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Sample records for coal gasification pilot

  1. Clean coal technology - Study on the pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lanhe; Liang Jie; Yu Li

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the gasification conditions, the gasifier structure, the measuring system and the gasification rationale of a pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification (UCG) in the Liuzhuang Colliery, Tangshan, are illustrated. The technique of two-phase underground coal gasification is proposed. The detection of the moving speed and the length of the gasification working face is made using radon probing technology. An analysis of the experiment results indicates that the output of air gas is 3000 m 3 /h with a heating value of about 4.18 MJ/m 3 , while the output of water gas is 2000 m 3 /h with a heating value of over 11.00 MJ/m 3 , of which H 2 content is above 40% with a maximum of 71.68%. The cyclical time of two-phase underground gasification is 16 h, with 8 h for each phase. This prolongs the time when the high-heating value gas is produced. The moving speed of the gasification working face in two alternative gasifiers is identified, i.e. 0.204 and 0.487 m/d, respectively. The success of the pilot project experiment of the underground gasification reveals the strides that have been made toward the commercialization of the UCG in China. It also further justifies the reasonability and feasibility of the new technology of long channel, big section, two-phase underground gasification. A conclusion is also drawn that the technology of the pilot project experiment can be popularized in old and discarded coal mines

  2. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The conversion of coal to high-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. However, because coal has widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where it is mined, it is difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, ERDA, together with the American Gas Association, is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high Btu and to low Btu gas have reached the pilot plant stage. The responsibility for designing, constructing and operating each of these pilot plants is defined and progress on each during the quarter is described briefly. The accumulation of data for a coal gasification manual and the development of mathematical models of coal gasification processes are reported briefly. (LTN)

  3. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  4. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    High-Btu natural gas has a heating value of 950 to 1,000 Btu per standard cubic foot, is composed essentially of methane, and contains virtually no sulfur, carbon monoxide, or free hydrogen. The conversion of coal to high-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. However, because coal has widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where it is mined, it is difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, ERDA, together with the American Gas Association is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high Btu and to low Btu gas have reached the pilot plant stage. The responsibility for designing, constructing and operating each of these pilot plants is defined and progress on each during the quarter is described briefly. The accumulation of data for a coal gasification manual and the development of mathematical models of coal gasification processes are reported briefly. (LTN)

  5. Japan's New Sunshine Project. 1994 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This paper summarizes the report for fiscal 1994 on research and development related to coal liquefaction and gasification. In the research and development of coal liquefaction technologies, reports were given on research of liquefaction characteristics of different coals and liquefaction process thereof, and on research of catalysts for the coal liquefaction. In the research and development of coal gasification technologies, reports were given on fundamental studies on gasification characteristics of different coals. In the research and development of liquefaction technologies for bituminous coal, reports were given on design, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant with a capacity of 150 t/d, and the operation supporting studies on the pilot plant. In the fundamental research on the coal liquefaction process, reports were given on refining technologies and utilization of the refined materials, and studies on environment preservation in applying the coal liquefaction technologies. In the research on hydrogen manufacturing technologies by using the fundamental coal technology, reports were given on design, construction and operational studies of a pilot plant. In the research and development of the coal gasification technologies, reports were given on development of a jet-flow gasified coal electric power plant, selection of coals, and development of a data processing system. (NEDO)

  6. FY 1991 report on the Coal Gasification Committee; 1991 nendo sekitan gasuka iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the Coal Gasification Committee, gasification power generation section and gasification technology section in FY 1991. The 1st Coal Gasification Committee Meeting was held on July 16,1991, and report/discussion were made about an outline of the FY 1991 research plan on the development of coal gasification technology. The 2nd Meeting was held on March 12, 1992, and report/discussion were made about activities of each section meeting and the progress of the development of coal gasification technology. In the section meeting of coal gasification power generation, report/discussion were made about the progress and study object of the development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant and support study for the development of the plant. In the 1st section meeting of coal gasification technology, as to the developmental plan on coal utilization hydrogen production technology, report/discussion were made about design/construction/operational study of pilot plant and support study for pilot plant (study using small equipment, study of trial manufacture of plant use equipment/materials). In the 2nd section meeting, report/discussion were made about the results of the development of coal utilization hydrogen production technology. (NEDO)

  7. FY 1988 report on the committee of the Coal Gasification Committee; 1988 nendo sekitan gaska iinkai hon'iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the committee of the Coal Gasification Committee in FY 1988. In the 1st committee meeting, report/discussion were made on the outline of the FY 1988 research plan on the coal gasification technology development. The distributed data were those on the development of entrained bed coal gasification power generation plant (the state of the development of a 200t/d gasification power generation pilot plant), the results of the operation using entrained bed coal gasification equipment, development of coal utilization hydrogen production technology (design/construction of pilot plant) and development of coal utilization hydrogen production technology (support study of pilot plant, study using small equipment). In the 2nd committee meeting, report/discussion were made on activities of sections such as the gasification power generation section and gasification technology section and the state of progress of the coal gasification technology development. The distributed data were those on the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power generation plant, support study of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power generation plant, etc. (NEDO)

  8. Japan's New Sunshine Project. 1994 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This paper summarizes the report for fiscal 1994 on research and development related to coal liquefaction and gasification. In the research and development of coal liquefaction technologies, reports were given on research of liquefaction characteristics of different coals and liquefaction process thereof, and on research of catalysts for the coal liquefaction. In the research and development of coal gasification technologies, reports were given on fundamental studies on gasification characteristics of different coals. In the research and development of liquefaction technologies for bituminous coal, reports were given on design, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant with a capacity of 150 t/d, and the operation supporting studies on the pilot plant. In the fundamental research on the coal liquefaction process, reports were given on refining technologies and utilization of the refined materials, and studies on environment preservation in applying the coal liquefaction technologies. In the research on hydrogen manufacturing technologies by using the fundamental coal technology, reports were given on design, construction and operational studies of a pilot plant. In the research and development of the coal gasification technologies, reports were given on development of a jet-flow gasified coal electric power plant, selection of coals, and development of a data processing system. (NEDO)

  9. Report for fiscal 1994 by gasification technology subcommittee, Coal Gasification Committee; 1994 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    As the result of a RUN-9 operation in the research on technologies for hydrogen production from coal and for pilot plants, it is found that the Muswellbrook, Datong, and Blair Athol coals are all suitable for gasification in pilot plants. Their handlability is considerably improved when the grain sizes after crushing are allowed to remain coarse (with the Blair Athol coal still retaining some disadvantage). A concept design is prepared for a HYCOL (hydrogen from coal) process demonstration plant. The reference coal is an imported coal similar to the Taiheiyo coal, and the hydrogen production target is set at 1-million m{sup 3}N/d (590t/d in terms of Taiheiyo coal) and hydrogen purity at 95% or higher. The whole process consists of coal gasification (with oxygen serving as gasification agent), dedusting, conversion to CO, desulfurization and decarboxylation (recovery of sulfur), and methanation. The gasification furnace is a 1-chamber entrained bed type with a 2-stage gyration flow. Dried and pulverized coal is conveyed aboard an air flow into the gasification furnace, where it is thrown into partial combustion reaction with the gasification agent for gasification in a high-temperature zone (1,500-1,600 degrees C), and the ash is taken out as slag. The generated gas is cooled in a heat recovery boiler, dedusted in a cyclone dust filter, and then forwarded to the washing unit. (NEDO)

  10. Report on the gasification technology sub-committee of the coal gasification committee in fiscal 1992; 1992 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper reports the coal gasification committee and the gasification technology sub-committee in fiscal 1992. The paper summarizes the report mainly on the data distributed at the gasification technology sub-committee meetings in fiscal 1992. In developing the coal utilizing hydrogen manufacturing technology, the trial operation was started on the pilot plant in fiscal 1991, wherein two comprehensive trial operations were carried out on gasification of 10 kg/cm{sup 2} to extract troubles throughout the whole system, smooth temperature rise and pressure rise were performed, and coal and oxygen were supplied into a furnace to have verified ignition of the coal. Furthermore, one trial operation for gasification of 30 kg/cm{sup 2} was executed. Fiscal 1992 will continue the gasification test of 30 kg/cm{sup 2}. In addition, a test on measures to improve efficiency purposed for gasification efficiency enhancement is carried out, and so is a coal type diversification test purposed to expand coal type applicability. A study was performed by using a small device as a pilot plant supporting study. Prototype fabrication, development, and in-plant tests were made on materials for plant devices (refractories and ceramics). The paper also describes the current status of HYCOL pilot plant operation study. Discussions were given also on heat balance of a gasification furnace. (NEDO)

  11. FY 1989 report on the section meeting of gasification technology of the Coal Gasification Committee; 1989 nendo sekitan gasuka iinkai gasuka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the Coal Gasification Committee in FY 1989. The 1st Coal Gasification Committee Meeting was held on July 21,1989, and report/discussion were made about an outline of the FY 1989 research plan. In the 2nd Meeting, report/discussion were made about activities of each of the section meetings and the progress of the development of coal gasification technology. In FY 1998, as the 4th design/construction of pilot plant, manufacture/installation were conducted of a part (equipment of coal supply system/char recycle system) of the gasification process equipment/facilities. As to recycle gas facilities, manufacture of equipment/facilities was conducted. Concerning a part of the pipe rack/central control panel/electric panel, manufacture/installation of equipment were made. In the support study of a pilot plant (trial development of materials for plant use equipment), refractory was studied in terms of the evaluation of durability of furnace materials against liquefaction residue slag, study of furnace materials responsive to liquefaction residue and gasification of high ash melting point coal, etc. (NEDO)

  12. An overview of underground coal gasification and its applicability for Turkish lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekpak, E.; Yoncaci, S.; Kilic, M.G. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Coal is expected to maintain its significance as an energy source for a longer time period than oil and natural gas. Environmental concerns have led to the development of clean coal technologies, such as coal gasification. Coal gasification can be used at either at surface or in underground coal gasification (UCG). UCG has several advantages over surface gasification and conventional mining such as rank low calorific value coals. Coal gasification also has the potential to contribute to the energy supply of a country. Most Turkish coals are lignite and UCG may enable diversification of energy sources of Turkey and may help decrease external dependency on energy. This paper presented a study that matched a UCG technique to the most appropriate (Afsin Elbistan) lignite reserve in Turkey. Two UCG techniques were presented, including the linked vertical well method, and the directional drilling-controlled retractable injection point (CRIP) method. The properties of coal seams and coal properties were also outlined. It was concluded that Cobanbey is the most preferable sector in the Elbistan Lignite Reserve for a pilot study, and that the linked vertical well method could be considered as a candidate method. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig.

  13. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  14. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and

  15. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghzi, Shawn [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Subramanian, Ramanathan [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Rizeq, George [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McDermott, John [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Eiteneer, Boris [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ladd, David [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Vazquez, Arturo [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Anderson, Denise [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Bates, Noel [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2011-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE's bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation

  16. Coal gasification coal by steam using process heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, K.H. van; Juentgen, H.; Peters, W.

    1982-01-01

    This paper outlines the coal gasification process using a high-temperature nuclear reactor as a source of the process heat needed. Compared to conventional gasification processes coal is saved by 30-40%, coal-specific emissions are reduced and better economics of gas production are achieved. The introductory chapter deals with motives, aims and tasks of the development, followed by an explanation of the status of investigations, whereby especially the results of a semi-technical pilot plant operated by Bergbau-Forschung are given. Furthermore, construction details of a full-scale commercial gasifier are discussed, including the development of suitable alloys for the heat exchanger. Moreover problems of safety, licensing and economics of future plants have been investigated. (orig.) [de

  17. Operation of a semi-technical pilot plant for nuclear aided steam gasification of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, R.; Heek, K.H. van; Juentgen, H.; Peters, W.

    1984-01-01

    After intensive investigations on a small scale, the principle of the process has been tested in a semi-technical pilot plant. In its gasifier a fluidized bed of approx. 1 m 2 cross-section and of up to 4 m height is operated at 40 bar. Heat is supplied to the bed from an immersed heat exchanger with helium flowing through it, which is heated electrically. The plant was commissioned in 1976 and has been in hot operation for approx. 23000 h, over 13000 h whereof account for coal gasification. Roughly 1600 t of coal have been put through. During recent years the processing of German caking long-flame gas coal and the marked improvement of the process by the use of catalysts have been demonstrated successfully. (orig.)

  18. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  19. Pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle power plant with coal gasification: Second generation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, G.L.; Bressan, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the technical and economical background of a research and development program of a novel power generation scheme, which is based on coal gasification, pressurized fluid bed combustion and combined cycles. The participants in this program are: Foster Wheeler (project leader), Westinghouse, IGT and the USA Dept. of Energy. The paper describes the characteristics of the plant, the research program in course of implementation, the components of the pilot plant and the first results obtained

  20. The carbon dioxide gasification characteristics of biomass char samples and their effect on coal gasification reactivity during co-gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafu, Lihle D; Neomagus, Hein W J P; Everson, Raymond C; Okolo, Gregory N; Strydom, Christien A; Bunt, John R

    2018-06-01

    The carbon dioxide gasification characteristics of three biomass char samples and bituminous coal char were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyser in the temperature range of 850-950 °C. Char SB exhibited higher reactivities (R i , R s , R f ) than chars SW and HW. Coal char gasification reactivities were observed to be lower than those of the three biomass chars. Correlations between the char reactivities and char characteristics were highlighted. The addition of 10% biomass had no significant impact on the coal char gasification reactivity. However, 20 and 30% biomass additions resulted in increased coal char gasification rate. During co-gasification, chars HW and SW caused increased coal char gasification reactivity at lower conversions, while char SB resulted in increased gasification rates throughout the entire conversion range. Experimental data from biomass char gasification and biomass-coal char co-gasification were well described by the MRPM, while coal char gasification was better described by the RPM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. FY 1994 report on the Coal Gasification Committee; 1994 nendo sekitan gasuka iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the Coal Gasification Committee in FY 1994. The 1st Coal Gasification Committee Meeting was held on May 18,1994, the 2nd Meeting on October 28, 1994, and the 3rd Meeting on February 21, 1995. Report/discussion were made about activities of each section meeting and the progress of the development of coal gasification technology. For the 50 t/d HYCOL pilot plant, disassembly examination was conducted. As a result of the examination, the high-temperature gas corrosion caused by gas product against metal members was negligible, but against members in the wet corrosion environment, SCC, intergranular corrosion and pitting corrosion were generated. About members used in the high-temperature environment, it was made clear that Ir was applicable to thermowell, high chromia-base sintered products were applicable to non-cooling hearth tapping materials, and high chromia-base indeterminate-formed materials were applicable to water-cooled fireproofing wall. Based on the data obtained through the operational study of a 50 t/d pilot plant, conceptual design was made of a coal gasification hydrogen production plant of a scale of demonstration plant. (NEDO)

  2. Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

  3. MHD power station with coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzozowski, W.S.; Dul, J.; Pudlik, W.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the proposed operating method of a MHD-power station including a complete coal gasification into lean gas with a simultaneous partial gas production for the use of outside consumers. A comparison with coal gasification methods actually being used and full capabilities of power stations heated with coal-derived gas shows distinct advantages resulting from applying the method of coal gasification with waste heat from MHD generators working within the boundaries of the thermal-electric power station. (author)

  4. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  5. Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1981-01-01

    In the chapter 'Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat', the steam gasification of brown coal and bituminous coal, the hydrogenating gasification of brown coal including nuclear process heat either by steam cracking methane in the steam reformer or by preheating the gasifying agent, as well as the hydrogenating gasification of bituminous coal are described. (HS) [de

  6. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1993 on developing entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Summary of tests and researches on pilot plant operation; 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Pilot plant unten shiken kenkyu no gaiyo hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Tests and researches have been carried out on operation of a 200-t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant built with an objective of establishing the coal gasification composite power generation technology. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1993. The current fiscal year has performed the test operation on the pilot plant as a whole by using the coal D in continuation from the previous fiscal year. For the gasification furnace facilities, an air variation test was conducted for charging coal into the gasification furnace by using recovered oxygen, wherein satisfactory control was verified on oxygen concentration in the air supplied into the gasification furnace. In the gas refining facilities (dry desulfurizing facilities), the total sulfur concentration at 300 to 650 ppm in the gas produced from the coal gasification furnace was refined to 30 to 100 ppm, having achieved the initial target value. The gas refining facilities (dry dust collecting facilities) have achieved satisfactory result that the entrance dust concentration at 66 to 270 mg/Nm{sup 3} was reduced to the exit dust concentration at 1 to 3 mg/Nm{sup 3}. With respect to the gas turbine facilities, the planned values of output and thermal efficiency were satisfied, having derived good performance characteristics. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1986 report on the committee of the Coal Gasification Committee; 1986 nendo sekitan gaska iinkai hon'iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    The paper reported on activities of the committee of the Coal Gasification Committee in FY 1986. In the 1st Committee Meeting, after selecting the chairperson, report/discussion were made about the outline of the FY 1986 coal gasification technology development plan. The distributed data were the outline of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant, outline of the development of a 40t/d fluidized bed coal gasification plant, outline of the design of a 1,000t/d 100,000KW-class demonstrative plant, outline of the development of coal utilization hydrogen production technology, and outline of the development of high-calorie gas production technology. In the 2nd Committee Meeting, report/discussion were made about activities of each section of the committee and the state of progress of the development of coal gasification technology. The distributed data were those on the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant, development of a 40t/d fluidized bed coal gasification plant, design of a 1,000t/d 100,000KW-class demonstrative plant, and development of coal utilization hydrogen production technology (design/construction of pilot plant, study using small equipment). (NEDO)

  9. Partial gasification of coal in a fluidized bed reactor: Comparison of a laboratory and pilot scale reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, R.; Shen, L.H.; Zhang, M.Y.; Jin, B.S.; Xiong, Y.Q.; Duan, Y.F.; Zhong, Z.P.; Zhou, H.C.; Chen, X.P.; Huang, Y.J. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2007-01-15

    A 0.1 MWth lab-scale and 2 MWth pilot-scale experimental rigs were constructed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a new process. The aim of the lab-scale study is to optimize coal partial gasification reactions operating conditions, which were applied in the pilot-scale tests. A comparison between the laboratory and pilot scale experimental results is presented in this paper in order to provide valuable information for scaling-up of the PFB coal partial reactor to industrial applications. The results show that trends and phenomena obtained in the laboratory reactor are confirmed in a pilot plant operating at similar conditions. However, many differences are observed in the two reactors. The higher heat loss in the lab-scale reactor is responsible for higher equivalence ratio (ER) and lower gas heating value at the similar reactor temperature. With respect to the pilot-scale reactor, mass transfer limitation between bubbles and emulsion phase may become important. Hence, longer contact time is required to achieve the same conversions as in the lab-scale reactor. This difference is explained by a significant change of the hydrodynamic conditions due to the formation of larger bubbles.

  10. Pilot plant for hydrogasification of coal with nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkenhain, G.; Velling, G.

    1976-01-01

    In the framework of a research and development programme sponsored by the Ministry of Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany, two process variants for hydrogasification of coal by means of nuclear heat have been developed by the Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG, Cologne. For testing these process variants a semi-technical pilot plant for gasification of coal under pressure in a fluidized bed was constructed. The pilot plant, in which the gasification of lignite and hard coal is planned, is designed for a throughput of 100kg carbon per hour corresponding to 400kg raw lignite per hour or 150kg hard coal per hour. The plant should provide data on the influence of the most essential process parameters (pressure, temperature, residence time of gas and coal, type and pre-treatment of feed coal) on the performance of gasification and raw gas composition. Different plant components will also be tested. Since the pilot plant will permit testing of both process variants of hydrogasification, it was designed in such a way that it is possible to vary a great number of process parameters. Thus, for instance, the pressure can be chosen in a range up to 100 bar and pure hydrogen or mixtures of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and steam can be applied as gasification agents. The gasifier is an internally insulated fluidized bed reactor with an inner diameter of 200mm and a height of about 8m, to which an internally insulated cyclone for separation of the entrained fines is attached. The raw gas is then cooled down by direct water scrubbing. (author)

  11. Fluidized-Bed Gasification of Plastic Waste, Wood, and Their Blends with Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Zaccariello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fuel composition on gasification process performance was investigated by performing mass and energy balances on a pre-pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor fed with mixtures of plastic waste, wood, and coal. The fuels containing plastic waste produced less H2, CO, and CO2 and more light hydrocarbons than the fuels including biomass. The lower heating value (LHV progressively increased from 5.1 to 7.9 MJ/Nm3 when the plastic waste fraction was moved from 0% to 100%. Higher carbonaceous fines production was associated with the fuel containing a large fraction of coal (60%, producing 87.5 g/kgFuel compared to only 1.0 g/kgFuel obtained during the gasification test with just plastic waste. Conversely, plastic waste gasification produced the highest tar yield, 161.9 g/kgFuel, while woody biomass generated only 13.4 g/kgFuel. Wood gasification showed a carbon conversion efficiency (CCE of 0.93, while the tests with two fuels containing coal showed lowest CCE values (0.78 and 0.70, respectively. Plastic waste and wood gasification presented similar cold gas efficiency (CGE values (0.75 and 0.76, respectively, while that obtained during the co-gasification tests varied from 0.53 to 0.73.

  12. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  13. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  14. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 20. 1995 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The paper described a summary of the 1995 study on coal liquefaction and gasification under the New Sunshine Project. As for coal liquefaction, a study was made of liquefaction characteristics and catalysts of various coals. Also studied were liquefaction conditions for quality improvement of liquefaction products, an evaluation method of quality of coal liquid, and a utilization method of coal liquid. In order to prevent carbonization and realize effective liquefaction, a study was conducted for elucidation of the reaction mechanism of high pressure hydrogenation. In a 150t/d pilot plant using hydrogen transfer hydrogenation solvents, the NEDOL method was studied using various catalysts and kinds of coals. This is a step prior to data acquisition for engineering, actual construction of equipment and operation. A 1t/d process supporting unit is a unit to support it. The unit conducts studies on slurry letdown valves and synthetic iron sulfide catalysts, screening of Chinese coals, etc. As to coal gasification, the paper added to the basic research the combined cycle power generation using entrained flow coal gasification for improvement of thermal efficiency and environmental acceptability and the HYCOL method for hydrogen production. 68 refs., 40 figs.

  15. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 1996 Annual Summary of Coal Liquefaction and Gasification; 1996 nendo new sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gasuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    In reference to the results of the research and development under the fiscal 1996 New Sunshine Project, a report was summed up on coal liquefaction and coal gasification. As to the R and D of coal liquefaction technology, researches were conducted on liquefaction characteristics and engineering properties by coal kind, catalysts for coal liquefaction, liquefaction reaction of coal and reformation utilization of the liquefied products, liquefaction reaction mechanism and coking mechanism, solubility of coal in solvent and catalytic reaction mechanism, solvent reaction mechanism by hydrogen donor solvent, etc. Concerning the R and D of coal gasification technology, made were the basic study of eco-technology adaptable gasification technology and the study of coal gasification enhancing technology. Further, as to the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, carried out were the study in pilot plants and the support study of pilot plants. Additionally, R and D were done of the basic technology of coal liquefaction such as upgrading technology and environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction technology, and of coal hydrogasification technology. 3 refs., 81 figs., 25 tabs.

  16. Underground Coal Gasification - Experience of ONGC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is expected to be game changer for nation like ours that requires large amounts of energy but have few natural resources other than coal. ONGC, being an integrated energy company and due to synergy between E & P operations and UCG, envisaged opportunities in UCG business. Its first campaign on UCG started in 1980s. With its initiative, a National Committee for UCG was constituted with representatives from Ministry of Petroleum, Dept. of Coal, CSIR, CMPDIL, State of Gujarat and ONGC for experimenting a pilot. It was decided in mid-1986 to carry out a UCG pilot in Sobhasan area of Mehsana district which was to be funded by OIDB. Two information wells were drilled to generate geological, geophysical, geo-hydrological data and core/coal samples. 3-D seismic survey data of Mehsana area was processed and interpreted and geological model was prepared. Basic designing of pilot project, drilling and completion, strategy of process wells and designing of surface facilities were carried out. The project could not be pursued further due to escalation in cost and contractual difficulty with design consultant. ONGC second UCG campaign commenced with signing of an agreement of collaboration (AOC) with Skochinsky Institute of Mining (SIM), Russia on 25th November 2004 for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). In parallel, MOUs were signed with major coal and power companies, namely, Gujarat Industries Power Company Ltd (GIPCL), Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation Ltd (GMDC), Coal India Ltd (CIL), Singareni Colliery Company Ltd (SCCL) and NLC India Ltd. Under the AOC, suitability study was carried out for different sites belonging to MOU companies. Only Vastan mine block, Nani Naroli, Surat, Gujarat was found to be suitable for UCG. Therefore, subsequent stages of detailed characterization & pilot layout, detailed engineering design were taken up for Vastan site. After enormous efforts for quite long since 2006, in the absence of UCG policy

  17. Fluidised bed gasification of low grade South African coals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, BC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available gasifiers. Fluidised bed Entrained flow Coal particle size 0.5 mm – 5 mm 0 – 0.5 mm Coal moisture Dry Dry/slurry Coal type Non-caking coals Any coal Ash in coal < 60% < 30% Gasification agents Air/steam/oxygen Steam/oxygen Gasification... properties important for fluidised bed gasification are: square4 Coal reactivity in atmospheres of CO2 and H2O square4 Caking index and free swelling index (FSI) square4 Ash fusion temperature (AFT) 5.1 Coal reactivity The gasifcation reactions (1...

  18. Gasification of various types of tertiary coals: A sustainability approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öztürk, Murat; Özek, Nuri; Yüksel, Yunus Emre

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Production energy by burning of coals including high rate of ash and sulfur is harmful to environment. ► Energy production via coal gasification instead of burning is proposed for sustainable approach. ► We calculate exergy and environmental destruction factor of gasification of some tertiary coals. ► Sustainability index, improvement potential of gasification are evaluated for exergy-based approach. - Abstract: The utilization of coal to produce a syngas via gasification processes is becoming a sustainability option because of the availability and the economic relevance of this fossil source in the present world energy scenario. Reserves of coal are abundant and more geographically spread over the world than crude oil and natural gas. This paper focuses on sustainability of the process of coal gasification; where the synthesis gas may subsequently be used for the production of electricity, fuels and chemicals. The coal gasifier unit is one of the least efficient step in the whole coal gasification process and sustainability analysis of the coal gasifier alone can substantially contribute to the efficiency improvement of this process. In order to evaluate sustainability of the coal gasification process energy efficiency, exergy based efficiency, exergy destruction factor, environmental destruction factor, sustainability index and improvement potential are proposed in this paper.

  19. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO(sub x)). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process

  20. Novel fragmentation model for pulverized coal particles gasification in low temperature air thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rastko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New system for start-up and flame support based on coal gasification by low temperature air thermal plasma is planned to supplement current heavy oil system in Serbian thermal power plants in order to decrease air pollutions emission and operational costs. Locally introduced plasma thermal energy heats up and ignites entrained coal particles, thus starting chain process which releases heat energy from gasified coal particles inside burner channel. Important stages during particle combustion, such as particle devolatilisation and char combustion, are described with satisfying accuracy in existing commercial CFD codes that are extensively used as powerful tool for pulverized coal combustion and gasification modeling. However, during plasma coal gasification, high plasma temperature induces strong thermal stresses inside interacting coal particles. These stresses lead to “thermal shock” and extensive particle fragmentation during which coal particles with initial size of 50-100 m disintegrate into fragments of at most 5-10 m. This intensifies volatile release by a factor 3-4 and substantially accelerates the oxidation of combustible matter. Particle fragmentation, due to its small size and thus limited influence on combustion process is commonly neglected in modelling. The main focus of this work is to suggest novel approach to pulverized coal gasification under high temperature conditions and to implement it into commercial comprehensive code ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. Proposed model was validated against experimental data obtained in newly built pilot scale D.C plasma burner test facility. Newly developed model showed very good agreement with experimental results with relative error less than 10%, while the standard built-in gasification model had error up to 25%.

  1. Coal gasification and the power production market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howington, K.; Flandermeyer, G.

    1995-01-01

    The US electric power production market is experiencing significant changes sparking interest in the current and future alternatives for power production. Coal gasification technology is being marketed to satisfy the needs of the volatile power production industry. Coal gasification is a promising power production process in which solid coal is burned to produce a synthesis gas (syn gas). The syn gas may be used to fuel combustion integrated into a facility producing electric power. Advantages of this technology include efficient power production, low flue gas emissions, flexible fuel utilization, broad capability for facility integration, useful process byproducts, and decreased waste disposal. The primary disadvantages are relatively high capital costs and lack of proven long-term operating experience. Developers of coal gasification intend to improve on these disadvantages and lop a strong position in the power generation market. This paper is a marketing analysis of the partial oxidation coal gasification processes emerging in the US in response to the market factors of the power production industry. A brief history of these processes is presented, including the results of recent projects exploring the feasibility of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) as a power production alternative. The current power generation market factors are discussed, and the status of current projects is presented including projected performance

  2. Shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennekes, B. [Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. (United States). Technology Marketing

    2002-07-01

    The presentation, on which 17 slides/overheads are included in the papers, explained the principles of the Shell coal gasification process and the methods incorporated for control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates and mercury. The economics of the process were discussed. The differences between gasification and burning, and the differences between the Shell process and other processes were discussed.

  3. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  4. Fiscal 1995 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 4 - Pilot plant operation); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The 200 tons/day entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant constructed for establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle was subjected to operational tests, and the fiscal 1995 results are compiled. In fiscal 1995, 1328 hours and 3 minutes (8 gasification operations) was recorded with gasification furnace facility, 899 hours and 53 minutes with the gas clean-up facility, 831 hours and 27 minutes with the gas turbine facility (11 startups for the generation of 6657 MWh), and 1958 hours and 2 minutes with the treatment furnace and 1331 hours and 10 minutes with the denitration unit of the safety/environment-related facility. The details of starts and stops were described in graphs which covered Runs D13, D14-1, D14-2, E1, D15, and A14. Operating procedures were studied and compiled for the plant start/stop schedule, general guidelines, gasification furnace facility, gas clean-up facility (dry type desulfurization facility), gas clean-up facility (dry type dedusting facility), gas turbine facility, real-pressure natural-size combustor test facility, and the safety/environment-related facility. (NEDO)

  5. Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

    1998-12-04

    The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary

  6. Thermovolumetric investigations of steam gasification of coals and their chars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porada Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of steam gasification of three coals of various rank and three chars obtained from these coals by the ex-situ method at 900 °C was compared. In the coal gasification process, the pyrolysis stage plays a very important part, which is connected with its direct impact on the kinetics of gasification of the resulting char. What is more, taking into consideration the impact of pyrolysis conditions on char properties, it should be anticipated that the gasification kinetics of coal and char, formed from it by the ex situ method, will be different. In order to examine and compare the process of gasification of coals and chars, an isothermal thermovolumetric method, designed by the authors, was applied. For all the examined samples the measurements were performed at three temperatures, i.e. 850, 900, and 950 °C, and at the pressure of 0.1 MPa. An evaluation of the impact of raw material on the steam gasification of the examined samples was made. The carbon conversion degree and the kinetic parameters of CO and H2 formation reaction were calculated. It was observed that the course of gasification is different for coals and chars obtained from them and it can be concluded that coals are more reactive than chars. Values of kinetic parameters of carbon monoxide and hydrogen formation calculated for coals and corresponding chars are also different. Due to the observed differences the process of gasification of coals and of chars with steam should not be equated.

  7. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant; 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, fabrication/installation work, etc. were made for a pilot plant of 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification power generation, and the FY 1990 results were summarized. Construction work of a pilot plant of coal gasification power generation was at its peak in April 1990, and installation/piping work for each facility/equipment was carried out. In May, transportation/installation of gas turbine and generator were started. In June, installation of equipment of the 66kV special high voltage switching station was conducted, and the initial power receiving of 6.9kV was conducted. In August, inspection before use was made of the main piping of the gasifier equipment, gas refining equipment and gas turbine equipment. In December, trial unit operation of each equipment and interlock test were carried out. 'The integrated plant protection interlock test' was made from January 21 to February 21, 1991, and the favorable results were obtained. On February 28, a ceremony to celebrate the completion of all facilities of pilot plant was made. In March, drying of gasifier and initial firing by light oil were conducted, and all the work was completed on March 25. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant; 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, fabrication/installation work, etc. were made for a pilot plant of 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification power generation, and the FY 1990 results were summarized. Construction work of a pilot plant of coal gasification power generation was at its peak in April 1990, and installation/piping work for each facility/equipment was carried out. In May, transportation/installation of gas turbine and generator were started. In June, installation of equipment of the 66kV special high voltage switching station was conducted, and the initial power receiving of 6.9kV was conducted. In August, inspection before use was made of the main piping of the gasifier equipment, gas refining equipment and gas turbine equipment. In December, trial unit operation of each equipment and interlock test were carried out. 'The integrated plant protection interlock test' was made from January 21 to February 21, 1991, and the favorable results were obtained. On February 28, a ceremony to celebrate the completion of all facilities of pilot plant was made. In March, drying of gasifier and initial firing by light oil were conducted, and all the work was completed on March 25. (NEDO)

  9. Report for fiscal 1993 by coal gasification committee; 1993 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    This report is a compilation mainly of distributed material. In the development of entrained bed coal gasification power generation, gasification is tested in a 2t/d-capable facility and gasification efficiency and operation characteristics are grasped, these constituting the studies of elements to assist pilot plant operation etc. The fluid temperature point of slag is found to decrease by 200 degrees C at the maximum upon addition of flux (CaO), and this improves on slag fluidity. For the development of a demonstration gas turbine, an experimentally built combustor is tested using a real gas. A combined cycle power system is studied by simulation. In the study of pilot plant operation, measures relative to slagging are implemented, inspection and maintenance are conducted for each facility, and the combustor for a demonstration plant is subjected to oil and coal combustion tests. In the study of a pilot plant for developing technologies for hydrogen production using coal, the plant stably runs more than 1,000 hours under 100% load at in a RUN-8-3 operation. Some deposit collects in the neighborhood of the contracted area of the blow nozzle and on some part in the slip stream, but it does not affect operation. No abnormalities are detected in the cyclone or heat recovery boiler. The pilot plant is let to continue its operation, and excellent results are achieved, which are beyond the targets of carbon conversion efficiency of 98% or higher and gas cooling efficiency of 78% or higher. (NEDO)

  10. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study/investigational study of technology/study of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power system; 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen, sekitan gaska fukugo hatsuden system kento hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the following were conducted: element study of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, survey of technology of the coal gasification power generation, study of the practical scale IGCC, etc. The FY 1991 results were summarized. In the gasification test using 2t/d furnace equipment, evaluation test on the test coal for pilot plant was made. In the study of gas turbine combustor for demonstration machine use, measuring duct was fabricated for measurement of combustion gas temperature/pressure, etc. In the simulational study of the total system of combined cycle power generation, review/modification of part of the simulation model and detailing of the model were conducted by comparison with the data on pilot plant operation. In the technology study, joint technology conferences were held for discussions between Japan and Australia, Japan and the U.S., and Japan and Canada. As to the practical scale IGCC, the initially planned output capacity and thermal efficiency were studied based on the knowledge/information obtained through the R and D on the 200t/d pilot plant. (NEDO)

  11. Report on 1977 result of Sunshine Project. Test research for detailed design of coal gasification plant (pressure fluidized gasification method for mixed material of coal/heavy oil); 1977 nendo sekitan gas ka plant no shosai sekkei no tame no shiken kenkyu seika hokokusho. Sekitan jushitsuyu kongo genryo no kaatsu ryudo gas ka hoshiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    Since fiscal 1974, development has been implemented for the coal/heavy oil hybrid gasification process which converts coal and heavy oil simultaneously to clean fuel gas. With the purpose of obtaining basic data to be reflected on the detailed design of 7,000 Nm{sup 3}/d pilot plant of the subject process started in fiscal 1977, implemented this year were (1) test on high pressure valves and (2) research on operation studies. In (1), a life test device for high pressure operation valves will be designed and manufactured so that basic materials may be obtained for the development of durable operation valves to be used in a high temperature and high pressure coal/heavy oil slurry feeding device. Operation studies of a low pressure slurry feeding device will be continued, accumulating data required for the design of the coal/heavy oil slurry feeding device. In (2), studies will be started on the operation of a 300{phi}(diameter) internal heat type low pressure gasification device, collecting know-how for the model and design of the gasification furnace of the pilot plant. Gasification experiments will be continued using the high pressure gasification device, so that gasification characteristics under a high pressure will be grasped to examine the optimization of gasification conditions. In addition, a fluidized bed quencher test equipment will be designed and manufactured. (NEDO)

  12. Kinetic study of coals gasification into carbon dioxide atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid fuel gasification process was investigated to define chemical reactions rate and activation energy for a gas-generator designing and regime optimizing. An experimental procedure includes coal char samples of Kuznetskiy and Kansko-Achinskiy deposits consequent argon pyrolysis into argon and oxidating into carbon dioxide with different temperatures. The thermogravimetric analysis data of coal char gasification into carbon dioxide was obtained in the temperature range 900–1200 ºC. The mass loss and gasification time dependencies from temperature were defined to calculate chemical reaction frequency factor and activation energy. Two coal char gasification physico-mathematical models were proposed and recommendations for them were formed.

  13. Coal gasification: A technology in the puberty. Kolenvergassing: Een technologie in de puberteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peppink, G. (Sep, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1994-12-01

    Several aspects of present developments regarding coal gasification are briefly discussed. Attention is paid to the place of the coal gasification in the total electric power generation, its environmental impact, the recently available new coal techniques, coal gasification in the next ten years, cost comparisons, and developments at the coal gasification demonstration plant in Buggenum, Netherlands. 3 figs.

  14. Fiscal 1994 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 4 - Pilot plant operation); 1994 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The 200 tons/day entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant constructed for the establishment of the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation was operated for testing, and the results are put together. Operating hours recorded were 1347 hours and 7 minutes for the gasification furnace facility (7 gasification operations), 752 hours and 22 minutes for the gas clean-up facilities, 425 hours and 20 minutes for the gas turbine facility (6 startups for generating 2616.1 MWh), and 1852 hours for the treatment furnace and 1304 hours and 32 minutes for the denitration system in the safety/environment-related facility. Detailed graphs were drawn for the description of starts and stops in Run D8, Run D9 (1-3), Run D10, Run D11, and in Run D12. Operating procedures were studied and then compiled for the plant start-stop schedule, general guidelines, gasification furnace facility, gas clean-up facility (dry type desulfurization facility), gas clean-up facility (dry type dedusting facility), gas turbine facility, real-pressure natural-size combustor test facility, and for the safety/environment related facility. (NEDO)

  15. Gasification in pulverized coal flames. Final report (Part I). Pulverized coal combustion and gasification in a cyclone reactor: experiment and model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhart, J. S.; Laurendeau, N. M.

    1979-05-01

    A unified experimental and analytical study of pulverized coal combustion and low-BTU gasification in an atmospheric cyclone reactor was performed. Experimental results include several series of coal combustion tests and a coal gasification test carried out via fuel-rich combustion without steam addition. Reactor stability was excellent over a range of equivalence ratios from .67 to 2.4 and air flowrates from 60 to 220 lb/hr. Typical carbon efficiencies were 95% for air-rich and stoichiometric tests and 80% for gasification tests. The best gasification results were achieved at an equivalence ratio of 2.0, where the carbon, cold gas and hot gas efficiencies were 83, 45 and 75%, respectively. The corresponding product gas heating value was 70 BTU/scf. A macroscopic model of coal combustion in the cyclone has been developed. Fuel-rich gasification can also be modeled through a gas-phase equilibrium treatment. Fluid mechanics are modeled by a particle force balance and a series combination of a perfectly stirred reactor and a plug flow reactor. Kinetic treatments of coal pyrolysis, char oxidation and carbon monoxide oxidation are included. Gas composition and temperature are checked against equilibrium values. The model predicts carbon efficiency, gas composition and temperature and reactor heat loss; gasification parameters, such as cold and hot gas efficiency and make gas heating value, are calculated for fuel-rich conditions. Good agreement exists between experiment and theory for conditions of this investigation.

  16. The feasibility of underground coal gasification in developing countries with abundant coal reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakay, P.; Van Den Panhuyzen, W.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of underground coal gasification is evaluated on the basis of a case study for India. India has immense coal reserves at relatively shallow depths compared to Europe, has low wages, an urgent need to expand its power capacity, a strongly rising energy demand and has shown interest in underground coal gasification. Three scenarios including the cases of continued, declining and a strong economic growth were considered. Model calculations allow to compare the cost of the electric power generated by the combustion of the gas produced by underground coal gasification with the cost of the power produced by classic thermal power plants in India for -the reference year 2000. (A.S.) 4 figs. 1 tab

  17. Current results of coal gasification materials research at GRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, V.L.; Barone, S.P.; Meyer, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion/corrosion and mechanical property testing of commercial available materials in coal gasification atmospheres has been supported by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) since 1978. Recent corrosion data developed in the program for gasification and methanation technologies under development by GRI are presented. A brief discussion of typical results of long-term stress-rupture tests in coal gasification atmospheres is included

  18. WATER- AND COAL GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nazarov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of gas analysis it has been established that water- and coal gasification is rather satisfactorily described by three thermo-chemical equations. One of these equations is basic and independent and the other two equations depend on the first one.The proposed process scheme makes it possible to explain the known data and also permits to carry out the gasification process and obtain high-quality hydrogen carbon-monoxide which is applicable for practical use.

  19. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  20. Brown coal gasification made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Few Victorians will be aware that gas derived from coal was first used in 1849 to provide lighting in a baker's shop in Swanston Street, long before electric lighting came to the State. The first commercial 'gas works' came on stream in 1856 and Melbourne then had street lighting run on gas. By 1892 there were 50 such gas works across the State. Virtually all were fed with black coal imported from New South Wales. Brown coal was first discovered west of Melbourne in 1857, and the Latrobe Valley deposits were identified in the early 1870s. Unfortunately, such wet brown coal did not suit the gas works. Various attempts to commercialise Victorian brown coal met with mixed success as it struggled to compete with imported New South Wales black coal. In June 1924 Yallourn A transmitted the first electric power to Melbourne, and thus began the Latrobe Valley's long association with generating electric power from brown coal. Around 1950, the Metropolitan Gas Company applied for financial assistance to build a towns gas plant using imported German gasification technology which had been originally designed for a brown coal briquette feed. The State Government promptly acquired the company and formed the Gas and Fuel Corporation. The Morwell Gasification Plant was opened on 9 December 1956 and began supplying Melbourne with medium heating value towns gas

  1. Japan`s Sunshine Project. 1991 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification; 1991 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gas ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    Out of the research and development on the 1991 Sunshine Project, the results of coal liquefaction/gasification are reported. The basic research of coal liquefaction/gasification is conducted. The research plan for a 150 ton/day scale pilot plant (PP) is worked out for the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology by NEDOL process. Data of PSU (Process Support Units) operation, especially, are studied. Concerning the data obtained through dismantling of the 50 ton/day PP in Australia which uses Australian Victoria coal due to completion of its operation and also obtained from its support research, they are reflected in the design of a demonstration plant, and the results are arranged for study. Research and development on refining technology of coal-derived liquid such as Illinois coal liquid and on application technology of its products are made. For the development of coal-use hydrogen production technology, conducted is the research of a high temperature gasification PP by entrained flow bed process which is the core of the coal gasification technology. Elementary study with a 2 ton/day furnace is made for the development of the entrained flow bed coal gasification combined cycle power generation system. Also conducted are PP construction, adjusting operation and the overall research operation.

  2. Status of steam gasification of coal by using heat from high-temperature reactors (HTRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeter, H.J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Heek, K.H. van; Juentgen, H.; Peters, W.

    1984-01-01

    Bergbau-Forschung GmbH, Essen, is developing a process for steam gasification of coal by using process heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors (HTRs). The envisaged allothermal gas generator is heated by an internally mounted bundle of heat exchanging tubes through which the gaseous reactor coolant helium flows. Research and development work for this process has been under way for about 11 years. After intensive small-scale investigations the principle of the process was tested in a semi-technical plant with 0.2 t/h coal throughput. In its gasifier a fluidized bed of approximately 1 m 2 cross-section and up to 4 m high is operated at 40 bar. Heat is supplied to the bed from an immersed heat exchanger with helium flowing through it. The gas generator is a cut-out version of the full-scale generator, in which the height of the bed, and the arrangement of the heat-exchanger tubes correspond to the full-scale design. The semi-technical plant has now achieved a total gasification time of about 13,000 hours. Roughly 2000 t of coal have been put through. During recent years the gasification of Federal German coking coal by using a jet-feeding system was demonstrated successfully. The results, confirmed and expanded by material tests for the heat exchanger, engineering and computer models and design studies, have shown the feasibility of nuclear steam gasification of coal. The process described offers the following advantages compared with existing processes: higher efficiency as more gas can be produced from less coal; less emission of pollutants as, instead of a coal-fired boiler, the HTR is used for producing steam and electricity; lower production costs for gas. The next step in the project is a pilot plant of about 2-4 t/h coal throughput, still with non-nuclear heating, to demonstrate the construction and operation of the allothermal gas generator on a representative scale for commercial applications. (author)

  3. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  4. Layout of an internally heated gas generator for the steam gasification of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feistel, P.P.; Duerrfeld, R.; Heck, K.H. van; Juentgen, H.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial-scale steam gasification of coal using heat from high temperature reactors requires research and development on allothermal gas generators. Bergbau-Forschung GmbH, Essen, does theoretical and experimental work in this field. The experiments deal with reaction kinetics, heat transfer and material tests. Their significance for the layout of a full-scale gas generator is shown. Including material specifications, the feasibility of a gasifier, characterized by a fluid bed volume of 318 m 3 and a heat transferring area of 4000 m 2 , results. The data, now available, are used to determine the gasification throughput from the heat balance, i.e. the equality of heat consumed and heat transferred. Throughputs of about 50 t/hr of coal are possible for a single gas generator, the helium outlet temperature of the HTR being 950 0 C/ Bergbau-Forschung has commissioned a medium-scale pilot plant (200 kg/hr). (Auth.)

  5. Use of moist run-of-mine coal for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowka, K.; Duerlich, M.; Rabe, W. (VEB Gaskombinat Fritz Selbmann, Schwarze Pumpe (German Democratic Republic))

    1988-01-01

    A Series of experiments was performed in 1982 and 1986 to assess the feasibility of substituting brown coal briquets by raw brown coal in the fixed bed gasification plant for producing town gas at Schwarze Pumpe, GDR. Raw brown coal (50% coal moisture, screened coal of fractions 20 to 80 mm) had to be mixed with dry briquets to maintain a maximum 35% coal charge moisture. Briquet substitution degree varied from 20 to 50%. Short-term gasification tests were also carried out at an experimental generator examining 80 to 100% substitution degrees. Parameters of generator operation that were achieved are provided. Experiments proved that 50% briquet substitution is technologically feasible in industrial plant operation employing unscreened coal containing all coal fines. An economic assessment is further made that shows substantial energy savings in coal drying and briquetting.

  6. Supercritical water gasification of Victorian brown coal: Experimental characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Doki; Aye, Lu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Vic 3010 (Australia); Sanderson, P. John; Lim, Seng [CSIRO Minerals, Clayton, Vic 3168 (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    Supercritical water gasification is an innovative thermochemical conversion method for converting wet feedstocks into hydrogen-rich gaseous products. The non-catalytic gasification characteristics of Victorian brown coal were investigated in supercritical water by using a novel immersion technique with quartz batch reactors. Various operating parameters such as temperature, feed concentration and reaction time were varied to investigate their effect on the gasification behaviour. Gas yields, carbon gasification efficiency and the total gasification efficiency increased with increasing temperature and reaction time, and decreasing feed concentration. The mole fraction of hydrogen in the product gases was lowest at 600 C, and increased to over 30 % at a temperature of 800 C. Varying parameters, especially reaction time, did not improve the coal utilisation for gas production significantly and the measured data showed a large deviation from the equilibrium level. (author)

  7. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Research and development of coal gasification (Feasibility study and conceptual design regarding high-temperature gasification technology); 1981 nendo sekitan gas ka no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Koon gas ka gijutsu ni kansuru feasibility study oyobi gainen sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The melting point of ash is one of the most important physical properties in the process of coal gasification. A fluidized bed gasification furnace is suitable for the gasification of coal whose ash has a high melting point, but it does not work at temperatures higher than the melting point of the ash. A high-temperature gasification furnace, though not suitable for gasifying coal whose ash has a high melting point, gasifies the kinds of coal that the fluidized bed gasification furnace fails to deal with. Accordingly, almost all kinds of coal are to be appropriately gasified when these two types of gasification furnaces are available. The goal of the development effort is the achievement of a coal utilization factor of 99% or more and a thermal efficiency of 80% or more. The technology elements have to deal with the structure of furnace walls and refractory materials for them, discharge of slag, feeding of raw materials, recovery of exhaust heat, measurement and control, gasification furnace simulation, etc. A proposition is presented on a conceptual design and prototype for a 50t/d pilot plant in which the above-mentioned factors are organically integrated. (NEDO)

  9. Biowaste utilization in the process of co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howaniec, Natalia; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biowaste utilization in co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite gives the benefits of stable supplies of a primary energy source – coal and utilization of a zero-emission, waste material (i.e. agriculture waste, sewage sludge, etc.) with higher process efficiency and lower negative environmental impact than biomass or coal gasification, respectively. The main focus of the study presented is co-gasification of bituminous coal or lignite with biowaste to hydrogen-rich gas. The experiments were performed in the laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor installation at 700 and 900 °C. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with a color map of studied data were applied in the selection of the optimal operating parameters for biowaste utilization in the co-gasification process based on the experimental data of gasification/co-gasification process as well as physical and chemical properties of fuels tested. The experimental results showed that the carbon conversion rate in co-gasification increased with increasing biomass content in a fuel. The total gas volume and hydrogen volume in co-gasification were higher than the values expected based on the results of the gasification process of the fuels analyzed. - Highlights: • Biowaste co-gasification with bituminous coal/lignite to hydrogen-rich gas. • Steam co-gasification in laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor at 700 and 900 °C. • Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with color map of experimental data. • Carbon conversion increase with increasing biomass content. • The highest total gas and hydrogen volume in co-gasification of C-B20 blend at 900C.

  10. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxclair, E.J. [Destec Energy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Stultz, J. [PSI Energy, Inc., West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 1993 on developing entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 4. Pilot plant operation edition; 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Tests and researches have been carried out on operation of a 200-t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant built with an objective of establishing the coal gasification composite power generation technology. This paper summarizes the operation achievements in fiscal 1993. The plant operation record in fiscal 1993 was as follows: 430 hours 27 minutes in the gasification furnace (ten gasification operations), 233 hours 51 minutes in the gas refining facility, 140 hours 31 minutes in the gas turbine facility (power generation amount of 746.8 MWh with nine actuations), 1,263 hours 09 minutes in the processing furnace in the safety environment facility, and 427 hours 22 minutes in the NOx removal equipment. Descriptions were given with detailed graphs on the actuation and shutdown record with respect to the run D2, the run D3 (1 and 2), the run D4, the run D5, the run D6, and the run D7 (1 through 4). The operation procedures were prepared for the plant startup and shutdown schedule, the generalization report, the gasification furnace facility, the gas refining facility (dry type desulfurizing facility), the gas refining facility (dry type dust removing facility), the gas turbine facility, the combustor testing facility with actual pressure and size, and the safety environment facilities. (NEDO)

  12. Hoe Creek II field experiment on underground coal gasification, preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiman, W.R.; Thorsness, C.B.; Hill, R.W.; Rozsa, R.B.; Cena, R.; Gregg, D.W.; Stephens, D.R.

    1978-02-27

    A second in-situ coal gasification experiment was performed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory at Hoe Creek in Wyoming. The Linked Vertical Wells scheme for in-situ coal gasification was used. The experiment took 100 days for air flow testing, reverse combustion linking, forward combustion gasification, and post-burn steam flow. Air was used for gasification except for a 2-day test with oxygen and steam. Reverse combustion linking took 14 days at 1.6 m/day. Air requirements for linking were 0.398 Mgmol per meter of link assuming a single direct link. The coal pyrolysed during linking was 17 m/sup 3/, which corresponds to a single link 1.0 m in diameter. There was, however, strong evidence of at least two linkage paths. The detected links stayed below the 3 m level in the 7.6 coal seam; however, the product flow from the forward-burn gasification probably followed the coal-overburden interface not the reverse burn channels at the 3 m level. A total of 232 Mgmols (194 Mscf) of gas was produced with heating value above 125 kJ/mol (140 Btu/scf) for significant time periods and an average of 96 kJ/mol (108 Btu/scf). During the oxygen-steam test the heating value was above 270 kJ/gmol (300 Btu/scf) twice and averaged 235 kJ/gmol (265 Btu/scf). The coal recovery was 1310 m/sup 3/ (1950 ton). Gasification was terminated because of decreasing product quality not because of burn through. The product quality decreased because of increasing underground heat loss.

  13. Non-slag co-gasification of biomass and coal in entrained-bed furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaya, Yoshinori; Suami, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobusuke

    2018-02-01

    Gasification is a promising candidate of processes to upgrade biomass and to yield clean gaseous fuel for utilization of renewable energy resources. However, a sufficient amount of biomass is not always available to operate a large scale of the plant. Co-gasification of biomass with coal is proposed as a solution of the problem. Tar emission is another subject during operation in shaft or kiln type of gasifiers employed conventionally for biomass. The present authors proposed co-gasification of biomass and coal in entrained-bed furnace, which is a representative process without tar emission under high temperature, but operated so to collect dust as flyash without molten slag formation. This paper presents the works performed on co-gasification performance of biomass and pulverized coal to apply to entrained-bed type of furnaces. At first, co-gasification of woody powder and pulverized coal examined using the lab-scale test furnace of the down-flow entrained bed showed that the maximum temperatures in the furnace was over 1500 K and the carbon conversion to gas achieved at higher efficiency than 80-90 percent although the residence time in the furnace was as short as a few seconds. Non-slag co-gasification was carried out successfully without slag formation in the furnace if coal containing ash with high fusion temperature was employed. The trend suggesting the effect of reaction rate enhancement of co-gasification was also observed. Secondary, an innovative sewage sludge upgrading system consisting of self-energy recovery processes was proposed to yield bio-dried sludge and to sequentially produce char without adding auxiliary fuel. Carbonization behavior of bio-dried sludge was evaluated through pyrolysis examination in a lab-scale quartz tube reactor. The thermal treatment of pyrolysis of sludge contributed to decomposition and removal of contaminant components such as nitrogen and sulfur. The gasification kinetics of sludge and coal was also determined by a

  14. Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Wu, Yining; Deng, Shimin; Wei, Shirang

    2004-02-01

    The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC is carried out. The effects of coal gasifying rate, pre-heating air temperature, and coal gas temperature on the performances of the power system are studied. In order to repower the power plant rated 100 MW by using the PGACC, a conceptual design is suggested. The computational results show that the PGACC is feasible for modernizing the old steam power plants and building the new cleaning power plants.

  15. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells (Research using pilot test facility - for public release); 2000 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, research and development was conducted of a coal gas production technology using the oxygen-blown coal gasification technology, and the fiscal 2000 results are put together. In the construction of the pilot test facility, part of the road in the site was constructed as continued from the preceding fiscal year. In the construction of the coal gasification facility, some of the devices were built, which were the coal feeding system, coal gasification furnace, heat recovery boiler, and the char recovery device, and some of the thus-built devices and procured devices were installed. In the study of the control of the operation of the oxygen-blown coal gasification system, the pilot test facility was divided into unit devices and, for each of the unit devices, detailed procedures for pre-start preparation, start, stop, and for the stop of accessorise were deliberated, and important operating steps were worked out. Timing charts were prepared for the operation of each of the facilities during plant start/stop operations. In the effort to deal with serious accidents, special operation procedures were studied and prepared on the case-by-case basis. (NEDO)

  16. Steam gasification of coal using a pressurized circulating fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, K.F.J.

    1989-09-01

    Subject of this investigation is the process engineering of a coal gasification using nuclear heat. A special aspect is the efficiency. To this purpose a new method for calculating the kinetics of hard coal steam gasification in a fluidized bed is presented. It is used for evaluations of gasification kinetics in a large-scale process on the basis of laboratory-scale experiments. The method is verified by experimental data from a large-scale gasifier. The investment costs and the operating costs of the designed process are estimated. (orig.) [de

  17. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study; 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Yoso kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, element study was conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and the FY 1989 results were summarized. In the gasification test using 2t/d gasifier equipment, the following were carried out: test on gasification of the coal proposed for pilot plant, test on changes in coal feed ratio, analysis of trace gas elements in coal, study of the fixed bed gas refining system, etc. In the study of large gas turbine combustor for demonstration machine, development of combustor which makes stable combustion in the low load region possible, development of low NOx combustor which controls the conversion of nitrogen compounds such as ammonia in coal gasification gas to NOx, development of combustor which makes the optimum and effective cooling possible by combining film cooling, impingement cooling, etc. In the study of simulation of the combined power generation total system, verification tests on the control mode switching function of the general load pressure control system, movement to meet anomaly of the control system, integrated cooperation control system, etc. (NEDO)

  18. Chemical looping coal gasification with calcium ferrite and barium ferrite via solid–solid reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Riley, Jarrett; Tian, Hanjing; Richards, George

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 are excellent for chemical looping coal gasification. • BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 have minimal reactivity with synthesis gas. • Steam enhances the gasification process with these oxygen carriers. • Reaction rates of steam gasification of coal with CaFe 2 O 4 was better than with gaseous oxygen. • Coal gasification appears to be via solid–solid interaction with the oxygen carrier. - Abstract: Coal gasification to produce synthesis gas by chemical looping was investigated with two oxygen carriers, barium ferrite (BaFe 2 O 4 ) and calcium ferrite (CaFe 2 O 4 ). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed flow reactor data indicated that a solid–solid interaction occurred between oxygen carriers and coal to produce synthesis gas. Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental data indicated that BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 have high reactivity with coal but have a low reactivity with synthesis gas, which makes them very attractive for the coal gasification process. Adding steam increased the production of hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO), but carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) remained low because these oxygen carriers have minimal reactivity with H 2 and CO. Therefore, the combined steam–oxygen carrier produced the highest quantity of synthesis gas. It appeared that neither the water–gas shift reaction nor the water splitting reaction promoted additional H 2 formation with the oxygen carriers when steam was present. Wyodak coal, which is a sub-bituminous coal, had the best gasification yield with oxygen carrier–steam while Illinois #6 coal had the lowest. The rate of gasification and selectivity for synthesis gas production was significantly higher when these oxygen carriers were present during steam gasification of coal. The rates and synthesis gas yields during the temperature ramps of coal–steam with oxygen carriers were better than with gaseous oxygen.

  19. Electrofluid gasification of coal with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsifer, A.H.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    The gasification of coal by reaction with steam requires addition of large amounts of energy. This energy can be supplied by a high-temperature nuclear reactor which is coupled to a fluidized bed gasifier either thermally or electrically via an electrofluid gasifier. A comparison of the economics of supplying energy by these two alternatives demonstrates that electrofluid gasification in combination with a high-temperature nuclear reactor may in some circumstances be economically attractive. In addition, a review of recent experiments in small-scale electrofluid gasifiers indicates that this method of gasification is technically feasible. (Auth.)

  20. Electrofluid gasification of coal with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsifer, A.H.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    The gasification of coal by reaction with steam requires the addition of large amounts of energy. This energy can be supplied by a high-temperature nuclear reactor which is coupled to a fluidized bed gasifier either thermally or electrically via an electrofluid gasifier. A comparison of the economics of supplying energy by these two alternatives demonstrates that electrofluid gasification in combination with a high-temperature nuclear reactor may in some circumstances be economically attractive. In addition, a review of recent experiments in small-scale electrofluid gasifiers indicates that this method of gasification is technically feasible

  1. CFD Analysis of Coal and Heavy Oil Gasification for Syngas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sreedharan, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the gasification of coal and heavy oil for syngas production using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Gasification which includes complex physical and chemical processes such as turbulence, multiphase flow, heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions has been modeled using...... phases. Gasification consists of the processes of passive heating, devolatilization, volatiles oxidation, char gasification and gas phase reactions. Attention is given here to the chemical kinetics of the gasification processes. The coal gasification model has been validated for entrained-flow gasifiers...... a discrete phase model. In this model, the continuous phase is described by Eulerian conservation equations and the discrete phase is described by tracking individual particles in a Lagrangian framework. A two-way coupling accounts for momentum, heat and mass transfer between the continuous and discrete...

  2. Challenges And Opportunities For Coal Gasification In Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-01

    Coal gasification for chemicals, gaseous and liquid fuels production can fulfil an important strategic need in those developing countries where coal is the primary fuel source and oil and gas energy security is an issue. At the same time, the establishment of major projects in such countries can be problematical for a number of technical and economic reasons, although it is encouraging that some projects appear to be moving forward. There are two developing countries where coal conversion projects to produce chemicals, gaseous and liquid fuels have been taken forward strongly. The first is South Africa, which established the world's only commercial-scale coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals facilities at Secunda and Sasolburg respectively. The other is China, where there is a major gasification-based coal conversion development and deployment programme that is set to become a significant, large-scale commercial element in the nation's energy development plans. This will provide further major opportunities for the deployment of large-scale coal gasification technologies, various syngas conversion units and catalysts for the subsequent production of the required products. The role of China is likely to be critical in the dissemination of such technologies to other developing countries as it can not only provide the technical expertise but also financially underpin such projects, including the associated infrastructure needs.

  3. Corrosion behavior of Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based super-alloys for integrated coal gasification combined cycle syngas plants. A plant exposure study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Jieun; Kang, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Jong; Yun, Yongseung; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercially available Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based alloy samples was investigated by exposure to coal-gasifying integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant facilities affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Engineering (2.005 MPa and 160-300 C). The morphological and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis on the external surface of the recovered corrosion test samples to obtain information of the corrosion scale. These analyses based on the pre- and post-exposure corrosion test samples combined with thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams provided preliminary insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior prevailing in the piping materials that connected the particulate removal unit and water scrubber of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant. Uniform material wastage was observed after 46 hours of operation, and a preliminary corrosion mechanism was suggested: the observed material waste and corrosion behavior of the Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based alloy samples cut off from the coal syngas integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant were explained by the formation of discontinuous (complex) oxide phases and subsequent chlorine-induced active oxidation under the predominantly reducing environment encountered. This contribution continues the already published studies of the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloy Haynes registered 556 registered .

  4. Gasification of coal with steam using heat from HTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juentgen, H.; Heek, K.H. van

    1975-01-01

    In existing coal gasification processes a substantial part of the coal is used to provide the heat for the reaction, for the generation and superheating of steam and for the production of oxygen. By using heat from HTRs to substitute this part, the coal is then completely used as raw material for gas production. This offers the following advantages compared with the existing processes: a saving of coal, less CO 2 emission and, in countries with high coal costs, lower gas production costs. A survey is given of the state of the project, discussing the first design of a commercial gasifier, the influence of the helium outlet temperature of the HTR, kinds of products, and the overall efficiency of the plant. The aim of the development is to demonstrate the use of heat from an HTR for full scale coal gasification, starting in 1985. (Auth.)

  5. From coal to biomass gasification: Comparison of thermodynamic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, Mark J.; Ptasinski, Krzysztof J.; Janssen, Frans J.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of fuel composition on the thermodynamic efficiency of gasifiers and gasification systems is studied. A chemical equilibrium model is used to describe the gasifier. It is shown that the equilibrium model presents the highest gasification efficiency that can be possibly attained for a given fuel. Gasification of fuels with varying composition of organic matter, in terms of O/C and H/C ratio as illustrated in a Van Krevelen diagram, is compared. It was found that exergy losses in gasifying wood (O/C ratio around 0.6) are larger than those for coal (O/C ratio around 0.2). At a gasification temperature of 927 deg. C, a fuel with O/C ratio below 0.4 is recommended, which corresponds to a lower heating value above 23 MJ/kg. For gasification at 1227 deg. C, a fuel with O/C ratio below 0.3 and lower heating value above 26 MJ/kg is preferred. It could thus be attractive to modify the properties of highly oxygenated biofuels prior to gasification, e.g. by separation of wood into its components and gasification of the lignin component, thermal pre-treatment, and/or mixing with coal in order to enhance the heating value of the gasifier fuel

  6. Temporal measurements and kinetics of selenium release during coal combustion and gasification in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Fenghua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Yingju

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The temporal release of Se from coal combustion and gasification was measured. • Kinetic laws for Se release from coal combustion and gasification were determined. • The influences of temperature and chemical composition of flue gas were clarified. • The interactions of Se species with mineral affect the release kinetics of Se. - Abstract: The temporal release of selenium from coal during combustion and gasification in a fluidized bed was measured in situ by an on-line analysis system of trace elements in flue gas. The on-line analysis system is based on an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and can measure concentrations of trace elements in flue gas quantitatively and continuously. The results of on-line analysis suggest that the concentration of selenium in flue gas during coal gasification is higher than that during coal combustion. Based on the results of on-line analysis, a second-order kinetic law r(x) = 0.94e −26.58/RT (−0.56 x 2 −0.51 x + 1.05) was determined for selenium release during coal combustion, and r(x) = 11.96e −45.03/RT (−0.53 x 2 −0.56 x + 1.09) for selenium release during coal gasification. These two kinetic laws can predict respectively the temporal release of selenium during coal combustion and gasification with an acceptable accuracy. Thermodynamic calculations were conducted to predict selenium species during coal combustion and gasification. The speciation of selenium in flue gas during coal combustion differs from that during coal gasification, indicating that selenium volatilization is different. The gaseous selenium species can react with CaO during coal combustion, but it is not likely to interact with mineral during coal gasification.

  7. Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, K.H. van

    1982-05-01

    This report describes the tasks, which Bergbau-Forschung has carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal in cooperation with partners and contractors during the reference phase of the project. On the basis of the status achieved to date it can be stated, that the mode of operation of the gas-generator developed including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal is technically feasible. Moreover through-put can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole industrial application of steam gasification - WKV - using nuclear process heat stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favourable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations these are 20 to 25% lower. (orig.) [de

  8. The research and development of pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized bed coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Yitian; Wu Jinhu; Chen Hanshi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    1999-11-01

    Coal gasification tests in a pressurized ash agglomeration fluidized bed coal gasifier were carried out. The effects of pressure and temperature on the gasification capacity, carbon conversion, carbon content in discharged ash and gas composition were investigated. Gasification capacity was shown to be in direct proportion to operation pressure. Tests of hot gas dedusting using a moving granular bed were also carried out. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of chars prepared from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixed HyperCoals and coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atul Sharma; Hiroyuki Kawashima; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

    2009-04-15

    HyperCoal is a clean coal with mineral matter content <0.05 wt %. Oaky Creek (C = 82%), and Pasir (C = 68%) coals were subjected to solvent extraction method to prepare Oaky Creek HyperCoal, and Pasir HyperCoal. Experiments were carried out to compare the gasification reactivity of HyperCoals and parent raw coals with 20, 40, 50 and 60% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a catalyst at 600, 650, 700, and 775{sup o}C with steam. Gasification rates of coals and HyperCoals were strongly influenced by the temperature and catalyst loading. Catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal chars was found to be chemical reaction controlled in the 600-700{sup o}C temperature range for all catalyst loadings. Gasification rates of HyperCoal chars were found to be always higher than parent coals at any given temperature for all catalyst loadings. However, X-ray diffraction results showed that the microstructures of chars prepared from coals and HyperCoals were similar. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show no significant difference between the chemical compositions of the chars. Significant differences were observed from scanning electron microscopy images, which showed that the chars from HyperCoals had coral-reef like structures whereas dense chars were observed for coals. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. The underground coal gasification First step of community collaboration; Gasification Subterranea del Carbon. Primer Intento en el Ambito de una Colaboracion Comunitaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the project was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of underground coal gasification in coal seams at 600 metre depth, in order to asses its potential as a means of energy exploitation in Europe. The trial was based on the use of deviated boreholes and a retractable injection system techniques, which have both been developed by the oil and gas industries. One borehole, the injection well, was drilled in the coal seam. The other, the vertical production well, was run to intercept it in the lower part of the coal seam as closely as possible, in order to construct a continuous channel for gasification. The well were completed with casing and concentric tubing to provide the necessary paths for production, injection, purging gas and cooling water flows. A coiled tubing located in the injection well was used to execute the retraction (or CRIP) manoeuvre, which is a process in which the injector head for the gasification agents, i. e. oxygen and water, and the ignitor, are directed to a specific section of the coal seam. The gasification products passes to a surface production line for flow measurement and sampling of gas and condensate products. Production gases were either flared or incinerated, while the liquids were collected for appropriate disposal. The first trial achieved its principal objectives of in seam drilling, channel communication, the CRIP manoeuvres and the gasification of significant quantity of coal. The post-gasification study also identified the shape and extent of the cavity. The study has demonstrated the technical feasibility of underground coal gasification at the intermediate depths of European coal and proposals are made for further development and semi-commercial exploitation of this promising extraction technology. (Author) 11 refs.

  11. Report on the results of the R and D of a 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant. Summary - Part 2. Volume 3: Results of the study operation and the evaluation; 1986- 200t/nichi funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden pilot plant no kenkyu seika hokokusho (Matome). Sono 2. Dai 3 hen kenkyu unten seika to sono hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    A project was finished which had been carried out for 11 years since 1986 for technology of the entrained bed coal gasification power generation technology using a 200 t/d coal gasification combined cycle power generation pilot plant, and it was comprehensively summed up. In Volume 3: Results of the study operation and the evaluation, the following were summarized on gasifier: gasification performance of 200 t/d furnace, operation ability of the bituminous coal supply system, stability of char recovery, deposition of slag and char in furnace, discharge characteristics of molten slag, operation characteristics, etc. The following on gas refining facilities: dry desulfurizer, dust remover, new gas refining equipment (fixed bed dust removal/desulfurization system, packed bed desulfuriztion/dust removal system), etc. The following on gas turbine facilities: 12.5 MW gas turbine, large gas turbine, large gas turbine combustor, etc. Additionally, the paper summarized the control system and total function, operation characteristics of the whole pilot plant, relations of environmental preservation, study of the effective slag utilization, collection/study of unfavorable conditions/troubles and matters for the reflection, etc. (NEDO)

  12. LLNL Underground-Coal-Gasification Project. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, D.R.; Clements, W. (eds.)

    1981-11-09

    We have continued our laboratory studies of forward gasification in small blocks of coal mounted in 55-gal drums. A steam/oxygen mixture is fed into a small hole drilled longitudinally through the center of the block, the coal is ignited near the inlet and burns toward the outlet, and the product gases come off at the outlet. Various diagnostic measurements are made during the course of the burn, and afterward the coal block is split open so that the cavity can be examined. Development work continues on our mathematical model for the small coal block experiments. Preparations for the large block experiments at a coal outcrop in the Tono Basin of Washington State have required steadily increasing effort with the approach of the scheduled starting time for the experiments (Fall 1981). Also in preparation is the deep gasification experiment, Tono 1, planned for another site in the Tono Basin after the large block experiments have been completed. Wrap-up work continues on our previous gasification experiments in Wyoming. Results of the postburn core-drilling program Hoe Creek 3 are presented here. Since 1976 the Soviets have been granted four US patents on various aspects of the underground coal gasification process. These patents are described here, and techniques of special interest are noted. Finally, we include ten abstracts of pertinent LLNL reports and papers completed during the quarter.

  13. Technical and economic aspects of brown coal gasification and liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speich, P.

    1980-01-01

    A number of gasification and liquefaction processes for Rhenish brown coal are investigated along with the technical and economic aspects of coal beneficiation. The status of coal beneficiation and the major R + D activities are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  14. Corrosion behavior of Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based super-alloys for integrated coal gasification combined cycle syngas plants. A plant exposure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Jieun; Kang, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Jong; Yun, Yongseung [Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Plant Engineering Center; Kim, Min Jung [Sungkyunkwan Univ, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Advanced Materials Technology Research Center

    2015-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercially available Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based alloy samples was investigated by exposure to coal-gasifying integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant facilities affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Engineering (2.005 MPa and 160-300 C). The morphological and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis on the external surface of the recovered corrosion test samples to obtain information of the corrosion scale. These analyses based on the pre- and post-exposure corrosion test samples combined with thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams provided preliminary insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior prevailing in the piping materials that connected the particulate removal unit and water scrubber of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant. Uniform material wastage was observed after 46 hours of operation, and a preliminary corrosion mechanism was suggested: the observed material waste and corrosion behavior of the Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based alloy samples cut off from the coal syngas integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant were explained by the formation of discontinuous (complex) oxide phases and subsequent chlorine-induced active oxidation under the predominantly reducing environment encountered. This contribution continues the already published studies of the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloy Haynes {sup registered} 556 {sup registered}.

  15. Development of coal hydro gasification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Nomura, Kazuo; Asaoka, Yoshikiyo; Kato, Shojiro; Seo, Tomoyuki

    1997-01-01

    Taking a potential future decrease in natural gas supply into consideration, we are looking for a way to secure a stable supply of high quality substitute natural gas made from coal (which occurs abundantly throughout the world) in large volumes at low cost. We are working towards our goal of commercializing coal hydro gasification technology in the 2010's and have started developing elemental technology from FY, 1996 as a part of the governmental new energy program. (au)

  16. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant; 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the fabrication, installation work, etc. were conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and the FY 1989 results were summarized. As to the gasifier equipment, fabrication of a considerable number of the main equipment was finished. And, the equipment was sent into the coal gasification power plant and the installation work was done. Concerning gas refining facilities, fabrication of most of the components of the dry desulfurization system was finished, and further, fabrication of part of the piping prefabrication, disk and part of the disk fitting instrument was finished. The partial equipment of the dry dust removal system was also fabricated. About gas turbine facilities, the drawings necessary for each of the equipment fabricated/installed in this fiscal year were made, and at the same time a part of the technical data prepared so far was reviewed according to the progress of design. As to safety environmental facilities, installation work was done of gas treatment furnace, gas cooling system, buffer tank, desulfurizing tower, etc. Besides, design/technical study were made of the total control system, equipment of the indoor switching station, etc. (NEDO)

  17. Environmentally favourable electricity production using allothermal coal gasification in accordance with the MBG system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rost, M.; Heek, K.H. van; Knop, K.

    1988-01-01

    Combined gas- and steam turbine power plants with integrated coal gasification are an important foundation alone for the further development of coal processing. The basis of the development is a new allothermal coal gasification system in a fluidized bed, which has been developed from the long operating experience accumulated at a half-scale plant. In contrast with the concept adopted so far of combination with nuclear process heat, in the MGB system (M.A.N.-Bergbauforschung-Gaserzeugung) the reaction heat required for the gasification is obtained by burning part of the coal gas produced. The gasification in the fluidized bed occurs at temperatures of between 800 and 850 0 C within a pressure range of between 20 and 25 bar. The paper describes the integration of the MBG system into a 250 MW power plant as well as the state of development of allothermal coal gasification and test results from the half-scale experimental plant. The construction of a demonstration plant, which will be incorporated in the bypass of a bituminous coal-fired unit, is planned in order to prove the function of the gas generator. (orig.) [de

  18. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 4. Operation of pilot plant; 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    A record was summarized of the operation of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. As to the actual results of operation hours, the paper summarized the records of gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities, gas turbine facilities and safety environment facilities which were collected from April 1991 to January 1993. Relating to the actual results of start-up/stop, the paper summarized the records of gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities (desulfurization), gas refining facilities (dedusting), gas turbine facilities and safety environment facilities. Further, operation manuals were made for the schedule of plant start-up/stop, generalization, gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities (desulfurization), gas refining facilities (dedusting), gas turbine facilities, actual pressure/actual size combustor testing facilities and safety environment facilities. (NEDO)

  19. Co-gasification of coal and biomass: Synergy, characterization and reactivity of the residual char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhao; Shao, Jingai; Yang, Haiping; Lin, Guiying; Chen, Yingquan; Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Wennan; Chen, Hanping

    2017-11-01

    The synergy effect between coal and biomass in their co-gasification was studied in a vertical fixed bed reactor, and the physic-chemical structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of the residual char obtained from co-gasification were also investigated. The results shows that, conversion of the residual char and tar into gas is enhanced due to the synergy effect between coal and biomass. The physical structure of residual char shows more pore on coal char when more biomass is added in the co-gasification. The migration of inorganic elements between coal and biomass was found, the formation and competitive role of K 2 SiO 3 , KAlSiO 4 , and Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) 3 is a mechanism behind the synergy. The graphization degree is enhanced but size of graphite crystallite in the residual char decreases with biomass blending ratio increasing. TGA results strongly suggest the big difference in the reactivity of chars derived from coal and biomass in spite of influence from co-gasification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Report for fiscal 1997 by gasification technology subcommittee, Coal Gasification Committee; 1997 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The 1st meeting of the subcommittee was held on August 1, 1997, and the 2nd meeting on February 24, 1998. Research plans for developing coal hydrogasification technology were reported and the achievements were brought under deliberation. The Coal Gasification Committee met in a plenary session on March 10, 1998, and reports were delivered and deliberation was made on the progress of coal gasification technology development. Reported in relation with studies using an experimental coal hydrogasification system were findings obtained by use of a small test unit, development of an injector, hot model test, cold model test, development of a cooled char extraction technology, development of a concentrated coal transportation technology, etc. Reported in relation with studies of assistance were the basic study of coal hydrogasification reaction, structure of and materials for a hydrogasification furnace, etc. Reports were also delivered on the survey and research of friendliness toward the community of coal hydrogasification technology development and on the study of coal gasification for fuel cells. (NEDO)

  1. Scrubbing King Coal's dirty face : a new gasification project southeast of Edmonton hopes to make coal cleaner now and for future generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2008-01-15

    This article described the proposed Dodds-Roundhill Coal Gasification Project. This first commercial coal gasification plant in Canada will be developed by Edmonton-based Sherritt International Corporation, in a 50/50 partnership with the Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan. The project will include a surface coal mine and a coal gasification facility located approximately 80 km southeast of Edmonton, Alberta. Coal gasification is emerging as a clean alternative for converting coal into energy products. It involves the gasification process which breaks down coal to produce hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, collectively known as synthesis gas (syngas). The syngas can then be used for fuel, as a petrochemical feedstock, or it can be further processed into hydrogen for use by bitumen upgraders and crude oil refineries in Alberta. Carbon dioxide, which is highly concentrated are relatively easy to capture will be either sequestered or used in enhanced oil recovery. Construction will begin in mid-2009 following project application and an environmental impact assessment. 3 figs.

  2. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Part 1 - Construction and test operation); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Sono 1 - Koji shiken unten hen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, research and development was conducted of a coal gas production technology using the oxygen-blown coal gasification technology, and the fiscal 2001 results are put together. In the construction of the pilot test facility, work involved the road in the site, road illumination system installation in the site, and an unauthorized entry prevention system. In the construction of the coal gasification facility, work involved electrical instrumentation and painting for the coal feeding system, coal gasification furnace, heat recovery boiler, and so forth, and the installation of a series of devices was completed. In July following the completion, power was received and test operations were started, which included the operation of the coal gasification facility alone. Renting was started in August for the coal pretreatment facility, air separation facility, and the slag treatment device. In the study of the operation control technology for the oxygen-blown coal gasification furnace system, test operations were conducted based on the operating procedures prepared in the preceding fiscal year, which included a test operation performed for the pilot test facility alone. Parameters for equipment control obtained through the test operations, and improvements on operating steps carried out as required, were all reflected on the operating procedures. (NEDO)

  3. FY 1992 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study/Technical survey; 1992 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, element study of a 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant was made, and the FY 1992 results were summarized. In the gasification test using a 2 t/d furnace equipment, study was made of the extraction of subjects on the operation, performance of gasification, slagging characteristics and characteristics of flux addition. In the study of slag utilization technology, chemical analysis, test on fine aggregate and test on fine particle were carried out to study applicability of the slag discharged from the entrained bed coal gasification power plant to various materials. In the study of a large gas turbine combustor for the demonstrative machine, the demonstrative machine use large gas turbine combustor testing equipment was installed at actual pressure/actual size combustion testing facilities in the pilot plant and further the test use combustor was integrated into them. By using them, the real gas combustion test was made using the adjusted coal for evaluation of combustion performance of the test use combustor. In the simulation study of the total pilot plant system, the comparative study was made between the data on the test using the actual machine and the results of the simulation. (NEDO)

  4. Coal conversion processes and analysis methodologies for synthetic fuels production. [technology assessment and economic analysis of reactor design for coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information to identify viable coal gasification and utilization technologies is presented. Analysis capabilities required to support design and implementation of coal based synthetic fuels complexes are identified. The potential market in the Southeast United States for coal based synthetic fuels is investigated. A requirements analysis to identify the types of modeling and analysis capabilities required to conduct and monitor coal gasification project designs is discussed. Models and methodologies to satisfy these requirements are identified and evaluated, and recommendations are developed. Requirements for development of technology and data needed to improve gasification feasibility and economies are examined.

  5. Robustness studies on coal gasification process variables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coal before feeding to the gasification process [1]. .... to-control variables will make up the terms in the response surface model for the ... Montgomery (1999) explained that all the Taguchi engineering objectives for a robust ..... software [3].

  6. FY 1992 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Operation test of pilot plant (1/2); 1992 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant unten shiken hen (1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    The study of operation test was made of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and the details of the FY 1992 results were summarized. At RUN 10, conducted were the confirmation of the quantity of state of gasifier in the coal-fired high load operation and coal-fired constant load operation, and slagging survey. At RUN 11, the evaluation made after the work for prevention of slagging, and confirmation of the quantity of state of gasifier at a load of 80% heat input. At RUN 12, the evaluation of the measures taken against slagging, and test on the high load stable operation. At RUN 13, the evaluation of the measures taken against slagging, and large combustor response/total pressure control response tests. At RUN D1, test on the change of coal kind from A coal to D coal, and test on the initial adjusting operation of D coal. In the trial operation of these, the following were generated and the preventive measures were studied: impossibility of circulation of desulfurizing agent in gas refining facilities (dry desulfurizing system), bolt fracture of gas refining facilities (separator of dedusting facilities). (NEDO)

  7. Steam gasification of Bulmer coal in the presence of lignite ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.; Furimsky, E.

    1986-01-01

    Steam gasification of blends prepared from Balmer coal and the ash from combustion of Onakawana lignite was performed in a fixed bed reactor. The blends were prepared by co-slurrying followed by drying. In the presence of 20 wt% ash the gasification rate doubled at 830 and 930 C. Direct blending of coal and lignite resulted in an overall increase in carbon conversion at 830 C but had no effect at 930 C. 5 refs.

  8. Co-gasification of coal and wood to reduce environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanni Pino; Martino Paolucci; Francesco Geri; F. Tunzio; G. Spazzafumo [APAT - National Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services, Rome (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    After presenting the paper 'Co-firing and Co-gasification Wood and Coal' at the First International Conference on Clean Coal Technologies, the authors thought about studying in depth the gasification process of woody biomass and coal. This would lead, once all the technical difficulties related to hybrid feeding were solved, to bear a system which mainly presents two advantages. The first advantage is derived by knowing that woody biomass contains a mass percentage of sulphur which is hundred times smaller as much when compared to coal. The second advantage derives from the fact that, given a capturing and sequestration system for the carbon dioxide, it is feasible to control the biomass/coal ratio at the feeding state. In doing so, emissions of carbon dioxide which are not captured will quantitatively be equal to the ones that would derive from the plain combustion of the biomass. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Evaluation of a Compact Coaxial Underground Coal Gasification System Inside an Artificial Coal Seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-qiang Su

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Underground Coal Gasification (UCG system is a clean technology for obtaining energy from coal. The coaxial UCG system is supposed to be compact and flexible in order to adapt to complicated geological conditions caused by the existence of faults and folds in the ground. In this study, the application of a coaxial UCG system with a horizontal well is discussed, by means of an ex situ model UCG experiment in a large-scale simulated coal seam with dimensions of 550 × 600 × 2740 mm. A horizontal well with a 45-mm diameter and a 2600-mm length was used as an injection/production well. During the experiment, changes in temperature field and product gas compositions were observed when changing the outlet position of the injection pipe. It was found that the UCG reactor is unstable and expands continuously due to fracturing activity caused by coal crack initiation and extension under the influence of thermal stress. Therefore, acoustic emission (AE is considered an effective tool to monitor fracturing activities and visualize the gasification zone of coal. The results gathered from monitoring of AEs agree with the measured data of temperatures; the source location of AE was detected around the region where temperature increased. The average calorific value of the produced gas was 6.85 MJ/Nm3, and the gasification efficiency, defined as the conversion efficiency of the gasified coal to syngas, was 65.43%, in the whole experimental process. The study results suggest that the recovered coal energy from a coaxial UCG system is comparable to that of a conventional UCG system. Therefore, a coaxial UCG system may be a feasible option to utilize abandoned underground coal resources without mining.

  10. Hydrogen production by co-gasification of coal and renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermoso, J.; Arias, B.; Rubiera, F.; Arenillas, A.; Pis, J.J. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo, (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    In this work, co-gasification of two coals with samples of pet-coke, sewage sludge and biomass was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed reactor under steam/oxygen atmosphere, in order to evaluate possible synergistic effects during co-gasification. Experiments carried out at non-isothermal conditions for blends of a low volatile bituminous coal and dried sewage sludge, indicated the absence of interactive effects between the blends. The concentration of H{sub 2} and CO could be predicted from the concentrations of the individual components in the blends and their respective mass fractions. The results obtained under isothermal (1000 C) conditions for blends of a high ash coal with pet-coke, and blends with biomass (chestnut) produced less gas yield than the theoretically calculated. However, for the mixtures of coal and biomass the quality of the syngas, expressed by the amount of the produced H{sub 2}+CO and by the H{sub 2}/CO ratio, was not altered. (authors)

  11. Hydrogen production by co-gasification of coal and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermoso, J.; Arias, B.; Rubiera, F.; Arenillas, A.; Pis, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, co-gasification of two coals with samples of pet-coke, sewage sludge and biomass was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed reactor under steam/oxygen atmosphere, in order to evaluate possible synergistic effects during co-gasification. Experiments carried out at non-isothermal conditions for blends of a low volatile bituminous coal and dried sewage sludge, indicated the absence of interactive effects between the blends. The concentration of H 2 and CO could be predicted from the concentrations of the individual components in the blends and their respective mass fractions. The results obtained under isothermal (1000 C) conditions for blends of a high ash coal with pet-coke, and blends with biomass (chestnut) produced less gas yield than the theoretically calculated. However, for the mixtures of coal and biomass the quality of the syngas, expressed by the amount of the produced H 2 +CO and by the H 2 /CO ratio, was not altered. (authors)

  12. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Joseph [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Porter, Jason [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Patki, Neil [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Kelley, Madison [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Stanislowski, Josh [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Tolbert, Scott [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Way, J. Douglas [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Makuch, David [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  13. FY 1992 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 4. Operation of pilot plant; 1992 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    A record was summarized of the operation test study in FY 1992 of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. The operating hour of gasifier facilities in FY 1992 was 635 hours 19 minutes, and the number of times of gasification operation was 9. The operating hour of letting gas through to gas refining facilities was 549 hours 14 minutes. The operating hour of gas turbine facilities was 310 hours 18 minutes, and the generated output was 1,366.2 MWh. The operating hour of treatment furnace of safety environment facilities was 1,401 hours 4 minutes, and that of the denitrification system was 621 hours 24 minutes. As to the actual results of the start-up/stop, the paper detailedly recorded those of RUNs 10, 11, 12, 13 and D1. Further, operation manuals were made for the schedule of plant start-up/stop, gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities (dry desulfurization facilities), gas refining facilities (dry dedusting facilities), actual pressure/actual size combustor testing facilities and safety environment facilities. (NEDO)

  14. Effect of fuel origin on synergy during co-gasification of biomass and coal in CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Yan; Yang, Mingjun; Song, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fuel origin on synergy in coal/biomass blends during co-gasification has been assessed using a congruent-mass thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) method. Results revealed that synergy occurs when ash residuals are formed, followed by an almost complete gasification of biomass. Potassium species in biomass ash play a catalytic role in promoting gasification reactivity of coal char, which is a direct consequence of synergy during co-gasification. The SEM-EDS spectra provided conclusive evidence that the transfer of potassium from biomass to the surface of coal char occurs during co-pyrolysis/gasification. Biomass ash rich in silica eliminated synergy in coal/biomass blends but not to the extent of inhibiting the reaction rate of the blended chars to make it slower than that of separated ones. The best result in terms of synergy was concluded to be the combination of low-ash coal and K-rich biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Compressed air storage with humidification (CASH) coal gasification power plant investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhamkin, M.; Patel, M.

    1991-08-01

    A study was performed to investigate and develop a hybrid coal gasification concept which utilizes an air saturator (AS) with an integrated coal gasification/compressed air energy storage (CGS/CAES) plant. This potentially attractive concept is designated as AS/CGS/CAES. In this concept, the coal gasification system provides fuel for the combustors of the CAES reheat turbomachinery train. Motive air from underground storage is humidified by saturators and thereby provides increased power production without additional air consumption. The heat for generating the hot water utilized in the saturators is extracted from waste heat within the overall plant. Multiple alternatives were considered and parametrically analyzed in the study in order to select the most thermodynamically and economically attractive concepts. The major alternatives were differentiated by the type of gasifier, type of CAES turbomachinery, mode of operation, and utilization of waste heat. The results of the study indicate that the use of the air saturation in AS/CGS/CAES plants might reduce capital costs of coal gasification based power used in intermediate load generation by $300 to $400 per kilowatt. Furthermore, heat rates might also be reduced by almost 1.5 cents per kilowatt hour, a major reduction. The major cause of the reduction in electricity costs is a 50% reduction in the required gasification capacity per net kW. In addition to being a load management tool, AS/CGS/CAES concepts provide a method to operate the CGS and turbomachinery in a continuous mode, improving the operation and potentially the life expectancy of both components. 3 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of$438 million

  17. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Report on the gasification technology sub-committee of the coal gasification committee in fiscal 1988; 1989 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This paper is a report on the gasification technology sub-committee of the coal gasification committee in fiscal 1988. It summarizes the report mainly on the data distributed at the technology sub-committee meetings. In developing the coal utilizing hydrogen manufacturing technology, a high-temperature coal gasification pilot plant of the jet flow bed type with a capacity of 50 tons a day will be built. The plan covers five years from fiscal 1986 through fiscal 1990. Fiscal 1988 has performed the detailed design, civil and building constructions, device fabrication, and their installation. Studies are also being carried out by using a small equipment as the studies on supports. For furnace materials in trial production and development of the materials, discussions are given on iron oxide burst (refractories made mainly of Cr ore absorb iron oxide from slag, resulting in deterioration), for which improvement will be attempted. The crucible method and the slag mounting method were used for tests as the purely static testing method. Although no abnormal expansion in the structure can be recognized in any of the tested materials, internal penetration of slag takes place in association with temperature rise. Difference in melting loss appears in the surface parts, which requires more detailed investigation. ZrB2 (ceramics and sintered refractory) is a promising material. Evaluation was given on healthiness of repaired parts under heating cycle, whereas a possibility of maintaining the healthiness was recognized. High-purity sintered alumina showed excellent corrosion resistance. (NEDO)

  19. Coal gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-29

    The proposal concerns a stage in the process of cooling the synthetic gas produced in a coal gasification plant at temperatures above 900/sup 0/C. The purpose is to keep the convection heating surface of the subsequent waste heat plant free of dirt. According to the invention, the waste heat plant has a radiation area connected before it, on the heating surfaces of which the slack carried over solidifies. This radiation area has a hydraulic and thermal cleaning system, which can be raised or lowered in a water bath. The subclaims concern all the constructional characteristics of this cleaning system, which causes the solidified slack to crack.

  20. Thermodynamic analyses of solar thermal gasification of coal for hybrid solar-fossil power and fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Yi Cheng; Lipiński, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic analyses are performed for solar thermal steam and dry gasification of coal. The selected types of coal are anthracite, bituminous, lignite and peat. Two model conversion paths are considered for each combination of the gasifying agent and the coal type: production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use in a combined cycle power plant to generate power, and production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use to produce gasoline via the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Replacement of a coal-fired 35% efficient Rankine cycle power plant and a combustion-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant by a solar-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 47% and 27%, respectively. Replacement of a conventional gasoline production process via coal gasification and a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis with gasoline production via solar thermal coal gasification with a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 39%. -- Highlights: ► Thermodynamic analyses for steam and dry gasification of coal are presented. ► Hybrid solar-fossil paths to power and fuels are compared to those using only combustion. ► Hybrid power production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 27%. ► Hybrid fuel production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 39%.

  1. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Reginald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2014-09-01

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co-produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  2. Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Francine [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Agblevor, Foster [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Klein, Michael [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Sheikhi, Reza [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    A collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to understand co-gasification of coal-biomass mixtures. The overall goal of the work was to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. Sub-bituminous coal was mixed with biomass feedstocks to determine the fluidization and gasification characteristics of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass and corn stover. It was found that corn stover and poplar wood were the best feedstocks to use with coal. The novel approach of this project was the use of a red mud catalyst to improve gasification and lower gasification temperatures. An important results was the reduction of agglomeration of the biomass using the catalyst. An outcome of this work was the characterization of the chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the co-gasification fuels, and the development of a set of models that can be integrated into other modeling environments. The multiphase flow code, MFIX, was used to simulate and predict the hydrodynamics and co-gasification, and results were validated with the experiments. The reaction kinetics modeling was used to develop a smaller set of reactions for tractable CFD calculations that represented the experiments. Finally, an efficient tool was developed, MCHARS, and coupled with MFIX to efficiently simulate the complex reaction kinetics.

  3. CO2 reduction potential of future coal gasification based power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, D.; Oudhuis, A.B.J.; Van Veen, H.M.

    1992-03-01

    Assessment studies are carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with gas turbines (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) without and with CO 2 -removal. System elements include coal gasification, high-temperature gas-cleaning, molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines, CO shift, membrane separation, CO 2 recovery and a bottoming cycle. Various system configurations are evaluated on the basis of thermodynamic computations. The energy balances of the various system configurations clearly indicate that integrated coal gasification MCFC power plants (IGMCFC) with CO 2 removal have high efficiencies (42-47% LHV) compared to IGCC power plants with CO 2 -removal (33-38% LHV) and that the CO 2 -removal is simplified due to the specific properties of the molten carbonate fuel cells. IGMCFC is therefore an option with future prospective in the light of clean coal technologies for power generation with high energy efficiencies and low emissions. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  4. Glas generator for the steam gasification of coal with nuclear generated heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, G.

    1980-01-01

    The use of heat from a High Temperature Reactor (HTR) for the steam gasification of coal saves coal, which otherwise is burnt to generate the necessary reaction heat. The gas generator for this process, a horizontal pressure vessel, contains a fluidized bed of coal and steam. An ''immersion-heater'' type of heat exchanger introduces the nuclear generated heat to the process. Some special design problems of this gasifier are presented. Reference is made to the present state of development of the steam gasification process with heat from high temperature reactors. (author)

  5. Report for fiscal 1995 by Coal Gasification Committee; 1995 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is a summary primarily of the distributed material. As of December 14, 1995, the 200t/d pilot plant for power generation by entrained bed coal gasification records a total coal gasification operation time of 4,485 hours with an accumulated amount of power generation of 9,227MWh. A large combustor is tested, and it is found that combustion is stable under a 1/4 load with low NOx emissions. The combustor is sufficiently cooled with a small supply of air. Coal ash and coal, supplied in a constant state for an improved heat recovery efficiency in the development of hydrogen-from-coal technology, are heated to a temperature near their melting points. They are then allowed to impinge at a heat transfer plane simulating a gasifier heat recovery section, and a study is made of the mechanism of ash adhesion, molten or semi-molten, to the heat recovery section. The reduction of the heat transfer coefficient due to added grains is 30-50%, and the reduction is small when the heat transfer pipe surface velocity is high or when the carbon concentration in the grains is high. In another effort, utilization of coal-derived gas as town gas is studied. As for yields as indicated by the Curie gas pyrolyzer, the gas yield increases and liquid yield decreases when the reaction temperature is high. Using a small test unit, it is found that a rise in the hydrogen partial pressure increases the production of both gas and liquid. (NEDO)

  6. Synfuels from low-rank coals at the Great Plains Gasification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, D.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the use of low rank coals to form synfuels. A worldwide abundance of low rank coals exists. Large deposits in the United States are located in Texas and North Dakota. Low rank coal deposits are also found in Europe, India and Australia. Because of the high moisture content of lignite ranging from 30% to 60% or higher, it is usually utilized in mine mouth applications. Lignite is generally very reactive and contains varying amounts of ash and sulfur. Typical uses for lignite are listed. A commercial application using lignite as feedstock to a synfuels plant, Dakota Gasification Company's Great Plains Gasification Plant, is discussed

  7. Pyrolysis of coal, biomass and their blends: performance assessment by thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Francesca; Orsini, Alessandro; Plaisant, Alberto; Pettinau, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    With the aim to support the experimental tests in a gasification pilot plant, the thermal decomposition of coal, biomass and their mixtures has been carried out through a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a simplified kinetic analysis. The TGA of pure fuels indicates the low reactivity of South African coal and the relatively high reactivity of Sardinian Sulcis coal during pyrolysis. Among the tested fuels, biomass (stone pine wood chips) is the most reactive one. These results fully confirm those obtained during the experimental tests in the gasification pilot plant. As for the fuel blends, the analysis shows that the synergic effects between the considered coals and biomass are negligible when they are co-pyrolyzed. The results of the analysis confirm that TGA could be very useful to generally predict the gasification performance and to optimize the experimental campaigns in pilot-scale gasification plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of the feasibility of underground coal gasification in North Dakota, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Peng; Nasah, Junior; Solc, Jaroslav; Korom, Scott F.; Laudal, Daniel; Barse, Kirtipal

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A four-year feasibility study of underground coal gasification is presented. • A test site was selected for feasibility investigation. • Gasification test, a hydrogeological study and geomechanical study were performed. • Results suggest favorable conditions for UCG development at the selected site. - Abstract: Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a promising technology that has the potential to recover currently-unmineable coal resources. The technical feasibility and economic success of a UCG project is highly site specific. Any risks associated with UCG, such as subsidence, groundwater contamination, and syngas quality, should be sufficiently evaluated through a feasibility study. This paper presents a four-year UCG feasibility study utilizing lignite seams in North Dakota, United States. Four wells were drilled through the lignite seams at a selected site, and lignite and strata cores were recovered. A geological model of the formation was built, coal and rock properties were analyzed, and field hydrogeological tests and laboratory gasification tests were performed. This work provided valuable insights in rock mechanics, hydrogeology, and coal properties. The study results show that the selected site is suitable for development of a UCG plant because there are minimal induced subsidence risks, there is hydrological isolation from major aquifers and the coal produces desirable syngas quality for liquid fuel production. Methodologies developed in this study will benefit the design, optimization and management of the UCG process.

  9. Optimization of hydrogen and syngas production from PKS gasification by using coal bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Yusup, Suzana; Inayat, Abrar; Patrick, David Onoja; Pratama, Angga; Ammar, Muhamamd

    2017-10-01

    Catalytic steam gasification of palm kernel shell is investigated to optimize operating parameters for hydrogen and syngas production using TGA-MS setup. RSM is used for experimental design and evaluating the effect of temperature, particle size, CaO/biomass ratio, and coal bottom ash wt% on hydrogen and syngas. Hydrogen production appears highly sensitive to all factors, especially temperature and coal bottom ash wt%. In case of syngas, the order of parametric influence is: CaO/biomass>coal bottom ash wt%>temperature>particle size. The significant catalytic effect of coal bottom ash is due to the presence of Fe 2 O 3 , MgO, Al 2 O 3 , and CaO. A temperature of 692°C, coal bottom ash wt% of 0.07, CaO/biomass of 1.42, and particle size of 0.75mm are the optimum conditions for augmented yield of hydrogen and syngas. The production of hydrogen and syngas is 1.5% higher in the pilot scale gasifier as compared to TGA-MS setup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Numerical simulation of coal gasification process using the modifying Watanabe - Otaka model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Papadopoulos; M. Losurdo; H. Spliethoff

    2009-07-01

    High-pressure entrained flow coal gasification is becoming increasingly important particularly in the development of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for the production of electricity. However, there is a lack of knowledge worldwide for the gasification process and more especially for the chemical reactions (reactions rates) that take place under high pressure and temperature. Therefore a gasifier has been designed and is being built at the Institute for Energy Systems (Lehrstuhl fuer Energisysteme - LES) at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM). This gasifier is an entrained flow gasifier and has the advantage that it can operate to very high conditions of pressure and temperature, up to 50 bar pressure and 1800{sup o}C temperature. In an ongoing project, a great variety of experiments are planned to determine chemical reactions rates at high pressure conditions. In addition to the experimental work, CFD numerical simulations of pulverized coal gasification are being performed. The aim is to use numerical investigations for preliminary assessment of the facility. The goal is to develop a gasification model suitable for high pressure and condition tailored on the experiments to be used in CFD computations to predict chemical reactions, the heat transfer and the turbulence inside the gasifier. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. ASPEN Plus simulation of coal integrated gasification combined blast furnace slag waste heat recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Wenjun; Yu, Qingbo; Wang, Kun; Qin, Qin; Hou, Limin; Yao, Xin; Wu, Tianwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated system of coal gasification with slag waste heat recovery was proposed. • The goal of BF slag heat saving and emission reduction was achieved by this system. • The optimal parameters were obtained and the waste heat recovery rate reached 83.08%. • About 6.64 kmol/min syngas was produced when using one ton BF slag to provide energy. - Abstract: This article presented a model for the system of coal gasification with steam and blast furnace slag waste heat recovery by using the ASPEN Plus as the simulating and modeling tool. Constrained by mass and energy balance for the entire system, the model included the gasifier used to product syngas at the chemical equilibrium based on the Gibbs free energy minimization approach and the boiler used to recover the heat of the blast furnace slag (BF slag) and syngas. Two parameters of temperature and steam to coal ratio (S/C) were considered to account for their impacts on the Datong coal (DT coal) gasification process. The carbon gasification efficiency (CE), cold gasification efficiency (CGE), syngas product efficiency (PE) and the heating value of syngas produced by 1 kg pulverized coal (HV) were adopted as the indicators to examine the gasification performance. The optimal operating temperature and S/C were 800 °C and 1.5, respectively. At this condition, CE reached above 90% and the maximum values of the CGE, PE and HV were all obtained. Under the optimal operating conditions, 1000 kg/min BF slag, about 40.41 kg/min DT pulverized coal and 77.94 kg/min steam were fed into the gasifier and approximate 6.64 kmol/min syngas could be generated. Overall, the coal was converted to clean syngas by gasification reaction and the BF slag waste heat was also recovered effectively (reached up to 83.08%) in this system, achieving the objective of energy saving and emission reduction

  12. CALCULATION OF REACTION COMPLETENESS AND SUBSTANCE TRANSFORMATION AT WATER-COAL GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nazarov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Process of water-coal gasification is satisfactorily described by three thermal and chemical equations; using these equations composition of gasification product (water carbon monoxide gas has been calculated in accordance with a temperature. Results of the calculations are presented in the form of charts. 

  13. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  14. Gasification of coal using nuclear process heat. Chapter D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.-D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1979-01-01

    In the light of the high price of coal and the enormous advances made recently in nuclear engineering, the possibility of using heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors for gasification processes was discussed as early as the 1960s. The advantages of this technology are summarized. A joint programme of development work is described, in which the Nuclear Research Centre at Juelich is aiming to develop a high-temperature reactor which will supply process heat at as high a temperature as possible, while other organizations are working on the hydrogasification of lignites and hard coals, and steam gasification. Experiments are at present being carried out on a semi-technical scale, and no operational data for large-scale plants are available as yet. (author)

  15. Dewatering a gasification zone in the Dnieper region for underground coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedenko, M V

    1957-01-01

    The processes for draining brown coal open-pit mines are described. Experience with water inflow in open-pit mines of the Dnieper region and stratigraphic cross section and hydrogeological conditions in the area of the planned gasification installation are discussed. Expedient draining by boreholes is described, and arrangement of boreholes and filters is shown. Cost data are presented.

  16. Report for fiscal 1998 by gasification technology subcommittee, Coal Gasification Committee; 1998 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The gasification technology subcommittee met on August 4 and November 17, 1998, and on March 10, 1999. Reported for deliberation were the research plan for coal hydrogasification technology development, its progress, and its achievements. On the other hand, the fuel cell-oriented coal gasification subcommittee met on July 23, 1998, and February 26, 1999, when studies were reported for deliberation concerning the development of a coal gasification technology for fuel cells, research plans, and research achievements. Reported in relation to studies using experimenting units were findings acquired using a small test unit, development of an injector, tests using a hot and cold models, development of a cooled char flow extraction technology, development of a highly concentrated powder transportation technology, and conceptual designs of next-generation facilities. A report was also delivered on survey and research on the friendliness toward the community of the development of coal hydrogasification technologies. Furthermore, a plan for reinforcing the system for evaluating the development of coal hydrogasification technologies was brought under deliberation. (NEDO)

  17. Measurements of Gasification Characteristics of Coal and Char in CO2-Rich Gas Flow by TG-DTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification properties of pulverized coal and char in CO2-rich gas flow were investigated by using gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA with changing O2%, heating temperature gradient, and flow rate of CO2-rich gases provided. Together with TG-DTA, flue gas generated from the heated coal, such as CO, CO2, and hydrocarbons (HCs, was analyzed simultaneously on the heating process. The optimum O2% in CO2-rich gas for combustion and gasification of coal or char was discussed by analyzing flue gas with changing O2 from 0 to 5%. The experimental results indicate that O2% has an especially large effect on carbon oxidation at temperature less than 1100°C, and lower O2 concentration promotes gasification reaction by producing CO gas over 1100°C in temperature. The TG-DTA results with gas analyses have presented basic reference data that show the effects of O2 concentration and heating rate on coal physical and chemical behaviors for the expected technologies on coal gasification in CO2-rich gas and oxygen combustion and underground coal gasification.

  18. Characteristics of Malaysian coals with their pyrolysis and gasification behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Fadzilah Othman; Mohd Hariffin Bosrooh; Kamsani Abdul Majid

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted since comprehensive study on the gasification behaviour of Malaysian coals is still lacking. Coals were characterised using heating value determination, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and ash analysis. Pyrolysis process was investigated using thermogravimetric analyser. While, atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed gasifier was used to investigate the gasification behaviour. Three Malaysian coals, Merit Pila, Mukah Balingian, Silantek; and Australian coal, Hunter Valley coals were used in this study. Thermal degradation of four coal samples were performed, which involved weight loss profile and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves. The kinetic parameters, such as maximum reactivity value, R max , Activation Energy, E a and Arrhenius constant, ln R o for each coal were determined using Arrhenius Equation. Merit Pila coal shows the highest maximum reactivity among other Malaysian coals. E a is the highest for Merit Pila coal (166.81kJmol -1 ) followed with Mukah Balingian (101.15 kJmol -1 ), Hunter Valley (96.45 kJmol -1 ) and Silantek (75.23 kJmol -1 ) coals. This finding indicates direct correlation of lower rank coal with higher E a . Merit Pila coal was studied in detail using atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Different variables such as equivalence ratio (ER) and gasifying agents were used. The highest H 2 proportion (38.3 mol.%) in the producer gas was reached at 715 degree Celsius and ER=0.277 where the maximization of LHV pg (5.56 MJ/Nm 3 ) was also detected. ER and addition of steam had shown significant contributions to the producer gas compositions and LHV pg . (author)

  19. Research results of sewage sludge and waste oil disposal by entrained bed gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schingnitz, M.; Goehler, P.; Wenzel, W.; Seidel, W. (Noell-DBI Energie- und Entsorgungstechnik GmbH, Freiberg (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of gasifying sewage sludge and waste oil with the GSP technology, developed by the Freiberg Fuel Institute (FRG). The GSP reactor was developed in 1976 for gasification of pulverized brown coal. An industrial reactor of this design operated for over 5 years with a total coal throughput of more than 300,000 t. The design of the gasification generator and the flowsheet of a 3 MW experimental pilot plant for waste gasification are presented. The PCB content in the gasification sludge is 6.14 mg/kg, in waste oil - 160 mg/kg. Gasification takes place at high temperatures of more than 1,400 C for complete destruction of toxic pollutants. Gasification results compare composition of raw gas produced by gasification of brown coal, sewage sludge and waste oil. A detailed list of content of pollutants (PCDD, PCDF, PAH, dioxin and furan) in the gasification gas, in process waters and in solid residue of the process water is provided. It is concluded that the GSP gasification process is suitable for safe disposal of waste with toxic content. 3 refs.

  20. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study; 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Yoso kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, element study was made for a pilot plant of 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification power generation, and the FY 1990 results were summarized. In the study by the gasification test on 2t/d furnace, gasification test was conducted for the OM coal newly selected as a coal proposed for the expansion of coal kind. As a result, the pulverized coal/char of OM coal have almost good handling property and showed favorable gasification performance. In the study of large gas turbine combustor for demonstrative machine, with the aim of developing a combustor that makes stable combustion also in the low load region possible, fabrication of the accessory equipment of combustor (choke mechanism, measuring use duct and heat insulating plate) was made for the actual-pressure/actual-size combustion test. In the study by simulation of the total system of combined cycle power generation, etc., the following were conducted: verification of characteristics of the integrated control (state of the ordinary operation, state of the mock load control, etc.), load dump simulation (state of the bleed cooperation, state of the bleed separation (state of the air booster operation, etc.)), etc. (NEDO)

  1. Critical Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification Models. Part II: Kinetic and Computational Fluid Dynamics Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Żogała

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: This paper presents state of art in the field of coal gasification modeling using kinetic and computational fluid dynamics approach. The paper also presents own comparative analysis (concerned with mathematical formulation, input data and parameters, basic assumptions, obtained results etc. of the most important models of underground coal gasification.

  2. Pressurised fluidised-bed gasification experiments with biomass, peat and coal at VTT in 1991-1994. Gasification of Danish wheat, straw and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E; Laatikainen-Luntama, J; Staahlberg, P; Moilanen, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    Fluidised-bed air gasification of three different Danish straw feedstocks and Colombian bituminous coal was studied in the PDU-scale test facilities of VTT. The test programme was divided into two different modes of operation. First, the usability of straw as the only feedstock was investigated by operating the gasifier at relatively low temperature normally used in biomass gasifiers. In this operation mode the main aim was to find out the limits for gasification temperatures, set by the sintering behaviour of the straw. Secondly, the use of straw as an additional feedstock in a fluidised-bed coal gasifier was examined by operating the gasifier at about 1 000 deg C with different ratings of straw and coal feeding. The gasifier was operated at 5 bar pressure and at 80 990 deg C. The product gas was cleaned by ceramic candle filters operated at 465-540 deg C. Concentrations of tars, nitrogen com- pounds, sulphur gases, vapour-phase alkali metals as well as chlorine were determined in different operating conditions. (12 refs.)

  3. Performance simulations for Co-gasification of coal and methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niksa, Stephen [Niksa Energy Associates LLC, Belmont, CA (United States); Lim, J.P.; Del Rio Diaz Jara, D.; Eckstrom, D.; Steele, D.; Malhotra, R.; Wilson, R.B. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2013-07-01

    In the process under development, coal suspended in mixtures of CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, and steam is rapidly heated to temperatures above 1,400 C under 5-7 MPa for at least 1 s. The coal first decomposes into volatiles and char while CH{sub 4} is converted into CO/H{sub 2} mixtures. Then the char is converted into CO/H{sub 2} mixtures via steam gasification on longer time scales, and into CH{sub 4} via hydrogasification. Throughout all stages, homogeneous chemistry reforms all intermediate fuel components into the syngas feedstock for methanol synthesis. Fully validated reaction mechanisms for each chemical process were used to quantitatively interpret a co-gasification test series in SRI's lab-scale gasification facility. Homogeneous reforming chemistry generates equilibrium gas compositions at 1,500 C in the available transit time of 1.4 s, but not at any of the lower temperatures. Methane conversion in the gas phase increases for progressively hotter temperatures, in accord with the data. But the strong predicted dependence on steam concentration was not evident in the measured CH{sub 4} conversions, even when steam concentration was the subject test variable. Char hydrogasification adds CH{sub 4} to the product gas stream, but this process probably converts no more than 15-20% of the char in the lab-scale tests and the bulk of the char is converted by steam gasification. The correlation coefficient between predicted and measured char conversions exceeded 0.8 and the std. dev. was 3.4%, which is comparable to the measurement uncertainties. The evaluation of the predicted CH{sub 4} conversions gave a std. dev. greater than 20%. Simulations of commercial conditions with realistic suspension loadings and no diluents in the feed gave slightly lower conversions of both CH{sub 4} and coal, because hydrogasification accounts for more of the char conversion, and occurs at rates slower than for steam gasification.

  4. Tenth annual underground coal gasification symposium: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwell, E.; Docktor, L.; Martin, J.W. (eds.)

    1984-12-01

    The Tenth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was cosponsored by the Fossil Energy Division of the US Department of Energy and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Laramie Projects Office. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for presenting research results and for determining additional research needs in underground coal gasification. This years' meeting was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, during the week of August 12 through 15, 1984. Approximately 120 attendees representing industry, academia, national laboratories, Government, and eight foreign countries participated in the exchange of ideas, results, and future research plans. International representatives included participants from Belgium, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, West Germany, and Yugoslavia. During the three-day symposium, sixty papers were presented and discussed in four formal presentation sessions and two informal poster sessions. The papers describe interpretation of field test data, results of environmental research, and evaluations of laboratory, modeling, and economic studies. All papers in this Proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  5. Fiscal 1995 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 3 - Pilot plant operational test - 2/2); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant unten shiken hen (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The 200 tons/day entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant constructed for establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle was subjected to operational tests, and the fiscal 1995 results are detailed. During Runs D13, D14, E1, D15, and A14 in the operational test of the gas clean-up facility (dry type dedusting facility), 10 troubles occurred, including damage of the separator screen, leak in the seal valve, and leak of the expansion gas, and measures were taken to deal with each of the troubles. The results of the gas turbine facility operational test were satisfactory, without any trouble worth discussion. In the operational test of the safety/environment-related facility, it was found that the produced gas was stably incinerated and that denitration performance during gas turbine operation roughly achieved the intended level. In the operational test of electric and control facilities, an overall test was conducted, inspection was made of the indoor switching facility, etc., and 13 improvements were made, which included the alteration of the high ANN setting in the water tank for slag, the alteration of the mill exit temperature setting for enabling the use of Taiheiyo coal, and proper methods for carrying out high-load operation. (NEDO)

  6. Ceramic membranes for gas processing in coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, S.; Lin, C.X.C.; Ding, L.; Thambimuthu, K.; da Costa, J.C.D. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Pre-combustion options via coal gasification, especially integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) processes, are attracting the attention of governments, industry and the research community as an attractive alternative to conventional power generation. It is possible to build an IGCC plant with CCS with conventional technologies however; these processes are energy intensive and likely to reduce power plant efficiencies. Novel ceramic membrane technologies, in particular molecular sieving silica (MSS) and pervoskite membranes, offer the opportunity to reduce efficiency losses by separating gases at high temperatures and pressures. MSS membranes can be made preferentially selective for H{sub 2}, enabling both enhanced production, via a water-gas shift membrane reactor, and recovery of H{sub 2} from the syngas stream at high temperatures. They also allow CO{sub 2} to be concentrated at high pressures, reducing the compression loads for transportation and enabling simple integration with CO{sub 2} storage or sequestration operations. Perovskite membranes provide a viable alternative to cryogenic distillation for air separation by delivering the tonnage of oxygen required for coal gasification at a reduced cost. In this review we examine ceramic membrane technologies for high temperature gas separation and discuss the operational, mechanical, design and process considerations necessary for their successful integration into IGCC with CCS systems.

  7. Fiscal 1995 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 5 - Surveys and studies of demonstration plant); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 5. Jissho plant ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Surveys and studies were conducted concerning a demonstration plant for establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle, and the fiscal 1995 results are compiled. In this fiscal year, a demonstration plant conceptual design was prepared for assuring smooth transition from a pilot plant to a commercial plant. The design followed the system employed at the Nakoso pilot plant for its gasification power generation. It was decided that the gasification furnace be of the air-blown (oxygen enriched) 2-stage entrained bed type, that the desulfurization system be of the dry type 2-stage fluidized bed type, the dedusting system be of the dry type granular bed type (moving bed type), that the combined cycle power facility be derived from the commercialized gas turbine, and that the cycle of the steam system agree with the integrated coal gasification combined cycle system now under discussion. Studies were made, which covered heat efficiency (generating end/sending end), heat/matter balance, process flow, gas turbine/steam system optimization, comparison in performance with a pilot plant with its dimensions increased, estimation of the performance of each of the facilities, estimation of the construction cost, calculation of the generation cost, environmental friendliness, operating characteristics, acceptable coal types, and the like. (NEDO)

  8. Underground coal gasification technology impact on coal reserves in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John William Rosso Murillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In situ coal gasification technology (Underground Coal Gasification–UCG– is an alternative to the traditional exploitation, due to it allows to reach the today’s inaccessible coal reserves’ recovery, to conventional mining technologies. In this article I answer the question on how the today’s reserves available volume, can be increased, given the possibility to exploit further and better the same resources. Mining is an important wealth resource in Colombia as a contributor to the national GDP. According with the Energy Ministry (Ministerio de Minas y Energía [1] mining has been around 5% of total GDP in the last years. This is a significant fact due to the existence of a considerable volume of reserves not accounted for (proved reserves at year 2010 were 6.700 million of tons. Source: INGEOMINAS and UPME, and the coal future role’s prospect, in the world energy production.

  9. Environmental considerations of coal gasification technology and the Wabash River Repowering Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessig, W.S.; Frederick, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have mandated a significant reduction in sulfur dioxide emissions. Coal gasification can assist coal burning utilities in meeting this challenge. The use of combustion turbines in the cycle is an important factor in terms of efficiency and pollution control technologies. The gasification process can be utilized in several applications including 'repowering' existing coal-fired facilities as well as new 'greenfield' projects. This paper addresses the environmental benefits of the repowering application at PSI Energy's Wabash River Station. The environmental impacts of air, water, solid waste, trace hazardous air pollutants, and fuel sources are addressed. Specifically, sulfur removal is discussed on both a technical and an economic level

  10. Investigation of air gasification of micronized coal, mechanically activated using the plasma control of the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butakov Evgenii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Combination of the processes of coal combustion and gasification into a single technology of mechano-chemical and plasma-chemical activation is of a considerable scientific and technological interest. Enhancement of coal reactivity at their grinding with mechanical activation is associated with an increase in the reaction rate of carbon material, and at plasma-chemical effect, the main is an increase in reactivity of the oxidizing agent caused by the high plasma temperatures of atomic oxygen. The process of gasification was studied on the 1-MW setup with tangential scroll supply of pulverized coal-air mixture and cylindrical reaction chamber. Coal ground by the standard boiler mill is fed to the disintegrator, then, it is sent to the scroll inlet of the burner-reactor with the transport air. Pulverized coal is ignited by the plasmatron of 10-kW power. In experiments on air gasification of micronized coal, carried out at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1200°C and air excess α = 0.3-1, the data on CO concentration of 11% and H2 concentration of up to 6% were obtained. Air and air-steam gasification of mechanically-activated micronized coals with plasma control was calculated using SigmaFlow software package.

  11. Investigation of air gasification of micronized coal, mechanically activated using the plasma control of the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakov, Evgenii; Burdukov, Anatoly; Chernetskiy, Mikhail; Kuznetsov, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Combination of the processes of coal combustion and gasification into a single technology of mechano-chemical and plasma-chemical activation is of a considerable scientific and technological interest. Enhancement of coal reactivity at their grinding with mechanical activation is associated with an increase in the reaction rate of carbon material, and at plasma-chemical effect, the main is an increase in reactivity of the oxidizing agent caused by the high plasma temperatures of atomic oxygen. The process of gasification was studied on the 1-MW setup with tangential scroll supply of pulverized coal-air mixture and cylindrical reaction chamber. Coal ground by the standard boiler mill is fed to the disintegrator, then, it is sent to the scroll inlet of the burner-reactor with the transport air. Pulverized coal is ignited by the plasmatron of 10-kW power. In experiments on air gasification of micronized coal, carried out at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1200°C and air excess α = 0.3-1, the data on CO concentration of 11% and H2 concentration of up to 6% were obtained. Air and air-steam gasification of mechanically-activated micronized coals with plasma control was calculated using SigmaFlow software package.

  12. Experimental study on the gasification characteristics of coal and orimulsion in 0.5 T/D gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ho Young; Kim, Jong Young; An, Dal Hong; Park, Tae Jun [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    For the construction of commercial plant for IGCC imported from aboard in near future, it is aimed to get gasification data, practice the gasification design capability, and develop a fundamental key technology through the experiments for different kinds of coals (Datong, Roto, Alaska) by 0.5 T/D gasifier. We performed the experiments for physical properties and reactivities on selected coals by means of Drop Tube Reactor, numerical analysis for the reactor. Throughout the characteristic studies of orimulsion gasification, feasibility studies for orimulsion gasification as a fuel for power plant be performed. With the six experiment runs for the coal gasifier, several problems were found to remedy. After remedies, the gasifier could run at good operating conditions maintaining with 200% design feed rate over 1200-1550 degree. The third and fourth gasification runs with Roto were satisfactorily completed, during which gross heating values from produced gas were 7200-8200 Kcal/Nm{sup 3}. (author). 118 refs., 145 figs.

  13. Experimental study on the gasification characteristics of coal and orimulsion in 0.5 T/D gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ho Young; Kim, Jong Young; An, Dal Hong; Park, Tae Jun [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    For the construction of commercial plant for IGCC imported from aboard in near future, it is aimed to get gasification data, practice the gasification design capability, and develop a fundamental key technology through the experiments for different kinds of coals (Datong, Roto, Alaska) by 0.5 T/D gasifier. We performed the experiments for physical properties and reactivities on selected coals by means of Drop Tube Reactor, numerical analysis for the reactor. Throughout the characteristic studies of orimulsion gasification, feasibility studies for orimulsion gasification as a fuel for power plant be performed. With the six experiment runs for the coal gasifier, several problems were found to remedy. After remedies, the gasifier could run at good operating conditions maintaining with 200% design feed rate over 1200-1550 degree. The third and fourth gasification runs with Roto were satisfactorily completed, during which gross heating values from produced gas were 7200-8200 Kcal/Nm{sup 3}. (author). 118 refs., 145 figs.

  14. Hydrogen production from coal gasification for effective downstream CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanapragasam, Nirmal V.; Reddy, Bale V.; Rosen, Marc A. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario, L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    The coal gasification process is used in commercial production of synthetic gas as a means toward clean use of coal. The conversion of solid coal into a gaseous phase creates opportunities to produce more energy forms than electricity (which is the case in coal combustion systems) and to separate CO{sub 2} in an effective manner for sequestration. The current work compares the energy and exergy efficiencies of an integrated coal-gasification combined-cycle power generation system with that of coal gasification-based hydrogen production system which uses water-gas shift and membrane reactors. Results suggest that the syngas-to-hydrogen (H{sub 2}) system offers 35% higher energy and 17% higher exergy efficiencies than the syngas-to-electricity (IGCC) system. The specific CO{sub 2} emission from the hydrogen system was 5% lower than IGCC system. The Brayton cycle in the IGCC system draws much nitrogen after combustion along with CO{sub 2}. Thus CO{sub 2} capture and compression become difficult due to the large volume of gases involved, unlike the hydrogen system which has 80% less nitrogen in its exhaust stream. The extra electrical power consumption for compressing the exhaust gases to store CO{sub 2} is above 70% for the IGCC system but is only 4.5% for the H{sub 2} system. Overall the syngas-to-hydrogen system appears advantageous to the IGCC system based on the current analysis. (author)

  15. Catalytic mechanism of sodium compounds in black liquor during gasification of coal black liquor slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Jianping; Zhou Junhu; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2008-01-01

    The coal black liquor slurry (CBLS) was composed of coal and black pulping liquor, which has plenty of sodium compounds, lignin and cellulose. The sodium compounds have a catalytic effect on the gasification process of coal black liquor slurry, while lignin and cellulose enhance the heat value. Alkali-catalyzed gasification experiments of CBLS and CWS (coal water slurry) are investigated on the thermobalance and fixed bed reactor. The residues of the gasification of CBLS and CWS are analyzed by XRD, SEM and FT-IR. It is found that many micro- and mesopores and zigzag faces exist in the surface of the CBLS coke, which play a key role in the catalytic gasification. Sodium can enhance the reaction potential, weaken the bond of C-O and improve the gasification reaction rate. XRD results show that sodium aluminum silicate and nepheline are the main crystal components of the CBLS and CWS. The C-O stretching vibration peak in the 1060 cm -1 band in the CBLS shifts to 995.65 cm -1 in the CBLS coke after partial gasification. This means that the energy of the C-O stretching vibration in the CBLS carbon matrix decreases, so the structure of the carbon matrix is more liable to react with an oxygen ion or hydroxide ion. The amplitude of the C-O stretching vibration peak is augmented step by step due to the ground-excited level jump of the C-O band

  16. Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: A synoptic view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronbauer, Marcio A. [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Izquierdo, Maria [School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Dai, Shifeng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Waanders, Frans B. [School of Chemical and Minerals Engineering, North West University (Potchefstroom campus), Potchefstroom 2531 (South Africa); Wagner, Nicola J. [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-2208 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Taffarel, Silvio R.; Bizani, Delmar [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); and others

    2013-07-01

    The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO{sub 3} versus Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates. - Highlights: • Coal waste geochemisty can provide increased environmental information in coal-mining areas. • Oxidation is the major process for mineral transformation in coal ashes. • The electron bean methodology has been applied to investigate neoformed minerals.

  17. Research of Heating Rates Influence on Layer Coal Gasification of Krasnogorsky And Borodinsky Coal Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankovskiy Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research of heating rate influence on coal samples gasification process of Krasnogorsky and Borodinsky coal deposit ranks A and 2B was done to define optimal heating mode in high intensification of dispersal of inflammable gases conditions. Abundance ratio of carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide, water vapor, carbon dioxide at four values of heating rate within the range of 5 to 30 K/min. with further definition of optimal heating rate of coals was stated.

  18. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of$438 million. Construction for the demonstration project was started in July 1993. Pre-operational tests were initiated in August 1995, and construction was completed in November 1995. Commercial operation began in November 1995, and the demonstration period was completed in December

  19. Co-gasification of Colombian coal and biomass in fluidized bed: An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhon F. Velez; Farid Chejne; Carlos F. Valdes; Eder J. Emery; Carlos A. Londono [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia (Colombia). Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas

    2009-03-15

    The main results of an experimental work on co-gasification of Colombian biomass/coal blends in a fluidized bed working at atmospheric pressure are reported in this paper. Several samples of blends were prepared by mixing 6-15wt% biomass (sawdust, rice or coffee husk) with coal. Experimental assays were carried out by using mixtures of different steams/blends (Rvc) and air/blend (Rac) ratios showing the feasibility to implement co-gasification as energetic alternative to produce fuel gas to heat and to generate electricity and the possibility of converting clean and efficiently the refuse coal to a low-heating value gas. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Operating experiences with heat-exchanging components of a semi-technical pilot plant for steam gasification of coal using heat from HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, R.; Heek, K.H. van

    1984-01-01

    within the framework of the PNP- Project, a semi-technical plant for the development of a process of coal gasification by means of nuclear heat was operated. Here gasification is for the first time implemented in a fluidized bed using heat of an electrically heated helium cycle at pressure up to 40 bar and temperatures normal for HTR. The plant serves for testing and developing various components as immersion heater, insulations, dosing devices, and for compiling sound data for further planning

  1. Unconventional Coal in Wyoming: IGCC and Gasification of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffers, William Clemens

    Two unconventional uses for Wyoming Powder River Basin coal were investigated in this study. The first was the use of coal fired integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants to generate electricity. Twenty-eight different scenarios were modeled using AspenPlusRTM software. These included slurry, mechanical and dried fed gasifiers; Wyodak and Green River coals, 0%, 70%, and 90% CO2 capture; and conventional evaporative vs air cooling. All of the models were constructed on a feed basis of 6,900 tons of coal per day on an "as received basis". The AspenPlus RTM results were then used to create economic models using Microsoft RTM Excel for each configuration. These models assumed a 3 year construction period and a 30 year plant life. Results for capital and operating costs, yearly income, and internal rates of return (IRR) were compared. In addition, the scenarios were evaluated to compare electricity sales prices required to obtain a 12% IRR and to determine the effects of a carbon emissions tax on the sales price. The second part of the study investigated the gasification potential of residue remaining from solvent extraction or liquefaction of Powder River Basin Coal. Coal samples from the Decker mine on the Wyoming-Montana border were extracted with tetralin at a temperature of 360°C and pressure of 250 psi. Residue from the extraction was gasified with CO2 or steam at 833°C, 900°C and 975°C at pressures of 0.1 and 0.4 MPa. Product gases were analyzed with a mass spectrometer. Results were used to determine activation energies, reaction order, reaction rates and diffusion effects. Surface area and electron microscopic analyses were also performed on char produced from the solvent extraction residue.

  2. Characterization of substances in products, effluents, and wastes from coal conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, M.R.

    1978-01-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are investigating materials from synthetic fossil fuel processes. During the past year, samples have been collected from the Solvent Refining Coal Pilot Plant (SRC-I mode), Lignite Gasification Pilot Plant, Eyring Research Institute Gasifier, and Hanna III In Situ Coal Gasification Experiment. Inorganic and organic analyses have been performed, and comparisons of the data show some important differences in the potential emissions

  3. Underground gasification of coal - possibilities and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushanov, D.; Minkova, V.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed historical review is given on the problem of underground coal gasification (UCG) with emphasis on its physical, chemical, technological and financial aspects. The experience of USA, Japan, former USSR, Belgium, UK and France is described. The feasibility of UCG in the Dobrudzhan Coal Bed in Bulgaria is discussed. The deposit has reserves of about 1.5 billion tones at relatively shallow depths. Almost the whole scale from long flame to dry coal is covered. According to its coalification degree the bed belongs to gas coal - V daf 35-40%; C daf 80-83%, eruption index = 1. Enriched samples has low sulfur content - 0.6-1.5% and low mineral content - 6-12%. Having in mind the lack of domestic natural gas and petroleum resources, the authors state that the utilisation of the bed will alleviate the energy problems in Bulgaria. 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. Energy options and the role of coal: an integrated approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Considers energy goals and options with particular regard to providing affordable energy to Canada. Gasification of coal and carbon to provide a reliable source of clean power and heat to the oil sand industry and for feedstocks for the production of fertilizer, methanol, petrochemicals, and ultra-clean fuels is examined. The layout for integrated gasification polygeneration with carbon feed and plans for Canada's first commercial gasification plant (the Nexen Long Lake Project) are shown in diagrams. Progress in coal gasification at a clean coal Luscar/Sherritt pilot plant is outlined. Clean coal technology is part of a strategy to provide integration across energy systems, generate value for all hydrocarbon resources, and minimize emissions. 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Coal waste slurries as a fuel for integrated gasification combined cycle plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutynski Marcin A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes recent development in integrated gasification combined cycle technology and lists existing and planned IGCC plants. A brief outlook on the IGCC gasification technology is given with focus on entrained-flow gasifiers where the low-quality coal waste slurry fuel can be used. Desired properties of coal and ash for entrained-flow gasifiers are listed. The coal waste slurries, which were deposited at impoundments in Upper Silesian Coal Basin, were considered as a direct feed for such gasifiers. The average ash content, moisture content and lower heating value were analysed and presented as an average values. Entrained-flow commercial gasifiers can be considered as suitable for the coal slurry feed, however the ash content of coal slurries deposited in impoundments is too high for the direct use as the feed for the gasifiers. The moisture content of slurries calculated on as received basis meets the requirements of entrained-flow slurry feed gasifiers. The content of fines is relatively high which allow to use the slurries in entrained-flow gasifiers.

  6. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-03-15

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall

  7. Integration of coal gasification and packed bed CLC for high efficiency and near-zero emission power generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spallina, V.; Romano, M.C.; Chiesa, P.; Gallucci, F.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Lozza, G.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed thermodynamic analysis has been carried out of large-scale coal gasification-based power plant cycles with near zero CO2 emissions, integrated with chemical looping combustion (CLC). Syngas from coal gasification is oxidized in dynamically operated packed bed reactors (PBRs), generating a

  8. Plasma gasification process: Modeling, simulation and comparison with conventional air gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janajreh, Isam; Raza, Syed Shabbar; Valmundsson, Arnar Snaer

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Plasma/conventional gasification are modeled via Gibbs energy minimization. ► The model is applied to wide range of feedstock, tire, biomass, coal, oil shale. ► Plasma gasification show high efficiency for tire waste and coal. ► Efficiency is around 42% for plasma and 72% for conventional gasification. ► Lower plasma gasification efficiency justifies hazardous waste energy recovery. - Abstract: In this study, two methods of gasification are developed for the gasification of various feedstock, these are plasma gasification and conventional air gasification. The two methods are based on non-stoichiometric Gibbs energy minimization approach. The model takes into account the different type of feedstocks, which are analyzed at waste to energy lab at Masdar Institute, oxidizer used along with the plasma energy input and accurately evaluates the syngas composition. The developed model is applied for several types of feedstock, i.e. waste tire material, coal, plywood, pine needles, oil shale, and municipal solid waste (MSW), algae, treated/untreated wood, instigating air/steam as the plasma gas and only air as oxidizer for conventional gasification. The results of plasma gasification and conventional air gasification are calculated on the bases of product gas composition and the process efficiency. Results of plasma gasification shows that high gasification efficiency is achievable using both tire waste material and coal, also, the second law efficiency is calculated for plasma gasification that shows a relative high efficiency for tire and coal as compare to other feedstock. The average process efficiency for plasma gasification is calculated to be around 42%. On other hand the result of conventional gasification shows an average efficiency of 72%. The low efficiency of plasma gasification suggest that if only the disposal of hazard waste material is considered then plasma gasification can be a viable option to recover energy.

  9. Some Influences of Underground Coal Gasification on the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Kostúr

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy costs and energy demand have renewed global interest in clean coal technologies. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG is an industrial process that converts coal into product gas. UCG is a promising technology with a lot of health, safety and environmental advantages over conventional mining techniques. UCG carries risks to human health, agriculture and the environment. This article briefly analyzes the advantages and negative environmental impacts of UCG. It describes experimental objects, mathematical models as tools for simulation cases and it used coal from UCG experiments in Cigel, Barbara and Wieczorek mines to analyze the environmental impacts of UCG. The gasification converts the carbon in the coal to syngas and heat. We carried out a numerical simulation of the two-dimensional unstable heat conduction in the coal and overburden, with the aim of judging the influence of this heat source on the surroundings, including the surface. The results show that the temperature in the surrounding rock first increases and then decreases with time, the peak of the temperature curve decreases gradually, and its position moves inside the surrounding rock from the ignition point. A small amount of potentially dangerous syngas leaks from the UCG cavity and channels into vulnerable areas depending on working pressures. The danger of explosion and poisoning in vulnerable zones was evaluated by the simulation model. The results show that the danger is real but by monitoring and controlling the air in the vulnerable area it is possible to reduce this risk.

  10. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T.; Pinto, F.; Franco, C.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  11. Coal gasification in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first analyzes European energy consumption and supply dynamics within the framework of the European Communities energy and environmental policies calling for the increased use of natural gas, reduced energy consumption, promotion of innovative renewable energy technologies, and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This analysis evidences that, while, at present, the increased use of natural gas is an economically and environmentally advantageous policy, as well as, being strategically sound (in view of Middle East political instability), fuel interchangeability, in particular, the option to use coal, is vital to ensure stability of the currently favourable natural gas prices and offer a locally available energy alternative to foreign supplied sources. Citing the advantages to industry offered by the use of flexible, efficient and clean gaseous fuels, with interchangeability, the paper then illustrates the cost and environmental benefits to be had through the use of high efficiency, low polluting integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants equipped to run on a variety of fuels. In the assessment of technological innovations in this sector, a review is made of some of the commercially most promising gasification processes, e.g., the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) slagging gasifier, the high-temperature Winkler (HTW) Rheinbraun, and the Krupp Koppers (PRENFLO) moving bed gasifier processes

  12. Coal gasification in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furfari, S [Commissione delle Comunita' Europee, Bruxelles (Belgio). Direzione Generale dell' Energia, Direzione delle Tecnologie

    1992-02-01

    This paper first analyzes European energy consumption and supply dynamics within the framework of the European Communities energy and environmental policies calling for the increased use of natural gas, reduced energy consumption, promotion of innovative renewable energy technologies, and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This analysis evidences that, while, at present, the increased use of natural gas is an economically and environmentally advantageous policy, as well as, being strategically sound (in view of Middle East political instability), fuel interchangeability, in particular, the option to use coal, is vital to ensure stability of the currently favourable natural gas prices and offer a locally available energy alternative to foreign supplied sources. Citing the advantages to industry offered by the use of flexible, efficient and clean gaseous fuels, with interchangeability, the paper then illustrates the cost and environmental benefits to be had through the use of high efficiency, low polluting integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants equipped to run on a variety of fuels. In the assessment of technological innovations in this sector, a review is made of some of the commercially most promising gasification processes, e.g., the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) slagging gasifier, the high-temperature Winkler (HTW) Rheinbraun, and the Krupp Koppers (PRENFLO) moving bed gasifier processes.

  13. Reports on 1977 result of research. Investigation for selecting site location of pilot plant for 7,000Nm{sup 3}/day class high calorie gasification; 1977 nendo sunshine keikaku ni kakawaru plant kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokoku. 7,000Nm{sup 3}/nichi kyu kokarori gas ka pilot plant yochi no ricchi sentei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-20

    A report was made on the result of investigation for selecting a suitable site for a coal gasification pilot plant. The high calorie gasification plant under the Sunshine Project is scheduled to have a parallel operation of two methods. It could be decided on one only method depending on the future studies. One is the 'water gasification method' using coal only as the raw material, with hydrogen gas added to contrive methanization. The other is the 'hybrid gasification method' using mixed slurry of powdered coal and heavy oil as the raw material, with oxygen supplied to it to form a clean gas. The sites proposed for the pilot plant are the cities of Yubari, Iwaki, Kita-Ibaraki, Tagawa, Iizuka and Imari. The items for assessment of cost effectiveness are the expenses of development of a site, road construction, removal of existing obstacles, plant construction, power receiving equipment construction, irrigation supply facilities construction, wastewater treatment system construction, ash discharging system construction, transportation, and supply/processing-related maintenance. As a result of the assessment, Iwaki city was picked up as the area almost free from drawbacks to cost effectiveness. (NEDO)

  14. Reports on 1977 result of research. Investigation for selecting site location of pilot plant for 7,000Nm{sup 3}/day class high calorie gasification; 1977 nendo sunshine keikaku ni kakawaru plant kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokoku. 7,000Nm{sup 3}/nichi kyu kokarori gas ka pilot plant yochi no ricchi sentei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-20

    A report was made on the result of investigation for selecting a suitable site for a coal gasification pilot plant. The high calorie gasification plant under the Sunshine Project is scheduled to have a parallel operation of two methods. It could be decided on one only method depending on the future studies. One is the 'water gasification method' using coal only as the raw material, with hydrogen gas added to contrive methanization. The other is the 'hybrid gasification method' using mixed slurry of powdered coal and heavy oil as the raw material, with oxygen supplied to it to form a clean gas. The sites proposed for the pilot plant are the cities of Yubari, Iwaki, Kita-Ibaraki, Tagawa, Iizuka and Imari. The items for assessment of cost effectiveness are the expenses of development of a site, road construction, removal of existing obstacles, plant construction, power receiving equipment construction, irrigation supply facilities construction, wastewater treatment system construction, ash discharging system construction, transportation, and supply/processing-related maintenance. As a result of the assessment, Iwaki city was picked up as the area almost free from drawbacks to cost effectiveness. (NEDO)

  15. Report for fiscal 1994 by Coal Gasification Committee; 1994 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Summarized in this report is the material already distributed concerning the program for modifying the Nakoso 200t/d pilot plant entrained bed coal gasification furnace. The program aims to verify the overall suitability for power generation use of the air-blow pressurized 2-chamber 2-stage flow entrained bed gasification furnace. Although each specific feature of gasification furnace performance is found to be satisfactory, yet a 100% operation and extended continuous operation remain to be accomplished. Slagging is a phenomenon of ash grains in high-temperature gas adhering to and growing on the furnace walls to block up the furnace to eventually disable the furnace from continuous operation. In view of past achievements and test results, it is found that slagging is closely related to the behavior of floating or molten ash and to the transition temperature range. Various slagging measures have been taken for the current gasification furnace, but they prove to be ineffective. Some drastic measures need to be implemented for improvement. Under study using model furnaces and test furnaces are the reduction of slag generation at its source (re-entrained slag), prevention of adhesion (untrapped slag), removal of slag, optimization of gyration in the furnace, modification of slag properties for enhanced discharge, optimization of the transition gas temperature range, and the modification of furnace dimensions. (NEDO)

  16. Effects of atmospheric gas composition and temperature on the gasification of coal in hot briquetting carbon composite iron ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueki, Y.; Kanayama, M.; Maeda, T.; Nishika, K.; Shimizu, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering

    2007-01-15

    The gasification behavior of carbon composite iron ore produced by hot briquetting process was examined under various gas atmospheres such as CO-N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}-N, and CO-CO{sub 2} at various temperatures. The gasification of coal was affected strongly by atmospheric gas concentration and reaction temperature. Kinetic analysis in various gas atmospheres was carried out by using the first order reaction model, which yields the straight line relation between reaction rate constants for the gasification of coal and the gas concentration. Therefore, reaction rate constants for the gasification of coal in CO-CO{sub 2}-N{sub 2} gas atmosphere were derived.

  17. Investigation of flow behaviour of coal particles in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H J; Sharma, V K; Kamudu, M Vidya; Prakash, S G; Krishanamoorthy, S; Anandam, G; Rao, P Seshubabu; Ramani, N V S; Singh, Gursharan; Sonde, R R

    2009-09-01

    Knowledge of residence time distribution (RTD), mean residence time (MRT) and degree of axial mixing of solid phase is required for efficient operation of coal gasification process. Radiotracer technique was used to measure the RTD of coal particles in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG). Two different radiotracers i.e. lanthanum-140 and gold-198 labeled coal particles (100 gm) were independently used as radiotracers. The radiotracer was instantaneously injected into the coal feed line and monitored at the ash extraction line at the bottom and gas outlet at the top of the gasifier using collimated scintillation detectors. The measured RTD data were treated and MRTs of coal/ash particles were determined. The treated data were simulated using tanks-in-series model. The simulation of RTD data indicated good degree of mixing with small fraction of the feed material bypassing/short-circuiting from the bottom of the gasifier. The results of the investigation were found useful for optimizing the design and operation of the FBG, and scale-up of the gasification process.

  18. Experimental study on steam gasification of coal using molten blast furnace slag as heat carrier for producing hydrogen-enriched syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Wenjun; Yu, Qingbo; Wu, Tianwei; Yang, Fan; Qin, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New method for producing HRG by gasification using BFS as heat carrier was proposed. • The continuous experiment of steam gasification in molten BFS was conducted. • The hydrogen-enriched syngas was produced by this method. • The molten BFS waste heat was utilized effectively by steam gasification. • This method could be widely used in steam gasification of different types of coal. - Abstract: The new method for producing hydrogen-enriched syngas (HRG) by steam gasification of coal using molten blast furnace slag (BFS) as heat carrier was established. In order to achieve the HRG production, a gasification system using this method was proposed and constructed. The carbon gasification efficiency (CE), hydrogen yield (YH_2) and cold gasification efficiency (CGE) in the molten slag reactor were measured, and the effects of temperature, S/C (steam to coal) ratio and coal type on the reaction performance were accessed. The results indicated that the preferred temperature was 1350 °C, which ensured the miscibility of coal–steam–slag, the diffusion of reactant in molten BFS as well as recovering waste heat. The optimal S/C ratio was 1.5–2.0 for producing HRG. Under these conditions, the hydrogen fraction was higher than 63% and the gas yield reached to 1.89 Nm"3/kg. The CE and CGE were higher than 96% and 102%, respectively. The YH_2 also reached to 1.20 Nm"3/kg. Meanwhile, different types of coal were successfully gasified in molten BFS reactor for producing HRG. The proposed method enhanced the gasification efficiency of different types of coal, recovered the BFS waste heat effectively, and had important guidance for industrial manufacture.

  19. Mathematical modeling of a fluidized bed gasifier for steam gasification of coal using high-temperature nuclear reactor heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubiak, H.; vanHeek, K.-H.; Juntgen, H.

    1986-01-01

    Coal gasification is a well-known technique and has already been developed and used since a long time. In the last few years, forced by the energy situation, new efforts have been made to improve known processes and to start new developments. Conventional gasification processes use coal not only as feedstock to be gasified but also for supply of energy for reaction heat, steam production, and other purposes. With a nuclear high temperature reactor (HTR) as a source for process heat, it is possible to transform the whole of the feed coal into gas. This concept offers advantages over existing gasification processes: saving of coal, as more gas can be produced from coal; less emission of pollutants, as the HTR is used for the production of steam and electricity instead of a coal-fired boiler; and lower production costs for the gas

  20. The evolution of gasification processes and reactors and the utilization of the coal gas. A proposition for the implementation of the gasification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasculete, E.; Iorgulescu, S.

    1996-01-01

    Thermochemical treatment of coal by gasification, considered as a non-polluting technology to turn the coal highly-profitably is one of the alternative ways to produce gas with a high effective caloric capacity. Due to its advantages, the gasification has made through the last few decades significant advances from the point of view of the process efficiency (chemical, thermal), of motor outputs (in m 3 producer gas / m 2 reactor cross section x hour), of the solutions of supplying energy to support the endothermic reactions implied by the process, and especially of the reactors. Reactors have been developed from gas generators. Starting from gas generators various advanced reactors (of 1 st to 3 rd generation) have been developed to produce air gas, water gas or mixed gas. Applications of the producer gas were developed using it either as fuel or as synthesis gas in chemical industry or else as a substitute to the natural gas in combined cycle gas turbines where the gasification plant was integrated. In Romania there are projects in the field of coal gasification, namely at ICPET-RESEARCH, that can offer advanced technologies. One of these projects deals with the construction of the first demonstrative gasification plant based on a highly efficient process and equipped with a 10 G cal/h reactor. (author). 1 tab., 12 refs

  1. Promoting effect of various biomass ashes on the steam gasification of low-rank coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizkiana, Jenny; Guan, Guoqing; Widayatno, Wahyu Bambang; Hao, Xiaogang; Li, Xiumin; Huang, Wei; Abudula, Abuliti

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomass ash was utilized to promote gasification of low rank coal. • Promoting effect of biomass ash highly depended on AAEM content in the ash. • Stability of the ash could be improved by maintaining AAEM amount in the ash. • Different biomass ash could have completely different catalytic activity. - Abstract: Application of biomass ash as a catalyst to improve gasification rate is a promising way for the effective utilization of waste ash as well as for the reduction of cost. Investigation on the catalytic activity of biomass ash to the gasification of low rank coal was performed in details in the present study. Ashes from 3 kinds of biomass, i.e. brown seaweed/BS, eel grass/EG, and rice straw/RS, were separately mixed with coal sample and gasified in a fixed bed downdraft reactor using steam as the gasifying agent. BS and EG ashes enhanced the gas production rate greater than RS ash. Higher catalytic activity of BS or EG ash was mainly attributed to the higher content of alkali and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) and lower content of silica in it. Higher content of silica in the RS ash was identified to have inhibiting effect for the steam gasification of coal. Stable catalytic activity was remained when the amount of AAEM in the regenerated ash was maintained as that of the original one

  2. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  3. Investigation on catalytic gasification of high-ash coal with mixing-gas in a small-scale fluidised bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.; Zhang, J.; Lin, J. [Fuzhou University, Fuzhou (China)

    2005-10-15

    The experimental study on the Yangquan high-ash coal catalytic gasification with mixing gas by using solid alkali or waste liquid of viscose fiber as the catalyst in a small-scale fluidized bed with 28 mm i.d. was carried out. The loading saturation levels of two catalysts in Yangquan high-ash coal are about 6%. Under the gasification temperature ranging from 830 to 900{sup o}C and from 900 to 920{sup o}C, the apparent reaction order of Yangquan high-ash coal with respect to the unreacted carbon fraction approximates to 2.3 and 1/3 for the non-catalyst case, respectively. Also, the different values of apparent reaction order in the two temperature ranges are presented for the case with 3% solid alkali catalyst loaded. At the low temperature ranging from 830 to 860{sup o}C, the apparent reaction order of catalytic gasification is 1 since enough active carbon sites on the coal surface are formed during the catalytic gasification by solid alkali. But at the high temperature ranging from 860 to 920{sup o}C, the sodium carbonate produced by the reaction of solid alkali with carbon dioxide can be easily fused, transferred and re-distributed, which affects the gasification reaction rate, and the apparent reaction order of catalytic gasification is reduced to 1.3. 10 refs., 9 figs., 4 tab s.

  4. An overview of the geological controls in underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Debadutta

    2017-07-01

    Coal’s reign will extend well into this millennium as the global demand for coal is expected to increase on average by 2-1% per year through 2019. Enhanced utilization of the domestic coal resource through clean coal technologies is necessary to meet the energy needs while achieving reduced emissions. Underground coal gasification (UCG) is one of such potential technologies. Geology of the area plays decisive role throughout the life of a UCG project and imperative for every phase of the project cycle starting from planning, site selection, design to cessation of operations and restoration of the site. Impermeable over/underlying strata with low porosity and less deformation are most suitable for UCG processes as they act as seal between the coal seam and the surrounding aquifers while limiting the degree of subsidence. Inrush of excess water into the gasification chamber reduces the efficacy of the process and may even quench the reactions in progress. Presence of fresh water aquifer in the vicinity of target coal seam should be abandoned in order to avoid groundwater contamination. UCG is not a proven technology that is still evolving and there are risks that need to be monitored and managed. Effective shutdown programme should intend at minimising the post-burn contaminant generation by flushing out potential organic and inorganic contaminants from the underground strata and treating contaminants, and to restore ground water quality to near baseline conditions.

  5. FY 1992 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Operation test of pilot plant (2/2); 1992 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant unten shiken hen (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    The study of operation test was made of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and the details of the FY 1992 results were summarized. As to the test of gas turbine facilities, at RUN 10, the scheduled test on coal gas mixed combustion continuous operation/coal gas fired operation was not carried out because of the worsening of the state of gasifier operation. The operation was just made for a short time. At RUN 11, it was confirmed that the motion of equipment in the bleeding system was good at the time of the bleeding cooperation test and there was no anomaly also in the state of gas turbine operation. At RUN 12, it was confirmed that the motion of load/pressure control functions was normal in the state of GT load of about 5MW. At RUN 13, it was confirmed that the control function of GT governor was confirmed in the total pressure control test. As a result of the operation test of these, items of improvement were extracted for actual pressure/actual size combustor facilities, safety environment facilities and electric/control facilities. The measures taken for each item were studied. (NEDO)

  6. Effect of ultrafine iron and mineral matter on conversion of nitrogen and carbon during pyrolysis and gasification of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, Y.; Furimsky, E. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Reaction Science

    1995-01-01

    A subbituminous coal was used to determine the distribution of N{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and HCN during slow rate heating pyrolysis in He and gasification in 10% CO{sub 2} + He balance. During pyrolysis, the N{sub 2} was the major product followed by NH{sub 3} and HCN. During gasification, the N{sub 2} yields were significantly enhanced and those of NH{sub 3} and HCN decreased. Partial demineralization of coal resulted in a decrease in carbon and nitrogen conversion. This effect was also evident by comparing the nitrogen and carbon conversions of chars prepared at 500{degree}C from the fresh and demineralized coals. The addition of ultrafine Fe to coal increased conversion of carbon and nitrogen to N{sub 2} during gasification but had little effect during pyrolysis. Thus, during the former more than 80% of the coal nitrogen was released as N{sub 2}. Also, in the presence of Fe the temperature of N{sub 2} release was decreased by about 100{degree}C both during pyrolysis and gasification. During gasification of chars prepared at 1000{degree}C, the conversion of the coal nitrogen to N{sub 2} was much lower than that of carbon. 16 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Joint European project on underground coal gasification in Spain; Proyecto europeo conjunto de gasificacion subterranea de carbon en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.M.; Obis, A.; Menendez, E.; Albeniz, M.A.; Chandelle, V.; Mostade, M.; Bailey, A.C. [ITGE, Madrid (Spain)

    1992-09-01

    Organizations from Spain, Belgium and the United Kingdom are collaborating in a field test of underground coal gasification which is being implemented in the north of Teruel Province (Spain). The test is first phase of a European development programme on in-situ coal gasification, being carried out with financial help from the Commission of the European Communities. This paper covers a forecast of the future energy demand for Europe, the potential of in-situ coal gasification, and a summary of the recent development of in-situ coal gasification. The circumstances which led to the formation of a European organisation (UEE) which will implement the project are described, and its objectives are presented. The geological characteristics of the proposed region are detailed, together with the test programme, and its successive phases in realising the principle parameters of the operations.

  8. A new model for coal gasification on pressurized bubbling fluidized bed gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Cristian; Arenas, Erika; Chejne, Farid; Londoño, Carlos A.; Cisneros, Sebastian; Quintana, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model was proposed for the simulation of fluidized bed reactors. • The model was validated against experimental data found in the literature. • The model was compared and found to be superior to other models reported in the literature. • Effects of pressure, temperature, steam/coal and air/coal ratios over gas composition were studied. - Abstract: Many industries have taken interest in the use of coal gasification for the production of chemicals and fuels. This gasification can be carried out inside a fluidized bed reactor. This non-ideal reactor is difficult to predict due to the complex physical phenomena and the different chemical changes that the feedstock undergoes. The lack of a good model to simulate the reactor’s behavior produces less efficient processes and plant designs. Various approaches to the proper simulation of such reactor have been proposed. In this paper, a new model is developed for the simulation of a pressurized bubbling fluidized bed (PBFB) gasifier that rigorously models the physical phenomena and the chemical changes of the feedstock inside the reactor. In the model, the reactor is divided into three sections; devolatilization, volatile reactions and combustion-gasification. The simulation is validated against experimental data reported in the literature and compared with other models proposed by different authors; once the model is validated, the dependence of the syngas composition on operational pressure, temperature, steam/coal and air/coal ratios are studied. The results of this article show how this model satisfactorily predicts the performance of PBFB gasifiers.

  9. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL(reg s ign) Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL(reg s ign) Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL(reg s ign) mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL(reg s ign) was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL(reg s ign) was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of$90,664,000. ENCOAL(reg s ign) operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC(trademark)) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF(trademark)) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL(trademark)). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall

  10. Release of inorganic trace elements from high-temperature gasification of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaesing, Marc

    2012-05-30

    The development of cleaner, more efficient techniques in next-generation coal power plants is becoming increasingly important, especially regarding to the discussion of the influence of CO{sub 2} emissions on global warming. A promising coal utilisation process is the integrated gasification combined cycle process. The direct use of the raw gas requires gas clean-up to prevent downstream parts of the gasifier from several problems. An increased efficiency and a decreased amount of harmful species can be achieved through hot fuel gas cleaning. This clean-up technique requires a comprehensive knowledge of the release characteristics of inorganic coal constituents. The aim of this thesis was to provide enhanced knowledge of the effect of key process parameters and of the chemical constitution of coal on the release of Na, K, S, and Cl species from high-temperature coal gasification. The experimental setup consisted of atmospheric flow tube furnaces and a pressurised furnace. In-situ analysis of the product gas was carried out using molecular beam mass spectrometry. A broad spectrum of different coals with assumed qualitative and quantitative differences in the release characteristics was investigated. Additionally, experiments with model substances were performed. The results of the experimental investigation were compared with thermodynamic calculations. Finally, recommendations, for the operation of a high-temperature gasifier are formulated. (orig.)

  11. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1993 on development of a jet flow bed gasification electric power plant. Investigative research on a technology to treat coals used for coal gasification (investigation for coal type selection); 1993 nendo funryusho gas ka hatsuden plant kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekitan gas kayotan no shori gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (tanshu sentei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1993 in the investigation for coal type selection. The investigation is purposed to elucidate the status of existence and resources of coals as the raw material for coal gasification and liquefaction, the coal quality features, and the gasification and liquefaction characteristics. The results will be used as the fundamental materials for technological development. Discussions will also be given on the coal applicability to the composite gasification power generation system in which liquefied residue generated in the process are mixed with the supplied coal. Coal quality analysis and a liquefaction test under the standard condition were completed on 389 test samples composed of 136 kinds of coals produced in Canada, Australia, the U.S.A., China and Indonesia. Coal types were enumerated according to the oil yield. A gasification test was performed on the specific gravity separated coals of Chinese coals to discuss the effect of change in the ash amount on the gasification characteristics. A partial coal combustion test revealed that fuel ratio, oxygen partial pressure, and oxygen molar fraction parameters affect the combustion characteristics. The micro-gravity field is effective in discussing the combustion characteristics of particulate groups of dust coal. A coal oxidizing test was performed, wherein oxidizing characteristics and spontaneous ignition performance were estimated successfully from temperature rise of heat stored in coal. The coal type matrix data were prepared. (NEDO)

  12. Co-gasification of pine and oak biochar with sub-bituminous coal in carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagle, E; Wang, Y; Bell, D; Belmont, E

    2018-03-01

    Pine and oak biochars derived as byproducts of demonstration-scale pyrolysis, and blends of these two feedstocks with Powder River Basin coal, were gasified in a carbon dioxide environment using a modified drop tube reactor (MDTR) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The impact of gasification temperature on conversion kinetics was evaluated from the temporal evolution of major product gases in the MDTR as measured using a mass spectrometer. Random pore modeling was conducted to simulate gasification in the MDTR with favorable results. The MDTR and TGA were used to conduct gasification for assessment of non-linear additive effects in the blends. Additive analysis of the blends showed deviation from the experimental blend results, indicating inhibiting effects of co-gasifying the biochar and coal. Inhibitory effects are more significant for oak than pine and more pronounced in the TGA at lower gasification temperatures. Results are discussed in the context of feedstock and reactor type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2

  14. The production of synthetic material gas (SNG) from pit coal by a combined auto-allothermic steam gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, A.

    1975-01-01

    The steam gasification of pit coal requires temperatures which cannot yet be reached with the present state of HTGR technology for material technical reasons. The use of nuclear heat thus remains limited to some fields of application outside the gasifier, which are specified. The production costs of synthetic natural gas from autothermal gasification on the one hand, and from combined auto-allothermal gasification on the other hand are calculated considering the heat price of pit coal and of the selling price of electrical energy and are compared. (GG/LH) [de

  15. Production of synthesis gas and methane via coal gasification utilizing nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Heek, K.H.; Juentgen, H.

    1982-01-01

    The steam gasificaton of coal requires a large amount of energy for endothermic gasification, as well as for production and heating of the steam and for electricity generation. In hydrogasification processes, heat is required primarily for the production of hydrogen and for preheating the reactants. Current developments in nuclear energy enable a gas cooled high temperature nuclear reactor (HTR) to be the energy source, the heat produced being withdrawn from the system by means of a helium loop. There is a prospect of converting coal, in optimal yield, into a commercial gas by employing the process heat from a gas-cooled HTR. The advantages of this process are: (1) conservation of coal reserves via more efficient gas production; (2) because of this coal conservation, there are lower emissions, especially of CO 2 , but also of dust, SO 2 , NO/sub x/, and other harmful substances; (3) process engineering advantages, such as omission of an oxygen plant and reduction in the number of gas scrubbers; (4) lower gas manufacturing costs compared to conventional processes. The main problems involved in using nuclear energy for the industrial gasification of coal are: (1) development of HTRs with helium outlet temperatures of at least 950 0 C; (2) heat transfer from the core of the reactor to the gas generator, methane reforming oven, or heater for the hydrogenation gas; (3) development of a suitable allothermal gas generator for the steam gasification; and (4) development of a helium-heated methane reforming oven and adaption of the hydrogasification process for operation in combination with the reactor. In summary, processes for gasifying coal that employ heat from an HTR have good economic and technical prospects of being realized in the future. However, time will be required for research and development before industrial application can take place. 23 figures, 4 tables. (DP)

  16. Modeling of Contaminant Migration through Porous Media after Underground Coal Gasification in Shallow Coal Seam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Karel; Hejtmánek, Vladimír; Čapek, P.; Stanczyk, K.; Šolcová, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 140, DEC (2015), s. 188-197 ISSN 0378-3820 Grant - others:RFCS(XE) RFCR-CT-2011-00002 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : underground coal gasification * transport phenomena modeling * transport parameters Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.847, year: 2015

  17. The future of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.; Termuehlen, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the future of integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants as affected by various technical, economical and environmental trends in power generation. The topics of the paper include a description of natural gas-fired combined cycle power plants, IGCC plants, coal gasifier concepts, integration of gasifiers into combined cycle power plants, efficiency, environmental impacts, co-products of IGCC power plants, economics of IGCC power plants, and a review of IGCC power plant projects

  18. Survey on the trend of coal liquefaction/gasification technologies, broken down by application; Sekitan no ekika gas ka no yotobetsu gijutsu no doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    To drive forward the development of the above-named technologies efficiently and effectively, it is necessary to clearly define what coal derived products will meet the need of the clientele and to develop coal derived products accordingly. This survey aims to disclose the whole pictures of the oil/gas using areas and enable the study and evaluation of the possibilities of using coal derived products as substitutes in every one of the expected applications. It also aims to clarify product characteristics, use conditions, technical tasks, and problems to accompany actual substitution in the applications where possibilities are high of their serving as substitutes. Chapter 1, explaining the trend of coal liquefaction/gasification technologies, describes projects for the development of coal liquefaction/gasification technologies, trend of the development of coal liquefaction/gasification technologies, and properties of coal liquefaction/gasification products. Chapter 2, explaining the trend of demand for energy for use in the respective applications, analyzes the trend of demands for oil products, gases, and methanol. Chapter 3 summarizes the applications of chemical materials and fuels for studying the use of coal liquefaction/gasification products as substitutes in the respective applications. Chapter 4 collects problems to solve for the enhancement of coal liquefaction/gasification projects. (NEDO)

  19. Global Development of Commercial Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Global development of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is considered here in light of latest trends of energy markets and environmental regulations in the countries that have been traditional proponents of UCG. The latest period of UCG development triggered by initial success of the Chinchilla UCG project (1997-2006) has been characterized by preponderance of privately and share-market funded developments. The deceleration of UCG commercialization has been in part caused by recent significant decrease of world oil, gas and coal prices. Another substantial factor was lack of necessary regulations governing extraction and conversion of coal by UCG method in the jurisdictions where the UCG projects were proposed and developed. Along with these objective causes there seem to have been more subjective and technical reasons for a slowdown or cancelation of several significant UCG projects, including low efficiency, poor environmental performance, and inability to demonstrate technology at a sufficient scale and/or at a competitive cost. Latest proposals for UCG projects are briefly reviewed.

  20. A Study on the Applicability of Kinetic Models for Shenfu Coal Char Gasification with CO2 at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsheng Gao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, measurements of the CO2 gasification kinetics for two types of Shenfu coal chars, which were respectively prepared by slow and rapid pyrolysis at temperatures of 950 °C and 1,400 °C, were performed by an isothermal thermo-gravimetric analysis under ambient pressure and elevated temperature conditions. Simultaneously, the applicability of the kinetic model for the CO2 gasification reaction of Shenfu coal chars was discussed. The results showed: (i the shrinking un-reacted core model was not appropriate to describe the gasification reaction process of Shenfu coal chars with CO2 in the whole experimental temperature range; (ii at the relatively low temperatures, the modified volumetric model was as good as the random pore model to simulate the CO2 gasification reaction of Shenfu coal chars, while at the elevated temperatures, the modified volumetric model was superior to the random pore model for this process; (iii the integral expression of the modified volumetric model was more favorable than the differential expression of that for fitting the experimental data. Moreover, by simply introducing a function: A = A★exp(ft, it was found that the extensive model of the modified volumetric model could make much better predictions than the modified volumetric model. It was recommended as a convenient empirical model for comprehensive simulation of Shenfu coal char gasification with under conditions close to those of entrained flow gasification.

  1. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part I: Influence of Coal Properties and Gasification Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the entrained-flow gasifiers used in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC plants, the majority of mineral matter transforms to liquid slag on the wall of the gasifier and flows out the bottom. However, a small fraction of the mineral matter is entrained (as fly ash with the raw syngas out of the gasifier to downstream processing. This molten/sticky fly ash could cause fouling of the syngas cooler. To improve gasification availability through better design and operation of the gasification process, a better understanding of slag behavior and the characteristics of the slagging process is needed. Char/ash properties, gas compositions in the gasifier, the gasifier wall structure, fluid dynamics, and plant operating conditions (mainly temperature and oxygen/carbon ratio all affect slagging behavior. Because coal has varying ash content and composition, different operating conditions are required to maintain the slag flow and limit problems downstream. In Part I, we review the main types and the operating conditions of entrained-flow gasifiers and coal properties used in IGCC plants; we identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior; finally, we summarize the coal quality criteria and the operating conditions in entrained-flow gasifiers. In Part II, we discuss the constitutive modeling related to the rheological studies of slag flow.

  2. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix G: Commercial design and technology evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A technology evaluation of five coal gasifier systems (Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Babcock and Wilcox, Lurgi and BGC/Lurgi) and procedures and criteria for evaluating competitive commercial coal gasification designs is presented. The technology evaluation is based upon the plant designs and cost estimates developed by the BDM-Mittelhauser team.

  3. Effect of coal rank and mineral matter on gasification reactivity of coal char treated at high temperature; Netsushorishita sekitan char no gas ka tokusei ni taisuru tanshu oyobi kobutsushitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, K.; Takei, H.; Harano, A.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In the wide range from brown coal to anthracite, an investigation was made of effects of heat treatment on physical/chemical properties and of coal rank dependence. For the experiment, 12 kinds of coal samples were used, and for heat treatment, the fluidized bed heated by the electric furnace and the infrared-ray gold image furnace were used. To examine characteristics of the heat-treated coal char, conducted were oxygen gasification, TPD measurement, XRD measurement, alkali metal measurement, and pore distribution measurement. The following were obtained from the experiment. The gasification reaction rate of the char heat-treated in the temperature range between 900{degree}C to 1700{degree}C decreases with a rise of the temperature of heat treatment, and the degree of decrease in the rate depends on coal rank. The order of gasification rate between coal ranks depends on the temperature of heat treatment, and the lower the heat treatment temperature is, the more largely the gasification rate is influenced by catalysis of mineral matters included in the coal. As causes of the decrease in gasification rate associated with the rise in temperature of heat treatment, indicated were release of alkali metal having catalysis and decrease of active sites by carbonaceous crystallinity. 6 figs.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of IT-SOFC-based integrated coal gasification fuel cell power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, M.C.; Campanari, S.; Spallina, V.; Lozza, G.

    2011-01-01

    This work discusses the thermodynamic analysis of integrated gasification fuel cell plants, where a simple cycle gas turbine works in a hybrid cycle with a pressurized intermediate temperature–solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), integrated with a coal gasification and syngas cleanup island and a bottoming

  5. Report on completion of R and D for fiscal 1980 on technology for high calorie gasification of coal; 1980 nendo sekitan kokarori gas ka gijutsu no kaihatsu kenkyu kanryo hokokuksho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-31

    The paper explains R and D of high calorie gasification technology in fiscal 1980. In the development of a fluidized bed 7,000Nm{sup 3}/day class pilot plant, the foundation work for equipment was completed in September. The installation work of the equipment was subsequently completed, with part of its trial run and adjustment implemented. In the pressure fluidized gasification of coal/heavy oil admixture, a simulator model was improved in the process studies, which showed that the gas composition distribution in the height direction of the gasification furnace was in agreement with the experiment but that the temperature distribution in the height direction was not. For the purpose of diversifying the raw materials, thermal cracking properties were examined on various heavy oils and coals. In the studies of making the equipment and devices, a partial modification was finished in September for the improvement of gasification efficiency and for the automation. In addition, the packing materials in the fluidized bed enhanced the gasification efficiency by 3%. The thermal cracking properties of raw materials and the melting point of ash contents and fluidity in coals became the points in the diversification of the raw materials. With the purpose of obtaining basic data for establishing the automatic operation technology, a test was carried out for the automatic control of in-furnace temperature. In the research on the plant materials, investigation was conducted on the domestic and international literatures including primarily those of the U.S.. Examination was also made on hydro-gasification conditions with the aim of obtaining hydrogen for hydrogenation. (NEDO)

  6. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  7. Naive forecasting: the fiasco of coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peirce, W S

    1985-01-01

    The decision by the U.S. government to subsidize the development of coal gasification was based on a naive forecast that neglected the influence of price on both conventional sources of supply and consumer demand. Even before substantial construction costs were incurred on the Great Plains plant, a surplus of natural gas has developed. The political process, however, did not include the sort of critical review that often accompanies the financing decision in the private sector and that would surely have prevented this error. 17 references.

  8. CFD simulation of coal gasification in an entrained-flow gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sreedharan, V.; Hjertager, B.H.; Solberg, T.

    2010-01-01

    in reliability, emission control, efficiency, and feedstock flexibility. The feedstock used for a gasification system can be coal, petroleum coke, biomass, heavy oil, or even natural gas. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2010 AIChE Annual Meeting (Salt Lake City, UT 11/7-12/2010)....

  9. The exergy underground coal gasification technology for power generation and chemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinderman, M.S. [Ergo Exergy Technologies Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a gasification process carried out in non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells drilled from the surface, converting coal in situ into a product gas usable for chemical processes and power generation. The UCG process developed, refined and practised by Ergo Exergy Technologies is called the Exergy UCG Technology or {epsilon}UCG{trademark} technology. This paper describes the technology and its applications. The {epsilon}UCG technology is being applied in numerous power generation and chemical projects worldwide, some of which are described. These include power projects in South Africa, India, Pakistan and Canada, as well as chemical projects in Australia and Canada. A number of {epsilon}UCG{trademark} based industrial projects are now at a feasibility usage in India, New Zealand, USA and Europe. An {epsilon}UCG{trademark} IGCC power plant will generate electricity at a much lower cost than existing fossil fuel power plants. CO{sub 2} emissions of the plant can be reduced to a level 55% less than those of a supercritical coal-fired plant and 25% less than the emissions of NG CC. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  10. CO2 Capture and Storage in Coal Gasification Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anand B.; Phadke, Pranav C.

    2017-07-01

    concerns about climate change problem. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is being considered as a promising carbon mitigation technology, especially for large point sources such as coal power plants. Gasification of coal helps in better utilization of this resource offering multiple advantages such as pollution prevention, product flexibility (syngas and hydrogen) and higher efficiency (combined cycle). It also enables the capture of CO2 prior to the combustion, from the fuel gas mixture, at relatively lesser cost as compared to the post-combustion CO2 capture. CCS in gasification projects is considered as a promising technology for cost-effective carbon mitigation. Although many projects (power and non-power) have been announced internationally, very few large-scale projects have actually come up. This paper looks at the various aspects of CCS applications in gasification projects, including the technical feasibility and economic viability and discusses an Indian perspective. Impacts of including CCS in gasification projects (e.g. IGCC plants) have been assessed using a simulation tool. Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) - a modelling framework to simulate power plants - has been used to estimate the implications of adding CCS units in IGCC plants, on their performance and costs.

  11. An evaluation of Substitute natural gas production from different coal gasification processes based on modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karellas, S.; Panopoulos, K.D.; Panousis, G.; Rigas, A.; Karl, J.; Kakaras, E.

    2012-01-01

    Coal and lignite will play a significant role in the future energy production. However, the technical options for the reduction of CO 2 emissions will define the extent of their share in the future energy mix. The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG) from solid fossil fuels seems to be a very attractive process: coal and lignite can be upgraded into a methane rich gas which can be transported and further used in high efficient power systems coupled with CO 2 sequestration technologies. The aim of this paper is to present a modeling analysis comparison between substitute natural gas production from coal by means of allothermal steam gasification and autothermal oxygen gasification. In order to produce SNG from syngas several unit operations are required such as syngas cooling, cleaning, potential compression and, of course, methanation reactors. Finally the gas which is produced has to be conditioned i.e. removal of unwanted species, such as CO 2 etc. The heat recovered from the overall process is utilized by a steam cycle, producing power. These processes were modeled with the computer software IPSEpro™. An energetic and exergetic analysis of the coal to SNG processes have been realized and compared. -- Highlights: ► The production of SNG from coal is examined. ► The components of the process were simulated for integrated autothermal or allothermal coal gasification to SNG. ► The energetic and exergetic evaluation of the two processes is presented.

  12. EVALUATION OF BIOMASS AND COAL CO-GASIFICATION OF BRAZILIAN FEEDSTOCK USING A CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Coal and biomass are energy sources with great potential for use in Brazil. Coal-biomass co-gasification enables the combination of the positive characteristics of each fuel, besides leading to a cleaner use of coal. The present study evaluates the potential of co-gasification of binary coal-biomass blends using sources widely available in Brazil. This analysis employs computational simulations using a reliable thermodynamic equilibrium model. Favorable operational conditions at high temperatures are determined in order to obtain gaseous products suitable for energy cogeneration and chemical synthesis. This study shows that blends with biomass ratios of 5% and equivalence ratios ≤ 0.3 lead to high cold gas efficiencies. Suitable gaseous products for chemical synthesis were identified at biomass ratios ≤ 35% and moisture contents ≥ 40%. Formation of undesirable nitrogen and sulfur compounds was also analyzed.

  13. Underground coal gasification: An overview of groundwater contamination hazards and mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Joshua A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-13

    Underground coal gasification is the in situ conversion of coal into an energy-rich product gas. It takes place deep underground, using chemical reactions to consume the coal and grow a cavity. Gas wells, drilled into the coal seam, inject reactant air, oxygen, and/or steam to sustain the reactions. Production wells then extract the product gas. Careful analysis and understanding of likely failure modes will help prevent and minimize impacts. This document provides a general description of the relevant processes, potential failure modes, and practical mitigation strategies. It can guide critical review of project design and operations.

  14. Behaviour of gaseous alkali compounds in coal gasification; Kaasumaisten alkaliyhdisteiden kaeyttaeytyminen kivihiilien kaasutuksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nykaenen, J [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In this project the behaviour of alkali compounds emitting from CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}- and airblown gasification are studied. This research project is closely connected to an EU-project coordinated by the Delft University of Technology (DUT). In that project alkali emissions from a 1.6 MW pilot plant will be measured. The results from those measurements will be compared with the calculations performed in this LIEKKI 2 project. The equilibrium calculations show that the major gaseous alkali compounds emitting from combustion and gasification are chlorides and hydroxides. This applies both to air- and CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}-blown processes. In all the cases studied the concentration of gaseous alkali compounds is determined mainly by the amount of chlorides. The key parameters, with respect to alkali behaviour, are the temperature of the process and chlorine content of the coal. By cooling the gases down to 600 deg C prior to a ceramic filter the alkali concentration can be kept about at 100 ppbv. In combustion, the addition of calcium carbonate increases the amount of gaseous alkali compounds by decreasing the amount of alkali sulphates. In the case of gasification the importance of limestone is negligible. The difference between air- and CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}-blown processes, in terms of gaseous alkali emissions, is small. This is because CO{sub 2} concentration of the gas does not have a strong impact on alkali chlorides. Furthermore, the effect of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}-ratio of the recirculation process is negligible. (orig.)

  15. Underground gasification of coal. [Newman Spinney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1950-06-16

    This article gives an account of the experimental work on underground gasification at Newman Spinney near Sheffield, England. An attempt was made to develop the percolation technique in flat coal seams but to demonstrate first that gas can be made underground. A borehole system was created on an opencast site where an exposed seam face would allow horizontal drilling to be carried out. Details of trails are given, and drilling techniques, electromagnetic device developed by the Great Britain Post Office Research Branch and radioactive location developed by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. An account is given of the inauguration of a series of experiments on May 22, 1950.

  16. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project. Technology assessment on coal gasification and liquefaction; 1975 nendo sekitan no gas ka ekika gijutsu no technology assessment seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-31

    This research was intended to find the desirable direction of technological development, by discussing the effects of coal gasification/liquefaction technologies from every angle, for the purpose coping with the social demand for steadily and continuously obtaining clean energy. This year, the examination was conducted not only on the energy conversion technologies of coal gasification/liquefaction, but also on the impact generating from the entire supply system of coal energy from coal mine development to mining, transportation, storage and conversion to secondary energy. For this purpose, while the outline was grasped of coal resources in the world as well as each technology for the mining, transportation, storage, electric power generation by gasification, and high calorie gasification, a case study was made on the assumption that electric power generation and high calorie gasification were conducted by importing 1,000 tons of coal from overseas, extracting the impact on the basis of this case study. In addition, examination was made on the position of coal energy in the energy supply of the future, with an impact investigated on condition that about 300 million tons were imported equivalent to roughly 16% of energy supply in the year 2000 or about. (NEDO)

  17. Proceedings of second annual underground coal gasification symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuck, L Z [ed.

    1976-01-01

    The Second Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Research Center of the US Energy Research and Development Administration and held at Morgantown, WV, August 10-12, 1976. Fifty papers of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. While the majority of the contribution involved ERDA's own work in this area, there were several papers from universities, state organizations, (industrial, engineering or utility companies) and a few from foreign countries. (LTN)

  18. Explanative report on the achievements in research and development of a coal gasification technology in fiscal 1981. Research and development of a low-calorie gasification power generation technology; 1981 nendo sekitan gas ka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika setsumeisho. Teikarori gas ka hatsuden gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the development works on a low-calorie gasification power generation technology in research and development of a coal gasification technology in fiscal 1981. The third sub-committee was established in the Coal Gasification Committee, and the sub-committee has summarized a survey report on coal gasification composite power generation upon having held seven discussion meetings. Surveys were carried out on the fluidized bed gasification process and the coal gasification composite power generation systems mainly in Germany and the U.S.A. where development of coal gasification technologies has been advanced. Germany and Britain who use great amount of coal are urged to find ways for how to clear the environmental criteria applied in the EC countries. The U.S.A. is moving forward the development of coal gasification technologies for power generation, chemical materials, and industrial fuel to be used as the substitutes to petroleum. This paper describes the development works at the Electric Power Development Company to realize a coal gasification composite power generation system of 1,000 t/d class. The pressurized fluidized bed system is assumed, and a verification test is scheduled to be performed on the chemical reaction characteristics by using a 40-t/d furnace. The furnace shape will be decided upon executing high-pressure cold model experiments. Fiscal 1981 has fabricated and installed devices for the high-pressure coal feeding system. Operation tests, air tightness tests, and instrumentation tests have verified normal operation. (NEDO)

  19. The behaviour of gaseous alkali compounds in coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykaenen, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this project the behaviour of alkali compounds emitting from CO 2 /O 2 -and air gasification will be studied by using an equilibrium model developed at the Aabo Akademi. This research project is closely connected to the EU-project coordinated by the Delft University of Technology (DUT). In that project alkali emissions from a 1.6 MW pilot plant are measured. The results from those measurements will be compared with the calculations performed in this LIEKKI 2 -project. Furthermore, in the project carried out at DUT the behaviour of a honeycomb-structured filter under CO 2 /O 2 -gasification environment is going to be studied. (author)

  20. Gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J; Jong, W de; Hein, K R.G. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    During a 3 year (1996-1998) multinational JOULE project, partly funded by the EU, experimental and theoretical research is being done on co-gasification of biomass (pelletised straw and Miscanthus) and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed reactor. The influence of feedstock and operating conditions on gasification characteristics has been studied using a 1.5 MW{sub th} gasifier, which has been operated at a pressure of 5 bar and temperatures up to 900 C. The project and the test rig are described and results obtained in the first part of the project are presented and analysed. (orig.)

  1. Co-gasification of bituminous coal and hydrochar derived from municipal solid waste: Reactivity and synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Guo, Qinghua; He, Qing; Ding, Lu; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the influences of gasification temperature and blended ratio on co-gasification reactivity and synergy of Shenfu bituminous coal (SF) and municipal solid waste-derived hydrochar (HTC) were investigated using TGA. Additionally, active alkaline and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) transformation during co-gasification was quantitatively analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer for correlating synergy on co-gasification reactivity. The results showed that higher char gasification reactivity existed at higher HTC char proportion and gasification temperature, and the main synergy behaviour on co-gasification reactivity was performed as synergistic effect. Enhanced synergistic effect at lower temperature was mainly resulted from more obviously inhibiting the primary AAEM (i.e. active Ca) transformation, and weak synergistic effect still existed at higher temperature since more active K with prominent catalysis was retained. Furthermore, more active HTC-derived AAEM remaining in SF sample during co-gasification would lead to enhanced synergistic effect as HTC char proportion increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in investigations and studies on treatment technologies for coals used in coal gasification. A report on coal type investigation; Sekitan gas ka yotan no shori gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu. Tanshu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the investigation on coal types for coal gasification in the Sunshine Project. With regard to the status of existence, production and dressing of coals as the material for coal gasification and liquefaction, summarized site investigations and sampling were performed on underground mining coal mines being operated in Japan. Test sample coals are put into a data file as the important fundamental data for gasification and liquefaction characteristics tests at the Japan Coal Energy Center. The sampling investigation is planned to start in fiscal 1988. The coal mines having been investigated to date include: Taiheiyo Coal Mine (Kushiro), Mitsui Coal Mining Industry (Miike), Matsushima Coal Mine (Ikejima), Mitsubishi Coal Mining Industry (Minami O-Yubari), Sumitomo Coal Akabira Coal Mine (Akabira), Mitsui Coal Mining Industry (Ashibetsu), and Sorachi Coal Mine (Sorachi). Coal beds subjected to the sampling were selected upon carefully discussing with the site engineers on the current status of the coal mine, and the coal beds that could be operated in the future. The sampling method was such that the whole coal bed from the upper bed to the lower bed at the facing was sampled and put into vinyl sampling bags each at about 2 kg as the target. (NEDO)

  3. Compartment modeling of coal gasification in an entrained flow gasifier: A study on the influence of operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Xiangdong; Zhong, Weimin; Du, Wenli; Qian, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gasification of Shenfu coal in an industrial Texaco gasifier for syngas production. • An equivalent compartment model is developed using Aspen Plus. • Effects of operating parameters on gasification performance indices are studied. • Choosing a reasonable ROC to enhance the gasification efficiency can be flexible. - Abstract: Coal gasifiers are core components of coal-based polygeneration systems for power and chemical production. To study the effects of operational parameters on the performance of entrained flow coal gasifiers, this paper presents an equivalent compartment model (CM) using the Aspen Plus process simulator. The CM blocking is established based on gasifier flow field analysis, using a number of compartments. A simple configuration of these compartments involving material recirculation should be able to simulate the main flow and provide the temperature and gas component distributions. The model predictions exhibit good agreement with industrial data in the model validation. The influences of the oxygen-to-carbon ratio (ROC) and the coal slurry concentration on the gasification performance are discussed. Within the calculation range, the increase in the coal slurry concentration enhances the yield of the effective compositions in product gas. For a given slurry concentration of 62%, the efficient gas yield is a maximum for ROC of 1.43 kg/kg, whereas the oxygen consumption is a minimum for ROC of 1.37 kg/kg. According to the intended final use, however, choosing a reasonable ROC to obtain a higher efficient syngas yield and lower oxygen consumption can be flexible

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on Sunshine Program. Basic research on coal type and gasification characteristics; 1984 nendo tanshu to gas ka tokusei no kiso kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    The study of pressurized fluidized gasification of coal chars started in fiscal 1975, and a 0.2t/d unit was in operation until fiscal 1979. Since fiscal 1980, a 1t/d unit has been in operation. In fiscal 1984, an entrained bed gasification furnace was constructed, capable of high-temperature gasification of various coals, and it is now undergoing a test operation. This report consists of pressurized gasification tests for coal char, the result of a study on the effect of coal type on the char gasification reaction rate, and the result of experiments on the treatment of coal liquefaction residue, all accomplished in the 1t/d gasification unit. For the investigation of the effect of coal type, chars of 13 types of coals are subjected to reaction tests in the carbon dioxide gas, and weight reduction rates and changes in residue surface areas are determined while reaction is under way. The results are analyzed and parameters are made clear that enable a quantitative assessment of the effect of coal type on gasification reaction rates. Pulverized grains and coal liquefaction residue are blended and gasified in the fluidized bed in the presence of oxygen and steam. As the result, a gas capable of 2,000kcal/Nm{sup 3} containing 30% hydrogen and 25% carbon monoxide is acquired, when catalyst grains in the residue are segregated. (NEDO)

  5. Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-02-05

    Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems.

  6. Chemical-Looping Combustion and Gasification of Coals and Oxygen Carrier Development: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical-looping technology is one of the promising CO2 capture technologies. It generates a CO2 enriched flue gas, which will greatly benefit CO2 capture, utilization or sequestration. Both chemical-looping combustion (CLC and chemical-looping gasification (CLG have the potential to be used to generate power, chemicals, and liquid fuels. Chemical-looping is an oxygen transporting process using oxygen carriers. Recently, attention has focused on solid fuels such as coal. Coal chemical-looping reactions are more complicated than gaseous fuels due to coal properties (like mineral matter and the complex reaction pathways involving solid fuels. The mineral matter/ash and sulfur in coal may affect the activity of oxygen carriers. Oxygen carriers are the key issue in chemical-looping processes. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA has been widely used for the development of oxygen carriers (e.g., oxide reactivity. Two proposed processes for the CLC of solid fuels are in-situ Gasification Chemical-Looping Combustion (iG-CLC and Chemical-Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU. The objectives of this review are to discuss various chemical-looping processes with coal, summarize TGA applications in oxygen carrier development, and outline the major challenges associated with coal chemical-looping in iG-CLC and CLOU.

  7. Gas generation by co-gasification of biomass and coal in an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Qun; Chen, Zhao-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, thermochemical biomass and coal co-gasification were performed on an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier, with air and steam as oxidizing and gasifying media. The experiments were completed at reaction temperatures of 875 °C–975 °C, steam-to-biomass ratio of 1.2, and biomass-to-coal ratio of 4. This research aims to determine the effects of reaction temperature on gas composition, lower heating value (LHV), as well as energy and exergy efficiencies, of the product gas. Over the ranges of the test conditions used, the product gas LHV varies between 12 and 13.8 MJ/Nm 3 , and the exergy and energy efficiencies of the product gas are in the ranges of 50.7%–60.8% and 60.3%–85.1%, respectively. The results show that high reaction temperature leads to higher H 2 and CO contents, as well as higher exergy and energy efficiencies of the product gas. In addition, gas LHV decreases with temperature. The molar ratio of H 2 /CO is larger than 1 at temperatures above 925 °C. Our experimental analysis shows that co-gasification of biomass and coal in an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier for gas production is feasible and promising. -- Highlights: • An innovative steam co-gasification process for gas production was proposed. • Co-gasification of biomass and coal in an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier was tested. • High temperature favors H 2 production. • H 2 and CO contents increase, whereas CO 2 and CH 4 levels decrease with increase in T. • Exergy and energy efficiencies of gases increase with increase in T

  8. Green power production by co-gasification of biomass in coal-fired oxygen-blown entrained-flow based IGCC processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ree, R; Korbee, R; De Smidt, R P; Jansen, D [ECN Fuels Conversion and Environment, Petten (Netherlands); Baumann, H R; Ullrich, N [Krupp Uhde, Dortmund (Germany); Haupt, G; Zimmerman, [Siemens, Erlangen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The use of coal for large scale power production meets a growing environmental concern. In spite of the fact that clean coal conversion technologies integrated with high-efficiency power production facilities, such as IGCC, are developed, the aim for sustainable development strives for a power production system based on renewable energy sources. One of the most promising renewable energy sources that can be used in the Netherlands is biomass, i.e. organic waste materials and/or energy crops. To accelerate the introduction of this material, in a technical and economically acceptable way, co-gasification with fossil fuels, in particular coal, in large scale IGCC processes is considered. In this paper the technical feasibility, economic profitability, and environmental acceptability of co-gasification of biomass in coal-fired oxygen-blown entrained-flow based IGM is discussed. Both a base-case coal-fired oxygen-blown entrained-flow based IGCC process - showing strong resemblance to the Puertollano IGCC plant in Spain - and three co-gasification concepts, viz.: (1) a concept with separate dry coal and biomass feeding systems, (2) a concept with a combined dry coal/biomass-derived pyrolysis char feeding system, and (3) a concept with parallel biomass pre-treatment/gasification and combined fuel gas clean-up/power production, were defined for further consideration. The base-case system and the co-gasification concepts as well are modelled in the flowsheet simulation package ASPEN{sup +}. Steady-state integral system calculations resulted in an overall net electrical plant efficiency for the base-case system of 50. 1 %LHV (48.3 %HHV). Replacing about 10 % of the total thermal plant input (coal) by biomass (willow) resulted in a decrease of the overall net electrical plant efficiency of 1.4 to 2.1 %-points LHV, avoided specific CO2 emissions of 40-49 g/kWh{sub e}, and total avoided CO2 emissions of about 129 to 159 kt/a, all depending on the co-gasification concept

  9. Ion-exchanged calcium from calcium carbonate and low-rank coals: high catalytic activity in steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, Y.; Asami, K. [Tokoku University, Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-03-01

    Interactions between CaCO{sub 3} and low-rank coals were examined, and the steam gasification of the resulting Ca-loaded coals was carried out at 973 K with a thermobalance. Chemical analysis and FT-IR spectra show that CaCO{sub 3} can react readily with COOH groups to form ion-exchanged Ca and CO{sub 2} when mixed with brown coal in water at room temperature. The extent of the exchange is dependent on the crystalline form of CaCO{sub 3}, and higher for aragonite naturally present in seashells and coral reef than for calcite from limestone. The FT-IR spectra reveal that ion-exchange reactions also proceed during kneading CaCO{sub 3} with low-rank coals. The exchanged Ca promotes gasification and achieves 40-60 fold rate enhancement for brown coal with a lower content of inherent minerals. Catalyst effectiveness of kneaded CaCO{sub 3} depends on the coal type, in other words, the extent of ion exchange. 11 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Distribution of volatile sulphur containing products during fixed bed pyrolysis and gasification of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1991-08-01

    Various coals were used to study the evolution of H{sub 2}S COS, and SO{sub 2} in a fixed bed reactor. For all types of coal, most of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} were released during the devolatilization stage. COS was formed only during the gasification stage in the presence of CO{sub 2}.

  11. Survey report for fiscal 1981 of 3rd subcommittee of Coal Gasification Committee; 1981 nendo sekitan gasu ka iinkai dai 3 bukai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Survey and research are conducted to grasp the current status of the development of the coal gasification combined power cycle generation technology, in which the coal gasification technology and the combined power cycle generation technology are combined, and to clarify the relevant tasks to be discharged. The latest information on the coal gas direct combustion system and fuel cell system is also compiled into this report. Although coal is abundant all the world over, yet Japan has to import it. It is afraid that the coal to be imported will be diverse in property and that the use will increase of coal inferior in quality with much ash and moisture. As for gasification furnaces, efforts of development are concentrated on the fluidized bed type and entrained bed type, both of which will have to deal with various kinds of coal, to be large in capacity, high in gasification efficiency, and excellent in serviceability. As for cleaning-up systems, the dry type is advantageous in terms of thermal efficiency, but it needs to be verified for refining capacity and serviceability. When it comes to gas turbines, efforts need to be started at an early date for developing a high-temperature/high-pressure gas turbine which is fueled with coal gas. Since the development of an integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation plant demands enormous amounts of funds, a check-and-review process is indispensable for each development stage. (NEDO)

  12. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant (Fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures - 1/2); 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen (Seisaku suetsukezu oyobi seisaku suetsuke shashin) (1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the fabrication, installation work, etc. were conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and drawings of fabrication/installation in the FY 1989 were summarized. In fabrication/installation drawings, drawings of the following were included: layout of the total system and the yard, gasifier facilities (assembly drawing of the pressure part of gasifier, drawing of machinery arrangement of gasifier facilities, system diagram of raw coal receiving device, system diagram of pulverized coal feed equipment, system diagram of char feed equipment, etc.), gas refining facilities - dry desulfurizer (assembly drawing of desulfurizing agent carrying filter, assembly drawing of regeneration tower filter, structural drawing of SO{sub 2} reduction tower filter, assembly drawing of start-up heater, etc.), gas refining facilities - dry dust removal system (assembly drawing of No.1 dust separation filter, installation drawing of elevator, etc.), gas turbine facilities (cross section of gas turbine, front view of gas turbine, structural cross section of gas turbogenerator, etc.), actual-pressure/actual-size combustor test equipment (structural drawing of test stand, structural drawing of exhaust temperature reduction device, assembly/sectioned drawing of low-pressure air compressor, etc.) (NEDO)

  13. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Adjustment of the operation test of pilot plant (2/2); 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant unten shiken chosei hen (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    The adjustment was made of the operation test of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and the results were reported. As to the adjustment of the operation test of gas turbine facilities, the following were conducted: tests 1 and 2 on light-oil firing characteristics, test on coal gas ignition, tests on fuel change/gas firing, test on fuel change. And, 12 cases of troubles, the causes and measures against them were reported. Relating to the adjustment of the operation test of actual pressure/actual size combustor testing facilities, tests on hot air device/air heating device and tests 1-3 on light-oil firing were carried out, and 7 cases of troubles, the causes and measures against them were reported. Concerning the adjustment of the operation test of safety environment facilities, tests were made of RUN 3-6, RUN 7 (1 and 2), RUN 8 (1-4) and RUN 9 (1-3), and 20 cases of troubles, the causes and measures against them were reported. As to the adjustment of the operation test of electric/control facilities, items of improvement were reported of gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities, gas turbine facilities, actual pressure/actual size combustor testing facilities, safety environment facilities and total control facilities. (NEDO)

  14. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Support study for the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Summarization of the operation study); 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu (Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu no shien kenkyu) - Sono 2. Unten kenkyu sokatsu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-01

    The paper summarized the results of the following tests on a 40 t/d pilot plant which were conducted as the support study for the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant: dry desulfurization test, dry dedusting test, high-temperature NOx gas combustion test (gas turbine element test). In the dry desulfurization test, tested were the operational automation and monitoring technology, performance of desulfurization, characteristics of load response, sulfur recovery, etc. In the dry dedusting test, tested were the filter medium/dust separation, powder level meter, continuous dust densitometer, operational automation, characteristics of partial load/load response, improvement of filtration materials, test on characteristics of air conveyance, etc. In the high-temperature low-NOx gas combustion test (gas turbine element test), the following were conducted: examination of the test method of gas turbine materials, inspection/examination of the corrosion of gas turbine combustion test device, inspection/examination of the internal corrosion of the stationary blade for gas turbine deposit test, inspection/examination of gasification system. The results of these support studies were reflected one after another in the project on the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. (NEDO)

  15. New life for the chemical industry: the significance of coal gasification. [Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Y

    1985-01-01

    The current status of the cement, petrochemical and chemical divisions of Ube Industries, Ltd. is outlined. Accounts are given of the outlook for the petrochemical division and how it is coping with the present situation; of how the application of new coal gasification technology and the resulting maintenance of the competitive power of the company's ammonia on international markets has revived the chemical division; and of how the industrial gases division is benefiting from a 20% cut in gasification costs, obtained using the new gasification process. Other topics mentioned include the increasing specialization of the chemical division; the accelerated pace of development resulting from joint efforts by industry, government and the universities; the eradication of the adverse effects of a hierarchical organizational structure; and pioneering technology development where the emphasis is not on self-completion.

  16. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  17. Underground gasification in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-11-21

    A paper in Pravda by the Deputy Chief Engineer of the Underground Gasification Department indicates that there are at least three or four pilot plants in operation; one plant near Moscow has operated for 14 years and one in the Donbas for 8 years. The first plant has a daily output of gas corresponding to 400 tons of coal a day and produces a gas of low calorific value. A plant opened in 1956 in the Kuzbas to produce gas of a higher quality. A plant, being built near Moscow in conjunction with a gas turbine electrical power station, will produce gas equivalent in heating value to 220,000 tons of coal a year. A larger plant, being built at Angren in central Asia, will produce gas equivalent in heating value to 700,000 tons of coal a year.

  18. Trends in coal gasification technology development in the U.S.A. (Volume 2); Beikoku ni okeru sekitan gas ka gijutsu kaihatsu no doko. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    Studies were carried out subsequently from fiscal 1986 on trends in coal gasification technology development in the U.S.A., as a voluntary study of the Coal Utilizing Hydrogen Manufacturing Technology Research Association. In the U.S.A., the governmental organizations and private sectors are working in a body on developing coal technologies. The present survey has seen activities at the Morgan Town Energy Technology Center (METC) being a national research organization, the Institute of Gas Technology Research (IGT) having a long history, and the Great Plains project, a commercialization project. The great accumulation of technologies as the advanced research nation is impressive. In the present study, site surveys were carried out in the U.S.A. in October last year in addition to the surveys made from the aspects of literatures available inside and outside Japan. Section 1 describes the development of the policies of the METC for comprehensive coal gasification research and development, and the development of advanced gasification technologies. Section 2 describes research activities of IGT covering a wide range, the U-Gas process, a plan for the commercial coal gasification plant using Utah coal, and the high-pressure agglomeration (U-gas process). Section 3 describes the summary of the Great Plains coal gasification project and the way to the commercialization thereof. (NEDO)

  19. Meditation on the construction of exemplar plant for briquetted coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Kuiyi [China National Coal Industry Import and Export Corporation, Beijing (China)

    1997-12-31

    China uses a considerable amount of anthracite, but the fines from anthracite mining are not sufficiently used. This project involved the construction of a plant for the manufacture of anthracite briquettes under high pressure, for use in gasification plants. The characteristics of the coals used and the types of briquette formed are described. 2 tabs.

  20. The role of the MHTGR in coal gasification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.

    1988-01-01

    The nation will likely become more and more dependent on natural gas and while this will stimulate new exploration and increased production, the time will surely come when global depletion of this resource will require the use of synthetic natural gas (SNG) to support the established nationwide infrastructure. The U.S. is estimated to have coal reserves nearing 500 billion tons that are mineable on an economic base. The Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) steam cycle plant can play an important role in the process of producing SNG from coal to supplement natural gas supplies. Coal-to-gas plants need heat (predominantly steam) and electricity for operation. This energy can be supplied by combustion of coal (autothermal process), but this results in a loss of more than 40% of the coal energy input. From the resource conservation standpoint, using an MHTGR heat source is attractive since much of the valuable fossil raw material can be substituted by clean nuclear energy. Also, air pollution is lowered drastically. This paper highlights how a near-term steam cycle MHTGR plant, based on proven technology and operating in a cogeneration mode, could be coupled with existing coal gasification processes to meet the projected increase in gas consumption in an environmentally acceptable manner

  1. Gasification with nuclear reactor heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrodt, I.A.

    1977-01-01

    The energy-political ultimate aims for the introduction of nuclear coal gasification and the present state of technology concerning the HTR reactor, concerning gasification and heat exchanging components are outlined. Presented on the plans a) for hydro-gasification of lignite and for steam gasification of pit coal for the production of synthetic natural gas, and b) for the introduction of a nuclear heat system. The safety and environmental problems to be expected are portrayed. The main points of development, the planned prototype plant and the schedule of the project Pototype plant Nuclear Process heat (PNP) are specified. In a market and economic viability study of nuclear coal gasification, the application potential of SNG, the possible construction programme for the FRG, as well as costs and rentability of SNG production are estimated. (GG) [de

  2. Investigation of combustion and gasification mechanically activated coal fuel of various degrees of metamorphism on the 5-MW heat setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butakov Evgenii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of mechanochemical activation of combustion and gasification of coals is of unquestionable scientific and technical interest; an increase in chemical activity of coals at their mechanically activated grinding is associated with an increase in the rate of reaction of the coal substance. To study the combustion and gasification process, the reactor model with tangential scroll input of coal-air suspension and cylindrical reaction chamber was used at the 5-MW thermal power plant. The experiments were carried out with coals of G and SS grades of the Kuznetsk deposit. Coal, ground after the boiler’s standard mill, is fed by a feeder to the disintegrator; then, it enters the scroll inlet of the reactor burner with transport air. The suspension is ignited by a gas igniting device with the power of 50 kW. In experiments on combustion and gasification of fine coal performed at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1300°C and air excess α = 0.5-0.7, the data on concentrations of CO and H2 were obtained: for coal of grade G, concentration of H2 was 6.3% and concentration of CO was 15.3%; for coal of SS grade, concentration of H2 was 9.5% and concentration of CO was 15.6%.

  3. Pilot-scale gasification of woody biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; Leslie H. Groom

    2011-01-01

    The gasification of pine and mixed-hardwood chips has been carried out in a pilot-scale system at a range of gas flow rates. Consuming ~17-30 kgh-1 of feedstock, the producer gas was composed of ~200 dm3 m-3 carbon monoxide, 12 dm3 m-3 carbon dioxide, 30 dm3 m-3 methane and 190 dm3 m-3 hydrogen, with an energy content of ~6 MJ m-3 for both feedstocks. It was found that...

  4. Synergetic and inhibition effects in carbon dioxide gasification of blends of coals and biomass fuels of Indian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyam Naidu, V; Aghalayam, P; Jayanti, S

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigates the enhancement of CO2 gasification reactivity of coals due to the presence of catalytic elements in biomass such as K2O, CaO, Na2O and MgO. Co-gasification of three Indian coal chars with two biomass chars has been studied using isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in CO2 environment at 900, 1000 and 1100°C. The conversion profiles have been used to establish synergetic or inhibitory effect on coal char reactivity by the presence of catalytic elements in biomass char by comparing the 90% conversion time with and without biomass. It is concluded that both biomasses exhibit synergistic behavior when blended with the three coals with casuarina being more synergetic than empty fruit bunch. Some inhibitory effect has been noted for the high ash coal at the highest temperature with higher 90% conversion time for the blend over pure coal, presumably due to diffusional control of the conversion rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In situ solidification/stabilization pilot study for the treatment of coal tar contaminated soils and river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, M.A.; Venn, J.G.; Pugh, L.B.; Vallis, T.

    1996-01-01

    Coal tar contamination was encountered at a former coal gasification site in soils below the groundwater table, and in the sediments of the adjacent river. Ex situ remediation techniques at this site would be costly because of the need to dewater the impacted media. In situ solidification/stabilization was tested to evaluate its effectiveness. Treatability testing was performed to evaluate a Portland cement/fly ash binder system with added stabilizing agents. Results were sufficiently promising to warrant pilot testing. Grout containing Portland cement, fly ash, organically modified clay, and granular activated carbon was pilot tested at the site. Test specimens were collected and tested to evaluate durability, compressive strength, and permeability. The samples were extracted by several methods and analyzed to measure the leachable concentrations of organic compounds and metals. Results indicated acceptable physical characteristics. Leachable concentrations of most polynuclear aromatic compounds were decreased

  6. Test and evaluate the tri-gas low-Btu coal-gasification process. Final report, October 21, 1977-October 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabetakis, M.G.

    1980-12-01

    This report describes the continuation of work done to develop the BCR TRI-GAS multiple fluidized-bed gasification process. The objective is the gasification of all ranks of coals with the only product being a clean, low-Btu fuel gas. Design and construction of a 100 lb/h process and equipment development unit (PEDU) was completed on the previous contract. The process consists of three fluid-bed reactors in series, each having a specific function: Stage 1 - pretreatment; Stage 2- - gasification; Stage 3 - maximization of carbon utilization. Under the present contract, 59 PEDU tests have been conducted. A number of these were single-stage tests, mostly in Stage 1; however, integrated PEDU tests were conducted with a western coal (Rosebud) and two eastern coals (Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam). Both Rosebud and Pittsburgh seam coals were gasified with the PEDU operating in the design mode. Operation with Illinois No. 6 seam coal was also very promising; however, time limitations precluded further testing with this coal. One of the crucial tasks was to operate the Stage 1 reactor to pretreat and devolatilize caking coals. By adding a small amount of air to the fluidizing gas, the caking properties of the coal can be eliminated. However, it was also desirable to release a high percentage of the volatile matter from the coal in this vessel. To accomplish this, the reactor had to be operated above the agglomerating temperature of caking coals. By maintaining a low ratio of fresh to treated coal, this objective was achieved. Both Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam coals were treated at temperatures of 800 to 900 F without agglomerating in the vessel.

  7. Geological and Rock Mechanics Perspectives for Underground Coal Gasification in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K.; Singh, Rajendra

    2017-07-01

    The geological resources of coal in India are more than 308 billion tonnes upto a depth of 1200 m, out of which proved reserve has been reported at around 130 billion tonnes. There is an increasing requirement to increase the energy extraction efficiency from coal as the developmental prospects of India increase. Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a potential mechanism which may be utilized for extraction of deep-seated coal reserves. Some previous studies suggest that lignites from Gujarat and Rajasthan, along with tertiary coals from northeastern India can be useful from the point of view of UCG. We discuss some geological literature available for these areas. Coming to the rock mechanics perspectives, during UCG the rock temperature is considerable high. At this temperature, most empirical models of rock mechanics may not be applied. In this situation, the challenges for numerical modelling of UCG sites increases manifold. We discuss some of the important modelling geomechanical issues related to UCG in India.

  8. Minerals in the Ash and Slag from Oxygen-Enriched Underground Coal Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqin Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal gasification (UCG is a promising option for the recovery of low-rank and inaccessible coal resources. Detailed mineralogical information is essential to understand underground reaction conditions far from the surface and optimize the operation parameters during the UCG process. It is also significant in identifying the environmental effects of UCG residue. In this paper, with regard to the underground gasification of lignite, UCG slag was prepared through simulation tests of oxygen-enriched gasification under different atmospheric conditions, and the minerals were identified by X-Ray diffraction (XRD and a scanning electron microscope coupled to an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS. Thermodynamic calculations performed using FactSage 6.4 were used to help to understand the transformation of minerals. The results indicate that an increased oxygen concentration is beneficial to the reformation of mineral crystal after ash fusion and the resulting crystal structures of minerals also tend to be more orderly. The dominant minerals in 60%-O2 and 80%-O2 UCG slag include anorthite, pyroxene, and gehlenite, while amorphous substances almost disappear. In addition, with increasing oxygen content, mullite might react with the calcium oxide existed in the slag to generate anorthite, which could then serve as a calcium source for the formation of gehlenite. In 80%-O2 UCG slag, the iron-bearing mineral is transformed from sekaninaite to pyroxene.

  9. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Test result report - 3/3); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Shiken kekka hokokusho 3/3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, a pilot test facility was constructed, and the results of tests and inspections conducted therefor are put together. They include a test operation of the expansion turbine in the air separation facility, test operation of the lubricating oil pump for the expansion turbine in the same, test operation of the oxygen compressor in the same, test operation of the medium pressure nitrogen compressor in the same, test operation of the lubricating oil pump for the medium pressure nitrogen compressor in the same, test operation of the high pressure nitrogen compressor in the same, performance verification test for the air separation facility, sequence test for upper/lower stage normal pressure coal hopper purge master in the gasification facility, sequence test for upper/lower stage initial coal loading master in the same, sequence test for char system rock hopper pressure application master in the same, sequence test for gasification furnace light oil leak check master in the same, sequence test for coal rock hopper pressure application master in the same, sequence test for upper/lower coal rock hopper coal reception master in the same, sequence test for slag hopper quenching operation master in the same, and sequence test for gasification steam drum water filling master in the same. (NEDO)

  10. Production of hydrogen by direct gasification of coal with steam using nuclear heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Problems related to: (1) high helium outlet temperature of the reactor, and (2) gas generator design used in hydrogen production are studied. Special attention was given to the use of Oklahoma coal in the gasification process. Plant performance, operation, and environmental considerations are covered.

  11. Investigation on hydrogen permeation on heat exchanger materials in conditions of steam coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellenhoff, H.

    1984-01-01

    The permeation of hydrogen through iron-based alloys of different compositions in the temperature range between 700 and 1000 0 C was examined in a laboratory fluidized bed in the conditions of steam/coal gasification. Apart from tests on bright metal samples, measurement in the gasification atmosphere at a maximum pressure of 1 bar were carried out during oxidation of the metal. Experiments in a steam/hydrogen/argon mixture with the same oxidation potential were used for comparison purposes. The hydrogen permeated through the metal sample was taken to a gas chromatograph with argon flushing gas and analyzed there. The investigations on bright steel samples of various composition showed that their permeabilities for hydrogen at temperatures around 900 0 C only differed by a maximum of ± 30%. Effective prevention of permeation is therefore not possible simply by choosing a suitable alloy. If the steels are oxidized during permeation measurements, there is a reduction of the hydrogen permeability by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude due to the oxidation process, both in the steam/coal gasification fluidized bed and in a pure steam/hydrogen/argon mixture. (orig./GG) [de

  12. Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification allows for the utilisation of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. The present study investigates underground coal gasification as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a high-calorific synthesis gas to support the Bulgarian energy system. Coupling of underground coal gasification providing synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with carbon capture and storage is considered to provide substantial benefits in supporting the Bulgarian energy system with a competitive source of energy. In addition, underground voids originating from coal consumption increase the potential for geological storage of carbon dioxide resulting from the coupled process of energy production. Cost-effectiveness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of this coupled process are investigated by application of a techno-economic model specifically developed for that purpose. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) are derived from calculations using six dynamic sub-models describing the entire coupled process and aiming at determination of the levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). The techno-economic model is embedded into an energy system-modelling framework to determine the potential integration of the introduced low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system and its competitiveness at the energy market. For that purpose, boundary conditions resulting from geological settings as well as those determined by the Bulgarian energy system and its foreseeable future development have to be considered in the energy system-modelling framework. These tasks comprise integration of the present infrastructure of the Bulgarian energy production and transport system. Hereby, the knowledge on the existing power plant stock and its scheduled future development are of uttermost importance, since only phasing-out power

  13. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Support study for the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant; 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu (Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu no shien kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    For the purpose of supplying the data necessary for construction/operation/maintenance of system, gas turbine, etc. of the desulfurization/dust removal process to be adopted to a pilot plant of 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification power generation, support study was made using the Yubari 40t/d test equipment, and the FY 1989 results were summarized. As to the operation of the 40t/d gasification system, operation was stably continued, and also the system was able to feed gas to the wake device. In the high temperature dry desulfurization test, test was made on the following: structure of the sampling system of the continuous analyzer installed in the coal gas system and circulation gas system, load response corresponding control system, sequence control of the system for supplying reducing agent to SO{sub 2} reduction tower and the system for ash discharge, back washing of D-42 lift gas filter, etc. In the high temperature dry dust removal test, improvement in filtration material/dust separation performance, sequence control of the filtration material supply/discharge system, continuous dust densitometer, operational automation, etc. Through the tests, obtained were the results that are useful for the 200t/d plant. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1996 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 1 - Studies of dismantling and surveys of techniques); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Kaitai kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    For the establishment of technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle, studies were made for the dismantling of the 200 tons/day entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant and surveys were conducted of overseas technologies. In the gasification furnace facility, 40 devices were selected, and dismantled, from the locations corresponding to the factors of damage expected to occur involving important equipment. Although no significant damage was detected in the gasification pressure vessel, peripheral walls, or the like, malfunctions due to corrosion or abrasion were discovered in some pipes and members. In the dry type gas clean-up facility (desulfurization facility), damage due to heat stress or corrosion was detected in the regeneration tower inner cyclone, regeneration tower filter flexible tubes, and in circulation gas cooler cooling tubes. In the dry type gas clean-up facility (dedusting facility), damage was found in the dust collector gas seal valve, dust collector filter materials cut valve, and in the separator A/B. In the gas turbine facility, no abnormality was discovered but for some damage in some initial stage static vanes. (NEDO)

  15. Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prausnitz, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions toward establishing the desired understanding: (1) Characterization of Coal Tars for Dew-Point Calculations; (2) Fugacity Coefficients for Dew-Point Calculations in Coal-Gasification Process Design; (3) Vapor Pressures of High-Molecular-Weight Hydrocarbons; (4) Estimation of Vapor Pressures of High-Boiling Fractions in Liquefied Fossil Fuels Containing Heteroatoms Nitrogen or Sulfur; and (5) Vapor Pressures of Heavy Liquid Hydrocarbons by a Group-Contribution Method.

  16. Forming the Composition of Underground Coal Gasification Products in the Simulation of Various Heat and Mass Transfer Conditions in the Coal Seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanik A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model describing the heat and mass transfer processes in underground coal gasification is proposed. Numerical studies have allowed to determine the composition of gases depending on the temperature, pressure products of gasification, and the composition of the heated oxidant injected. Relations the composition of the concentration of combustible gas component of the oxidant injected: dry air, a mixture of oxygen, nitrogen and water vapor in different proportions were prepared. It is found that, depending on the oxygen content in the oxidizer low-temperature gasification mode is implemented (up to 15%. At higher values of the oxygen concentration in the oxidizer the high-temperature mode is realized, in which the fuel gas output increases significantly.

  17. Developments in modelling and simulation of coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, the considerable increase in the price of crude oil and natural gas and concerns about their security of supply focused attention on whether fuel for power production and feedstocks for the chemical industry could be obtained from the gasification of coal. The need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has enhanced the prospects of power generation from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant. However, the higher capital costs and concerns about reliability and availability of IGCC plant have limited their market penetration. The coal gasifier has been a significant source of operational issues. A thorough understanding of the processes occurring in a gasifier is essential both for addressing existing causes of gasifier unavailability and improving designs for the future. Many complex processes take place in a gasifier and developing models of gasifiers results in a greater insight into these processes. Computational models in conjunction with plant data can be used to evaluate gasifier operation, solve operational problems, probe new designs and provide performance data for commercial scale-up. This report has surveyed models which are currently available for modelling gasifiers. The report contains a brief description of the three types of gasifiers which are most commonly used. The models available for each type of gasifier are considered. Insight gained by modelling has advanced the design of gasifiers and can improve gasifier performance. In some cases, the results have been compared with plant data and it has been possible to choose model inputs to give reasonable fit with the measured data. However, there are fewer examples where modelling has directly solved operational problems.

  18. Underground coal gasification (UCG: A new trend of supply-side economics of fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Mao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available China has a huge demand for energy. Under the present energy structure of rich coal, lean oil, less gas, limited and low-rising rate renewable energy, discussion focus is now on the high-efficient mining of coal as well as its clean-and-low-carbon use. In view of this, based on an analysis of the problems in the coal chemical industry and the present coal utilization ways such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC, this paper proposes that underground coal gasification (UCG technology is a realistic choice. By virtue of its advantages in many aspects such as safety & environment, integrated use of superior resources, economic feasibility, etc. this technology can serve as the front-end support and guarantee for coal chemical industry and IGCC. Under the present situation, the following proposals were presented to promote the development of this technology. First, R&D of technical products should be strengthened, a comprehensive feasibility study assessment system should be established, and the relevant criteria in the industry should be formulated. Second, precise market positioning of UCG products should be made with much concern on the integrated economic indicators of each product's complete flow scheme, following the principle of “Technical Feasibility First, Economic Optimization Followed”. Third, a perfect operation and management pattern should be established with strict control over high-efficient, environmentally-friendly, safe, harmonious & compact objectives in the whole industry chain. In conclusion, to realize the large-scale UCG commercial production will strongly promote the optimization and innovation of fossil fuels supply-side economics in China.

  19. IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP). Software User Manual (SUM). [network flow diagrams for coal gasification studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, S.; Johnson, W.; Lewis, R.; Rich, R.

    1981-01-01

    This specification establishes the requirements, concepts, and preliminary design for a set of software known as the IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP). This software provides the capability to develop at an Interactive Graphics Design System (IGDS) design station process flow diagrams for use by the NASA Coal Gasification Task Team. In addition, ITIP will use the Data Management and Retrieval System (DMRS) to maintain a data base from which a properly formatted input file to the Time-Line and Resources Analysis Program (TRAP) can be extracted. This set of software will reside on the PDP-11/70 and will become the primary interface between the Coal Gasification Task Team and IGDS, DMRS, and TRAP. The user manual for the computer program is presented.

  20. Report on the results of the R and D of a 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant. Summary - Part 1. Volume 1: Outline of the R and D/Volume 2: Outline of the details of execution of the R and D/Investigational study of verification plant; 1986- 200t/nichi funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden pilot plant no kenkyu seika hokokusho (Matome). Sono 1. Dai 1 hen kenkyu kaihatsu no gaiyo, Dai 2 hen kenkyu kaihatsu jisshi keii no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    A project was finished which had been carried out for 11 years since 1986 for technology of the entrained bed coal gasification power generation technology using a 200 t/d coal gasification combined cycle power generation pilot plant, and it was comprehensively summed up. In Volume 1: Outline of the R and D, the following were summarized: object and background, details of selection of the basic system, objectives and subjects of the R and D, developmental items of 200 t/d pilot plant, outline of pilot plant, place of execution of the R and D and system of the R and D, response to procedures for approval from government offices, etc. In Volume 2: Outline of the details of execution of the R and D, state of design/manufacture/construction, state of operational study, state of dismantling study, important notice at the time of design of pilot plant and the evaluation, outline of the execution of element study, outline of the details of the studies made public overseas. In Investigational study of verification plant, the basic viewpoint of conceptual design, conditions for conceptual design/basic design, outline of the results of the study every fiscal year, finally obtained results of the conceptual design, points to be considered in the design of verification plant, etc. (NEDO)

  1. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, Kevin; Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald; Smith, Philip; Sutherland, James; Thornock, Jeremy; Boshayeshi, Babak; Hunsacker, Isaac; Lewis, Aaron; Waind, Travis; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-02-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical processes (Subtask 4.4) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation. Highlights of this work include: • Verification and validation activities performed with the Arches coal gasification simulation tool on experimental data from the CANMET gasifier (Subtask 4.1). • The simulation of multiphase reacting flows with coal particles including detailed gas-phase chemistry calculations using an extension of the one-dimensional turbulence model’s capability (Subtask 4.2). • The demonstration and implementation of the Reverse Monte Carlo ray tracing (RMCRT) radiation algorithm in the ARCHES code (Subtask 4.3). • Determination of steam and CO{sub 2} gasification kinetics of bituminous coal chars at high temperature and elevated pressure under entrained-flow conditions (Subtask 4.4). In addition, attempts were made to gain insight into the chemical structure differences between young and mature coal soot, but both NMR and TEM characterization efforts were hampered by the highly reacted nature of the soot. • The development, operation, and demonstration of in-situ gas phase measurements from the University of Utah’s pilot-scale entrained-flow coal gasifier (EFG) (Subtask 4.6). This subtask aimed at acquiring predictable, consistent performance and characterizing the

  2. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  3. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1998-01-01

    The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and

  4. Combustion of producer gas from gasification of south Sumatera lignite coal using CFD simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidian Fajri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of gasses from lignite coal gasification is one of alternative fuel for the boiler or gas turbine. The prediction of temperature distribution inside the burner is important for the application and optimization of the producer gas. This research aims to provide the information about the influence of excess air on the temperature distribution and combustion product in the non-premixed burner. The process was carried out using producer gas from lignite coal gasification of BA 59 was produced by the updraft gasifier which is located on Energy Conversion Laboratory Mechanical Engineering Department Universitas Sriwijaya. The excess air used in the combustion process were respectively 10%, 30% and 50%. CFD Simulations was performed in this work using two-dimensional model of the burner. The result of the simulation showed an increase of excess air, a reduction in the gas burner temperature and the composition of gas (carbon dioxide, nitric oxide and water vapor.

  5. The formation of impurities in fluidized-bed gasification of biomass, peat and coal; Epaepuhtauksien muodostuminen leijukerroskaasutuksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Laatikainen-Luntama, J.; Kurkela, M.; Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T.; Oesch, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Alen, R. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this three-year-long project was to study the effects of different process parameters and bed materials on the formation of impurities in pressurized fluidized-bed gasification. The main emphasis of the project was focused on the formation of tars and nitrogen compounds in wood, peat and coal gasification. The aims of the research were to find out such operating conditions, where the formation of problematic high-molecular-weight tars can be minimised and to create a better understanding on the fate of fuel nitrogen in fluidized-bed gasifiers. Main part of the research was carried out in a bench-scale pressurised fluidized-bed reactor (ID 30 mm), where the effects of pressure, temperature, gas atmosphere and bed material were studied with different feedstocks. Most of the test series were carried out using the same feedstocks as earlier used in the PDU-scale fluidized-bed gasification tests of VTT (pine wood, pine bark, wheat straw, two peats, Rhenish brown coal, Polish and Illinois No.6 bituminous coals). The effects of operating parameters on the product yields (gas components, tars, char) were first studied under inert nitrogen atmosphere. The conversion of fuel nitrogen into ammonia and HCN were also determined for the different feedstocks over the different operating conditions. These studies showed that ammonia is the main fixed nitrogen compound of fluidized-bed pyrolysis with all the feedstocks studied. The conversions of fuel nitrogen into ammonia and HCN was highest with the high volatile fuels and lowest with the two hard coals. Gas atmosphere had a dramatic effect on the conversion of fuel nitrogen; much higher ammonia yields were determined in real gasification gas atmosphere than in inert pyrolysis carried out in N{sub 2} or Argon atmosphere. In addition to the pressurised fluidized-bed pyrolysis tests, laboratory scale pyrolysis research was carried out in order to compare the pyrolysis behaviour of the different feedstocks

  6. Removal of phenol by powdered activated carbon prepared from coal gasification tar residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiong-Lei; Shen, Jun; Niu, Yan-Xia; Wang, Yu-Gao; Liu, Gang; Sheng, Qing-Tao

    2018-03-01

    Coal gasification tar residue (CGTR) is a kind of environmentally hazardous byproduct generated in fixed-bed coal gasification process. The CGTR extracted by ethyl acetate was used to prepare powdered activated carbon (PAC), which is applied later for adsorption of phenol. The results showed that the PAC prepared under optimum conditions had enormous mesoporous structure, and the iodine number reached 2030.11 mg/g, with a specific surface area of 1981 m 2 /g and a total pore volume of 0.92 ml/g. Especially, without loading other substances, the PAC, having a strong magnetism, can be easily separated after it adsorbs phenol. The adsorption of phenol by PAC was studied as functions of contact time, temperature, PAC dosage, solution concentration and pH. The results showed a fast adsorption speed and a high adsorption capacity of PAC. The adsorption process was exothermic and conformed to the Freundlich models. The adsorption kinetics fitted better to the pseudo-second-order model. These results show that CGTR can be used as a potential adsorbent of phenols in wastewater.

  7. Zeolite Synthesized from Coal Fly Ash Produced by a Gasification Process for Ni2+ Removal from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing demands and great potential of coal gasification in China, but there is a lack of studies focused on the disposal and utilization of coal fly ash produced by the gasification process. In this study, a coal fly ash sample derived from a gasifier in Jincheng, China, was utilized as raw material for the synthesis of zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatments. The effects of operation conditions on the cation exchange capacity (CEC of synthesized zeolite were investigated. The synthesized zeolite with the highest CEC (270.4 meq/100 g, with abundant zeolite X and small amount of zeolite A, was produced by 1.5 h alkali fusion under 550 °C with NaOH/coal fly ash ratio 1.2 g/g followed by 15 h hydrothermal treatment under 90 °C with liquid/solid ratio 5 mL/g and applied in Ni2+ removal from water. The removal rate and the adsorption capacity of Ni2+ from water by the synthesized zeolite were determined at the different pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial Ni2+ concentration. The experimental data of adsorption were interpreted in terms of Freundlich and Langmuir equations. The adsorption of Ni2+ by the synthesized zeolite was found to fit sufficient using the Langmuir isotherm. More than 90% of Ni2+ in water could be removed by synthesized zeolite under the proper conditions. We show that the coal fly ash produced by the gasification process has great potential to be used as an alternative and cheap source in the production of adsorbents.

  8. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Adjustment of the operation test of pilot plant (1/2); 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant unten shiken chosei hen (1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    The adjustment was made of the operation test of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and the results were reported. As to the adjustment of the operation test of gasifier facilities, the light-oil firing test and tests of RUN 1-9 were conducted, and the paper reported cases of 49-item troubles, the causes, measures against them, improvement of facilities, etc. For slagging, operation conditions, improvement of various facilities, etc. were studied. Relating to the adjustment of the operation test of gas refining facilities (dry desulfurization facilities), the following were carried out: test on empty column gas circulation, test on desulfurizer circulation characteristics, test on SO2 reduction tower, test on warming-up characteristics, tests 1-3 on initial performance, tests on change in gas turbine fuel and loads. And, 21 cases of troubles, the causes and measures against them were reported. Concerning the adjustment of the operation test of gas refining facilities (dry dedusting facilities), the following were conducted: test on non-load sequence, test on confirmation prior to letting gas through, tests 1-3 on initial performance, test on dedusting characteristics. And, 22 cases of troubles, the causes and measures against them were reported. (NEDO)

  9. FY 1994 report on the results of the project supplementary to the New Sunshine Project - Development of the coal utilization hydrogen production technology. Ninth year - Part 2. Study using a pilot plant (Design/construction/operation study of the pilot plant and the dismantling study); 1994 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo Dai 9 nenji bun seika hokokusho - 2. Sekitan riyo suiso seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot plant ni yoru kenkyu (Pilot plant no sekkei kensetsu unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    In the R and D of the high temperature coal gasification technology by the entrained bed system which is the core technology of the coal utilization hydrogen production technology, the paper carried out the dismantling study of pilot plant and the summarization of the results. About the summarization of the results, as the results of the HYCOL operation study, there were insufficiencies in expansion of the coal kind used and acquisition of scale-up data, but it was verified that the conceptual design of the HYCOL method was fully applicable to the higher gasification efficiency, higher reliability, adaptability to many kinds of coal and compactness of facilities (low construction cost) which were the final subjects for the realization of commercial plant. This was highly evaluated. Especially, the greatest characteristic of the HYCOL method is the freedom in selection of temperature difference between the upper stage and lower stage, that is, temperatures can be controlled to temperatures they want in each of the upper stage and lower stage in the one-chamber gasifier according to coal properties and slagging control. The verification of this freedom was the base of the total results. Moreover, a reputation was being made that the gasification efficiency and process reliability are at the world's highest level. (NEDO)

  10. The 7th European gasification conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The theme of the conference was 'extending resources for clean energy'. Sessions covered coal gasification, gasification of biomass and waste, hydrogen and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, and development. The poster papers are also included. Selected papers have been abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database.

  11. Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R. [CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States); Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States). PowerServe Div.; Boni, A.A. [PSI-Environmental Instruments Corp., Andover, MA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

  12. Studies of materials found in products and wastes from coal-conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, M.R.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have been investigating materials from synthetic fossil-fuel processes. During this past year, solids from the Lignite Gasification Pilot Plant and samples from the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant (SRC-II mode) have been analyzed for organic and inorganic constituents. Observations on these samples are summarized

  13. Modelling of Gas Flow in the Underground Coal Gasification Process and its Interactions with the Rock Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Janoszek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was the analysis of gas flow in the underground coal gasification process and interactions with the surrounding rock mass. The article is a discussion of the assumptions for the geometric model and for the numerical method for its solution as well as assumptions for modelling the geochemical model of the interaction between gas-rock-water, in terms of equilibrium calculations, chemical and gas flow modelling in porous mediums. Ansys-Fluent software was used to describe the underground coal gasification process (UCG. The numerical solution was compared with experimental data. The PHREEQC program was used to describe the chemical reaction between the gaseous products of the UCG process and the rock strata in the presence of reservoir waters.

  14. Coal gasification by indirect heating in a single moving bed reactor: Process development & simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Akhlas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development and simulation of a new coal gasification process with indirect heat supply is performed. In this way, the need of pure oxygen production as in a conventional gasification process is avoided. The feasibility and energetic self-sufficiency of the proposed processes are addressed. To avoid the need of Air Separation Unit, the heat required by gasification reactions is supplied by the combustion flue gases, and transferred to the reacting mixture through a bayonet heat exchanger installed inside the gasifier. Two alternatives for the flue gas generation have been investigated and compared. The proposed processes are modeled using chemical kinetics validated on experimental gasification data by means of a standard process simulator (Aspen PlusTM, integrated with a spreadsheet for the modeling of a special type of heat exchanger. Simulation results are presented and discussed for proposed integrated process schemes. It is shown that they do not need external energy supply and ensure overall efficiencies comparable to conventional processes while producing syngas with lower content of carbon dioxide.

  15. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  16. Sulfur Rich Coal Gasification and Low Impact Methanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bassani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, the methanol was employed in numerous innovative applications and is a key compound widely used as a building block or intermediate for producing synthetic hydrocarbons, solvents, energy storage medium and fuel. It is a source of clean, sustainable energy that can be produced from traditional and renewable sources: natural gas, coal, biomass, landfill gas and power plant or industrial emissions. An innovative methanol production process from coal gasification is proposed in this work. A suitable comparison between the traditional coal to methanol process and the novel one is provided and deeply discussed. The most important features, with respect to the traditional ones, are the lower carbon dioxide emissions (about 0.3% and the higher methanol production (about 0.5% without any addition of primary sources. Moreover, it is demonstrated that a coal feed/fuel with a high sulfur content allows higher reductions of carbon dioxide emissions. The key idea is to convert hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide into syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide by means of a regenerative thermal reactor. This is the Acid Gas to Syngas technology, a completely new and effective route of processing acid gases. The main concept is to feed an optimal ratio of hydrogen sulphide and carbon monoxide and to preheat the inlet acid gas before the combustion. The reactor is simulated using a detailed kinetic scheme.

  17. Study of the equilibrium of air-blown gasification of biomass to coal evolution fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Equilibrium model validated for coals, torrefied/green biomasses, in different gasifiers. • Maps of syngas composition, LHV and CGE for ER = 0–0.6, T = 500–2000 K, EBP = 0.004–0.158. • Effect of unconverted carbon, fuel moisture and overoxidation quantified. • Parameters for the maximum efficiency determined as functions of EBP. • EBP proven to be a good parameter for the quantitative comparison of different fuels. - Abstract: A non-stoichiometric equilibrium model based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy was used to study the isothermal and adiabatic air-blown gasification of solid fuels on a carbonization curve from fossil (hard/brown coals, peat) to renewable (green biomasses and cellulose) fuels, including torrefied biofuels. The maps of syngas composition, heating value and process efficiency were provided as functions of equivalent ratio (oxygen-to-fuel ratio) in the range 0–0.6, temperature in 500–2000 K, and a fuel parameter, which allowed different cases to be quantitatively compared. The effect of fuel moisture, unconverted carbon and conditions to limit the tar formation was also studied. Cold gas efficiency >0.75 can be achieved for coals at high temperature, using entrained beds (which give low unconverted carbon), and improved by moisture/added steam. The bigger efficiency of green biomasses is only potential, as the practical limits (high temperature required to limit tar formation, moisture content and unconverted carbon in small gasifiers) strongly reduce the gasification performance. Torrefied biomasses (and plastics having an intermediate fuel parameter between coals and green biomasses) can attain high efficiency also in real conditions. The results shown in this work can be useful to evaluate the most promising feedstock (depending on its composition and possible pre-treatment/upgrading), define the operating conditions for maximizing the syngas heating value or the global efficiency, assess the

  18. Gasification of oil sand coke: review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-08-01

    The production of synthetic crude from the tar sands in Western Canada has been steadily increasing. Most of the delayed coke produced by Suncor is combusted on site, whereas all fluid coke produced by Syncrude is stockpiled.The database on the chemical and physical properties of the oil sand coke, including the composition and fusion properties of the mineral matter, has been established. The reactivity of the coke was determined by oxygen chemisorption, fixed bed and fluid bed bench scale gasification and pilot plant gasification. The reactivity of the oil sand coke for gasification is rather low and comparable to high rank coals, such as anthracite. Slurrability tests revealed that a solid concentration in water, approaching 70 wt%, can be achieved. Gasification is the front runner among clean technologies for the conversion of carbonaceous solids to useful products. Several commercial gasifiers are available to cover the wide range of severity. Because of the low reactivity of oil sands coke, high severity conditions are required to achieve high gasification conversion. Such conditions can be attained in entrained bed gasifiers. Gasifiers employing both dry and slurry feeding systems are suitable. A high efficiency, low SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions, as well as a low solid waste production are among the key advantages of the gasification technology compared with thecompeting technologies. Commercial gasification of oil sands coke is delayed because of the availability of natural gas on the site of the upgrading plants. Potential for the transportation of the oil sand coke to USA for electricity generation using the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology was evaluated. 27 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Thermodynamic analyses of a biomass-coal co-gasification power generation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu

    2016-04-01

    A novel chemical looping power generation system is presented based on the biomass-coal co-gasification with steam. The effects of different key operation parameters including biomass mass fraction (Rb), steam to carbon mole ratio (Rsc), gasification temperature (Tg) and iron to fuel mole ratio (Rif) on the system performances like energy efficiency (ηe), total energy efficiency (ηte), exergy efficiency (ηex), total exergy efficiency (ηtex) and carbon capture rate (ηcc) are analyzed. A benchmark condition is set, under which ηte, ηtex and ηcc are found to be 39.9%, 37.6% and 96.0%, respectively. Furthermore, detailed energy Sankey diagram and exergy Grassmann diagram are drawn for the entire system operating under the benchmark condition. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the units composing the system are also predicted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Volatilisation and catalytic effects of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the pyrolysis and gasification of Victorian brown coal. Part IV. Catalytic effects of NaCl and ion-exchangeable Na in coal on char reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimple Mody Quyn; Hongwei Wu; Jun-ichiro Hayashi; Chun-Zhu Li, [Monash University, Monash, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Department of Chemical Engineering

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the catalytic effects of Na as NaCl or as sodium carboxylates ( COONa) in Victorian brown coal on the char reactivity. A Na-exchanged coal and a set of NaCl-loaded coal samples prepared from a Loy Yang brown coal were pyrolysed in a fluidised-bed/fixed-bed reactor and in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The reactivities of the chars were measured in air at 400{sup o}C using the TGA. The experimental data indicate that the Na in coal as NaCl and as sodium carboxylates ( COONa) had very different catalytic effects on the char reactivity. It is the chemical form and dispersion of Na in char, not in coal, that govern the catalytic effects of Na. For the Na-form (Na-exchanged) coal, the char reactivity increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature from 500 to 700{sup o}C and then decreased with pyrolysis temperature from 700 to 900{sup o}C. The increase in reactivity with pyrolysis temperature (500 700{sup o}C) is mainly due to the changes in the relative distribution of Na in the char matrix and on the pore surface. For the NaCl-loaded coals, when Cl was released during pyrolysis or gasification, the Na originally present in coal as NaCl showed good catalytic effects for the char gasification. Otherwise, Cl would combine with Na in the char to form NaCl during gasification, preventing Na from becoming an active catalyst. Controlling the pyrolysis conditions to favour the release of Cl can be a promising way to transform NaCl in coal into an active catalyst for char gasification. 38 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Effect of powdered activated carbon technology on short-cut nitrogen removal for coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Xu, Chunyan; Zhuang, Haifeng; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Linghan

    2013-08-01

    A combined process consisting of a powdered activated carbon technology (PACT) and short-cut biological nitrogen removal reactor (SBNR) was developed to enhance the removal efficiency of the total nitrogen (TN) from the effluent of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, which was used to treat coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The SBNR performance was improved with the increasing of COD and TP removal efficiency via PACT. The average removal efficiencies of COD and TP in PACT were respectively 85.80% and 90.30%. Meanwhile, the NH3-N to NO2-N conversion rate was achieved 86.89% in SBNR and the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 75.54%. In contrast, the AOB in SBNR was significantly inhibited without PACT or with poor performance of PACT in advance, which rendered the removal of TN. Furthermore, PAC was demonstrated to remove some refractory compounds, which therefore improved the biodegradability of the coal gasification wastewater. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermal and biological gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overend, R.P.; Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Gasification is being developed to enable a diverse range of biomass resources to meet modern secondary energy uses, especially in the electrical utility sector. Biological or anaerobic gasification in US landfills has resulted in the installation of almost 500 MW(e) of capacity and represents the largest scale application of gasification technology today. The development of integrated gasification combined cycle generation for coal technologies is being paralleled by bagasse and wood thermal gasification systems in Hawaii and Scandinavia, and will lead to significant deployment in the next decade as the current scale-up activities are commercialized. The advantages of highly reactive biomass over coal in the design of process units are being realized as new thermal gasifiers are being scaled up to produce medium-energy-content gas for conversion to synthetic natural gas and transportation fuels and to hydrogen for use in fuel cells. The advent of high solids anaerobic digestion reactors is leading to commercialization of controlled municipal solid waste biological gasification rather than landfill application. In both thermal and biological gasification, high rate process reactors are a necessary development for economic applications that address waste and residue management and the production and use of new crops for energy. The environmental contribution of biomass in reducing greenhouse gas emission will also be improved.

  3. Thermodynamic evaluation of CHP (combined heat and power) plants integrated with installations of coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Malik, Tomasz; Liszka, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Integration of a CHP steam plant with an installation of coal gasification and gas turbine leads to an IGCC-CHP (integrated gasification combined cycle-combined heat and power). Two installations of coal gasification have been analyzed, i.e. pressurized entrained flow gasifier – case 1 and pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with CO_2 recirculation – case 2. Basing on the results of mathematical modelling of an IGCC-CHP plant, the algorithms of calculating typical energy indices have been derived. The following energy indices are considered, i.e. coefficient of heat performance and relative savings of chemical energy of fuels. The results of coefficients of heat performance are contained between 1.87 and 2.37. Values exceeding 1 are thermodynamically justified because the idea of cogeneration of heat and electricity based on combining cycles of the heat engine and heat pump the efficiency of which exceeds 1. Higher values concerning waste heat replace more thermodynamically effective sources of heat in CHP plants. Relative savings of the chemical energy of fuels are similar in both cases of IGCC-CHP plants and are contained between the lower value of the CHP (combined heat and power) plants fuelled with coal and higher value of CHP plants fired with natural gas. - Highlights: • Energy savings of fuel is an adequate measure of cogeneration. • Relative energy savings of IGCC-CHP is near the result of a gas and steam CHP. • COHP (coefficient of heat performance) can help to divide fuel between heat fluxes. • Higher values of COHP in the case of waste heat recovery result from the lower thermal parameters.

  4. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lissianski, Vitali V.; Loc Ho; Maly, Peter M.; Zamansky, Vladimir M.

    2002-01-01

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR), which combines conventional reburning and Advanced Reburning (AR) technologies with an innovative method of delivering coal as the reburning fuel. The FFR can be retrofit to existing boilers and can be configured in several ways depending on the boiler, coal characteristics, and NO x control requirements. Fly ash generated by the technology will be a saleable byproduct for use in the cement and construction industries. FFR can also reduce NO x by 60%-70%, achieving an emissions level of 0.15 lb/10 6 Btu in many coal-fired boilers equipped with Low NO x Burners. Total process cost is expected to be one third to one half of that for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). Activities during reporting period included design, manufacture, assembly, and shake down of the coal gasifier and pilot-scale testing of the efficiency of coal gasification products in FFR. Tests were performed in a 300 kW Boiler Simulator Facility. Several coals with different volatiles content were tested. Data suggested that incremental increase in the efficiency of NO x reduction due to the gasification was more significant for less reactive coals with low volatiles content. Experimental results also suggested that the efficiency of NO x reduction in FFR was higher when air was used as a transport media. Up to 14% increase in the efficiency of NO x reduction in comparison with that of basic reburning was achieved with air transport. Temperature and residence time in the gasification zone also affected the efficiency of NO x reduction

  5. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  6. Plant concept of heat utilization of high temperature gas-cooled reactors. Co-generation and coal-gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonogouchi, M.; Maeda, S.; Ide, A.

    1996-01-01

    In Japan, JAERI is now constructing the High temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) and the new era is coming for the development and utilization of HTR. Recognizing that the heat utilization of HTR would mitigate problems of environment and resources and contribute the effective use and steady supply of the energy, FAPIG organized a working group named 'HTR-HUC' to study the heat utilization of HTR in the field other than electric power generation. We chose three kinds of plants to study, 1) a co-generation plant in which the existing power units supplying steam and electricity can be replaced by a nuclear plant, 2) Coal gasification plant which can accelerate the clean use of coal and contribute stable supply of the energy and preservation of the environment in the world and 3) Hydrogen production plant which can help to break off the use of the new energy carrier HYDROGEN and will release people from the dependence of fossil energy. In this paper the former two plants, Co-generation chemical plant and Coal-gasification plant are focussed on. The main features, process flow and safety assessment of these plants are discussed. (J.P.N.)

  7. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant (Fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures - 2/2); 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen (Seisaku suetsukezu oyobi seisaku suetsuke shashin) (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the fabrication, installation work, etc. were conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures were summarized. In fabrication/installation drawings, drawings of the following were included: safety environmental equipment (total system diagram, layout scheme drawing, layout of electric room equipment, layout of control equipment room, etc.), total control system (structural drawing of the total control system, outline drawing of operation control panel, operator console of the integrated load pressure control system, operator console of the integrated sequential control system, central control panel, etc.), 66kV/6.9kV indoor switching station facilities (layout of equipment of indoor switching station facilities, outline drawing of the main transformer, outline drawing of cooler control panel of the main transformer, etc.), common facilities (total layout, diagram of the equipment cooling water pipe system, diagram of the fire-extinguishing water pipe system, etc.) In pictures of fabrication/installation, pictures of the following were included: gasifier equipment, gas refining facilities, gas turbine facilities, actual-pressure/actual-size combustor test equipment, safety environmental equipment, total control system, common facilities, etc. (NEDO)

  8. Material and Energy Flow Analysis (Mefa of the Unconventional Method of Electricity Production Based on Underground Coal Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czaplicka-Kolarz

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: This is the first approach which contains a whole chain of electricity production from Underground Coal Gasification, including stages of gas cleaning, electricity production and the additional capture of carbon dioxide.

  9. Rebirth of a 100-year-old technology: underground coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, B.C.; Harju, J.A.; Schmit, C.R.; Solc, J. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Boysen, J.E. [B.C. Technologies Ltd. (Country unknown/Code not available); Kuehnel, R.A. [International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (Netherlands); Walker, L.K. [Innisfree Pty. Ltd. (Country unknown/Code not available); Komsartra, C. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Nonthaburi (Thailand)

    1997-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a clean coal technology that was first conceived by Mendeleev in Russia over 100 years ago. It involves the conversion of coal in situ to a low-to-medium grade product gas, avoiding the expense of mining and reclamation. The successful application of UCG is critically dependent on both judicious site selection and process design specific to that site. It requires a detailed knowledge and understanding of those geologic, hydrogeologic, and other site characteristics critical to the technical success and environmental acceptability of the process. This paper addresses the development and key features of UCG and describes a UCG feasibility project now under way in Southern Thailand on a lignite deposit. The relevance of the technology to the long-term supply of gas to the Eastern States of Australia is also discussed. It is concluded that the lack of acceptance of the technology to date follows from a confusion in the interpretation of test results from the different hydrogeologic settings of previous UCG test sites. Successful development of the technology requires the careful assembly of an integrated design team with hydrogeologic, geologic mineralogic, chemical and engineering expertise. (author). 1 fig., 11 refs.

  10. Proceedings of the ninth annual underground coal gasification symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieber, P.R.; Martin, J.W.; Byrer, C.W. (eds.)

    1983-12-01

    The Ninth Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was held August 7 to 10, 1983 at the Indian Lakes Resort and Conference Center in Bloomingdale, Illinois. Over one-hundred attendees from industry, academia, National Laboratories, State Government, and the US Government participated in the exchange of ideas, results and future research plans. Representatives from six countries including France, Belgium, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, West Germany, and Brazil also participated by presenting papers. Fifty papers were presented and discussed in four formal sessions and two informal poster sessions. The presentations described current and future field testing plans, interpretation of field test data, environmental research, laboratory studies, modeling, and economics. All papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  11. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  12. Analysis of industrial markets for low and medium Btu coal gasification. [Forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-30

    Low- and medium-Btu gases (LBG and MBG) can be produced from coal with a variety of 13 existing and 25 emerging processes. Historical experience and previous studies indicate a large potential market for LBG and MBG coal gasification in the manufacturing industries for fuel and feedstocks. However, present use in the US is limited, and industry has not been making substantial moves to invest in the technology. Near-term (1979-1985) market activity for LBG and MBG is highly uncertain and is complicated by a myriad of pressures on industry for energy-related investments. To assist in planning its program to accelerate the commercialization of LBG and MBG, the Department of Energy (DOE) contracted with Booz, Allen and Hamilton to characterize and forecast the 1985 industrial market for LBG and MBG coal gasification. The study draws five major conclusions: (1) There is a large technically feasible market potential in industry for commercially available equipment - exceeding 3 quadrillion Btu per year. (2) Early adopters will be principally steel, chemical, and brick companies in described areas. (3) With no additional Federal initiatives, industry commitments to LBG and MBG will increase only moderately. (4) The major barriers to further market penetration are lack of economic advantage, absence of significant operating experience in the US, uncertainty on government environmental policy, and limited credible engineering data for retrofitting industrial plants. (5) Within the context of generally accepted energy supply and price forecasts, selected government action can be a principal factor in accelerating market penetration. Each major conclusion is discussed briefly and key implications for DOE planning are identified.

  13. Utilization of underground coal gasification to provide electric power and emerging nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boysen, J.E.; Beaver, F.W.; Schmit, C.R.; Daly, D.J.; Groenewold, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a process conceived over a hundred years ago and used successfully, since the 1940s, to generate low-Btu gas for electric power production. The process is applicable to many coal resources that cannot, for a variety of reasons, be economically produced. While UCG cannot compete economically with conventional oil gas, and coal reserves, emerging nations requiring electric power for development of an industrial infrastructure may provide the niche market that is necessary for the commercial development of UCG. Recent UCG field testing, conducted in the United States, demonstrated that UCG could be successfully conducted without adverse environmental impact. This testing also resulted in increased understanding of the interactions between the UCG process and the local hydrogeological environment. With this knowledge, the probability of successful commercial UCG development can be increased by selecting a UCG site with hydrogeologically and economically favorable properties. And approach for commercial UCG development for producing electric power in emerging nations is presented

  14. DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility: fossil fuel processing technical/professional services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hefferan, J.K.; Lee, G.Y.; Boesch, L.P.; James, R.B.; Rode, R.R.; Walters, A.B.

    1979-07-13

    A conceptual design, including process descriptions, heat and material balances, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, schedule, capital and operating cost estimate, and alternative design considerations, is presented for the DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility (GMTF). The GMTF, an engineering scale facility, is to provide a complete plant into which different types of gasifiers and conversion/synthesis equipment can be readily integrated for testing in an operational environment at relatively low cost. The design allows for operation of several gasifiers simultaneously at a total coal throughput of 2500 tons/day; individual gasifiers operate at up to 1200 tons/day and 600 psig using air or oxygen. Ten different test gasifiers can be in place at the facility, but only three can be operated at one time. The GMTF can produce a spectrum of saleable products, including low Btu, synthesis and pipeline gases, hydrogen (for fuel cells or hydrogasification), methanol, gasoline, diesel and fuel oils, organic chemicals, and electrical power (potentially). In 1979 dollars, the base facility requires a $288 million capital investment for common-use units, $193 million for four gasification units and four synthesis units, and $305 million for six years of operation. Critical reviews of detailed vendor designs are appended for a methanol synthesis unit, three entrained flow gasifiers, a fluidized bed gasifier, and a hydrogasifier/slag-bath gasifier.

  15. Synergistic combination of biomass torrefaction and co-gasification: Reactivity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Geng, Ping; Liu, Rui

    2017-12-01

    Two typical biomass feedstocks obtained from woody wastes and agricultural residues were torrefied or mildly pyrolized in a fixed-bed reactor. Effects of the torrefaction conditions on product distributions, compositional and energetic properties of the solid products, char gasification reactivity, and co-gasification behavior between coal and torrefied solids were systematically investigated. Torrefaction pretreatment produced high quality bio-solids with not only increased energy density, but also concentrated alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM). As a consequence of greater retention of catalytic elements in the solid products, the chars derived from torrefied biomass exhibited a faster conversion than those derived from raw biomass during CO 2 gasification. Furthermore, co-gasification of coal/torrefied biomass blends exhibited stronger synergy compared to the coal/raw biomass blends. The results and insights provided by this study filled a gap in understanding synergy during co-gasification of coal and torrefied biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  17. Safety assessment on the key equipment of coal gasification based on SDG-HAZOP method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.; Xu, X.; Ma, X.; Wu, C. [Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China)

    2008-07-15

    An example of the coal gasification process was introduced after the explanation of the graphical representation method known as the sign directed graph (SDG). The systematic modeling procedure was also introduced. Firstly, the key variables of the whole system were selected. Then the relationship equations were listed. Finally, the SDG-HAZOP (hazard and operability) model was derived after attaching the abnormal causes and adverse consequences. In order to get a credible SDG model, the model was checked by technicians in the factory. Based on computer-aided analysis, this model can express almost all the dangerous features of the gasification process. It can also reveal the mechanisms of danger propagation, which may effectively help safety engineers to identify potential hazards. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Successful continuous injection of coal into gasification and PFBC system operating pressures exceeding 500 psi - DOE funded program results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, T.; Aldred, D.; Rutkowski, M. [Stamet Inc., North Holywood, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The current US energy program is focussed towards commercialisation of coal-based power and IGCC technologies that offer significant improvements in efficiency and reductions in emissions. For gasification and pressurised fluidized bed combustors to be widely accepted, certain operational components need to be significantly improved. One of the most pressing is provision of reliable, controlled and cost-effective solid fuel feeding into the pressure environment. The US Department of Energy has funded research to develop the unique Stamet 'Posimetric{reg_sign} Solids Pump' to be capable of feeding coal into current gasification and PFBC operating pressures. The research objective is a mechanical rotary device able to continuously feed and meter coal into pressured environments of at least 34 bar (500 psi). The research program comprised an initial design and testing phase to feed coal into 20 bar (300 psi) and a second phase for feeding into 34 bar (500 psi). The first phase target was achieved in December 2003. Following modification and optimization, in January 2005, the Stamet Pump achieved a world-record pressure level for continuous injection of coal of 38 bar (560 psi). Research is now targeting 69 bar (1000 psi). The paper reviews the successful pump design, optimisations and results of the testing. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Removal of COD, phenols and ammonium from Lurgi coal gasification wastewater using A2O-MBR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zixing; Xu, Xiaochen; Gong, Zheng; Yang, Fenglin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Anaerobic–anoxic–aerobic MBR system treated the coal gasification wastewater. ► COD removal rate was 97.4% with effluent concentration less than 100 mg/L. ► NH 4 + -N removal rate was 92.8% with effluent concentration less than 12 mg/L. ► HRT and recycle ratio strongly affected the performance of the system. ► GC/MS analysis found refractory organic removal in anaerobic and anoxic stage. - Abstract: As a typical industrial wastewater, coal gasification wastewater has poor biodegradability and high toxicity. In this paper, a laboratory-scale anaerobic–anoxic–oxic membrane reactor (A 2 O-MBR) system was developed to investigate the treatment ability of coal gasification wastewater. The removal capacity of each pollutants used in this system were determined at different hydraulic residence times (HRT) and mixed liquor recycle ratios (R). The experimental results showed that this system could effectively deal with COD and phenol removal and remain in a stable level when the operational parameters altered, while the nitrification was sensitive to operational conditions. The best performance was obtained at HRT of 48 h and R of 3. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, NH 4 + -N and phenols were 97.4%, 92.8% and 99.7%, with final concentrations in the effluent of 71 mg/L, 9.6 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively. Organics degradation and transformation were analyzed by GC/MS and it was found that anaerobic process played an important role in degradation of refractory compounds.

  20. In situ formation of coal gasification catalysts from low cost alkali metal salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bernard J.; Brittain, Robert D.; Sancier, Kenneth M.

    1985-01-01

    A carbonaceous material, such as crushed coal, is admixed or impregnated with an inexpensive alkali metal compound, such as sodium chloride, and then pretreated with a stream containing steam at a temperature of 350.degree. to 650.degree. C. to enhance the catalytic activity of the mixture in a subsequent gasification of the mixture. The treatment may result in the transformation of the alkali metal compound into another, more catalytically active, form.

  1. Report on results of research. Basic studies on characteristics of coal char gasification under pressure; Sekitan char no kaatsuka ni okeru gas ka tokuseino kiso kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This paper explains basic studies on characteristics of coal char gasification under pressure. Hydro-gasification of coal needs as a gasifying agent a large amount of hydrogen, which is effectively produced by the water gasification of exhaust unreacted residual char. In fiscal 1975, gasification was tested on Taiheiyo coal carbonized char by an atmospheric fluidized gasifier of 28 mm bore. In fiscal 1976, experiment was conducted under pressure by fully improving the auxiliary safety equipment. The char and gas yield increased with higher pressure in pressurized carbonization by an autoclave. In fiscal 1977, clinker was successfully prevented by using quartz sand for a fluidized medium. In fiscal 1978, two-stage continuous gasification was examined. In fiscal 1979, correlation was determined between operation factors such as gasification pressure, temperature, etc., and clinker formation/char reactivity. An experiment was conducted for particle pop-out using a pressurized fluidized bed of 100 mm inner diameter, with the pop-out quantity found to be proportional to the 0.38th power of a pressure. A high pressure fluidized gasifier was built having a char processing capacity of 1 t/day, 20 atmospheric pressure, and an inner diameter of 100 mm. In fiscal 1980, this device was continuously operated, elucidating problems for the practicability. (NEDO)

  2. Prediction of coal reactivity during combustion and gasification by using petrographic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Palmer, A.D.; Kalkreuth, W.D.; Cameron, A.R.; Kovacik, G.

    1990-06-01

    Petrographic data were correlated with calorific value, oxygen content, fuel ratio, ignition temperature, oxygen chemisorption and selected gasification reactivity data of twenty one Canadian coals (17 from Western and 4 from Eastern Canada). Both parameters are suitable for predicting other coal properties in the absence of mineral matter effects. Using ignition temperature and oxygen chemisorption the series of coals can be divided into three groups. The first group, characterized by low ignition temperatures and low oxygen chemisorption, had mean vitrinite reflectance and/or petrofactor less than 0.6 and/or 7.0 The second group, characterized by the largest oxygen chemisorption and intermediate ignition temperatures had mean vitrinite reflectance and/or petrofactor in the range of 0.6 to 1.0 and/or 7.0 to 11.0. The third group, characterized by the highest ignition temperatures and the lowest oxygen chemisorption had mean vitrinite reflectance and/or petrofactor greater than about 1.0 and/or 11.0. Calorific value and ignition temperature are good correlating parameters for low rank coals, whereas fuel ratio is suitable for higher rank coals. The petrofactor as a correlating parameter offered little advantage compared with the mean vitrinite reflectance. 20 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Combined coal gasification and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-reduction using high-temperature solar process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaura, Y [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Ehrensberger, K; Steinfeld, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The coal/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} system was experimentally studied at PSI solar furnace. The reactants were directly exposed to a solar flux irradiation of 3,000 suns (1 sun = 1 kW/m{sup 2}). The combined gasification of coal and reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} proceeded rapidly after only one second exposure, suggesting an efficient heat transfer and chemical conversion by direct solar energy absorption at the reaction site. The proposed solar thermochemical process offers the possibility of converting coal to a cleaner fluid fuel with a solar-upgraded calorific value. (author) 2 figs., 8 refs.

  4. The Shell gasification technology offers clean solutions for refineries and utility companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlaswinkel, E.E.; Posthuma, S.A.; Zuideveld, P.L. [Shell International Oil Products BV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Shell has developed two dedicated gasification technologies, the Shell Gasification Process (SGP) for gaseous and liquid feed stocks and the Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) for coal, lignite and petroleum coke. These processes are described. One of the most recent applications of SGP is the PER+ Shell Refinery project in the Netherlands which is nearly completed. A 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on SCGP has recently been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). These two projects are discussed.

  5. Gasification of brown coal and char with carbon dioxide in the presence of finely dispersed iron catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asami, K.; Sears, P.; Furimsky, E.; Ohtsuka, Y. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    1996-05-01

    Gasification of brown coal and char with CO{sub 2} using iron catalysts precipitated from an aqueous solution of FeCl{sub 3} has been studied. When the pyrolyzed char is gasified in the temperature-programmed mode, the presence of the iron can lower the temperature giving the maximal rate of CO formation by 130-160 K, a larger lowering being observed at a higher loading in the range of {le} 3 wt% Fe. The specific rates of the isothermal gasification iron-bearing chars at 1173 and 1223 K increase with increasing char conversion, resulting in complete gasification within a short reaction time. Comparison of the initial rates of uncatalyzed and catalyzed gasification reveals that iron addition can lower the reaction temperature by 120 K. Moessbauer spectra show that the precipitation iron exists as fine FeOOH particles, which are reduced mainly to Fe{sub 3}C on charring at 1123 K. Most of the Fe{sub 3}C is transformed into {alpha}-Fe and {gamma}-Fe at the initial stage of gasification, and subsequently these species are oxidized to FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The changes during gasification are discussed in terms of solid-gas and solid-solid reactions. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Subtask 4.2 - Coal Gasification Short Course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Galbreath

    2009-06-30

    Major utilities, independent power producers, and petroleum and chemical companies are intent on developing a fleet of gasification plants primarily because of high natural gas prices and the implementation of state carbon standards, with federal standards looming. Currently, many projects are being proposed to utilize gasification technologies to produce a synthesis gas or fuel gas stream for the production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity. Financing these projects is challenging because of the complexity, diverse nature of gasification technologies, and the risk associated with certain applications of the technology. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has developed a gasification short course that is designed to provide technical personnel with a broad understanding of gasification technologies and issues, thus mitigating the real or perceived risk associated with the technology. Based on a review of research literature, tutorial presentations, and Web sites on gasification, a short course presentation was prepared. The presentation, consisting of about 500 PowerPoint slides, provides at least 7 hours of instruction tailored to an audience's interests and needs. The initial short course is scheduled to be presented September 9 and 10, 2009, in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

  7. Siemens fuel gasification technology for the Canadian oil sands industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morehead, H. [Siemens Energy Inc., Orlando, FL (United States). IGCC and Gasification Sales and Marketing

    2010-07-01

    The Siemens fuel gasification (SFG) technology can be used to gasify a range of feedstocks, including petcoke, hard coal, lignite, and low-ranking fuels such as biomass and refinery residuals. The technology has recently been applied to a number of projects over the last 3 years. This paper discussed some of the issues related to the technology and it's use at a start-up facility in China. Five entrained-flow gasifiers with a thermal capacity of 500 MW are being installed at a coal gasification plant in northwestern China. The technology's use in hydrogen, steam and power production applications for the oil sands industry was also discussed. Issues related to feedstock quality, process characteristics, and equipment requirements for commercial gasifier systems were reviewed. The paper concluded by observing that improvements in gasification technology will make coal and petcoke gasification feasible options for power generation. IGCC is the most advanced and cost-effective technology for reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. Gasification-based plants are also able to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) for storage and sequestration. Details of the Siemens gasification test center in Germany were also included. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of a coal-based polygeneration system with partial gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yang, Yongping; Zhai, Dailong; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This study proposed a polygeneration system based on coal partial gasification, in which methanol and power were generated. This proposed system, comprising chemical and power islands, was designed and its characteristics are analyzed. The commercial software Aspen Plus was used to perform the system analysis. In the case study, the energy and exergy efficiency values of the proposed polygeneration system were 51.16% and 50.58%, which are 2.34% and 2.10%, respectively, higher than that of the reference system. Energy-Utilization Diagram analysis showed that removing composition adjustment and recycling 72.7% of the unreacted gas could reduce the exergy destruction during methanol synthesis by 46.85% and that the char utilized to preheat the compressed air could reduce the exergy destruction during combustion by 10.28%. Sensitivity analysis was also performed. At the same capacity ratio, the energy and exergy efficiency values of the proposed system were 1.30%–2.48% and 1.21%–2.30% higher than that of the reference system, respectively. The range of chemical-to-power capacity ratio in the proposed system was 0.41–1.40, which was narrower than that in the reference system. But the range of 1.04–1.4 was not recommended for the disappearance of energy saving potential in methanol synthesis. - Highlights: • A novel polygeneration system based on coal partial gasification is proposed. • The efficient conversion method for methanol and power is explored. • The exergy destruction in chemical energy conversion processes is decreased. • Thermodynamic performance and system characteristics are analyzed

  9. Deformation properties of sedimentary rocks in the process of underground coal gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Bukowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research into changes in deformation properties of rocks, under influence of temperature, during the process of underground coal gasification. Samples of carboniferous sedimentary rocks (claystones and sandstones, collected in different areas of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW, were heated at the temperature of between 100 and 1000–1200 °C, and then subjected to uniaxial compression tests to obtain a full stress-strain curves of the samples and determine values of residual strain and Poisson's ratio. To compare the obtained values of deformation parameters of rocks, tested in dry-air state and after heating in a given range of temperature, normalised values of residual strain and Poisson's ratio were determined. Based on them, coefficient of influence of temperature on tested deformation parameters was determined. The obtained values of the coefficient can be applied in mining practice to forecast deformability of gangue during underground coal gasification, when in the direct surrounding of a georeactor there are claystones or sandstones. The obtained results were analysed based on classification of uniaxial compression strength of GZW gangue, which formed the basis for dividing claystones and sandstones into very low, low, medium and high uniaxial compression strength rocks. Based on the conducted tests it was concluded that the influence of uniaxial compression strength on the value of residual strain, unlike the influence of grain size of sandstones, is unambiguous within the range of changes in the parameter. Among claystones changes in the value of Poisson's ratio depending on their initial strength were observed. Sandstones of different grain size either increased or decreased the value of Poisson's ratio in comparison with the value determined at room temperature in dry-air conditions.

  10. A newer concept of setting up coal refineries in coal utilising industries through environmentally sound clean coal technology of organosuper refining of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    In order to reduce the losses of premium organic matter of coal and its immense potential energy which is present in the form of stronger interatomic and intramolecular bonding energies, a newer and convenient technique of recovering the premium organic matter from low grade coals by organosuper-refining technique which operates under ambient pressure conditions has been developed. The residual coal obtained can be used as environmentally clean fuel or as a feedstock for the industries based on carbonization and gasification. It is suggested that a beginning be made by setting up coal refineries in coal utilizing industries on the basis of the presently developed new technology of organosuper-refining of coals to recover premium grade organic chemical feed stocks from coals before utilizing coal by techniques such as bubble bed or recirculatory fluidized bed or pulverized coal combustion in thermal power stations, carbonization in steel plants or other carbonization units, gasification in fertilizer industries or in integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. Thus, coal refineries may produce value added aromatic chemical feed stocks, formed coke or coke manufacturing; and carbon fillers for polymers. (author). 100 refs., 1 fig

  11. Combustion and gasification of coal and straw under pressurized conditions. Task 2: Determination of kinetic parameters in PTGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, O; Hald, P; Bak, J; Boll Illerup, J; Gjernes, E; Fjellerup, J; Olsen, A

    1995-10-01

    The reactivities of pulverized coal and straw fuels were investigated regarding pyrolysis, combustion and gasification with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O by thermogravimetric analysis under pressurized conditions. The fuels were a Colombian coal, pulverized to 45-90 {mu}m particles, and wheat straw pulverized to 0-200 {mu}m particles. The pyrolysis studies were performed at 150-1000 deg. C in pure N{sub 2} at 1.5 to 40 bar. The combustion studies were performed at 300-550 deg. C, 1.5-40 bar total pressure with 0.08-0.8 bar of O{sub 2} partial pressure. The CO{sub 2} gasification studies were performed at 850-1200 deg. C, 4-40 bar of total pressure with 0.7-4 bar of CO{sub 2} partial pressure, also including studies with CO in combination with CO{sub 2}. A minor H{sub 2}O gasification study with straw was performed at 900-1050 deg. C at 1.5-2.0 bar of total pressure in an atmosphere containing partial pressures up to 0.32 bar of H{sub 2}O, o.2 bar of CO{sub 2}, 0.28 bar of CO and 0.12 bar of H{sub 2}. For combustion and CO{sub 2} gasification the results were analyzed with regard to reaction kinetics, and kinetic parameters that represent the experimental results were found. (AU) 11 tabs., 26 ills., 10 refs.

  12. Fiscal 1990 report. Overseas surveys out of surveys for coal hydrogasification technology development; 1990 nendo sekitan suiten gaska gijutsu kaihatsu chosa ni okeru kaigai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-01

    For the selection and evaluation of coal gasification processes suitable for substitute natural gas (SNG) production, visits were made to overseas business corporations, research institutes, etc., engaged in the development of coal gasification technology, surveys were conducted of the status of development abroad, and information was collected. Visited were Westfield Development Center, British Gas plc; Midlands Research Station, British Gas plc; IEA Coal Research; IFP (Institut Francais de Petrole); and DMT-FP (DMT-Gesellschaft fur Forschung und Prufung mbH). The Westfield Development Center uses coal from near-by open cut mines and supplies town gas to the Scottish region. The slagging Lurgi process, etc., were investigated. At Midlands Research Station, where a coal hydrogasification process is under development, the history of development and the cold model test were summarized, a test plan using a 5 tons/day pilot plant and the modification of test facilities were explained, and the 5 tons/day pilot plant was visited for study. (NEDO)

  13. The complex using of coals of Ekibastuz coal basin and wastes of their development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlov, E.G.; Kost, L.A.; Lebedeva, L.N.; Shpirt, M.Ya.

    2013-01-01

    Present article is devoted to main directions of complex using of coals of Ekibastuz coal basin and wastes of their development. It was found that gasification of Ekibastuz coals is the perspective way of their using. It is defined that coal gasification could solve the ecological problems which arise at industrial combustion of coal. Therefore, the thermodynamic and experimental researches were conducted.

  14. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant (Fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures - 2/2); 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen (Seisaku suetsukezu oyobi seisaku suetsuke shashin) (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the fabrication, installation work, etc. were conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures were summarized. In fabrication/installation drawings, drawings of the following were included: actual-pressure/actual-size combustor test equipment (structural drawing of exhaust temperature reducing device, structural drawing of hot air device, system diagram of piping, etc.), safety environmental equipment (total system diagram, layout of electric room equipment, layout of control equipment room, etc.), total control system (structural drawing of the total control system, front view of auxiliary panel of safety environment equipment, etc.), 66kV/6.9kV indoor switching station facilities (layout of equipment of indoor switching station facilities, outline drawing of the main transformer, outline drawing of gas circuit breaker, etc.), common facilities (total layout, diagram of the nitrogen gas pipe system, system diagram of utility equipment, etc.) In pictures of fabrication/installation, pictures of the following were included: state of the construction work, gasifier equipment, gas refining facilities, gas turbine facilities, actual-pressure/actual-size combustor test equipment, safety environmental equipment, total control system, 66kV/6.9kV indoor switching station facilities, common facilities. (NEDO)

  15. Pressured fluidized-bed gasification experiments with wood, peat and coal at VTT in 1991-1992. Test facilities and gasification experiments with sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E; Staahlberg, P; Laatikainen, J [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Fuel and Process Technology

    1994-12-31

    Fluidized-bed air gasification of Finnish pine saw dust was studied in the PDU-scale test facilities of VTT to support the development of simplified integrated gasification combined-cycle processes by providing new information on the formation and behaviour of different gas impurities in wood gasification. The gasifier was operated at 4-5 bar pressure and at 880-1 020 deg C Product gas was cleaned by ceramic candle filters operated at 490-715 deg C. Concentrations of tars, fixed nitrogen species and vapour-phase alkali metals were determined in different operating conditions. Carbon conversion exceeded 95 deg C in all test periods although the gasifier was operated without recycling the cyclone or filter fines back to the reactor. However, at the gasification temperature of 880-900 deg C more than 5 deg C of the wood carbon was converted to tars. The total concentration of tars (compounds heavier than benzene) was reduced from 6 000 to 3 000 mg/m{sup 3}n by increasing the gasification temperature from 880 deg C to 1 000 deg C. The expected catalytic effects of calcium on tar decomposition could not be achieved in these experiments by feeding coarse dolomite into the bed. The use of sand or aluminium oxide as an inert bed material did neither lead to any decrease in tar concentrations. However, the tar concentrations were dramatically reduced in the cogasification experiments, when a mixture of approximately 50 deg C/50 deg C wood and coal was used as the feed stock. Wood nitrogen was mainly converted into ammonia, while the concentrations of HCN and organic nitrogen containing compounds were very low

  16. Pressured fluidized-bed gasification experiments with wood, peat and coal at VTT in 1991-1992. Test facilities and gasification experiments with sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Laatikainen, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Fuel and Process Technology

    1993-12-31

    Fluidized-bed air gasification of Finnish pine saw dust was studied in the PDU-scale test facilities of VTT to support the development of simplified integrated gasification combined-cycle processes by providing new information on the formation and behaviour of different gas impurities in wood gasification. The gasifier was operated at 4-5 bar pressure and at 880-1 020 deg C Product gas was cleaned by ceramic candle filters operated at 490-715 deg C. Concentrations of tars, fixed nitrogen species and vapour-phase alkali metals were determined in different operating conditions. Carbon conversion exceeded 95 deg C in all test periods although the gasifier was operated without recycling the cyclone or filter fines back to the reactor. However, at the gasification temperature of 880-900 deg C more than 5 deg C of the wood carbon was converted to tars. The total concentration of tars (compounds heavier than benzene) was reduced from 6 000 to 3 000 mg/m{sup 3}n by increasing the gasification temperature from 880 deg C to 1 000 deg C. The expected catalytic effects of calcium on tar decomposition could not be achieved in these experiments by feeding coarse dolomite into the bed. The use of sand or aluminium oxide as an inert bed material did neither lead to any decrease in tar concentrations. However, the tar concentrations were dramatically reduced in the cogasification experiments, when a mixture of approximately 50 deg C/50 deg C wood and coal was used as the feed stock. Wood nitrogen was mainly converted into ammonia, while the concentrations of HCN and organic nitrogen containing compounds were very low

  17. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A. [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  18. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1997-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  19. Siemens fuel gasification technology - solutions and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, F.; Schingnitz, M.; Schmid, C. [Siemens Fuel Gasification Technology GmbH, Freiberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In 2006, Siemens Power Generation Group acquired the GSP Gasification technology, and renamed it SFGT. The presentation reviews the technology and provides an update on current projects. The future plans for the development of the technology based on extensive experience and comprehensive development work gathered over many years and proven in a number of gasification plants is covered. SFGT operates, at its Freiberg facility, a 5 MWth pilot plant which was built to test prototype designs and to determine process conditions for various feed streams. An overview is given of the results of tests completed on a wide range of carbonaceous materials including all types of solid fuels from lignite to anthracite, as well as brown coal, oil, sludge or biomass, and low-temperature coke or petcoke. The technical focus of the paper is on the unique design features such as the cooling screen and alternative refractory lining, as well as the dense flow feeding system that allows the preferable use of lignite applications.

  20. Coal reserves and resources as well as potentials for underground coal gasification in connection with carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilse, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    . However, these otherwise unprofitable coal deposits can be mined economically by means of underground coal gasification, during which coal is converted into a gaseous product in the deposit. The synthesis gas can be used for electricity generation, as chemical base material or for the production of petrol. This increases the usability of coal resources tremendously. At present the CCS technologies (carbon capture and storage) are a much discussed alternative to other CO2 abatement techniques like efficiency impovements. The capture and subsequent storage of CO2 in the deposits created by the actual underground gasification process seem to be technically feasible.

  1. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    a waste management perspective, pyrolysis and gasification are of relatively little importance as an overall management option. Today, gasification is primarily used on specific waste fractions as opposed to mixed household wastes. The main commercial activity so far has been in Japan, with only limited....... Today gasification is used within a range of applications, the most important of which are conversion of coal into syngas for use as chemical feedstock or energy production; but also gasification of biomass and waste is gaining significant interest as emerging technologies for sustainable energy. From...... success in Europe and North America (Klein et al., 2004). However, pyrolysis and gasification of waste are generally expected to become more widely used in the future. A main reason for this is that public perceptions of waste incineration in some countries is a major obstacle for installing new...

  2. Entrained bed gasification of coal: prediction of contaminant levels using thermodynamic calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Zheng, L.; Boudreau, F.; Kovacik, G. (CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Labs.)

    1993-10-01

    The F.A.C.T. method was used for predicting the emissions of S-, Cl-, N-, Pb- and As-containing contaminants from entrained bed gasification of one bituminous coal and one subbituminous coal. When the effect of mineral matter was included, the emissions of H[sub 2]S, CS[sub 2], COS, HCl and HCN decreased substantially whereas the amount of predicted NH[sub 3] remained unaffected. The decrease was offset by increased formation of metal sulphides, chlorides and cyanides. Relatively large amounts of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Pb and As in the gas were predicted by the method. The chlorides of these metals are also rather volatile. The presence of steam increased the amount of H[sub 2]S and HCl and decreased the amount of HCN in the products. 8 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Techno-Economic Comparison of Onshore and Offshore Underground Coal Gasification End-Product Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Christine Nakaten

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Underground Coal Gasification (UCG enables the utilisation of coal reserves that are currently not economically exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. Hereby, UCG produces a high-calorific synthesis gas that can be used for generation of electricity, fuels and chemical feedstock. The present study aims to identify economically competitive, site-specific end-use options for onshore and offshore produced UCG synthesis gas, taking into account the capture and storage (CCS and/or utilisation (CCU of resulting CO 2 . Modelling results show that boundary conditions that favour electricity, methanol and ammonia production expose low costs for air separation, high synthesis gas calorific values and H 2 /N 2 shares as well as low CO 2 portions of max. 10%. Hereby, a gasification agent ratio of more than 30% oxygen by volume is not favourable from economic and environmental viewpoints. Compared to the costs of an offshore platform with its technical equipment, offshore drilling costs are negligible. Thus, uncertainties related to parameters influenced by drilling costs are also negligible. In summary, techno-economic process modelling results reveal that scenarios with high CO 2 emissions are the most cost-intensive ones, offshore UCG-CCS/CCU costs are twice as high as the onshore ones, and yet all investigated scenarios except from offshore ammonia production are competitive on the European market.

  4. A critical review on biomass gasification, co-gasification, and their environmental assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Farzad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is an efficient process to obtain valuable products from biomass with several potential applications, which has received increasing attention over the last decades. Further development of gasification technology requires innovative and economical gasification methods with high efficiencies. Various conventional mechanisms of biomass gasification as well as new technologies are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, co-gasification of biomass and coal as an efficient method to protect the environment by reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions has been comparatively discussed. In fact, the increasing attention to renewable resources is driven by the climate change due to GHG emissions caused by the widespread utilization of conventional fossil fuels, while biomass gasification is considered as a potentially sustainable and environmentally-friendly technology. Nevertheless, social and environmental aspects should also be taken into account when designing such facilities, to guarantee the sustainable use of biomass. This paper also reviews the life cycle assessment (LCA studies conducted on biomass gasification, considering different technologies and various feedstocks.

  5. Performance, cost and environmental assessment of gasification-based electricity in India: A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Abha; Singh, Udayan; Jayant; Singh, Ajay K.; Sankar Mahapatra, Siba

    2017-07-01

    Coal gasification processes are crucial to decarbonisation in the power sector. While underground coal gasification (UCG) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) are different in terms of the site of gasification, they have considerable similarities in terms of the types of gasifiers used. Of course, UCG offers some additional advantages such as reduction of the fugitive methane emissions accompanying the coal mining process. Nevertheless, simulation of IGCC plants involving surface coal gasification is likely to give reasonable indication of the 3E (efficiency, economics and emissions) prospects of the gasification pathway towards electricity. This paper will aim at Estimating 3E impacts (efficiency, environment, economics) of gasification processes using simulation carried out in the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) software framework. Key plant level controls which will be studied in this paper will be based on Indian financial regulations and operating costs which are specific to the country. Also, impacts of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in these plants will be studied. The various parameters that can be studied are plant load factor, impact of coal quality and price, type of CO2 capture process, capital costs etc. It is hoped that relevant insights into electricity generation from gasification may be obtained with this paper.

  6. Gasification: in search of efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whysall, M. [UOP N.V., Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Gasification of low cost feed stocks such as coal and heavy residues enables the supply of synthesis gas, hydrogen, power and utilities at a lower cost relative to conventional methodologies. The resulting synthesis gas can be used, after cleaning and sulphur removal, as a fuel or to produce other chemicals such as ammonia, methanol, or Fischer-Tropsch liquids. The paper covers coal and residue upgrading through the use of gasification, conversion and hydroprocessing and its integration with synthesis gas treatment and hydrogen recovery. Residue conversion choices can be influenced by hydrogen cost which can be controlled by integrating hydrogen production, recovery and purification into the gasification complex. Flow-schemes that maximize generation efficiency and minimize capital and operating costs and offer possibilities for CO{sub 2} capture are discussed. 3 figs.

  7. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Test result report - 1/3); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Shiken kekka hokokusho 1/3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, a pilot test facility was constructed, and the results of tests and inspections conducted therefor are put together. They include a test of the motor-operated valve, individual test of the gasification furnace circulation water pump, individual test of the motor for the same, individual test of the SGC (syngas cooler) circulation water pump, individual test of the coal feeder rotary valve, individual test of the foreign matters extraction rotary valve, individual test of the foreign matters classifier, individual test of the char feeder rotary valve, individual test of the slag conveyer, individual test of the slag vibrator, individual test of the slag crusher, individual test of the slag separation tank exhaust blower, individual test of the slag separator water pump, test of gasification furnace interlocking, verification test of alert for the same, test of gasification furnace system pressure rise, test of oxygen line ventilation, test of comprehensive purge master sequence, verification test of distribution performance of the distributor, test on char system rock hopper pressure application and pressure release, test of pneumatic actuator valve loop, actual operational test of the soot blower, and an individual test of the receiving conveyer. (NEDO)

  8. Revival of coal. [France and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    This edition is devoted to the production and consumption of coal in France. It presents a study of the main topics involved, discusses the position of coal in France - under what form should it beused, and deals with coal consumption in cement works role of coal for urban district heating, future of coal gasification in France, France's coal policy, coal industry in the USA, underground gasification of coal, France's coal reserves, etc.. (In French)

  9. Co-gasification of meat and bone meal with coal in a fluidised bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cascarosa; L. Gasco; G. Gea; J.L. Sanchez; J. Arauzo [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain). Thermochemical Processes Group

    2011-08-15

    After the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy illness appeared, the meat and bone meat (MBM) produced from animal residues became an important waste. In spite of being a possible fuel due to its heating value (around 21.4 MJ/kg), an important fraction of the meat and bone meal is being sent to landfills. The aim of this work is to evaluate the co-gasification of low percentages of meat and bone meal with coal in a fluidised bed reactor as a potential waste management alternative. The effect of the bed temperature (800-900{sup o}C), the equivalence ratio (0.25-0.35) and the percentage of MBM in the solid fed (0-1 wt.%) on the co-gasification product yields and properties is evaluated. The results show the addition of 1 wt.% of MBM in a coal gasification process increases the gas and the liquid yield and decreases the solid yield at 900{sup o}C and 0.35 of temperature and equivalence ratio operational conditions. At operational conditions of 900{sup o}C and equivalence ratio of 0.35, the specific yield to gas (y{sub gas}) increases from 3.18 m{sup 3}(STP)/kg to 4.47 m{sup 3}(STP)/kg. The gas energy yield decreased 24.1% and the lower heating value of the gas decreases from 3.36 MJ/m{sup 3}(STP) to 2.16 MJ/m{sup 3}(STP). The concentration of the main gas components (H{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2}) hardly varies with the addition of MBM, however the light hydrocarbon concentrations decrease and the H{sub 2}S concentration increases at the higher temperature (900{sup o}C). 32 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamansky, Vladimir M.; Lissianski, Vitali V.

    2001-01-01

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR), which combines conventional reburning and Advanced Reburning (AR) technologies with an innovative method of delivering coal as the reburning fuel. The overall objective of this project is to develop engineering and scientific information and know-how needed to improve the cost of reburning via increased efficiency and minimized carbon in ash and move the FFR technology to the demonstration and commercialization stage. Specifically, the project entails: (1) optimizing FFR with injection of gasified and partially gasified fuels with respect to NO x and carbon in ash reduction; (2) characterizing flue gas emissions; (3) developing a process model to predict FFR performance; (4) completing an engineering and economic analysis of FFR as compared to conventional reburning and other commercial NO x control technologies, and (5) developing a full-scale FFR design methodology. The project started in August 2000 and will be conducted over a two-year period. The work includes a combination of analytical and experimental studies to identify optimum process configurations and develop a design methodology for full-scale applications. The first year of the program included pilot-scale tests to evaluate performances of two bituminous coals in basic reburning and modeling studies designed to identify parameters that affect the FFR performance and to evaluate efficiency of coal pyrolysis products as a reburning fuel. Tests were performed in a 300 kW Boiler Simulator Facility to characterize bituminous coals as reburning fuels. Tests showed that NO x reduction in basic coal reburning depends on process conditions, initial NO x and coal type. Up to 60% NO x reduction was achieved at optimized conditions. Modeling activities during first year concentrated on the development of coal reburning model and on the prediction of NO x reduction in reburning by coal gasification products. Modeling predicted that composition of coal

  11. Experimental fact-finding in CFB biomass gasification for ECN's 500 kWth pilot-plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Prins, W.; van der Drift, A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2003-01-01

    CFB biomass gasification has been studied by experimentation with ECN's pilot facility and a cold-flow model of this plant. Data obtained by normal operation of this plant and the results of some special experiments have provided new insight into the behavior of circulating fluidized bed reactors

  12. Recovery strategies for tackling the impact of phenolic compounds in a UASB reactor treating coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Han, Hongjun

    2012-01-01

    The impact of phenolic compounds (around 3.2 g/L) resulted in a completely failed performance in a mesophilic UASB reactor treating coal gasification wastewater. The recovery strategies, including extension of HRT, dilution, oxygen-limited aeration, and addition of powdered activated carbon were evaluated in batch tests, in order to obtain the most appropriate way for the quick recovery of the failed reactor performance. Results indicated that addition of powdered activated carbon and oxygen-limited aeration were the best recovery strategies in the batch tests. In the UASB reactor, addition of powdered activated carbon of 1 g/L shortened the recovery time from 25 to 9 days and oxygen-limited aeration of 0-0.5 mgO2/L reduced the recovery time to 17 days. Reduction of bioavailable concentration of phenolic compounds and recovery of sludge activity were the decisive factors for the recovery strategies to tackle the impact of phenolic compounds in anaerobic treatment of coal gasification wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-ignition of coal during in-situ gasification. Thermoanalytical investigations. Selbstentzuendung von Kohlen bei der Untertagevergasung. Thermoanalytische Untersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J O

    1986-01-10

    The underground gasification of deep coal strata via boreholes presupposes flow ways for the gasifying agent and the gasified media with a sufficiently high degree of permeability. Canal burning during countercurrent flow in low depths has been tested as a technical method for linking boreholes and enhancing gas permeability. For the execution of in situ gasification the control or prevention of the spontaneous ignition of the coal under high pressure should not be ignored, because of self-ignition resulting from canal burning in the linking phase. To investigate enthalpy change during the oxidation of coal under various conditions, a device for differential thermal analysis (DTA) was developed and constructed with which temperature development as a result of oxidation in a flowing pressure-gas atmosphere could be observed. A caloric calibration of the device permitted a direct inference of enthalpic difference from differential thermal potential as a measured value. With a regression model for reaction kinetics, the intensity of heat development was linked with kinetic data; this permitted a description of the dependence of the oxidation process on temperature and material concentration. From the interconnections discovered between the carbonization degree and enthalpy change during oxidation we may conclude that the oxidation process is controlled by the emergence of thermal decomposition products. The heat tonality diagram of the DTA of coal oxidation can be divided into three phases and interpreted in connection with the different degrees of carbonization. The results of the investigation reveal that inactivation of the coal before the actual process of linking is of considerable importance. (MOS).

  14. Gasification catalysts prepared by the reaction of CaCO3 and coal. Tansan karushiumu to sekitan no ion kokan hanno ni yori choseishita kokassei gas ka shokubai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Y.; Asami, K. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science)

    1991-11-07

    Properties of the active gasification catalysts prepared by ion exchange reaction of CaCO3 and coal were studied. Several kinds of Ca-loaded coal specimens were prepared to compare their properties among them by physically mixing coal particles with CaCO3 ones in air, by kneading both materials in pure water while crashing and by impregnating CaCO3 into coal while agitating them in pure water. Although Ca-loading onto the impregnated specimen was nearly one-half that of the kneaded one, its catalysis was equal to the kneaded one. CaCO3 greatly accelerated steam gasification only by mixing it with low rank coal in water, and such a high catalytic activity was caused by ion-exchanged Ca produced by the reaction between CaCO3 and COOH radical in coal. Aragonite of seashells yielded more Ca-loading than calcite of limestone, suggesting one of the useful treatment of seashell waste. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, M.R.; Yang, R.T.

    1985-10-03

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high purity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Theoretical study on composition of gas produced by coal gasification; Sekitan gas ka de seiseisuru gas no sosei ni kansuru kosatsu (HYCOL data no doteki kaiseki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiho, M.; Yasuda, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Yamada, O.; Soneda, Y.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In relation to considerations on composition of gas produced by coal gasification, the HYCOL hydrogen generation process data were analyzed. From the fact that CO concentration (Y) decreases linearly with CO2 concentration (X), element balance of gasification of reacted coal was used to introduce a reaction analysis equation. The equation includes a term of oxygen excess {Delta}(amount of oxygen consumed for combustion of CO and H2 in excess of the theoretical amount), derived by subtracting the stoichiometric oxygen amount used to gasify coal into CO and H2 from the consumed oxygen amount. The {Delta} can be used as a reference to oxygen utilization efficiency. An equation for the {Delta} was introduced. Also introduced was a term for steam decomposition amount derived by subtracting the generated steam from the supplied steam. These terms may be used as a clue to permeate into the gasifying reaction process. This suggestion was discussed by applying the terms to gas composition value during operation. According to the HYCOL analysis, when a gasification furnace is operated at higher than the reference oxygen amount, coal supply variation is directly reflected to the combustion reaction, making the {Delta} distribution larger. In an inverse case, unreacted carbon remains in the furnace due to oxygen shortage, and shift reaction may occur more easily even if oxygen/coal supply ratio varies. 6 figs., 1 ref.

  17. Closing the Loop - Utilization of Secondary Resources by Low Temperature Thermal Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape

    and drawbacks of low temperature gasification compared to anaerobic digestion and incineration are briefly discussed in this regard. Development and implementation of a method to screen for new fuel candidates for LT‐CFB gasification is conducted, and 22 new potential fuel candidates are characterized...... management compared to several of the currently applied management options. Proper management of sewage sludge holds a substantial potential for recovery of highly concentrated phosphorus (P) with good plant availability in ashes and chars from the thermal conversion. It is therefore decided to progress...... dust‐fired coal boilers, fossil fuels can be directly substituted with renewable fuels while reusing existing energy infrastructure. Currently, two operational LT‐CFB gasifiers exist: A pilot scale facility with a thermal capacity (TH) of 100 kW and a demonstration unit of 6 MWTH. Both units...

  18. Properties and Developments of Combustion and Gasification of Coal and Char in a CO2-Rich and Recycled Flue Gases Atmosphere by Rapid Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion and gasification properties of pulverized coal and char have been investigated experimentally under the conditions of high temperature gradient of order 200°C·s−1 by a CO2 gas laser beam and CO2-rich atmospheres with 5% and 10% O2. The laser heating makes a more ideal experimental condition compared with previous studies with a TG-DTA, because it is able to minimize effects of coal oxidation and combustion by rapid heating process like radiative heat transfer condition. The experimental results indicated that coal weight reduction ratio to gases followed the Arrhenius equation with increasing coal temperature; further which were increased around 5% with adding H2O in CO2-rich atmosphere. In addition, coal-water mixtures with different water/coal mass ratio were used in order to investigate roles of water vapor in the process of coal gasification and combustion. Furthermore, char-water mixtures with different water/char mass ratio were also measured in order to discuss the generation ratio of CO/CO2, and specified that the source of Hydrocarbons is volatile matter from coal. Moreover, it was confirmed that generations of CO and Hydrocarbons gases are mainly dependent on coal temperature and O2 concentration, and they are stimulated at temperature over 1000°C in the CO2-rich atmosphere.

  19. Comparative study of gasification of wood of coffee and coal plant fruit for dehydration; Estudo comparativo da gaseificacao da lenha de cafe e do carvao vegetal para desidratacao de frutas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Filho, Jaime dos; Oliveira, Eron Sardinha de [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil)], Emails: jaime@ifba.edu.br; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Galvarro, Svetlana Fialho Soria [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Chaves, Modesto Antonio [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos

    2009-07-01

    Renewable energy sources, in particular the biomass, has been gaining more space in the national and global energy matrix, mainly by reducing dependence on fossil fuels and being ecologically correct. The gasification is a process that has been viable and more efficient than conventional ovens and burners. In this context, this work is justified and has its importance in studying various kinds of biomasses used as raw material for production of heated air through the gasification. The objective of this research is to conduct a comparative study of the gasification of the firewood of coffee and the vegetal coal, with heating air purpose for dehydration of fruit. The temperature of the drying air was kept in approximately 70 deg C, through the control of air entrance in the mixer. It was concluded that both the firewood of coffee and the vegetal coal have potential as a fuel for gasification, with purpose of fruits dehydration. However it is recommended the use of the vegetal coal as the fuel to supply hot and clean air for food drying processes. (author)

  20. Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Tolbert, Scott; Curran, Tyler; Swanson, Michael

    2012-04-30

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has continued the work of the National Center for Hydrogen Technology® (NCHT®) Program Year 6 Task 1.12 project to expose hydrogen separation membranes to coal-derived syngas. In this follow-on project, the EERC has exposed two membranes to coal-derived syngas produced in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU). Western Research Institute (WRI), with funding from the State of Wyoming Clean Coal Technology Program and the North Dakota Industrial Commission, contracted with the EERC to conduct testing of WRI’s coal-upgrading/gasification technology for subbituminous and lignite coals in the EERC’s TRDU. This gasifier fires nominally 200–500 lb/hour of fuel and is the pilot-scale version of the full-scale gasifier currently being constructed in Kemper County, Mississippi. A slipstream of the syngas was used to demonstrate warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation using membrane technology. Two membranes were exposed to coal-derived syngas, and the impact of coal-derived impurities was evaluated. This report summarizes the performance of WRI’s patent-pending coalupgrading/ gasification technology in the EERC’s TRDU and presents the results of the warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation tests. Overall, the WRI coal-upgrading/gasification technology was shown to produce a syngas significantly lower in CO2 content and significantly higher in CO content than syngas produced from the raw fuels. Warm-gas cleanup technologies were shown to be capable of reducing sulfur in the syngas to 1 ppm. Each of the membranes tested was able to produce at least 2 lb/day of hydrogen from coal-derived syngas.

  1. Report on the research achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1992. Studies on improving the efficiency of coal gasification; 1992 nendo sekitan gas ka no kokoritsuka ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1992 in studies on improving the efficiency of coal gasification. Three kinds of coals were gasified under the atmosphere of hydrogen, He or CO2 by using the TPR method. The sulfur removing rate varies depending on coals even under the same reaction atmosphere, and so does the degree of influence of the atmospheric gases depending on coals. Very little effect of the atmospheric gases was found on the sulfur removing rate in Taiheiyo and Wandoan coals. While Tatung coal presents the same removing rate under the atmosphere of He and CO2, it shows 1.8 times greater removing rate under the hydrogen atmosphere. Generation patterns for H{sub 2}S and COS also vary depending on coal types and atmospheric gases. Inorganic sulfur shows the same behavior in the reaction process regardless of coal type and atmosphere, but organic sulfur behaves differently. The sulfur removing rate is determined by how easily the organic sulfur can be removed, which attributes to the difference in kinds and structures of organic sulfur compounds in the coal, together with the gas generation patterns. In order to discuss gasification of char, investigations were performed on effects of coal types and heat treatment temperatures, with regard to the gasification characteristics that can be estimated from the industrial and element analyses. (NEDO)

  2. Water management issues in the underground gasification of coal and the subsequent use of the voids for long-term carbon dioxide storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, P.L. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Newcastle Inst. for Research on Sustainability; Gonzalez, G. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Sir Joseph Swan Inst. for Energy Research; Amezaga, J.M. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research and Outreach

    2010-07-01

    A coupled underground coal gasification (UCG) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology was discussed. The technologies can be coupled so that voids created by mining can be uses as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage sites. UCG involves the in-situ gasification of coal using directionally-drilled wells. The gasification is achieved by spontaneous combustion initiated by the injection of steam and oxygen. The rate of UCG is controlled by varying the availability of oxygen. The syngas produced during the process is drawn to the surface via neighbouring production boreholes where it can then be transported by pipeline for use in range of applications. Voids created by the UCG process will collapse, leaving high permeability zones isolated from the surface by low permeability superincumbent strata. The UCG goaf and relaxed roof strata will have permeabilities 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than the permeabilities of deep saline aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs. The void volume needed to store the CO{sub 2} produced from the syngas can be 4 or 5 times the volume occupied by the extracted coal. Risks for groundwater arising from UCG are groundwater depletion, contamination, and gas leakage. Prudent site selection and the use of an effective risk assessment framework are needed to ensure the successful implementation of UCG-CCS processes. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  3. High resolution seismic survey (of the) Rawlins, Wyoming underground coal gasification area. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngberg, A.D.; Berkman, E.; Orange, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    In October 1982, a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Gulf Research and Development Company's underground coal gasification test site near Rawlins, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to utilize high resolution seismic technology to locate and characterize two underground coal burn zones. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow depths of interest. A three-dimensional grid of data was obtained over the Rawlins burn zones. Processing included time varying filters, trace composition, and two-dimensional areal stacking of the data in order to identify burn zone anomalies. An anomaly was discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse cavity associated with the burn zone which was studied in detail at the Rawlins 1 and 2 test sites. 21 refs., 20 figs.

  4. Study of mechanically activated coal combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdukov Anatolij P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion and air gasification of mechanically activated micro-ground coals in the flux have been studied. Influence of mechanically activated methods at coals grinding on their chemical activeness at combustion and gasification has been determined. Intense mechanical activation of coals increases their chemical activeness that enables development of new highly boosted processing methods for coals with various levels of metamorphism.

  5. Energy generation by air gasification of two industrial plastic wastes in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Two plastic wastes obtained as co-products from an industrial process were fed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having an internal diameter of 0.38 m and a maximum thermal output of about 400 kW. The experimental runs were carried out by reaching a condition of thermal and chemical steady state under values of equivalence ratio ranging from 0.2 to 0.3. Olivine, a neo-silicate of Fe and Mg, already tested as a good catalyst for tar removal during gasification of polyolefin plastic wastes, was used as bed material. The results provide the complete composition of the syngas, including the tar, particulate and acid/basic gas contents as well as the chemical and physical characterization of the bed material and entrained fines. The gasification process appears technically feasible, yielding a producer gas of valuable quality for energy applications in an appropriate plant configuration. On the other hand, under the experimental conditions tested, olivine particles show a strongly reduced catalytic activity in all the runs. The differences in the gasification behaviour of the two industrial plastics are explained on the basis of the structure and composition of the wastes, taking also into account the results of a combined material and substance flow analysis. - Highlights: • Pilot-scale investigation of fluidized bed gasification of two industrial plastic wastes. • Tests under conditions of thermal/chemical steady state at various equivalence ratios. • Complete composition of the producer gas, including tar, particulate and acid/basic gases. • Differences in the gasification behaviour of plastic wastes. • Material, substance, and feedstock energy flow analysis for different gasification tests

  6. Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of The Fuel Society of Japan (1991). 28th Coal Science Conference/91st Coke Meeting; (Sha) nenryo kyokai godo taikai happyo ronbunshu (1991). Dai 28 kai sekitan kagaku kaigi dai 91 kai cokes tokubetsukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-07

    Relating to coke, studies are made on the rapid coke production method, oven investigation during carbonization, and operational management/control. As to coal science, studies are mainly on the brown coal two-stage liquefaction (BCL) method, and data on the pilot plant and PSU are reported. Concerning bituminous coal liquefaction, PSU data mostly including the NEDOL process, and characteristics of liquefaction residue and its effective utilization by thermal decomposition are reported. Regarding the liquefaction mechanism, an experimentally extensive study on catalyst, solvent and reaction conditions is made using model materials and coal itself on the bench scale and also in the pilot plant. Engineering subjects on residue, solvent deashing, scale attachment and coprocessing are also reported. Relations of decomposition process to coal chemical structure changes and reaction conditions are investigated. As to coal gasification, studies, which are not many, are conducted on material balance, heat balance, and image characteristics of char for gasification and factors controlling reactivity.

  7. Acid Gas to Syngas (AG2S™) technology applied to solid fuel gasification: Cutting H_2S and CO_2 emissions by improving syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassani, Andrea; Pirola, Carlo; Maggio, Enrico; Pettinau, Alberto; Frau, Caterina; Bozzano, Giulia; Pierucci, Sauro; Ranzi, Eliseo; Manenti, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Coal gasification with improved yield and reduced emissions. • AG2S™ process converts H_2S and CO_2 into syngas, elemental sulfur and water. • Techno-economic simulation of AG2S™ process is carried out. • Industrial case-study on the Sotacarbo S.p.A. gasification pilot plant is proposed. - Abstract: The paper deals with the application of the novel Acid Gas To Syngas (AG2S™) technology to the gasification of solid fuels. The AG2S technology is a completely new effective route of processing acid gases: H_2S and CO_2 are converted into syngas (CO and H_2) by means of a regenerative thermal reactor. To show the application of the AG2S technology, modeling and simulation advances for gasification systems are initially discussed. The multi-scale, multi-phase, and multi-component coal gasification system is described by means of detailed kinetic mechanisms for coal pyrolysis, char heterogeneous reactions and for successive gas-phase reactions. These kinetic mechanisms are then coupled with transport resistances resulting in first-principles dynamic modeling of non-ideal reactors of different types (e.g., downdraft, updraft, traveling grate), also including the catalytic effect of ashes. The generalized approach pursued in developing the model allows characterizing the main phenomena involved in the coal gasification process, including the formation of secondary species (e.g., COS, CS_2). This tool is here further validated on literature data and, then, adopted to demonstrate the AG2S effectiveness, where H_2S and CO_2 emissions are reduced with an increase of syngas production. The resulting process solution is more economically appealing with respect to the traditional Claus process and finds several application areas.

  8. TASK 3: PILOT PLANT GASIFIER TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-11-01

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. Design, fabrication and initial testing of the pilot plant compact gasifier was completed in 2011 by a development team led by AR. Findings from this initial test program, as well as subsequent gasifier design and pilot plant testing by AR, identified a number of technical aspects to address prior to advancing into a demonstration-scale gasifier design. Key among these were an evaluation of gasifier ability to handle thermal environments with highly reactive coals; ability to handle high ash content, high ash fusion temperature coals with reliable slag discharge; and to develop an understanding of residual properties pertaining to gasification kinetics as carbon conversion approaches 99%. The gasifier did demonstrate the ability to withstand the thermal environments of highly reactive Powder River Basin coal, while achieving high carbon conversion in < 0.15 seconds residence time. Continuous operation with the high ash fusion temperature Xinyuan coal was demonstrated in long duration testing, validating suitability of outlet design as well as downstream slag discharge systems. Surface area and porosity data were obtained for the Xinyuan and Xinjing coals for carbon conversion ranging from 85% to 97%, and showed a pronounced downward trend in surface area per unit mass carbon as conversion increased. Injector faceplate measurements showed no incremental loss of material over the course of these experiments, validating the commercially traceable design approach and supportive of long injector life goals. Hybrid testing of PRB and natural gas was successfully completed over a wide range of natural gas feed content, providing test data to anchor predictions

  9. The development of solid fuel gasification systems for cost-effective power generation with low environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M; Kurkela, E; Staahlberg, P; Laatikainen-Luntama, J; Ranta, J; Hepola, J; Kangasmaa, K [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Gasification and Advanced Combustion

    1997-10-01

    Relatively low carbon conversion is a disadvantage related to the air-blown fluidised-bed coal-biomass co-gasification process. Low carbon conversion is due to different reactivities and ash sintering behaviour of coal and biomass which leads to compromises in definition of gasification process conditions. In certain cases co-gasification may also lead to unexpected deposit formations or corrosion problems in downstream components especially when high alkali metal or chlorine containing biomass feedstocks are co-gasified with coal. During the reporting period, the work focused on co-gasification of coal and wood waste. The objectives of the present work were to find out the optimum conditions for improving the carbon conversion and to study the formation of different gas impurities. The results based on co-gasification tests with a pressurised fluidised-bed gasifies showed that in co-gasification even with only 15 % coal addition the heavy tar concentration was decreased significantly and, simultaneously, an almost total carbon conversion was achieved by optimising the gasification conditions. The study of filter fines recirculation and solid residues utilisation was started by characterizing filter dust. The work was carried out with an entrained-flow reactor in oxidising, inert and reducing gas conditions. The aim was to define the conditions required for achieving increased carbon conversion in different reactor conditions

  10. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energy's Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  11. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cena, R. J.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1981-08-21

    The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping subbituminous) and processing techniques. A summary of all DOE-sponsored tests to data is shown. The development of UCG on a commercial scale requires involvement from both the public and private sectors. However, without detailed process information, accurate assessments of the commercial viability of UCG cannot be determined. To help overcome this problem the DOE has directed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a UCG data base containing raw and reduced process data from all DOE-sponsored field tests. It is our intent to make the data base available upon request to interested parties, to help them assess the true potential of UCG.

  12. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Behrens, G. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Toxic emissions were measured in the gaseous, solid and aqueous effluent streams in a coal-fired gasification plant. Several internal process streams were also characterized to assess pollution control device effectiveness. The program, consisted of three major phases. Phase I was the toxics emission characterization program described above. phase II included the design, construction and shakedown testing of a high-temperature, high-pressure probe for collecting representative trace composition analysis of hot (1200{degrees}F) syngas. Phase III consisted of the collection of hot syngas samples utilizing the high-temperature probe. Preliminary results are presented which show the emission factors and removal efficiencies for several metals that are on the list of compounds defined by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  13. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmis, Michael [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Luttrell, Gerald [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Ripepi, Nino [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Bratton, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Dohm, Erich [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NOx, CO2, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  14. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 3: Combustors, furnaces and low-BTU gasifiers. [used in coal gasification and coal liquefaction (equipment specifications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Information is presented on the design, performance, operating characteristics, cost, and development status of coal preparation equipment, combustion equipment, furnaces, low-Btu gasification processes, low-temperature carbonization processes, desulfurization processes, and pollution particulate removal equipment. The information was compiled for use by the various cycle concept leaders in determining the performance, capital costs, energy costs, and natural resource requirements of each of their system configurations.

  15. Main economic characteristics of new plant for underground gasification of coal. [5 planned USSR commercial installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leshchinskii, B F; Markman, L M

    1957-01-01

    As a result of experimental investigations, the erection of five large-capacity, industrial, underground gasification stations is planned. The locations and chief customers of the five stations are listed and their characteristics are as follows: 1. North Tula Station will use brown coal that averages 30 percent moisture and 23.1 percent ash. The coalbed, 1.5 meters thick, is horizontal and lies at a depth of 50 meters. Total reserves are estimated at 10.7 million tons and industrial reserves at 7 million tons. 2. Gorlovsky Station will use brown coal, averaging 30 percent water and 21 to 27.3 percent ash. The coalbed, 2.1 to 2.7 meters thick, is horizontal and lies at a depth of 35 to 60 meters. Total reserves are 105.4 million tons; industrial reserves are 73.5 million tons. 3. South Abinsk Station will use hard coal in beds 0.83 to 20 meters thick and contain 38 percent water and 9.4 percent ash. The angle of dip ranges from 60 to 70/sup 0/. The coal averages 330 meters from the surface. Total reserves are 98 million tons; industrial reserves are 58.5 million tons. 4. Stalinsk Station will use a semianthracite containing 12 to 15 percent ash and 7.7 to 12 percent volatile matter. The beds are 0.8 to 8.3 meters thick; the angle of dip ranges from 35 to 75/sup 0/. Total reserves are 287.6 million tons; reserves for gasification are 74.5 million tons. Depth from surface is 290 to 460 meters. 5. South Kuzbass Station will use hard coal that contains 4 to 19 percent ash and 8 to 15 percent volatiles. The beds are from 0.62 to 5.64 meters thick; the angle of dip ranges from 15 to 70/sup 0/. Total reserves are 156.9 million tons; industrial reserves are 105.5 million tons. The basic economic and technical figures for all five stations are listed. Capital investment costs and costs per unit of fuel are compared with those of conventional coal mines.

  16. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Vitali V. Lissianski

    2001-09-07

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR), which combines conventional reburning and Advanced Reburning (AR) technologies with an innovative method of delivering coal as the reburning fuel. The overall objective of this project is to develop engineering and scientific information and know-how needed to improve the cost of reburning via increased efficiency and minimized carbon in ash and move the FFR technology to the demonstration and commercialization stage. Specifically, the project entails: (1) optimizing FFR with injection of gasified and partially gasified fuels with respect to NO{sub x} and carbon in ash reduction; (2) characterizing flue gas emissions; (3) developing a process model to predict FFR performance; (4) completing an engineering and economic analysis of FFR as compared to conventional reburning and other commercial NO{sub x} control technologies, and (5) developing a full-scale FFR design methodology. The project started in August 2000 and will be conducted over a two-year period. The work includes a combination of analytical and experimental studies to identify optimum process configurations and develop a design methodology for full-scale applications. The first year of the program included pilot-scale tests to evaluate performances of two bituminous coals in basic reburning and modeling studies designed to identify parameters that affect the FFR performance and to evaluate efficiency of coal pyrolysis products as a reburning fuel. Tests were performed in a 300 kW Boiler Simulator Facility to characterize bituminous coals as reburning fuels. Tests showed that NO{sub x} reduction in basic coal reburning depends on process conditions, initial NO{sub x} and coal type. Up to 60% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved at optimized conditions. Modeling activities during first year concentrated on the development of coal reburning model and on the prediction of NO{sub x} reduction in reburning by coal gasification products. Modeling predicted that

  17. Volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the gasification of a Victorian brown coal in CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quyn, Dimple Mody; Li, Chun-Zhu [CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Department of Chemical Engineering, PO Box 36, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Hayashi, Jun-ichiro [Centre for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials, Hokkaido University, N13-W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2005-08-25

    A Victorian brown coal was gasified in a bench-scale quartz fluidised-bed/fixed-bed reactor in order to study the volatilisation of Na, Ca, and Mg during devolatilisation and gasification and their roles in the reactivity of chars. It was found that the majority of Na was volatilised at 900 {sup o}C under all conditions and that a Na retention limit was achieved in the char with the progress of CO{sub 2} gasification. In some cases, the presence of CO{sub 2} during devolatilisation enhanced the Na retention in the char. In contrast, the retention of Ca (and Mg) was unaffected by CO{sub 2} during devolatilisation at 900C but decreased drastically upon nascent char gasification. The fundamental differences in volatilisation between the alkali and alkaline earth metallic species are discussed in this paper.

  18. Behaviour of gaseous alkali compounds from coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykaenen, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this project the behaviour of alkali compounds has been studied with a chemical equilibrium model. The goal is to evaluate the possibilities to remove the sodium and potassium compounds together with the fly ash particles by using a ceramic honeycomb filter. The studied processes include both CO 2 /O 2 - and air-blown gasification and combustion. The results show that the difference between the processes with flue gas recirculation and air-blown processes is small. This is due to that the equilibrium concentration of the dominant gaseous alkali compound, chloride, is more or less the same in both processes. This research project is closely connected to the EU-project coordinated by the Delft University of Technology (DUT). In that project alkali concentration of the fuel gas from a 1.6 MW pilot plant will be measured. During the next phase of this research the results from DUT will be compared with the results of this presentation. (author)

  19. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  20. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2005-08-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details Test Campaign TC18 of the PSDF gasification process. Test campaign TC18 began on June 23, 2005, and ended on August 22, 2005, with the gasifier train accumulating 1,342 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Some of the testing conducted included commissioning of a new recycle syngas compressor for gasifier aeration, evaluation of PCD filter elements and failsafes, testing of gas cleanup technologies, and further evaluation of solids handling equipment. At the conclusion of TC18, the PSDF gasification process had been operated for more than 7,750 hours.

  1. Co-gasification of biosolids with biomass: Thermogravimetric analysis and pilot scale study in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming Ming; Masnadi, Mohammad S; Grace, John R; Bi, Xiaotao T; Lim, C Jim; Li, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    This work studied the feasibility of co-gasification of biosolids with biomass as a means of disposal with energy recovery. The kinetics study at 800°C showed that biomass, such as switchgrass, could catalyze the reactions because switchgrass ash contained a high proportion of potassium, an excellent catalyst for gasification. However, biosolids could also inhibit gasification due to interaction between biomass alkali/alkaline earth metals and biosolids clay minerals. In the pilot scale experiments, increasing the proportion of biosolids in the feedstock affected gasification performance negatively. Syngas yield and char conversion decreased from 1.38 to 0.47m(3)/kg and 82-36% respectively as the biosolids proportion in the fuel increased from 0% to 100%. Over the same range, the tar content increased from 10.3 to 200g/m(3), while the ammonia concentration increased from 1660 to 19,200ppmv. No more than 25% biosolids in the fuel feed is recommended to maintain a reasonable gasification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Coal chemistry and technology. Komur Kimyasi ve Teknolojisi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kural, O [ed.

    1988-01-01

    The 18 chapters cover the following topics: mining in Turkey; formation, petrography and classification of coal; chemical and physical properties of coal; mechanical properties of coal; spontaneous combustion of coal and the methods of prevention; sampling of coal; coal preparation and plants; desulfurization of coal; bituminous coal and its consumption; lignite and its consumption; world coal trade and transportation; other important carbon fuels; briquetting of coal; carbonization and coking formed coke; liquefaction of coal; gasification of coal; underground gasification of coal; and combustion models, fluidized-bed combustion, furnaces. An English-Turkish coal dictionary is included. 641 refs., 244 figs., 108 tabs.

  3. Fiscal 1995 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 1 - Studies of key elements and techniques); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Element techniques were studied and surveyed for establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle. In fiscal 1995, E coal (coal of high ash fluid point) gasification was tested in the 2 tons/day furnace for the effect of its properties on furnace operation and for its properties relating to gasification and slagging and for changes in such properties due to flux admixed with the E coal. It was then found that the ash fluid point was so high as 1500 degrees C and that flux admixing, recovered oxygen reinjection, etc., would be necessary for the assurance of stable slag discharge. In a study using combined cycle system simulation, a comparison was made between results from tests conducted on a real system and results from the simulation, based on the detailed model completed by the preceding fiscal year. The model was reviewed and improved, and simulations were conducted in the respective operating states and operating modes. In the survey of element techniques, information was gathered at a Japan-U.S. joint technical conference held in Japan in October this year. Studies were also made about technical guidelines, or the like, involving coal gasification power generation. (NEDO)

  4. Revised users manual, Pulverized Coal Gasification or Combustion: 2-dimensional (87-PCGC-2): Final report, Volume 2. [87-PCGC-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1987-12-01

    A two-dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and non-reactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. Recent code revisions and additions are described. The model, referred to as 87-PCGC-2, is applicable to cylindrical axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using either a flux method or discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a Lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. Several multi-step coal devolatilization schemes are included along with a heterogeneous reaction scheme that allows for both diffusion and chemical reaction. Major gas-phase reactions are modeled assuming local instantaneous equilibrium, and thus the reaction rates are limited by the turbulent rate mixing. A NO/sub x/ finite rate chemistry submodel is included which integrates chemical kinetics and the statistics of the turbulence. The gas phase is described by elliptic partial differential equations that are solved by an iterative line-by-line technique. Under-relaxation is used to achieve numerical stability. The generalized nature of the model allows for calculation of isothermal fluid mechanicsgaseous combustion, droplet combustion, particulate combustion and various mixtures of the above, including combustion of coal-water and coal-oil slurries. Both combustion and gasification environments are permissible. User information and theory are presented, along with sample problems. 106 refs.

  5. Texaco gasification power systems for clean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, M.E.; Thone, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Texaco Gasification Power Systems integrate Texaco's proprietary gasification technology with proven power generation and energy recovery schemes for efficient and environmentally superior fuel utilization. Texaco's commercial experience on gasification spans a period of over 40 years. During this time, the Texaco Gasification Process has been used primarily to manufacture synthesis gas for chemical applications in one hundred commercial installations worldwide. Power generation using the Texaco Gasification Power Systems (TGPS) concept has been successfully demonstrated at the Texaco-sponsored Cool Water Coal Gasification Program in California. The environmental superiority of this technology was demonstrated by the consistent performance of Cool Water in exceeding the strict emission standards of the state of California. Currently, several TGPS projects are under evaluation worldwide for power generation in the range of 90MW to 1300MW

  6. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  7. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    The present Ph. D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations on entrained flow gasification of biomass and an experimental investigation on entrained flow cogasification of biomass and coal. A review of the current knowledge of biomass entrained flow gasification is presented....... Biomass gasification experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor with the aim to investigate the effects of operating parameters and biomass types on syngas products. A wide range of operating parameters was involved: reactor temperature, steam/carbon ratio......, excess air ratio, oxygen concentration, feeder gas flow, and residence time. Wood, straw, and lignin were used as biomass fuels. In general, the carbon conversion was higher than 90 % in the biomass gasification experiments conducted at high temperatures (> 1200 °C). The biomass carbon...

  8. ITM oxygen for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.A.; Foster, E.P. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    This paper described a newly developed air separation technology called Ionic Transport Membrane (ITM), which reduces the overall cost of the gasification process. The technology is well suited for advanced energy conversion processes such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) that require oxygen and use heavy carbonaceous feedstocks such as residual oils, bitumens, coke and coal. It is also well suited for traditional industrial applications for oxygen and distributed power. Air Products Canada Limited developed the ceramic membrane air separation technology that can reduce the cost of pure oxygen by more than 30 per cent. The separation technology achieves a capital cost reduction of 30 per cent and an energy reduction of 35 per cent over conventional cryogenic air separation. ITM is an electrochemical process that integrates well with the gasification process and an IGCC option for producing electricity from the waste heat generated from gasification. This paper described the integration of ITM technology with both the gasification and IGCC processes and showed the attractive economics of ITM. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. Gasification of biomass - principles and technical alternatives; Vergasung von Biomassen - Prinzipien und technische Moeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, E [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The technical principles of gasification are outlined, and a number of biomass gasification processes are presented and compared with the coal gasification process. On the basis of the knowledge gained in coal gasification, it will be easy to carry out the development work still required on small-scale biomass gasification systems in cooperation with the gas users. (orig) [Deutsch] Das technische Prinzip derVergasung und verschiedene Verfahrensweisen bei der Vergasung von Biomasse werden vorgestellt und mit der Kohlevergasung verglichen. Auf der Grundlage der technischen Erkenntnisse bei der Kohlevergasung einschliesslich der vor- und nachgeschalteten Prozessstufen sind die noch notwendigen verfahrens- und apparatetechnischen Entwicklungsarbeiten fuer vorwiegend kleine Anlagen in Zusammenarbeit mit den Gasnutzern durchfuehrbar. (orig)

  10. Gasification of biomass - principles and technical alternatives; Vergasung von Biomassen - Prinzipien und technische Moeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, E. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The technical principles of gasification are outlined, and a number of biomass gasification processes are presented and compared with the coal gasification process. On the basis of the knowledge gained in coal gasification, it will be easy to carry out the development work still required on small-scale biomass gasification systems in cooperation with the gas users. (orig) [Deutsch] Das technische Prinzip derVergasung und verschiedene Verfahrensweisen bei der Vergasung von Biomasse werden vorgestellt und mit der Kohlevergasung verglichen. Auf der Grundlage der technischen Erkenntnisse bei der Kohlevergasung einschliesslich der vor- und nachgeschalteten Prozessstufen sind die noch notwendigen verfahrens- und apparatetechnischen Entwicklungsarbeiten fuer vorwiegend kleine Anlagen in Zusammenarbeit mit den Gasnutzern durchfuehrbar. (orig)

  11. Effect of Colombian coal rank and its feeding technology on substitute natural gas production by entrained gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Pérez-Bayer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of coal rank (from sub-bituminous to semi-anthracite and type of fuel feeding technology (slurry and dry on the production of substitute natural gas (SNG in entrained flow gasifiers is studied. Ten coals from important Colombian mines were selected. The process is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium using Aspen Plus, and its performance is evaluated in function of output parameters that include SNG heating value, Wobbe index, coal conversion efficiency, cold gas efficiency, process efficiency, global efficiency, and SNG production rate, among others. In descending order, the coal-to-SNG process improves energetically with the use of coals with: higher volatile-matter to fixed-carbon ratio, lower ash content, higher C+H/O ratio, and higher coal heating value. The overall energy efficiency of the slurry-feed technology (S-FT to produce SNG by gasification is 17% higher than the dry-feed technology (D-FT, possibly as a consequence of the higher CH4 concentration in the syngas (around 7 vol. % when the coal is fed as aqueous slurry. As the simulated SNG meets the natural gas (NG quality standards in Colombia, the substitute gaseous fuel could be directly transported through pipelines. Therefore, the coal-to-SNG process is a technically feasible and unconventional alternative for NG production.

  12. Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2016-12-20

    The overall objective of the current project was to investigate the high pressure gasification characteristics of a feed containing both coal and biomass. The two feed types differ in their ash contents and ash composition, particularly the alkali content. Gasification of a combined feed of coal and biomass has the potential for considerable synergies that might lead to a dramatic improvement in process economics and flexibility. The proposed study aimed to develop a detailed understanding of the chemistry, kinetics, and transport effects during high pressure gasification of coal-biomass blend feed. Specifically, we studied to develop: (a) an understanding of the catalytic effect of alkali and other inorganic species present in the biomass and coal, (b) an understanding of processing conditions under which synergistic effects of the blending of coal and biomass might be observed. This included the role of particle size, residence time, and proximity of the two feed types, (c) kinetics of high pressure gasification of individual feeds as well as the blends, and (d) development of mathematical models that incorporate kinetics and transport models to enable prediction of gasification rate at a given set of operating conditions, and (e) protocols to extend the results to other feed resources. The goal was to provide a fundamental understanding of the gasification process and guide in optimizing the configurations and design of the next generation of gasifiers. The approach undertaken was centered on two basic premises: (1) the gasification for small particles without internal mass transfer limitations can be treated as the sum of two processes in series (pyrolysis and char gasification) , and (2) the reactivity of the char generated during pyrolysis not only depends on the pressure and temperature but is also affected by the heating rates. Thus low heating rates (10-50 °C/min) typical of PTGA fail to produce char that would typically be formed at high heating rates

  13. Gasification in a revolving tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speicher, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a method for allothermal coal gasification is to refine raw lignite from the Rhine area to high-quality synthesis gas or reduction gas without extracting the water utilizing nuclear process heat in a heated revolving bundle of tubes. Computational models are described for the macroscopic course of events in parallel flow gasification. In the design of the test plant, the principle of drag-in and transport of the tube drier was applied. (DG) [de

  14. Life-cycle assessment for coal-based methanol production in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Changhang; Bai, Hongtao; Lu, Yuanye

    2018-01-01

    using the coal coking technology than by producing methanol using the coal gasification technology, especially in terms of acidification, global warming, and photochemical oxidation. In particular, significantly less environmental harm in terms of climate change and radiation is caused by the coal...... coking technology than by the coal gasification technology. Different sub-processes clearly make different contributions to environmental harm. The results indicated that the methanol production process, heating, and desalination are the main sources of environmental harm for both the coal gasification...... technology and coal coking technology. Importantly, the public engineering process rather than the methanol production process itself was found to determine emissions for the different methanol production methods....

  15. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-12-01

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC25, the second test campaign using a high moisture lignite coal from the Red Hills mine in Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC25 was conducted from July 4, 2008, through August 12, 2008. During TC25, the PSDF gasification process operated for 742 hours in air-blown gasification mode. Operation with the Mississippi lignite was significantly improved in TC25 compared to the previous test (TC22) with this fuel due to the addition of a fluid bed coal dryer. The new dryer was installed to dry coals with very high moisture contents for reliable coal feeding. The TC25 test campaign demonstrated steady operation with high carbon conversion and optimized performance of the coal handling and gasifier systems. Operation during TC25 provided the opportunity for further testing of instrumentation enhancements, hot gas filter materials, and advanced syngas cleanup technologies. The PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane with syngas from the Transport Gasifier.

  16. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  17. Catalytic technology in the energy/environment field. Utilization of catalyst in coal pyrolysis and gasification processes; Energy kankyo bun`ya ni okeru shokubai gijutsu. Sekitan no netsubunkai oyobi gas ka ni okeru shokubai no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Institute for Chemical Reaction Science (Japan)

    1998-05-20

    This review article focuses on the utilization of several catalysts during coal pyrolysis and gasification. In situ or off line catalytic upgrading of volatile matters during pyrolysis of low rank coals is carried out in pressurized H2 with different reactors to produce BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene). When NiSO4 and Ni(OH)2 are used in the hydropyrolysis of Australian brown coal using an entrained bed reactor with two separated reaction zones, BTX yield reaches 18-23%. MS-13X zeolite and USY zeolite mixed with Al2O3 are effective for producing BTX with powder-particle fluidized bed and two-stage reactors, respectively. Catalytic gasification is described from a standpoint of direct production of SNG(CH4) from coal and steam. When K2CO3 and Ni are compared for this purpose, Ni catalyst is more suitable at low temperatures of 500-600degC, where CH4 formation is thermodynamically favorable. Fe and Ca catalysts can successfully be prepared from inexpensive raw materials and are rather active for steam gasification at {>=}700degC. The use of upgrading and gasification catalysts is discussed in terms of preparation, performance, life and recovery. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Energy and exergy analysis of alternating injection of oxygen and steam in the low emission underground gasification of deep thin coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Ali Akbar; Wolf, Karl Heinz; Rogut, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that by coupling the underground coal gasification (UCG) with the carbon capture and storage (CCS), the coal energy can be economically extracted with a low carbon footprint. To investigate the effect of UCG and CCS process parameters on the feasibility of the UCG-CCS pr....... Additionally, we show that the zero-emission conversion of unmineable deep thin coal resources in a coupled UCG-CCS process, that is not practical with the current state of technology, can be realized by increasing the energy efficiency of the carbon dioxide capture process.......-CCS process, we utilize a validated mathematical model, previously published by the same authors, that can predict the composition of the UCG product, temperature profile, and coal conversion rate for alternating injection of air and steam for unmineable deep thin coal layers. We use the results of the model...

  19. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Co-gasification/co-firing of Biomass and Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Howard, Bret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hedges, Sheila [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Morreale, Bryan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Van Essendelft, Dirk [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Berry, David [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-10-29

    Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/co-firing of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550⁰C for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300⁰C and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300⁰C lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300⁰C is probably sufficient to

  20. Investigations of gas explosions in a nuclear coal gasification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, K.

    1981-01-01

    The safety research program on gas cloud explosions is performed in the context of the German project of the Prototype Plant Nuclear Process Heat. By the work within this project, it is tried to extend the use of nuclear energy to non-electric application. The programme comprises efforts in several scientific disciplines. The final goal is to provide a representative pressure-time-function or a set of such functions. These functions should be the basis for safe design and construction of the nuclear reactor system of a coal gasification plant. No result yet achieved contradicts the assumption that released process gas is only able to deflagrate. It should be possible to demonstrate that, if unfavourable configurations are avoided, a design pressure of 300 mbar is sufficient to withstand an explosion of process gas; this pressure should never be exceeded by process gas explosions irrespective of gas mass released and distance to release point, except possibly in relatively small areas

  1. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Wotzak; Chellappa Balan; Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    The pre-baseline configuration for an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) system has been developed. This case uses current gasification, clean-up, gas turbine, and bottoming cycle technologies together with projected large planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. This pre-baseline case will be used as a basis for identifying the critical factors impacting system performance and the major technical challenges in implementing such systems. Top-level system requirements were used as the criteria to evaluate and down select alternative sub-systems. The top choice subsystems were subsequently integrated to form the pre-baseline case. The down-selected pre-baseline case includes a British Gas Lurgi (BGL) gasification and cleanup sub-system integrated with a GE Power Systems 6FA+e gas turbine and the Hybrid Power Generation Systems planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) sub-system. The overall efficiency of this system is estimated to be 43.0%. The system efficiency of the pre-baseline system provides a benchmark level for further optimization efforts in this program.

  2. Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu

    2012-03-11

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously achieving enhanced energy security and deep reductions in U.S. GHG emissions in the coming decades. Designs included systems using primarily already-commercialized component technologies, which may have the potential for near-term deployment at scale, as well as systems incorporating some advanced technologies at various stages of R&D. All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO

  3. Pilot scale testing of biomass feedstocks for use in gasification/gas turbine based power generation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najewicz, D.J.; Furman, A.H. [General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A biomass gasification pilot program was performed at the GE Corporate Research and Development Center using two types of biomass feedstock. The object of the testing was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its` suitability as a fuel for gas turbine based power generation cycles. The test program was sponsored by the State of Vermont, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy and Winrock International/US Agency for International Development. Gasification of bagasse and wood chip feedstock was performed at a feed rate of approximately one ton per hour, using the Ge pressurized fixed bed gasifier and a single stage of cyclone particulate removal, operating at a temperature of 1,000 F. Both biomass feedstocks were found to gasify easily, and gasification capacity was limited by volumetric capacity of the fuel feed equipment. The biomass product gas was analyzed for chemical composition, particulate loading, fuel bound nitrogen levels, sulfur and alkali metal content. The results of the testing indicated the combustion characteristics of the biomass product gas are compatible with gas turbine combustor requirements. However, the particulate removal performance of the pilot facility single stage cyclone was found to be inadequate to meet turbine particulate contamination specifications. In addition, alkali metals found in biomass based fuels, which are known to cause corrosion of high temperature gas turbine components, were found to exceed allowable levels in the fuel gas. These alkali metal compounds are found in the particulate matter (at 1000 F) carried over from the gasifier, thus improved particulate removal technology, designed specifically for biomass particulate characteristics could meet the turbine requirements for both particulate and alkali loading. The paper will present the results of the biomass gasification testing and discuss the development needs in the area of gas clean-up and turbine combustion.

  4. Reports on 1977 result of Sunshine Project. Research for detailed design of coal gasification plant (studies on operating conditions 'pressurized hydro-fluidized gasification method', dissolution of research equipment); 1977 nendo sekitan gas ka plant no shosai sekkei no tame no shiken kenkyu seika hokokusho. Unten joken no kenkyu 'kaatsu suiten ryudo gas ka hoshiki' kenkyu kaitai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    The pressurized hydro-fluidized gasification method is such that coal is hydro-gasified under a pressure of 30kg/cm{sup 3} to produce a methane-rich calorie gas. This method is a combination of three independent processes, namely, (1) thermal cracking of coal, (2) hydrogasification of thermally decomposed product, and (3) water gasification for self-contained hydrogen, and is a continuous gasification method in which all processes are operated in a fluidized bed. In fiscal 1976, an operation technique was found in which conditions suitable for each reaction purpose were given to a detached thermal cracking furnace and hydrogasification furnace and in which continuous gasification was still maintained without an adverse effect between the two furnaces. This year, the continuous gasification test will be implemented successively, determining suitable operating conditions for the purpose of increasing methane concentration and improving gasification efficiency, and concurrently extracting device-related problems that impair the continuous operation. With the aim of obtaining a self-contained system for hydrogen, water gasification tests will be conducted, with the optimum conditions determined for the water gasification. An operation test will be carried out for an internal heat type control box, so that the functions under pressurization, durability and operation criteria will be determined. (NEDO)

  5. Report on 1978 results. R and D on coal gasification technology (R and D on manufacture of low calorie gas for electric power generation); 1978 nendo sekitan gas ka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hatsuden'yo teikarori gas no seizo ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-05-01

    The subject research has been conducted, since fiscal 1974, on the development of a pressurized fluidized-bed low calorie gasification furnace and on the various problems concerning a combined cycle power system, with the aim of establishing a technology for manufacturing fuel gas for power generation from coal and a power generation system linked with the technology. At the end of fiscal 1974, a test equipment was completed in Yubari for the development of gasification process with a coal processing capacity of 5 t/day, operating the gasification furnace for a total of 1,506 hours and gasifying Pacific coal for a total of 185 tons. The gasification reaction conditions were varied within the range of 0.3-1.5 mm coal grain size, 850-1,050 degrees C temperature, and normal to 8 atmospheric pressure, with a continuous test conducted for 48-96 hours, and with basic operation data obtained capable of producing gas having 1,200-1,400 kcal/Nm{sup 3} calories. In addition, through feasibility study, research and investigation were carried out for technologies relating to the practicability of a gasification power generation plant in 30 MW and 500 MW class. Implemented this year were studies for grasping various operating conditions by the 5 t/day gasification equipment, manufacture of a 40 t/day gasification equipment, and foundation work for construction in the Yubari test site. (NEDO)

  6. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

  7. Development of the ultra-clean dry cleanup process for coal-based syngases: pilot-scale evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.B. Slimane; P.V. Bush; J.L. Aderhold, Jr.; B.G. Bryan; R.A. Newby; D. A. Horazak; S.C. Jain [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports on a recent successful pilot-scale evaluation of the Ultra-Clean Process performance at a 10-ton/day coal gasifier facility. In these tests, carbonaceous feedstocks were gasified, using GTI's fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasification technology, to generate syngas. The raw syngas was then conditioned and fed to the UCP test section for deep cleaning to meet very stringent cleaning requirements for chemical feedstocks or liquid-fuel synthesis applications, or for fuel-cell power generation. Fine particle sorbents for sulfur, halide, and mercury removal were injected into the syngas upstream of two stages of particulate controlled devices, 'barrier filter-reactors', coupling efficient particle capture with an effective entrained and filter cake reaction environment for very effective multiple contaminant removal. The goal of the test program was to confirm sorbent selection, filter-reactor operating parameters and sorbent-to-contaminant ratios, which were previously determined in the laboratory to have potential to reduce contaminant concentrations to very low levels. The pilot-scale data developed are being used to update conceptual evaluations, which have shown the technical feasibility, cost effectiveness and commercial merit for the Ultra-Clean Process compared to conventional, Rectisol-based syngas cleaning. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Research on novel coal conversion technology for energy and environment in 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Takarada [Gunma University (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    In the 21st century, more efficient coal conversion technology will be needed. In this paper, novel gasification, pyrolysis and desulfurization processes using active catalysts are introduced. In particular, the application of ion-exchanged metals in brown coal to coal conversion technology is featured in this study. Other topics discussed include: Catalysis of mineral matter in coal; Catalytic effectiveness of Ni and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for various coals; Direct production of methane from steam gasification; Preparation of active catalysts from NaCl and KCl using brown coal; Gasification of high rank coal by mixing K-exchanged brown coal; Recovery of sulfur via catalytic SO{sub 2} gasification of coal char; Research on novel coal conversion technology BTX production by hydropyrolysis of coal in PPFB using catalyst; High BTU gas production by low-temperature catalytic hydropyrolysis of coal; and Ca-exchanged brown coal as SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S sorbents. 12 refs., 17 figs.

  9. Report on Seminar on Clean Coal Technology '93; Clean coal technology kokusai seminar hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The program of the above clean coal technology (CCT) event is composed of 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Research on CCT in America (study of coal structure under electron microscope), and 3) Research on CCT in Australia (high intensity combustion of ultrafine coal particles in a clean way). Remarks under item 1) are mentioned below. As for SO{sub 2} emissions base unit, Japan's is 1 at its coal-fired thermal power station while that of America is 7.8. As for the level of SO{sub 2}/NOx reduction attributable to coal utilization technologies, it rises in the order of flue gas desulfurizer-aided pulverized coal combustion, normal pressure fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation/fuel cell. As for the level of CO2 reduction attributable to power generation efficiency improvement, provided that Japan's average power generation efficiency is 39% and if China's efficiency which is now 28% is improved to be similar to that of Japan, there will be a 40% reduction in CO2 emissions. Under item 2) which involves America's CCT program, reference is made to efforts at eliminating unnecessary part from the catalytic process and at reducing surplus air, to the export of CCT technology, and so forth. Under item 3), it is stated that coal cleaning may govern reaction efficiency in a process of burning coal particles for gasification. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1997 report on the survey for a data book on new energy technology development. Waste power generation, solar energy utilization. geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction/gasification, and traverse themes; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (haikibutsu hatsuden, taiyonetsu riyo, chinetsu hatsuden, clean energy jidosha, sekitan ekika gas ka oyobi odanteki theme)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper collected and arranged data on new energy technology. As to the waste power generation, in terms of general waste, 161 places have power generation facilities, 657,000 kW in output, as of the end of FY 1996. Out of them, 100 facilities (scale of output: 555,000 kW) are selling power. In terms of industrial waste, 53 places (209,000 kW) have power generation facilities. The output will be 2 million kW in FY 2000. In relation to the solar energy utilization, the number of solar systems introduced in FY 1996 is 25,000, that of water heating appliances produced in FY 1996 is 170,000. Geothermal power of 494,000 kW and 37,000 kW was introduced for electric power industry use and private use, respectively. Clean energy vehicles have not been so much spread, but the hybrid car was put on sale in 1997. Concerning the coal liquefaction, the R and D were made at a pilot plant of NEDOL process, and operation started in 1997. As to the coal gasification, investigational study and element study on the demonstration plant are being conducted in FY 1997 and 1998, making use of the research results obtained from the existing pilot plant of coal gasification combined power generation

  11. Environmental life cycle assessment of methanol and electricity co-production system based on coal gasification technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska, Anna; Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions generated through methanol and electricity co-production system based on coal gasification technology. The analysis focuses on polygeneration technologies from which two products are produced, and thus, issues related to an allocation procedure for LCA are addressed in this paper. In the LCA, two methods were used: a 'system expansion' method based on two approaches, the 'avoided burdens approach' and 'direct system enlargement' methods and an 'allocation' method involving proportional partitioning based on physical relationships in a technological process. Cause-effect relationships in the analysed production process were identified, allowing for the identification of allocation factors. The 'system expansion' method involved expanding the analysis to include five additional variants of electricity production technologies in Poland (alternative technologies). This method revealed environmental consequences of implementation for the analysed technologies. It was found that the LCA of polygeneration technologies based on the 'system expansion' method generated a more complete source of information on environmental consequences than the 'allocation' method. The analysis shows that alternative technologies chosen for generating LCA results are crucial. Life cycle assessment was performed for the analysed, reference and variant alternative technologies. Comparative analysis was performed between the analysed technologies of methanol and electricity co-production from coal gasification as well as a reference technology of methanol production from the natural gas reforming process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gasification of bio char from empty fruit bunch in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nsamba Hussein Kisiki; Amran Mohammad Salleh; Wan Azlina; Hamdan Yusof

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Bio char from empty fruit bunch was gasified in a fluidized bed reactor using compressed air as a gasifying agent. The experiment was conducted in the temperature ranges of 500-850 degree Celsius and the equivalence ratio, temperature and size of the feedstock was varied. A series of parameters such as gas yield, overall carbon conversion, gas quality, and composition, were measured as a function of temperature, equivalence ratio and temperature. Results obtained were compared to the actual values of coal and other gasification feedstock reveal that, bio char has the potential to replace coal as a gasification agent in power plants .Hydrogen gas from bio char was also optimized during the experiment. There is great potential of making Hydrogen from Bio char through thermo chemical gasification It was observed that it has a very great potential of being upgraded to Fischer Tropsh fuels. There is a great opportunity of using this char from empty fruit bunch as an alternative fuel in power plants and all the adverse effects of coal gasification can be counteracted. (author)

  13. Gasification of coal as efficient means of environment protection and hydrogenation of heavy oils residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichko, A.A.; Maloletnev, A.S. [Fossil Fuel Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia`s more then 50% of coals produced in its European part contain over 2,5% of sulphur, and the coals containing less than 1.5% of sulphurs comprise ca.20%. Thus, utilisation of the sulphide coals is inevitable, and there a problem arises concerning the technology of their sensible use and considering the requirements on the environment protection. Russia`s specialists have developed a design and construction for a steam-gas installation with a closed cycle gasification of the solid fuel. The gasification process will proceed in the fluidized bed under forced pressure of the steam-air blast. Characteristic features of this process are the following: a higher efficiency (the capacity of one gas generator is 3-3,5 times larger than that attained in the present gas generators of the Lurgy`s type): 2-2,5 times decreased fuel losses as compared to the Winkler`s generators; retention of the sensible heat, resulting in an increased total energy efficiency. The main task for petroleum refining industry at the present stage is the increase of depth of oil processing with the aim to intensify motor fuel production. One of the ways to solve the problem is to involve heavy oil residues into the processing. But the high metal and asphaltenes contents in the latter make the application of traditional methods and processes more difficult. Up to now there is no simple and effective technology which could give the opportunity to use oil residues for distillate fractions production. In Fossil fuel institute a process for hydrogenation of high boiling oil products, including with high sulphur, vanadium and nickel contents ones, into distillates and metals concentrates. The main point of the new process is as follows: the water solution of catalytic additive, for which purpose water soluble metal salts of VI-VIII groups are used, is mixed with tar, dispersed and then subjected to additional supercavitation in a special apparatus.

  14. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Test result report - 2/3); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Shiken kekka hokokusho 2/3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, a pilot test facility was constructed, and the results of tests and inspections conducted therefor are put together. They include an individual test of the receiving pit hopper vibrator, individual test of the pulverized coal related rotary valve, individual test of the pretreatment compressed air fan, individual test of the coal pulverizer lubricating device, individual test of the coal pulverizer pressure device, individual test of the coal pulverizer, individual test of the coal pulverizer motor, individual test of the coal feeder, individual test of the pulverized coal bunker exhaust fan, individual test of the pulverized coal bunker exhaust fan motor, test of capacity for pulverized coal, individual test of the pulverized coal conveyer blower, test of the sequence of the same, test of pulverizer inert clearing, individual test of the pretreatment condensed water pump in the coal pretreatment device, test of airborne conveyance in the same, verification test of inter-hopper transfer in the same, test of coal pulverization in the same, test operation of the raw material air/low pressure nitrogen compressor in the air separation facility, test operation of the raw material air freezer in the same, and a test operation of the MS adsorber/MS regeneration electric heater. (NEDO)

  15. Catalytic Unmixed Combustion of Coal with Zero Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Parag Kulkarni; Raul Subia; Wei Wei

    2005-12-01

    GE Global Research is developing an innovative energy-based technology for coal combustion with high efficiency and near-zero pollution. This Unmixed Combustion of coal (UMC-Coal) technology simultaneously converts coal, steam and air into two separate streams of high pressure CO{sub 2}-rich gas for sequestration, and high-temperature, high-pressure vitiated air for producing electricity in gas turbine expanders. The UMC process utilizes an oxygen transfer material (OTM) and eliminates the need for an air separation unit (ASU) and a CO{sub 2} separation unit as compared to conventional gasification based processes. This is the final report for the two-year DOE-funded program (DE-FC26-03NT41842) on this technology that ended in September 30, 2005. The UMC technology development program encompassed lab- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UMC concept. The chemical feasibility of the individual UMC steps was established via lab-scale testing. A pilot plant, designed in a related DOE funded program (DE-FC26-00FT40974), was reconstructed and operated to demonstrate the chemistry of UMC process in a pilot-scale system. The risks associated with this promising technology including cost, lifetime and durability OTM and the impact of contaminants on turbine performance are currently being addressed in detail in a related ongoing DOE funded program (DE-FC26-00FT40974, Phase II). Results obtained to date suggest that this technology has the potential to economically meet future efficiency and environmental performance goals.

  16. Wabash Valley Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Coal to Fischer Tropsch Jet Fuel Conversion Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jayesh [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Hess, Fernando [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Horzen, Wessel van [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Williams, Daniel [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Peevor, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Dyer, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Frankel, Louis [Canonsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This reports examines the feasibility of converting the existing Wabash Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant into a liquid fuel facility, with the goal of maximizing jet fuel production. The fuels produced are required to be in compliance with Section 526 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007 §526) lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requirements, so lifecycle GHG emissions from the fuel must be equal to or better than conventional fuels. Retrofitting an existing gasification facility reduces the technical risk and capital costs associated with a coal to liquids project, leading to a higher probability of implementation and more competitive liquid fuel prices. The existing combustion turbine will continue to operate on low cost natural gas and low carbon fuel gas from the gasification facility. The gasification technology utilized at Wabash is the E-Gas™ Technology and has been in commercial operation since 1995. In order to minimize capital costs, the study maximizes reuse of existing equipment with minimal modifications. Plant data and process models were used to develop process data for downstream units. Process modeling was utilized for the syngas conditioning, acid gas removal, CO2 compression and utility units. Syngas conversion to Fischer Tropsch (FT) liquids and upgrading of the liquids was modeled and designed by Johnson Matthey Davy Technologies (JM Davy). In order to maintain the GHG emission profile below that of conventional fuels, the CO2 from the process must be captured and exported for sequestration or enhanced oil recovery. In addition the power utilized for the plant’s auxiliary loads had to be supplied by a low carbon fuel source. Since the process produces a fuel gas with sufficient energy content to power the plant’s loads, this fuel gas was converted to hydrogen and exported to the existing gas turbine for low carbon power production. Utilizing low carbon fuel gas and

  17. Economic competitiveness of underground coal gasification combined with carbon capture and storage in the Bulgarian energy network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaten, Natalie Christine

    2014-11-15

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) allows for exploitation of deep-seated coal seams not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. Aim of the present study is to examine UCG economics based on coal conversion into a synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine power plant (CCGT) with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Thereto, a techno-economic model is developed for UCG-CCGT-CCS costs of electricity (COE) determination which, considering sitespecific data of a selected target area in Bulgaria, sum up to 72 Euro/MWh in total. To quantify the impact of model constraints on COE, sensitivity analyses are undertaken revealing that varying geological model constraints impact COE with 0.4% to 4%, chemical with 13%, technical with 8% to 17% and market-dependent with 2% to 25%. Besides site-specific boundary conditions, UCG-CCGT-CCS economics depend on resources availability and infrastructural characteristics of the overall energy system. Assessing a model based implementation of UCG-CCGT-CCS and CCS power plants into the Bulgarian energy network revealed that both technologies provide essential and economically competitive options to achieve the EU environmental targets and a complete substitution of gas imports by UCG synthesis gas production.

  18. Economic competitiveness of underground coal gasification combined with carbon capture and storage in the Bulgarian energy network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaten, Natalie Christine

    2014-01-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) allows for exploitation of deep-seated coal seams not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. Aim of the present study is to examine UCG economics based on coal conversion into a synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine power plant (CCGT) with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Thereto, a techno-economic model is developed for UCG-CCGT-CCS costs of electricity (COE) determination which, considering sitespecific data of a selected target area in Bulgaria, sum up to 72 Euro/MWh in total. To quantify the impact of model constraints on COE, sensitivity analyses are undertaken revealing that varying geological model constraints impact COE with 0.4% to 4%, chemical with 13%, technical with 8% to 17% and market-dependent with 2% to 25%. Besides site-specific boundary conditions, UCG-CCGT-CCS economics depend on resources availability and infrastructural characteristics of the overall energy system. Assessing a model based implementation of UCG-CCGT-CCS and CCS power plants into the Bulgarian energy network revealed that both technologies provide essential and economically competitive options to achieve the EU environmental targets and a complete substitution of gas imports by UCG synthesis gas production.

  19. Problems of underground gasification of coal. Les Problemes que pose une gazeification souterraine des charbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doumenc, R A.M.

    1948-11-01

    Underground gasification is examined in collaboration with Socogaz of Brussels. The USSR has been successful and claims to have produced gas of 1,000 cal per cu m at the rate of 30,000 cu m per hr at Gorlovka (Donets). Results of the American, Belgian, and Italian experiments show that the gas produced contains much CO/sub 2/ and only 5 percent CO. The coal has been burned but not gasified. If the main problem to be solved should be production of a rich gas for burning or a sufficiently hot gas for direct heating, many difficulties would need to be overcome, such as remote control of the fire, choice of suitable coal seams, etc. The underground process is attractive because of the great saving in labor. As it is impossible to reproduce conditions on a laboratory scale, the time and expenditure required for these lengthy experiments seem to be amply justified.

  20. COAL OF THE FUTURE (Supply Prospects for Thermal Coal by 2030-2050)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The report, produced by Messrs. Energy Edge Ltd. (the U.K.) for the JRC Institute for Energy, aims at making a techno-economic analysis of novel extraction technologies for coal and their potential contribution to the global coal supply. These novel extraction technologies include: advanced coal mapping techniques, improved underground coal mining, underground coal gasification and utilisation of coalmine methane gas.

  1. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-03-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC24, the first test campaign using a bituminous coal as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC24 was conducted from February 16, 2008, through March 19, 2008. The PSDF gasification process operated for about 230 hours in air-blown gasification mode with about 225 tons of Utah bituminous coal feed. Operational challenges in gasifier operation were related to particle agglomeration, a large percentage of oversize coal particles, low overall gasifier solids collection efficiency, and refractory degradation in the gasifier solids collection unit. The carbon conversion and syngas heating values varied widely, with low values obtained during periods of low gasifier operating temperature. Despite the operating difficulties, several periods of steady state operation were achieved, which provided useful data for future testing. TC24 operation afforded the opportunity for testing of various types of technologies, including dry coal feeding with a developmental feeder, the Pressure Decoupled Advanced Coal (PDAC) feeder; evaluating a new hot gas filter element media configuration; and enhancing syngas cleanup with water-gas shift catalysts. During TC24, the PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane.

  2. Modeling and simulation of syngas purification and power generation in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehmood, N; Zaman, Z U; Mehran, M T [National Development, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-07-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is one of the most promising technologies for power generation; The environmental benefits and the higher energy conversion efficiency distinguish it from traditional coal generation technologies. This work presents a structured and validated conceptual model of purification of coal gas produced during the Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) of coal containing high sulfur contents. Gas cleaning operations for CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S and moisture removal have been modeled in steady and dynamic state. The power generation from combined cycle is also modeled. The model has been developed using Aspen HYSYS and Aspen Plus simulation software. Predicted results of clean gas composition and generated power present a good agreement with industrial data and efficiency parameters. This study is aimed at obtaining optimal assessment of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant configurations. (author)

  3. Modeling and simulation of syngas purification and power generation in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, N.; Zaman, Z.U.; Mehran, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is one of the most promising technologies for power generation; The environmental benefits and the higher energy conversion efficiency distinguish it from traditional coal generation technologies. This work presents a structured and validated conceptual model of purification of coal gas produced during the Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) of coal containing high sulfur contents. Gas cleaning operations for CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S and moisture removal have been modeled in steady and dynamic state. The power generation from combined cycle is also modeled. The model has been developed using Aspen HYSYS and Aspen Plus simulation software. Predicted results of clean gas composition and generated power present a good agreement with industrial data and efficiency parameters. This study is aimed at obtaining optimal assessment of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant configurations. (author)

  4. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2005-04-29

    The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

  5. Underground gasification and combustion brown with the use of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG and underground coal incineration (UCI are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  6. Basic lay-out, arrangement and design criteria of heat components of the ''nuclear coal gasification prototype plant (PNP)''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruschek, R.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1975, the companies Bergbau-Forschung GmbH, GHT Gesellschaft fuer Hochtemperaturreaktor-Technik mbH, Hochtemperatur-Reaktorbau GmbH, Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH und Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG are working jointly on the Project ''Prototype Plant Nuclear Process Heat (PNP)'', with promotion of the ''Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie'' and of the ''Minister fuer Wirtschaft, Mittelstand und Verkehr des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen''. The objectives of the project are the development of a high-temperature reactor, with a core outlet temperature of 950 0 C, suitable for various process heat applications, and the development and testing of the appropriate coal gasification technology. The applied gasifications methods comprise endothermal and exothermal reactions. Therefore, various heat transfer components are to be developed. In the context of this Specialists Meeting, only those components will be discussed by which heat is transferred from primary helium to secondary helium or from helium to the working or process fluid

  7. Environmental assessment for the Hoe Creek underground, Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation, Campbell County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess environmental and human health Issues and to determine potential impacts associated with the proposed Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation that would be performed at the Hoe Creek site in Campbell County, Wyoming. The Hoe Creek site is located south-southwest of the town of Gillette, Wyoming, and encompasses 71 acres of public land under the stewardship of the Bureau of Land Management. The proposed action identified in the EA is for the DOE to perform air sparging with bioremediation at the Hoe Creek site to remove contaminants resulting from underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments performed there by the DOE in the late 1970s. The proposed action would involve drilling additional wells at two of the UCG test sites to apply oxygen or hydrogen peroxide to the subsurface to volatilize benzene dissolved in the groundwater and enhance bioremediation of non-aqueous phase liquids present in the subsurface. Other alternatives considered are site excavation to remove contaminants, continuation of the annual pump and treat actions that have been used at the site over the last ten years to limit contaminant migration, and the no action alternative. Issues examined in detail in the EA are air quality, geology, human health and safety, noise, soils, solid and hazardous waste, threatened and endangered species, vegetation, water resources, and wildlife. Details of mitigative measures that could be used to limit any detrimental effects resulting from the proposed action or any of the alternatives are discussed, and information on anticipated effects identified by other government agencies is provided.

  8. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  9. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  10. Tunable Diode Laser Sensors to Monitor Temperature and Gas Composition in High-Temperature Coal Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Ronald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Whitty, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) when combined with carbon capture and storage can be one of the cleanest methods of extracting energy from coal. Control of coal and biomass gasification processes to accommodate the changing character of input-fuel streams is required for practical implementation of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technologies. Therefore a fast time-response sensor is needed for real-time monitoring of the composition and ideally the heating value of the synthesis gas (here called syngas) as it exits the gasifier. The goal of this project was the design, construction, and demonstration an in situ laserabsorption sensor to monitor multiple species in the syngas output from practical-scale coal gasifiers. This project investigated the hypothesis of using laser absorption sensing in particulateladen syngas. Absorption transitions were selected with design rules to optimize signal strength while minimizing interference from other species. Successful in situ measurements in the dusty, high-pressure syngas flow were enabled by Stanford’s normalized and scanned wavelength modulation strategy. A prototype sensor for CO, CH4, CO2, and H2O was refined with experiments conducted in the laboratory at Stanford University, a pilot-scale at the University of Utah, and an engineering-scale gasifier at DoE’s National Center for Carbon Capture with the demonstration of a prototype sensor with technical readiness level 6 in the 2014 measurement campaign.

  11. Proposed underground gasification. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    An underground coal gasification experiment which could provide the key to recovering the energy in millions of tonnes of otherwise inaccessible undersea coal reserves is proposed by the NCB. The Board's Headquarters Technical Department hope to carry out a field trial in a six foot thick coal seam about 2000 feet beneath a former wartime airfield near the hamlet of Ossington near Newark, Notts, UK. This paper describes briefly the proposed project, which could cost up to 15 million pounds over five years. It has the backing and financial support of the European Economic Community.

  12. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

  13. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP designs emphasize on recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from coal clean operations and will assess blends of the culm and coal or petroleum coke as feedstocks. The project is being carried out in three phases. Phase I involves definition of concept and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II consists of an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III involves updating the original EECP design, based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 BPD coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania

  14. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-12-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP designs emphasize on recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from coal clean operations and will assess blends of the culm and coal or petroleum coke as feedstocks. The project is being carried out in three phases. Phase I involves definition of concept and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II consists of an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III involves updating the original EECP design, based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 BPD coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania.

  15. Underground gasification in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-08-29

    A report of the discussion held on the paper Underground Gasification in Britain, by C.A. Masterman (Iron and Coal Trades Rev., Vol. 165, Aug. 22, 1952, pp. 413-422). The water question, preheating the air, controlling the gas, using the product, choosing the site, thickness of seam and faulted areas are discussed.

  16. Fluidized Bed Gasification of Coal-Oil and Coal-Water-Oil Slurries by Oxygen –Steam and Oxygen-CO2 Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Jeremiáš, Michal; Kameníková, Petra; Hartman, Miloslav; Skoblia, S.; Šyc, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 1 (2012), s. 16-26 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08048; GA MŠk 7C08034 Grant - others:RFCR(XE) CT-2010-00009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidized bed * gasification * coal slurries Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 2.816, year: 2012 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-82455175439&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=svoboda%2ck&sid=ikNGw6d45E-yyuMoDwlGiWn%3a420&sot=b&sdt=b&sl=22&s=AUTHOR-NAME%28svoboda%2ck%29&relpos=1&relpos=1&searchTerm=AUTHOR-NAME(svoboda,k)

  17. Study on the effect of heat treatment and gasification on the carbon structure of coal chars and metallurgical cokes using fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Dong; P. Alvarez; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2009-03-15

    Differences in the development of carbon structures between coal chars and metallurgical cokes during high-temperature reactions have been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. These are important to differentiate between different types of carbons in dust recovered from the top gas of the blast furnace. Coal chars have been prepared from a typical injectant coal under different heat-treatment conditions. These chars reflected the effect of peak temperature, residence time at peak temperature, heating rate and pressure on the evolution of their carbon structures. The independent effect of gasification on the development of the carbon structure of a representative coal char has also been studied. A similar investigation has also been carried out to study the effect of heat-treatment temperature (from 1300 to 2000{sup o}C) and gasification on the carbon structure of a typical metallurgical coke. Two Raman spectral parameters, the intensity ratio of the D band to the G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) and the intensity ratio of the valley between D and G bands to the G band (I{sub V}/I{sub G}), have been found useful in assessing changes in carbon structure. An increase in I{sub D}/I{sub G} indicates the growth of basic graphene structural units across the temperature range studied. A decrease in I{sub V}/I{sub G} appears to suggest the elimination of amorphous carbonaceous materials and ordering of the overall carbon structure. The Raman spectral differences observed between coal chars and metallurgical cokes are considered to result from the difference in the time-temperature history between the raw injectant coal and the metallurgical coke and may lay the basis for differentiation between metallurgical coke fines and coal char residues present in the dust carried over the top of the blast furnace. 41 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Thermal expansion of slag and fly ash from coal gasification in IGCC power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Aineto; A. Acosta; J.M.A. Rincon; M. Romero [University of Castilla La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain). Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy

    2006-11-15

    Integrated gasification in combined cycle (IGCC) is an electrical power generation system which is characterized to be a clean coal technology different than conventional process in combustible treatment. IGCC process gives rise to inorganic solid wastes in the form of vitreous slag and fly ashes with singular thermal properties. The gasification of the fuel takes place at high temperature and pressure in reducing atmosphere. Under that conditions, gases such as H{sub 2}, N{sub 2} or CO, which are the main components of the gas mixture in the gasifier, show a high solubility in the melt and during the cooling remain enclosed in the vitreous slag. When these wastes are afterward thermal treated in oxidizing conditions, two phenomena occur. The development of a crystalline phase by devitrification of the glassy matrix and the releasing of the enclosed gas, which starts at temperatures nearly to the softening point. At higher temperatures the bubbles with increasing kinetic energy tend to ascend with difficulty through the viscous liquid phase and promotes an expansive reaction, giving rise to a foam glass-ceramic product. This paper has been focused on the study of thermal expansion in slag and fly ash samples from the ELCOGAS IGCC power plant located in Puertollano (Spain). 18 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  19. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  20. Underground coal gasification: Development of theory, laboratory experimentation, interpretation, and correlation with the Hanna field tests: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, R.D.; Krantz, W.B.

    1987-03-01

    The following report is a description of a 7 year effort to develop a theoretical understanding of the underground coal gasification process. The approach used is one of the mathematical model development from known chemical and principles, simplification of the models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models with laboratory experiments and field test data. Chapter I contains only introductory material. Chapter II describes the development of two models for reverse combustion: a combustion model and a linearized model for combustion front instability. Both models are required for realistic field predictions. Chapter III contains a discussion of a successful forward gasification model. Chapter IV discusses the spalling-enhanced-drying model is applicable to prediction of cavity growth and subsidence. Chapter VI decribes the correct use of energy and material balances for the analysis of UCG field test data. Chapter VII shows how laboratory experiments were used to validate the models for reverse combustion and forward gasification. It is also shown that laboratory combustion tube experiments can be used to simulate gas compositions expected from field tests. Finally, Chapter VII presents results from a comprehensive economic analysis of UCG involving 1296 separate cases. 37 refs., 49 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Low-rank coal research. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--June 30, 1989, including quarterly report, April--June 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  2. Addition to the Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Program to allow computation from coal composition data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, R.

    1980-01-01

    Changes made to the Coal Gasification Project are reported. The program was developed by equilibrium combustion in rocket engines. It can be applied directly to the entrained flow coal gasification process. The particular problem addressed is the reduction of the coal data into a form suitable to the program, since the manual process is involved and error prone. A similar problem in relating the normal output of the program to parameters meaningful to the coal gasification process is also addressed.

  3. Physical-Mathematical Model for Fixed-Bed Solid Fuel Gasification Process Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slyusarskiy Konstantin V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phycial-mathmatical model for fixed-bed coal gasification process simulation is proposed. The heterogeneous carbon oxidation chemical reactions were simulated via Arrhenius equation while homogeneous reactions in gas phase were calculated using Gibbs free energy minimization procedure. The syngas component concentration field and fuel conversion distribution as well as syngas final temperature and composition were defined for fixed bed gasification of T-grade coal of Kuznetskiy deposit. The optimal fuel residence time and gasifyer specific productivity were defined. The prevail reactions in oxidizing and reduction zones together with its height were defined.

  4. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel S. Tam

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this series of design and estimating efforts was to start from the as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project and to develop optimized designs for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC power and coproduction projects. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This unoptimized plant has a thermal efficiency of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW. This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal and coke-fueled power plants. This side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, showed their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the

  5. Gasification and co-gasification of biomass wastes: Effect of the biomass origin and the gasifier operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapuerta, Magin; Hernandez, Juan J.; Pazo, Amparo; Lopez, Julio [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales (Edificio Politecnico), Avenida Camilo Jose Cela s/n. 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Air gasification of different biomass fuels, including forestry (pinus pinaster pruning) and agricultural (grapevine and olive tree pruning) wastes as well as industry wastes (sawdust and marc of grape), has been carried out in a circulating flow gasifier in order to evaluate the potential of using these types of biomass in the same equipment, thus providing higher operation flexibility and minimizing the effect of seasonal fuel supply variations. The potential of using biomass as an additional supporting fuel in coal fuelled power plants has also been evaluated through tests involving mixtures of biomass and coal-coke, the coke being a typical waste of oil companies. The effect of the main gasifier operating conditions, such as the relative biomass/air ratio and the reaction temperature, has been analysed to establish the conditions allowing higher gasification efficiency, carbon conversion and/or fuel constituents (CO, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) concentration and production. Results of the work encourage the combined use of the different biomass fuels without significant modifications in the installation, although agricultural wastes (grapevine and olive pruning) could to lead to more efficient gasification processes. These latter wastes appear as interesting fuels to generate a producer gas to be used in internal combustion engines or gas turbines (high gasification efficiency and gas yield), while sawdust could be a very adequate fuel to produce a H{sub 2}-rich gas (with interest for fuel cells) due to its highest reactivity. The influence of the reaction temperature on the gasification characteristics was not as significant as that of the biomass/air ratio, although the H{sub 2} concentration increased with increasing temperature. (author)

  6. FY 1993 report on the results of the subsidy project for the Sunshine Project. Development of coal use hydrogen production technology (Support study of pilot plant - Study using the small equipment); 1993 nendo Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo seika hokokusho. Sekitan riyo suiso seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu (Kogata souchi ni yoru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    As to the development of coal use hydrogen production technology, the paper studied the reactivity of char and ignition characteristics of various coals in the use of electric furnace and the participation in pilot plant test and the improvement, and the FY 1993 results were reported. In the study of reactivity of char, it was found that the reactivity was the same, regardless of the equipment and kind of raw coal, if considered of the ratio of the total oxygen amount (the char-containing oxygen amount added to the oxygen supply amount) to the carbon supply amount in char. In the test on ignition characteristics of overseas coals, the same characteristics as those of the Taiheiyo coal conventionally tested were obtained and it was found that it was good to use the same method for start-up of gasifier as conventionally used. In the pilot plant test in the previous year, slag and ash stuck to the outlet of the gasification part and heat recovery part and developed, which hindered the continued operation. To improve it, the following were carried out: model study, study of ash sintering, study using the synthetic test equipment, analysis of the deposit in gasifier, etc. Based on these results, the plant was improved, and the continued operation of 1,149 hours was stably achieved in RUN8. (NEDO)

  7. 盘阀在Shell煤气化中的应用%Application of Disk Valve at Shell Coal Gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付荣申; 安铁夫

    2012-01-01

    Shell煤气化(SCGP)技术中采用进口球阀作为锁煤、锁渣、锁灰阀(锁斗阀)及平衡阀,存在易卡死、易磨损、寿命短等缺点,不能长周期运行,直接影响了整个煤气化装置的可靠性及经济效益。锁斗阀和平衡阀的另一种选择——盘阀,在以往煤气化项目中作为进口球阀的备阀被局部应用,取得了令人满意的效果。详细阐述了盘阀的工作原理、结构及特点,介绍了盘阀在甲醇项目中的具体应用情况。%Due to the disadvantage of easily blocked off, easy abrasion, short life and etc. of the adopted ball valve as lock coal valve, lock cinder valve and lock ash valve (lock hopper valve) and balance valve in SCGP, the valve can't work for a long time, and directly impact the reliability and economic benefit of whole coal gasification set. Disk valve is another choice instead of lock hopper valve and balance valve. Disk valves were used as the spare valve of ball valve in coal gasification projects in the past with positive result. The working principle, structure and characteristic of disk valve are expatiated in detail, and the application of disk valve at Methanol project is further disclosed.

  8. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

  9. Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathe, Mandar [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Xu, Dikai [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Hsieh, Tien-Lin [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Simpson, James [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Statnick, Robert [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Tong, Andrew [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Fan, Liang-Shih [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This document is the final report for the project titled “Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture” under award number FE0012136 for the performance period 10/01/2013 to 12/31/2014.This project investigates the novel Ohio State chemical looping gasification technology for high efficiency, cost efficiency coal gasification for IGCC and methanol production application. The project developed an optimized oxygen carrier composition, demonstrated the feasibility of the concept and completed cold-flow model studies. WorleyParsons completed a techno-economic analysis which showed that for a coal only feed with carbon capture, the OSU CLG technology reduced the methanol required selling price by 21%, lowered the capital costs by 28%, increased coal consumption efficiency by 14%. Further, using the Ohio State Chemical Looping Gasification technology resulted in a methanol required selling price which was lower than the reference non-capture case.

  10. Low-Btu coal gasification in the United States: company topical. [Brick producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesch, L.P.; Hylton, B.G.; Bhatt, C.S.

    1983-07-01

    Hazelton and other brick producers have proved the reliability of the commercial size Wellman-Galusha gasifier. For this energy intensive business, gas cost is the major portion of the product cost. Costs required Webster/Hazelton to go back to the old, reliable alternative energy of low Btu gasification when the natural gas supply started to be curtailed and prices escalated. Although anthracite coal prices have skyrocketed from $34/ton (1979) to over $71.50/ton (1981) because of high demand (local as well as export) and rising labor costs, the delivered natural gas cost, which reached $3.90 to 4.20/million Btu in the Hazelton area during 1981, has allowed the producer gas from the gasifier at Webster Brick to remain competitive. The low Btu gas cost (at the escalated coal price) is estimated to be $4/million Btu. In addition to producing gas that is cost competitive with natural gas at the Webster Brick Hazelton plant, Webster has the security of knowing that its gas supply will be constant. Improvements in brick business and projected deregulation of the natural gas price may yield additional, attractive cost benefits to Webster Brick through the use of low Btu gas from these gasifiers. Also, use of hot raw gas (that requires no tar or sulfur removal) keeps the overall process efficiency high. 25 references, 47 figures, 14 tables.

  11. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John W. Rich

    2001-03-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co--product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases: Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's third quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from October 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001.

  12. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002.

  13. Clean coal technology challenges for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, J. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering

    2001-01-01

    China is rich in coal reserves and also the largest coal producer and consumer in the world. Coal constitutes over 70% of the total energy consumption, some 86% of coal production is burned directly, which causes serious air pollution problems. However, based on China's specific energy structure, coal utilisation will remain the dominant means of energy usage and clean coal technology must be the way forward if the environmental problems are to be resolved. This article discusses China's Clean Coal Technology Program, its implementation, including the clean coal technologies being developed and introduced, with reference to the key R & D institutes for each of the coal-using sectors. The article is an edited version of the 2000 Robens Coal Science Lecture, delivered in London in October 2000. The China Coal Technology Program for the 9th Five-Year Plan (1996-2000) was approved in 1997. The technologies included in the Program considered in this article are in: coal washing and grading, coal briquette, coal water slurry; circulating fluidised bed technology; pressurised fluidised bed combined cycle; integrated gasification combined cycle; coal gasification, coal liquefaction and flue gas desulfurisation. 4 tabs.

  14. Nitrogen removal from coal gasification wastewater by activated carbon technologies combined with short-cut nitrogen removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Fang, Fang

    2014-11-01

    A system combining granular activated carbon and powdered activated carbon technologies along with shortcut biological nitrogen removal (GAC-PACT-SBNR) was developed to enhance total nitrogen (TN) removal for anaerobically treated coal gasification wastewater with less need for external carbon resources. The TN removal efficiency in SBNR was significantly improved by introducing the effluent from the GAC process into SBNR during the anoxic stage, with removal percentage increasing from 43.8%-49.6% to 68.8%-75.8%. However, the TN removal rate decreased with the progressive deterioration of GAC adsorption. After adding activated sludge to the GAC compartment, the granular carbon had a longer service-life and the demand for external carbon resources became lower. Eventually, the TN removal rate in SBNR was almost constant at approx. 43.3%, as compared to approx. 20.0% before seeding with sludge. In addition, the production of some alkalinity during the denitrification resulted in a net savings in alkalinity requirements for the nitrification reaction and refractory chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation by autotrophic bacteria in SBNR under oxic conditions. PACT showed excellent resilience to increasing organic loadings. The microbial community analysis revealed that the PACT had a greater variety of bacterial taxons and the dominant species associated with the three compartments were in good agreement with the removal of typical pollutants. The study demonstrated that pre-adsorption by the GAC-sludge process could be a technically and economically feasible method to enhance TN removal in coal gasification wastewater (CGW). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a coal slurry from waste streams using Illinois coal that is ideally suited for a gasification feed. The principle items to be studied are (1) methods of concentrating pyrite and decreasing other ash forming minerals into a high grade gasification feed using froth flotation and gravity separation techniques; (2) chemical and particle size analyses of coal slurries; (3) determination of how that slurry can be densified and to what degree of densification is optimum from the pumpability and combustibility analyses; and (4) reactivity studies.

  16. Environmental impact assessment for steeply dipping coal beds: North Knobs site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-08

    The US Department of Energy is funding an underground coal gasification (UCG) project in steeply dipping coal beds (SDB), at North Knobs, about 8 miles west of Rawlins, Carbon County, Wyoming. The project is being conducted to determine the technical, economic and environmental viability of such a technology. The development of SDB is an interesting target for UCG since such beds contain coals not normally mineable economically by ordinary techniques. Although the underground gasification of SDB has not been attempted in the US, Soviet experience and theoretical work indicate that the gasification of SDB in place offers all the advantages of underground gasification of horizontal coal seams plus some unique characteristics. The steep angle of dip helps to channel the produced gases up dip to offtake holes and permits the ash and rubble to fall away from the reaction zone helping to mitigate the blocking of the reaction zone in swelling coals. The intersection of SDB with the surface makes the seam accessible for drilling and other preparation. The tests at the North Knobs site will consist of three tests, lasting 20, 80 and 80 days, respectively. A total of 9590 tons of coal is expected to be gasified, with surface facilities utilizing 15 acres of the total section of land. The environmental effects of the experiment are expected to be very small. The key environmental impact is potential groundwater contamination by reaction products from coal gasification. There is good evidence that the surrounding coal effectively blocks the migration of these contaminants.

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1994 on developing entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element research edition and technology survey edition; 1994 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    With an objective of establishing the coal gasification composite power generation technology, R and D has been carried out on the elementary technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1994. In the research on the large gas turbine combustor for the demonstration plant, combustion tests were carried out by using the actual gas from the designed coal (coal D). In addition, the minimum gas flow rate test, fuel calory change test, and fuel switching test were performed from the viewpoint of evaluating the low load stability. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the combustion performance of the tested combustor, such tests were conducted as the combustor pressure loss characteristics test, bypass valve flow rate characteristics test, light oil ignition and light oil combustion test, and tests on the characteristics to switch from light oil to coal gas and the coal gas combustion characteristics. Evaluations were given on the NOx conversion rate, CO, THC, combustion efficiency, metal temperatures, pattern factors, pressure loss, internal pressure variation, and vibration stress. In the simulation research of the composite power generation system, the simulation models were varied according to the actual plant requirements in association with the progress of the tests on the pilot plant. The results of the simulations were reflected to the general load pressure control equipment. (NEDO)

  18. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere

  19. Coal gasification integration with solid oxide fuel cell and chemical looping combustion for high-efficiency power generation with inherent CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shiyi; Lior, Noam; Xiang, Wenguo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel power system integrating coal gasification with SOFC and chemical looping combustion. • The plant net power efficiency reaches 49.8% with complete CO 2 separation. • Energy and exergy analysis of the entire plant is conducted. • Sensitivity analysis shows a nearly constant power output when SOFC temperature and pressure vary. • NiO oxygen carrier shows higher plant efficiency than using Fe 2 O 3 and CuO. - Abstract: Since solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) produce electricity with high energy conversion efficiency, and chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a process for fuel conversion with inherent CO 2 separation, a novel combined cycle integrating coal gasification, solid oxide fuel cell, and chemical looping combustion was configured and analyzed. A thermodynamic analysis based on energy and exergy was performed to investigate the performance of the integrated system and its sensitivity to major operating parameters. The major findings include that (1) the plant net power efficiency reaches 49.8% with ∼100% CO 2 capture for SOFC at 900 °C, 15 bar, fuel utilization factor = 0.85, fuel reactor temperature = 900 °C and air reactor temperature = 950 °C, using NiO as the oxygen carrier in the CLC unit. (2) In this parameter neighborhood the fuel utilization factor, the SOFC temperature and SOFC pressure have small effects on the plant net power efficiency because changes in pressure and temperature that increase the power generation by the SOFC tend to decrease the power generation by the gas turbine and steam cycle, and v.v.; an advantage of this system characteristic is that it maintains a nearly constant power output even when the temperature and pressure vary. (3) The largest exergy loss is in the gasification process, followed by those in the CO 2 compression and the SOFC. (4) Compared with the CLC Fe 2 O 3 and CuO oxygen carriers, NiO results in higher plant net power efficiency. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first

  20. Prospects for coal: technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, W G; Peirce, T J

    1983-07-01

    This article summarises the reasons for predicting an increase in the use of coal as an industrial energy source in the United Kingdom. The development of efficient and reliable coal-burning techniques is therefore of great importance. Various techniques are then discussed, including conventional combustion systems, fluidised bed combustion systems, fluidised bed boilers and furnaces, coal and ash handling, coal-liquid mixtures, coal gasification and coal liquefaction. (4 refs.)

  1. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of Lurgi coal gasification wastewater in a UASB reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Ma, W.C.; Han, H.J.; Li, H.Q.; Yuan, M. [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2011-02-15

    Lurgi coal gasification wastewater (LCGW) is a refractory wastewater, whose anaerobic treatment has been a severe problem due to its toxicity and poor biodegradability. Using a mesophilic (35 {+-} 2{sup o}C) reactor as a control, thermophilic anaerobic digestion (55 {+-} 2{sup o}C) of LCGW was investigated in a UASB reactor. After 120 days of operation, the removal of COD and total phenols by the thermophilic reactor could reach 50-55% and 50-60% respectively, at an organic loading rate of 2.5 kg COD/(m{sup 3} d) and HRT of 24h: the corresponding efficiencies were both only 20-30% in the mesophilic reactor. After thermophilic digestion, the wastewater concentrations of the aerobic effluent COD could reach below 200 mg/L compared with around 294 mg/L if mesophilic digestion was done and around 375 mg/L if sole aerobic pre-treatment was done. The results suggested that thermophilic anaerobic digestion improved significantly both anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of LCGW.

  2. Simulation of Synthesis Gas Production from Steam Oxygen Gasification of Colombian Coal Using Aspen Plus®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Preciado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A steady state simulation of syngas production from a Steam Oxygen Gasification process using commercial technologies was performed using Aspen Plus®. For the simulation, the average proximate and ultimate compositions of bituminous coal obtained from the Colombian Andean region were employed. The simulation was applied to conduct sensitivity analyses in the O2 to coal mass ratio, coal slurry concentration, WGS operating temperature and WGS steam to dry gas molar ratio (SDG over the key parameters: syngas molar composition, overall CO conversion in the WGS reactors, H2 rich-syngas lower heating value (LHV and thermal efficiency. The achieved information allows the selection of critical operating conditions leading to improve system efficiency and environmental performance. The results indicate that the oxygen to carbon ratio is a key variable as it affects significantly both the LHV and thermal efficiency. Nevertheless, the process becomes almost insensitive to SDG values higher than 2. Finally, a thermal efficiency of 62.6% can be reached. This result corresponds to a slurry solid concentration of 0.65, a WGS process SDG of 0.59, and a LTS reactor operating temperature of 473 K. With these fixed variables, a syngas with H2 molar composition of 92.2% and LHV of 12 MJ Nm−3 was attained.

  3. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  4. Characterization, leachability and valorization through combustion of residual chars from gasification of coals with pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhetas, Margarida; Lopes, Helena; Freire, Márcia; Abelha, Pedro; Pinto, Filomena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the study of the combustion of char residues produced during co-gasification of coal with pine with the aim of characterizing them for their potential use for energy. These residues are generally rich in carbon with the presence of other elements, with particular concern for heavy metals and pollutant precursors, depending on the original fuel used. The evaluation of environmental toxicity of the char residues was performed through application of different leaching tests (EN12457-2, US EPA-1311 TCLP and EA NEN 7371:2004). The results showed that the residues present quite low toxicity for some of pollutants. However, depending on the fuel used, possible presence of other pollutants may bring environmental risks. The utilization of these char residues for energy was in this study evaluated, by burning them as a first step pre-treatment prior to landfilling. The thermo-gravimetric analysis and ash fusibility studies revealed an adequate thermochemical behavior, without presenting any major operational risks. Fluidized bed combustion was applied to char residues. Above 700°C, very high carbon conversion ratios were obtained and it seemed that the thermal oxidation of char residues was easier than that of the coals. It was found that the char tendency for releasing SO(2) during its oxidation was lower than for the parent coal, while for NO(X) emissions, the trend was observed to increase NO(X) formation. However, for both pollutants the same control techniques might be applied during char combustion, as for coal. Furthermore, the leachability of ashes resulting from the combustion of char residues appeared to be lower than those produced from direct coal combustion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation of a naphthalene-degrading strain from activated sludge and bioaugmentation with it in a MBR treating coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin

    2015-03-01

    A highly effective naphthalene-degrading bacterial strain was isolated from acclimated activated sludge from a coal gasification wastewater plant, and identified as a Streptomyces sp., designated as strain QWE-35. The optimal pH and temperature for naphthalene degradation were 7.0 and 35°C. The presence of additional glucose and methanol significantly increased the degradation efficiency of naphthalene. The strain showed tolerance to the toxicity of naphthalene at a concentration as great as 200 mg/L. The Andrews mode could be fitted to the degradation kinetics data well over a wide range of initial naphthalene concentrations (10-200 mg/L), with kinetic values q max = 0.84 h(-1), K s = 40.39 mg/L, and K i = 193.76 mg/L. Metabolic intermediates were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, allowing a new degradation pathway for naphthalene to be proposed for the first time. Strain QWE-35 was added into a membrane bioreactor (MBR) to enhance the treatment of real coal gasification wastewater. The results showed that the removal of chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen were similar between bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented MBRs, however, significant removal of naphthalene was obtained in the bioaugmented reactor. The findings suggest a potential bioremediation role of Streptomyces sp. QWE-35 in the removal of naphthalene from wastewaters.

  6. Change in the electric potential of solid fuels on their combustion and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, B.S.; Zakharov, A.G.; Plitsyn, V.T.

    1979-01-01

    Solid fuels of various degrees of graphitization (graphite, coke, hard coal, lignite) were used to study the changes in electric potential of samples during gasification and combustion in air. The potential shows three peaks during combustion, the third corresponding to ignition. Two peaks occur during the gasification process.

  7. Fiscal 1991 report. Overseas surveys out of surveys for coal hydrogasification technology development; 1991 nendo sekitan suiten gaska gijutsu kaihatsu chosa ni okeru kaigai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-11-01

    For the selection and evaluation of coal gasification processes suitable for substitute natural gas (SNG) production, visits were made to business corporations, research institutes, etc., engaged in the development of coal gasification technology abroad, and surveys were conducted of the development status overseas and information was collected. Visits were made and information was collected on the Lurgi process, a commercial SNG plant, and others at Dakota Gasification Company, U.S.; U-gas process and others at Institute of Gas Technology; energy-related matters at U.S. Department of Energy; coal hydrogasification process and others at Midlands Station, British Gas plc; Shell coal gasification process and others at Amsterdam Research Institute, Royal Dutch Shell; coal gasification, high-temperature desulfurization, and others at KEMA, Holland; and IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) verification plant with the Shell coal gasification process incorporated thereinto, now under construction at Demkolec. (NEDO)

  8. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1993 on developing entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element research and technology survey edition; 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    With an objective of establishing a coal gasification composite power generation technology, R and D works have been carried out on elementary technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1993. In the research on the slag utilization technology, discussions were given on the applicability of slag discharged from a 200 t/d pilot plant to fine aggregate for concrete. In the research on a large gas turbine combustor for a demonstration plant, the test conditions were discussed and the reliability of the combustor was analyzed to conduct an actual gas combustion test using the coal D in continuation from the test in the previous fiscal year. In the research on the simulation of a composite power generation system, the simulation models were reviewed and corrected. Load variation simulations were carried out on every operation mode to have conducted comparison with and discussion on the actual plant data. In order to clarify the slagging phenomenon in the 200 t/d pilot plant, a characteristics test was performed by using a 2 t/d furnace. As a result, the combustor ash load and the dynamic pressure in the axial direction in the throat section were presumed to be the large factors for the occurrence of slagging. (NEDO)

  10. Coal, energy of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.; Guezel, J.Ch.

    2006-01-01

    Coal is no longer considered as a 'has been' energy source. The production and demand of coal is growing up everywhere in the world because it has some strategic and technological advantages with respect to other energy sources: cheap, abundant, available everywhere over the world, in particular in countries with no geopolitical problems, and it is independent of supplying infrastructures (pipelines, terminals). Its main drawback is its polluting impact (dusts, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, mercury and CO 2 ). The challenge is to develop clean and high efficiency coal technologies like supercritical steam power plants or combined cycle coal gasification plants with a 50% efficiency, and CO 2 capture and sequestration techniques (post-combustion, oxy-combustion, chemical loop, integrated gasification gas combined cycle (pre-combustion)). Germany, who will abandon nuclear energy by 2021, is massively investing in the construction of high efficiency coal- and lignite-fired power plants with pollution control systems (denitrification and desulfurization processes, dust precipitators). (J.S.)

  11. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Zamansky; Vitali Lissianski; Pete Maly; Richard Koppang

    2002-09-10

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR) technology that is an improved version of conventional reburning. In FFR solid fuel is partially gasified before injection into the reburning zone of a boiler. Partial gasification of the solid fuel improves efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction and decreases LOI by increasing fuel reactivity. Objectives of this project were to develop engineering and scientific information and know-how needed to improve the cost of reburning via increased efficiency and minimized LOI and move the FFR technology to the demonstration and commercialization stage. All project objectives and technical performance goals have been met, and competitive advantages of FFR have been demonstrated. The work included a combination of experimental and modeling studies designed to identify optimum process conditions, confirm the process mechanism and to estimate cost effectiveness of the FFR technology. Experimental results demonstrated that partial gasification of a solid fuel prior to injection into the reburning zone improved the efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction and decreased LOI. Several coals with different volatiles content were tested. Testing suggested that incremental increase in the efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction due to coal gasification was more significant for coals with low volatiles content. Up to 14% increase in the efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction in comparison with basic reburning was achieved with coal gasification. Tests also demonstrated that FFR improved efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction for renewable fuels with high fuel-N content. Modeling efforts focused on the development of the model describing reburning with gaseous gasification products. Modeling predicted that the composition of coal gasification products depended on temperature. Comparison of experimental results and modeling predictions suggested that the heterogeneous NO{sub x} reduction on the surface of char played important role. Economic analysis confirmed

  12. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir Zamansky; Vitali Lissianski; Pete Maly; Richard Koppang

    2002-01-01

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR) technology that is an improved version of conventional reburning. In FFR solid fuel is partially gasified before injection into the reburning zone of a boiler. Partial gasification of the solid fuel improves efficiency of NO x reduction and decreases LOI by increasing fuel reactivity. Objectives of this project were to develop engineering and scientific information and know-how needed to improve the cost of reburning via increased efficiency and minimized LOI and move the FFR technology to the demonstration and commercialization stage. All project objectives and technical performance goals have been met, and competitive advantages of FFR have been demonstrated. The work included a combination of experimental and modeling studies designed to identify optimum process conditions, confirm the process mechanism and to estimate cost effectiveness of the FFR technology. Experimental results demonstrated that partial gasification of a solid fuel prior to injection into the reburning zone improved the efficiency of NO x reduction and decreased LOI. Several coals with different volatiles content were tested. Testing suggested that incremental increase in the efficiency of NO x reduction due to coal gasification was more significant for coals with low volatiles content. Up to 14% increase in the efficiency of NO x reduction in comparison with basic reburning was achieved with coal gasification. Tests also demonstrated that FFR improved efficiency of NO x reduction for renewable fuels with high fuel-N content. Modeling efforts focused on the development of the model describing reburning with gaseous gasification products. Modeling predicted that the composition of coal gasification products depended on temperature. Comparison of experimental results and modeling predictions suggested that the heterogeneous NO x reduction on the surface of char played important role. Economic analysis confirmed economic benefits of the FFR

  13. Clean coal reference plants: Pulverized coal boiler with flue gas desulfurization. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the U.S. energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. To achieve this goal, a multiphased effort consisting of five separate solicitations has been completed. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which, in general, correspond to the center`s areas of technology development. Primarily the categories of METC CCT projects are: atmospheric fluid bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications.

  14. Instrumentation and process control development for in situ coal gasification. Fourth quarterly report, September--November 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northrop, D.A. (ed.)

    1976-01-01

    The instrumentation effort for Phases 2 and 3 of the Second Hanna In Situ Coal Gasification Experiment was fielded and background data obtained prior to the initiation of Phase 2 on November 25, 1975. A total of over 600 channels of instrumentation in 15 instrumentation wells and two surface arrays was fielded for the instrumentation techniques under evaluation. The feasibility of the passive acoustic technique to locate the source of process-related noises has been demonstrated; its utility is presently hampered by the inexact definition of signal arrivals and the lack of automated signal monitoring and analysis systems. A revised mathematical model for the electrical techniques has been developed which demonstrates the potential for remote monitoring. (auth)

  15. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450–1650 oC) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society. PMID:26558350

  16. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air

  17. New coal-based energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1986-01-01

    Conversion of coal into liquid fuels or into coal gas is considered and the use of high temperature nuclear reactors whose waste heat can be used for remote (district) heating mentioned. The use of high temperature reactors as energy source for coal gasification is also examined and, finally, the extraction of heat from combined coal, steel and high temperature nuclear reactors is suggested. (G.M.E.)

  18. Regional-scale geomechanical impact assessment of underground coal gasification by coupled 3D thermo-mechanical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has the potential to increase the world-wide coal reserves by utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. The UCG process involves combusting coal in situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas, which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from its high economic potentials, UCG may induce site-specific environmental impacts such as fault reactivation, induced seismicity and ground subsidence, potentially inducing groundwater pollution. Changes overburden hydraulic conductivity resulting from thermo-mechanical effects may introduce migration pathways for UCG contaminants. Due to the financial efforts associated with UCG field trials, numerical modeling has been an important methodology to study coupled processes considering UCG performance. Almost all previous UCG studies applied 1D or 2D models for that purpose, that do not allow to predict the performance of a commercial-scale UCG operation. Considering our previous findings, demonstrating that far-field models can be run at a higher computational efficiency by using temperature-independent thermo-mechanical parameters, representative coupled simulations based on complex 3D regional-scale models were employed in the present study. For that purpose, a coupled thermo-mechanical 3D model has been developed to investigate the environmental impacts of UCG based on a regional-scale of the Polish Wieczorek mine located in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. The model size is 10 km × 10 km × 5 km with ten dipping lithological layers, a double fault and 25 UCG reactors. Six different numerical simulation scenarios were investigated, considering the transpressive stress regime present in that part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Our simulation results demonstrate that the minimum distance between the UCG reactors is about the six-fold of the coal seam thickness to avoid hydraulic communication between the single UCG

  19. Research on the thermal decomposition of Mongolian Baganuur lignite and Naryn sukhait bituminous coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ariunaa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The technical characteristics, elemental composition of the organic and mineral matters, ash melting behaviors and carbonization and gasification reactivities of coals from Baganuur and Naryn sukhait deposits were investigated. The results of proximate and ultimate analysis confirmed that the coal from Baganuur deposit can be graded as a low rank lignite B2 mark coal and Naryn sukhait coal is a bituminous G mark one. The carbonization and gasification experiments were performed using TGA apparatus and fixed bed quartz reactor. The data obtained with two experimental reactors showed that Baganuur lignite had lower thermal stability and much higher CO2 gasification reactivity at 950°C as compared to those for Naryn sukhait bituminous coal.Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 16 (42, 2015, 22-29

  20. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS TEXACO, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) has operated commercially for nearly 45 years on feeds such as natural gas, liquid petroleum fractions, coal, and petroleum coke. More than 45 plants are either operational or under development in the United States and abroad. Texaco has dev...

  1. Benefits of Allothermal Biomass Gasification for Co-Firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meijden, C.M.; Van der Drift, A.; Vreugdenhil, B.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Many countries have set obligations to reduce the CO2 emissions from coal fired boilers. Co-firing of biomass in existing coal fired power plants is an attractive solution to reduce CO2 emissions. Co-firing can be done by direct mixing of biomass with coal (direct co-firing) or by converting the biomass into a gas or liquid which is fired in a separate burner (indirect co-firing). Direct co-firing is a rather simple solution, but requires a high quality and expensive biomass fuel (e.g. wood pellets). Indirect co-firing requires an additional installation that converts the solid biomass into a gas or liquid, but has the advantage that it can handle a wide range of cheap biomass fuels (e.g. demolition wood) and most of the biomass ash components are separated from the gas before it enters the boiler. Separation of biomass ash can prevent fouling issues in the boiler. Indirect co-firing, using biomass gasification technology, is already common practice. In Geertruidenberg (the Netherlands) a 80 MWth Lurgi CFB gasifier produces gas from demolition wood which is co-fired in the Amer PC boiler. In Ruien (Belgium) a 50 MWth Foster Wheeler fluidized bed gasifier is in operation. The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) developed a 'second generation' allothermal gasifier called the MILENA gasifier. This gasifier has some major advantages over conventional fluidized bed gasifiers. The heating value of the produced gas is approximately 2.5 times higher than of gas produced by conventional bubbling / circulating fluidized bed gasifiers. This results in smaller adaptations to the membrane wall of the boiler for the gas injection, thus lower costs. A major disadvantage of most fluidized bed gasifiers is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Typical fuel conversions vary between 90 and 95%. The remaining combustible material, also containing most of the biomass ash components, is blown out of the gasifier and removed from the gas stream by a cyclone to

  2. Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

  3. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) production and gasification in a pilot plant integrated with an Otto cycle ICE through Aspen plus™ modelling: Thermodynamic and economic viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Násner, Albany Milena Lozano; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Palacio, José Carlos Escobar; Rocha, Mateus Henrique; Restrepo, Julian Camilo; Venturini, Osvaldo José; Ratner, Albert

    2017-11-01

    This work deals with the development of a Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) gasification pilot plant using air as a gasification agent. A downdraft fixed bed reactor is integrated with an Otto cycle Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Modelling was carried out using the Aspen Plus™ software to predict the ideal operational conditions for maximum efficiency. Thermodynamics package used in the simulation comprised the Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) model and the Hayden-O'Connell (HOC) equation of state. As expected, the results indicated that the Equivalence Ratio (ER) has a direct influence over the gasification temperature and the composition of the Raw Produced Gas (RPG), and effects of ER over the Lower Heating Value (LHV) and Cold Gasification Efficiency (CGE) of the RPG are also discussed. A maximum CGE efficiency of 57-60% was reached for ER values between 0.25 and 0.3, also an average reactor temperature values in the range of 680-700°C, with a peak LHV of 5.8MJ/Nm 3 . RPG was burned in an ICE, reaching an electrical power of 50kW el . The economic assessment of the pilot plant implementation was also performed, showing the project is feasible, with power above 120kW el with an initial investment of approximately US$ 300,000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.