy end point of thromboembolic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or systemic embolism), death, or unplanned revascularization dabigatran-based dual therapy was non-inferior to VKA-based triple therapy. The upcoming trials AUGUSTUS with apixaban and ENTRUST-PCI with edoxaban will further examine the use of NOACs in this setting. While recent guidelines recommend NOAC-based dual therapy in only a subset of patients (those who are at increased risk of bleeding), the available data now suggest that this should be the preferred choice for the majority of patients. Adding aspirin to this primary choice for up to 4 weeks in patients at especially high ischemic risk would likely prevent atherothrombotic events, but this needs further

  9. Pre-hospital ticagrelor in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction with long transport time to primary PCI facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Alessandro; Schaffer, Alon; Lazzero, Maurizio; Tessitori, Massimo; De Martino, Leonardo; Rognoni, Andrea; Bongo, Angelo S; Porto, Italo

    2016-12-01

    Pre-hospital ticagrelor, given less than 1h before coronary intervention (PCI), failed to improve coronary reperfusion in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary PCI. It is unknown whether a longer interval from ticagrelor administration to primary PCI might reveal any improvement of coronary reperfusion. We retrospectively compared 143 patients, pre-treated in spoke centers or ambulance with ticagrelor at least 1.5h before PCI (Pre-treatment Group), with 143 propensity score-matched controls treated with ticagrelor in the hub before primary PCI (Control Group) extracted from RENOVAMI, a large observational Italian registry of more than 1400 STEMI patients enrolled from Jan. 2012 to Oct. 2015 (ClinicalTrials.gov id: NCT01347580). The median time from ticagrelor administration and PCI was 2.08h (95% CI 1.66-2.84) in the Pre-treatment Group and 0.56h (95% CI 0.33-0.76) in the Control Group. TIMI flow grade before primary PCI in the infarct related artery was the primary endpoint. The primary endpoint, baseline TIMI flow grade, was significantly higher in Pre-treatment Group (0.88±1.14 vs 0.53±0.86, P=0.02). However in-hospital mortality, in-hospital stent thrombosis, bleeding rates and other clinical and angiographic outcomes were similar in the two groups. In a real world STEMI network, pre-treatment with ticagrelor in spoke hospitals or in ambulance loading at least 1.5h before primary PCI is safe and might improve pre-PCI coronary reperfusion, in comparison with ticagrelor administration immediately before PCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A risk prediction score model for predicting occurrence of post-PCI vasovagal reflex syndrome: a single center study in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Yan; Guo, Yu-Tao; Tian, Cui; Song, Chao-Qun; Mu, Yang; Li, Yang; Chen, Yun-Dai

    2017-08-01

    The vasovagal reflex syndrome (VVRS) is common in the patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, prediction and prevention of the risk for the VVRS have not been completely fulfilled. This study was conducted to develop a Risk Prediction Score Model to identify the determinants of VVRS in a large Chinese population cohort receiving PCI. From the hospital electronic medical database, we identified 3550 patients who received PCI (78.0% males, mean age 60 years) in Chinese PLA General Hospital from January 1, 2000 to August 30, 2016. The multivariate analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were performed. The adverse events of VVRS in the patients were significantly increased after PCI procedure than before the operation (all P PCI was 4.5% (4.1%-5.6%). Compared to the patients suffering no VVRS, incidence of VVRS involved the following factors, namely female gender, primary PCI, hypertension, over two stents implantation in the left anterior descending (LAD), and the femoral puncture site. The multivariate analysis suggested that they were independent risk factors for predicting the incidence of VVRS (all P PCI (c-statistic 0.76, 95% CI: 0.72-0.79, P PCI whose diastolic blood pressure dropped by more than 30 mmHg and heart rate reduced by 10 times per minute (AUC: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.81-0.87, P PCI. In which, the following factors may be involved, the femoral puncture site, female gender, hypertension, primary PCI, and over 2 stents implanted in LAD.

  11. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  12. Workability of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Fels, M; Soltysik, K

    1978-04-01

    This paper presents results of an investigation on workability of coal seams of stratigraphic groups from 100 to 700 in the: Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Analyzed are 2900 petrographic logs taken in the longwall workings and in narrow openings as well as about 9000 individual samples. Workability of coal seams, floors and partings is determined. Workability is described by the indicator f, (according to the Protodyakonov shatter method) and the indicator U, (compression strength of the unshaped test samples). The mean percentage content of indivi dual petrographic groups of coal as well as the mean workability indicator, f, of coals in the stratigraphic groups of coal seams in Upper Silesia are also determined.

  13. PCI-VME bridge device driver design of a high-performance data acquisition and control system on LINUX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yan; Ye Mei; Zhang Nan; Zhao Jingwei

    2000-01-01

    Data Acquisition and Control is an important part of Nuclear Electronic and Nuclear Detection application in HEP. The key methods are introduced for designing LINUX Device Driver of PCI-VME Bridge Device based on the realized Data Acquisition and Control System

  14. «Il Pci è un partito finito». Video-documentario sulla scomparsa della “piazza rossa”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisella Gaspari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Attraverso immagini di manifestazioni a sfondo politico nelle piazze di Bologna, il video-documentario illustra una trasformazione delle forme di partecipazione collettiva alla vita pubblica, che negli anni Settanta ha visto un ridimensionamento del ruolo dei partiti di massa, e in particolare del Pci.

  15. Caracterização e Beneficiamento Primário de Placas de Circuito Impresso (PCI de Telefones Celulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Antonio de Jesus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao constante avanço tecnológico, uma grande quantidade de aparelhos é descartada por obsolescência tecnológica ou defeitos. Isto acarreta a contaminação do solo e do lençol freático, além de representar perda econômica pois as PCI (placas de circuito impresso dos telefones celulares são ricas em metais pesados e alguns metais valiosos. Com o objetivo de conhecer melhor a composição e concentração destas PCI de modo a otimizar os processos de reciclagem, foi realizada a caracterização das PCI através da digestão em água régia e da utilização das técnicas de DRx (difração de raios x e FRx (espectrometria de fluorescência de raios x. Os resultados proporcionaram conhecimento suficiente a respeito da composição e concentração dos principais metais das PCI. A presença de ouro, prata e cobre chama a atenção para o potencial econômico destes resíduos. Estudos são necessários para desenvolver os processos mais adequados com vistas a concentrar estes metais e viabilizar sua reciclagem.

  16. PCI-VME bridge device driver design of a high-performance data acquisition and control system on LINUX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yan; Ye Mei; Zhang Nan; Zhao Jingwei

    2001-01-01

    Data acquisition and control is an important part of nuclear electronic and nuclear detection application in HEP. The key method has been introduced for designing LINUX device driver of PCI-VME bridge device based on realized by authors' data acquisition and control system

  17. Coal development potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M N; Pelofsky, A H [eds.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 48 papers were presented, and covered the following topics: the current situation in Pakistan with respect to development and utilization of coal resources; the policies that have been responsible for the development and utilization of coal resources in Pakistan; coal development and utilization in other developing nations e.g. Indonesia, Greece, Philippines, China, Thailand and Haiti; and technological developments in coal exploration; extraction, handling, transport and utilization which could accelerate future development of Pakistan's coal resources. Specific subjects covered include the use of coal in the cement industry of Pakistan; the production of briquettes for domestic use, development and training of personnel for the coal industry; and sources of finance for coal development projects. Particular emphasis is given throughout the conference to the Lakhra coal mine/power plant project which aims to develop and effectively utilize the lignite reserves of Sind Province. 47 papers have been abstracted separately.

  18. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while measures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices were inadequately carried out. Lack of job aid posters that promote safe injection and safe disposal of ...

  19. PCI Versus CABG in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes and Multivessel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Thomas; Sartipy, Ulrik; Franzén, Stefan; Eliasson, Björn; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Miftaraj, Mervete; Lagerqvist, Bo; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Holzmann, Martin J

    2017-09-19

    It is unknown if coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may offer a survival benefit in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in need of multivessel revascularization. This study sought to determine if patients with T1D and multivessel disease may benefit from CABG compared with PCI. In an observational cohort study, the authors included all patients with T1D who underwent a first multivessel revascularization in Sweden from 1995 to 2013. The authors used the SWEDEHEART (Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies) register, the Swedish National Diabetes Register, and the Swedish National Patient Register to retrieve information about patient characteristics and outcomes. They estimated hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for confounders with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, stroke, and heart failure using inverse probability of treatment weighting based on propensity scores. In total, 683 patients who underwent CABG and 1,863 patients who underwent PCI were included. During a mean follow-up of 10.6 years, 53% of patients in the CABG group and 45% in the PCI group died. PCI, compared with CABG, was associated with a similar risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.32), but higher risks of death from coronary heart disease (HR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.21 to 1.74), myocardial infarction (HR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.23 to 1.78), and repeat revascularization (HR: 5.64; 95% CI: 4.67 to 6.82). No differences in risks of stroke or heart failure were found. Notwithstanding the inclusion of patients with T1D who might not have been able to undergo CABG in the PCI group we found that PCI, compared with CABG, was associated with higher rates and risks of coronary heart disease mortality, myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularizations. Our

  20. Coke, char and organic waste behaviour in the blast furnace with high injection rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudenau, H. W.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Blast furnace operation with low coke rate, high amount of auxiliary hydrocarbons and use of nut coke causes a change in coke quality requirements. In particular, not burned in the raceway residues of injected substances (char and ash can influence the coke behaviour. Therefore combustion efficiency of various organic wastes with and without pulverized coal injection (PCI and coal char has been investigated under the raceway simulation conditions. Mixing of various substances improves their combustion efficiency. Study on coke gasification by carbon dioxide in the presence of char showed that with the increase of char concentration, coke strength reduction becomes smaller. The reactivity of char with CO2 is higher than that of coke. Therefore char is consumed preferentially. In presence of injected char, total pore volume in coke and its wear resistance were increased. Coke reactivity and microstructure in the presence of various kinds of ash has been studied. Many ash spheres were observed on the surface of coke matrix and its size was dependent on ash properties.

    La operación del horno alto con una tasa baja de coque, una cantidad elevada de hidrocarburos auxiliares y el empleo de coque calibrado, origina un cambio en las necesidades de calidad del coque. En particular, pueden influir en el comportamiento del coque los residuos inquemados en el raceway (cavidad enfrente a las toberas del horno de las sustancias que se inyectan (char y cenizas. El char es el residuo de carbón que se origina después que el carbón libera sus sustancias volátiles. Por tanto, se ha investigado la eficiencia de la combustión de varios residuos orgánicos con y sin inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP y char, bajo las condiciones de simulación del raceway. La mezcla de varias sustancias mejora la eficiencia a la combustión. El estudio de la gasificación del coque por el dióxido de carbono en la

  1. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingshi; Zheng Baoshan; Wang Binbin; Li Shehong; Wu Daishe; Hu Jun

    2006-01-01

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  2. Stress and Damage Induced Gas Flow Pattern and Permeability Variation of Coal from Songzao Coalfield in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of coal is a critical parameter in estimating the performance of coal reservoirs. Darcy’s law describes the flow pattern that the permeability has a linear relationship with the flow velocity. However, the stress induced deformation and damage can significantly influence the gas flow pattern and permeability of coal. Coals from Songzao coalfield in Chongqing, southwest China were collected for the study. The gas flow velocities under different injection gas pressures and effective stresses in the intact coal and damaged coal were tested using helium, incorporating the role of gas flow pattern on the permeability of coal. The relationships between the flow velocity and square of gas pressure gradient were discussed, which can help us to investigate the transformation conditions of gas linear flow and gas nonlinear flow in the coal. The results showed that the gas flow in the intact coal existed pseudo-initial flow rate under low effective stress. The low-velocity non-Darcy gas flow gradually occurred and the start-up pressure gradient increased in the coal as the effective stress increased. The gas flow rate in the damaged coal increased nonlinearly as the square of pressure gradient increased under low effective stress. The instability of gas flow caused by high ratio of injection gas pressure over effective stress in the damaged coal contributed to the increase of the gas flow rate. As the effective stress increased, the increase of gas flow rate in coal turned to be linear. The mechanisms of the phenomena were explored according to the experimental results. The permeability of coal was corrected based on the relationships between the flow velocity and square of gas pressure gradient, which showed advantages in accurately estimating the performance of coal reservoirs.

  3. Effect of nicorandil on the myocardial tissue perfusion and myocardial cell injury in patients with diabetes after PCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Li Ren1

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of nicorandil on the myocardial tissue perfusion and myocardial cell damage in patients with diabetes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Methods: 68 patients with coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus who received PCI in our hospital between May 2011 and September 2015 were collected and then divided into observation group and control group (n=34 according to the single-blind randomized control method. Control group of patients received PCI alone, and the observation group of patients received nicorandil therapy after PCI. After treatment, real-time myocardial ultrasound contrast was used to evaluate the myocardial perfusion of two groups of patients; blood biochemical analyzer was used to detect the contents of peripheral blood myocardial enzyme spectrum indexes; the ELISA method was used to detect the contents of serum oxidative stress indicators; RIA method was used to detect the contents of serum apoptosis molecules. Results: After treatment, the myocardial tissue perfusion parameters plateau peak intensity (A, slope rate of curve (β and myocardial blood flow (A×β levels of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05; peripheral blood myocardial enzyme spectrum indexes creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, troponin I (cTnI and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT contents of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum vitamin E (VitE and vitamin C (VitC contents of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group while malondialdehyde (MDA, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs, soluble apoptosis-associated factor (sFas and soluble apoptosis-associated factor ligand (sFasL contents were lower than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Adjuvant nicorandil therapy can improve the myocardial perfusion and reduce the myocardial cell injury in patients with coronary

  4. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  5. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  6. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion

  7. Variability of Mercury Content in Coal Matter From Coal Seams of The Upper Silesia Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchowski, Krzysztof; Chećko, Jarosław; Pyka, Ireneusz

    2017-12-01

    The process of identifying and documenting the quality parameters of coal, as well as the conditions of coal deposition in the seam, is multi-stage and extremely expensive. The taking and analyzing of seam samples is the method of assessment of the quality and quantity parameters of coals in deep mines. Depending on the method of sampling, it offers quite precise assessment of the quality parameters of potential commercial coals. The main kind of seam samples under consideration are so-called "documentary seam samples", which exclude dirt bands and other seam contaminants. Mercury content in coal matter from the currently accessible and exploited coal seams of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) was assessed. It was noted that the mercury content in coal seams decreases with the age of the seam and, to a lesser extent, seam deposition depth. Maps of the variation of mercury content in selected lithostratigraphic units (layers) of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin have been created.

  8. An overview of underground coal gasification and its applicability for Turkish lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekpak, E.; Yoncaci, S.; Kilic, M.G. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Coal is expected to maintain its significance as an energy source for a longer time period than oil and natural gas. Environmental concerns have led to the development of clean coal technologies, such as coal gasification. Coal gasification can be used at either at surface or in underground coal gasification (UCG). UCG has several advantages over surface gasification and conventional mining such as rank low calorific value coals. Coal gasification also has the potential to contribute to the energy supply of a country. Most Turkish coals are lignite and UCG may enable diversification of energy sources of Turkey and may help decrease external dependency on energy. This paper presented a study that matched a UCG technique to the most appropriate (Afsin Elbistan) lignite reserve in Turkey. Two UCG techniques were presented, including the linked vertical well method, and the directional drilling-controlled retractable injection point (CRIP) method. The properties of coal seams and coal properties were also outlined. It was concluded that Cobanbey is the most preferable sector in the Elbistan Lignite Reserve for a pilot study, and that the linked vertical well method could be considered as a candidate method. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig.

  9. Effect of temperature on the permeability of gas adsorbed coal under triaxial stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangchen; Yan, Xiaopeng; Kang, Yili

    2018-04-01

    The combined effects of gas sorption, stress and temperature play a significant role in the changing behavior of gas permeability in coal seams. The effect of temperature on nitrogen and methane permeability of naturally fractured coal is investigated. Coal permeability, P-wave velocity and axial strain were simultaneously measured under two effective stresses and six different temperatures. The results showed that the behavior of nitrogen and methane permeability presented nonmonotonic changes with increasing temperature. The variation in the P-wave velocity and axial strain showed a good correspondence with coal permeability. A higher effective stress limited the bigger deformation and caused the small change in permeability. Methane adsorption and desorption significantly influence the mechanical properties of coal and play an important role in the variations in coal permeability. The result of coal permeability during a complete stress-strain process showed that the variation in permeability is determined by the evolution of the internal structure. The increase in the temperature of the gas saturated coal causes the complex interaction between matrix swelling, matrix shrinkage and micro-fracture generation, which leads to the complex changes in coal structure and permeability. These results are helpful to understand the gas transport mechanism for exploiting coal methane by heat injection.

  10. Market, trading and coal price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, J.C.; Cornot-Gandolphe, S.; Labrunie, L.; Lemoine, St.; Vandijck, M.

    2006-01-01

    The coal world experienced a true upheaval in the past five years World coal consumption went up 28 % between 2000 and 2005, as a result of the strong growth in Chinese demand. The growth should continue in the coming years: electrical plant builders' orders are mainly for coal. The regained interest in coal is based on the constraints experienced by competing energies (increase in oil and natural gas prices, geopolitical uncertainties, supply difficulties) and by the abundant reserves of coal in the world and the competitiveness of its price. The strong growth in world coal demand comes with a change in rules governing steam coal trading. While long term bilateral agreements were most common until the late nineties, there has been a true revolution in coal marketing since 2000: spot contracts, stock exchange emergence and futures contracts, price indexes. In a few years, the steam coal market has become a true commodities market, overtaking many more goods. The price of coal has also gone through strong variations since 2003. Whereas the price had been stable for decades, in 2004 the strong increase in China' s demand for coal and iron ore resulting in transport shortage, caused a strong increase in CAF coal prices. Since then, prices have gone down, but remain higher than the Eighties and Nineties levels. In spite of the increase, coal remains available at more competitive prices than its competing energies. (authors)

  11. Global thermal coal trade outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, E.

    2008-01-01

    Wood Mackenzie operates coal consulting offices in several cities around the world and is the number one consulting company in terms of global coal coverage. The company offers a unique mine-by-mine research methodology, and owns a proprietary modeling system for coal and power market forecasting. This presentation provided an overview of global thermal markets as well as recent market trends. Seaborne markets have an impact on price far greater than the volume of trade would imply. Research has also demonstrated that the global thermal coal market is divided between the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. The current status of several major coal exporting countries such as Canada, the United States, Venezuela, Colombia, Indonesia, Australia, China, South Africa, and Russia was displayed in an illustration. The presentation included several graphs indicating that the seaborne thermal coal market is highly concentrated; traditional coal flow and pricing trends shift as Asian demand growth and supply constraints lead to chronic under supply; coal prices have risen to historic highs in recent times; and, the Asian power sector demand is a major driver of future growth. The correlation between oil and gas markets to thermal coal was illustrated along with two scenarios of coal use in the United States in a carbon-constrained world. The impact of carbon legislation on coal demand from selected coal regions in the United States was also discussed. Wood Mackenzie forecasts a very strong growth in global thermal coal demand, driven largely by emerging Asian economies. tabs., figs

  12. Possibilities of using pulverized non coking coals in ironmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijk, Olle; Mathiesen, Mihkel; Eketorp, Sven

    1977-08-01

    The use of pulverized coal in iron making suggests solutions to the mounting problems created by the increasing scarcity of coking coals, and other fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas. The unavailability of coke can be met with two principally different measures. Blast furnace coke rates can be decreased by substituting injected pulverized coal or other carbon containing fuels for part of the coke burden, and the coke itself may be substituted by formed coke. A more radical solution is to abandon the blast furnace process, and instead produce the raw iron in processes not requiring coke. Two such processes are discussed in the paper, the Inred process, developed by Boliden Kemi AB, Sweden, and the smelting reduction process by means of injection, currently being developed at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. Both processes have potential advantages over the coke oven/sintering plant/blast furnace-complex especially concerning energy requirements and structure, but also in economical terms. The injection process seems to present a further advantage in the possibility of gasifying coal in the process, thus yielding a synthesis gas for methanol production in addition to the raw iron.

  13. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO 2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO 2 emissions by more than 90% and NO x emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  14. Bright outlook for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    After enduring contract price cuts over the past two years of almost 17% for thermal coal and 23% for hard coking coal, the New South Wales coal industry is looking forward to a reversal of fortune for 2001. Increased export demand, improved prices, significant improvements in mine site productivity, a weak Australian dollar and the probability of a number of new projects or extensions progressing to development are likely to result in an increase in NSW saleable production to around 110 million tonnes (Mt) in 2000-01. Sharply weaker coal prices over the past two years, intensified international competition and the Asian economic downturn had a negative impact on profitability, investment, exports and employment in the NSW coal industry. As a result, the industry has undergone substantial restructuring. The restructuring process has led to a consolidation in ownership, reduced production costs and improved operational efficiency. The outcome is an industry well positioned to take advantage of the positive market conditions and one likely to experience levels of profitability not achieved over the past few years

  15. Excess mortality in women compared to men after PCI in STEMI: an analysis of 11,931 patients during 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Sanneke P M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; van Leeuwen, Maarten A H; Lenzen, Mattie J; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Regar, Evelyn; van Mieghem, Nicolas M; van Domburg, Ron; Zijlstra, Felix; Serruys, Patrick W; Boersma, Eric

    2014-09-20

    Ambiguity exists whether gender affects outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). To evaluate the relationship between gender and outcome in a large cohort of PCI patients, 11,931 consecutive patients who underwent PCI for various indications during 2000-2009 were studied using survival analyses and Cox regression models. Most patients (n=8588; 72%) were men. Women were older and more often had a history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Men smoked more frequently, had a more extensive cardiovascular history (previous MI, PCI and CABG), a higher prevalence of renal impairment and multi-vessel disease. In STEMI patients, women had higher 31-day mortality rates than men (11.6% vs. 6.5%, respectively, pPCI for STEMI had higher mortality than men. The excess mortality in women appeared in the first month after PCI and could only partially be explained by a difference in baseline characteristics. No gender differences in outcome in patients undergoing PCI for NSTE-ACS and stable angina were observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Change in coronary blood flow after percutaneous coronary intervention in relation to baseline lesion physiology: results of the JUSTIFY-PCI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder S; Petraco, Ricardo; van de Hoef, Tim P; Sen, Sayan; van Lavieren, Martijn A; Foale, Rodney A; Meuwissen, Martijn; Broyd, Christopher; Echavarria-Pinto, Mauro; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Foin, Nicolas; Sethi, Amarjit; Malik, Iqbal S; Mikhail, Ghada W; Hughes, Alun D; Mayet, Jamil; Francis, Darrel P; Di Mario, Carlo; Escaned, Javier; Piek, Jan J; Davies, Justin E

    2015-06-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) aims to increase coronary blood flow by relieving epicardial obstruction. However, no study has objectively confirmed this and assessed changes in flow over different phases of the cardiac cycle. We quantified the change in resting and hyperemic flow velocity after PCI in stenoses defined physiologically by fractional flow reserve and other parameters. Seventy-five stenoses (67 patients) underwent paired flow velocity assessment before and after PCI. Flow velocity was measured over the whole cardiac cycle and the wave-free period. Mean fractional flow reserve was 0.68±0.02. Pre-PCI, hyperemic flow velocity is diminished in stenoses classed as physiologically significant compared with those classed nonsignificant (PPCI, resting flow velocity over the wave-free period increased little (5.6±1.6 cm/s) and significantly less than hyperemic flow velocity (21.2±3 cm/s; P0.80 had a significantly smaller gain (Δ4.6±2.3 cm/s; PPCI physiology is strongly associated with post-PCI increase in hyperemic coronary flow velocity. Hyperemic flow velocity increases 6-fold more when stenoses classed as physiologically significant undergo PCI than when nonsignificant stenoses are treated. Resting flow velocity measured over the wave-free period changes at least 4-fold less than hyperemic flow velocity after PCI. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Evaluation of changes in left ventricular structure and function in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease after PCI using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yanhong; Zong, Ling; Zhang, Ziteng; Han, Youdong; Wang, Yanhui

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the changes in left ventricular structure and function in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography. Two hundred and eighty hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease undergoing PCI and 120 cases who did not receive PCI in our hospital were selected as the subjects of our study. All patients were administered with routine antiplatelet, anticoagulant, lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, dilating coronary artery and other medications. The left ventricular systolic function and systolic synchrony index changes before and after subjects were treated by PCI were analyzed using three-dimensional echocardiography. At 2 days before surgery, there were no significant differences in the left ventricular end-diastolic volume, left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) and ejection fraction (EF) between the two patient groups (P>0.05). At 3 months and 9 months, the two key time points after PCI, the LVESV level in the PCI group was distinctly decreased, while EF was significantly increased (P0.05); however, the parameters of time from the corresponding segment of the myocardium to the minimal systolic volume in patients in the PCI group were significantly reduced at 3 and 9 months after surgery (PPCI accurately and in real-time, which may play a significant role.

  18. Change in Coronary Blood Flow After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Relation to Baseline Lesion Physiology Results of the JUSTIFY-PCI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder S.; Petraco, Ricardo; van de Hoef, Tim P.; Sen, Sayan; van Lavieren, Martijn A.; Foale, Rodney A.; Meuwissen, Martijn; Broyd, Christopher; Echavarria-Pinto, Mauro; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Foin, Nicolas; Sethi, Amarjit; Malik, Iqbal S.; Mikhail, Ghada W.; Hughes, Alun D.; Mayet, Jamil; Francis, Darrel P.; Di Mario, Carlo; Escaned, Javier; Piek, Jan J.; Davies, Justin E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) aims to increase coronary blood flow by relieving epicardial obstruction. However, no study has objectively confirmed this and assessed changes in flow over different phases of the cardiac cycle. We quantified the change in resting and hyperemic flow velocity after PCI in stenoses defined physiologically by fractional flow reserve and other parameters. Methods and Results Seventy-five stenoses (67 patients) underwent paired flow velocity assessment before and after PCI. Flow velocity was measured over the whole cardiac cycle and the wave-free period. Mean fractional flow reserve was 0.68±0.02. Pre-PCI, hyperemic flow velocity is diminished in stenoses classed as physiologically significant compared with those classed nonsignificant (PPCI, resting flow velocity over the wave-free period increased little (5.6±1.6 cm/s) and significantly less than hyperemic flow velocity (21.2±3 cm/s; P0.80 had a significantly smaller gain (Δ4.6±2.3 cm/s; PPCI physiology is strongly associated with post-PCI increase in hyperemic coronary flow velocity. Hyperemic flow velocity increases 6-fold more when stenoses classed as physiologically significant undergo PCI than when nonsignificant stenoses are treated. Resting flow velocity measured over the wave-free period changes at least 4-fold less than hyperemic flow velocity after PCI. PMID:26025217

  19. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  20. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  1. Enhanced coal bed methane production and sequestration of CO2 in unmineable coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, James [CONSOL Energy Inc., South Park, PA (United States); Winschel, Richard [CONSOL Energy Inc., South Park, PA (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The Marshall County Project was undertaken by CONSOL Energy Inc. (CONSOL) with partial funding from the U. S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Carbon Storage Program (CSP). The project, initiated in October 2001, was conducted to evaluate opportunities for carbon dioxide CO2 sequestration in an unmineable coal seam in the Northern Appalachian Basin with simultaneous enhanced coal bed methane recovery. This report details the final results from the project that established a pilot test in Marshall County, West Virginia, USA, where a series of coal bed methane (CBM) production wells were developed in an unmineable coal seam (Upper Freeport (UF)) and the overlying mineable Pittsburgh (PIT) seam. The initial wells were drilled beginning in 2003, using slant-hole drilling procedures with a single production leg, in a down-dip orientation that provided limited success. Improved well design, implemented in the remaining wells, allowed for greater CBM production. The nearly-square-shaped project area was bounded by the perimeter production wells in the UF and PIT seams encompassing an area of 206 acres. Two CBM wells were drilled into the UF at the center of the project site, and these were later converted to serve as CO2 injection wells through which, 20,000 short tons of CO2 were planned to be injected at a maximum rate of 27 tons per day. A CO2 injection system comprised of a 50-ton liquid CO2 storage tank, a cryogenic pump, and vaporization system was installed in the center of the site and, after obtaining a Class II underground injection permit (UIC) permit from the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP), CO2 injection, through the two center wells, into the UF was initiated in September 2009. Numerous complications limited CO2 injection continuity, but CO2 was injected until breakthrough was encountered in September 2013, at which point the project had achieved an injection total of 4,968 tons of CO2. During the injection and post-injection

  2. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  3. Application of Paste Backfill in Underground Coal Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masniyom, M.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires are known from different coalfields worldwide. China, India, USA, Australia, Indonesia and South Africa are the main countries affected by coal fires. The fires is thermally intensive and cause numerous sinkholes, large-scale subsidence, air pollution, global warming, loss of mining productivity and increasing safety risk. The Wuda Inner Mongolia coalfield has been selected as a possible test area for paste backfill. The traditional methods, executed by fire fighting teams, by covering the coalfire areas with soil, blasting burning coal outcrops and injecting water in the subsurface fire pockets are continuously improved and extended. Initiatives to introduce modern techniques, such as backfill placement at fracture and borehole, to cool down the burning coal and cut off the air supply. This study is to investigate backfill materials and techniques suited for underground coal fires. Laboratory tests were carried out on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of different backfill materials and mixtures thereof. Special attention was paid to materials generated as by-products and other cheaply available materials e.g. fly ash from power plants. There is a good chance that one of the different material mixtures investigated can be used as a technically and economically viable backfill for underground coal fires.

  4. Coal fired steam generation for heavy oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, K.

    1992-01-01

    In Alberta, some 21,000 m 3 /d of heavy oil and bitumen are produced by in-situ recovery methods involving steam injection. The steam generation requirement is met by standardized natural-gas-fired steam generators. While gas is in plentiful supply in Alberta and therefore competitively priced, significant gas price increases could occur in the future. A 1985 study investigating the alternatives to natural gas as a fuel for steam generation concluded that coal was the most economic alternative, as reserves of subbituminous coal are not only abundant in Alberta but also located relatively close to heavy oil and bitumen production areas. The environmental performance of coal is critical to its acceptance as an alternate fuel to natural gas, and proposed steam generator designs which could burn Alberta coal and control emissions satisfactorily are assessed. Considerations for ash removal, sulfur dioxide sorption, nitrogen oxides control, and particulate emission capture are also presented. A multi-stage slagging type of coal-fired combustor has been developed which is suitable for application with oilfield steam generators and is being commissioned for a demonstration project at the Cold Lake deposit. An economic study showed that the use of coal for steam generation in heavy oil in-situ projects in the Peace River and Cold Lake areas would be economic, compared to natural gas, at fuel price projections and design/cost premises for a project timing in the mid-1990s. 7 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Sequestration of carbon dioxide – influence of coal surface chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orzechowska-Zięba Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical gas adsorption is a widely used method for the characterisation of the solids porosity. The water steam, primarilydue to its physicochemical properties and ease of use in the experiment has great potential as a sorbate. When applied to coal, water steam allows to determine the quantity of primary adsorption centers as measurement of interaction of molecules adsorbed to the surface of the adsorbent. In order to determine the adsorption capacity and the chemical nature of the coal surface, adsorption / desorption of water vapour to the selected coals was examined at 303K, using a volumetric method. The presence of water in the coal may affect on the sorption properties of other molecules. The analysis of the results show that the coals of low rank and a high content of oxygen functional groups, which are the active sites, showed a greater affinity to absorbing water molecules. Adsorption isotherms were compiled through approximating the Langmuir and BET linear equation to measurement data. Based on the adsorption equation, the amount of adsorption centers have been specified, which can potentially be involved in the adsorption of CO2 during the injection of gas into the coal seams.

  6. Reinfarction Following PCI or Medical Management using the Universal Definition in Patients With Total Occlusion After Myocardial Infarction: Results from Long Term Follow up of the OAT Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harvey D.; Reynolds, Harmony R.; Carvalho, Antonio C.; Pearte, Camille A.; Liu, Li; Martin, C. Edwin; Knatterud, Genell L.; Džavík, Vladimír; Kruk, Mariusz; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Cantor, Warren J.; Menon, Venu; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Hochman, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Occluded Artery Trial (OAT) randomized 2201 patients with a totally occluded infarct-related artery on days 3–28 (>24 hours) following myocardial infarction (MI) to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or medical treatment (MED). There was no difference in the primary endpoint of death, reinfarction or heart failure at 2.9 year or 6-year mean follow-up. However in patients randomized to PCI there was a trend for an increase in reinfarction. Methods We analyzed the characteristics and types of reinfarction according to the universal definition. Independent predictors of reinfarction were determined using Cox proportional hazard models with follow up to 9 years. Results There were 169 reinfarctions; 9.4% PCI vs 8.0% MED, HR 1.31, 95% CI 0.97 −1.77, p=0.08. Spontaneous reinfarction (type 1) occurred with similar frequency in the groups; 4.9% PCI vs 6.7% MED, HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.53 – 1.15, p=0.21. Rates of type 2 (secondary) and 3 (sudden death) MI were similar in both groups. There was an increase in type 4a reinfarctions (related to protocol or repeat PCI), 0.8% PCI vs 0.1% MED, p=0.01 and type 4b reinfarctions (stent thrombosis); 2.7% PCI vs 0.6% MED, p<0.001. Multivariate predictors of reinfarction were history of PCI prior to study entry (p=0.001), diabetes (p=0.005), and absence of new Q waves with the index infarction (p=0.01). Conclusions There was a trend for reMI to be more frequent with PCI. Opening an occluded infarct-related artery in stable patients late post-MI exposes them to a risk of subsequent reinfarction related to reocclusion and stent thrombosis. PMID:22520521

  7. RuvBL2 Is Involved in Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor PCI-24781-Induced Cell Death in SK-N-DZ Neuroblastoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qinglei; Tsai, Sauna; Lu, Yonghai; Wang, Chunmei; Kwan, Yiuwa; Ngai, Saiming

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the second most common solid tumor diagnosed during infancy. The survival rate among children with high-risk neuroblastoma is less than 40%, highlighting the urgent needs for new treatment strategies. PCI-24781 is a novel hydroxamic acid-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that has high efficacy and safety for cancer treatment. However, the underlying mechanisms of PCI-24781 are not clearly elucidated in neuroblastoma cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that PCI-24781 treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth at very low doses in neuroblastoma cells SK-N-DZ, not in normal cell line HS-68. However, PCI-24781 caused the accumulation of acetylated histone H3 both in SK-N-DZ and HS-68 cell line. Treatment of SK-N-DZ with PCI-24781 also induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and activated apoptosis signaling pathways via the up-regulation of DR4, p21, p53 and caspase 3. Further proteomic analysis revealed differential protein expression profiles between non-treated and PCI-24781 treated SK-N-DZ cells. Totally 42 differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS system. Western blotting confirmed the expression level of five candidate proteins including prohibitin, hHR23a, RuvBL2, TRAP1 and PDCD6IP. Selective knockdown of RuvBL2 rescued cells from PCI-24781-induced cell death, implying that RuvBL2 might play an important role in anti-tumor activity of PCI-24781 in SK-N-DZ cells. The present results provide a new insight into the potential mechanism of PCI-24781 in SK-N-DZ cell line. PMID:23977108

  8. Impella 2.5 initiated prior to unprotected left main PCI in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock improves early survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraj, Perwaiz M; Doshi, Rajkumar; Schreiber, Theodore; Maini, Brijeshwar; O'Neill, William W

    2017-06-01

    To assess post-procedural outcomes when Impella 2.5 percutaneous left ventricular assist device (pLVAD) support is initiated either prior to or after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) culprit lesion in the context of acute myocardial infarction cardiogenic shock (AMICS). Initiation of Impella 2.5 pLVAD prior to PCI is associated with significant survival benefit in the setting of AMICS. Outcomes of those presenting with a ULMCA culprit lesion in this setting have not been well characterized. Thirty-six consecutive patients in the cVAD Registry supported with Impella 2.5 pLVAD for AMICS who underwent PCI on ULMCA culprit lesion were included in our multicenter study. The average age was 69.8 ± 14.2 years, 77.8% were male, 72.7% were in CS at admission, 44.4% sustained one or multiple cardiac arrests, and 30.6% had anoxic brain injury. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the Pre-PCI group (n = 20) and Post-PCI group (n = 16). Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and greater coronary disease burden were significantly more frequent in the Pre-PCI group but they had significantly better survival to discharge (55.0% vs 18.8%, P = 0.041). Kaplan-Meier 30-day survival analysis showed very poor survival in Post-PCI group (48.1% vs 12.5%, Log-Rank P = 0.004). Initiation of Impella 2.5 pLVAD prior to as compared with after PCI of ULMCA for AMICS culprit lesion is associated with significant early survival. As previously described, patients supported after PCI appear to have very poor survival at 30 days. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Current Status of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Korea: Based on Year 2014 Cohort of Korean Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (K-PCI) Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Sik; Han, Kyoo-Rok; Moon, Keon-Woong; Jeon, Dong Woon; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Jung-Sun; Park, Duk-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Kim, Juhan; Bae, Jang-Whan; Hur, Seung-Ho; Kim, Byung Ok; Choi, Donghoon; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2017-05-01

    Although several multicenter registries have evaluated percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures in Korea, those databases have been limited by non-standardized data collection and lack of uniform reporting methods. We aimed to collect and report data from a standardized database to analyze PCI procedures throughout the country. Both clinical and procedural data, as well as clinical outcomes data during hospital stay, were collected based on case report forms that used a standard set of 54 data elements. This report is based on 2014 Korean PCI registry cohort data. A total of 92 hospitals offered data on 44967 PCI procedures. The median age was 66.0 interquartile range 57.0-74.0 years, and 70.3% were men. Thirty-eight percent of patients presented with acute myocardial infarction and one-third of all PCI procedures were performed in an urgent or emergency setting. Non-invasive stress tests were performed in 13.9% of cases, while coronary computed tomography angiography was used in 13.7% of cases prior to PCI. Radial artery access was used in 56.1% of all PCI procedures. Devices that used PCI included drug-eluting stent, plain old balloon angioplasty, drug-eluting balloon, and bare-metal stent (around 91%, 19%, 6%, and 1% of all procedures, respectively). The incidences of in-hospital death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and stroke were 2.3%, 1.6%, and 0.2%, respectively. These data may provide an overview of the current PCI practices and in-hospital outcomes in Korea and could be used as a foundation for developing treatment guidelines and nationwide clinical research.

  10. TEKO returns to coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TREND

    2003-01-01

    Slovak government will not grant state long-term credit guarantee sized about 1 billion Slovak crowns, which Geoterm, a.s., Kosice company would like to get from World bank. Loan should be used as for construction of geothermal source in village Durkov near Kosice, which would be connected in Kosice thermal plant TEKO, a.s. Geothermal sources capacity after realization of planned investments should reach half of present output of plant. The nearest TEKO investments should head to changes in plant production process. Plant wants to redirect in heat and thermal energy production from existing dominant gas consumption to black coal incineration. Black coal incineration is more advantageous than natural gas exploitation in spite of ecologic loads. TEKO also will lower gas consumption for at least 30 per cent and rise up present black coal consumption almost twice

  11. Coal liquefaction still a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overberg, H

    1982-03-19

    Liquefaction of coal is not profitable in West Germany and will not be so far some time to coal. This is true for West German and imported coal. The result may be improved but not changed by combined conversion of coal and top residues of distilleries. These are the main statements of a study carried out by Messrs. Veba Oel AG, Gelsenkirchen, on behalf of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology. The results of the study are presented in 20 volumes.

  12. Coal: the dinosaur wakes up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, Y.; Cosnard, D.

    2005-01-01

    In western countries, coal is considered as an industry of the past, but at the Earth's scale the situation is radically the opposite. Since three years, coal is the faster developing energy source, in particular thanks to China expansion and to the oil crisis which makes coal more competitive. This short paper presents the situation of coal mining in China: projects, working conditions and environmental impact. (J.S.)

  13. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  14. Possibilities for automating coal sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helekal, J; Vankova, J

    1987-11-01

    Outlines sampling equipment in use (AVR-, AVP-, AVN- and AVK-series samplers and RDK- and RDH-series separators produced by the Coal Research Institute, Ostrava; extractors, crushers and separators produced by ORGREZ). The Ostrava equipment covers bituminous coal needs while ORGREZ provides equipment for energy coal requirements. This equipment is designed to handle coal up to 200 mm in size at a throughput of up to 1200 t/h. Automation of sampling equipment is foreseen.

  15. 78 FR 28242 - Proposed Information Collection; Cleanup Program for Accumulations of Coal and Float Coal Dusts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Program for Accumulations of Coal and Float Coal Dusts, Loose Coal, and Other Combustibles AGENCY: Mine... collection for developing and updating a cleanup program for accumulations of coal and float coal dusts, loose coal, and other combustibles in underground coal mines. DATES: All comments must be postmarked or...

  16. Numerical simulation of coupled binary gas-solid interaction during carbon dioxide sequestration in a coal bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qiyan; Zhou Lai; Chen Zhongwei; Liu Jishan

    2008-01-01

    Complicated coupled binary gas-solid interaction arises during carbon dioxide sequestration in a coal seam, which combines effects of CO 2 -CH 4 counter adsorption, CO 2 -CH 4 counter diffusion, binary gas flow and coal bed deformation. Through solving a set of coupled field governing equations, a novel full coupled Finite Element (FE) model was established by COMSOL Multiphysics. The new FE model was applied to the quantification of coal porous pressure, coal permeability, gas composition fraction and coal displacement when CO 2 was injected in a CH 4 saturated coal bed. Numerical results demonstrate that CH 4 is swept by the injected CO 2 accompanied by coal volumetric deformation. Compared to the single CH 4 in situ, CH 4 -CO 2 counter-diffusion induced coal swelling can make more compensation for coal shrinkage due to effective stress. Competing influences between the effective stress and the CH 4 -CO 2 counter-diffusion induced volume change governs the evolution of porous pressure and permeability, which is controlled by the porous pressure correspondingly. This achievement extends our ability to understand the coupled multi-physics of the CO 2 geological sequestration and CO 2 enhanced coal bed methane recovery under field conditions. (authors)

  17. Comparative effectiveness of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in elderly patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ruchit; Yang, Yi; Bentley, John P; Banahan, Benjamin F

    2016-11-01

    To compare the relative effectiveness of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) among elderly patients with diabetes regarding acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, repeat revascularization, and all-cause mortality. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the 2006-2008 5% national sample of Medicare claims data. Elderly (≥65 years) beneficiaries with at least two claims of diabetes separated by ≥30 days and who had at least one inpatient claim for multi-vessel CABG or PCI between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2008 were identified. The date of beneficiary's first CABG or PCI was defined as the index date. All patients were followed from the index date to 31 December 2008 for outcomes. CABG and PCI patients were 1:1 matched on propensity scores and index dates. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare postoperative outcomes between patients undergoing CABG versus PCI. The matched sample consisted of 4430 patients (2215 in each group). The Cox proportional hazards models showed that, compared to patients undergoing PCI, CABG was associated with a lower risk of postoperative AMI (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.494; 95% CI: 0.396-0.616; p < .0001), repeat revascularization (HR: 0.194; 95% CI: 0.149-0.252; p < .0001), the composite outcome (HR: 0.523; 95% CI: 0.460-0.595; p < .0001), and all-cause mortality (HR: 0.775; 95% CI: 0.658-0.914; p = .0024); postoperative risk of stroke was not significantly different between the two groups (HR: 0.965; 95% CI: 0.812-1.148; p = .691). CABG appears to be the preferred revascularization strategy for elderly patients with diabetes and coronary heart disease. However, this result should be interpreted considering study limitations, for example, several patient clinical variables and physician-related factors which may affect procedure outcomes are not available in the data. Clinical decisions should be individualized considering all patient- and physician

  18. Fractional flow reserve versus angiography for guidance of PCI in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (FAME): 5-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nunen, Lokien X; Zimmermann, Frederik M; Tonino, Pim A L; Barbato, Emanuele; Baumbach, Andreas; Engstrøm, Thomas; Klauss, Volker; MacCarthy, Philip A; Manoharan, Ganesh; Oldroyd, Keith G; Ver Lee, Peter N; Van't Veer, Marcel; Fearon, William F; De Bruyne, Bernard; Pijls, Nico H J

    2015-11-07

    In the Fractional Flow Reserve Versus Angiography for Multivessel Evaluation (FAME) study, fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) improved outcome compared with angiography-guided PCI for up to 2 years of follow-up. The aim in this study was to investigate whether the favourable clinical outcome with the FFR-guided PCI in the FAME study persisted over a 5-year follow-up. The FAME study was a multicentre trial done in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, the UK, and the USA. Patients (aged ≥ 18 years) with multivessel coronary artery disease were randomly assigned to undergo angiography-guided PCI or FFR-guided PCI. Before randomisation, stenoses requiring PCI were identified on the angiogram. Patients allocated to angiography-guided PCI had revascularisation of all identified stenoses. Patients allocated to FFR-guided PCI had FFR measurements of all stenotic arteries and PCI was done only if FFR was 0·80 or less. No one was masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events at 1 year, and the data for the 5-year follow-up are reported here. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00267774. After 5 years, major adverse cardiac events occurred in 31% of patients (154 of 496) in the angiography-guided group versus 28% (143 of 509 patients) in the FFR-guided group (relative risk 0·91, 95% CI 0·75-1·10; p=0·31). The number of stents placed per patient was significantly higher in the angiography-guided group than in the FFR-guided group (mean 2·7 [SD 1·2] vs 1·9 [1·3], pPCI in patients with multivessel disease. A strategy of FFR-guided PCI resulted in a significant decrease of major adverse cardiac events for up to 2 years after the index procedure. From 2 years to 5 years, the risks for both groups developed similarly. This clinical outcome in the FFR-guided group was achieved with a lower number of stented arteries

  19. Steel story founded on coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Paper reports on an iron and steel plant in New Zealand which uses non-coking subbituminuous coal to produce the sponge iron. The transport of the ironsand and the coal to the site and the operation of the kiln in which the ironsand is reduced by the coal is described.

  20. Microscopic coal research in Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebard, P.A.

    1955-01-01

    Since the industrial developments of Europe and North America in the nineteenth century, coal has been considered as the most important mineral wealth a country could possess. Coal was often referred to as King Coal, and it was not until around 1950 that its position as the major fuel for modern