WorldWideScience

Sample records for coal fuels

  1. Coal and nuclear electricity fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, F.

    1982-06-01

    Comparative economic analysis is used to contrast the economic advantages of nuclear and coal-fired electric generating stations for Canadian regions. A simplified cash flow method is used with present value techniques to yield a single levelized total unit energy cost over the lifetime of a generating station. Sensitivity analysis illustrates the effects of significant changes in some of the cost data. The analysis indicates that in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia nuclear energy is less costly than coal for electric power generation. In the base case scenario the nuclear advantage is 24 percent in Quebec, 29 percent in Ontario, 34 percent in Manitoba, and 16 percent in British Columbia. Total unit energy cost is sensitive to variations in both capital and fuel costs for both nuclear and coal-fuelled power stations, but are not very sensitive to operating and maintenance costs

  2. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  3. Liquid fuels from Canadian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G. W.

    1979-06-15

    In Canadian energy planning, the central issue of security of supply must be addressed by developing flexible energy systems that make the best possible use of available resources. For liquid fuel production, oil sands and heavy oil currently appear more attractive than coal or biomass as alternatives to conventional crude oil, but the magnitude of their economic advantage is uncertain. The existence of large resources of oil sands, heavy oils, natural gas and low-sulfur coals in Western Canada creates a unique opportunity for Canadians to optimize the yield from these resources and develop new technology. Many variations on the three basic liquefaction routes - hydroliquefaction, pyrolysis and synthesis - are under investigation around the world, and the technology is advancing rapidly. Each process has merit under certain circumstances. Surface-mineable subbituminous and lignite coals of Alberta and Saskatchewan appear to offer the best combination of favorable properties, deposit size and mining cost, but other deposits in Alberta, Nova Scotia and British Columbia should not be ruled out. The research effort in Canada is small by world standards, but it is unlikely that technology could be imported that is ideally suited to Canadian conditions. Importing technology is undesirable: innovation or process modification to suit Canadian coals and markets is preferred; coprocessing of coal liquids with bitumen or heavy oils would be a uniquely Canadian, exportable technology. The cost of synthetic crude from coal in Canada is uncertain, estimates ranging from $113 to $220/m/sup 3/ ($18 to $35/bbl). Existing economic evaluations vary widely depending on assumptions, and can be misleading. Product quality is an important consideration.

  4. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  5. Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Tao

    2011-12-31

    The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon an Electrochemical Looping (ECL) of Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC). The objective of Phase 1 was to experimentally characterize the interaction between the tin anode, coal fuel and cell component electrolyte, the fate of coal contaminants in a molten tin reactor (via chemistry) and their impact upon the YSZ electrolyte (via electrochemistry). The results of this work will provided the basis for further study in Phase 2. The objective of Phase 2 was to extend the study of coal impurities impact on fuel cell components other than electrolyte, more specifically to the anode current collector which is made of an electrically conducting ceramic jacket and broad based coal tin reduction. This work provided a basic proof-of-concept feasibility demonstration of the direct coal concept.

  6. Bugs and coal: processing fuels with biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, M

    1987-06-01

    Bioprocessing of coal is developing along several fronts, each of potential significance to utilities. Researchers have found a fungus, polyporous versicolor, which can liquefy certain kinds of coal and scientists have genetically engineered bacteria that remove sulfur and ash-forming metal impurities from coal. Research programs are being undertaken to find organisms that will convert lignite into gaseous methane to produce gaseous fuel more economically than the current coal gasification methods. Researchers looking for ways to remove sulfur from coal before it is burned are evaluating the use of a bacterium called thiobacillus ferroxidans to enhance the physical removal of pyrite. 2 refs.

  7. Nigerian bituminous coal as a fuel-coal. | OGUGBUAJA | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian bituminous coal as a fuel-coal. V O OGUGBUAJA, C L NDIOKWERE, G A DIMARI. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v6i2.16113 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

  8. Fuel briquettes from brown coals of Yakutia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.A. Nikolaeva; V.G. Latyshev; O.N. Burenina [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Oil and Gas Problems

    2009-04-15

    Experimental data on the development of technology for the manufacture of briquetted fuel from brown coals with the use of various petroleum binders are presented. The influence of the moisture content, the coal particle-size composition, the binder type and concentration, the compacting pressure, and heat treatment regimes on the mechanical properties of the materials was studied. The optimal compositions and optimal values of the engineering parameters for the production of graded briquetted fuel from brown coals of the Kangalassy deposit in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) were established.

  9. Fuel Cells in the Coal Energy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolat Peter

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In march 1998 at the conference „Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems“ in Clearwater, USA representatives of U.S. Department of Energy presented the vision 21 focused on the electricity generation from coal for 21st century. The goal is a powerplant with the ability to produce the electricity from coal with the efficiency approaching 60% (higher heating value and emission levels of one-tenth of today´s technologies, The CO2 capture and permanent sequestration at the cost of $15/ton of CO2, and a cost of electricity of 3 cents per kilowatt-hour. The goal is believed to be achievable by the first quarter of the next century. The vision 21 is presented with several possible concepts. One of them is based on coal gasification with following hydrogen separation. The obtained hydrogen is used as a fuel for the cogeneration unit with fuel cells. The remaining gas can be liquefied and utilised as a fuel in the automotive industry or further chemically processed. The concept has several important features. Firstly, a very clean low cost electricity production. Secondly, it is comprised of fuel processing section and power processing section. The two sections need not to be co-located. In the world of the deregulated electricity generation this offers a major advantage. The technologies of fuel processing section – coal gasification and hydrogen separation have been successfully developed in the last two decades. A specificity of the fuel processing section of this concept is to obtain hydrogen rich gas with very low concentrations of substances, as CO, which cause a poisoning of electrodes of fuel cells leading to the decreasing fuel cells efficiency. Fuel cells, specially highly efficient coal-gas SOFC and MCFC, are expected to be commercially available by 2020. The natural-gas MCFC and SOFC plants should enter the commercial marketplace by the year 2002.

  10. Clean fuel-magnesia bonded coal briquetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosun, Yildirim I. [S. Demirel University Eng., Arch. Faculty Mining Eng. Department, Isparta (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    Benefaction from coal fines as solid fuel in Turkey is very much important for economical development. Beneficiation from washed coal fines in the industry using solid fuel at lump size and in the municipal areas as an household solid fuel may be only provided by hot briquetting of the coal fines. The most practical common way of that benefication from coal fines in our country have been hot binding by sulfite liquor-sulfite liquor-melas and lime mixtures. Harmful the flue content of sulfite liquor-melas may only be eliminated by lime, a type of solid additive. However, cold bonded briquettes produced from coal fines are environmentally free. Just ash contents of these briquettes increase at a certain degree and heat content of them decrease at a certain extent. By using magnesia binder showed in this study, Tuncbilek lignite fines have been briquetted by cold and hot briquetting techniques. The qualities of briquettes produced by cold binders were compared with to those produced by other hot binding methods As a result, magnesia binder showed the similar characteristics with those of the briquettes produced by only cold bonded gypsum. Use of magnesite mixture and gypsum just as only cold binder was not suitable for the requirements from the coal briquettes to be used as solid fuels, particularly from household fuels, but just only as cold additive should be used. (author)

  11. Solid fuels. Coal. Economy and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautin, F.; Martin-Amouroux, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The share of coal in the world energy mix (25%) and its possible increase during the next decades is due to its specific use in steelmaking industry and to its excellent competitiveness in fossil-fuel power plants with respect to other energy sources. Its inferior energy efficiency is compensated by lower and more stable prices on international markets. This situation is explained by a strong competition and abundant reserves. However, coal is a strong emitter of greenhouse gases and would be temporarily penalized by the implementation of emission tax or trading systems before the development of carbon sequestration systems. This article presents: the main world markets (consumption per sector of activity, power generation market, coke market, start-up of a synthetic fuels market), the main international coal producers and traders (overview and typology, international trades, transport), the reserves and resources, and the worldwide perspectives (2050 scenarios, climatic risks, CO 2 prices and technological changes). (J.S.)

  12. Characterization and supply of coal-based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    Contract objectives are as follows: Develop fuel specifications to serve combustor requirements. Select coals having appropriate compositional and quality characteristics as well as an economically attractive reserve base; Provide quality assurance for both the parent coals and the fuel forms; and deliver premium coal-based fuels to combustor developers as needed for their contract work. Progress is discussed, particulary in slurry fuel preparation and particle size distribution.

  13. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  14. Ecological aspects of water coal fuel transportation and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna SHVORNIKOVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the aspects of influence of transportation process and burning of water coal fuel on an ecological condition of environment. Also mathematical dependences between coal ash level and power consumption for transportation are presented.

  15. Technology assessment of various coal-fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, R.; Findling, B.; Klein-Vielhauer, S.; Nieke, E.; Paschen, H.; Tangen, H.; Wintzer, D.

    1991-01-01

    The technology assessment (TA) study of coal-based fuels presented in this report was performed for the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its goal was to support decision-making of the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in the field of coal conversion. Various technical options of coal liquefaction have been analyzed on the basis of hard coal as well as lignite -- direct liquefaction of coal (hydrogenation) and different possibilities of indirect liquefaction, that is the production of fuels (methanol, gasoline) by processing products of coal gasification. The TA study takes into consideration the entire technology chain from coal mining via coal conversion to the utilization of coal-based fuels in road transport. The analysis focuses on costs of the various options, overall economic effects, which include effects on employment and public budgets, and on environmental consequences compared to the use of liquid fuels derived from oil. Furthermore, requirements of infrastructure and other problems of the introduction of coal-based fuels as well as prospects for the export of technologies of direct and indirect coal liquefaction have been analyzed in the study. 14 figs., 10 tabs

  16. Fossil fuels. Commercializing clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Sprague, John W.; Kirk, Roy J.; Clark, Marcus R. Jr.; Greene, Richard M.; Buncher, Carole S.; Kleigleng, Robert G.; Imbrogno, Frank W.

    1989-03-01

    Coal, an abundant domestic energy source, provides 25 percent of the nation's energy needs, but its use contributes to various types of pollution, including acid rain. The Department of Energy (DOE) has a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program whose goal is to expand the use of coal in an environmentally safe manner by contributing to the cost of projects demonstrating the commercial applications of emerging clean coal technologies. Concerned about the implementation of the CCT program, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and Power, House Committee on Energy and Commerce, requested GAO to report on (1) DOE's process of negotiating cooperative agreements with project sponsors, (2) changes DOE has made to the program, (3) the status of funded projects, and (4) the interrelationship between acid rain control proposals and the potential commercialization of clean coal technologies. Under the CCT program, DOE funds up to 50 percent of the cost of financing projects that demonstrate commercial applications of emerging clean coal technologies. DOE has conducted two solicitations for demonstration project proposals and is planning a third solicitation by May 1989. The Congress has appropriated $400 million for the first solicitation, or round one of the program, $575 million for round two, and $575 million for round three, for a total of $1.55 billion. For the round-one solicitation, DOE received 51 proposals from project sponsors. As of December 31, 1988, DOE had funded nine projects and was in the process of negotiating cooperative financial assistance agreements with sponsors of four projects. In September 1988, DOE selected 16 round-two projects from 55 proposals submitted and began the process of negotiating cooperative agreements with the project sponsors. The Congress has debated the need to reduce acid rain-causing emissions associated with fossil fuel combustion. The 100th Congress considered but did not enact about 20 acid rain control bills. On February 9, 1989

  17. Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob

    This Ph.D. thesis describes an experimental and modeling investigation of the thermal conversion of coal and an experimental investigation of the emission of NO from char combustion in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres. The motivation for the work has been the prospective use of the technology “Oxy......-Fuel Combustion” as a mean of CO2 abatement in large scale energy conversion. Entrained Flow Reactor (EFR) experiments have been conducted in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 mixtures in the temperature interval 1173 K – 1673 K using inlet O2 concentrations between 5 – 28 vol. %. Bituminous coal has been used as fuel in all....... % it was found that char conversion rate was lowered in O2/CO2 compared to O2/N2. This is caused by the lower diffusion coefficient of O2 in CO2 (~ 22 %) that limits the reaction rate in zone III compared to combustion in O2/N2. Using char sampled in the EFR experiments ThermoGravimetric Analyzer (TGA...

  18. Direct Coal Oxidation in Modified Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Gil, Vanesa; Ippolito, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon-carbonate s......Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon......-carbonate slurry or anode layer. The nature of the coal affects both open circuit voltage and power output. Highest OCV and power densities were observed for bituminous coal and by adding manganese oxide or praseodymium-doped ceria to the carbon/carbonate mixture. Comparing the carbon black fueled performance...... bituminous coal (73 mW/cm2). © 2015 ECS - The Electrochemical Society...

  19. Direct Coal Oxidation in Modified Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Gil, Vanesa; Ippolito, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon-carbonate s......Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon......-carbonate slurry or anode layer. The nature of the coal affects both open circuit voltage and power output. Highest OCV and power densities were observed for bituminous coal and by adding manganese oxide or praseodymium-doped ceria to the carbon/carbonate mixture. Comparing the carbon black fueled performance...... bituminous coal (73 mW/cm2)....

  20. Combustion of coal gas fuels in a staged combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosfjord, T. J.; Mcvey, J. B.; Sederquist, R. A.; Schultz, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Gaseous fuels produced from coal resources generally have heating values much lower than natural gas; the low heating value could result in unstable or inefficient combustion. Coal gas fuels may contain ammonia which if oxidized in an uncontrolled manner could result in unacceptable nitrogen oxide exhaust emission levels. Previous investigations indicate that staged, rich-lean combustion represents a desirable approach to achieve stable, efficient, low nitrogen oxide emission operation for coal-derived liquid fuels contaning up to 0.8-wt pct nitrogen. An experimental program was conducted to determine whether this fuel tolerance can be extended to include coal-derived gaseous fuels. The results of tests with three nitrogen-free fuels having heating values of 100, 250, and 350 Btu/scf and a 250 Btu/scf heating value doped to contain 0.7 pct ammonia are presented.

  1. Coal-water fuels - a clean coal solution for Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubicic, B.; Willson, W.; Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Stajner, K.; Popovic, R.

    1993-01-01

    Eastern Europe currently faces great economic and environmental problems. Among these problems is energy provision. Coal reserves are large but cause pollution while oil and gas need to be used for export. Formal 'clean coal technologies' are simply too expensive to be implemented on a large scale in the current economic crisis. The promised western investment and technological help has simply not taken place, western Europe must help eastern Europe with coal technology. The cheapest such technology is coal-water fuel slurry. It can substitute for oil, but research has not been carried out because of low oil prices. Coal-water fuel is one of the best methods of exploiting low rank coal. Many eastern European low rank coals have a low sulfur content, and thus make a good basis for a clean fuel. Italy and Russia are involved in such a venture, the slurry being transported in a pipeline. This technology would enable Russia to exploit Arctic coal reserves, thus freeing oil and gas for export. In Serbia the exploitation of sub-Danube lignite deposits with dredging mining produced a slurry. This led to the use and development of hot water drying, which enabled the removal of many of the salts which cause problems in pulverized fuel combustion. The system is economic, the fuel safer to transport then oil, either by rail or in pipelines. Many eastern European oil facilities could switch. 24 refs

  2. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, O.K.; Levasseur, A.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring the development of advanced coal-cleaning technologies aimed at expanding the use of the nation`s vast coal reserves in an environmentally and economically acceptable manner. Because of the lack of practical experience with deeply beneficiated coal-based fuels, PETC has contracted Combustion Engineering, Inc. to perform a multi-year project on `Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.` The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels (BCs) influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs.

  3. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, D.; Laag, P.C. van der; Oudhuis, A.B.J.; Ribberink, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R and D programmes on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO 2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO 2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency. (orig.)

  4. Health effects attributable to coal and nuclear fuel cycle alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchy, R.L.

    1977-09-01

    Estimates of mortality and morbidity are presented based on present-day knowledge of health effects resulting from current component designs and operations of the fuel cycles, and anticipated emission rates and occupational exposure for the various fuel cycle facilities expected to go into operation in approximately the 1975-1985 period. It was concluded that, although there are large uncertainties in the estimates of potential health effects, the coal fuel cycle alternative has a greater health impact on man than the uranium fuel cycle. However, the increased risk of health effects for either fuel cycle represents a very small incremental risk to the average individual in the public

  5. Status of Westinghouse coal-fueled combustion turbine programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalzo, A.J.; Amos, D.J.; Bannister, R.L.; Garland, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    Developing clean, efficient, cost effective coal utilization technologies for future power generation is an essential part of our National Energy Strategy. Westinghouse is actively developing power plants utilizing advanced gasification, atmospheric fluidized beds (AFB), pressurized fluidized beds (PFB), and direct firing technology through programs sponsored by the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE). The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is sponsoring the Direct Coal-Fired Turbine program. This paper presents the status of current and potential Westinghouse Power Generation Business Unit advanced coal-fueled power generation programs as well as commercial plans

  6. Zulia rich coal seams to fuel Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-16

    In March, 1982, Carbozulia awarded a contract to Fluor Corp. to provide basic engineering services, including mine planning and geology, for the two-phase project. The open pit mine and ancillary facilities, valued at more than $200 million, will provide steam and metallurgical coal for domestic use. The site, Mina Paso Diablo, is located about 60 miles northwest of Maracaibo. Upon phase one completion sometime in 1987, the mill will start production, gradually increasing to 4 million metric-tons-per-year. This will increase to 6.4 million metric tons when phase two is completed. In addition to the mine, the Venezuelan government plans to build an industrial complex along Lake Maracaibo. Corpozulia will build a steel-rolling mill and add a 350,000 metric tons-per-year coking oven, which will consume about 7% of the mine's metallurgical-coal production. Another government-owned firm, Electric Energy of Venezuela, plans to build a thermo-electric plant nearby. Two 250-megawatt units are planned initially, with potential to add another six units. At full capacity, the plant will burn more than 90% of the coal produced from the mine. Mina Paso Diablo contains one of Latin America's largest proven coal reserves - about 350 million metric tons - with guesstimates running as high as 4 billion metric tons for the Zulia coal basin. The coal is of superior quality, running about 12,000 to 13,000 Btu's per lb. with a low ash and sulphur content.

  7. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  8. Current status of U.S. coal utilization and non-fuel uses of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C.S.; Schobert, H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    An understanding of the current situation is important for projecting the future direction of coal utilization. The world's annual consumption of coal in 1995 was 5104.01 million short tons (MST, 1 short ton = 0.907 metric ton). Coal plays a very important role in the US energy supply; US coal production in 1995 totaled 1033 MST, including 611.1 MST of bituminous coal, 328.4 MST of subbituminous coal, 86.1 MST of lignite, and 4.1 MST of anthracite. US coal consumption totaled 940.6 MST, with 88.1% in electric utilities, 3.5% in coke plants, 7.8% for other industrial uses, and only 0.6% in the residential and commercial sectors. The amount of fossil resources used for non-fuel purposes accounted for 8.4% of the total annual consumption in 1995. Non-fuel uses of fossil fuels particularly coal may become more important in the future. The demonstrated coal reserves in the world are large enough for consumption for over 220 years at the 1995 level, while proven oil reserves are only about 40 times the world's 1995 consumption level. Coal has several positive attributes when considered as a feedstock for aromatic chemicals, specialty chemicals, and carbon-based materials. Existing nonfuel uses of coals include (1) high temperature carbonization of bituminous and subbituminous coals to make metallurgical coke; (2) gasification of coal to make synthesis gases and other chemicals; (3) use of coal in manufacturing other materials such as activated carbons, carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and production of phosphorus (phosphoric acid); (4) the use of coal tars from carbonization and gasification for making aromatic and phenolic chemicals; (5) the use of coal tar pitch for making carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers; and (6) other non-fuel products derived from coal including combustion by-products. Coal may become more important both as an energy source and as the source of chemical feedstocks in the 21st century

  9. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidised bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagland, S.T.; Kilgallon, P.; Coveney, R.; Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Simms, N.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidised bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal + 10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal + 10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel.

  10. [Characterization and supply of coal based fuels]. Quarterly technical report, February 1, 1988--April 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-31

    Contract objectives are as follows: Develop fuel specifications to serve combustor requirements; Select coals having appropriate compositional and quality characteristics as well as an economically attractive reserve base; Provide quality assurance for both the parent coals and the fuel forms; and deliver premium coal-based fuels to combustor developers as needed for their contract work. Progress is described.

  11. Fuel supply investment cost: coal and nuclear. Commercial electric power cost studies (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    This study presents an accounting model for calculating the capital investment requirements for coal and nuclear fuel supply facilities. The study addresses mining, processing, fabrication, and transportation of coal and nuclear fuels. A generic example is provided, for coal from different sources, and for nuclear fuel. The relationship of capital investment requirements to delivered prices is included in each example

  12. Utilisation of coal for energy production in fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a brief characterization of fuel cell technology and its possible application in sustainable energy development was described. Special attention was paid to direct carbon fuel cell technology. The direct carbon fuel cell is an electrochemical device which directly converts the chemical energy of carbonaceous based fuel into electricity without ‘flame burning’. The electrical efficiency of a DCFC is indeed very high (in practice exceeding 80%, and the product of conversion consists of almost pure CO2, eliminating the most expensive step of sequestration: the separation of carbon from flue gases. In this paper the process of electrochemical oxidation of carbon particles on the surface of oxide electrolytes at 8% mol Y2O3 in ZrO2 (8YSZ as well as cermet anode Ni-8YSZ was analysed. The graphite, carbon black powders were considered as reference solid fuels for coal samples. It was found that the main factors contributing to the electrochemical reactivity of carbon particles is not only the high carbon content in samples but also structural disorder. It was found that structurally disordered carbon-based materials are the most promising solid fuels for direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells. Special impact was placed on the consideration of coal as possible solid fuels for DC-SOFC. Statistical and economic analyses show that in the coming decades, in developing countries such as China, India, and some EU countries, coal-fuelled power plants will maintain their strong position in the power sector due to their reliability and low costs as well as the large reserves of coal and lignite in the world. Coal is mined in politically stable areas, which guarantees its easy and safe purchase and transport. The impact of the physiochemical properties of raw and purified coal on the performance of the DC-SOFC was studied. An analysis of the stability of electrical parameters was performed for a DC-SOFC operating under a load over an extended

  13. Fuel oil from low-temperature carbonization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thau, A

    1941-01-01

    A review has been given of German developments during the last 20 years. Four methods for the low-temperature carbonization of coal have been developed to the industrial stage; two involving the use of externally heated, intermittent, metallic chamber ovens; and two employing the principle of internal heating by means of a current of gas. Tar from externally heated retorts can be used directly as fuel oil, but that from internally heated retorts requires further treatment. In order to extend the range of coals available for low-temperature carbonization, and to economize metals, an externally heated type of retort constructed of ceramic material has been developed to the industrial stage by T. An excellent coke and a tar that can be used directly as fuel oil are obtained. The properties of the tar obtained from Upper Silesian coal are briefly summarized.

  14. Britain's resources of coal and spent uranium fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldby, R.

    1982-01-01

    Estimates of the United Kingdom's reserves of coal and of spent fuel from nuclear reactors, provided during the 1970's by the National Coal Board and the Atomic Energy Authority, are examined. These estimates, which tend to increase steadily, are based on statistics on fuel reserves which do not constitute cold hard facts but are judgements about the probable outcome of a series of events in space and time. It is felt that this analysis of energy resource claims does not suggest intentional rivalry by the Atomic Energy Authority and the National Coal Board though the fact that they both represent responses at the political level in the campaign for government support seems evident. A reluctance to adopt the modern distinction between resources and reserves in such analyses is also noted. (U.K.)

  15. Symbiotic Nuclear—Coal Systems for Production of Liquid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taczanowski, S.

    The notion of safety is not confined to the technological or non-proliferation aspects. It covers also the elements of energy policy: irrational reactions of societies, emotions, egoistic interests of more or less powerful pressure of economical and external political factors. One should be conscious that the country's privilege of being equipped by the Nature with rich resources of oil or gas is not solely economical, but even more a political one. Simultaneously, the gradual depletion of world hydrocarbons that draws behind irrevocable price increase has to be expected within the time scale of exploitation of power plants (now amounted to ~60 years). Therefore consequences of energy policy last much longer than the perspectives the political or economical decision makers are planning and acting within and the public is expecting successes and finally evaluating them. The world oil and gas resources are geopolitically very non-uniformly distributed, in contrast to coal and uranium. Since the level of energy self-sufficiency of the EU is highest for coal, the old idea of synfuels production from coal is recalled. Yet, in view of limits to the CO2 emissions in the EU another method has to be used here than the conventional coal liquefaction just applied in China. Simultaneously, an interesting evolution of energy prices was be observed, namely an increase in that of motor fuels in contrast to that of electricity remaining well stable. This fact suggests that the use of electricity (mainly the off-peak load), generated without emissions of CO2 for production of liquid fuels can prove reasonable. Thus, the essence of the presented idea of coal-nuclear symbiosis lies in the supply of energy in the form of H2, necessary for this process, from a nuclear reactor. Particularly, in the present option H2 is obtained by electrolytic water splitting supplying also O2 as a precious by-product in well mature and commercially available already since decades, Light Water Reactors

  16. Producing synthetic solid fuel from Kansk-Achinsk coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zverev, D.P.; Krichko, A.A.; Smirnova, T.S.; Markina, T.I.

    1981-01-01

    Studies were conducted by the Soviet Institute of Fossil Fuels in order to develop a technology and equipment configuration for thermal processing of coals using gas heat carriers in swirl chambers. Characteristics of the starting Irsha-Borodinskii coal and those of the products of thermal processing at 290-600 C are given. Testing the method showed that the products of high-speed thermal processing (thermocoal, semicoke, drier products) can be used as raw materials in hydrogenation, combustion, gasification, thermal benefication, briquetting and a series of other processes in metallurgy. (10 refs.) (In Russian)

  17. Possibilities of increasing coal charge density by adding fuel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fröhlichová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of all coke-making facilities is to achieve the highest possible production of high quality coke from a chamber. It can be achieved by filling the effective capacity of the chamber with the highest possible amount of coal. One of the possibilities of meeting this requirement is to increase the charge density in the coke chamber. In case of a coke battery operating on bulk coal there are many methods to increase the charge density including the use of wetting agents in the charge. This article presents the results of the laboratory experiments aiming at the increase of the charge density using fuel oil as a wetting agent. The experiments were carried out by means of the Pitin’s device using 3 coal charges with various granularity composition and moisture content of 7, 8, 9 and 10 %.

  18. Using plasma-fuel systems at Eurasian coal-fired thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, E. I.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2009-06-01

    The development of plasma technology for igniting solid fuels at coal-fired thermal power stations in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and other Eurasian countries is briefly reviewed. Basic layouts and technical and economic characteristics of plasma-fuel systems installed in different coal-fired boiles are considered together with some results from using these systems at coal-fired thermal power stations.

  19. Characterization and supply of coal-based fuels. Quarterly report, February 1, 1989--April 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    Contract objectives are as follows: Develop fuel specifications to serve combustor requirements. Select coals having appropriate compositional and quality characteristics as well as an economically attractive reserve base; Provide quality assurance for both the parent coals and the fuel forms; and deliver premium coal-based fuels to combustor developers as needed for their contract work. Progress is discussed, particulary in slurry fuel preparation and particle size distribution.

  20. Review of coal-water fuel pulverization technology and atomization quality registration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of coal-water fuel application in industrial power engineering are considered and described. Two main problems and disadvantages of this fuel type are suggested. The paper presents information about liquid fuel atomization technologies and provides data on nozzle type for coal-water fuel pulverization. This article also mentions some of the existing technologies for coal-water slurry spraying quality determination.

  1. Preparation and combustion of coal-water fuel from the Sin Pun coal deposit, southern Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources in Thailand, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a program to assess the responsiveness of Sin Pun lignite to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying. The results indicate that drying made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 27 wt% for the raw coal to about 15 wt% for the hot-water-dried (HWD) coals. The energy density for a pumpable coal-water fuel (CWF) indicates an increase from 4500 to 6100 Btu/lb by hot-water drying. Approximately 650 lb of HWD Sin Pun CWF were fired in the EERC`s combustion test facility. The fuel burned extremely well, with no feed problems noted during the course of the test. Fouling and slagging deposits each indicated a very low rate of ash deposition, with only a dusty layer formed on the cooled metal surfaces. The combustor was operated at between 20% and 25% excess air, resulting in a flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration averaging approximately 6500 parts per million.

  2. Producing Liquid Fuels from Coal: Prospects and Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    fraction of the weight of a plant. Most of the material in plants is cellulose , hemicellulose, or lignin . None of these substances is amenable to the...conventional fuel involved in producing the biomass. This is especially the case for non-food-crop biomass, such as corn stover, switchgrass, prairie...conversion of cellulosic materials, starches, or sugars to alcohols. Coal-to-Liquids Technologies 39 Unfortunately, annual variations in weather

  3. Study of ammonia removal from coal-gasified fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Takeharu; Sato, Mikio [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    In integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power-generation (IGCC) systems, ammonia in gasified fuel is passed through a hot/dry type gas clean-up facility into a gas turbine. The ammonia is converted to nitrogen oxides in the gas turbine combustion process. Therefore, ammonia removal from coal-gasified fuel effectively reduces NO{sub x} emissions in IGCC systems. The authors clarified the optimum NO/NH{sub 3} ratio, the optimum concentration of added O{sub 2}, and the influence of CO, H{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} in the coal-gasified fuel on NH{sub 3} decomposition and NO reduction through experiments using a tubular flow reactor and numerical analysis based on reaction kinetics. The main results were as follows: (1) The optimum NO/NH{sub 3} ratio for maximizing NH{sub 3} decomposition and NO reduction was about 1. (2) The NH{sub 3} decomposition ratio depended only on H{sub 2}, and decreased rapidly with increasing H{sub 2} concentration. (3) The NO reduction ratio decreased with an increasing H{sub 2} concentration. (4) The remaining CH{sub 4}, which was not decomposed by pyrolysis, increased with an increasing CH{sub 4} concentration and caused the reaction temperature to rise, as opposed to cases of CO and H{sub 2}. (5) The method was effective in decreasing total fixed nitrogen (TFN) by up to 40% and minimizing the total concentration of remaining NH{sub 3} and NO in air-blown, coal-gasified fuel.

  4. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Wotzak; Chellappa Balan; Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    The pre-baseline configuration for an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) system has been developed. This case uses current gasification, clean-up, gas turbine, and bottoming cycle technologies together with projected large planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. This pre-baseline case will be used as a basis for identifying the critical factors impacting system performance and the major technical challenges in implementing such systems. Top-level system requirements were used as the criteria to evaluate and down select alternative sub-systems. The top choice subsystems were subsequently integrated to form the pre-baseline case. The down-selected pre-baseline case includes a British Gas Lurgi (BGL) gasification and cleanup sub-system integrated with a GE Power Systems 6FA+e gas turbine and the Hybrid Power Generation Systems planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) sub-system. The overall efficiency of this system is estimated to be 43.0%. The system efficiency of the pre-baseline system provides a benchmark level for further optimization efforts in this program.

  5. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels. Volume 1, Final report and appendix A (Topical report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  6. Fuel production from coal by the Mobil Oil process using nuclear high-temperature process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, G.

    1982-01-01

    Two processes for the production of liquid hydrocarbons are presented: Direct conversion of coal into fuel (coal hydrogenation) and indirect conversion of coal into fuel (syngas production, methanol synthesis, Mobil Oil process). Both processes have several variants in which nuclear process heat may be used; in most cases, the nuclear heat is introduced in the gas production stage. The following gas production processes are compared: LURGI coal gasification process; steam reformer methanation, with and without coal hydrogasification and steam gasification of coal. (orig./EF) [de

  7. NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Farzan

    2001-01-01

    Under DOE sponsorship, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Minergy Corporation developed and evaluated a sludge derived fuel (SDF) made from sewage sludge. Our approach is to dry and agglomerate the sludge, combine it with a fluxing agent, if necessary, and co-fire the resulting fuel with coal in a cyclone boiler to recover the energy and to vitrify mineral matter into a non-leachable product. This product can then be used in the construction industry. A literature search showed that there is significant variability of the sludge fuel properties from a given wastewater plant (seasonal and/or day-to-day changes) or from different wastewater plants. A large sewage sludge sample (30 tons) from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was collected, dried, pelletized and successfully co-fired with coal in a cyclone-equipped pilot. Several sludge particle size distributions were tested. Finer sludge particle size distributions, similar to the standard B and W size distribution for sub-bituminous coal, showed the best combustion and slagging performance. Up to 74.6% and 78.9% sludge was successfully co-fired with pulverized coal and with natural gas, respectively. An economic evaluation on a 25-MW power plant showed the viability of co-firing the optimum SDF in a power generation application. The return on equity was 22 to 31%, adequate to attract investors and allow a full-scale project to proceed. Additional market research and engineering will be required to verify the economic assumptions. Areas to focus on are: plant detail design and detail capital cost estimates, market research into possible project locations, sludge availability at the proposed project locations, market research into electric energy sales and renewable energy sales opportunities at the proposed project location. As a result of this program, wastes that are currently not being used and considered an environmental problem will be processed into a renewable

  8. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  9. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  10. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Reginald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2014-09-01

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co-produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  11. SECA Coal-Based Systems - FuelCell Energy, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayagh, Hossein [Fuelcell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2014-01-31

    The overall goal of this U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project is the development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive central generation power plant facilities fueled by coal synthesis gas (syngas). This program incorporates the following supporting objectives: • Reduce SOFC-based electrical power generation system cost to $700 or less (2007 dollars) for a greater than 100 MW Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) power plant, exclusive of coal gasification and CO2 separation subsystem costs. • Achieve an overall IGFC power plant efficiency of at least 50%, from coal (higher heating value or HHV) to AC power (exclusive of CO2 compression power requirement). • Reduce the release of CO2 to the environment in an IGFC power plant to no more than 10% of the carbon in the syngas. • Increase SOFC stack reliability to achieve a design life of greater than 40,000 hours. At the inception of the project, the efforts were focused on research, design and testing of prototype planar SOFC power generators for stationary applications. FuelCell Energy, Inc. successfully completed the initial stage of the project by meeting the program metrics, culminating in delivery and testing of a 3 kW system at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Subsequently, the project was re-aligned into a three phase effort with the main goal to develop SOFC technology for application in coal-fueled power plants with >90% carbon capture. Phase I of the Coal-based efforts focused on cell and stack size scale-up with concurrent enhancement of performance, life, cost, and manufacturing characteristics. Also in Phase I, design and analysis of the baseline (greater than 100 MW) power plant system—including concept identification, system definition, and cost analysis—was conducted. Phase II efforts focused on development of a ≥25 kW SOFC stack tower incorporating

  12. Zinc isotopic composition of particulate matter generated during the combustion of coal and coal + tire-derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrok, D.M.; Gieré, R.; Ren, M.; Landa, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric Zn emissions from the burning of coal and tire-derived fuel (TDF) for power generation can be considerable. In an effort to lay the foundation for tracking these contributions, we evaluated the Zn isotopes of coal, a mixture of 95 wt % coal + 5 wt % TDF, and the particulate matter (PM) derived from their combustion in a power-generating plant. The average Zn concentrations and δ(66)Zn were 36 mg/kg and 183 mg/kg and +0.24‰ and +0.13‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. The δ(66)Zn of the PM sequestered in the cyclone-type mechanical separator was the lightest measured, -0.48‰ for coal and -0.81‰ for coal+TDF. The δ(66)Zn of the PM from the electrostatic precipitator showed a slight enrichment in the heavier Zn isotopes relative to the starting material. PM collected from the stack had the heaviest δ(66)Zn in the system, +0.63‰ and +0.50‰ for the coal and coal + TDF, respectively. Initial fractionation during the generation of a Zn-rich vapor is followed by temperature-dependent fractionation as Zn condenses onto the PM. The isotopic changes of the two fuel types are similar, suggesting that their inherent chemical differences have only a secondary impact on the isotopic fractionation process.

  13. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  14. Estimating Externalities of Coal Fuel Cycles, Report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-09-01

    The agreement between the US DOE and the EC established the specific objectives of the study: (a) to develop a methodological framework that uses existing data and models to quantify the external costs and benefits of energy; (b) to demonstrate the application of the framework to estimate the externalities of the coal, biomass, oil, natural gas, hydro, nuclear, photovoltaic, and wind fuel cycles (by agreement with the EC, the US addressed the first six of these); and (c) to identify major gaps in the availability of information to quantify impacts, damages, benefits, and externalities of fuel cycles; and to suggest priorities for future research. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities, and a better method for estimating them.

  15. Techno-Economic Analysis of Scalable Coal-Based Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Steven S. C. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Researchers at The University of Akron (UA) have demonstrated the technical feasibility of a laboratory coal fuel cell that can economically convert high sulfur coal into electricity with near zero negative environmental impact. Scaling up this coal fuel cell technology to the megawatt scale for the nation’s electric power supply requires two key elements: (i) developing the manufacturing technology for the components of the coal-based fuel cell, and (ii) long term testing of a kW scale fuel cell pilot plant. This project was expected to develop a scalable coal fuel cell manufacturing process through testing, demonstrating the feasibility of building a large-scale coal fuel cell power plant. We have developed a reproducible tape casting technique for the mass production of the planner fuel cells. Low cost interconnect and cathode current collector material was identified and current collection was improved. In addition, this study has demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of carbon can take place on the Ni anode surface and the CO and CO2 product produced can further react with carbon to initiate the secondary reactions. One important secondary reaction is the reaction of carbon with CO2 to produce CO. We found CO and carbon can be electrochemically oxidized simultaneously inside of the anode porous structure and on the surface of anode for producing electricity. Since CH4 produced from coal during high temperature injection of coal into the anode chamber can cause severe deactivation of Ni-anode, we have studied how CH4 can interact with CO2 to produce in the anode chamber. CO produced was found able to inhibit coking and allow the rate of anode deactivation to be decreased. An injection system was developed to inject the solid carbon and coal fuels without bringing air into the anode chamber. Five planner fuel cells connected in a series configuration and tested. Extensive studies on the planner fuels

  16. Influence of high-energy impact on the physical and technical characteristics of coal fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'tsev, L. I.; Belogurova, T. P.; Kravchenko, I. V.

    2017-08-01

    Currently, in the world's large-scale coal-fired power industry, the combustion of pulverized coal is the most widely spread technology of combusting the coals. In recent years, the micropulverization technology for preparation and combustion of the coal has been developed in this field. As applied to the small-scale power industry, the method of combusting the coal in the form of a coal-water slurry has been explored for years. Fine coal powders are produced and used in the pulverized-coal gasification. Therefore, the coal preparation methods that involve high-dispersion disintegration of coals attract the greatest interest. The article deals with the problems of high-energy impact on the coal during the preparation of pulverized-coal fuels and coal-water slurries, in particular, during the milling of the coal in ball drum mills and the subsequent regrinding in disintegrators or the cavitation treatment of the coal-water slurries. The investigations were conducted using samples of anthracite and lignite from Belovskii open-pit mine (Kuznetsk Basin). It is shown that both the disintegration and the cavitation treatment are efficient methods for controlling the fuel characteristics. Both methods allow increasing the degree of dispersion of the coal. The content of the small-sized particles reground by cavitation considerably exceeds the similar figure obtained using the disintegrator. The specific surface area of the coal is increased by both cavitation and disintegration with the cavitation treatment producing a considerably greater effect. Being subjected to the cavitation treatment, most coal particles assume the form of a split characterized by the thermodynamically nonequilibrium state. Under external action, in particular, of temperature, the morphological structure of such pulverized materials changes faster and, consequently, the combustion of the treated coal should occur more efficiently. The obtained results are explained from the physical point of view.

  17. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development: Task 2, Market assessment and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakwani, R. M.; Wilson, Jr., R. P.; Winsor, R. E.

    1991-12-01

    Based on the preliminary coal engine design developed, this task was conducted to identify the best opportunity(s) to enter the market with the future coal-fueled, high-speed diesel engine. The results of this market and economic feasibility assessment will be used to determine what specific heavy duty engine application(s) are most attractive for coal fuel, and also define basic economic targets for the engine to be competitive.

  18. Hydrogen Fuel as Ecological Contribution to Operation of the Existing Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosic, D.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis is carried out of the application of a new hydrogen based alternative fuel as ecological contribution of the coal thermal power plants operation. Given the fact that coal thermal power plants are seen as the largest producers, not only of CO 2 , but of all others harmful gases, the idea is initiated to use the new alternative fuel as an additive to the coal which would result in much better performance of the coal power plants from an ecological point of view. It is possible to use such a fuel in relation of 10-30% of former coal use. The positive influence of such an application is much bigger than relative used quantity. This lecture has a goal to incite potential investors to create conditions for industrial testing of the new fuel. It will be very interesting to animate investors for large-scale production of the new fuel, too.(author).

  19. Combustion and emissions characterization of pelletized coal fuels. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes

    1993-05-01

    The aim of this project is to demonstrate that sorbent-containing coal pellets made from low grade coal or coal wastes are viable clean burning fuels, and to compare their performance with that of standard run-of-mine coal. Fuels to be investigated are: (a) carbonated pellets containing calcium hydroxide sorbent, (b) coal fines-limestone pellets with cornstarch as binder, (c) pellets made from preparation plant recovered coal containing limestone sorbent and gasification tar as binder, and (d) a standard run-of-mine Illinois seam coal. The fuels will be tested in a laboratory scale 411 diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor. Progress this quarter has centered on the development of a hydraulic press based pellet mill capable of the high compaction pressures necessary to produce the gasification tar containing pellets outlined in (c) above. Limited quantities of the pellets have been made, and the process is being fine tuned before proceeding into the production mode. Tests show that the moisture content of the coal is an important parameter that needs to be fixed within narrow limits for a given coal and binder combination to produce acceptable pellets. Combustion tests with these pellet fuels and the standard coal are scheduled for the next quarter.

  20. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Soyuz Priyadarsan (PhD)

    2003-06-01

    Reburn with animal waste yield NO{sub x} reduction of the order of 70-80%, which is much higher than those previously reported in the literature for natural gas, coal and agricultural biomass as reburn fuels. Further, the NO{sub x} reduction is almost independent of stoichiometry from stoichiometric to upto 10% deficient air in reburn zone. As a first step towards understanding the reburn process in a boiler burner, a simplified zero-dimensional model has been developed for estimating the NO{sub x} reduction in the reburn process using simulated animal waste based biomass volatiles. However the first model does not include the gradual heat up of reburn fuel particle, pyrolysis and char combustion. Hence there is a need for more rigorous treatment of the model with animal waste as reburn fuel. To address this issue, an improved zero-dimensional model is being developed which can handle any solid reburn fuel, along with more detailed heterogeneous char reactions and homogeneous global reactions. The model on ''NO{sub x} Reduction for Reburn Process using Feedlot Biomass,'' incorporates; (a) mixing between reburn fuel and main-burner gases, (b) gradual heat-up of reburn fuel accompanied by pyrolysis, oxidation of volatiles and char oxidation, (c) fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) pyrolysis, and FBN including both forward and backward reactions, (d) prediction of NO{sub x} as a function of time in the reburn zone, and (e) gas phase and solid phase temperature as a function of time. The fuel bound nitrogen is assumed to be released to the gas phase by two processes, (a) FBN evolution to N{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}, and (b) FBN oxidation to NO at the char surface. The formulation has been completed, code has been developed, and preliminary runs have been made to test the code. Note that, the current model does not incorporate the overfire air. The results of the simulation will be compared with the experimental results. During this quarter, three journal and

  1. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses

  2. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-03-31

    Proposed activities for quarter 7 (12/15/01-3/14/2002): (1) Incorporation of moisture model into PCGC2 code. Parametric study of moisture effects on flame structure and pollutants emissions in cofiring of coal and Liter Biomass (LB) (Task 4); (2) Use the ash tracer method to determine the combustion efficiency and comparison it to results from gas analysis (Task 2); (3) Effect of swirl on combustion performance (Task 2); (4) Completion of the proposed modifications to the gasifier setup (Task 3); (5) Calibration of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) used for measuring the product gas species (Task 3); and (6) To obtain temperature profiles for different fuels under different operating conditions in the fixed bed gasifier (Task 3).

  3. Thermophysical properties of composite fuel based on T grade coal (Alardinskoe deposit) and timber industry wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovsky, S. A.; Tolokolnikov, A. A.; Gubin, V. E.; Slyusarskiy, K. V.; Zenkov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Results of experimental studies of composite fuel thermal decomposition processes based on T grade coal (Alardinskoe deposit) and timber industry wastes (fine wood) are presented. C, H, N, S weight percentage of each component of composite fuel was determined experimentally. It has been established that with an increase in wood concentration up to 50% in composite fuel, its energy characteristics decrease by less than 3.6%, while the yield of fly ash is 39.7%. An effective composite fuel composition has been defined as 50%/50%. Results of performed experimental studies suggest that it is possible to use composite fuels based on coal and wood at thermal power plants.

  4. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Coal deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolela, Ahmed [Department of Petroleum Operations, Ministry of Mines and Energy, Kotebe Branch Office, P. O. Box-486, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2007-11-22

    The gravity of Ethiopian energy problem has initiated studies to explore various energy resources in Ethiopia, one among this is the exploration for coal resources. Studies confirmed the presence of coal deposits in the country. The coal-bearing sediments are distributed in the Inter-Trappean and Pre-Trap volcanic geological settings, and deposited in fluvio-lacustrine and paludal environments in grabens and half-grabens formed by a NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE fault systems. Most significant coal deposits are found in the Inter-Trappean geological setting. The coal and coal-bearing sediments reach a maximum thickness of 4 m and 300 m, respectively. The best coal deposits were hosted in sandstone-coal-shale and mudstone-coal-shale facies. The coal formations of Ethiopia are quite unique in that they are neither comparable to the coal measures of the Permo-Carboniferous Karroo Formation nor to the Late Devonian-Carboniferous of North America or Northwestern Europe. Proximate analysis and calorific value data indicated that the Ethiopian coals fall under lignite to high volatile bituminous coal, and genetically are classified under humic, sapropelic and mixed coal. Vitrinite reflectance studies confirmed 0.3-0.64% Ro values for the studied coals. Palynology studies confirmed that the Ethiopian coal-bearing sediments range in age from Eocene to Miocene. A total of about 297 Mt of coal reserve registered in the country. The coal reserve of the country can be considered as an important alternative source of energy. (author)

  5. Planning of fuel coal imports using a mixed integer programming method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, L.H.

    1997-01-01

    In the public utility and commercial fuel industries, commodities from multiple supply sources are sometimes blended before use to reduce costs and assure quality. A typical example of these commodities is the fuel coal used in coal fired power plants. The diversity of the supply sources for these plants makes the planning and scheduling of fuel coal logistics difficult, especially for a power company that has more than one power plant. This study proposes a mixed integer programming model that provides planning and scheduling of coal imports from multiple suppliers for the Taiwan Power Company. The objective is to minimize total inventory cost by minimizing procurement cost, transportation cost and holding cost. Constraints on the system include company procurement policy, power plant demand, harbor unloading capacity, inventory balance equations, blending requirements, and safety stock. An example problem is presented using the central coal logistics system of the Taiwan Power Company to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model

  6. Planning of fuel coal imports using a mixed integer programming method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, L.H. [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (Taiwan). Dept. of Mineral and Petroleum Engineering

    1997-12-31

    In the public utility and commercial fuel industries, commodities from multiple supply sources are sometimes blended before use to reduce costs and assure quality. A typical example of these commodities is the fuel coal used in coal fired power plants. The diversity of the supply sources for these plants makes the planning and scheduling of fuel coal logistics difficult, especially for a power company that has more than one power plant. This study proposes a mixed integer programming model that provides planning and scheduling of coal imports from multiple suppliers for the Taiwan Power Company. The objective is to minimize total inventory cost by minimizing procurement cost, transportation cost and holding cost. Constraints on the system include company procurement policy, power plant demand, harbor unloading capacity, inventory balance equations, blending requirements, and safety stock. An example problem is presented using the central coal logistics system of the Taiwan Power Company to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model.

  7. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to

  8. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  9. Uranium content of coal ashes from Southern Brazil coal fueled power stations, by the fission track registration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, R.K.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of the application of the fission track registration technique for the determination of uranium in coal ashes was shown. The wet method was employed using as detector the Makrofol KG=10 μm, manufactured by Bayer. The coal ashes were originated from coal-fueled power stations localized in Southern Brazil. The results obtained ranged from 10 to 27 mg U/kg. Since the total error variation was from 18,4% to 23,8%, the method used was considered excellent. The determination of the uranium content in coal ashes is of considerable interest in environmental control in power stations, in their vicinity and wherever these ashes are used or stored. The technique used is the work proved to be very appropriate for the purpose aimed at. (Author) [pt

  10. Calculating analysis of firing different composition artificial coal liquid fuels (ACLF) in the cyclone primary furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsepenok, A. [Novosibirsk State Technological Univ. (Russian Federation); Joint Stock company ' ' ZiO-COTES' ' , Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikov, Yu. [Novosibirsk State Technological Univ. (Russian Federation); Serant, F. [Joint Stock company ' ' ZiO-COTES' ' , Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    This chapter describes the preparation technologies, results of computer simulation of combustion processes in a cyclone primary furnace during firing of artificial coal liquid fuels prepared from different coal grades and results of live testing. As a result the values of unburned carbon, NO{sub x} emissions and other concentrations in the outlet section primary furnace were estimated.

  11. A global equilibrium analysis of co-firing coal and solid recovered fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    Global equilibrium calculations have been performed to study the behavior of ash forming species in cocombustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF). It revealed that co-combustion of coal and 25% SRF (weight basis) could significantly reduce the formation of NaCl (g) and KCl (g...

  12. Energy analysis of the coal fuel cycle: Community health and resource change in an Appalachian coal county

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    In spite of steadily expanding coal development in this decade in the USA, there has been little systematic assessment of occupational and public health implications of increased production in specific regions of the USA. Preliminary analysis of a prototype Appalachian area is presented. Anderson County, Tennessee, the prototype area chosen for evaluation, lies in the Upper East Tennessee Coalfield. This county is uniquely suited for study since every process of the coal fuel cycle (extraction, transport, combustion, power production and waste disposal) takes place within the county boundary. By extensive exploitation of both surface and underground methods of extraction, this county has maintained a leading position in Tennessee's coal production for several years. Concepts of energy analysis and systematized data presentation were used to convert information gathered from diverse sources into comparable energy units (kcal). Concepts and methodology implemented in the analysis can be applied most appropriately to existing conditions in other counties of the Appalachian Coal Basin. Findings are presented for calendar year 1978. For the year of study, the major energy loss to the county was depletion of the coal resource base by use of inefficient mining techniques (a loss of 10.5x10 12 kcal fuel equivalents). Another loss is to community health, which is depleted by lost productivity of, and compensation payments to, victims of mining accidents and occupational disease such as 'black lung' (15x10 9 kcal). Another countywide depletion process is roadbed and bridge deterioration caused by large volumes of heavy coal-haul vehicular traffic (10x10 9 kcal). These losses are being borne mainly by residents of the Appalachian host region, with little systematic compensation by consumers of the coal resource. It is expected that these losses will increase in magnitude as national coal use increases. (author)

  13. Performance of a diesel engine operating on raw coal-diesel fuel and solvent refined coal-diesel fuel slurries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, H.P.

    1980-03-01

    Performance tests using an 11 kW single cylinder diesel engine were made to determine the effects of three different micronized coal-fuel oil slurries being considered as alternative fuels. Slurries containing 20, 32, and 40%-wt micronized raw coal in No. 2 fuel oil were used. Results are presented indicating the changes in the concentrations of SO/sub X/ and NO/sub X/ in the exhaust, exhaust opacity, power and efficiency, and in wear rates relative to operation on fuel oil No. 2. The engine was operated for 10 h at full load and 1400 rpm on al fuels except the 40%-wt slurry. This test was discontinued because of extremely poor performance.

  14. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  15. Coal liquefaction technologies for producing ultra clean fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.S.; Haq, N.U.; Nasir, H.; Islam, N.

    2011-01-01

    The expanding demand for petroleum, accompanied by the diminishing petroleum reserves and the energy security, has intensified the significance in coal liquefaction technologies (CTL) globally and specially in Pakistan. Pakistan is rich in coal resources, but short of petroleum. The Geological Survey of Pakistan based on wide spread drilling over an area of 9000 sq. km, a total of 175 billion tons of coal resource potential has been assessed. This paper overviews a general introduction on the mechanisms and processes of CLT such as direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL) technologies. (author)

  16. Importance of low-temperature distillation of coal for German fuel economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, F

    1942-01-01

    Improved processes are available to give low-temperature distillation products economic importance. Low-temperature distillation is limited to the utilization of high-volatile nut coals and briquets. The coke formed can be used as a smokeless fuel, and the tar directly as a fuel oil. Phenols can be extracted, in order to work up the residue into fuel oil and motor fuel. Large deposits of coal in Upper Silesia and in the Saar District are suitable for low-temperature distillation.

  17. Coal pyrolysis and char burnout under conventional and oxy-fuel conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Makhadmeh, L.; Maier, J.; Scheffknecht, G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    2009-07-01

    Coal utilization processes such as combustion or gasification generally involve several steps i.e., the devolatilization of organic materials, homogeneous reactions of volatile matter with the reactant gases, and heterogeneous reactions of the solid (char) with the reactant gases. Most of the reported work about coal pyrolysis and char burnout were performed at low temperatures under environmental conditions related to the air firing process with single particle tests. In this work, coal combustion under oxy-fuel conditions is investigated by studying coal pyrolysis and char combustion separately in practical scales, with the emphasis on improving the understanding of the effect of a CO{sub 2}-rich gas environment on coal pyrolysis and char burnout. Two coals, Klein Kopje a medium volatile bituminous coal and a low-rank coal, Lausitz coal were used. Coal pyrolysis in CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} environments were performed for both coals at different temperatures in an entrained flow reactor. Overall mass release, pyrolysis gas concentrations, and char characterization were performed. For char characterization ultimate analysis, particle size, and BET surface area were measured. Chars for both coals were collected at 1150 C in both CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} environments. Char combustion was performed in a once-through 20 kW test facility in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} atmospheres. Besides coal quality, oxygen partial pressure was chosen as a variable to study the effect of the gas environment on char burnout. In general, it is found that the CO{sub 2} environment and coal rank have a significant effect on coal pyrolysis and char burnout. (orig.)

  18. OxyFuel combustion of Coal and Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg

    The power and heat producing sector is facing a continuously increasing demand to reduce its emissions of CO2. Oxyfuel combustion combined with CO2 storage is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies which will enable the continuous use of the existing fleet of suspension-fired po......The power and heat producing sector is facing a continuously increasing demand to reduce its emissions of CO2. Oxyfuel combustion combined with CO2 storage is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies which will enable the continuous use of the existing fleet of suspension......-fired power plants burning coal or other fuels during the period of transition to renewable energy sources. The oxyfuel combustion process introduces several changes to the power plant configuration. Most important, the main part of the flue gas is recirculated to the boiler and mixed with pure oxygen....... The oxidant thus contains little or no nitrogen and a near-pure CO2 stream can be produced by cooling the flue gas to remove water. The change to the oxidant composition compared to combustion in air will induce significant changes to the combustion process. This Ph.D. thesis presents experimental...

  19. Preliminary assessment of the environmental and health impacts of nuclear and coal fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yin; Chen Zhuzhou; Pan Ziqiang

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports on the environmental impacts and health effects of coal and nuclear fuel cycles in China. Data of interest for China are presented in a comparative manner; epidemiological investigations in Shanxi province indicate that the incidences of chronic pulmonary diseases and infant cogenital malformation were apparently increased over the fall-out areas of coal-fired power stations and coal mines. The authors outline the framework of a research project on environmental assessment of nuclear energy and other energy systems. The main features of the project are: environmental and health impacts of coal and nuclear fuel cycles, environmental impact assessment of coal transportation, cost accounting of nuclear and other energy sources, health risk assessment. (author). 24 refs, 4 tabs

  20. CO-COMBUSTION OF REFUSE DERIVED FUEL WITH COAL IN A FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. WAN AB KARIM GHANI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Power generation from biomass is an attractive technology which utilizes municipal solid waste-based refused derived fuel. In order to explain the behavior of biomass-fired fluidized bed incinerator, biomass sources from refuse derived fuel was co-fired with coal in a 0.15 m diameter and 2.3 m high fluidized bed combustor. The combustion efficiency and carbon monoxide emissions were studied and compared with those from pure coal combustion. This study proved that the blending effect had increased the carbon combustion efficiency up to 12% as compared to single MSW-based RDF. Carbon monoxide levels fluctuated between 200-1600 ppm were observed when coal is added. It is evident from this research that efficient co-firing of biomass with coal can be achieved with minimum modification of existing coal-fired boilers.

  1. Potential health and environmental impacts attributable to the nuclear and coal fuel cycles: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchy, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Estimates of mortality and morbidity are presented based on present-day knowledge of health effects resulting from current component designs and operations of the nuclear and coal fuel cycles, and anticipated emission rates and occupational exposure for the various fuel cycle facilities expected to go into operation during the next decade. The author concluded that, although there are large uncertainties in the estimates of potential health effects, the coal fuel cycle alternative has a greater health impact on man than the uranium fuel fycle. However, the increased risk of health effects for either fuel cycle represents a very small incremental risk to the average individual in the public for the balance of this century. The potential for large impacts exists in both fuel cycles, but the potential impacts associated with a runaway Greenhouse Effect from combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, cannot yet be reasonably quantified. Some of the potential environmental impacts of the coal fuel cycle cannot currently be realistically estimated, but those that can appear greater than those from the nuclear fuel cycle. 103 refs., 1 fig., 18 tabs

  2. Multi-scale sustainability assessments for biomass-based and coal-based fuels in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yi; Xiao, Honghua; Cai, Wei; Yang, Siyu

    2017-12-01

    Transportation liquid fuels production is heavily depend on oil. In recent years, developing biomass based and coal based fuels are regarded as promising alternatives for non-petroleum based fuels in China. With the rapid growth of constructing and planning b biomass based and coal based fuels production projects, sustainability assessments are needed to simultaneously consider the resource, the economic, and the environmental factors. This paper performs multi-scale analyses on the biomass based and coal based fuels in China. The production cost, life cycle cost, and ecological life cycle cost (ELCC) of these synfuels are investigated to compare their pros to cons and reveal the sustainability. The results show that BTL fuels has high production cost. It lacks of economic attractiveness. However, insignificant resource cost and environmental cost lead to a substantially lower ELCC, which may indicate better ecological sustainability. CTL fuels, on the contrary, is lower in production cost and reliable for economic benefit. But its coal consumption and pollutant emissions are both serious, leading to overwhelming resource cost and environmental cost. A shifting from petroleum to CTL fuels could double the ELCC, posing great threat to the sustainability of the entire fuels industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fuel characterization requirements for cofiring biomass in coal-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinzing, D.E.; Tillman, D.A.; Harding, N.S.

    1993-01-01

    The cofiring of biofuels with coal in existing boilers, or the cofiring of biofuels in combined cycle combustion turbine (CCCT) systems presents significant potential benefits to utilities, including reductions in SO 2 and NO x emissions as a function of reducing the mass flow of sulfur and nitrogen to the boiler, reducing CO 2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels; potentially reducing fuel costs both by the availability of wood residues and by the fact that biofuels are exempt from the proposed BTU tax; and providing support to industrial customers from the forest products industry. At the same time, cofiring requires careful attention to the characterization of the wood and coal, both singly and in combination. This paper reviews characterization requirements associated with cofiring biofuels and fossil fuels in boilers and CCCT installations with particular attention not only to such concerns as sulfur, nitrogen, moisture, and Btu content, but also to such issues as total ash content, base/acid ratio of the wood ash and the coal ash, alkali metal content in the wood ash and wood fuel (including converted fuels such as low Btu gas or pyrolytic oil), slagging and fouling indices, ash fusion temperature, and trace metal contents in the wood and coal. The importance of each parameter is reviewed, along with potential consequences of a failure to adequately characterize these parameters. The consequences of these parameters are reviewed with attention to firing biofuels with coal in pulverized coal (PC) and cyclone boilers, and firing biofuels with natural gas in CCCT installations

  4. Thermodynamic comparison and efficiency enhancement mechanism of coal to alternative fuel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xiaozhou; Li, Sheng; Gao, Lin; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and exergy analysis are presented to three coal-to-alternative-fuels systems. • Internal reasons for performance differences for different systems are disclosed. • The temperature and heat release of synthesis reactions are key to plant efficiency. • The distillation unit and purge gas recovery are important to efficiency enhancement. - Abstract: Coal to alternative fuels is an important path to enforce energy security and to provide clean energy. In this paper, we use exergy analysis and energy utilization diagram (EUD) methods to disclose the internal reasons for performance differences in typical coal to alternative fuel processes. ASPEN plus software is used to simulate the coal-based energy systems, and the simulation results are verified with engineering data. Results show that coal to substitute natural gas (SNG) process has a higher exergy efficiency of 56.56%, while the exergy efficiency of traditional coal to methanol process is 48.65%. It is indicated that three key factors impact the performance enhancement of coal to alternative fuel process: (1) whether the fuel is distillated, (2) the synthesis temperature and the amount of heat release from reactions, and (3) whether the chemical purge gases from synthesis and distillation units are recovered. Distillation unit is not recommended and synthesis at high temperature and with large heat release is preferable for coal to alternative fuel systems. Gasification is identified as the main source of exergy destruction, and thereby how to decrease its destruction is the key direction of plant efficiency improvement in the future. Also, decreasing the power consumption in air separation unit by seeking for advanced technologies, i.e. membrane, or using another kind of oxidant is another direction to improve plant performance.

  5. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 1: Executive summary. [using coal or coal derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A data base for the comparison of advanced energy conversion systems for utility applications using coal or coal-derived fuels was developed. Estimates of power plant performance (efficiency), capital cost, cost of electricity, natural resource requirements, and environmental intrusion characteristics were made for ten advanced conversion systems. Emphasis was on the energy conversion system in the context of a base loaded utility power plant. All power plant concepts were premised on meeting emission standard requirements. A steam power plant (3500 psig, 1000 F) with a conventional coal-burning furnace-boiler was analyzed as a basis for comparison. Combined cycle gas/steam turbine system results indicated competitive efficiency and a lower cost of electricity compared to the reference steam plant. The Open-Cycle MHD system results indicated the potential for significantly higher efficiency than the reference steam plant but with a higher cost of electricity.

  6. Combustion studies of coal derived solid fuels by thermogravimetric analysis. III. Correlation between burnout temperature and carbon combustion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    Burning profiles of 35-53 ??m size fractions of an Illinois coal and three partially devolatilized coals prepared from the original coal were obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The burning profile burnout temperatures were higher for lower volatile fuels and correlated well with carbon combustion efficiencies of the fuels when burned in a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor. Fuels with higher burnout temperatures had lower carbon combustion efficiencies under various time-temperature conditions in the laboratory-scale reactor. ?? 1990.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of IT-SOFC-based integrated coal gasification fuel cell power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, M.C.; Campanari, S.; Spallina, V.; Lozza, G.

    2011-01-01

    This work discusses the thermodynamic analysis of integrated gasification fuel cell plants, where a simple cycle gas turbine works in a hybrid cycle with a pressurized intermediate temperature–solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), integrated with a coal gasification and syngas cleanup island and a bottoming

  8. Future developments and technological and economic assessment of methods for producing synthetic liquid fuel from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlikhter, E B; Khor' kov, A V; Zhorov, Yu M

    1980-11-01

    Promising methods for obtaining synthetic liquid fuel from coal are surveyed and described: thermal dissolution of coal by means of a hydrogen donor solution: hydrogenation; gasification with subsequent synthesis and pyrolysis. A technological and economic assessment of the above processes is given. Emphasis is placed on methods employing catalytic conversion of methanol into hydrocarbon fuels. On the basis of thermodynamic calculations of the process for obtaining high-calorific liquid fuel from methanol the possibility of obtaining diesel fractions as well as gasoline is demonstrated. (12 refs.) (In Russian)

  9. Low-temperature carbonization of bituminous coal for the production of solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-01-01

    Properties and uses of low-temperature coke for producing ferrosilicon, CaC/sub 2/ generator gas and water gas, as a fuel for boilers and household use and as a diluent for coking coal, and the properties and uses of low-temperature tar, gasoline, gas, and liquefied gas are described. By using a circulating gas, it is possible to obtain in low-temperature carbonization of bituminous coal a fuel oil for the navy. Aging-test data of such an oil are given. Several plants in Upper Silesia, using the Lurgi circulation process are producing a fuel oil that meets specification.

  10. The Influence Of Mass Fraction Of Dressed Coal On Ignition Conditions Of Composite Liquid Fuel Droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlegel Nikita E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The laws of condition modification of inert heat and ignition in an oxidant flow of composite liquid fuel droplet were studied by the developed experimental setup. Investigations were for composite liquid fuel composition based on the waste of bituminous and nonbaking coal processing, appropriate carbon dust, water, used motor oil. The characteristics of boundary layer inertia heat of composite liquid fuel droplet, thermal decomposition of coal organic part, the yield of volatiles and evaporation of liquid combustion component, ignition of the gas mixture and coke residue were defined.

  11. Laboratory Scale Coal And Biomass To Drop-In Fuels (CBDF) Production And Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Kenneth [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Imam, Tahmina [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Chevanan, Nehru [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Namazian, Mehdi [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-06-29

    This Final Technical Report describes the work and accomplishments of the project entitled, “Laboratory Scale Coal and Biomass to Drop-In Fuels (CBDF) Production and Assessment.” The main objective of the project was to fabricate and test a lab-scale liquid-fuel production system using coal containing different percentages of biomass such as corn stover and switchgrass at a rate of 2 liters per day. The system utilizes the patented Altex fuel-production technology, which incorporates advanced catalysts developed by Pennsylvania State University. The system was designed, fabricated, tested, and assessed for economic and environmental feasibility relative to competing technologies.

  12. Effects of consumer subsidy on household fuel switching from coal to cleaner fuels: A case study for anthracites in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hojeong; Kwon, Hyucksoo

    2011-01-01

    The Korean coal industry is in a transition under low carbon policy through the steady reduction of coal production. Since consumer subsidy for the consumption of anthracites briquette in low-income households caused a distortion in domestic coal market, the so-called coupon program will be the first target in energy reform policy in order to induce fuel switching from anthracites to alternative clean energy. This paper tries to identify various factors that influence households' fuel switching decision. Disutility from briquette consumption is also considered as an important factor. Using the 2007 census data on briquette-consuming households, it is found that the coupon program provides an adverse effect to switching fuels to clean energy while the disutility of briquettes is positively associated with the probability of fuel switching. However, the empirical finding suggests that the policy alone attempting to remove coupon program may fail to switch fuels unless the cost of boiler changes is substantially reduced through the provision of accessible networks to alternative energy sources. It indicates that reform policy for consumer subsidy must be understood in line with more comprehensive regional energy plans to resolve energy poverty issue. - Research highlights: → Various factors are identified for low income households' fuel switching from coal to clean energy. → Coupon program and accessibility to alternative energy sources are considered; Result shows that accessible network to alternative clean energy sources is essential for low income group. → More comprehensive regional energy plans are required to resolve energy poverty issue.

  13. Coal conversion processes and analysis methodologies for synthetic fuels production. [technology assessment and economic analysis of reactor design for coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information to identify viable coal gasification and utilization technologies is presented. Analysis capabilities required to support design and implementation of coal based synthetic fuels complexes are identified. The potential market in the Southeast United States for coal based synthetic fuels is investigated. A requirements analysis to identify the types of modeling and analysis capabilities required to conduct and monitor coal gasification project designs is discussed. Models and methodologies to satisfy these requirements are identified and evaluated, and recommendations are developed. Requirements for development of technology and data needed to improve gasification feasibility and economies are examined.

  14. A simple numerical model to estimate the effect of coal selection on pulverized fuel burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.K.; Hurt, R.H.; Niksa, S.; Muzio, L.; Mehta, A.; Stallings, J. [Brown University, Providence, RI (USA). Division Engineering

    2003-06-01

    The amount of unburned carbon in ash is an important performance characteristic in commercial boilers fired with pulverized coal. Unburned carbon levels are known to be sensitive to fuel selection, and there is great interest in methods of estimating the burnout propensity of coals based on proximate and ultimate analysis - the only fuel properties readily available to utility practitioners. A simple numerical model is described that is specifically designed to estimate the effects of coal selection on burnout in a way that is useful for commercial coal screening. The model is based on a highly idealized description of the combustion chamber but employs detailed descriptions of the fundamental fuel transformations. The model is validated against data from laboratory and pilot-scale combustors burning a range of international coals, and then against data obtained from full-scale units during periods of coal switching. The validated model form is then used in a series of sensitivity studies to explore the role of various individual fuel properties that influence burnout.

  15. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-01

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO(sub x) pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising

  16. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-15

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising

  17. Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala Krishnan; P. Jayaweera; J. Bao; J. Perez; K. H. Lau; M. Hornbostel; A. Sanjurjo; J. R. Albritton; R. P. Gupta

    2008-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's SECA program envisions the development of high-efficiency, low-emission, CO{sub 2} sequestration-ready, and fuel-flexible technology to produce electricity from fossil fuels. One such technology is the integrated gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that produces electricity from the gas stream of a coal gasifier. SOFCs have high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency, environmental compatibility (low NO{sub x} production), and modularity. Naturally occurring coal has many impurities and some of these impurities end in the fuel gas stream either as a vapor or in the form of fine particulate matter. Establishing the tolerance limits of SOFCs for contaminants in the coal-derived gas will allow proper design of the fuel feed system that will not catastrophically damage the SOFC or allow long-term cumulative degradation. The anodes of Ni-cermet-based SOFCs are vulnerable to degradation in the presence of contaminants that are expected to be present in a coal-derived fuel gas stream. Whereas the effects of some contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCl have been studied, the effects of other contaminants such as As, P, and Hg have not been ascertained. The primary objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells to trace level contaminants present in a coal-derived gas stream in the temperature range 700 to 900 C. The results were used to assess catastrophic damage risk and long-term cumulative effects of the trace contaminants on the lifetime expectancy of SOFC systems fed with coal-derived gas streams.

  18. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  19. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  20. Improvements relating to the low temperature carbonisation of coal, shale, and other suitable fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackford, J E

    1930-03-10

    In the low-temperature carbonization of coal, shale, and other suitable fuel is interposed between the fuel to be carbonized and the container, conveyor, grate, or other surface or surfaces with which the fuel normally contacts during the heat treatment. A medium decomposes during the said heat treatment, to produce a dry carbon at the surface or surfaces contacted without passing through an intermediate plastic or liquid phase during decomposition.

  1. Analysis of oxy-fuel combustion power cycle utilizing a pressurized coal combustor

    OpenAIRE

    Gazzino, Marco; Hong, Jongsup; Chaudhry, Gunaranjan; Brisson II, John G; Field, Randall; Ghoniem, Ahmed F

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions have driven extensive research into new power generation cycles that enable carbon dioxide capture and sequestration. In this regard, oxy-fuel combustion is a promising new technology in which fuels are burned in an environment of oxygen and recycled combustion gases. In this paper, an oxy-fuel combustion power cycle that utilizes a pressurized coal combustor is analyzed. We show that this approach recovers more thermal energy from the flue gases...

  2. Method for processing coal-enrichment waste with solid and volatile fuel inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanova, A. V.; Zhirgalova, T. B.; Osintsev, K. V.

    2017-10-01

    The method relates to the field of industrial heat and power engineering. It can be used in coal preparation plants for processing coal waste. This new way is realized to produce a loose ash residue directed to the production of silicate products and fuel gas in rotary kilns. The proposed method is associated with industrial processing of brown coal beneficiation waste. Waste is obtained by flotation separation of rock particles up to 13 mm in size from coal particles. They have in their composition both solid and volatile fuel inclusions (components). Due to the high humidity and significant rock content, low heat of combustion, these wastes are not used on energy boilers, they are stored in dumps polluting the environment.

  3. Utilizing Philippine Calatrava coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) as alternative fuel for industrial steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archie B. Maglaya [De La Salle University, Manila (Philippines). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-01-01

    The fast depletion of fuel oil and the continuous increase in the demand for power is a global issue. In the Philippines, the demand for diesel oil is expected to increase significantly in a 20-year period as projected by the Department of Energy. In line with the Philippine Government's thrust to lessen the dependence on imported energy, the agenda for the search for alternative fuel is highly prioritized. Thus, this paper presents the results of the study on performance analysis and efficiency test of a diesel oil fired industrial steam generator using Philippine Calatrava coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) as alternative fuel. A computer program was developed in HyperText Markup Language (HTML{copyright}) and JavaScript{copyright} to aid the computation of the adiabatic flame temperature from the governing system of equations based on the heat interaction between CDOM fuel, combustion air and products of combustion to determine the most desirable alternative fuel. Actual experimentation for the determination of CDOM fuel properties was also conducted to verify the alternative fuel selected through theoretical calculations. Results showed that the CDOM fuel with a particle size passing 75 {mu}m (-200 mesh) sieve having a proportion of 5% pulverized coal-95% diesel oil and 10% pulverized coal-90% diesel oil could be handled throughout the test with no degradation of the industrial steam generator. The steam generator efficiency using diesel oil is close to the steam generator efficiency using both CDOM fuels. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Direct Utilization of Coal Syngas in High Temperature Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Ismail B. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-10-30

    This EPSCoR project had two primary goals: (i) to build infrastructure and work force at WVU to support long-term research in the area of fuel cells and related sciences; (ii) study effects of various impurities found in coal-syngas on performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). As detailed in this report the WVU research team has made significant accomplishments in both of these areas. What follows is a brief summary of these accomplishments: State-of-the-art test facilities and diagnostic tools have been built and put into use. These include cell manufacturing, half-cell and full-cell test benches, XPS, XRD, TEM, Raman, EDAX, SEM, EIS, and ESEM equipment, unique in-situ measurement techniques and test benches (Environmental EM, Transient Mass-Spectrometer-MS, and IR Optical Temperature measurements). In addition, computational capabilities have been developed culminating in a multi-scale multi-physics fuel cell simulation code, DREAM-SOFC, as well as a Beowulf cluster with 64 CPU units. We have trained 16 graduate students, 10 postdoctoral fellows, and recruited 4 new young faculty members who have actively participated in the EPSCoR project. All four of these faculty members have already been promoted to the tenured associate professor level. With the help of these faculty and students, we were able to secure 14 research awards/contracts amounting to a total of circa $5.0 Million external funding in closely related areas of research. Using the facilities mentioned above, the effects of PH3, HCl, Cl2, and H2S on cell performance have been studied in detail, mechanisms have been identified, and also remedies have been proposed and demonstrated in the laboratory. For example, it has been determined that PH3 reacts rapidly with Ni to from secondary compounds which may become softer or even melt at high temperature and then induce Ni migration to the surface of the cell changing the material and micro-structural properties of the cell drastically. It is found that

  5. Ways of conserving fuel-energy resources in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshchenko, N.I.; Nabokov, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    A discussion is made of the work undertaken by enterprises and organizations of the coal industry to conserve fuel-energy resources in the tenth Five-Year Plan. An examination is made of the basic organizational-technical measures that have been implemented in this sector for conserving thermal and electrical energy. A presentation is made of the results obtained from the introduction of advanced technological processes and equipment aimed at increasing productivity and reducing operational losses of coal.

  6. The prospects for hard coal as a fuel for the Polish power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, Jacek; KudeLko, Mariusz

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the prospects for the development of the Polish hard coal sector from the perspective of the power sector. The most important issues determining the mid- and long-term future for domestic coal production are: (1) the development of the economy, hence the demand for electricity, (2) regulations (mostly environmental) affecting the power sector, (3) the competitiveness of coal-based technologies, and (4) the costs of domestic coal production. Since the range of issues and relations being considered is very broad, a specific method needs to be employed for the quantitative analysis. The tool applied in this study is the partial equilibrium model POWER-POL, in which both the coal and the power sectors are incorporated. The model focuses on energy-economy-environmental issues without capturing detailed macroeconomic links. The model was run under six scenario assumptions. The results show that the domestic coal sector should maintain its position as a key supplier of primary energy for the Polish power sector. However, the environmental regulations to which the domestic power sector has to conform will decrease the share of coal in the fuel-mix. Since the investment processes in this sector are usually long-term, the effects of changes will be noticeable from 2015 onwards. - Research highlights: →Application of the partial equilibrium model POWER-POL for a quantitative analysis. →Coal will maintain its dominant position in the Polish heat and electricity production fuel-mix at least up to 2020. →Attractiveness of domestic hard coal supplies will depend on the environmental regulations (mostly on the EU level) and development in the world coal market. →The first nuclear power plant will be put into operation in 2020.

  7. Fluidized bed combustion of refuse-derived fuel in presence of protective coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, Eduardo [CIRCE, Universidad de Zaragoza, Maria de Luna, 3, Zaragoza (Spain); Aho, Martti [VTT Processes, P.O. Box 1603, 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Silvennoinen, Jaani; Nurminen, Riku-Ville [Kvaerner Power, P.O.Box 109, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Combustion of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) alone or together with other biomass leads to superheater fouling and corrosion in efficient power plants (with high steam values) due to vaporization and condensation of alkali chlorides. In this study, means were found to raise the portion of RDF to 40% enb without risk to boilers. This was done by co-firing RDF with coal and optimizing coal quality. Free aluminum silicate in coal captured alkalies from vaporized alkali chlorides preventing Cl condensation to superheaters. Strong fouling and corrosion were simultaneously averted. Results from 100 kW and 4 MW CFB reactors are reported. (author)

  8. Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-02-05

    Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems.

  9. A Model for Nitrogen Chemistry in Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Pulverized Coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Hansen, Stine; Toftegaard, Maja Bøg

    2011-01-01

    , heating and devolatilization of particles, and gas–solid reactions. The model is validated by comparison with entrained flow reactor results from the present work and from the literature on pulverized coal combustion in O2/CO2 and air, covering the effects of fuel, mixing conditions, temperature......In this work, a model for the nitrogen chemistry in the oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized coal has been developed. The model is a chemical reaction engineering type of model with a detailed reaction mechanism for the gas-phase chemistry, together with a simplified description of the mixing of flows......, stoichiometry, and inlet NO level. In general, the model provides a satisfactory description of NO formation in air and oxy-fuel combustion of coal, but under some conditions, it underestimates the impact on NO of replacing N2 with CO2. According to the model, differences in the NO yield between the oxy...

  10. Rationale for continuing R&D in direct coal conversion to produce high quality transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, R.D.; McIlvried, H.G. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gray, D. [Mitre Corp, McLean, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    For the foreseeable future, liquid hydrocarbon fuels will play a significant role in the transportation sector of both the United States and the world. Factors favoring these fuels include convenience, high energy density, and the vast existing infrastructure for their production and use. At present the U.S. consumes about 26% of the world supply of petroleum, but this situation is expected to change because of declining domestic production and increasing competition for imports from countries with developing economies. A scenario and time frame are developed in which declining world resources will generate a shortfall in petroleum supply that can be allieviated in part by utilizing the abundant domestic coal resource base. One option is direct coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Continued R&D in coal conversion technology will results in improved technical readiness that can significantly reduce costs so that synfuels can compete economically in a time frame to address the shortfall.

  11. Coal fueled diesel system for stationary power applications-technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The use of coal as a fuel for diesel engines dates back to the early days of the development of the engine. Dr. Diesel envisioned his concept as a multi-fuel engine, with coal a prime candidate due to the fact that it was Germany`s primary domestic energy resource. It is interesting that the focus on coal burning diesel engines appears to peak about every twenty years as shortages of other energy resources increase the economic attractiveness of using coal. This periodic interest in coal started in Germany with the work of Diesel in the timeframe 1898-1906. Pawlikowski carried on the work from 1916 to 1928. Two German companies commercialized the technology prior to and during World War II. The next flurry of activity occurred in the United States in the period from 1957-69, with work done at Southwest Research Institute, Virginia Polytechnical University, and Howard University. The current period of activity started in 1978 with work sponsored by the Conservation and Renewable Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy. This work was done at Southwest Research Institute and by ThermoElectron at Sulzer Engine in Switzerland. In 1982, the Fossil Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy, through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) initiated a concentrated effort to develop coal burning diesel and gas turbine engines. The diesel engine work in the METC sponsored program was performed at Arthur D. Little (Cooper-Bessemer as subcontractor), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (now NIPER), Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel Corporation, General Motor Corporation (Electromotive Division), General Electric, Southwest Research Institute, and various universities and other research and development organizations. This DOE-METC coal engine RD & D initiative which spanned the 1982-1993 timeframe is the topic of this review document. The combustion of a coal-water fuel slurry in a diesel engine is described. The engine modifications necessary are discussed.

  12. New Approach to Study the Ignition Processes of Organic Coal-Water Fuels in an Oxidizer Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin T.R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To converge the conditions of organic water-coal fuel composition combustion in the typical power equipment we developed a new approach and installed an experimental setup, eliminating the traditional fixing the fuel droplets on the thermocouples or rods. Specialized cone-shaped chamber was used to implement the process of lingering of organic water-coal fuel droplets. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the lingering of organic water-coal fuel droplets were established. We determined the parameters of the system (droplet size of 0.4-0.6 mm, temperatures 823-903 K and the velocity of the oxidizer flow 1.5-6 m/s at which the droplets were consistently ignited in the process of lingering. Minimum temperatures and ignition delay times of organic water-coal fuel droplets based on brown coal, used motor, turbine, transformer oils, kerosene, gasoline and water were defined.

  13. Comparative life cycle analysis of cement made with coal vs hazardous waste as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, K.E.; Beeh, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this life cycle analysis (LCA) is to compare the life cycle of cement made with coal, the standard fuel used in a cement kiln, versus cement made with hazardous waste-derived fuels. The intent of the study is to determine whether the use of hazardous waste as a fuel in the production of cement could result in an increase in detrimental effects to either health or environment. Those evaluated for potential adverse effect include cement kiln workers, waste transporters, and consumers using the final product for private use. The LCA stages included all the processes involved with cement, including raw materials acquisition, transportation, manufacturing, packaging, distribution, use, recycling, and disposal. The overall conclusions of the LCA are that use of waste fuels instead of coal to make cement: (1) does not increase, and may reduce, the concentration of contaminants in the cement product due to the reduction or elimination of the use of coal; (2) reduces or eliminates use of non-renewable fossil fuels, such as coal, as well as the environmental damage and impacts associated with coal mining; (3) provides a more environmentally beneficial means of destroying many types of wastes than alternative treatment methods, including incineration, thus decreasing the need for waste treatment facilities and capacity; (4) decreases overall emissions during transportation but may increase the overall consequences of accidents or spills; (5) results in cement product which may be packaged, transported, distributed and used in the same manner as cement product made with coal; (6) lowers the cost of cement production; and (7) overall appears to result in less health and environmental impacts

  14. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for

  15. Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

    1991-10-01

    There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

  16. Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

    1991-10-01

    There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

  17. Agglomeration of coal fines for premium fuel application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalay, A.; Zaman, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on fine coal in liquid suspension, which can be agglomerated in a number of ways. One of the oldest procedures involves the addition of electrolyte to the suspension to cause a reduction in the zeta potential and allow colliding particles to agglomerate. A second method involves the use of polymeric flocculants to bridge between particles. Both of these technologies are being used in the wastewater treatment plants for removal of fine waste particles from contaminated water. A third method involves the addition of a second immiscible liquid preferentially to wet the particles and cause adhesion by capillary interfacial forces. While the bonding forces in the first two methods are small and result in rather weak and voluminous agglomerates, the third method is postulated to produce more dense and much stronger agglomerates. In the case of fine coals, the carbonaceous constituents can be agglomerated and recovered from the aqueous suspension with many different coagulants. Inorganic or ash-forming constituents are also agglomerated along with the fine coal particles. As the froth floatation, agglomeration using coal and colloidal dust to effect a separation. Froth floatation, however, becomes less effective where extremely fine particles of cal must be treated or if there is considerable clay-size particle present. In contrast, there appears to be virtually no lower limit on the particle size suitable for agglomeration uses

  18. Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillian, Michael H.

    1992-01-01

    An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

  19. Study of the equilibrium of air-blown gasification of biomass to coal evolution fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Equilibrium model validated for coals, torrefied/green biomasses, in different gasifiers. • Maps of syngas composition, LHV and CGE for ER = 0–0.6, T = 500–2000 K, EBP = 0.004–0.158. • Effect of unconverted carbon, fuel moisture and overoxidation quantified. • Parameters for the maximum efficiency determined as functions of EBP. • EBP proven to be a good parameter for the quantitative comparison of different fuels. - Abstract: A non-stoichiometric equilibrium model based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy was used to study the isothermal and adiabatic air-blown gasification of solid fuels on a carbonization curve from fossil (hard/brown coals, peat) to renewable (green biomasses and cellulose) fuels, including torrefied biofuels. The maps of syngas composition, heating value and process efficiency were provided as functions of equivalent ratio (oxygen-to-fuel ratio) in the range 0–0.6, temperature in 500–2000 K, and a fuel parameter, which allowed different cases to be quantitatively compared. The effect of fuel moisture, unconverted carbon and conditions to limit the tar formation was also studied. Cold gas efficiency >0.75 can be achieved for coals at high temperature, using entrained beds (which give low unconverted carbon), and improved by moisture/added steam. The bigger efficiency of green biomasses is only potential, as the practical limits (high temperature required to limit tar formation, moisture content and unconverted carbon in small gasifiers) strongly reduce the gasification performance. Torrefied biomasses (and plastics having an intermediate fuel parameter between coals and green biomasses) can attain high efficiency also in real conditions. The results shown in this work can be useful to evaluate the most promising feedstock (depending on its composition and possible pre-treatment/upgrading), define the operating conditions for maximizing the syngas heating value or the global efficiency, assess the

  20. Transport fuels from two-stage coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, A.; Cebolla, V.; Fernandez, I.; Martinez, M.T.; Miranda, J.L.; Oelert, H.; Prado, J.G. (Instituto de Carboquimica CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1994-03-01

    Four Spanish lignites and their vitrinite concentrates were evaluated for coal liquefaction. Correlationships between the content of vitrinite and conversion in direct liquefaction were observed for the lignites but not for the vitrinite concentrates. The most reactive of the four coals was processed in two-stage liquefaction at a higher scale. First-stage coal liquefaction was carried out in a continuous unit at Clausthal University at a temperature of 400[degree]C at 20 MPa hydrogen pressure and with anthracene oil as a solvent. The coal conversion obtained was 75.41% being 3.79% gases, 2.58% primary condensate and 69.04% heavy liquids. A hydroprocessing unit was built at the Instituto de Carboquimica for the second-stage coal liquefaction. Whole and deasphalted liquids from the first-stage liquefaction were processed at 450[degree]C and 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, with two commercial catalysts: Harshaw HT-400E (Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and HT-500E (Ni-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]). The effects of liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV), temperature, gas/liquid ratio and catalyst on the heteroatom liquids, and levels of 5 ppm of nitrogen and 52 ppm of sulphur were reached at 450[degree]C, 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, 0.08 kg H[sub 2]/kg feedstock and with Harshaw HT-500E catalyst. The liquids obtained were hydroprocessed again at 420[degree]C, 10 MPa hydrogen pressure and 0.06 kg H[sub 2]/kg feedstock to hydrogenate the aromatic structures. In these conditions, the aromaticity was reduced considerably, and 39% of naphthas and 35% of kerosene fractions were obtained. 18 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Environmental Assessment for Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project, Coal Creek Station, Great River Energy, Underwood, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-01-16

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess the environmental impacts of the commercial application of lignite fuel enhancement. The proposed demonstration project would be implemented at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station near Underwood, North Dakota. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology to increase the heating value of lignite and other high-moisture coals by reducing the moisture in the fuels. Waste heat that would normally be sent to the cooling towers would be used to drive off a percentage of the moisture contained within the lignite. Application of this technology would be expected to boost power-generating efficiencies, provide economic cost savings for lignite and sub-bituminous power plants, and reduce air emissions. The proposed project would be constructed on a previously disturbed site within the Coal Creek Station and no negative impacts would occur in any environmental resource area.

  2. Rheology of Colombian coal-water slurry fuels: Effect of particle-size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulido, J E; Rojas, C P; Acero, G [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    1996-12-31

    Coal-water slurry fuels (CWSF`s) have been prepared and characterized in a research project in Colombia, sponsored by Colciencias and Ecocarbon, in order to evaluate the effects of the different composition variables on the behavior during preparation and pipe line transportation. The authors have previously presented details describing the characteristics of the slurry fuels prepared with five types of Colombian thermal coals and the influence of their chemical composition on the optimum particle-size distribution (PSD) required to prepare highly loaded and workable CWSF`s. The formulation and design of flow systems of suspensions with high solids content, such as the CWSF`s, require a detailed rheological knowledge of the suspension in terms of the governing parameters related to PSD, coal content, surface chemistry of the particles and dispersants used to stabilize the slurries. Important studies on these aspects have been reviewed and carried out experimentally by other authors specially devoted to the correlations between apparent viscosity, solids content and average coal particle-size. One of the targets to obtain an optimum control on the viscosity and flow properties of the CWSF`s must be based in correlating the Theological constants for the prevailing model of viscosity law to the characteristic parameters of the particle-size distribution and to the coal content in the slurry. In spite of the effect of PSD on the rheology of highly-loaded coal slurries have been long recognized as significant, the specific influence of the various PSD`s on the parameters of the Theological model continues to receive attention to further understanding in order to improve the slurry formulations for a specified purpose on preparation and hydraulic handling. This paper reports the results of an experimental technique of examining the various PSD`s on coal slurry fuel rheology, taking special attention for the effect on the parameters of the rheological model.

  3. Place of petroleum in the U. K. fuel market. [In relation to electricity, gas, and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolaou, G B

    1977-06-01

    An attempt is made to study the interaction process that occurs between petroleum products and the remainder of the fuel market. Petroleum competes with electricity, gas, and coal as a source of fuel, and an assessment is made of the demand elasticities of its place in the fuel market. In the U.K. fuel market the question is to what extent petroleum is a substitute or complement to the others. Petroleum consumption constituted 25 percent in 1960 of the total fuel consumption and has grown constantly since. The extent to which it changes depends upon its close substitutes. Which out of gas, coal, and electricity is, in fact, the closest substitute for petroleum; is it sensitive to price or to other things. In order to attempt to answer these questions, two models are presented. The first presents a straightforward linear equation for the demand for petroleum due to a change in total fuel consumption. This is then used in Model 2, which is basically the Slutsky equation, to obtain the mean substitution effect between petroleum and coal, gas and electricity. This, then, measures the net substitution or complementarity between petroleum and the commodities mentioned. 11 references.

  4. Prospects for production of synthetic liquid fuel from low-grade coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevyrev Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we compare the energy costs of steam and steam-oxygen gasification technologies for production of synthetic liquid fuel. Results of mathematic simulation and experimental studies on gasification of low-grade coal are presented.

  5. Committing to coal and gas: Long-term contracts, regulation, and fuel switching in power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Michael

    Fuel switching in the electricity sector has important economic and environmental consequences. In the United States, the increased supply of gas during the last decade has led to substantial switching in the short term. Fuel switching is constrained, however, by the existing infrastructure. The power generation infrastructure, in turn, represents commitments to specific sources of energy over the long term. This dissertation explores fuel contracts as the link between short-term price response and long-term plant investments. Contracting choices enable power plant investments that are relationship-specific, often regulated, and face uncertainty. Many power plants are subject to both hold-up in investment and cost-of-service regulation. I find that capital bias is robust when considering either irreversibility or hold-up due to the uncertain arrival of an outside option. For sunk capital, the rental rate is inappropriate for determining capital bias. Instead, capital bias depends on the regulated rate of return, discount rate, and depreciation schedule. If policies such as emissions regulations increase fuel-switching flexibility, this can lead to capital bias. Cost-of-service regulation can shorten the duration of a long-term contract. From the firm's perspective, the existing literature provides limited guidance when bargaining and writing contracts for fuel procurement. I develop a stochastic programming framework to optimize long-term contracting decisions under both endogenous and exogenous sources of hold-up risk. These typically include policy changes, price shocks, availability of fuel, and volatility in derived demand. For price risks, the optimal contract duration is the moment when the expected benefits of the contract are just outweighed by the expected opportunity costs of remaining in the contract. I prove that imposing early renegotiation costs decreases contract duration. Finally, I provide an empirical approach to show how coal contracts can limit

  6. Low NO sub x heavy fuel combustor concept program. Phase 1A: Combustion technology generation coal gas fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    Combustion tests of two scaled burners using actual coal gas from a 25 ton/day fluidized bed coal gasifier are described. The two combustor configurations studied were a ceramic lined, staged rich/lean burner and an integral, all metal multiannual swirl burner (MASB). The tests were conducted over a range of temperature and pressures representative of current industrial combustion turbine inlet conditions. Tests on the rich lean burner were conducted at three levels of product gas heating values: 104, 197 and 254 btu/scf. Corresponding levels of NOx emissions were 5, 20 and 70 ppmv. Nitrogen was added to the fuel in the form of ammonia, and conversion efficiencies of fuel nitrogen to NOx were on the order of 4 percent to 12 percent, which is somewhat lower than the 14 percent to 18 percent conversion efficiency when src-2 liquid fuel was used. The MASB was tested only on medium btu gas (220 to 270 btu/scf), and produced approximately 80 ppmv NOx at rated engine conditions. Both burners operated similarly on actual coal gas and erbs fuel, and all heating values tested can be successfully burned in current machines.

  7. Development of coal gas production technology acceptable for fuel cells; Nenryo denchiyo sekitan gas seizo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, N; Omata, K [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    In utilizing coal for high-efficiency direct power generation using fuel cells, it is necessary that coal be fed into the fuel cells after having been made into ash-free gaseous fuel. Research and development works are being carried out with an objective to develop a coal gasification furnace most suitable for fuel cells and establish a system to refine coal up to the one that can be fed into fuel cells. Fiscal 1995 has conducted investigations on coal gasification technologies, air separation technologies, and gas refining technologies as the important element technologies, and a trial design on integrated coal gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems. This paper reports from among the above items the result of the trial design on an IGFC system using molten carbonate fuel cells. The paper describes system comparison on paths of produced gases and anode waste gas, comparison on refining processes using a wet system and a dry system, and parameter studies on oxygen concentration in gasifying agents. It was made clear that the suitable furnace is an oxygen blown coal gasification furnace, and the power generation efficiency at the system terminal can be higher than 53%. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Task 27 -- Alaskan low-rank coal-water fuel demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Development of coal-water-fuel (CWF) technology has to-date been predicated on the use of high-rank bituminous coal only, and until now the high inherent moisture content of low-rank coal has precluded its use for CWF production. The unique feature of the Alaskan project is the integration of hot-water-drying (HWD) into CWF technology as a beneficiation process. Hot-water-drying is an EERC developed technology unavailable to the competition that allows the range of CWF feedstock to be extended to low-rank coals. The primary objective of the Alaskan Project, is to promote interest in the CWF marketplace by demonstrating the commercial viability of low-rank coal-water-fuel (LRCWF). While commercialization plans cannot be finalized until the implementation and results of the Alaskan LRCWF Project are known and evaluated, this report has been prepared to specifically address issues concerning business objectives for the project, and outline a market development plan for meeting those objectives.

  9. Effect of biomass blending on coal ignition and burnout during oxy-fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Arias; C. Pevida; F. Rubiera; J.J. Pis [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Oxy-fuel combustion is a GHG abatement technology in which coal is burned using a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas, to obtain a rich stream of CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. An entrained flow reactor was used in this work to study the ignition and burnout of coals and blends with biomass under oxy-fuel conditions. Mixtures of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} of different concentrations were used and compared with air as reference. A worsening of the ignition temperature was detected in CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixtures when the oxygen concentration was the same as that of the air. However, at an oxygen concentration of 30% or higher, an improvement in ignition was observed. The blending of biomass clearly improves the ignition properties of coal in air. The burnout of coals and blends with a mixture of 79%CO{sub 2}-21%O{sub 2} is lower than in air, but an improvement is achieved when the oxygen concentration is 30 or 35%. The results of this work indicate that coal burnout can be improved by blending biomass in CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixtures. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Environmental benefits and drawbacks of composite fuels based on industrial wastes and different ranks of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyashina, G S; Vershinina, K Yu; Dmitrienko, M A; Strizhak, P A

    2018-04-05

    A promising solution to many problems that thermal power industry is facing today would be switching from conventional coal dust combustion to coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Here, we perform an experimental study of the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions (sulfur and nitrogen oxides) from the combustion of high-potential CWSP. We identify the main benefits and potential drawbacks of using CWSP in thermal power industry. A set of components and additives to CWSP are explored that significantly affect the environmental and energy performance of fuels. The anthropogenic emissions from the combustion of CWSP made of widespread coal and oil processing wastes are no higher than those from coal dust combustion. Using specialized additives to CWSP, we can change the concentrations of NO x and SO x several times. The most appealing additives to CWSP are sawdust, straw, charcoal, limestone, and glycerol. They provide better environmental, economic, and energy performance and improve the rheological properties of CWSP. Waste oils and oil sludge added to CWSP may impair the environmental performance but boost the cost and energy efficiency. Using coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals as a fuel at thermal power plants is an environmentally friendly as well as cost- and energy-efficient way to recover industrial wastes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The economic production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Yang, R.Y.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to discover, (1) study and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Specifically, alternative methods of preparing catalysts are to be investigated, and novel catalysts, including sulfur-tolerant ones, are to be pursued. (Task 1); (2) explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (Task 1); (3) simulate by computer the most energy efficient and economically efficient process for converting coal to energy, with primary focus on converting syngas to fuel alcohols. (Task 2); (4) develop on the bench scale the best holistic combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor and total process configuration integrated with the overall coal conversion process to achieve economic optimization for the conversion of syngas to liquid products within the framework of achieving the maximum cost effective transformation of coal to energy equivalents. (Tasks 1 and 2); and (5) evaluate the combustion, emission and performance characteristics of fuel alcohols and blends of alcohols with petroleum-based fuels. (Task 2)

  12. Comparative study of combustion product emissions of Pakistani coal briquettes and traditional Pakistani domestic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, E.A.; Gammage, R.B.; Haas, J.W. III; Wilson, D.L.; DePriest, J.C.; Wade, J.; Ahmad, N.; Sibtain, F.; Zahid Raza, M.

    1992-10-01

    A comparative emissions study was conducted on combustion products of various solid domestic cooking fuels; the objective was to compare relative levels of organic and inorganic toxic emissions from traditional Pakistani fuels (wood, wood charcoal, and dried animal dung) with manufactured low-rank coal briquettes (Lakhra and Sor- Range coals) under conditions simulating domestic cooking. A small combustion shed 12 m 3 internal volume, air exchange rate 14 h -1 was used to simulate south Asian cooking rooms. 200-g charges of the various fuels were ignited in an Angethi stove located inside the shed, then combusted to completion; effluents from this combustion were monitored as a function of time. Measurements were made of respirable particulates, volatile and semi-volatile organics, CO, SO 2 , and NO x . Overall it appears that emissions from coal briquettes containing combustion amendments (slaked lime, clay, and potassium nitrate oxidizer) are no greater than emissions from traditional fuels, and in some cases are significantly lower; generally, emissions are highest for all fuels in the early stages of combustion

  13. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO

  14. Externality costs of the coal-fuel cycle: The case of Kusile Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonophile P. Nkambule

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal-based electricity is an integral part of daily life in South Africa and globally. However, the use of coal for electricity generation carries a heavy cost for social and ecological systems that goes far beyond the price we pay for electricity. We developed a model based on a system dynamics approach for understanding the measurable and quantifiable coal-fuel cycle burdens and externality costs, over the lifespan of a supercritical coal-fired power station that is fitted with a flue-gas desulfurisation device (i.e. Kusile Power Station. The total coal-fuel cycle externality cost on both the environment and humans over Kusile's lifespan was estimated at ZAR1 449.9 billion to ZAR3 279 billion or 91c/kWh to 205c/kWh sent out (baseline: ZAR2 172.7 billion or 136c/kWh. Accounting for the life-cycle burdens and damages of coal-derived electricity conservatively, doubles to quadruples the price of electricity, making renewable energy sources such as wind and solar attractive alternatives. Significance: The use of coal for electricity generation carries a heavy cost for social and ecological systems that goes far beyond the price we pay for electricity. The estimation of social costs is particularly important to the electric sector because of non-differentiation of electricity prices produced from a variety of sources with potentially very dissimilar environmental and human health costs. Because all electricity generation technologies are associated with undesirable side effects in their fuelcycle and lifespan, comprehensive comparative analyses of life-cycle costs of all power generation technologies is indispensable to guide the development of future energy policies in South Africa.

  15. Power technology complex for production of motor fuel from brown coals with power supply from NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanov, M.F.; Poplavskij, V.M.; Sidorov, G.I.; Bondarenko, A.V.; Chebeskov, A.N.; Chushkin, V.N.; Karabash, A.A.; Krichko, A.A.; Maloletnev, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    With the present-day challenge of efficient use of low-grade coals and current restructuring of coal industry in the Russian Federation, it is urgent to organise the motor fuel production by the synthesis from low grade coals and heavy petroleum residues. With this objective in view, the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering of RF Minatom and Combustible Resources Institute of RF Mintopenergo proposed a project of a standard nuclear power technology complex for synthetic liquid fuel (SLF) production using fast neutron reactors for power supply. The proposed project has two main objectives: (1) Engineering and economical optimization of the nuclear power supply for SLF production; and (2) Engineering and economical optimization of the SLF production by hydrogenisation of brown coals and heavy petroleum residues with a complex development of advanced coal chemistry. As a first approach, a scheme is proposed with the use of existing reactor cooling equipment, in particular, steam generators of BN-600, limiting the effect on safety of reactor facility operation at minimum in case of deviations and abnormalities in the operation of technological complex. The possibility to exclude additional requirements to the equipment for nuclear facility cooling was also taken into account. It was proposed to use an intermediate steam-water circuit between the secondary circuit sodium and the coolant to heat the technological equipment. The only change required for the BN-600 equipment will be the replacement of sections of intermediate steam superheaters at the section of main steam superheaters. The economic aspects of synthetic motor fuel production proposed by the joint project depend on the evaluation of integral balances: thermal power engineering, chemical technology, the development of advanced large scale coal chemistry of high profitability; utilisation of ash and precious microelements in waste-free technology; production of valuable isotopes; radical solution of

  16. Coal waste slurries as a fuel for integrated gasification combined cycle plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutynski Marcin A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes recent development in integrated gasification combined cycle technology and lists existing and planned IGCC plants. A brief outlook on the IGCC gasification technology is given with focus on entrained-flow gasifiers where the low-quality coal waste slurry fuel can be used. Desired properties of coal and ash for entrained-flow gasifiers are listed. The coal waste slurries, which were deposited at impoundments in Upper Silesian Coal Basin, were considered as a direct feed for such gasifiers. The average ash content, moisture content and lower heating value were analysed and presented as an average values. Entrained-flow commercial gasifiers can be considered as suitable for the coal slurry feed, however the ash content of coal slurries deposited in impoundments is too high for the direct use as the feed for the gasifiers. The moisture content of slurries calculated on as received basis meets the requirements of entrained-flow slurry feed gasifiers. The content of fines is relatively high which allow to use the slurries in entrained-flow gasifiers.

  17. Complete biocycle for solar energy conversion, storage, fuel and power generation, and coal conservation for future use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    A complete carbon biocycle has been described, starting from coal in in situ condition in coal seams underground. Various steps involved are: (i) Biogasification of coal to methane, using a consortia of bacteria, has been reported. A group of bacteria degrades complex structure of coal to simpler structure. This simpler structure of coal, is then converted to methane by methanogens; (ii) Biophotolysis of methane and associated biodegradation, results in products, such as hydrogen and oxygen for use in fuel cells for power generation; (iii) Bioconversion of products so obtained is carried out to produce methanol or methane that could be used as fuel or recycled; (iv) In complete biocycle some methane is converted to biomass. In order to replace this methane, coal is converted to methane using group of bacteria, only to the extent methane has been converted to biomass; (v) The biomass so produced could be dumped underground from where coal has been gasified. Alternatively it could be burnt as fuel or else used as substitute of protein in animal food. Detailed concept of proposed technology for: (a) an alternative to conventional coal mining, (b) generation of power using products of bioconversion in fuel cell, and (c) conversation of solar energy for generation of alternative source of fuel and power, has been discussed. Possibility of developing a biofuel cell for conversion of solar energy through bioelectrochemical route has been suggested. (author). 48 refs., 3 figs

  18. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  19. Shea meal and cotton stalk as potential fuels for co-combustion with coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, S; Nimmo, W; Gibbs, B M

    2010-10-01

    The efficient management of waste biomass is an important environmental problem in agricultural countries. Often land-fill is the main disposal route with ramifications including CH(4) release having 21 times greater global warming potential per molecule than CO(2). Biomasses are considered to be CO(2)-neutral fuels when combusted. Moreover, they are renewable and covered by the renewable obligation scheme and eligible for certificates in the UK. The overall objective of the investigation is to assess the performance of selected biomass and coal co-firing under two different modes of operation, air-staging and fuel-staging with the benefit of reduced-NO(x) and SO(2) emissions in power plant. The biomasses chosen for the study, shea meal (SM) and cotton stalk (CS) have very different cellulose/lignin compositions and different reported thermal behaviour. A series of experiments have been carried out in a 20 kW, down fired combustor using coal, shea meal-coal and cotton stalk-coal blends under un-staged, air-staged and fuel-staged co-combustion configurations. For air-staging, an optimum value of primary zone stoichiometry SR(1)=0.9 was found. Keeping it fixed, the shea meal and cotton stalk content in the coal-biomass blends was set to 5%, 10% and 15% on thermal basis. NO reductions of 51% and 60% were achieved using SM and CS, respectively, with an optimum thermal biomass blending ratio (BBR) of 10%. The results obtained were compared with un-staged and air-staged results for coal without the addition of biomass. Similarly for fuel-staging, keeping the length of the reburn and burnout zone fixed, SM and CS were evaluated as reductive fuel using different reburn fuel fractions (R(ff)) of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. NO reductions of 83% and 84% were obtained with an optimum R(ff) of 15% with an optimum reburn zone stoichiometry of SR(2)=0.8 for both SM and CS, respectively. SO(2) reduction and char burnout efficiency were also evaluated. It was found that addition of

  20. Household fuels, low birth weight, and neonatal death in India: the separate impacts of biomass, kerosene, and coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, M B; Bates, M N; Arora, N K; Balakrishnan, K; Jack, D W; Smith, K R

    2013-08-01

    We examined the impact of maternal use of different household cooking fuels in India on low birth weight (LBWfuels for cooking - biomass, coal, and kerosene - using low-pollution fuels (gas and biogas) as the comparison "control" group. Taking socioeconomic and child-specific factors into account, we employed logistic regression to examine the impact of fuel use on fetal and infant health. The results indicate that household use of high-pollution fuels is significantly associated with increased odds of LBW and neonatal death. Compared to households using cleaner fuels (in which the mean birth weight is 2901g), the primary use of coal, kerosene, and biomass fuels is associated with significant decreases in mean birth weight (of -110g for coal, -107g for kerosene, and -78g for biomass). Kerosene and biomass fuel use are also associated with increased risk of LBW (pfuels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Feasibility of Technologies to Produce Coal-Based Fuels with Equal or Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions than Petroleum Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-22

    in operating pipeline compressors), and a negligible amount from coal; just under five percent was produced from biomass—mostly in the form of corn ...as is commonly reported for soy- and corn -based biofuels), and/or if biofuel production results in land use change causing deforestation (as has...produced via F-T synthesis are already approved for incorporation into commercial and military fuels, but other pathways (e.g., pyrolysis ) would

  2. Degradation Mechanism in a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Operated with Demineralised Brown Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, Adam C.; Giddey, Sarbjit; Kulkarni, Aniruddha; Badwal, Sukhvinder P.S.; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Degradation mechanism studied for demineralised coal in a direct carbon fuel cell. • Diffusion limited processes dominate the electrode polarisation losses in pure N 2 . • Major fuel cell performance loss occurred due to loss of carbon/anode contacts. • The anode retained its phase structure with minor other phases formed in operation. - Abstract: The performance of a demineralised and devolatilised coal from the Morwell mine in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, has been investigated in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) operated at 850 °C. The focus of the investigation has been on understanding degradation issues as a function of time involving a sequence of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and voltage-current characteristic. Diffusion limited processes dominate the electrode polarisation losses in pure N 2 atmosphere, however, these decrease substantially in the presence of CO 2 as the anode chamber purge gas, due to in situ generation of fuel species by the reaction of CO 2 with carbon. Post-mortem analysis of anode by SEM and XRD revealed only a minor degradation due to its reduction, particle agglomeration as well as the formation of small quantity of new phases. However, major fuel cell performance degradation (increase of ohmic resistive and electrode polarisation losses) occurred due to loss of carbon/anode contacts and a reduction in the electron-conducting pathways as the fuel was consumed. The investigations revealed that the demineralised coal char can be used as a viable fuel for DCFC, however, further developments on anode materials and fuel feed mechanism would be required to achieve long-term sustained performance

  3. Assessment of ether and alcohol fuels from coal. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A unique route for the indirect liquefaction of coal to produce transportation fuel has been evaluated. The resultant fuel includes alkyl tertiary alkyl ethers and higher alcohols, all in the gasoline boiling range. When blended into gasoline, the ether fuel provides several advantages over the lower alcohols: (1) lower chemical oxygen content, (2) less-severe water-separation problems, and (3) reduced front-end volatility effects. The ether fuel also has high-octane quality. Further, it can be utilized as a gasoline substitute in all proportions. Production of ether fuel combines several steps, all of which are or have been practiced on an industrial scale: (1) coal gasification, (2) gas cleanup and shift to desired H/sub 2/:CO ratio, (3) conversion of synthesis gas to isobutanol, methanol, and higher alcohols, (4) separation of alcohols, (5) chemical dehydration of isobutanol to isobutylene, and (6) etherification of isobutylene with methanol. A pilot-plant investigation of the isobutanol synthesis step was performed. Estimates of ether-fuel manufacturing costs indicate this process route is significantly more costly than synthesis of methanol. However, the fuel performance features provide incentive for developing the necessary process and catalyst improvements. Co-production of higher-molecular-weight co-solvent alcohols represents a less-drastic form of methanol modification to achieve improvement in the performance of methanol-gasoline blends. Costs were estimated for producing several proportions of methanol plus higher alcohols from coal. Estimated fuel selling price increases regularly but modestly with higher alcohol content.

  4. Lead Isotopic Compositions of Selected Coals, Pb/Zn Ores and Fuels in China and the Application for Source Tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiang-Yang; Li, Zhong-Gen; Wang, Shu-Xiao; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Rui; Liu, Jin-Ling; Yang, Hong-Mei; Guo, Ming-Zhi

    2017-11-21

    Lead (Pb) pollution emission from China is becoming a potential worldwide threat. Pb isotopic composition analysis is a useful tool to accurately trace the Pb sources of aerosols in atmosphere. In this study, a comprehensive data set of Pb isotopes for coals, Pb/Zn ores, and fuels from China was presented. The ratios of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb in the coals were in the range of 1.114-1.383 and 1.791-2.317, similar to those from Europe, Oceania, and South Asia, but different from those from America (p fuels from in coals. Urban aerosols demonstrated similar Pb isotopic compositions to coals, Pb/Zn ores, and fuels in China. After removing the leaded gasoline, the Pb in aerosols is more radiogenic, supporting the heavy contribution of coal combustion to the atmospheric Pb pollution.

  5. Investigation of the efect of the coal particle sizes on the interfacial and rheological properties of coal-water slurry fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, K.D.; Deignan, P. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of particle size on coal-water slurry (CWS) surface tension properties. Two different coal powder samples of different size ranges were obtained through sieving of coal from the Upper Elkhorn Seam. The surfactant (anionic DDBS-soft, dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid) concentration varied from 0 to 1.0% in weight while the coal loading remained at 40% in weight for all the cases. A du Nouy ring tensiometer and a maximum bubble pressure tensiometer measured the static and dynamic surface tensions, respectively, The results show that both static and dynamic surface tensions tend to increase with decreasing coal particle sizes suspended in CWS fuels. Examination of the peak pressure, minimum pressure, surfactant diffusion time, and dead time were also made to correlate these microscopic pressure behavior with the macroscopic dynamic surface tension and to examine the accuracy of the experiment.

  6. Conceptual design of coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a coal-fueled diesel system was prepared as part of a previous systems study. Since then, our team has accumulated extensive results from testing coal-water slurry on the 13-inch bore JS engine (400 rpm) in 1987 and 1988. These results provided new insights into preferred design concepts for engine components. One objective, therefore, was to revise the preliminary design to incorporate these preferred design concepts. In addition there were certain areas where additional, more detailed analysis was required as a result of the previous conceptual design. Another objective, therefore was to perform additional detailed design efforts, such as: (1) market applications and engine sizes, (2) coal-water slurry cleaning and grinding processes, (3) emission controls and hot gas contaminant controls, (4) component durability, (5) cost and performance assessments. (VC)

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R ampersand D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications, (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at

  8. Low NO subx heavy fuel combustor concept program. Phase 1A: Coal gas addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosfjord, T.; Sederquist, R.

    1982-01-01

    The performance and emissions from a rich-lean combustor fired on simulated coal gas fuels were investigated using a 12.7-cm diameter axially-staged burner originally designed for operation with high heating value liquid fuels. A simple, tubular fuel injector was substituted for the liquid fuel nozzle; no other combustor modifications were made. Four test fuels were studied including three chemically bound nitrogen-free gas mixtures with higher heating values of 88, 227, and 308 kj/mol (103, 258 and 349 Btu/scf), and a 227 kj/mol (258 Btu/scf) heating value doped with ammonia to produce a fuel nitrogen content of 0.5% (wt). Stable, ultra-low nitrogen oxide, smoke-free combustion was attained for the nitrogen-free fuels. Results with the doped fuel indicated that less than 5% conversion of NH3 to nitrogen oxide levels below Environmental Protection Agency limits could be achieved. In some instances, excessive CO levels were encountered. It is shown that use of a burner design employing a less fuel-rich primary zone than that found optimum for liquid fuels would yield more acceptable CO emissions.

  9. Cofiring biomass and coal for fossil fuel reduction and other benefits–Status of North American facilities in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; John. Zerbe

    2012-01-01

    Cofiring of biomass and coal at electrical generation facilities is gaining in importance as a means of reducing fossil fuel consumption, and more than 40 facilities in the United States have conducted test burns. Given the large size of many coal plants, cofiring at even low rates has the potential to utilize relatively large volumes of biomass. This could have...

  10. Techno-economic assessments of oxy-fuel technology for South African coal-fired power stations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available at the technical and economic viability of oxy-fuel technology for CO(sub2) capture for South African coal-fired power stations. This study presents a techno-economic analysis for six coal fired power stations in South Africa. Each of these power stations has a...

  11. Low temperature combustion of organic coal-water fuel droplets containing petrochemicals while soaring in a combustion chamber model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin Timur R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the integral characteristics (minimum temperature, ignition delay times of stable combustion initiation of organic coal-water fuel droplets (initial radius is 0.3-1.5 mm in the oxidizer flow (the temperature and velocity varied in ranges 500-900 K, 0.5-3 m/s. The main components of organic coal-water fuel were: brown coal particles, filter-cakes obtained in coal processing, waste engine, and turbine oils. The different modes of soaring and ignition of organic coal-water fuel have been established. The conditions have been set under which it is possible to implement the sustainable soaring and ignition of organic coal-water fuel droplets. We have compared the ignition characteristics with those defined in the traditional approach (based on placing the droplets on a low-inertia thermocouple junction into the combustion chamber. The paper shows the scale of the influence of heat sink over the thermocouple junction on ignition inertia. An original technique for releasing organic coal-water fuel droplets to the combustion chamber was proposed and tested. The limitations of this technique and the prospects of experimental results for the optimization of energy equipment operation were also formulated.

  12. Thermal analysis and kinetics of coal during oxy-fuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosowska-Golachowska, Monika

    2017-08-01

    The pyrolysis and oxy-fuel combustion characteristics of Polish bituminous coal were studied using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. Pyrolysis tests showed that the mass loss profiles were almost similar up to 870°C in both N2 and CO2 atmospheres, while further mass loss occurred in CO2 atmosphere at higher temperatures due to char-CO2 gasification. Replacement of N2 in the combustion environment by CO2 delayed the combustion of bituminous coal. At elevated oxygen levels, TG/DTG profiles shifted through lower temperature zone, ignition and burnout temperatures decreased and mass loss rate significantly increased and complete combustion was achieved at lower temperatures and shorter times. Kinetic analysis for the tested coal was performed using Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) method. The activation energies of bituminous coal combustion at the similar oxygen content in oxy-fuel with that of air were higher than that in air atmosphere. The results indicated that, with O2 concentration increasing, the activation energies decreased.

  13. Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mona J. Bird; David L. MacIntosh; Phillip L. Williams [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

    2004-06-15

    Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001, in 5 representative power plants of a large southeastern power-generating company. From 4 of the 5 facilities, 392 air samples and 302 noise samples were collected with approximately 50 respirable coal dust, 32 arsenic, 15 asbestos, and 70 noise samples from each of the 4 plants. One of the previously surveyed facilities was also evaluated for heat stress, and 1 additional coal-fueled power plant was surveyed for a total of 20 personal heat stress samples. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. The data concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature.

  14. Production of fines during co-combustion of coal with biomass fuels by fragmentation and attrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Gulyurtlu; D. Boavida; H. Lopes (and others) [DEECA-INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2005-07-01

    Results are reported from a project funded by the RFCS Programme of the European Union. The aim is to investigate, experimentally and by modeling, the production of fine char and ash particles during co-combustion of coal with wastes and biofuels in circulating fluidized bed. Work was undertaken at installations of different scales. Polish and Colombian coals were base fuels. The additional fuels were two sewage sludges. Bed temperature, feeding system, sand particle size, devolatilisation behaviour and char burn-out were studied to verify their influence on the fine particle production. Modeling was also carried out to understand the mechanisms of fragmentation and attrition. Samples from bed and cyclone were collected to determine particle size distributions. 11 refs.

  15. Acid leaching of coal: to produce clean fuels from Turkish lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seferinoglu, Meryem [Mineral Research and Exploration Directorate (Turkey)], email: meryem_seferinoglu66@yahoo.com; Duzenli, Derya [Ankara Central Laboratory (Turkey)

    2011-07-01

    With the increasing concerns about the environment, energy producers and governments are looking at developing clean energy sources. However, Turkey has limited clean energy resources and is using low grade coal which has high sulphur content as an alternative energy source. The aim of this paper is to study the possibility of generating clean fuel from Edirne Lignite and to get a better understanding of chemical mechanisms involved in coal leaching with hydrofluoric acid (HF) solutions. Leaching was conducted on Edirne Lignite with HF solution at ambient temperature and the effects of parameters such as reaction time and concentration of acid solutions on the process were evaluated. The optimum conditions were found and it was shown that ash levels can be reduced from 28.9% to 10.5% and the calorific value increased by 500kcal/kg with the HF leaching method. This study demonstrated that the production of clean fuel from high sulphur lignite is possible.

  16. Effect of structural heterogeneity water-coal fuel conditions and characteristics of ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrodoy S.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the particle ignition of coal-water fuel (CWF with a joint course of the main processes of a thermal (thermal conductivity, evaporation, filtration heat and mass transfer, thermal decomposition of the organic part has been solved. According to the results of numerical simulation ways of describing the extent of the influence of the thermophysical properties on the characteristics and conditions of ignition WCF have been set.

  17. Effect of oxy-fuel combustion with steam addition on coal ignition and burnout in an entrained flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaza, J.; Alvarez, L.; Gil, M.V.; Pevida, C.; Pis, J.J.; Rubiera, F.

    2011-01-01

    The ignition temperature and burnout of a semi-anthracite and a high-volatile bituminous coal were studied under oxy-fuel combustion conditions in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The results obtained under oxy-fuel atmospheres (21%O 2 -79%CO 2 , 30%O 2 -70% O 2 and 35%O 2 -65%CO 2 ) were compared with those attained in air. The replacement of CO 2 by 5, 10 and 20% of steam in the oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres was also evaluated in order to study the wet recirculation of flue gas. For the 21%O 2 -79%CO 2 atmosphere, the results indicated that the ignition temperature was higher and the coal burnout was lower than in air. However, when the O 2 concentration was increased to 30 and 35% in the oxy-fuel combustion atmosphere, the ignition temperature was lower and coal burnout was improved in comparison with air conditions. On the other hand, an increase in ignition temperature and a worsening of the coal burnout was observed when steam was added to the oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres though no relevant differences between the different steam concentrations were detected. -- Highlights: → The ignition temperature and the burnout of two thermal coals under oxy-fuel combustion conditions were determined. → The effect of the wet recirculation of flue gas on combustion behaviour was evaluated. → Addition of steam caused a worsening of the ignition temperature and coal burnout.

  18. Sustainable Transportation Fuels from Natural Gas (H{sub 2}), Coal and Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, Gerald

    2012-12-31

    This research program is focused primarily on the conversion of coal, natural gas (i.e., methane), and biomass to liquid fuels by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), with minimum production of carbon dioxide. A complementary topic also under investigation is the development of novel processes for the production of hydrogen with very low to zero production of CO{sub 2}. This is in response to the nation's urgent need for a secure and environmentally friendly domestic source of liquid fuels. The carbon neutrality of biomass is beneficial in meeting this goal. Several additional novel approaches to limiting carbon dioxide emissions are also being explored.

  19. Experimental evaluation of sorbents for sulfur control in a coal-fueled gas turbine slagging combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, L.H.; Wen, C.S.; LeCren, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a slagging combustor that has been used to evaluate three calcium-based sorbents for sulfur capture efficiency in order to assess their applicability for use in a oil-fueled gas turbine. Testing is competed in a bench-scale combustor with one-tenth the heat input needed for the full-scale gas turbine. The bench-scale rig is a two-stage combustor featuring a fuel-rich primary zone an a fuel-lean secondary zone. The combustor is operated at 6.5 bars with inlet air preheated to 600 K. Gas temperatures of 1840 K are generated in the primary zone and 1280 K in the secondary zone. Sorbents are either fed into the secondary zone or mixed with the coal-water mixture and fed into the primary zone. Dry powered sorbents are fed into the secondary zone by an auger into one of six secondary air inlet ports. The three sorbents tested in the secondary zone include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and hydrated lime. Sorbents have been tested while burning coal-water mixtures with coal sulfur loadings of 0.56 to 3.13 weight percent sulfur. Sorbents are injected into the secondary zone at varying flow rates such that the calcium/sulfur ratio varies from 0.5 to 10.0

  20. Chemical and fuel products from mixtures of coal and petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichko, A A; Yulin, M K

    1973-01-01

    From a 1:1 coal-petroleum low-pressure (less than 100 atm) hydrogenation product, C/sub 6-8/ phenols comprising 7.4 percent of the product distilling below 240/sup 0/C were extracted with 10 percent aqueous caustic soda and hydrofined at 325/sup 0/C and 20 atm on cobalt molybdenum alumina catalyst. The combined 240/sup 0/ to 320/sup 0/C and less than or equal to 240/sup 0/C neutral fractions were hydrofined at 400/sup 0/C and 50 atm on cobalt molybdenum alumina catalyst, and the gasoline comprising 42.8 percent of the catalyzate hydroreformed at 490/sup 0/C and 50 atm to raise the octane number from 50.4 to 81.8 to 91.3 and increase the aromatics content from 9.0 to 55.6 percent. Gasoline of 78.5 to 90.5 octane number was prepared by hydrocracking the 180 to 320/sup 0/C catalyzate fraction at 380/sup 0/C and 40 atm on a molybdenum hydrogen sodium yttrium zeolite catalyst greatly favoring C/sub 3-4/ hydrocarbons in the gaseous products (9.0 percent).

  1. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jitendra G.; Sandstrom, William A.; Tarman, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  2. Rapid fuel switching from coal to natural gas through effective carbon pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, I. A. Grant; Staffell, Iain

    2018-05-01

    Great Britain's overall carbon emissions fell by 6% in 2016, due to cleaner electricity production. This was not due to a surge in low-carbon nuclear or renewable sources; instead it was the much-overlooked impact of fuel switching from coal to natural gas generation. This Perspective considers the enabling conditions in Great Britain and the potential for rapid fuel switching in other coal-reliant countries. We find that spare generation and fuel supply-chain capacity must already exist for fuel switching to deliver rapid carbon savings, and to avoid further high-carbon infrastructure lock-in. More important is the political will to alter the marketplace and incentivize this switch, for example, through a stable and strong carbon price. With the right incentives, fuel switching in the power sector could rapidly achieve on the order of 1 GtCO2 saving per year worldwide (3% of global emissions), buying precious time to slow the growth in cumulative carbon emissions.

  3. Methodology for comparing the health effects of electricity generation from uranium and coal fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhyne, W.R.; El-Bassioni, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology was developed for comparing the health risks of electricity generation from uranium and coal fuels. The health effects attributable to the construction, operation, and decommissioning of each facility in the two fuel cycle were considered. The methodology is based on defining (1) requirement variables for the materials, energy, etc., (2) effluent variables associated with the requirement variables as well as with the fuel cycle facility operation, and (3) health impact variables for effluents and accidents. The materials, energy, etc., required for construction, operation, and decommissioning of each fuel cycle facility are defined as primary variables. The materials, energy, etc., needed to produce the primary variable are defined as secondary requirement variables. Each requirement variable (primary, secondary, etc.) has associated effluent variables and health impact variables. A diverging chain or tree is formed for each primary variable. Fortunately, most elements reoccur frequently to reduce the level of analysis complexity. 6 references, 11 figures, 6 tables

  4. Effects of coal-derived trace species on the performance of molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A.

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of the present study was to determine in detail the interaction effects of 10 simultaneously present, coal-gas contaminants, both on each other and on components of the Carbonate Fuel Cell. The primary goal was to assess underlying chemistries and reaction mechanisms which may cause decay in fuel cell performance or endurance as a result of both physics-chemical and/or mechanical interactions with the cell components and internal fuel cell parts. It was found, both from theory and cell test evidence, that trace contaminant interactions may occur with: Fuel-cell Electrodes (e.g., in this study with the Ni-anode), Lithium/Potassium Carbonate Electrolyte, Nickel and SS-Hardware, and by Mechanical Obstruction of Gas Flow in the Anode Plenum.

  5. Cocombustion of secondary fuels with Rhenish brown coal; Mitverbrennung von Sekundaerbrennstoffen mit rheinischer Braunkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, Alexander; Kull, Rene; Zepf, Eva; Fuller, Aaron; Maier, Joerg; Scheffknecht, Guenter [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen; Jong, Martin de [KEMA Nederland B.V. (Netherlands); Glorius, Thomas [REMONDIS Trade and Sales GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The Institute of Combustion and Power Plant of Technology of the University of Stuttgart (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) performs scientific research within the range of solid firings. The cocombustion of secondary fuels in coal-fired power stations as well as the production of secondary fuels are examined in the project RECOFUEL. The production of secondary fuels is performed from harmless house wastes and commercial wastes as well as from biological residues from forestry and agriculture. Secondary fuels offer an alternative to fossil fuels for the power production in different branches of industry and reduce the emission of carbon dioxide from fossil sources. For the attempts in two power stations of RWE Power AG (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) the quality-certified secondary fuel SBS1 registered of the company Remondis GmbH (Luenen, Federal Republic of Germany) was used. This secondary fuel was developed and subjected to an intensive analysis. Experiments in a pulverized fuel furnace and in a fluidised bed were performed at the power stations Weisweiler and Berrenrath in order to examine different aspects of the cocombustion.

  6. Underground coal gasification (UCG: A new trend of supply-side economics of fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Mao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available China has a huge demand for energy. Under the present energy structure of rich coal, lean oil, less gas, limited and low-rising rate renewable energy, discussion focus is now on the high-efficient mining of coal as well as its clean-and-low-carbon use. In view of this, based on an analysis of the problems in the coal chemical industry and the present coal utilization ways such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC, this paper proposes that underground coal gasification (UCG technology is a realistic choice. By virtue of its advantages in many aspects such as safety & environment, integrated use of superior resources, economic feasibility, etc. this technology can serve as the front-end support and guarantee for coal chemical industry and IGCC. Under the present situation, the following proposals were presented to promote the development of this technology. First, R&D of technical products should be strengthened, a comprehensive feasibility study assessment system should be established, and the relevant criteria in the industry should be formulated. Second, precise market positioning of UCG products should be made with much concern on the integrated economic indicators of each product's complete flow scheme, following the principle of “Technical Feasibility First, Economic Optimization Followed”. Third, a perfect operation and management pattern should be established with strict control over high-efficient, environmentally-friendly, safe, harmonious & compact objectives in the whole industry chain. In conclusion, to realize the large-scale UCG commercial production will strongly promote the optimization and innovation of fossil fuels supply-side economics in China.

  7. Burning characteristics and gaseous/solid emissions of blends of pulverized coal with waste tire-derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A.; Courtemanche, B.; Carlson, J.B. [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

    1998-10-01

    The combustion behaviour and the emissions from blends of a pulverized bituminous coal and ground waste automobile tires were investigated. Combustion took place under steady flow conditions, in an electrically-heated drop-tube furnace in air at a gas temperature of 1150{degree}C and a particle heating rate of approximate to 10{sup 5}{degree}C/s. Combustion observations were conducted with simultaneous pyrometry and cinematography. Interparticle flame interactions were visually observed in the near-stoichiometric and fuel-rich regions. Volatile flame interactions were apparent at a lower phi for tire crumb particles than for coal particles and became progressively more intense with increasing phi until at sufficiently high phi`s large group flames formed for tire particles. As particle flame interactions increased, average maximum temperatures in the flame decreased. Coal particles resisted the formation of group flames, even at high phi`s. Such observations correlated with the trends observed for the PAH emissions of the two fuels, those of tire crumb being much higher than those of coal Some stratification in the combustion of blends of particles of the two fuels was observed. This kept the PAH emissions lower levels than expected. NO{sub x} emissions from tires were much lower than those of coal, while those of the blends were close to the weighted average emissions. SO{sub 2} emissions from the blends were close to the weighted average emissions of the two fuels. Blending coal with tire reduced the CO{sub 2} emissions of coal but increased the CO emissions. Particulate emissions (soot and ash), measured in the range of 0.4 to 8{mu}m, increased with phi. Generally, tire produced more mass of submicron particulates than coal. Particulate emissions of blends of the two fuels were close to those expected based on weighted average of the two fuels.

  8. Production of Fischer–Tropsch fuels and electricity from bituminous coal based on steam hydrogasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaoming; Norbeck, Joseph M.; Park, Chan S.

    2012-01-01

    A new thermochemical process for (Fischer–Tropsch) FT fuels and electricity coproduction based on steam hydrogasification is addressed and evaluated in this study. The core parts include (Steam Hydrogasification Reactor) SHR, (Steam Methane Reformer) SMR and (Fisher–Tropsch Reactor) FTR. A key feature of SHR is the enhanced conversion of carbon into methane at high steam environment with hydrogen and no need for catalyst or the use of oxygen. Facilities utilizing bituminous coal for coproduction of FT fuels and electricity with carbon dioxide sequestration are designed in detail. Cases with design capacity of either 400 or 4000 TPD (Tonne Per Day) (dry basis) are investigated with process modeling and cost estimation. A cash flow analysis is performed to determine the fuels (Production Cost) PC. The analysis shows that the 400 TPD case due to a FT fuels PC of 5.99 $/gallon diesel equivalent results in a plant design that is totally uneconomic. The 4000 TPD plant design is expected to produce 7143 bbl/day FT liquids with PC of 2.02 $/gallon and 2.27 $/gallon diesel equivalent at overall carbon capture ratio of 65% and 90%, respectively. Prospective commercial economics benefits with increasing plant size and improvements from large-scale demonstration efforts on steam hydrogasification. -- Highlights: ► We develop a new thermochemical method for synthetic fuels production. ► Detailed plant design and process modeling for the Coal-to-Liquid facilities are performed. ► Economic analysis has been carried out in determining the fuel production cost and IRR. ► The fuels produced in this study can compete with petroleum when crude oil price is 100 $/bbl. ► Further economic benefit comes with plant scale-up and process commercial demonstration efforts.

  9. Application of infiltrated LSCM-GDC oxide anode in direct carbon/coal fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiangling; Arenillas, Ana; Irvine, John T S

    2016-08-15

    Hybrid direct carbon/coal fuel cells (HDCFCs) utilise an anode based upon a molten carbonate salt with an oxide conducting solid electrolyte for direct carbon/coal conversion. They can be fuelled by a wide range of carbon sources, and offer higher potential chemical to electrical energy conversion efficiency and have the potential to decrease CO2 emissions compared to coal-fired power plants. In this study, the application of (La, Sr)(Cr, Mn)O3 (LSCM) and (Gd, Ce)O2 (GDC) oxide anodes was explored in a HDCFC system running with two different carbon fuels, an organic xerogel and a raw bituminous coal. The electrochemical performance of the HDCFC based on a 1-2 mm thick 8 mol% yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and the GDC-LSCM anode fabricated by wet impregnation procedures was characterized and discussed. The infiltrated oxide anode showed a significantly higher performance than the conventional Ni-YSZ anode, without suffering from impurity formation under HDCFC operation conditions. Total polarisation resistance (Rp) reached 0.8-0.9 Ω cm(2) from DCFC with an oxide anode on xerogel and bituminous coal at 750 °C, with open circuit voltage (OCV) values in the range 1.1-1.2 V on both carbon forms. These indicated the potential application of LSCM-GDC oxide anode in HDCFCs. The chemical compatibility of LSCM/GDC with carbon/carbonate investigation revealed the emergence of an A2BO4 type oxide in place of an ABO3 perovskite structure in the LSCM in a reducing environment, due to Li attack as a result of intimate contact between the LSCM and Li2CO3, with GDC being stable under identical conditions. Such reaction between LSCM and Li2CO3 was not observed on a LSCM-YSZ pellet treated with Li-K carbonate in 5% H2/Ar at 700 °C, nor on a GDC-LSCM anode after HDCFC operation. The HDCFC durability tests of GDC-LSCM oxide on a xerogel and on raw bituminous coal were performed under potentiostatic operation at 0.7 V at 750 °C. The degradation mechanisms were

  10. Performance effects of coal-derived contaminants on the carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Wilemski, G. [Physical Sciences, Inc., Andover, MA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Coal-derived contaminant studies have been pursued at ERC since the early 1980`s when the pace of carbonate fuel cell development began to markedly increase. Initial work was concerned with performance effects on laboratory and bench-scale carbonate fuel cells primarily due to sulfur compounds. Results have now also been obtained with respect to nine additional coal-gas contaminants, including volatile trace metal species. Thermochemical calculations, out-of-cell experiments, and cell performance as well as endurance testshave recently been conducted which have involved the following species: NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S [COS], HCl, AsH{sub 3}[As{sub 2}(v)], Zn(v), Pb(v), Cd(v), H{sub 2} Se, Hg(v), Sn(v). Employing thermochemically calculated results, thermogravimetric (TGA) and pre-, and post-test analytical data as well as fuel cell performance observations, it has been shown that there are four main mechanisms of contaminant interaction with the carbonate fuel cell. These have been formulated into performance models for six significant contaminant species, thus providing long-term endurance estimations.

  11. Performance effects of coal-derived contaminants on the carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A. (Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)); Wilemski, G. (Physical Sciences, Inc., Andover, MA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Coal-derived contaminant studies have been pursued at ERC since the early 1980's when the pace of carbonate fuel cell development began to markedly increase. Initial work was concerned with performance effects on laboratory and bench-scale carbonate fuel cells primarily due to sulfur compounds. Results have now also been obtained with respect to nine additional coal-gas contaminants, including volatile trace metal species. Thermochemical calculations, out-of-cell experiments, and cell performance as well as endurance testshave recently been conducted which have involved the following species: NH[sub 3], H[sub 2]S [COS], HCl, AsH[sub 3][As[sub 2](v)], Zn(v), Pb(v), Cd(v), H[sub 2] Se, Hg(v), Sn(v). Employing thermochemically calculated results, thermogravimetric (TGA) and pre-, and post-test analytical data as well as fuel cell performance observations, it has been shown that there are four main mechanisms of contaminant interaction with the carbonate fuel cell. These have been formulated into performance models for six significant contaminant species, thus providing long-term endurance estimations.

  12. Estimating externalities of coal fuel cycles. Report No. 3 on the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles: a study by the US Department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The report, one of a series of eight reports, is primarily about a methodology for estimating coal fuel cycle externalities. The study considered the stages of a typical coal fuel cycle and identified the more important ones: coal mining coal transportation, and electric power generation. Chapter headings are: introduction; alternative contexts for the study; prior studies of damages and benefits; methods development; organization, interpretation and use of results; reference technology and sites; priority impact-pathways for the coal fuel cycle; estimating the externalities of coal mining; estimating coal transportation externalities; estimating-the externalities of electric power generation; tabulation of numerical results; and fundings, conclusions, and recommendations. The study demonstrated the application of the damage function approach to estimating the externalities of coal fuel cycles. A number of analytical methods were applied within that framework to several impact-pathways. 580 refs., 40 figs., 130 tabs., 3 apps

  13. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L. [AMAX R& D Center/ENTECH Global Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  14. Trace elements in co-combustion of solid recovered fuel and coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Trace element partitioning in co-combustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF) was studied in an entrained flow reactor. The experiments were carried out at conditions similar to pulverized coal combustion, with SRF shares of 7.9 wt.% (wet basis), 14.8 wt.% and 25.0 wt.......%. In addition, the effect of additives such as NaCl, PVC, ammonium sulphate, and kaolinite on trace element partitioning was investigated. The trace elements studied were As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn, since these elements were significantly enriched in SRF as compared to coal. During the experiments, bottom ash...... was collected in a chamber, large fly ash particles were collected by a cyclone with a cut-off diameter of ~2.5 μm, and the remaining fly ash particles were gathered in a filter. It was found that when coal was co-fired with SRF, the As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn content in filter ash/cyclone ash increased almost...

  15. A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

    2001-07-01

    Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was

  16. Simulated coal-gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plant system verification. Final report, September 1990--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate fuel cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct fuel cell (DFC) which does not need an external fuel reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual fuel power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate fuel cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate fuel cell power produced to date, at 74% fuel utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate fuel cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.

  17. Ignition of an organic water-coal fuel droplet floating in a heated-air flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiullin, T. R.; Strizhak, P. A.; Shevyrev, S. A.; Bogomolov, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Ignition of an organic water-coal fuel (CWSP) droplet floating in a heated-air flow has been studied experimentally. Rank B2 brown-coal particles with a size of 100 μm, used crankcase Total oil, water, and a plasticizer were used as the main CWSP components. A dedicated quartz-glass chamber has been designed with inlet and outlet elements made as truncated cones connected via a cylindrical ring. The cones were used to shape an oxidizer flow with a temperature of 500-830 K and a flow velocity of 0.5-5.0 m/s. A technique that uses a coordinate-positioning gear, a nichrome thread, and a cutter element has been developed for discharging CWSP droplets into the working zone of the chamber. Droplets with an initial size of 0.4 to 2.0 mm were used. Conditions have been determined for a droplet to float in the oxidizer flow long enough for the sustainable droplet burning to be initiated. Typical stages and integral ignition characteristics have been established. The integral parameters (ignition-delay times) of the examined processes have been compared to the results of experiments with CWSP droplets suspended on the junction of a quick-response thermocouple. It has been shown that floating fuel droplets ignite much quicker than the ones that sit still on the thermocouple due to rotation of an CWSP droplet in the oxidizer flow, more uniform heating of the droplet, and lack of heat drainage towards the droplet center. High-speed video recording of the peculiarities of floatation of a burning fuel droplet makes it possible to complement the existing models of water-coal fuel burning. The results can be used for a more substantiated modeling of furnace CWSP burning with the ANSYS, Fluent, and Sigma-Flow software packages.

  18. The calculation of the chemical exergies of coal-based fuels by using the higher heating values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgen, Selcuk; Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the application of exergy to gain a better understanding of coal properties, especially chemical exergy and specific chemical exergy. In this study, a BASIC computer program was used to calculation of the chemical exergies of the coal-based fuels. Calculations showed that the chemical composition of the coal influences strongly the values of the chemical exergy. The exergy value of a coal is closely related to the H:C and O:C ratios. High proportions of hydrogen and/or oxygen, compared to carbon, generally reduce the exergy value of the coal. High contents of the moisture and/or the ash cause to low values of the chemical exergy. The aim of this paper is to calculate the chemical exergy of coals by using equations given in the literature and to detect and to evaluate quantitatively the effect of irreversible phenomena increased the thermodynamic imperfection of the processes. In this paper, the calculated exergy values of the fuels will be useful for energy experts studied in the coal mining area and coal-fired powerplants

  19. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  20. Comparison of environmental impacts between coal and nuclear fuel cycles in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.E.; Lee, K.J. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear and coal have been selected as the major electricity sources due to the insufficient domestic energy resources, and will provide 62% of total electricity generation in Korea by 2015. Up to now, environmental impact assessments between two electricity sources have been focused on the CO{sub 2} emission or economics. And future generation would require the environment friendliness energy policy for the environmentally sound and sustainable development of energy. So it is necessary to take into account an application of a broad environmental management tool to the comparative assessment of energy systems. Therefore, the environmental impacts of coal and nuclear fuel cycles are identified and quantified with the dimensionless unit concerning various environmental categories in this study. This result will be much helpful to make a decision for the long-term electricity planning and the energy mix optimization with respect to the environmental preservation in Korea. (author)

  1. Comparison of environmental impacts between coal and nuclear fuel cycles in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.E.; Lee, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear and coal have been selected as the major electricity sources due to the insufficient domestic energy resources, and will provide 62% of total electricity generation in Korea by 2015. Up to now, environmental impact assessments between two electricity sources have been focused on the CO 2 emission or economics. And future generation would require the environment friendliness energy policy for the environmentally sound and sustainable development of energy. So it is necessary to take into account an application of a broad environmental management tool to the comparative assessment of energy systems. Therefore, the environmental impacts of coal and nuclear fuel cycles are identified and quantified with the dimensionless unit concerning various environmental categories in this study. This result will be much helpful to make a decision for the long-term electricity planning and the energy mix optimization with respect to the environmental preservation in Korea. (author)

  2. Possibilities of production of smokeless fuel via carbonization of Czech coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchtele, J.; Straka, P. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    It was consumed 48 -51 % of hard coal (total output 28 - 30 Mt/year) in a long period for the production of coke. It appears to be anomaly in comparison with other coke producers in Europe and in the world, it was predeterminated by {open_quotes}steel conception{close_quotes} of state`s economics. The production of coke reached 10-11 Mt/year in former Czechoslovakia in the period 1970-1990. A considerable quantity 1.2 - 1.7 Mt/year of produced coke was utilized for heating. In comparison, 7-5.4 Mt coke/year was it in Poland for the heating. Al coke production is realized on the basis of Czech hard coals mined in the southern part of Upper Silesian Coal District. The coke production is operated in multi-chamber system with full recovery of chemical products (gas, raw tar, raw benzene, amonium etc.). The future trend of smokeless fuel production in Czech Republic makes for to the non-recovery coke oven, it means to two-product processes (coke + reduction gas, coke + electricity and so on). Jewell--Thompson coke oven (hard coal) and Salem oven (ignites) represent nonrecovery nowadays. The possibility of it`s application in Czech Republic are discussed. Jumbo coking reactor system (European project No. 500 to the Eureka programme) produces primarily metallurgical coke. The strong Clean Air Act suspends the production of smokeless fuel in multi-chamber system also in Czech Republic for the future period 2010-2020.

  3. Simulation of the Fuel Reactor of a Coal-Fired Chemical Looping Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalatkar, Kartikeya; O'Brien, Thomas; Huckaby, E. David; Kuhlman, John

    2009-06-01

    Responsible carbon management (CM) will be required for the future utilization of coal for power generation. CO2 separation is the more costly component of CM, not sequestration. Most methods of capture require a costly process of gas separation to obtain a CO2-rich gas stream. However, recently a process termed Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) has been proposed, in which an oxygen-carrier is used to provide the oxygen for combustion. This process quite naturally generates a separate exhaust gas stream containing mainly H2O and CO2 but requires two reaction vessels, an Air Reactor (AR) and a Fuel Reactor (FR). The carrier (M for metal, the usual carrier) is oxidized in the AR. This highly exothermic process provides heat for power generation. The oxidized carrier (MO) is separated from this hot, vitiated air stream and transported to the FR where it oxidizes the hydrocarbon fuel, yielding an exhaust gas stream of mainly H2O and CO2. This process is usually slightly endothermic so that the carrier must also transport the necessary heat of reaction. The reduced carrier (M) is then returned to the air reactor for regeneration, hence the term "looping." The net chemical reaction and energy release is identical to that of conventional combustion of the fuel. However, CO2 separation is easily achieved, the only operational penalty being the slight pressure losses required to circulate the carrier. CLC requires many unit operations involving gas-solid or granular flow. To utilize coal in the fuel reactor, in either a moving bed or bubbling fluidized bed, the granular flow is especially critical. The solid coal fuel must be heated by the recycled metal oxide, driving off moisture and volatile material. The remaining char must be gasified by H2O (or CO2), which is recycled from the product stream. The gaseous product of these reactions must then contact the MO before leaving the bed to obtain complete conversion to H2O and CO2. Further, the reduced M particles must be

  4. Externally-fired combined cycle: An effective coal fueled technology for repowering and new generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddard, L.E.; Bary, M.R. [Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Gray, K.M. [Pennsylvania Electric Co., Johnstown, PA (United States); LaHaye, P.G. [Hague International, South Portland, ME (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) is an attractive emerging technology for powering high efficiency combined gas and steam turbine cycles with coal or other ash bearing fuels. In the EFCC, the heat input to a gas turbine is supplied indirectly through a ceramic air heater. The air heater, along with an atmospheric coal combustor and ancillary equipment, replaces the conventional gas turbine combustor. A steam generator located downstream from the ceramic air heater and steam turbine cycle, along with an exhaust cleanup system, completes the combined cycle. A key element of the EFCC Development Program, the 25 MMBtu/h heat-input Kennebunk Test Facility (KTF), has recently begun operation. The KTF has been operating with natural gas and will begin operating with coal in early 1995. The US Department of Energy selected an EFCC repowering of the Pennsylvania Electric Company`s Warren Station for funding under the Clean Coal Technology Program Round V. The project focuses on repowering an existing 48 MW (gross) steam turbine with an EFCC power island incorporating a 30 MW gas turbine, for a gross power output of 78 MW and a net output of 72 MW. The net plant heat rate will be decreased by approximately 30% to below 9,700 Btu/kWh. Use of a dry scrubber and fabric filter will reduce sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate emissions to levels under those required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions are controlled by the use of staged combustion. The demonstration project is currently in the engineering phase, with startup scheduled for 1997. This paper discusses the background of the EFCC, the KTF, the Warren Station EFCC Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project, the commercial plant concept, and the market potential for the EFCC.

  5. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2005-04-29

    The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

  6. Ignition of a floating droplet of organic coal-water fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakoryakov, V. E.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2016-06-01

    The results of experimental investigations are presented for the ignition of droplets (particles) of organic coal-water fuels (OCWFs) floating in a flow of an oxidizer using a special combustion chamber from high-temperature quartz glass. The temperature and the velocity of motion of the oxidizer vary in the ranges of 500-900 K and 0.5-3 m/s. The initial sizes (radii) of fuel droplets amounted to 0.3-1.5 mm. As the basic OCWF components, particles (of 80-100 µm in size) of brown coal "B2," water, mazut, and waste castor and compressor oils are used. With use of the system of high-velocity video registration, the conditions providing for floating of OCWF particles without initiation of burning and with the subsequent steady ignition are established. Four modes of OCWF-droplet ignition with different trajectories of their motion in the combustion chamber are singled out. The times of the OCWF-ignition delay in dependence on the size of fuel particles and oxidizer temperatures are determined. The deviations of the OCWF-ignition-delay times obtained under conditions of suspension of a droplet on the thermocouple junction and while floating in the oxidizer flow are established.

  7. Moderate temperature gas purification system: Application to high calorific coal-derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M.; Shirai, H.; Nunokawa, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    Simultaneous removal of dust, alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, halides and sulfur compounds is required to enlarge application of coal-derived gas to the high-temperature fuel cells and the fuel synthesis through chemical processing. Because high calorific fuel gas, such as oxygen-blown coal gas, has high carbon monoxide content, high-temperature (above 450{sup o}C) gas purification system is always subjected to the carbon deposition. We suggest moderate temperature (around 300{sup o}C) operation of the gas purification system to avoid the harmful disproportionation reaction and efficient removal of the various contaminants. Because the reaction rate is predominant to the performance of contaminant removal in the moderate temperature gas purification system, we evaluated the chemical removal processes; performance of the removal processes for halides and sulfur compounds was experimentally evaluated. The halide removal process with sodium aluminate sorbent had potential performance at around 300{sup o}C. The sulfur removal process with zinc ferrite sorbent was also applicable to the temperature range, though the reaction kinetics of the sorbent is essential to be approved.

  8. Moderate temperature gas purification system: application to high calorific coal derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Kobayashi; H. Shirai; M. Nunokawa [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Kanagawa (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Simultaneous removal of dust, alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, halides and sulfur compounds is required to enlarge application of coal-derived gas to the high temperature fuel cells and the fuel synthesis through chemical processing. Because high calorific fuel gas, such as oxygen-blown coal gas, has high carbon monoxide content, high temperature gas purification system is always subjected to the carbon deposition and slippage of contaminant of high vapor pressure. It was suggested that moderate temperature operation of the gas purification system is applied to avoid the harmful disproportionation reaction and efficient removal of the various contaminants. To establish the moderate temperature gas purification system, the chemical-removal processes where the reaction rate is predominant to the performance of contaminant removal should be evaluated. Performance of the removal processes for halides and sulfur compounds were experimentally evaluated. The halide removal process with sodium based sorbent had potential good performance at around 300{sup o}C. The sulfur removal process was also applicable to the temperature range, although the improvement of the sulfidation reaction rate is considered to be essential. 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Direct Coal -to-Liquids (CTL) for Jet Fuel Using Biomass-Derived Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Satya P. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Garbark, Daniel B. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Peterson, Rick [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Battelle has demonstrated a novel and potentially breakthrough technology for a direct coal-to-liquids (CTL) process for producing jet fuel using biomass-derived coal solvents (bio-solvents). The Battelle process offers a significant reduction in capital and operating costs and a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, without requiring carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results of the project are the advancement of three steps of the hybrid coal/biomass-to-jet fuel process to the technology readiness level (TRL) of 5. The project objectives were achieved over two phases. In Phase 1, all three major process steps were explored and refined at bench-scale, including: (1) biomass conversion to high hydrogen-donor bio-solvent; (2) coal dissolution in biomass-derived bio-solvent, without requiring molecular H2, to produce a synthetic crude (syncrude); and (3) two-stage catalytic hydrotreating/hydrogenation of syncrude to jet fuel and other distillates. In Phase 2, all three subsystems of the CTL process were scaled up to a pre-pilot scale, and an economic analysis was carried out. A total of over 40 bio-solvents were identified and prepared. The most unique attribute of Battelle’s bio-solvents is their ability to provide much-needed hydrogen to liquefy coal and thus increase its hydrogen content so much that the resulting syncrude is liquid at room temperature. Based on the laboratory-scale testing with bituminous coals from Ohio and West Virginia, a total of 12 novel bio-solvent met the goal of greater than 80% coal solubility, with 8 bio-solvents being as good as or better than a well-known but expensive hydrogen-donor solvent, tetralin. The Battelle CTL process was then scaled up to 1 ton/day (1TPD) at a pre-pilot facility operated in Morgantown, WV. These tests were conducted, in part, to produce enough material for syncrude-upgrading testing. To convert the Battelle-CTL syncrude into a form suitable as a blending stock for jet

  10. Wabash Valley Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Coal to Fischer Tropsch Jet Fuel Conversion Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jayesh [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Hess, Fernando [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Horzen, Wessel van [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Williams, Daniel [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Peevor, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Dyer, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Frankel, Louis [Canonsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This reports examines the feasibility of converting the existing Wabash Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant into a liquid fuel facility, with the goal of maximizing jet fuel production. The fuels produced are required to be in compliance with Section 526 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007 §526) lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requirements, so lifecycle GHG emissions from the fuel must be equal to or better than conventional fuels. Retrofitting an existing gasification facility reduces the technical risk and capital costs associated with a coal to liquids project, leading to a higher probability of implementation and more competitive liquid fuel prices. The existing combustion turbine will continue to operate on low cost natural gas and low carbon fuel gas from the gasification facility. The gasification technology utilized at Wabash is the E-Gas™ Technology and has been in commercial operation since 1995. In order to minimize capital costs, the study maximizes reuse of existing equipment with minimal modifications. Plant data and process models were used to develop process data for downstream units. Process modeling was utilized for the syngas conditioning, acid gas removal, CO2 compression and utility units. Syngas conversion to Fischer Tropsch (FT) liquids and upgrading of the liquids was modeled and designed by Johnson Matthey Davy Technologies (JM Davy). In order to maintain the GHG emission profile below that of conventional fuels, the CO2 from the process must be captured and exported for sequestration or enhanced oil recovery. In addition the power utilized for the plant’s auxiliary loads had to be supplied by a low carbon fuel source. Since the process produces a fuel gas with sufficient energy content to power the plant’s loads, this fuel gas was converted to hydrogen and exported to the existing gas turbine for low carbon power production. Utilizing low carbon fuel gas and

  11. Raw mix designing for coal as a fuel in cement kiln as a major fuel and its impact on clinker parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor-ul-Amin; Ali, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the use of coal, found at Jabba Taar and Jabba Khushk Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa, in cement manufacturing as a major fuel and its impacts on the raw mix and clinker parameters has been discussed. The maximum amount of coal for pulverizing with raw mix was found to be 10% of the raw mix as calculated from the calorific value and the heat of clinkerization of coal. The coal residue left after burning was utilized in the cement raw material, for which a new raw mix was designed. The new raw mix was converted in to clinker. The resulting clinker was studied for all parameters as per British specification. It was found that the clinker obtained from the newly designed raw mix with coal ash, was in accordance to the British standard specifications. (author)

  12. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  13. Electricity and fluid fuels from biomass and coal using advanced technologies: a cost comparison for developing country applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartha, S; Larson, E D; Williams, R H [Center for Energy and Environment Studies School of Engineering and Applied Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Katofsky, R E [Arthur D. Little Co., Cambridge, MA (United States); Chen, J [Thermo Fibertek, Inc., Auburn, MA (United States); Marrison, C I [Oliver, Wyman and Co., New York, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Recent analyses of alternative global energy supply strategies, such as the forthcoming report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), to be published in 1996, have drawn attention to the possibility that biomass modernized with advanced technologies could play an important role in meeting global energy needs in the next century. This paper discusses two promising classes of advanced technologies that offer the potential for providing modem energy carriers (electricity and fluid fuels) from biomass at competitive costs within one or two decades. These technologies offer significantly more efficient use of land than currently commercial technologies for producing electricity and fluid fuels from biomass, as well as substantially improved energy balances. Electricity is Rely to be the first large market for modernized biomass, but the potential market for fluid fuel production is likely to be much larger. As coal is likely to present a more serious competitive challenge to biomass in the long run, we present an economic comparison with coal-based electricity and fluid fuels. A meaningful economic comparison between coal and biomass is possible because these feedstocks are sufficiently alike in their physical characteristics that similar conversion technologies may well be used for producing electricity and fluid fuels from them. When similar conversion technologies are used for both feedstocks, the relative costs of electricity or fluid fuels will be determined by the distinguishing technical characteristics of the feedstocks (sulphur content, moisture content and reactivity) and by the relative feedstock prices. Electric power generation from biomass and coal are compared here using an advanced integrated gasifier/gas turbine cycle that offers the potential for achieving high efficiency, low unit capital cost and low local pollutant emissions: the steam-injected gas turbine coupled to an air-blown gasifier. For both feedstocks, generation costs are

  14. Electricity and fluid fuels from biomass and coal using advanced technologies: a cost comparison for developing country applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartha, S.; Larson, E.D.; Williams, R.H.; Katofsky, R.E.; Chen, J.; Marrison, C.I.

    1995-01-01

    Recent analyses of alternative global energy supply strategies, such as the forthcoming report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), to be published in 1996, have drawn attention to the possibility that biomass modernized with advanced technologies could play an important role in meeting global energy needs in the next century. This paper discusses two promising classes of advanced technologies that offer the potential for providing modem energy carriers (electricity and fluid fuels) from biomass at competitive costs within one or two decades. These technologies offer significantly more efficient use of land than currently commercial technologies for producing electricity and fluid fuels from biomass, as well as substantially improved energy balances. Electricity is Rely to be the first large market for modernized biomass, but the potential market for fluid fuel production is likely to be much larger. As coal is likely to present a more serious competitive challenge to biomass in the long run, we present an economic comparison with coal-based electricity and fluid fuels. A meaningful economic comparison between coal and biomass is possible because these feedstocks are sufficiently alike in their physical characteristics that similar conversion technologies may well be used for producing electricity and fluid fuels from them. When similar conversion technologies are used for both feedstocks, the relative costs of electricity or fluid fuels will be determined by the distinguishing technical characteristics of the feedstocks (sulphur content, moisture content and reactivity) and by the relative feedstock prices. Electric power generation from biomass and coal are compared here using an advanced integrated gasifier/gas turbine cycle that offers the potential for achieving high efficiency, low unit capital cost and low local pollutant emissions: the steam-injected gas turbine coupled to an air-blown gasifier. For both feedstocks, generation costs are

  15. Subtask 3.11 - Production of CBTL-Based Jet Fuels from Biomass-Based Feedstocks and Montana Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ramesh

    2014-06-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from Exxon Mobil, undertook Subtask 3.11 to use a recently installed bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. The process involves liquefaction of Rosebud mine coal (Montana coal) coupled with an upgrading scheme to produce a naphthenic fuel. The upgrading comprises catalytic hydrotreating and saturation to produce naphthenic fuel. A synthetic jet fuel was prepared by blending equal volumes of naphthenic fuel with similar aliphatic fuel derived from biomass and 11 volume % of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthetic fuel was tested using standard ASTM International techniques to determine compliance with JP-8 fuel. The composite fuel thus produced not only meets but exceeds the military aviation fuel-screening criteria. A 500-milliliter synthetic jet fuel sample which met internal screening criteria was submitted to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria. The results show that this fuel meets or exceeds the key specification parameters for JP-8, a petroleum-based jet fuel widely used by the U.S. military. JP-8 specifications include parameters such as freeze point, density, flash point, and others; all of which were met by the EERC fuel sample. The fuel also exceeds the thermal stability specification of JP-8 fuel as determined by the quartz crystalline microbalance (QCM) test also performed at an independent laboratory as well as AFRL. This means that the EERC fuel looks and acts identically to petroleum-derived jet fuel and can be used

  16. Thermodynamic analyses of solar thermal gasification of coal for hybrid solar-fossil power and fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Yi Cheng; Lipiński, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic analyses are performed for solar thermal steam and dry gasification of coal. The selected types of coal are anthracite, bituminous, lignite and peat. Two model conversion paths are considered for each combination of the gasifying agent and the coal type: production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use in a combined cycle power plant to generate power, and production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use to produce gasoline via the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Replacement of a coal-fired 35% efficient Rankine cycle power plant and a combustion-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant by a solar-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 47% and 27%, respectively. Replacement of a conventional gasoline production process via coal gasification and a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis with gasoline production via solar thermal coal gasification with a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 39%. -- Highlights: ► Thermodynamic analyses for steam and dry gasification of coal are presented. ► Hybrid solar-fossil paths to power and fuels are compared to those using only combustion. ► Hybrid power production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 27%. ► Hybrid fuel production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 39%.

  17. Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan

    2012-11-30

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) could totally negate the necessity of pure oxygen by using oxygen carriers for purification of CO{sub 2} stream during combustion. It splits the single fuel combustion reaction into two linked reactions using oxygen carriers. The two linked reactions are the oxidation of oxygen carriers in the air reactor using air, and the reduction of oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor using fuels (i.e. coal). Generally metal/metal oxides are used as oxygen carriers and operated in a cyclic mode. Chemical looping combustion significantly improves the energy conversion efficiency, in terms of the electricity generation, because it improves the reversibility of the fuel combustion process through two linked parallel processes, compared to the conventional combustion process, which is operated far away from its thermo-equilibrium. Under the current carbon-constraint environment, it has been a promising carbon capture technology in terms of fuel combustion for power generation. Its disadvantage is that it is less mature in terms of technological commercialization. In this DOE-funded project, accomplishment is made by developing a series of advanced copper-based oxygen carriers, with properties of the higher oxygen-transfer capability, a favorable thermodynamics to generate high purity of CO{sub 2}, the higher reactivity, the attrition-resistance, the thermal stability in red-ox cycles and the achievement of the auto-thermal heat balance. This will be achieved into three phases in three consecutive years. The selected oxygen carriers with final-determined formula were tested in a scaled-up 10kW coal-fueled chemical looping combustion facility. This scaled-up evaluation tests (2-day, 8-hour per day) indicated that, there was no tendency of agglomeration of copper-based oxygen carriers. Only trace-amount of coke or carbon deposits on the copper-based oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor. There was also no evidence to show the sulphidization of oxygen

  18. Application of coal-water fuel technology in the People`s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, G. [International Centre for Scientific Culture (World Laboratory), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    Under the auspices of the ICSC - World Laboratory of Losanna presided by Prof. A. Zichichi, an important Project was launched on 1988 dealing with the feasibility study of coal-water fuel technology in China. The study, that is starting now with the last phase, will be completed in the 1993. The paper will report on the general line of the study and the status of the project. This is related to a complete program including: the slurry production near the coal open air mine in the region of Shemnu (new Mongolia), the transportation by pipeline for about 800 km. of 7 millions of tons/year of dry coal in form of CWF, and some possible direct utilization during the route until the final destination in one of the ports of Yellow sea. This is for the time been the biggest commercial project in the world on this area and was developed using the experiences of more than 50 italian and chinese scientists, technologists and experts coming from important and specialized italian companies under the drive of Snamprogetti (including the experiences of ENEL, Ansaldo, Laviosa, etc.) and chinese organization from the Graduate School, CUMT; Institute of Mechanics CAS; Institute of Photochemistry, CAS; in R.P.C.

  19. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F.W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  20. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  1. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of coal/biomass co-firing in pulverised fuel boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghtaderi, B.; Meesri, C. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). CRC for Coal in Sustainable Development, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The present study is concerned with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of coal/biomass blends co-fired under conditions pertinent to pulverised fuel (PF) boilers. The attention is particularly focused on the near burner zone to examine the impact of biomass on the flame geometry and temperature. The predictions are obtained by numerical solution of the conservation equations for the gas and particle phases. The gas phase is solved in the Eulerian domain using steady-state time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations while the solution of the particle phase is obtained from a series of Lagrangian particle tracking equations. Turbulence is modelled using the {kappa}-{epsilon} and Reynolds Stress models. The comparison between the predictions and experimental measurement reported in the literature resulted in a good agreement. Other influences of biomass co-firing are observed for fuel devolatilisation and burnout. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Catalytic Enhancement of Carbon Black and Coal-Fueled Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    , Ce1-xREExO2-δ (REE = Pr, Sm)) and metal oxides (LiMn2O4, Ag2O). Materials showing the highest activity in carbon black (Mn2O3, CeO2, Ce0.6Pr0.4O2-δ, Ag2O) were subsequently tested for catalytic activity toward bituminous coal, as revealed by both I-V-P curves and electrochemical impedance...... spectroscopy (EIS). Catalytic activity was evaluated as a function of various physical characteristics of doped ceria and manganese-based materials....

  3. DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility: fossil fuel processing technical/professional services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hefferan, J.K.; Lee, G.Y.; Boesch, L.P.; James, R.B.; Rode, R.R.; Walters, A.B.

    1979-07-13

    A conceptual design, including process descriptions, heat and material balances, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, schedule, capital and operating cost estimate, and alternative design considerations, is presented for the DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility (GMTF). The GMTF, an engineering scale facility, is to provide a complete plant into which different types of gasifiers and conversion/synthesis equipment can be readily integrated for testing in an operational environment at relatively low cost. The design allows for operation of several gasifiers simultaneously at a total coal throughput of 2500 tons/day; individual gasifiers operate at up to 1200 tons/day and 600 psig using air or oxygen. Ten different test gasifiers can be in place at the facility, but only three can be operated at one time. The GMTF can produce a spectrum of saleable products, including low Btu, synthesis and pipeline gases, hydrogen (for fuel cells or hydrogasification), methanol, gasoline, diesel and fuel oils, organic chemicals, and electrical power (potentially). In 1979 dollars, the base facility requires a $288 million capital investment for common-use units, $193 million for four gasification units and four synthesis units, and $305 million for six years of operation. Critical reviews of detailed vendor designs are appended for a methanol synthesis unit, three entrained flow gasifiers, a fluidized bed gasifier, and a hydrogasifier/slag-bath gasifier.

  4. Coproduction of transportation fuels in advanced IGCCs via coal and biomass mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qin; Rao, Ashok; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Coproduction of electricity and transportation fuels with carbon capture. • Switchgrass biomass is cofed with bituminous coal or lignite. • Cost of Fischer–Tropsch liquids is comparable to longer term price projections of crude oil. • Ethanol costs more than gasoline but greenhouse gas emissions will be lower. • Cost of hydrogen is lower than the DoE announced goal of $3/kg. - Abstract: Converting abundant fossil resources of coal to alternative transportation fuels is a promising option for countries heavily dependent on petroleum imports if plants are equipped with carbon capture for sequestration and cofed with biomass (30% by weight of the total feed on a dry basis), an essentially carbon neutral fuel, without penalizing the process economics excessively. A potential exists to improve both thermal efficiency and economics of such plants by taking advantage of the synergies of coproducing electricity using advanced technologies under development. Three types of transportation fuels are considered. Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) liquids consisting predominantly of waxes could be processed in existing refineries while displacing petroleum and the refined products introduced into the market place at the present time or in the near term without requiring changes to the existing infrastructure. Ethanol could potentially serve in the not so distant future (or phased in by blending with conventional liquid fuels). Hydrogen which could play a dominant role in the more distant future being especially suitable to the fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV). Two types of coal along with biomass cofeed are evaluated; bituminous coal at $42.0/dry tonne, lignite at $12.0/dry tonne, and switchgrass at $99.0/dry tonne. The calculated cost for F–T liquids ranged from $77.8/bbl to $86.6/bbl (or $0.0177 to 0.0197/MJ LHV) depending on the feedstock, which is comparable to the projected longer term market price of crude oil at ∼$80/bbl when supply and demand reach a

  5. Oxy-fuel combustion of coal and biomass, the effect on radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, John P.; Patel, Rajeshriben; Riley, Gerry S. [RWEnpower, Windmill Hill Business Park, Whitehill Way, Swindon, Wiltshire SN5 6PB, England (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    This paper focuses on results of co-firing coal and biomass under oxy-fuel combustion conditions on the RWEn 0.5 MWt Combustion Test Facility (CTF). Results are presented of radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout measurements. Two coals were fired: a South African coal and a Russian Coal under air and oxy-fuel firing conditions. The two coals were also co-fired with Shea Meal at a co-firing mass fraction of 20%. Shea Meal was also co-fired at a mass fraction of 40% and sawdust at 20% with the Russian Coal. An IFRF Aerodynamically Air Staged Burner (AASB) was used. The thermal input was maintained at 0.5 MWt for all conditions studied. The test matrix comprised of varying the Recycle Ratio (RR) between 65% and 75% and furnace exit O{sub 2} was maintained at 3%. Carbon-in-ash samples for burnout determination were also taken. Results show that the highest peak radiative heat flux and highest flame luminosity corresponded to the lowest recycle ratio. The effect of co-firing of biomass resulted in lower radiative heat fluxes for corresponding recycle ratios. Furthermore, the highest levels of radiative heat flux corresponded to the lowest convective heat flux. Results are compared to air firing and the air equivalent radiative and convective heat fluxes are fuel type dependent. Reasons for these differences are discussed in the main text. Burnout improves with biomass co-firing under both air and oxy-fuel firing conditions and burnout is also seen to improve under oxy-fuel firing conditions compared to air. (author)

  6. Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Gopala N.; Jayaweera, Palitha; Perez, Jordi; Hornbostel, M.; Albritton, John R.; Gupta, Raghubir P.

    2007-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s SECA program envisions the development of high-efficiency, low-emission, CO2 sequestration-ready, and fuel-flexible technology to produce electricity from fossil fuels. One such technology is the integrated gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that produces electricity from the gas stream of a coal gasifier. SOFCs have high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency, environmental compatibility (low NOx production), and modularity. The primary objective of the Phase I study was to determine the sensitivity of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells to trace level contaminants present in a coal-derived gas stream in the temperature range 700° to 900°C. Laboratory-scale tests were performed with 1-inch diameter solid oxide fuel cells procured from InDec B.V., Netherlands. These cells produce 0.15, 0.27, and 0.35 W/cm2 at 700°, 750°, and 800°C, respectively, in a H2 anode feed and are expected to be stable within 10% of the original performance over a period of 2000 h. A simulated coal-derived gas containing 30.0% CO, 30.6% H2 11.8% CO2, 27.6% H2O was used at a rate of ~100 standard cm3/min to determine the effect of contaminants on the electrical performance of the cells. Alumina or zirconia components were used for the gas manifold to prevent loss of contaminants by reaction with the surfaces of the gas manifold Short-term accelerated tests were conducted with several contaminants including As, P, CH3Cl, HCl, Hg, Sb, and Zn vapors. In these tests, AsH3, PH3, Cd vapor and CH3Cl identified as the potential contaminants that can affect the electrical performance of SOFCs. The effect of some of these contaminants varied with the operating temperature. Cell failure due to contact break inside the anode chamber occurred when the cell was exposed to 10 ppm arsenic vapor at 800°C. The electrical performance of SOFC

  7. Motor fuels made by direct liquefaction of coal, peat and biomass. Drivmedel genom direktfoervaetskning av kol, torv och biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granath, L; Karlsson, G; Karlsson, G; Nilsson, T

    1981-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Technology at the Royal Institute of Technology has completed a system study concerning direct liquefaction of peat and biomass to produce transportation fuel. A comprehensive survey of coal liquefaction is included. Gasoline produced in Sweden from direct liquefaction of imported coal may compete with regular gasoline at the earliest around 1985. Biomass can become a competitive alternative to black coal at the beginning of the 21st century. Methanol can be produced from wood with a higher efficiency than the transportation fuels which are produced by direct liquefaction. The peat is not good source for liquefaction as wood chips. A continuously working liquefaction plant designed also for peat among other substances is under construction at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.

  8. Co-pyrolysis of waste tire/coal mixtures for smokeless fuel, maltenes and hydrogen-rich gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bičáková, Olga; Straka, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-pyrolysis of waste tires/coal mixtures yields mainly smokeless fuel (55–74 wt%). • Alternatively, the smokeless fuel can serve as carbonaceous sorbent. • The obtained tar contained maltenes (80–85 wt%) and asphaltenes (6–8 wt%). • Tar from co-pyrolysis can serve as heating oil or a source of maltenes for repairing of asphalt surfaces. • The hydrogen-rich gas was obtained (61–65 vol% H_2, 24–25 vol% CH_4, 1.4–2 vol% CO_2). - Abstract: The processing of waste tires with two different types of bituminous coal was studied through the slow co-pyrolysis of 1 kg of waste tire/coal mixtures with 15, 30 and 60 wt% waste tires on a laboratory scale. The waste tire/coal mixtures were pyrolysed using a quartz reactor in a stationary bed. The mixtures were heated at a rate 5 °C/min up to the final temperature of 900 °C with a soaking time of 30 min at the required temperature. The mass balance of the process and the properties of the coke and tar obtained were evaluated, further, the influence of the admixture in the charge on the amount and composition of the obtained coke and tar was determined. It was found that the smokeless fuel/carbonaceous sorbent and a high yield of tar for further use can be obtained through the slow co-pyrolysis. The obtained tars contained mostly maltenes (80–85 wt%). FTIR analysis showed that the maltenes from the co-pyrolysis of coal/waste tires exhibited significantly lower aromaticity as compared with that from coal alone. The gas obtained from pyrolysis or co-pyrolysis of waste tire/coal mixtures contained a high amount of hydrogen (above 60 vol%) and methane (above 20 vol%).

  9. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Analysis of oxy-fuel combustion power cycle utilizing a pressurized coal combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jongsup; Chaudhry, Gunaranjan; Brisson, J.G.; Field, Randall; Gazzino, Marco; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions have driven extensive research into new power generation cycles that enable carbon dioxide capture and sequestration. In this regard, oxy-fuel combustion is a promising new technology in which fuels are burned in an environment of oxygen and recycled combustion gases. In this paper, an oxy-fuel combustion power cycle that utilizes a pressurized coal combustor is analyzed. We show that this approach recovers more thermal energy from the flue gases because the elevated flue gas pressure raises the dew point and the available latent enthalpy in the flue gases. The high-pressure water-condensing flue gas thermal energy recovery system reduces steam bleeding which is typically used in conventional steam cycles and enables the cycle to achieve higher efficiency. The pressurized combustion process provides the purification and compression unit with a concentrated carbon dioxide stream. For the purpose of our analysis, a flue gas purification and compression process including de-SO x , de-NO x , and low temperature flash unit is examined. We compare a case in which the combustor operates at 1.1 bars with a base case in which the combustor operates at 10 bars. Results show nearly 3% point increase in the net efficiency for the latter case.

  11. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

    2003-07-25

    This is the first Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Ceramics GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, analysis of the coal, ash and mercury speciation data from the first test series was completed. Good agreement was shown between different methods of measuring mercury in the flue gas: Ontario Hydro, semi-continuous emission monitor (SCEM) and coal composition. There was a loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts, but not across the blank monolith. The blank monolith showed no oxidation. The data from the first test series show the same trend in mercury oxidation as a function of space velocity that has been seen elsewhere. At space velocities in the range of 6,000-7,000 hr{sup -1} the blank monolith did not show any mercury oxidation, with or without ammonia present. Two of the commercial catalysts clearly showed an effect of ammonia. Two other commercial catalysts showed an effect of ammonia, although the error bars for the no-ammonia case are large. A test plan was written for the second test series and is being reviewed.

  12. Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, M.J.; MacIntosh, D.L.; Williams, P.L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

    2004-06-15

    Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001. Each of the 5 facilities was divided into 5 similar exposure groups based on previous exposure assessments and job tasks performed. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 (about 18%) were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 (about 4%) were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. Heat stress monitoring at the facilities indicates that 26% of the 1-hour TWAs were exceeded for one or all of the recommended heat stress limits. The data also concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature. This suggests there is a potential for heat strain if signs and symptoms are ignored. Recommendations are made to better control the heat stress exposure.

  13. Health risks of nuclear and coal fuel cycles in electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayes, R.J.; Taylor, P.J.

    1984-12-01

    A report has been prepared by the Political Ecology Research Group in which the field of comparative risk assessment of electricity generation from nuclear and coal fuel cycles is critically reviewed. Section 2 gives an introduction to risk assessments and points out the limitations of the numerical assessments that are so widely quoted. Section 3 critically reviews the major study of the UK situation, the remaining minor British studies and two American studies. Section 4 examines in detail certain areas of controversy and significance that arise in the previous section. It relates the numerical values of risk derived in Section 3 to risks in other sectors of society. Section 5 considers the significance of these estimates of risk and the conclusions are presented in section 6. (U.K.)

  14. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system -- combustion development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    This topical report summarizes the combustor development work accomplished under the subject contract. The objective was to develop a combustion system for the Solar 4MW Type H Centaur gas turbine generator set which was to be used to demonstrate the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine in a 100 hour proof-of-concept test. This program started with a design configuration derived during the CSC program. The design went through the following evolution: CSC design which had some known shortcomings, redesigned CSC now designated as the Two Stage Slagging Combustor (TSSC), improved TSSC with the PRIS evaluated in the IBSTF, and full scale design. Supporting and complimentary activities included computer modelling, flow visualization, slag removal, SO{sub x} removal, fuel injector development and fuel properties evaluation. Three combustor rigs were utilized: the TSSC, the IBSTF and the full scale rig at Peoria. The TSSC rig, which was 1/10th scale of the proposed system, consisted of a primary and secondary zone and was used to develop the primary zone performance and to evaluate SO{sub x} and slag removal and fuel properties variations. The IBSTF rig which included all the components of the proposed system was also 1/10th scale except for the particulate removal system which was about 1/30th scale. This rig was used to verify combustor performance data obtained on the TSSC and to develop the PRIS and the particulate removal system. The full scale rig initially included the primary and secondary zones and was later modified to incorporate the PRIS. The purpose of the full scale testing was to verify the scale up calculations and to provide a combustion system for the proof-of-concept engine test that was initially planned in the program.

  15. Pd/activated carbon sorbents for mid-temperature capture of mercury from coal-derived fuel gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dekui; Han, Jieru; Han, Lina; Wang, Jiancheng; Chang, Liping

    2014-07-01

    Higher concentrations of Hg can be emitted from coal pyrolysis or gasification than from coal combustion, especially elemental Hg. Highly efficient Hg removal technology from coal-derived fuel gas is thus of great importance. Based on the very excellent Hg removal ability of Pd and the high adsorption abilities of activated carbon (AC) for H₂S and Hg, a series of Pd/AC sorbents was prepared by using pore volume impregnation, and their performance in capturing Hg and H₂S from coal-derived fuel gas was investigated using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. The effects of loading amount, reaction temperature and reaction atmosphere on Hg removal from coal-derived fuel gas were studied. The sorbents were characterized by N₂ adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the efficiency of Hg removal increased with the increasing of Pd loading amount, but the effective utilization rate of the active component Pd decreased significantly at the same time. High temperature had a negative influence on the Hg removal. The efficiency of Hg removal in the N₂-H₂S-H₂-CO-Hg atmosphere (simulated coal gas) was higher than that in N₂-H₂S-Hg and N₂-Hg atmospheres, which showed that H₂ and CO, with their reducing capacity, could benefit promote the removal of Hg. The XPS results suggested that there were two different ways of capturing Hg over sorbents in N₂-H₂S-Hg and N₂-Hg atmospheres. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Synchronized droplet size measurements for Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, K. D.; Terracina, D. P.; Payne, S. E.; Caton, J. A.

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMD's near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 (mu)m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

  17. The True Cost of Coal. How people and the planet are paying the price for the world's dirtiest fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjureby, Erika; Britten, Mareike; Cheng, Irish; Kazmierska, Marta; Mezak, Ernest; Munnik, Victor; Nandi, Jayashree; Pennington, Sara; Rochon, Emily; Schulz, Nina; Shahab, Nabiha; Vincent, Julien; Wei, Meng; Short, Rebecca

    2009-09-01

    Traditionally considered the cheapest fuel around, the market price for coal ignores its most significant impacts. These so-called 'external costs' manifests themselves as damages such as respiratory diseases, mining accidents, acid rain, smog pollution, reduced agricultural yields and climate change. The harm caused by mining and burning coal is not reflected in its price per ton or its costs for a kWh of electricity, but the world at large is nevertheless paying for it. This report seeks to answer the question: just how much are we paying?

  18. Life cycle assessment ultra-clean micronized coal-water-oil fuel preparation and its usage in diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, X.; Wang, Z.; Novelli, G.; Benedetti, B. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2005-08-15

    The study described the preparation of ultra-clean micronized coal-water-oil fuel (UCMWOF) and its usage in diesel engine. The production and usage of UCMCWOF and diesel oil, on a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) basis, were evaluated. A comparison between the two systems shows that beside reducing of photochemical ozone creation potential and rest indicators in UCMCWOF increase. This predicates that the system of UCMCWOF is characterized by high global environmental impact, but its local impacts are lower if compared with the use of diesel and traditional coal. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Synthetic liquid fuels development: assessment of critical factors. Volume III. Coal resource depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, E.M.; Yabroff, I.W.; Kroll, C.A.; White, R.K.; Walton, B.L.; Ivory, M.E.; Fullen, R.E.; Weisbecker, L.W.; Hays, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    While US coal resources are known to be vast, their rate of depletion in a future based predominantly on coal has not been examined analytically heretofore. The Coal Depletion Model inventories the coal resource on a regional basis and calculates the cost of coal extraction by three technologies - strip and underground mining and in-situ combustion. A plausible coal demand scenario extending from 1975 to the year 2050 is used as a basis in applying the model. In the year 2050, plants in operation include 285 syncrude plants, each producing 100,000 B/D; 312 SNG plants, each producing 250 million SCF/D and 722 coal-fired electric power plants, each of 1000 MW capacity. In addition, there is 890 million tons per year of industrial coal consumption. Such a high level of coal use would deplete US coal resources much more rapidly than most people appreciate. Of course, the actual amount of US coal is unknown, and if the coal in the hypothetical reliability category is included, depletion is delayed. Coal in this category, however, has not been mapped; it is only presumed to exist on the basis of geological theory. The coal resource depletion model shows that unilateral imposition of a severance tax by a state tends to shift production to other coal producing regions. Boom and bust cycles are both delayed and reduced in their magnitude. When several states simultaneously impose severance taxes, the effect of each is weakened.Key policy issues that emerge from this analysis concern the need to reduce the uncertainty of the magnitude and geographic distribution of the US coal resource and the need to stimulate interaction among the parties at interest to work out equitable and acceptable coal conversion plant location strategies capable of coping with the challenges of a high-coal future.

  20. Evaluation of 450-MWe BGL GCC power plants fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechtl, P.A.; Chen, T.P.; Thompson, B.H.; Greil, C.F.; Niermann, S.E.; Jandrisevits, M.

    1992-11-01

    In this study, a conceptual design and cost estimate were developed for a nominal 450 MW integrated gasification combined cycle plant using the British Gas/Lurgi slagging gasification process. The present study is a design update of a previous study (EPRI Report AP-6011). The major design improvements incorporated include use of the latest GE 7F gas turbine rating, integrating the air separation plant with gas turbine, use of fuel gas saturation for NO x control, use of treated gasifier waste water as makeup water for the fuel gas saturation, and several process changes in the acid gas removal and sulfur recovery areas. Alternate design options for feeding the excess coal fines to the gasifier, treating the gasifier waste water, and the use of conventional air separation without integration with gas turbine were evaluated. The design improvements incorporated were found to increase significantly the overall plant efficiency and reduce the cost reported in the previous study. The various design options evaluated were found to have significant impacts on the plant efficiency but negligible impacts on the cost of electricity

  1. Coal-based oxy-fuel system evaluation and combustor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacAdam, S.; Biebuyck, C.; Anderson, R.; Pronske, K. [Clean Energy Systems Inc., Rancho Cordova, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The core of the Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) process is an oxy-combustor adapted from rocket engine technology. This combustor burns gaseous or liquid fuels with gaseous oxygen in the presence of water. Fuels include syngas from coal, refinery residues, or biomass; natural gas; landfill gas; glycoal solutions and oil/water emulsions. The combustion is performed at near-stoichiometric conditions in the presence of recycled water to produce a steam/CO{sub 2} mixture at high temperature and pressure. These combustion products power conventional or advanced steam turbines and may use modified gas turbines operating at high-temperatures for expansion at intermediate pressures. The gas exiting the turbines enter a condenser/separator where it is cooled, separating into its components, water and CO{sub 2}. The recovered CO{sub 2} is conditioned and purified as appropriate and sold or sequestered. Most of the water is recycled to the gas generator but excess high-purity water is produced and available for export. The development, evaluation and demonstration of the CES combustor are described. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. The Swedish Ash Programme 2002-2008. Biomass, wastes, peat - any solid fuel but coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik; Herbert, Roger

    2009-07-15

    In Sweden, producers of combustion residues have since 2002 implemented a collaborative applied RandD programme aimed at the utilisation of combustion residues (ash). The fuels are biomass, wastes, peat - any solid fuel but coal. In this report, the main lines of the programme are described: Covers for landfills and mine tailings; Civil works, e.g. road-buildings, where both geotechnical and environmental questions have been addressed; Cement and concrete applications; Compensating soils for removing biomass and the mineral nutrients in the biomass. The emphasis of the Programme is on environmental questions, even if technical questions have been treated. The time perspective in this context is much longer than the 3-5 years that are usual in an applied RandD programme, i.e. decades after ash has been placed on a site, e.g. in a road, or spread to forest soil. New test fields have been created in the programme and old test fields have been evaluated in order to gather available information

  3. Assessment of the external costs of the coal fuel cycle and the wind energy cycle in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, P.; Montes, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1995-09-01

    This study is part of the ExternE Project, a joint effort of the European Commission and the US Dept. of Energy to assess the externalities of different fuel cycles, and quantify them in monetary terms, as kWh price adders. For Spain, this assessment has been carried out for a coal plant hypothetically sited in Valdecaballeros, in Southwestern Spain, and for an existing farm in Cabo Villano, in the Northwestern corner. In this first stage, only environmental externalities have been assessed. The first section contains a description of the methodology used in the European project, based mostly on a damage function approach, and its adaptation to Spanish conditions. In the last section, this methodology has been applied to the fuel cycles mentioned. The impacts assessed have been, for the coal fuel cycle, health effects, agricultural and forest production losses, and global warming. For wind energy, the main impacts considered have been noise, loss of visual amenity, accidents and global warning. The results obtained can only be considered as underestimates, as there are still impacts that have not been assessed or quantified, specially for the coal fuel cycle. Thus, further research is needed for a complete assessment

  4. Modeling electrochemical resistance with coal surface properties in a direct carbon fuel cell based on molten carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Seongyong; Ahn, Seongyool; Kang, Kijoong; Choi, Gyungmin

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a numerical model of activation and ohmic polarization is modified, taking into account the correlation function between surface properties and inner resistance. To investigate the correlation function, the surface properties of coal are changed by acid treatment, and the correlations between the inner resistance measured by half-cell tests and the surface characteristics are analyzed. A comparison between the model and experimental results demonstrates that the absolute average deviations for each fuel are less than 10%. The numerical results show that the sensitivities of the coal surface properties affecting polarization losses change depending on the operating temperature. The surface oxygen concentrations affect the activation polarization and the sensitivity decreased with increasing temperature. The surface ash of coal is an additional index to be considered along with ohmic polarization and it has the greatest effect on the surface properties at 973 K.

  5. Post-test analysis of 20kW molten carbonate fuel cell stack operated on coal gas. Final report, August 1993--February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A 20kW carbonate fuel cell stack was operated with coal gas for the first time in the world. The stack was tested for a total of 4,000 hours, of which 3,900 hours of testing was conducted at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Incorporated, Plaquemine, Louisiana outdoor site. The operation was on either natural gas or coal gas and switched several times without any effects, demonstrating duel fuel capabilities. This test was conducted with 9142 kJ/m{sup 3} (245 Btu/cft) coal gas provided by a slipstream from Destec`s entrained flow, slagging, slurry-fed gasifier equipped with a cold gas cleanup subsystem. The stack generated up to 21 kW with this coal gas. Following completion of this test, the stack was brought to Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and a detailed post-test analysis was conducted to identify any effects of coal gas on cell components. This investigation has shown that the direct fuel cell (DFC) can be operated with properly cleaned and humidified coal-as, providing stable performance. The basic C direct fuel cell component materials are stable and display normal stability in presence of the coal gas. No effects of the coal-borne contaminants are apparent. Further cell testing at ERC 1 17, confirmed these findings.

  6. Improved coal grinding and fuel flow control in thermal power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemczyk, Piotr; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    A novel controller for coal circulation and pulverized coal flow in a coal mill is proposed. The design is based on optimal control theory for bilinear systems with additional integral action. The states are estimated from the grinding power consumption and the amount of coal accumulated in the m......A novel controller for coal circulation and pulverized coal flow in a coal mill is proposed. The design is based on optimal control theory for bilinear systems with additional integral action. The states are estimated from the grinding power consumption and the amount of coal accumulated...... as well as when parameter uncertainties and noise are present. The proposed controller lowers the grinding power consumption while in most cases exhibiting superior performance in comparison with the PID controller....

  7. An economic study for the co-generation of liquid fuel and hydrogen from coal and municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, A.; El-Halwagi, M.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of a new process for co-liquefying coal and plastic wastes. This assessment is based on incorporating recent experimental data on plastic/coal liquefaction within a conceptual process framework. A preliminary design was developed for two process configurations. The primary difference between the configurations is the source of hydrogen (coal versus cellulosic waste). The assessment was based on co-liquefying 720 tons per day of plastic waste with an equivalent amount of coal on a weight basis. The plant products include hydrocarbon gases, naphtha, jet fuel and diesel fuel. Material and energy balances along with plant-wide simulation were conducted for the process. Furthermore, the data on plastic-waste availability, disposal and economics have been compiled. The results from the economic analysis identify profitability criteria for gross profit and thus return on investment based on variable conversion, yield and tipping fee for plastic waste processed. 11 refs., 6 figs

  8. Coal atlas. Data and facts about a global fuel; Kohleatlas. Daten und Fakten ueber einen globalen Brennstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Germany is world champion. In the production of lignite. But not only the brown coal, the coal leaves traces to. A quarter of German greenhouse gas emissions are discharged from the 30 largest coal-fired plants. But with its hunger for coal Germany neither in Europe nor in the world ist not alone. The governments of the 20 largest industrial countries subsidize the search for new fossil fuels each year with many billion dollars, although these projects have no future. In addition, there is the partly dramatic damage to the air, on the environment and on humans. Above all reports the Coal Atlas. It is published at a time, in which in Germany is an intense debate in progress about the future of this energy sector. In fact, it comes to the phasing out of coal for generating elektricity. The coal Atlas shows in understandable texts with illustrative graphics: This is technically possible and necessary. [German] Deutschland ist Weltmeister. Bei der Foerderung von Braunkohle. Aber nicht nur die Braunkohle, auch die Steinkohle hinterlaesst Spuren. Ein Viertel der deutschen Treibhausgase stossen die 30 groessten Kohlekraftwerke aus. Doch mit seinem Kohlehunger steht Deutschland weder in Europa noch in der Welt alleine da. Die Regierungen der 20 groessten Industriestaaten subventionieren die Suche nach neuen fossilen Rohstoffen jaehrlich mit vielen Milliarden US-Dollar, obwohl diese Projekte keine Zukunft haben. Hinzu kommen die teilweise dramatischen Schaeden am Klima, an der Umwelt und am Menschen. Von all dem berichtet der Kohleatlas. Er erscheint zu einer Zeit, in der gerade in Deutschland eine intensive Diskussion um die Zukunft des Energiesektors in Gange ist. Tatsaechlich geht es um den schrittweisen Ausstieg aus der Kohleverstromung. Der Kohleatlas zeigt in verstaendlichen Texten mit anschaulichen Grafiken: Das ist ist technisch moeglich und noetig.

  9. Effect of fuel origin on synergy during co-gasification of biomass and coal in CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Yan; Yang, Mingjun; Song, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fuel origin on synergy in coal/biomass blends during co-gasification has been assessed using a congruent-mass thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) method. Results revealed that synergy occurs when ash residuals are formed, followed by an almost complete gasification of biomass. Potassium species in biomass ash play a catalytic role in promoting gasification reactivity of coal char, which is a direct consequence of synergy during co-gasification. The SEM-EDS spectra provided conclusive evidence that the transfer of potassium from biomass to the surface of coal char occurs during co-pyrolysis/gasification. Biomass ash rich in silica eliminated synergy in coal/biomass blends but not to the extent of inhibiting the reaction rate of the blended chars to make it slower than that of separated ones. The best result in terms of synergy was concluded to be the combination of low-ash coal and K-rich biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The comparative analysis of heat transfer efficiency in the conditions of formation of ash deposits in the boiler furnaces, with taking into account the crystallization of slag during combustion of coal and water-coal fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomatov, V. V.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Syrodoy, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the numerical simulation of heat transfer from the combustion products of coal and coal-water fuels (CWF) to the internal environment. The mathematical simulation has been carried out on the sample of the pipe surfaces of the combustion chamber of the boiler unit. The change in the characteristics of heat transfer (change of thermochemical characteristics) in the conditions of formation of the ash deposits have been taken into account. According to the results of the numerical simulation, the comparative analysis of the efficiency of heat transfer has been carried out from the furnace environment to the inside pipe coolant (water, air, or water vapor) from the combustion of coal and coal-water fuels. It has been established that, in the initial period of the boiler unit operation during coal fuel combustion the efficiency of heat transfer from the combustion products of the internal environment is higher than when using CWF. The efficiency of heat transfer in CWF combustion conditions is more at large times (τ≥1.5 hours) of the boiler unit. A significant decrease in heat flux from the combustion products to the inside pipe coolant in the case of coal combustion compared to CWF has been found. It has been proved that this is due primarily to the fact that massive and strong ash deposits are formed during coal combustion.

  11. Co-pyrolysis of waste tire/coal mixtures for smokeless fuel, maltenes and hydrogen-rich gas production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Olga; Straka, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 116, MAY 15 (2016), s. 203-213 ISSN 0196-8904 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21538 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : waste tires * coal * co-pyrolysis * smokeless fuel * tar * hydrogen -rich gas Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 5.589, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890416300991

  12. Co-combustion of pulverized coal and solid recovered fuel in an entrained flow reactor- General combustion and ash behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    .9 wt.%, 14.8 wt.% and 25 wt.%, respectively. The effect of additives was evaluated by maintaining the share of secondary fuel (mixture of SRF and additive) at 14.8 wt.%. The experimental results showed that the fuel burnout, NO and SO2 emission in co-combustion of coal and SRF were decreased...... with increasing share of SRF. The majority of the additives inhibited the burnout, except for NaCl which seemed to have a promoting effect. The impact of additives on NO emission was mostly insignificant, except for ammonium sulphate which greatly reduced the NO emission. For SO2 emission, it was found that all...

  13. Energy and emission aspects of co-combustion solid recovered fuel with coal in a stoker boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewski, Ryszard; Głód, Krzysztof; Telenga-Kopyczyńska, Jolanta

    2018-01-01

    The results of industrial research on co-combustion of solid recovered fuel (SRF) with hard coal in a stoker boiler type WR-25 has been presented. The share of SRF in the fuel mixture was 10%. During the co-combustion of SRF, no technological disturbances or significant reduction in energy efficiency of the boiler were noted. Obtained SO2, NOx and CO emissions were comparable with coal combustion but dust emissions increased. During combustion of the coal mixture with a 10% share of SRF in the test boiler WR-25, the emission standards established for the combustion of the dedicated fuel were met. However, comparison of obtained emission results with the emission standards established for co-incineration of waste, revealed the exceedance of permissible levels of HCl, dust, heavy metals, dioxins and furans. Additionally, the residence time of flue gases in over 850°C conditions for the test boiler WR-25 was too short (1.3 seconds) in refer to the legislative requirements (2 seconds) for the thermal conversion of waste.

  14. Energy and emission aspects of co-combustion solid recovered fuel with coal in a stoker boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasielewski Ryszard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of industrial research on co-combustion of solid recovered fuel (SRF with hard coal in a stoker boiler type WR-25 has been presented. The share of SRF in the fuel mixture was 10%. During the co-combustion of SRF, no technological disturbances or significant reduction in energy efficiency of the boiler were noted. Obtained SO2, NOx and CO emissions were comparable with coal combustion but dust emissions increased. During combustion of the coal mixture with a 10% share of SRF in the test boiler WR-25, the emission standards established for the combustion of the dedicated fuel were met. However, comparison of obtained emission results with the emission standards established for co-incineration of waste, revealed the exceedance of permissible levels of HCl, dust, heavy metals, dioxins and furans. Additionally, the residence time of flue gases in over 850°C conditions for the test boiler WR-25 was too short (1.3 seconds in refer to the legislative requirements (2 seconds for the thermal conversion of waste.

  15. Effects of coal-derived trace species on the performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Topical report on thermochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A.

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of the present study was to determine in detail the interaction effects of 10 simultaneously present, coal-gas contaminants, both on each other and on components of the Carbonate Fuel Cell. The primary goal was to assess underlying chemistries and reaction mechanisms which may cause decay in fuel cell performance or endurance as a result of both physics-chemical and/or mechanical interactions with the cell components and internal fuel cell parts. It was found, both from theory and cell test evidence, that trace contaminant interactions may occur with: Fuel-cell Electrodes (e.g., in this study with the Ni-anode), Lithium/Potassium Carbonate Electrolyte, Nickel and SS-Hardware, and by Mechanical Obstruction of Gas Flow in the Anode Plenum.

  16. Conversion of coal-fired bottom ash to fuel and construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Huseyin; Aksoy, Derya Oz; Ucar, Reyhan; Koca, Sabiha

    2017-07-01

    In this study, solid wastes taken from Seyitomer coal-fired power plant bottom ashes were subjected to experimental research to obtain a carbon-rich fraction. The possible recycling opportunities of remaining inorganic fraction in the cement and concrete industry was also investigated. Flotation technique was used to separate unburned carbon from inorganic bottom ashes. Collector type, collector, dispersant and frother amounts, and pulp density are the most important variables in the flotation technique. A number of flotation collectors were tested in the experiments including new era flotation reactives. Optimum collector, dispersant and frother dosages as well as optimum pulp density were also determined. After experimental work, an inorganic fraction was obtained, which included 5.41% unburned carbon with 81.56% weight yield. These properties meets the industrial specifications for the cement and concrete industry. The carbon content of the concentrate fraction, obtained in the same experiment, was enhanced to 49.82%. This fraction accounts for 18.44% of the total amount and can be mixed to the power plant fuel. Therefore total amount of the solid waste can possibly be recycled according to experimental results.

  17. Potential of using stable nitrogen isotope ratio measurements to resolve fuel and thermal NOx in coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenggong Sun; Janos Lakatos; Colin E. Snape; Tony Fallick [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering (SChEME)

    2003-07-01

    In order to examine the potential of applying isotopic analysis to apportion NOx formation from different mechanisms, stable nitrogen isotope ratio measurements have been conducted on a number of thermal/prompt (diesel) and actual (coal) PF NO samples generated from a 1MW test facility at Powergen (UK), together with measurements on a range of pyrolysis and combustion chars obtained from a drop-tube reactor. A highly effective nitrogen-free sorbent, derived from white sugar with Mn as promoter, has been developed using an innovative procedure. This adsorbent has facilitated, for the first time, the determination of {delta}{sup 15}N values without background corrections. The isotopic data indicate that the thermal/prompt NOx collected during start-up with diesel as fuel has a {delta}{sup 15}N of close to 6.5(per thousand) compared to +15(per thousand) for the actual PF sample analysed. Thus, differences of up to ca. 20(per thousand) have been found to exist between thermal and PF fuel (char) NOx isotopic values. This augurs very well for the further development of the approach in order to help quantify the extent of thermal/prompt NOx formation in PF combustion. Measurements on chars have indicated that the extent of isotopic fractionation that occurs between coal-N and NOx from char is related to the reactivity of coals. Further, it would appear that much of the isotopic fractionation that occurs between coal nitrogen and fuel NO arises in the formation of char, although further fractionation can be inferred to occur during char combustion. In contrast, a lesser degree of isotopic fractionation is associated with the formation of thermal NO (ca. 6(per thousand)), atmospheric nitrogen having a value of 0(per thousand). 4 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Fuel prices, emission standards, and generation costs for coal vs natural gas power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratson, Lincoln F; Haerer, Drew; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2013-05-07

    Low natural gas prices and stricter, federal emission regulations are promoting a shift away from coal power plants and toward natural gas plants as the lowest-cost means of generating electricity in the United States. By estimating the cost of electricity generation (COE) for 304 coal and 358 natural gas plants, we show that the economic viability of 9% of current coal capacity is challenged by low natural gas prices, while another 56% would be challenged by the stricter emission regulations. Under the current regulations, coal plants would again become the dominant least-cost generation option should the ratio of average natural gas to coal prices (NG2CP) rise to 1.8 (it was 1.42 in February 2012). If the more stringent emission standards are enforced, however, natural gas plants would remain cost competitive with a majority of coal plants for NG2CPs up to 4.3.

  19. Fuel production from microwave assisted pyrolysis of coal with carbon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, Faisal; Mat, Ramli; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MW heating of coal was carried out with uniformly distributed carbon surfaces. • The effects of carbon loading, MW power and N 2 flow rate were investigated. • Heating profile, pyrolysis products are influenced by the process variables. • Highest coal-tar obtained when final temperature sustained for longer duration. • Coal-tar is mainly composed of aromatics and saturated aliphatics hydrocarbons. - Abstract: In this study, coal solids were subjected to Microwave (MW) pyrolysis conditions. Coconut Activated Carbon (CAC) solids used as a MW absorber was distributed uniformly over coal solids to reduce hotspots. Three process parameters; CAC loading, MW power and N 2 flow rate were studies on pyrolysis heating performance. The highest coal-tar yield of 18.59 wt% was obtained with 600 W, 75 wt% CAC loading and 4 Liter per Minute (LPM) of N 2 flow rate. This improved coal-tar yield is mainly of the fact that higher MW power and CAC loading produced sustained pyrolysis conditions for longer duration for the complete conversion of pyrolysis solids. The coal-tar was composed mainly of aromatics (naphthalenes, benzenes and xylene) and saturated aliphatics (alkanes and alkenes) hydrocarbons. The gas produced from pyrolysis of coal is mainly of H 2 40.23–65.22 vol%.

  20. The increase of the efficiency for comprehensive utilization of the fuel and energetic resources (The use coal enterprises of Kazakhstan as example)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satova, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    In Kazakhstan during the period of transition to the market economy in the condition of reduction of coal production and increasing expenditures in coal branch, the problem of of the rational utilization of coal resources becomes the most vital issue. In the thesis theoretical and methodological aspects of socio-economic efficiency of utilization of the fuel and energetic resources are investigated. Different fields of usage of coal and coal wastes are studied, economic evaluation of mechanic and thermo-chemical methods of producing coal in process of bringing resources saving technologies; the national efficiency of using products in the quantity of technological raw and energetic fuel is brought out; the influence refining for the widening of the raw-base of industry, promoting the economic results of production and the lowering environmental pollution. It was estimated that the extracted coal of the region includes 1020 thousand tonne of aluminium oxide and 996 thousand tonne of sulphur; in the course of extracting and coal processing 3650 thousand tonne of firm wastes appeared; during the extracting of Ehkibastuz coal - 90970 thousand tonne, and the Karaganda coal - 40040 thousand tonne.The coal components and wastes mentioned above should be considered not only as source of environment pollution but also as potential resource for the production of industrial goods according to their qualitative characteristics and the availability of technical ideas of the processing. The implementation of the mentioned pre-sup-positions in the conditions of the forming market economy will allow to use the organic part of coal more competently, to involve the other useful components of coal in the sphere of production consumption, to utilize gaseous and firm wastes and to gain of the basis the expansion of resource base of same branches of industry and the reduction of environment pollution. It will be also accompanied by the needs in capital investments for the industrial

  1. Coal contract cost reduction through resale of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.

    1990-01-01

    The weak coal market of the 1980's has enabled utilities and other users of coal to enjoy stable or falling prices for coal supplies. Falling prices for coal stimulated the renegotiation of numerous coal contracts in recent years, as buyers look to take advantage of lower fuel prices available in the marketplace. This paper examines the use of coal resale transactions as a means of reducing fuel costs, and analyzes the benefits and risks associated with such transactions

  2. Pelletised fuel production from coal tailings and spent mushroom compost - Part II. Economic feasibility based on cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Changkook; Khor, Adela; Sharifi, Vida N.; Swithenbank, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Due to the growing market for sustainable energy, in order to increase the quality of the fuels, pellets are being produced from various materials such as wood and other biomass energy crops, and municipal waste. This paper presents the results from an economic feasibility study for pellet production using blends of two residue materials: coal tailings from coal cleaning and spent mushroom compost (SMC) from mushroom production. Key variables such as the mixture composition, raw material haulage and plant scale were considered and the production costs were compared to coal and biomass energy prices. For both wet materials, the moisture content was the critical parameter that influenced the fuel energy costs. The haulage distance of the raw materials was another factor that can pose a high risk. The results showed that the pellet production from the above two materials can be viable when a less energy-intensive drying process is utilised. Potential market outlets and ways to lower the costs are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  3. Use of pyrolysis gas from coal as reburn fuel. Final report; Einsatz von kohlestaemmigem Pyrolysegas als Reduktionsbrennstoff. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greul, U.; Magel, C.; Moersch, O.; Ruediger, H.; Storm, C.; Schnell, U.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G.

    1996-12-31

    The research project`s aim was to reduce nitrogen emissions from pulverized-coal furnaces by fuel staging with pyrolysis gas from coal. The test fuels were 6 German and Australian coals. The aim achieved has been the statement that the described method is an adequate means to attain to and remain below emission values of 200 mg/m{sup 3}. The method of fuel staging using coal-original gases was investigated with tests focussing the most important process parameters such as coal type, devolatilization ratio, temperature, residence time, and stoichiometry. The relevant features determined with an entrained flow reactor and with a fluidized-bed reactor were the impact of devolatilization temperatures on carbonized residue and pyrolysis products, the distribution of fuel nitrogen, and the quality of gas and tar, including the respective effects on NO{sub x} formation and reduction in staged combustion. The validation of the mathematical model was done with the experimentally obtained data. The criteria considered fundamental for achieving the NO{sub x} reduction level are temperature, air ratio, and residence time in the reduction zone of the furnace. The pyrolysis tests manifested the strong influence of the coal type and the devolatilization conditions on the composition of the gases and the attainable NO{sub x} reduction. The tars in the pyrolysis gases, with their nitrogen compounds, improve the reducing effect of available nitrogen oxides. By using pyrolysis gases from coal as reburning fuel, NO{sub x} emissions of less than 200 mg/m{sup 3} can be obtained at air ratios around 0.95. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Das Forschungsprojekt verfolgte das Ziel mit 6 deutschen und australischen Kohlen die Stickoxidemissionen aus Kohlestaubfeuerungen durch Brennstoffstufung mit Pyrolysegas als Reduktionsbrennstoff zu verringern. Das erreichte Ziel war der Nachweis, dass mit dem beschriebenen Verfahren NO{sub x}-Emissionswerte von 200 mg/m{sup 3} erreicht und unterschritten werden

  4. Preparation, Characterization, and Activation of Co-Mo/Y Zeolite Catalyst for Coal Tar Conversion to Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Dwi Anggoro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of many efforts to convert coal tar into alternative liquid fuel is by hydrocracking. This research aims to determine the impregnation of Co-Mo/Y zeolite, its characteristics, the effect of impregnation temperature and time, and also the best Co-Mo/Y zeolite impregnation condition for the conversion of coal tar. This research was conducted in several steps, impregnating Co from Co(NO32.6H2O and Mo from (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O into Zeolite Y in liquid media, drying at 100 °C for 24 hours, and calcination at 550 °C for 3 hours. Coal tar was then reacted with hydrogen gas (as a reactant, and Co-Mo/Zeolite Y (as a catalyst was conducted at 350 °C. Characteristic analysis showed that Co and Mo had impregnated into the Y zeolite, as well as it made no change of catalyst’s structure and increased the total acidity. The higher of impregnation temperature was increased the catalyst crystallinity, total acidity, and yield of gasoline. The longer impregnation time was reduced crystallinity value, but total acidity and yield were increased. GC analysis showed that products included into the gasoline product (C8, C9, and C10. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 13rd November 2016; Revised: 12nd February 2017; Accepted: 16th February 2017 How to Cite: Anggoro, D.D., Buchori, L., Silaen, G.C., Utami, R.N. (2017. Preparation, Characterization, and Activation of Co-Mo/Y Zeolite Catalyst for Coal Tar Conversion to Liquid Fuel. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2: 219-226 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.768.219-226 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.2.768.219-226

  5. The comparison of source contributions from residential coal and low-smoke fuels, using CMB modeling in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrech, J.P.; Swanepoel, L.; Chow, J.C.; Watson, J.G.; Egami, R.T. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (USA)

    2002-04-01

    D-grade residential coal is being widely used for heating and cooking by most of the lower-income urban communities in South Africa. The adverse health effects resulting from exposure to residential coal combustion emissions have been a major public concern for many years. The Department of Minerals and Energy of South Africa conducted a macro-scale experiment in the township of Qalabotjha during the winter of 1997 to assess the technical and social benefits of combusting low-smoke fuels. This paper reports the PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} chemical mass-balance (CMB) source apportionment results from Qalabotjha during a 30-day sampling period, including a 10-day period when a large proportion of low-smoke fuels was burnt. Residential coal combustion was found to be the greatest source of air pollution, accounting for 62.1% of PM{sub 2.5} and 42.6% of PM{sub 10} at the three Qalabotjha sites. Biomass burning is also a major source, accounting for 13.8% of PM{sub 2.5} and 19.9% of PM{sub 10}. Fugitive dust is only significant in the coarse particle fraction, accounting for 11.3% of PM{sub 10}. Contributions from secondary ammonium sulfate are three-four times greater than from ammonium nitrate, accounting for 5-6% of PM mass. Minor contributions were found for power plant fly ash, motor vehicle exhaust, and agricultural lime. Average PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} mass decreased by 20 and 25%, respectively, from the D-grade coal combustion period (days 1-10) to the majority of the low-smoke fuel period (days 11-20). Relative source contribution estimates were similar among the three sampling periods for PM{sub 2.5}, and were quite different for PM{sub 10} during the second period when 14% higher residential coal combustion and 9% lower biomass burning source contributions were found.

  6. Coal yearbook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

  7. Thermal coal utilization for the ESCAP region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A selection of papers is presented originating from talks to coal utilization workshops for the ASEAN region in 1981. The papers cover: planning aspects - economic and technical aspects of coal usage, long term planning for fuel coal needs, planning and coal selection for coal-fired power plants, coal availability and marketing, and economic aspects of coal usage in developing countries; combustion and plant - changing from coal to oil, principles and problems of coal combustion, use of indigenous and imported coals and their effects on plant design, coal pulverizing mills, ash and dust disposal, environmental aspects of coal combustion, industrial sized coal-fired boilers; transport and storage -ocean shipment, coal receival facilities and associated operations, shipping and rail transport, coal handling and transport, environmental issue in the transport and handling of coal, coal preparation and blending; testing and properties - coal types, characterization properties and classification; training power plant operators; the cement industry and coal, the Australian black coal industry.

  8. Fossil fuel-fired power generation. Case studies of recently constructed coal- and gas-fired plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-23

    To meet future energy demand growth and replace older or inefficient units, a large number of fossil fuel-fired plants will be required to be built worldwide in the next decade. Yet CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fired power generation are a major contributor to climate change. As a result, new plants must be designed and operated at highest efficiency both to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to facilitate deployment of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in the future. The series of case studies in this report, which respond to a request to the IEA from the G8 Summit in July 2005, were conducted to illustrate what efficiency is achieved now in modern plants in different parts of the world using different grades of fossil fuels. The plants were selected from different geographical areas, because local factors influence attainable efficiency. The case studies include pulverized coal combustion (PCC) with both subcritical and supercritical (very high pressure and temperature) steam turbine cycles, a review of current and future applications of coal-fuelled integrated gasification combined cycle plants (IGCC), and a case study of a natural gas fired combined cycle plant to facilitate comparisons. The results of these analyses show that the technologies for high efficiency (low CO{sub 2} emission) and very low conventional pollutant emissions (particulates, SO{sub 2}, NOx) from fossil fuel-fired power generation are available now through PCC, IGCC or NGCC at commercially acceptable cost. This report contains comprehensive technical and indicative cost information for modern fossil fuel-fired plants that was previously unavailable. It serves as a valuable sourcebook for policy makers and technical decision makers contemplating decisions to build new fossil fuel-fired power generation plants.

  9. Design Concepts for Co-Production of Power, Fuels & Chemicals Via Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, A. D.; Chen, Q.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of the program is to develop design concepts, incorporating advanced technologies in areas such as oxygen production, feed systems, gas cleanup, component separations and gas turbines, for integrated and economically viable coal and biomass fed gasification facilities equipped with carbon capture and storage for the following scenarios: (i) coproduction of power along with hydrogen, (ii) coproduction of power along with fuels, (iii) coproduction of power along with petrochemicals, and (iv) coproduction of power along with agricultural chemicals. To achieve this goal, specifically the following objectives are met in this proposed project: (i) identify advanced technology options and innovative preliminary design concepts that synergistically integrate plant subsections, (ii) develop steady state system simulations to predict plant efficiency and environmental signature, (iii) develop plant cost estimates by capacity factoring major subsystems or by major equipment items where required, and then capital, operating and maintenance cost estimates, and (iv) perform techno- economic analyses for the above described coproduction facilities. Thermal efficiencies for the electricity only cases with 90% carbon capture are 38.26% and 36.76% (HHV basis) with the bituminous and the lignite feedstocks respectively. For the coproduction cases (where 50% of the energy exported is in the form of electricity), the electrical efficiency, as expected, is highest for the hydrogen coproduction cases while lowest for the higher alcohols (ethanol) coproduction cases. The electrical efficiencies for Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases are slightly higher than those for the methanol coproduction cases but it should be noted that the methanol (as well as the higher alcohol) coproduction cases produce the finished coproduct while the Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases produce a coproduct that requires further processing in a refinery. The cross comparison of the thermal

  10. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  11. DESIGNING AND OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-06-01

    During the period July 1, 2000-March 31, 2004, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) conducted an extensive demonstration of woody biomass cofiring at its Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. This demonstration, cofunded by USDOE and Allegheny, and supported by the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of EPRI, evaluated the impacts of sawdust cofiring in both cyclone boilers and tangentially-fired pulverized coal boilers. The cofiring in the cyclone boiler--Willow Island Generating Station Unit No.2--evaluated the impacts of sawdust alone, and sawdust blended with tire-derived fuel. The biomass was blended with the coal on its way to the combustion system. The cofiring in the pulverized coal boiler--Albright Generating Station--evaluated the impact of cofiring on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) when the sawdust was injected separately into the furnace. The demonstration of woody biomass cofiring involved design, construction, and testing at each site. The results addressed impacts associated with operational issues--capacity, efficiency, and operability--as well as formation and control of airborne emissions such as NO{sub x}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}2), opacity, and mercury. The results of this extensive program are detailed in this report.

  12. Ultravitrinite coals from Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapo, A.V.; Letushova, I.A.

    1979-03-01

    Chemical and petrographic analysis was conducted on coals from the Anadyrya and Bukhti Ugol'noi deposits. Characteristics of the most prevalent type of vitrinite coals in both regions are presented here. Anadyrya coals belong to a transitional phase between brown coal and long flame. Ultravitrinite coals predominate. Gas coals from Bukti Ugol'noi have a higher carbon content than Anadyrya coals. They also have a higher hydrogen content and yield of initial resin. In several cases there was also a higher yield of volatile substances. Chukotka coals are characterized by a 10 percent higher initial resin yield than equally coalified Donetsk coals, other indicators were equal to those of Donetsk coals. Because of this, Chukotka coals are suitable for fuel in power plants and as raw materials in the chemical industry. (15 refs.) (In Russian)

  13. Co-Firing Oil Shale with Coal and Other Fuels for Improved Efficiency and Multi-Pollutant Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Carrington; William C. Hecker; Reed Clayson

    2008-06-01

    Oil shale is an abundant, undeveloped natural resource which has natural sorbent properties, and its ash has natural cementitious properties. Oil shale may be blended with coal, biomass, municipal wastes, waste tires, or other waste feedstock materials to provide the joint benefit of adding energy content while adsorbing and removing sulfur, halides, and volatile metal pollutants, and while also reducing nitrogen oxide pollutants. Oil shale depolymerization-pyrolysis-devolatilization and sorption scoping studies indicate oil shale particle sorption rates and sorption capacity can be comparable to limestone sorbents for capture of SO2 and SO3. Additionally, kerogen released from the shale was shown to have the potential to reduce NOx emissions through the well established “reburning” chemistry similar to natural gas, fuel oil, and micronized coal. Productive mercury adsorption is also possible by the oil shale particles as a result of residual fixed-carbon and other observed mercury capture sorbent properties. Sorption properties were found to be a function particle heating rate, peak particle temperature, residence time, and gas-phase stoichmetry. High surface area sorbents with high calcium reactivity and with some adsorbent fixed/activated carbon can be produced in the corresponding reaction zones that exist in a standard pulverized-coal or in a fluidized-bed combustor.

  14. Durability testing of medium speed diesel engine components designed for operating on coal/water slurry fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, R. E.; Giammarise, A. W.; Johnson, R. N.

    1994-01-01

    Over 200 operating cylinder hours were run on critical wearing engine parts. The main components tested included cylinder liners, piston rings, and fuel injector nozzles for coal/water slurry fueled operation. The liners had no visible indication of scoring nor major wear steps found on their tungsten carbide coating. While the tungsten carbide coating on the rings showed good wear resistance, some visual evidence suggests adhesive wear mode was present. Tungsten carbide coated rings running against tungsten carbide coated liners in GE 7FDL engines exhibit wear rates which suggest an approximate 500 to 750 hour life. Injector nozzle orifice materials evaluated were diamond compacts, chemical vapor deposited diamond tubes, and thermally stabilized diamond. Based upon a total of 500 cylinder hours of engine operation (including single-cylinder combustion tests), diamond compact was determined to be the preferred orifice material.

  15. Combined production of synthetic liquid fuel and electricity from coal using H2S and CO2 removal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina A. Tyurina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research is to continue the studies on promising technologies of coal conversion into synthetic liquid fuel (methanol. The object of study is the plants for combined production of electricity and synthetic liquid fuel (PCPs, which are eco-friendly and more efficient as compared to the plants for separate production. The previous studies on PCPs consider the systems for fine cleaning of gasification products in a simplified way. This study presents the detailed mathematical modeling of the aforementioned systems and determines the values of energy consumption and investment in them. The obtained values are used to carry out the optimization studies and find the optimal parameters of PCPs with different degree of CO2 removal from gasification products providing fine cleaning of gasification products from H2S.

  16. Exploring the Perspectives of Alternative Fuels Production. Towards alternative fuels with zero, or negative greenhouse gas emissions, considering coal, biomass and carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerhart, A.J.J.E.

    2009-05-01

    In this report it is shown that future improvements in the production process of Fischer-Tropsch fuels can reduce costs and produce CO2 neutral gasoline and diesel. Major benefits lie in the improvement of the overall temperature profile of the plant at higher temperatures and carbon capture and storage. Based on literature studies, it was found that future technologies can operate at higher temperatures, and thus a better integration of heating and cooling. It was found that the future model of a CBTL (Coal and Biomass To Liquids) plant can produce liquids at a break-even oil price (BEOP) of 58.60 USD/barrel at 100% coal, with similar greenhouse gas emissions compared to liquids produced by conventional means today. However, once biomass is introduced at a ratio of 33% - 67% biomass, a CBTL plant becomes neutral in terms of GHG emissions. The BEOP for this neutral scenario is 69.60 USD/barrel. Looking at the 100% biomass scenario, the BEOP becomes 82.77 USD/barrel. The greenhouse gas emissions at this point are negative, meaning that more CO2 is captured during the process than is needed to grow biomass. This in effect makes a CBTL plant a carbon sink. By introducing future technologies and improvements, such as membrane technology for CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage), higher FTS (Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis) catalyst selectivities and an overall better temperature profile, the BEOP for the 100% coal scenario drops from 58.60 to 45.27 USD/barrel. The BEOP for the neutral scenario drops from 69.60 to 57.99 USD/barrel. The BEOP for the 100% biomass scenario drops from 82.77 to 69.07 USD/barrel. For the neutral scenario, the BEOP drops from 69.60 to 57.99 USD/barrel. If one assumes that a BEOP of 60 USD/barrel is economically reasonable, one can calculate the level of a carbon tax, once a carbon tax regime is imposed. For SOTA (state-of-the-art) 100% coal, FS (Future Scenario) 100%, FS 50% coal and FS 33% coal, there is no need for a carbon tax to reach 60 USD

  17. Case Study on Incentive Mechanism of Energy Efficiency Retrofit in Coal-Fueled Power Plant in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghai Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An ordinary steam turbine retrofit project is selected as a case study; through the retrofit, the project activities will generate emission reductions within the power grid for about 92,463 tCO2e per annum. The internal rate of return (IRR of the project is only −0.41% without the revenue of carbon credits, for example, CERs, which is much lower than the benchmark value of 8%. Only when the unit price of carbon credit reaches 125 CNY/tCO2, the IRR could reach the benchmark and an effective carbon tax needs to increase the price of carbon to 243 CNY/tce in order to make the project financially feasible. Design of incentive mechanism will help these low efficiency enterprises improve efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions, which can provide the power plants sufficient incentive to implement energy efficiency retrofit project in existing coal-fuel power generation-units, and we hope it will make a good demonstration for the other low efficiency coal-fueled power generation units in China.

  18. SUBTASK 3.12 – GASIFICATION, WARM-GAS CLEANUP, AND LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION WITH ILLINOIS COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Curran, Tyler; Henderson, Ann

    2014-06-30

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the performance of Illinois No. 6 coal blended with biomass in a small-scale entrained-flow gasifier and demonstrate the production of liquid fuels under three scenarios. The first scenario used traditional techniques for cleaning the syngas prior to Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis, including gas sweetening with a physical solvent. In the second scenario, the CO2 was not removed from the gas stream prior to FT synthesis. In the third scenario, only warm-gas cleanup techniques were used, such that the feed gas to the FT unit contained both moisture and CO2. The results of the testing showed that the liquid fuels production from the FT catalyst was significantly hindered by the presence of moisture and CO2 in the syngas. Further testing would be needed to determine if this thermally efficient process is feasible with other FT catalysts. This subtask was funded through the EERC–U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the Illinois Clean Coal Institute.

  19. Case Study on Incentive Mechanism of Energy Efficiency Retrofit in Coal-Fueled Power Plant in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Donghai; Guo, Xujing; Cao, Yuan; He, Liansheng; Wang, Jinggang; Xi, Beidou; Li, Junqi; Ma, Wenlin; Zhang, Mingshun

    2012-01-01

    An ordinary steam turbine retrofit project is selected as a case study; through the retrofit, the project activities will generate emission reductions within the power grid for about 92,463 tCO2e per annum. The internal rate of return (IRR) of the project is only −0.41% without the revenue of carbon credits, for example, CERs, which is much lower than the benchmark value of 8%. Only when the unit price of carbon credit reaches 125 CNY/tCO2, the IRR could reach the benchmark and an effective carbon tax needs to increase the price of carbon to 243 CNY/tce in order to make the project financially feasible. Design of incentive mechanism will help these low efficiency enterprises improve efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions, which can provide the power plants sufficient incentive to implement energy efficiency retrofit project in existing coal-fuel power generation-units, and we hope it will make a good demonstration for the other low efficiency coal-fueled power generation units in China. PMID:23365532

  20. Case study on incentive mechanism of energy efficiency retrofit in coal-fueled power plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Donghai; Guo, Xujing; Cao, Yuan; He, Liansheng; Wang, Jinggang; Xi, Beidou; Li, Junqi; Ma, Wenlin; Zhang, Mingshun

    2012-01-01

    An ordinary steam turbine retrofit project is selected as a case study; through the retrofit, the project activities will generate emission reductions within the power grid for about 92,463 tCO(2)e per annum. The internal rate of return (IRR) of the project is only -0.41% without the revenue of carbon credits, for example, CERs, which is much lower than the benchmark value of 8%. Only when the unit price of carbon credit reaches 125 CNY/tCO(2), the IRR could reach the benchmark and an effective carbon tax needs to increase the price of carbon to 243 CNY/tce in order to make the project financially feasible. Design of incentive mechanism will help these low efficiency enterprises improve efficiency and reduce CO(2) emissions, which can provide the power plants sufficient incentive to implement energy efficiency retrofit project in existing coal-fuel power generation-units, and we hope it will make a good demonstration for the other low efficiency coal-fueled power generation units in China.

  1. Design and operation of a medium speed 12-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine. Phase 2: Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confer, G. L.; Hsu, B. D.; McDowell, R. E.; Gal, E.; Vankleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Mengel, M.

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, General Electric has been pioneering the development of a coal fired diesel engine to power a locomotive. The feasibility of using a coal water slurry (CWS) mixture as a fuel in a medium speed diesel engine has been demonstrated with the first successful locomotive systems test in 1991 on the GE Transportation Systems test track in Erie, PA. Phase 2 of the development process incorporates the results of the programs research in durable engine parts, improved combustion efficiency, and emissions reduction. A GE 7FDL12 engine has been built using diamond insert injector nozzles, tungsten carbide coated piston rings, and tungsten carbide coated liners to overcome power assembly wear. Electronic controlled fuel injection for both diesel pilot and main CWS injector were incorporated to control injection timing. An envelop filter and copper oxide sorbent system were used to cleanup engine emissions. The system is capable of removing over 99% of the particulates, 90% of the SO2, and 85% of NO(x).

  2. Can switching fuels save water? A life cycle quantification of freshwater consumption for Texas coal- and natural gas-fired electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubert, Emily A; Beach, Fred C; Webber, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Thermal electricity generation is a major consumer of freshwater for cooling, fuel extraction and air emissions controls, but the life cycle water impacts of different fossil fuel cycles are not well understood. Much of the existing literature relies on decades-old estimates for water intensity, particularly regarding water consumed for fuel extraction. This work uses contemporary data from specific resource basins and power plants in Texas to evaluate water intensity at three major stages of coal and natural gas fuel cycles: fuel extraction, power plant cooling and power plant emissions controls. In particular, the water intensity of fuel extraction is quantified for Texas lignite, conventional natural gas and 11 unconventional natural gas basins in Texas, including major second-order impacts associated with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. Despite the rise of this water-intensive natural gas extraction method, natural gas extraction appears to consume less freshwater than coal per unit of energy extracted in Texas because of the high water intensity of Texas lignite extraction. This work uses new resource basin and power plant level water intensity data to estimate the potential effects of coal to natural gas fuel switching in Texas’ power sector, a shift under consideration due to potential environmental benefits and very low natural gas prices. Replacing Texas’ coal-fired power plants with natural gas combined cycle plants (NGCCs) would reduce annual freshwater consumption in the state by an estimated 53 billion gallons per year, or 60% of Texas coal power’s water footprint, largely due to the higher efficiency of NGCCs. (letter)

  3. Use of pyrolysis gases from biogenic fuels as reductionfuels in coal dust furnaces; Einsatz von Pyrolysegasen aus biogenen Brennstoffen als Reduktionsbrennstoff in Kohlestaubfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruediger, H.; Greul, U.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion of refuse-derived fuels in the form of pyrolysis gases, with coal as primary fuel, has advantages in terms of fuel ash separation and nitric oxide emissions. Biomass or sewage sludge is degassed in a pyrolysis reactor, and the gas is used as secondary fuel in a coal dust furnace. The authors investigated the influence of reaction temperature, fuel moisture and reaction atmosphere in the pyrolysis stage on the product fractions gas, tar, and residual fuel, as well as the suitability of the resulting pyrolysis gas as secondary fuel in a coal dust furnace for the purpose of reducing nitric oxide emissions. (orig) [Deutsch] Ein am IVD betriebenes Konzept der Mitverbrennung von Brennstoffen in Form von Pyrolysegasen bietet Vorteile bezueglich der Trennung der Brennstoffaschen und Stickoxidemissionen bei der Feuerung des Primaerbrennstoffes Steinkohle. Biomasse oder Klaerschlamm wird hierbei in einem Pyrolysereaktor engast und gasfoermig als Sekundaerbrennstoff in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung eingesetzt. Untersuchungsschwerpunkte in der Pyrolysestufe des Prozesses waren die Einfluesse von Reaktionstemperatur, Brennstofffeuchte und Reaktionsatmosphaere auf die Produktfraktionen Gas, Teer und Restbrennstoff sowie die Eignung des erzeugten Pyrolysegases als Sekundaerbrennstoff in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung zur Senkung derKohlendioxidemissione. (orig)

  4. Use of pyrolysis gases from biogenic fuels as reductionfuels in coal dust furnaces; Einsatz von Pyrolysegasen aus biogenen Brennstoffen als Reduktionsbrennstoff in Kohlestaubfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruediger, H; Greul, U; Spliethoff, H; Hein, K R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD)

    1997-12-31

    Co-combustion of refuse-derived fuels in the form of pyrolysis gases, with coal as primary fuel, has advantages in terms of fuel ash separation and nitric oxide emissions. Biomass or sewage sludge is degassed in a pyrolysis reactor, and the gas is used as secondary fuel in a coal dust furnace. The authors investigated the influence of reaction temperature, fuel moisture and reaction atmosphere in the pyrolysis stage on the product fractions gas, tar, and residual fuel, as well as the suitability of the resulting pyrolysis gas as secondary fuel in a coal dust furnace for the purpose of reducing nitric oxide emissions. (orig) [Deutsch] Ein am IVD betriebenes Konzept der Mitverbrennung von Brennstoffen in Form von Pyrolysegasen bietet Vorteile bezueglich der Trennung der Brennstoffaschen und Stickoxidemissionen bei der Feuerung des Primaerbrennstoffes Steinkohle. Biomasse oder Klaerschlamm wird hierbei in einem Pyrolysereaktor engast und gasfoermig als Sekundaerbrennstoff in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung eingesetzt. Untersuchungsschwerpunkte in der Pyrolysestufe des Prozesses waren die Einfluesse von Reaktionstemperatur, Brennstofffeuchte und Reaktionsatmosphaere auf die Produktfraktionen Gas, Teer und Restbrennstoff sowie die Eignung des erzeugten Pyrolysegases als Sekundaerbrennstoff in einer Kohlenstaubfeuerung zur Senkung derKohlendioxidemissione. (orig)

  5. Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development; Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, Rebecca

    2013-03-31

    Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in 2005 to study and develop a competing technology for use in future fossil-fueled power generation facilities that could operate with near zero emissions. CES’s background in oxy-fuel (O-F) rocket technology lead to the award of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42645, “Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development,” where CES was to first evaluate the potential of these O-F power cycles, then develop the detailed design of a commercial-scale O-F combustor for use in these clean burning fossil-fueled plants. Throughout the studies, CES found that in order to operate at competitive cycle efficiencies a high-temperature intermediate pressure turbine was required. This led to an extension of the Agreement for, “Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications” where CES was to also develop an intermediate-pressure O-F turbine (OFT) that could be deployed in O-F industrial plants that capture and sequester >99% of produced CO2, at competitive cycle efficiencies using diverse fuels. The following report details CES’ activities from October 2005 through March 2013, to evaluate O-F power cycles, develop and validate detailed designs of O-F combustors (main and reheat), and to design, manufacture, and test a commercial-scale OFT, under the three-phase Cooperative Agreement.

  6. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  7. Impacts on human health from the coal and nuclear fuel cycles and other technologies associated with electric power generation and transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    Major public health impacts of electric power generation and transmission associated with the nuclear fuel cycle and with coal use are evaluated. Only existing technology is evaluated. The only health effects of concern are those leading to definable human disease and injury. Health effects are scaled to a nominal 1000 Megawatt (electric) plant fueled by either option. Comparison of the total health effects to the general public gives: nuclear, 0.03 to 0.05 major health effects per 1000 MWe per year; coal, 0.7 to 3.7 per 1000 MWe per year. Thus for the general public the health risks from the coal cycle are about 50 times greater than for the nuclear cycle. Health effects to workers in the industry are currently quite high. For the nuclear cycle, 4.6 to 5.1 major health impacts per 1000 MWe per year; for coal, 6.5 to 10.9. The two-fold greater risk for the coal cycle is primarily due to high injury rates in coal miners. There is no evidence that electrical transmission contributes any health effects to the general public, except for episodes where broken power lines come in contact with people. For power line workers, the risk is estimated at 0.1 serious injury per 1000 MWe per year

  8. Monetization of Nigeria coal by conversion to hydrocarbon fuels through Fischer-Tropsch process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguejiofor, G.C. [Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Given the instability of crude oil prices and the disruptions in crude oil supply chains, this article offers a complementing investment proposal through diversification of Nigeria's energy source and dependence. Therefore, the following issues were examined and reported: A comparative survey of coal and hydrocarbon reserve bases in Nigeria was undertaken and presented. An excursion into the economic, environmental, and technological justifications for the proposed diversification and roll-back to coal-based resource was also undertaken and presented. The technology available for coal beneficiation for environmental pollution control was reviewed and reported. The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and its advances into Sasol's slurry phase distillate process were reviewed. Specifically, the adoption of Sasol's advanced synthol process and the slurry phase distillate process were recommended as ways of processing the products of coal gasification. The article concludes by discussing all the above-mentioned issues with regard to value addition as a means of wealth creation and investment.

  9. Use of wood as an alternative fuel to coal and natural gas at the Holnam Cement Plant, north of LaPorte, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Mackes

    2001-01-01

    The Holnam Company currently operates a cement plant north of Laporte, CO. The plant is attempting to use wood as an alternate fuel to coal and natural gas. The principal objective of this project is to investigate the extended use of wood as an alternate fuel at the plant. Tests conducted at Holnam indicate that wood is suitable for use at the plant and Holnam could...

  10. Proceedings of the joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiling, D.W. [ed.

    1993-08-01

    The joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FEE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference; was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy and held at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880, August 3--5, 1993. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  11. Methodology and a preliminary data base for examining the health risks of electricity generation from uranium and coal fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bassioni, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    An analytical model was developed to assess and examine the health effects associated with the production of electricity from uranium and coal fuels. The model is based on a systematic methodology that is both simple and easy to check, and provides details about the various components of health risk. A preliminary set of data that is needed to calculate the health risks was gathered, normalized to the model facilities, and presented in a concise manner. Additional data will become available as a result of other evaluations of both fuel cycles, and they should be included in the data base. An iterative approach involving only a few steps is recommended for validating the model. After each validation step, the model is improved in the areas where new information or increased interest justifies such upgrading. Sensitivity analysis is proposed as the best method of using the model to its full potential. Detailed quantification of the risks associated with the two fuel cycles is not presented in this report. The evaluation of risks from producing electricity by these two methods can be completed only after several steps that address difficult social and technical questions. Preliminary quantitative assessment showed that several factors not considered in detail in previous studies are potentially important. 255 refs., 21 figs., 179 tabs.

  12. Influence of start-ups with fuel-oil on the operation of electrostatic precipitators in pulverised coal boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarrete, B.; Vilches, L.F.; Canadas, L.; Salvador, L. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2004-04-01

    This article describes the results of a series of tests carried out in a pilot fly ash electrostatic precipitation facility operating with real gases from a 550 MWe pulverized coal-fired power station. The main goal of these tests was to determine the effects of boiler start-ups on the performance of the electrostatic preciptator. The tests were carried out during start-ups of the power station boiler. All tests were carried out with the same fuel. An evaluation was made of the effects of the use of fuel-oil as auxillary fuel in start-ups and shut-downs of the boiler, and different electrostatic precipitators operation procedures were tested during start-ups and shut-downs. The results of the experiments made it possible to assess the relative importance of different variables on the possible deterioration of the efficiency of the precipitators. Also evaluated were operational modes that have demonstrated an improvement in the performance of the precipitators after the transient stage of these operations. As a result of this study, a number of important operational recommendations are made on boiler start-up and shut-down procedures.

  13. Numerical study on NO formation in a pulverized coal-fired furnace using oxy-fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Aiyue; Chen, Yuan; Sheng, Changdong [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was employed to numerically investigate NO formation in a 600 MW wall-fired pulverized coal-fired furnace retrofitted for oxy-coal combustion, aimed at the impacts of flue gas recycle ratio, O{sub 2} staging and recycled NO with the recycled flue gas (RFG) on NO formation and emission. An in-house CFD research code for conventional air combustion was developed and extended to simulate O{sub 2}/RFG combustion with specific considerations of the change of gas properties and its impact on coal particle combustion processes. The extended De Soete mechanisms including NO reburning mechanism were applied to describe transformations of fuel nitrogen. It was shown that CFD simulation represented the significant reduction of NO formation during O{sub 2}/RFG combustion compared to that during air combustion. The in-burner and particularly the in-furnace O{sub 2} staging were confirmed still to play very important roles in NO formation control. Changing the recycle ratio had significant impact on the combustion performance and consequently on NO formation and emission. With the combustion performance ensured, decreasing the flue gas recycle ratio or increasing the inlet O{sub 2} concentration of combustion gas led to reduction of NO formation and emission. Although NO formation and emission was found to increase with increasing the inlet NO concentration of combustion gas, CFD simulation indicated that {proportional_to}74% of the inlet NO was reduced in the furnace, consistent with the experimental data reported in the literature. This demonstrated the significant contribution of reburning mechanism to the reduction of the recycled NO in the furnace.

  14. Elucidating the mechanism of Cr(VI) formation upon the interaction with metal oxides during coal oxy-fuel combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Jiao, Facun; Zhang, Lian; Yao, Hong; Ninomiya, Yoshihiko

    2013-10-15

    The thermodynamics underpinning the interaction of Cr-bearing species with basic metal oxides, i.e. K2O, Fe2O3, MgO and CaO, during the air and oxy-fuel combustion of coal have been examined. The synchrotron-based X-ray adsorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was used for Cr speciation. For the oxides tested, Cr(VI) formation is dominated by the reduction potential of the metals. The oxides of Ca(2+) with high reduction potential favored the oxidation of Cr(III), same for K(+). The other two basic metals, Fe2O3 and MgO with lower reduction potentials reacted with Cr(III) to form the corresponding chromites at the temperatures above 600°C. Coal combustion experiments in drop-tube furnace have confirmed the rapid capture of Cr vapors, either trivalent or hexavalent, by CaO into solid ash. The existence of HCl in flue gas favored the vaporization of Cr as CrO2Cl2, which was in turn captured by CaO into chromate. Both Fe2O3 and MgO exhibited less capability on scavenging the Cr(VI) vapor. Particularly, MgO alone exhibited a low capability for capturing the vaporized Cr(III) vapors. However, its co-existence with CaO in the furnace inhibited the Cr(VI) formation. This is beneficial for minimizing the toxicity of Cr in the coal combustion-derived fly ash. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. NO formation during oxy-fuel combustion of coal and biomass chars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ke; Jensen, Anker Degn; Glarborg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The yields of NO from combustion of bituminous coal, lignite, and biomass chars were investigated in O2/N2 and O2/CO 2 atmospheres. The experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor in the temperature range of 850-1150 °C. To minimize thermal deactivation during char preparat......The yields of NO from combustion of bituminous coal, lignite, and biomass chars were investigated in O2/N2 and O2/CO 2 atmospheres. The experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor in the temperature range of 850-1150 °C. To minimize thermal deactivation during char...

  16. Health and environmental effects of refuse derived fuel (RDF) production and RDF/coal co-firing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, J.J.; Wessels, T.E.; Lynch, J.F.; Fassel, V.A.; Lembke, L.L.; Kniseley, R.N.; Norton, G.A.; Junk, G.A.; Richard, J.J.; Dekalb, E.L.; Dobosy, R.J.

    1981-10-01

    Six facilities, representing the scope of different co-firing techniques with their associated RDF production systems were reviewed in detail for combustion equipment, firing modes, emission control systems, residue handling/disposal, and effluent wastewater treatment. These facilities encompass all currently operational or soon to be operational co-firing plants and associated RDF production systems. Occupational health and safety risks for these plants were evaluated on the basis of fatal and nonfatal accidents and disease arising from the respective fuel cycles, coal and RDF. Occupational risks include exposure to pathogenic organisms in the workplace. Unusual events that are life threatening in the RDF processing industry (e.g., explosions) are also discussed and remedial and safety measures reviewed. 80 refs., 4 figs., 30 tabs.

  17. Oxy-fuel combustion of millimeter-sized coal char: Particle temperatures and NO formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Navascués, Leyre Gómez; Nielsen, Joachim Bachmann

    2013-01-01

    In this work, differences in particle temperature and NO yield during char oxidation in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres, respectively, have been examined. A laboratory scale fixed bed reactor, operated isothermally at 1073 K, was used for combustion of millimeter-sized lignite and bituminous coal char...... increased with mass loading, by as much as 700 K above the furnace set point. The formation of NO from lignite char was not influenced by the change from N2 to CO2 whereas the NO yield from bituminous coal char was considerably lower in O2/CO2 compared O2/N2. For both chars the conversion to NO decreased...... as the O2 concentration or the particle size increased. However, for the bituminous coal char, a peak in NO yield was observed at an intermediate particle size of 0.1–0.2 g. The differences in the effect of gas atmosphere, O2 concentration, and particle mass on the NO yield from oxidation of bituminous...

  18. Evaluation and Testing of the Suitability of a Coal-Based Jet Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    with a total wattage of 7980 watts. Each oven section has two K type thermocouples per zone with Inconel sheathed spring loaded bayonet type mounts...also exceeded the thermal stability goals (525°F bulk and 625 °F WWT) for the JP-8+225 fuel program. Tests were conducted on a JP-8 fuel to compare

  19. Production of brown coal fuel dust as a high value and effective energy carrier for substituting heating oil, natural gas and black coal in the cement and metallurgical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubasch, A.

    1985-01-01

    Poduction and industrial use of brown coal dust in the German Democratic Republic are reviewed. Dust production in 14 brown coal briquetting plants increased from 818.4 kt in 1980 to 2064 kt in 1984 and will exceed 4000 kt in 1990. Quality parameters of dusts according to the TGL 15380 industrial standard are listed. The railroad car loading and shipping technology is explained with the example of modern facilities of the Schwarze Pumpe briquetting plant: dust bunkers of 200 t storage capacity, pneumatic feeding and telescope discharge systems with nitrogen gas inertization, fire prevention, and railroad car cleaning equipment, rail track heating for improved winter loading conditions, etc. Since 1979 the Deuna, Karsdorf and Bernburg cement plants have been converted to brown coal dust combustion after installation of new fuel dust shipping, storage and combustion equipment. Substitution of heating oil and gas in metallurgical blast furnaces by brown coal dust is further described. Techogical advantages of the pneumatic KOSTE fuel feeding method are enumerated.

  20. Coal chemistry and technology. Komur Kimyasi ve Teknolojisi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kural, O [ed.

    1988-01-01

    The 18 chapters cover the following topics: mining in Turkey; formation, petrography and classification of coal; chemical and physical properties of coal; mechanical properties of coal; spontaneous combustion of coal and the methods of prevention; sampling of coal; coal preparation and plants; desulfurization of coal; bituminous coal and its consumption; lignite and its consumption; world coal trade and transportation; other important carbon fuels; briquetting of coal; carbonization and coking formed coke; liquefaction of coal; gasification of coal; underground gasification of coal; and combustion models, fluidized-bed combustion, furnaces. An English-Turkish coal dictionary is included. 641 refs., 244 figs., 108 tabs.

  1. Life-Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Water Consumption – Effects of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Liquid Fuels as Analyzed with the GREET Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qianfeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The vast reserves of coal in the U.S. provide a significant incentive for the development of processes for coal conversion to liquid fuels (CTL). Also, CTL using domestic coal can help move the U.S. toward greater energy independence and security. However, current conversion technologies are less economically competitive and generate greater greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than production of petroleum fuels. Altex Technologies Corporation (Altex, hereinafter) and Pennsylvania State University have developed a hybrid technology to produce jet fuel from a feedstock blend of coal and biomass. Collaborating with Altex, Argonne National Laboratory has expanded and used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model to assess the life-cycle GHG emissions and water consumption of this hybrid technology. Biomass feedstocks include corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw. The option of biomass densification (bales to pellets) is also evaluated in this study. The results show that the densification process generates additional GHG emissions as a result of additional biomass process energy demand. This process coproduces a large amount of char, and this study investigates two scenarios to treat char: landfill disposal (Char-LF) and combustion for combined heat and power (CHP). Since the CHP scenarios export excess heat and electricity as coproducts, two coproduct handling methods are used for well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis: displacement (Char-CHP-Disp) and energy allocation (Char-CHP-EnAllo). When the feedstock contains 15 wt% densified wheat straw and 85 wt% lignite coal, WTWa GHG emissions of the coal-and-biomass-to-liquid pathways are 116, 97, and 137 gCO2e per megajoule (MJ) under the Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char-CHP-EnAllo scenarios, respectively, as compared to conventional jet fuel production at 84 gCO2e/MJ. WTWa water consumption values are 0.072, -0.046, and 0.044 gal/MJ for Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char

  2. Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, T.M.; Melick, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), in cooperation with the University of Alabama and Jim Walter Resources, has been awarded a DOE contract to retrofit an existing fire-tube boiler with a coal-water slurry firing system. Recognizing that combustion efficiency is the principle concern when firing slurry in fire-tube boilers, EER has focused the program on innovative approaches for improving carbon burnout without major modifications to the boiler. This paper reports on the program which consists of five tasks. Task 1 provides for the design and retrofit of the host boiler to fire coal-water slurry. Task 2 is a series of optimization tests that will determine the effects of adjustable parameters on boiler performance. Task 3 will perform about 1000 hours of proof-of-concept system tests. Task 4 will be a comprehensive review of the test data in order to evaluate the economics of slurry conversions. Task 5 will be the decommissioning of the test facility if required

  3. Combustion aerosols from co-firing of coal and solid recovered fuel in a 400 mw pf-fired power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Wu, Hao; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    In this work, combustion aerosols (i.e. fine particles fired power plant was sampled with a low-pressure impactor, and analysed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The power plant was operated at both dedicated coal combustion conditions...... and under conditions with cofiring of up to 10% (thermal basis) of solid recovered fuel (SRF). The SRFs were characterized by high contents of Cl, Ca, Na and trace metals, while the coal had relatively higher S, Al, Fe and K content. The mass-based particle size distribution of the aerosols was found...... to be bi-modal, with an ultrafine (vaporization) mode centered around 0.1 μm, and a coarser (finefragmentation) mode above 2 μm. Co-firing of SRF tended to increase the formation of ultrafine particles as compared with dedicated coal combustion, while the coarse mode tended to decrease. The increased...

  4. Coal - 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards

  5. Fossil fuels. Pace and focus of the clean coal technology program need to be assessed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, James A.; Clark, Marcus R. Jr.; Kovalak, Francis J.; Kleigleng, Robert G.; Imbrogno, Frank W.

    1990-03-01

    DOE developed an elaborate process for evaluating, ranking, and selecting round-two project proposals. The criteria used to evaluate and select proposals for funding generally conformed to congressional and other program guidance. Also, the evaluation and selection process provided reasonable assurance that proposals were consistently and thoroughly evaluated and that projects were selected using the applicable criteria. GAO's analysis the evaluation and selection process showed that DOE picked the highest-ranked proposals submitted for the various mix of technologies that it was interested in seeing demonstrated. Of the 16 projects DOE selected in round two, 12 were rated weak in meeting certain of the evaluation criteria. Nine of the projects were rated weak in meeting the criterion that a project's technology has the potential to reduce nationwide emissions that cause acid rain. Although emphasis was to be focused on coal-burning projects nationwide to reduce emissions that cause acid rain, it still was only one of many criteria to be considered in evaluating proposals. If DOE had picked more projects with greater potential to reduce nationwide emissions from coal-fired facilities, it would have resulted in (1) the selection of lower ranked projects demonstrating technologies similar to the projects that were selected, and (2) projects selected which may not be successfully demonstrated or commercialized because of weaknesses in other criteria. GAO also noted that half of the 48 proposals that were evaluated in round-two fared poorly against 3 or more of the evaluation criteria. This could indicate that DOE may have problems in identifying and funding additional promising clean coal technology projects in future rounds. Furthermore, GAO's past work has shown that problems have delayed finalizing project cooperative agreements, delayed completion of various project phases, and extended the estimated completion dates for some projects in round-one. As of December

  6. Issue of fossil fuel resources and coal technology strategy for the 21st century - toward the globalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, K. [Japan Coal Energy Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The President of the Japan Coal Energy Centre gives an outlook on coal demand worldwide and particularly in Asia as a whole and Japan, and outlines the present day environmental concerns concerning coal. World reserves of coal, petroleum, natural gas and uranium are compared. The huge resources of coal may not be realized due to difficulty of development in both technical and economic terms. The 'triangle strategy' to resolve problems of supply and the environment is outlined - this considers the relationship between resources (supply) and utilization (demand); between resources and environment; and between utilization and environment. Technical tasks to tackle to exploit coal are listed. These include: advance in technology for resource exploration; improvement in refining and storing low-grade coal; establishing a highly efficient mining system; promoting of clean coal technology; recovery of coalbed methane; and CO{sub 2} fixation. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Preparation of fuels and chemical products from mixtures of coal and petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichko, A A; Yulin, M K

    1973-01-01

    The distillate to 320/sup 0/C from the liquid phase hydrogenation of a 1 : 1 coal-Arlan petroleum mixture was processed to yield phenols 3.4 percent, high aromatics gasoline 81.2 percent, C/sub 1/--C/sub 4/ alkanes 13.5 percent, H/sub 2/S 0.5 percent, and water 1.0 percent. Thus, C/sub 6/--C/sub 8/ phenols were separated from the fraction distilling to 240/sup 0/C, and the phenol-free fraction and the 240 to 320/sup 0/C fraction were hydrofined over an aluminum-cobalt-molybdenum catalyst at 400/sup 0/C and 50 atm. Distillation gave a gasoline fraction, which was reformed, and a 180 to 320/sup 0/C fraction, which was hydrocracked at 380/sup 0/C and 40 atm on a zeolite catalyst.

  8. Characterisation of supplementary fuels for co-combustion with pulverised coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikkinen, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The current and future energy policy aims at increasing the share of renewable energy in worlds energy supply. One possibility to enhance energy production by renewable sources within a short term is co-combustion. This means co-firing biomass and waste with fossil fuels at existing power plants

  9. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  10. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  11. Sulfur Tolerant Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Coal Syngas Application: Experimental Study on Diverse Impurity Effects and Fundamental Modeling of Electrode Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Mingyang

    With demand over green energy economy, fuel cells have been developed as a promising energy conversion technology with higher efficiency and less emission. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) can utilize various fuels in addition to hydrogen including coal derived sygas, and thus are favored for future power generation due to dependence on coal in electrical industry. However impurities such as sulfur and phosphorous present in coal syngas in parts per million (p.p.m.) levels can severely poison SOFC anode typically made of Ni/yttria-stabilized-zirconia (Ni-YSZ) and limit SOFC applicability in economically derivable fuels. The focus of the research is to develop strategy for application of high performance SOFC in coal syngas with tolerance against trace impurities such as H2S and PH3. To realize the research goal, the experimental study on sulfur tolerant anode materials and examination of various fuel impurity effects on SOFC anode are combined with electrochemical modeling of SOFC cathode kinetics in order to benefit design of direct-coal-syngas SOFC. Tolerant strategy for SOFC anode against sulfur is studied by using alternative materials which can both mitigate sulfur poisoning and function as active anode components. The Ni-YSZ anode was modified by incorporation of lanthanum doped ceria (LDC) nano-coatings via impregnation. Cell test in coal syngas containing 20 ppm H2S indicated the impregnated LDC coatings inhibited on-set of sulfur poisoning by over 10hrs. Cell analysis via X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemistry revealed LDC coatings reacted with H2S via chemisorptions, resulting in less sulfur blocking triple--phase-boundary and minimized performance loss. Meanwhile the effects of PH3 impurity on SOFC anode is examined by using Ni-YSZ anode supported SOFC. Degradation of cell is found to be irreversible due to adsorption of PH3 on TPB and further reaction with Ni to form secondary phases with low melting point. The

  12. Simulation of biomass and/or coal gasification systems integrated with fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersoz, A; Ozdogan, S; Caglayan, E; Olgun, H [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Kocaeli (Turkey). Institute of Energy

    2006-11-15

    This paper presents the results of a system simulation study. The HYSYS 3.1 - ASPEN code has been used for simulation. The system consists of a fixed bed gasifier followed by reforming and clean-up units. The produced hydrogen gas is fed to a PEM fuel cell. The gasified hydrocarbons are hazelnut shells, bark, rice straw, animal waste, and two lignites. Hydrocarbon properties, gasification, and reforming process parameters all affect the system efficiency. The effect of the moisture content and oxygen to carbon ratio of the hydrocarbon fees on the fuel processing and overall system efficiencies are presented. The overall efficiency of the system increases with increasing hydrocarbon fees oxygen to carbon ratio; this tendency is more evident at higher moisture levels.

  13. Impacts on human health from the coal and nuclear fuel cycles and other technologies associated with electric power generation and transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1980-07-01

    The report evaluates major public health impacts of electric power generation and transmission associated with the nuclear fuel cycle and with coal use. Only existing technology is evaluated. For the nuclear cycle, effects of future use of fuel reprocessing and long-term radioactive waste disposal are briefly considered. The health effects of concern are those leading to definable human disease and injury. Health effects are scaled to numbers of persons and activities associated with a nominal 1000-megawatt electric plant fueled by either option. Comparison of the total health effects to the general public shows that the health risks from the coal cycle are about 50 times greater than for the nuclear cycle (coal, 0.7-3.7 major health effects per 1000 MWe per year; nuclear, 0.03-0.05 per 1000 MWe per year). For workers, these rates are higher. No evidence is found that electrical transmission contributes any health effects to the general public, except when broken power lines come in contact with people

  14. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Coal fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.E.; Holland, M.R.; Watkiss, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    agreement on a variety of methodological issues was reached on both sides of the Atlantic. Since 1993 the study has continued in Europe as the ExternE-Project, and now involves an international team of more than 30 organisations. The current study has 4 principal objectives; 1) To design a unified methodology for quantifying the various social costs associated with the production and consumption of energy. 2) To produce a framework to account for the external costs that result from incremental use of different fuels. 3) To use the methodology in an international comparative analysis. 4) To identify critical methodological issues and research requirements. At the same time as the publication of the present report, further reports are being published on the other major fuel cycles for electricity generation, including uranium, lignite, oil, gas, wind and biomass. In addition a further volume, providing greater detail on the methodology used for assessment of the fossil fuel cycles will also be published shortly. This document assesses the progress made in quantifying environmental and health damages associated with the coal fuel cycle. Estimates of impacts have been made following critical review of existing data and models rather than from original basic research. This review has been performed by a multi-disciplinary team including specialists in the fields of health, forestry, ecology, materials science, atmospheric chemistry and physics, energy technology, computer science and economics

  15. Effect of fuel type and deposition surface temperature on the growth and structure of ash deposit collected during co-firing of coal with sewage-sludge, saw-dust and refuse derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof; Weber, Roman [Clausthal Univ. of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology

    2008-07-01

    Blends of a South African bituminous ''Middleburg'' coal and three alternative fuels (a municipal sewage-sludge, a saw-dust and a refuse derived fuel) have been fired in the slagging reactor to examine the effect of the added fuel on slagging propensity of the mixtures. Two kinds of deposition probes have been used, un-cooled ceramic probes and air-cooled steal probes. Distinct differences in physical and chemical structures of the deposits collected using the un-cooled ceramic probes and air-cooled metal probes have been observed. Glassy, easily molten deposits collected on un-cooled ceramic deposition probes were characteristic for co-firing of municipal sewage-sludge with coal. Porous, sintered (not molten) but easily removable deposits of the same fuel blend have been collected on the air-cooled metal deposition probes. Loose, easy removable deposits have been sampled on air-cooled metal deposition probe during co-firing of coal/saw-dust blends. The mass of the deposit sampled at lower surface temperatures (550-700 C) was always larger than the mass sampled at higher temperatures (1100-1300 C) since the higher temperature ash agglomerated and sintered much faster than the low temperature deposit. (orig.)

  16. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  17. Coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  18. Formation of fine particles in co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel in a pulverized coal-fired power station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    showed an ultrafine mode centered at approximately 0.1 μm. Compared with coal combustion, co-combustion of coal and SRF increased the formation of submicron particles, especially ultrafine particles below 0.2 μm. The morphology of the particles indicated that supermicron particles were primarily formed...... by the melting of minerals. The ultrafine particles were generated through nucleation and coagulation of vaporized inorganic species, while for the particles in between supermicron and ultrafine particles, condensation of vaporized species or aggregation of nucleates on the existing spherical submicron particles...... appear to be an important formation mechanism. The elemental composition of the particles from coal combustion showed that S and Ca were significantly enriched in ultrafine particles and P was also enriched considerably. However, compared with supermicron particles, the contents of Al, Si and K were...

  19. Coal comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchener, A.

    1991-01-01

    Coal's status as the dominant fuel for electricity generation is under threat because of concern over the environmental impacts of acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. All are produced when coal is burnt. Governments are therefore tightening the emission limits for fossil-fuel power plants. In the United Kingdom phased reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are planned. It will be the responsibility of the power generator to take the necessary steps to reduce the emissions. This will be done using a number of technologies which are explained and outlined briefly - flue gas desulfurization, separation of coal into high and low-sulphur coal, direct desulfurization of coal, circulating fluidised bed combustion, integrated-gasification combined cycle systems and topping cycles. All these technologies are aiming at cleaner, more efficient combustion of coal. (UK)

  20. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30

    , pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

  1. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  2. Making the most of South Africa’s low-quality coal: Converting high-ash coal to fuel gas using bubbling fluidised bed gasifiers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AD

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available for process heating or for power generation using the IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) process. A high-ash coal from the Waterberg coalfield was tested in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier using various gasification agents and operating conditions...

  3. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourillon, C.

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 more than 3.4 billion tonnes of coal was produced, of which half was used to generate over 44 per cent of the world's electricity. The use of coal - and of other fossil fuels- presents several environmental problems such as emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO 2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into the atmosphere. This article reviews the measures now available to mitigate the environmental impacts of coal. (author)

  4. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  5. Investigation of combustion and gasification mechanically activated coal fuel of various degrees of metamorphism on the 5-MW heat setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butakov Evgenii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of mechanochemical activation of combustion and gasification of coals is of unquestionable scientific and technical interest; an increase in chemical activity of coals at their mechanically activated grinding is associated with an increase in the rate of reaction of the coal substance. To study the combustion and gasification process, the reactor model with tangential scroll input of coal-air suspension and cylindrical reaction chamber was used at the 5-MW thermal power plant. The experiments were carried out with coals of G and SS grades of the Kuznetsk deposit. Coal, ground after the boiler’s standard mill, is fed by a feeder to the disintegrator; then, it enters the scroll inlet of the reactor burner with transport air. The suspension is ignited by a gas igniting device with the power of 50 kW. In experiments on combustion and gasification of fine coal performed at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1300°C and air excess α = 0.5-0.7, the data on concentrations of CO and H2 were obtained: for coal of grade G, concentration of H2 was 6.3% and concentration of CO was 15.3%; for coal of SS grade, concentration of H2 was 9.5% and concentration of CO was 15.6%.

  6. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  7. Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu

    2012-03-11

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously achieving enhanced energy security and deep reductions in U.S. GHG emissions in the coming decades. Designs included systems using primarily already-commercialized component technologies, which may have the potential for near-term deployment at scale, as well as systems incorporating some advanced technologies at various stages of R&D. All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO

  8. Annual bulletin of coal statistics for Europe. Vol. IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    Tables are presented giving the following information: Production, imports, exports, and deliveries of solid fuels with the subdivisions: hard coal, patent fuel, and cokeoven coke; gas coke; brown coal, brown coal briquets, and brown coal coke; and pech coal (hard brown coal produced in the area between the rivers Inn and Lech); Hard coal mines (structure of production, employment and productivity of labor); Brown coal mines (production, employment and productivity of labor); Imports of solid fuels, by country; Exports of solid fuels, by country; and Production of hydroelectric energy and natural gas, and deliveries of petroleum products for inland consumption.

  9. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  10. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  11. Coal-fuelled systems for peaking power with 100% CO2 capture through integration of solid oxide fuel cells with compressed air energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nease, Jake; Adams, Thomas A.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a coal-fuelled integrated solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and compressed air energy storage (CAES) system in a load-following power production scenario is discussed. Sixteen SOFC-based plants with optional carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and syngas shifting steps are simulated and compared to a state-of-the-art supercritical pulverised coal (SCPC) plant. Simulations are performed using a combination of MATLAB and Aspen Plus v7.3. It was found that adding CAES to a SOFC-based plant can provide load-following capabilities with relatively small effects on efficiencies (1-2% HHV depending on the system configuration) and levelized costs of electricity (∼0.35 ¢ kW-1 h-1). The load-following capabilities, as measured by least-squares metrics, show that this system may utilize coal and achieve excellent load-tracking that is not adversely affected by the inclusion of CCS. Adding CCS to the SOFC/CAES system reduces measurable direct CO2 emission to zero. A seasonal partial plant shutdown schedule is found to reduce fuel consumption by 9.5% while allowing for cleaning and maintenance windows for the SOFC stacks without significantly affecting the performance of the system (∼1% HHV reduction in efficiency). The SOFC-based systems with CCS are found to become economically attractive relative to SCPC above carbon taxes of 22 ton-1.

  12. Microscopic coal research in Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebard, P.A.

    1955-01-01

    Since the industrial developments of Europe and North America in the nineteenth century, coal has been considered as the most important mineral wealth a country could possess. Coal was often referred to as King Coal, and it was not until around 1950 that its position as the major fuel for modern

  13. Statistical summary of coal mining, coking, and briquetting plants and review of the solid fuels market in 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medaets, J

    1977-05-01

    This paper reviews the activities of the Belgian coal and coke industry noting that some of the figures are still provisional. Figures are given for production and stocks of coal; personnel; productivity; working hours; salaries; and the production of coke and briquettes.

  14. Development of Nano-Sulfide Sorbent for Efficient Removal of Elemental Mercury from Coal Combustion Fuel Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Li, Liqing; Shih, Kaimin

    2016-09-06

    The surface area of zinc sulfide (ZnS) was successfully enlarged using nanostructure particles synthesized by a liquid-phase precipitation method. The ZnS with the highest surface area (named Nano-ZnS) of 196.1 m(2)·g(-1) was then used to remove gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg(0)) from simulated coal combustion fuel gas at relatively high temperatures (140 to 260 °C). The Nano-ZnS exhibited far greater Hg(0) adsorption capacity than the conventional bulk ZnS sorbent due to the abundance of surface sulfur sites, which have a high binding affinity for Hg(0). Hg(0) was first physically adsorbed on the sorbent surface and then reacted with the adjacent surface sulfur to form the most stable mercury compound, HgS, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and a temperature-programmed desorption test. At the optimal temperature of 180 °C, the equilibrium Hg(0) adsorption capacity of the Nano-ZnS (inlet Hg(0) concentration of 65.0 μg·m(-3)) was greater than 497.84 μg·g(-1). Compared with several commercial activated carbons used exclusively for gas-phase mercury removal, the Nano-ZnS was superior in both Hg(0) adsorption capacity and adsorption rate. With this excellent Hg(0) removal performance, noncarbon Nano-ZnS may prove to be an advantageous alternative to activated carbon for Hg(0) removal in power plants equipped with particulate matter control devices, while also offering a means of reusing fly ash as a valuable resource, for example as a concrete additive.

  15. Water Will Be the Coal of the Future—The Untamed Dream of Jules Verne for a Solar Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir K. Ryabchuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article evokes the futuristic visions of two giants, one a writer, Jules Verne, who foresaw water as the coal of the future, and the other a scientist, Giacomo Ciamician, who foresaw the utilization of solar energy as an energy source with which to drive photochemical and photocatalytic reactions for the betterment of mankind. Specifically, we examine briefly the early work of the 1960s and 1970s on the photosplitting of free water and water adsorbed on solid supports, based mostly on metal oxides, from which both hydrogen and oxygen evolve in the expected stoichiometric ratio of 2 to 1. The two oil crises of the 1970s (1973 and 1979 spurred the interest of researchers from various disciplines (photochemistry, photo-catalysis and photoelectrochemistry in search of a Holy Grail photocatalyst, process, or strategy to achieve efficient water splitting so as to provide an energy source alternative to fossil fuels. Some approaches to the photosplitting of water adsorbed on solid insulators (high bandgap materials; Ebg ≥ 5 eV and semiconductor photocatalysts (metal oxides are described from which we deduce that metal oxides with bandgap energies around 5 eV (e.g., ZrO2 are more promising materials to achieve significant water splitting on the basis of quantum yields than narrower bandgap photocatalysts (e.g., TiO2; Ebg ≈ 3.0–3.2 eV, which tend to be relatively inactive by comparison. Although proof of concept of the photosplitting of water has been demonstrated repeatedly in the last four decades, much remains to be done to find the Holy Grail photocatalyst and/or strategy to achieve significant yields of hydrogen.

  16. Effect of various coal contaminants on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells: Part I. Accelerated testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, JianEr; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Jayaweera, Palitha; Perez-Mariano, Jordi; Sanjurjo, Angel [SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Ave, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2009-09-05

    The contaminants that are potentially present in the coal-derived gas stream and their thermochemical nature are discussed. Accelerated testing was carried out on Ni-YSZ/YSZ/LSM solid oxide fuel cells (YSZ: yttria stabilized zirconia and LSM: lanthanum strontium manganese oxide) for eight main kind of contaminants: CH{sub 3}Cl, HCl, As, P, Zn, Hg, Cd and Sb at the temperature range of 750-850 C. The As and P species, at 10 and 35 ppm, respectively, resulted in severe power density degradation at temperatures 800 C and below. SEM and EDX analysis indicated that As attacked the Ni region of the anode surface and the Ni current collector, caused the break of the current collector and the eventual cell failure at 800 C. The phosphorous containing species were found in the bulk of the anode, they were segregated and formed ''grain boundary'' like phases separating large Ni patches. These species are presumably nickel phosphide/phosphate and zirconia phosphate, which could break the Ni network for electron transport and inhibit the YSZ network for oxygen ion transport. The presence of 40 ppm CH{sub 3}Cl and 5 ppm Cd only affected the cell power density at above 800 C and Cd caused significant performance loss. Whereas the presence of 9 ppm Zn, 7 ppm Hg and 8 ppm Sb only degraded the cell power density by less than 1% during the 100 h test in the temperature range of 750-850 C. (author)

  17. Results of Study of Sulfur Oxide Reduction During Combustion of Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Through use of Sulfur Capturing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murko Vasiliy I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that an effective way of burning high sulfur coal is to burn coal-water slurry fuel (CWF prepared on its basis containing a sulfur capture agent (SCA entered in the slurry at the stage of preparation. The technique of thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions during CWF burning has been developed including burning in the presence of SCA. Using the developed calculation program, the optimal temperature conditions have been determined as required for the effective reduction of sulfur oxides in flue gases when using different types of SCA. According to the results of calculating the composition of CWF combustion products when entering various substances in the burner space as SCA it has been determined that magnesite, calcite, and dolomite are the most effective natural minerals. The analysis of calculated and experimental data proves the efficiency of SCA addition as well as validity of the obtained results.

  18. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmis, Michael [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Luttrell, Gerald [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Ripepi, Nino [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Bratton, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Dohm, Erich [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NOx, CO2, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  19. Investigation into the effects of trace coal syn gas species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cell anodes, PhD. thesis, Russ College of Engineering and Technology of Ohio University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembly, Jason P. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States). Russ College of Engineering and Technology

    2007-06-01

    Coal is the United States’ most widely used fossil fuel for the production of electric power. Coal’s availability and cost dictates that it will be used for many years to come in the United States for power production. As a result of the environmental impact of burning coal for power production more efficient and environmentally benign power production processes using coal are sought. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) combined with gasification technologies represent a potential methodology to produce electric power using coal in a much more efficient and cleaner manner. It has been shown in the past that trace species contained in coal, such as sulfur, severely degrade the performance of solid oxide fuel cells rendering them useless. Coal derived syngas cleanup technologies have been developed that efficiently remove sulfur to levels that do not cause any performance losses in solid oxide fuel cells. The ability of these systems to clean other trace species contained in syngas is not known nor is the effect of these trace species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells. This works presents the thermodynamic and diffusion transport simulations that were combined with experimental testing to evaluate the effects of the trace species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells. The results show that some trace species contained in coal will interact with the SOFC anode. In addition to the transport and thermodynamic simulations that were completed experimental tests were completed investigating the effect of HCl and AsH3 on the performance of SOFCs.

  20. Coal: the future in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The whole issue is devoted to the future of coal in South Africa, and includes articles on the Petrick report, coal conversion research in South Africa, the activities of the Fuel Research Institute (on beneficiation, briquetting, carbonization, fluidized bed combustion), Sasol's production of chemical feedstocks from coal, mining methods, and the coal requirements of the electric and chemical industries.

  1. Promotive study on preparation of basis for foreign coal import. Study on coal renaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, Yoji [Japan Economic Research Institute, Tokyo

    1988-09-16

    This is an interim report on the coal renaissance study carried out in 1987 as a part of the Promotive Study on Preparation of Basis for Foreign Coal Import. The background and ideology of coal renaissance, future aspect of demand for coal, problems pertaining to the expansion of application, and a proposal for the expansion of coal usage are described in order. The role of coal expected as an alternate fuel for petroleum, development of new application fields for coal, conversion to coal, contribution of Japan to the stablization of international coal supply are outlined. Coal renaissance aims, based on technology, at stimulation of coal demand, change in the image of coal, and the utilization of the accumulated abundant knowhow. The aspect of coal demand in 2000, solution and current status of various restricting factors relating to the use of coal in general industry, and the remaining problems are discussed. 6 figures, 10 tables.

  2. Coal slurries: An environmental bonus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

    1994-01-01

    Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference

  3. Coal gasification integration with solid oxide fuel cell and chemical looping combustion for high-efficiency power generation with inherent CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shiyi; Lior, Noam; Xiang, Wenguo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel power system integrating coal gasification with SOFC and chemical looping combustion. • The plant net power efficiency reaches 49.8% with complete CO 2 separation. • Energy and exergy analysis of the entire plant is conducted. • Sensitivity analysis shows a nearly constant power output when SOFC temperature and pressure vary. • NiO oxygen carrier shows higher plant efficiency than using Fe 2 O 3 and CuO. - Abstract: Since solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) produce electricity with high energy conversion efficiency, and chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a process for fuel conversion with inherent CO 2 separation, a novel combined cycle integrating coal gasification, solid oxide fuel cell, and chemical looping combustion was configured and analyzed. A thermodynamic analysis based on energy and exergy was performed to investigate the performance of the integrated system and its sensitivity to major operating parameters. The major findings include that (1) the plant net power efficiency reaches 49.8% with ∼100% CO 2 capture for SOFC at 900 °C, 15 bar, fuel utilization factor = 0.85, fuel reactor temperature = 900 °C and air reactor temperature = 950 °C, using NiO as the oxygen carrier in the CLC unit. (2) In this parameter neighborhood the fuel utilization factor, the SOFC temperature and SOFC pressure have small effects on the plant net power efficiency because changes in pressure and temperature that increase the power generation by the SOFC tend to decrease the power generation by the gas turbine and steam cycle, and v.v.; an advantage of this system characteristic is that it maintains a nearly constant power output even when the temperature and pressure vary. (3) The largest exergy loss is in the gasification process, followed by those in the CO 2 compression and the SOFC. (4) Compared with the CLC Fe 2 O 3 and CuO oxygen carriers, NiO results in higher plant net power efficiency. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first

  4. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  5. Coal-to-liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.W.

    2006-03-15

    With crude oil prices rocketing, many of the oil poor, but coal rich countries are looking at coal-to-liquid as an alternative fuel stock. The article outlines the two main types of coal liquefaction technology: direct coal liquefaction and indirect coal liquefaction. The latter may form part of a co-production (or 'poly-generation') project, being developed in conjunction with IGCC generation projects, plus the production of other chemical feedstocks and hydrogen. The main part of the article, based on a 'survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research' reviews coal-to-liquids projects in progress in the following countries: Australia, China, India, New Zealand, the Philippines, Qatar and the US. 2 photos.

  6. Synergetic and inhibition effects in carbon dioxide gasification of blends of coals and biomass fuels of Indian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyam Naidu, V; Aghalayam, P; Jayanti, S

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigates the enhancement of CO2 gasification reactivity of coals due to the presence of catalytic elements in biomass such as K2O, CaO, Na2O and MgO. Co-gasification of three Indian coal chars with two biomass chars has been studied using isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in CO2 environment at 900, 1000 and 1100°C. The conversion profiles have been used to establish synergetic or inhibitory effect on coal char reactivity by the presence of catalytic elements in biomass char by comparing the 90% conversion time with and without biomass. It is concluded that both biomasses exhibit synergistic behavior when blended with the three coals with casuarina being more synergetic than empty fruit bunch. Some inhibitory effect has been noted for the high ash coal at the highest temperature with higher 90% conversion time for the blend over pure coal, presumably due to diffusional control of the conversion rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimal planning of co-firing alternative fuels with coal in a power plant by grey nonlinear mixed integer programming model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koa, A.S.; Chang, N.B. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Dept. for Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2008-07-15

    Energy supply and use is of fundamental importance to society. Although the interactions between energy and environment were originally local in character, they have now widened to cover regional and global issues, such as acid rain and the greenhouse effect. It is for this reason that there is a need for covering the direct and indirect economic and environmental impacts of energy acquisition, transport, production and use. In this paper, particular attention is directed to ways of resolving conflict between economic and environmental goals by encouraging a power plant to consider co-firing biomass and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal simultaneously. It aims at reducing the emission level of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in an uncertain environment, using the power plant in Michigan City, Indiana as an example. To assess the uncertainty by a comparative way both deterministic and grey nonlinear mixed integer programming (MIP) models were developed to minimize the net operating cost with respect to possible fuel combinations. It aims at generating the optimal portfolio of alternative fuels while maintaining the same electricity generation simultaneously. To case the solution procedure stepwise relaxation algorithm was developed for solving the grey nonlinear MIP model. Breakeven alternative fuel value can be identified in the post-optimization stage for decision-making. Research findings show that the inclusion of RDF does not exhibit comparative advantage in terms of the net cost, albeit relatively lower air pollution impact. Yet it can be sustained by a charge system, subsidy program, or emission credit as the price of coal increases over time.

  8. Optimal planning of co-firing alternative fuels with coal in a power plant by grey nonlinear mixed integer programming model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Andi Setiady; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-07-01

    Energy supply and use is of fundamental importance to society. Although the interactions between energy and environment were originally local in character, they have now widened to cover regional and global issues, such as acid rain and the greenhouse effect. It is for this reason that there is a need for covering the direct and indirect economic and environmental impacts of energy acquisition, transport, production and use. In this paper, particular attention is directed to ways of resolving conflict between economic and environmental goals by encouraging a power plant to consider co-firing biomass and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal simultaneously. It aims at reducing the emission level of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) in an uncertain environment, using the power plant in Michigan City, Indiana as an example. To assess the uncertainty by a comparative way both deterministic and grey nonlinear mixed integer programming (MIP) models were developed to minimize the net operating cost with respect to possible fuel combinations. It aims at generating the optimal portfolio of alternative fuels while maintaining the same electricity generation simultaneously. To ease the solution procedure stepwise relaxation algorithm was developed for solving the grey nonlinear MIP model. Breakeven alternative fuel value can be identified in the post-optimization stage for decision-making. Research findings show that the inclusion of RDF does not exhibit comparative advantage in terms of the net cost, albeit relatively lower air pollution impact. Yet it can be sustained by a charge system, subsidy program, or emission credit as the price of coal increases over time.

  9. The marriage of gas turbines and coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajura, R.A.; Webb, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on developing gas turbine systems that can use coal or a coal-based fuel ensures that the United States will have cost-effective environmentally sound options for supplying future power generation needs. Power generation systems that marry coal or a coal-based fuel to a gas turbine? Some matchmakers would consider this an unlikely marriage. Historically, most gas turbines have been operated only on premium fuels, primarily natural gas or distillate oil. The perceived problems from using coal or coal-based fuels in turbines are: Erosion and deposition: Coal ash particles in the hot combustion gases passing through the expander turbine could erode or deposit on the turbine blades. Corrosion: Coal combustion will release alkali compounds form the coal ash. Alkali in the hot gases passing through the expander turbine can cause corrosion of high-temperature metallic surfaces. Emissions: coal contains higher levels of ash, fuel-bound sulfur and nitrogen compounds, and trace contaminants than premium fuels. Meeting stringent environmental regulations for particulates, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and trace contaminants will be difficult. Economics: Coal-based systems are expensive to build. The difference in price between coal and premium fuels must be large enough to justify the higher capital cost

  10. Lab-scale co-firing of virgin and torrefied bamboo species Guadua angustifolia Kunth as a fuel substitute in coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryda, Lydia; Daza, Claudia; Pels, Jan; Janssen, Arno; Zwart, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo is a potential sustainable biomass source for renewable heat and power production as it presents common fuel characteristics with other biomass feedstocks regarding heating value and chemical composition. This paper presents an evaluation of the combustion behaviour of the bamboo species Guadua angustifolia Kunth, virgin as well as torrefied, in blends with coal or pure, comparing with other biomass feedstocks such as wood and herbaceous biomass. The bamboo pre-treatment and the combustion experiments were carried out at dedicated installations at ECN, including a laboratory scale batch torrefaction reactor and a combustion simulation test facility. The results on combustion and co-firing reveal that in terms of fouling, the untreated bamboo shows behaviour closer to herbaceous biomass rather than to wood, with specific fouling factors of wood, bamboo and herbaceous biomass of 0.91·10 −3 , 2.9·10 −3 , 3.1·10 −3  K·m 2 ·W −1 ·g −1 respectively. Dry torrefaction improves its physical properties by increasing the density and grindability without improving significantly its fouling behaviour while the fouling behaviour of wet torrefied bamboo is similar to woody biomass; the specific fouling factors of dry torrefied and wet torrefied bamboo are 2.4·10 −3 and 0.89·10 −3  K·m 2 ·W −1 ·g −1 respectively. The fouling behaviour of biomass and coal blends lies between the fuels of the blend. Alternative bamboo species were evaluated using the alkali index A i based on their fuel composition. It appears that the fouling behaviour of alternative species is better than for G. angustifolia, therefore these should be further analysed. - Highlights: • Bamboo species Guadua angustifolia is a promising feedstock for power generation. • Dry and wet torrefaction of selected samples were carried out at ECN. • Virgin (untreated) and pretreated samples were fired pure or in coal blends. • Pretreated bamboo is suitable for large scale power

  11. Coal princes on the world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The prices on fuel and coking coals on the world market are presented. The data on specific combustion heat content of volatile substances, sulfur and ash content of the corresponding types of coals are also given

  12. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  13. The brown coal. Present state and development perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagenknecht, J.

    1994-01-01

    A present state of Polish power plants fueled by brown coal is presented. Their economic results are compared with the achievements of power stations fueled by black coal. The basic data concerning brown coal reserves, production and consumption are given. The problems of environmental protection are discussed. The different applications of brown coal are mentioned. Its importance for energy balance is stressed. 6 tabs

  14. Co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system with coal and refuse derived fuels and/or sludges. Task 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLallo, M.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1994-01-01

    The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal waste. Leading this approach, the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The fluidized bed, with its stability of combustion, reduces the amount of thermochemical transients and provides for easier process control. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), tire-derived fuel (TDF), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

  15. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  16. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  17. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  18. Bio-coal briquettes using low-grade coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiaty, L. M.; Fatimah, D.; Widodo

    2018-02-01

    The technology in using briquettes for fuel has been widely used in many countries for both domestic and industrial purposes. Common types of briquette used are coal, peat, charcoal, and biomass. Several researches have been carried out in regards to the production and the use of briquettes. Recently, researches show that mixing coal and biomass will result in an environmentally friendly briquette with better combustion and physical characteristics. This type of briquette is known as bio-coal briquettes. Bio-coal briquettes are made from agriculture waste and coal, which are readily available, cheap and affordable. Researchers make these bio-coal briquettes with different aims and objectives, depending on the issues to address, e.g. utilizing agricultural waste as an alternative energy to replace fossil fuels that are depleting its reserves, adding coal to biomass in order to add calorific value to bio-coal briquette, and adding biomass to coal to improve its chemical and physical properties. In our research, biocoal briquettes are made to utilize low grade coal. The biomass we use, however, is different from the ones used in past researches because it has undergone fermentation. The benefits of using such biomass are 1. Fermentation turns the hemi cellulose into a simpler form, so that the burning activation energy decreases while the calorific value increases. 2. Enzym produced will bind to heavy metals from coal as co-factors, forming metals that are environmentally friendly.

  19. Low cost combustion tuning and fuel nozzles modification to reduce NOx emission in large coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Chudnovsky; L. Levin; A. Talanker; E. Bar-Ziv; A. Vikhansky; A.F. Sarofim [Israel Electric Corporation (IEC), Haifa (Israel)

    2003-07-01

    This work focuses on low-cost combustion tuning to reduce NOx emission in coal-fired tangential boilers, testing the furnace in various operation modes. We have also experimented different coal nozzle types. The measurements were accompanied by computer simulations of the combustion process. We also used an on-line supervision system. The data obtained from 575 MW boilers show that with tuning and modified nozzles NOx was considerably reduced. The emission of NOx was reduced from 1200 to 570 mg/dNm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2} for South African coal at full load. At partial load NOx emission dropped from 1400 to 750-850 mg/dNm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2}. High volatile coal firing led to additional NOx reduction. A series of tests were performed with Colombian and Indonesian coals as well, dropping NOx emission to 400-450 mg/dNm{sup 3} at6% O{sub 2} at full load. Sootblowing optimization using the supervision system enabled us to further reduce NOx emission by approximately 10%. The boiler and unit performance was not influenced by any of the techniques used for NOx reduction. In such a manner, the results presented in this work clearly show that technological methods for reduction NOx are available and capable of obtaining the required NOx emission. We believe that the conclusions of the present study are general and may be applied to other utility boilers as well. 13 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  1. Economic outlook for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis Casey.

    1997-01-01

    Coal still a fundamental component of two major industries in New South Wales- electricity production and steel making. Its future will be shaped by its ability to meet expected international increases in demand for thermal coal, and by profitability and possible impact of greenhouse strategy decisions. By 2002 the demand for the State's coal is estimated at a total of 116 million tons and it expected to play an increased role in the fuel mix for electricity generation because of its competitive price, established technologies and abundant supply

  2. Dry syngas purification process for coal gas produced in oxy-fuel type integrated gasification combined cycle power generation with carbon dioxide capturing feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Akiho, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-01

    Electricity production from coal fuel with minimizing efficiency penalty for the carbon dioxide abatement will bring us sustainable and compatible energy utilization. One of the promising options is oxy-fuel type Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (oxy-fuel IGCC) power generation that is estimated to achieve thermal efficiency of 44% at lower heating value (LHV) base and provide compressed carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) with concentration of 93 vol%. The proper operation of the plant is established by introducing dry syngas cleaning processes to control halide and sulfur compounds satisfying tolerate contaminants level of gas turbine. To realize the dry process, the bench scale test facility was planned to demonstrate the first-ever halide and sulfur removal with fixed bed reactor using actual syngas from O 2 -CO 2 blown gasifier for the oxy-fuel IGCC power generation. Design parameter for the test facility was required for the candidate sorbents for halide removal and sulfur removal. Breakthrough test was performed on two kinds of halide sorbents at accelerated condition and on honeycomb desulfurization sorbent at varied space velocity condition. The results for the both sorbents for halide and sulfur exhibited sufficient removal within the satisfactory short depth of sorbent bed, as well as superior bed conversion of the impurity removal reaction. These performance evaluation of the candidate sorbents of halide and sulfur removal provided rational and affordable design parameters for the bench scale test facility to demonstrate the dry syngas cleaning process for oxy-fuel IGCC system as the scaled up step of process development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coal business heats up in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, M. [CN Rail (United States)

    2002-03-01

    The fact that CN's Coal Business Unit moved just under 50 million t of coal in 2001 would have been unimaginable just a year earlier, as CN's coal franchise faced a number of challenges last year. On the metallurgical side, where bituminous coal is used in steel production, rising extraction costs in relation to national and international values forced the closure of three CN-served mines in 2000: TeckCominco's Quinteet mine in British Columbia; Smoky River Coal's Smoky River facility and Luscar's Gregg River mine, Alberta. As for thermal coal, utilities had been moving to alternative fuels, maintaining only low coal inventories, and there were few plans for new coal plants. The article explains how North America's railroad helps fuel growing demand for thermal and metallurgical coal. 5 photos.

  4. Automated cost modeling for coal combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on cost information developed at AMAX R and D Center for coal-water slurry production implemented in an automated spreadsheet (Lotus 123) for personal computer use. The spreadsheet format allows the user toe valuate impacts of various process options, coal feedstock characteristics, fuel characteristics, plant location sites, and plant sizes on fuel cost. Model flexibility reduces time and labor required to determine fuel costs and provides a basis to compare fuels manufactured by different processes. The model input includes coal characteristics, plant flowsheet definition, plant size, and market location. Based on these inputs, selected unit operations are chosen for coal processing

  5. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  6. Field test corrosion experiments in Denmark with biomass fuels Part II Co-firing of straw and coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH

    2002-01-01

    undertaken where coal has been co-fired with 10% straw and 20% straw (% energy basis) for up to approx. 3000 hours. Two types of exposure were undertaken to investigate corrosion: a) the exposure of metal rings on water/air cooled probes, and b) the exposure of a range of materials built into the existing...... and potassium sulphate. These components give rise to varying degrees of accelerated corrosion. This paper concerns co-firing of straw with coal to reduce the corrosion rate from straw to an acceptable level. A field investigation at Midtkraft Studstrup suspension-fired power plant in Denmark has been...... for 100% straw-firing. The corrosion products and course of corrosion for the various steel types were investigated using light optical and scanning electron microscopy. Catastrophic corrosion due to potassium chloride was not observed. Instead a more modest corrosion rate due to potassium sulphate rich...

  7. Industrial use of coal and clean coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibson, I; Plante, J J.M.

    1990-06-01

    This report builds upon two reports published in 1988, namely {ital The use of Coal in the Industrial, Commercial, Residential and Transportation Sectors} and {ital Innovative Clean Coal Technology Deployment}, and provides more specific recommendations pertaining to coal use in the US industrial sector. The first chapter addresses industrial boilers which are common to many industrial users. The subsequent nine chapters cover the following: coke, iron and steel industries; aluminium and other metals; glass, brick, ceramic, and gypsum industries; cement and lime industries; pulp and paper industry; food and kindred products; durable goods industry; textile industry; refining and chemical industry. In addition, appendices supporting the contents of the study are provided. Each chapter covers the following topics as applicable: energy overview of the industry sector being discussed; basic processes; foreign experience; impediments to coal use; incentives that could make coal a fuel of choice; current and projected use of clean coal technology; identification of coal technology needs; conclusions; recommendations.

  8. Enhancing instruction in Fuels and Combustion Laboratory via a developed computer-assisted program for establishing efficient coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) fuel proportions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglaya, A.B. [La Salle University, Manila (Philippines). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of digital computation in Fuels and Combustion Laboratory experiments used by the senior students of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, De La Salle University-Manila, Philippines. One of the students' experiments involved the determination of the most efficient CDOM fuel proportion as alternative fuel to diesel oil for steam generators and other industrial applications. Theoretical calculations show that it requires tedious and repetitive computations. A computer-assisted program was developed to lessen the time-consuming activities. The formulation of algorithms were based on the system of equations of the heat interaction between the CDOM fuel, combustion air and products of combustion and by applying the principles of mass and energy equations (or the First Law of Thermodynamics) for reacting systems were utilized. The developed computer-assisted program output verified alternative fuel selected through actual experimentation.

  9. CVFA: Coal vendor financial advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goote, W.G.; Andersen, S.

    1992-01-01

    An expert system for determining coal vendor financial viability in fuel purchasing contracts at an electric utility is described. The system blends rules, data objects, and financial knowledge to provide a rational basis for accepting or rejecting coal contracts given the financial capability of the coal vendor. The discussion concludes with a critique of managerial issues in the development of the system and its use in decision making. 3 refs., 1 fig

  10. The new deal of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaydjian, F.; Cornot-Gandolphe, S.

    2008-01-01

    While coal appears as an inescapable resource to answer the energy needs of the 21. century, its highly CO 2 emitting combustion represents a major risk with respect to the requirements of the fight against climate change. In the first part of this book, the basic aspects of energy markets are explained and in particular the role that coal is going to play in the world's energy supplies. In the second part, the new coal usages are presented, which, combined with CO 2 capture and sequestration techniques, should allow to conciliate a massive use of coal and the respect of environmental constraints. This book is based on the works presented in February 2008 by the French institute of petroleum (IFP) about the new outlets of coal and the risks for climate change. Content: 1 - coal, energy of the 21. century: abundant and well distributed reserves; growing up world production; exponential world demand; international trade: still limited but in full expansion; 2 - Technologies for a CO 2 -free coal: CO 2 capture and sequestration technologies; towards poly-generation; production of coal-derived liquid fuels; 3 - Appendices: coals formation; coal in China: status and perspectives; coal in the USA: status and perspectives; coal in India: status and perspectives; COACH: an ambitious European project; CBM - E-CBM, status and perspectives. (J.S.)

  11. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C

    2000-07-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested

  12. Present state in coal preparation. Stanje u pripremi uglja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevremovic, C. (Rudarsko-Geoloski Fakultet, Tuzla (Yugoslavia))

    1990-01-01

    Describes the low technological state of Yugoslav coal enterprises,in particular of those that exploit low grade lignite and brown coal with high ash and sulfur content. Unadjusted coal prices (almost the same price level for low and high energy coal) and absence of stringent laws on environmental pollution are regarded as main reasons for the low technological level of coal preparation and beneficiation plants. Modern preparation equipment for coal classification, coal washing, coal drying and briquetting is pointed out. Advanced coal carbonization and gasification should have a wider application in Yugoslavia for reducing environmental pollution and producing clean fuel.

  13. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Test result report - 2/3); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Shiken kekka hokokusho 2/3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, a pilot test facility was constructed, and the results of tests and inspections conducted therefor are put together. They include an individual test of the receiving pit hopper vibrator, individual test of the pulverized coal related rotary valve, individual test of the pretreatment compressed air fan, individual test of the coal pulverizer lubricating device, individual test of the coal pulverizer pressure device, individual test of the coal pulverizer, individual test of the coal pulverizer motor, individual test of the coal feeder, individual test of the pulverized coal bunker exhaust fan, individual test of the pulverized coal bunker exhaust fan motor, test of capacity for pulverized coal, individual test of the pulverized coal conveyer blower, test of the sequence of the same, test of pulverizer inert clearing, individual test of the pretreatment condensed water pump in the coal pretreatment device, test of airborne conveyance in the same, verification test of inter-hopper transfer in the same, test of coal pulverization in the same, test operation of the raw material air/low pressure nitrogen compressor in the air separation facility, test operation of the raw material air freezer in the same, and a test operation of the MS adsorber/MS regeneration electric heater. (NEDO)

  14. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  15. A scanning electron microscopy study of ash, char, deposits and fuels from straw combustion and co-combustion of coal and straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund Soerensen, H.

    1998-07-01

    The SEM-study of samples from straw combustion and co-combustion of straw and coal have yielded a reference selection of representative images that will be useful for future comparison. The sample material encompassed potential fuels (wheat straw and grain), bottom ash, fly ash and deposits from straw combustion as well as fuels (coal and wheat straw), chars, bottom ash, fly ash and deposits from straw + coal co-combustion. Additionally, a variety of laboratory ashes were studied. SEM and CCSEM analysis of the samples have given a broad view of the inorganic components of straw and of the distribution of elements between individual ash particles and deposits. The CCSEM technique does, however, not detect dispersed inorganic elements in biomass, so to get a more complete visualization of the distribution of inorganic elements additional analyses must be performed, for example progressive leaching. In contrast, the CCSEM technique is efficient in characterizing the distribution of elements in ash particles and between ash fractions and deposits. The data for bottom ashes and fly ashes have indicated that binding of potassium to silicates occurs to a significant extent. The silicates can either be in the form of alumino-silicates or quartz (in co-combustion) or be present as straw-derived amorphous silica (in straw combustion). This process is important for two reasons. One is that potasium lowers the melting point of silica in the fly ash, potentially leading to troublesome deposits by particle impaction and sticking to heat transfer surfaces. The other is that the reaction between potassium and silica in the bottom ash binds part of the potassium meaning that it is not available for reaction with chlorine or sulphur to form KCl or K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Both phases are potentially troublesome because they can condense of surfaces to form a sticky layer onto which fly ash particles can adhere and by inducing corrosion beneath the deposit. It appears that in the studied

  16. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas-Fueled Power Plants: August 2012 - December 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, S. [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States); Jordan, G. [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States); O' Connor, M. [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States); Kumar, N. [Intertek AIM, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Lefton, S. [Intertek AIM, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Lew, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cochran, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar power plants can induce on/off cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generators. This can lead to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions for fossil-fueled generators. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) determined these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations to investigate the full impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This report studies the costs and benefits of retrofitting existing units for improved operational flexibility (i.e., capability to turndown lower, start and stop faster, and ramp faster between load set-points).

  17. Combustion of oil shale, fluidized coal and pyrolysis fuel oil in a gas turbine for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korosi, A; Basler, B; Pepper, M W

    1984-04-01

    A combustion test programme has been carried out with a Brown, Boveri and Cie. (BBC) type 9, gas turbine, at the BBC works in Muenchenstein, Switzerland, in order to clarify the combustion possibilities of three unconventional fuels. The programme has been organized and financed by BBC, Stone and Webster and Exxon. Approximately 95,000 litres of each fuel at various turbine load conditions have been burned. At certain points water was injected for NOsub(x) reduction. The tests show that the commercially available gas turbine can be used without modification with these tested, unconventional fuels. They also show that direct application of inferior petrochemical materials, which are produced today, is possible.

  18. Connect the Spheres with the Coal Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    Coal fueled the Industrial Revolution and, as a result, changed the course of human history. However, the geologic history of coal is much, much longer than that which is recorded by humans. In your classroom, the coal cycle can be used to trace the formation of this important economic resource from its plant origins, through its lithification, or…

  19. 48 CFR 908.7110 - Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coal. 908.7110 Section 908... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7110 Coal. DOE offices and authorized contractors may participate in the Defense Fuel Supply Center (DFSC) coal contracting program for...

  20. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-Biomass to Liquid Jet Fuel Compared to Petroleum-Derived JP-8 Jet Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    is a Metal Deactivator Additive (MDA) to prevent fuel oxidation with trace metals such as copper or zinc that may be in the jet fuel (MIL- HDBK-510-1...react in the FT synthesis process). The gasifier is of the slagging type and a direct contact water quench spray system is used to cool the syngas...exiting the gasifier. The quench also removes particulate matter and contaminants not removed in the slag . However, because the ash from biomass is

  1. Comparative Study of Coal and Biomass Co-Combustion With Coal Burning Separately Through Emissions Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Siddique; Suhail Ahmed Soomro; Aziza Aftab; Zahid Naeem Qaisrani; Abdul Sattar Jatoi; Asadullah; Ghulamullah Khan; Ehsanullah Kakar

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate eco-friendly methods to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal & coal-biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass' were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves. Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal-biomass blends and their ...

  2. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  3. The importance of coal in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, Guven

    2006-01-01

    An 87% of the total energy requirement of the world is supplied by fossil fuels such as coal, fuel oil, and natural gas, while the rest comes from the other sources, like hydroelectric and nuclear power plants. Coal, as a fuel oil equivalent, has the greatest reserves (70%) among the fossil fuels and is very commonly found in the world. While the share of coal in the production of electricity was 39% in 2004 it is expected to rise to 48% in 2020. In the direction of sustainable development, the utilization of coal in energy production is constantly increasing and related researches are continuing. Today, the development and economics of hybrid electricity production; gas, fluid fuel, and hydrogen production from coal are being investigated and their industrial applications are slowly emerging. The surprisingly sharp increase in fuel oil and natural gas prices proves the defectiveness of the energy strategies of Turkey in effect since the 1990. Turkey should turn to coal without wasting more time, accept the utilization of clean coal in energy production, and determine her road-map. Increasing the efficiency of thermal power plants which utilize coal; hybrid technology; and gas, fluid fuel, and hydrogen production technologies from coal are investigated in this paper and suggestions are made.

  4. Fuel resources in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The total resources of fossil fuel in the country are estimated (rounded off into billion m/sup 3/ of oil equivalent) as 30--oil 22, natural gas 4 and coal 4. The explored reserves are 2.39--oil 1.68, natural gas 0.25 and coal 0.46. The main type of fuel in the fuel and energy balance of the country is oil. Coal is used in limited quantity in cement, ceramic and other sectors of industry. Outlook for development of the coal industry is discussed in relation to the planned use of coal at the TES.

  5. Coal industry - memoranda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This paper contains 41 memoranda submitted to the UK House of Commons Energy Committee containing views on the UK coal industry and responses to questions from the Select Committee. The following organizations are represented: Department of Energy; National Coal Board; APEX; BACM; NACODS; NUM; UDM; TUC; CEGB; Electricity Council; Northern Ireland Electricity Service; SSEB; British Gas Corporation; BP; Conoco (UK) Ltd.; Costain Mining Ltd.; Shell UK Ltd.; BSC; ICI; Boots; CBI; PSA; Solid Fuel Advisory Service; Domestic Coal Consumers Council; Associated Heat Services; Association of Shell Boilermakers; Babcock Power Ltd.; GEC; Foster Wheeler Power Products; ABMEC; British Longwall Mining Association; Federation of Civil Engineering Contractors; Federation of Small Mines of Great Britain; Chamber of Coal Traders; Coalfield Communities Campaign; Nottinghamshire County Council; Federation of Self-Employed and Small Businesses; the Colombian, Belgian and Netherlands Embassies; and Plaid Cymru.

  6. The Global Value of Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Coal plays an essential role in our global energy mix, particularly for power generation; and through that to the alleviation of energy poverty. The use of coal continues to grow rapidly and will continue, together with other fuels, to support world economic and social development particularly in rapidly developing world economies such as China and India. The purpose of this paper is to highlight for policy makers the value of coal to world economic and social development and so encourage development of a policy environment that will allow the coal and electricity industries to make the necessary investments in production capacity and CO2 emissions reduction technologies.

  7. Characterization of coal-derived liquids and other fossil-fuel-related materials employing mass spectrometry. Final report, September 30, 1976-September 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheppele, S E

    1982-05-01

    A document was prepared which assessed the state-of-the art in the mass spectrometric characterization of fossil fuel materials and the relevance of these data to the fossil fuel industry. A Kratos DS50 SM data system was successfully interfaced to a CEC 21-110B mass spectrometer. Communications between the NOVA 3/12 computer in the data system and the OSU central computer were established. A Grant Comparator/Microdensitometer was acquired and made operational. Plans were developed and hardware acquired for interfacing the densitometer to the NOVA 3/12 computer. A quartz direct introduction probe was acquired for the CEC 21-110B. A temperature controller for the probe was acquired and interfaced to the slow speed ADC on the auxillary board in the data system/mass spectrometer interface. The combined FI/EI source was modified to operate in the FD mode and an apparatus was fabricated for conditioning FD emitters. A CSI supergrater 3 was interfaced to the PE 3920 gas chromatograph. The upgraded facility was used to develop mass spectrometric methods for the characterization of fossil fuel materials and to apply methods to the characterization of these materials. Activities included: (1) initial development of field-ionization mass spectrometry for the characterization of saturated hydrocarbons, (2) computerization of the technique of probe microdistillation/mass spectrometry, (3) initation of the development of a new method for the computer assisted assignment of formulas to ion masses, (4) characterization of neutral fractions from a hydrotreated tar-sands oil, and (5) characterization of coal-derived oils and asphaltenes.

  8. New coal-based energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1986-01-01

    Conversion of coal into liquid fuels or into coal gas is considered and the use of high temperature nuclear reactors whose waste heat can be used for remote (district) heating mentioned. The use of high temperature reactors as energy source for coal gasification is also examined and, finally, the extraction of heat from combined coal, steel and high temperature nuclear reactors is suggested. (G.M.E.)

  9. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  10. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooher, J.P. [Adelphi Univ., Garden City, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  11. Modeling and techno-economic analysis of shale-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid fuels processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huairong; Yang, Siyu; Xiao, Honghua; Yang, Qingchun; Qian, Yu; Gao, Li

    2016-01-01

    To alleviate the conflict between oil supply and demand, Chinese government has accelerated exploration and exploitation of alternative oil productions. STL (Shale-to-liquid) processes and CTL (coal-to-liquid) processes are promising choices to supply oil. However, few analyses have been made on their energy efficiency and economic performance. This paper conducts a detailed analysis of a STL process and a CTL process based on mathematical modeling and simulation. Analysis shows that low efficiency of the STL process is due to low oil yield of the Fushun-type retorting technology. For the CTL process, the utility system provides near to 34% energy consumption of the total. This is because that CTL technologies are in early development and no heat integration between units is implemented. Economic analysis reveals that the total capital investment of the CTL process is higher than that of the STL process. The production cost of the CTL process is right on the same level as that of the STL process. For better techno-economic performance, it is suggested to develop a new retorting technology of high oil yield for the STL process. The remaining retorting gas should be converted to hydrogen and then used for shale oil hydrogenation. For the CTL process, developing an appropriate heat network is an efficient way to apply heat integration. In addition, the CTL process is intended to be integrated with hydrogen rich gas to adjust H_2/CO for better resource utilization. - Highlights: • Aspen Plus software is used for modeling and simulation of a shale-to-liquid (STL) and a coal-to-liquid (CTL) processes. • Techno-economic analysis of STL and CTL processes is conducted. • Suggestions are given for improving energy efficiency and economic performance of STL and CTL processes.

  12. Clean Coal Day '94 Hokkaido International Seminar; Clean coal day '94 Hokkaido kokusai seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    The lectures given at the seminar were 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Clean coal technology in the United Kingdom, and 3) How clean coal should be in Australia. In lecture 1), remarks are made on the importance of coal and its future, coal that protects forest, whether coal is a dirty fuel, coal combustion tests started relative to environmental pollution, acid rain in China and coal combustion, briquets effective in energy conservation, etc. In lecture 2), remarks are made on the importance of coal utilization in the United Kingdom, current state of coal utilization in power generation, problems related to gasification furnaces, problems related to combustors, problems related to high-temperature gas cleaning, function of cleaning filters, advantages of high-temperature gas treatment, actualities of gas combustors, studies of gas combustors, etc. In lecture 3), remarks are made on Australia's coal situation, problems related to clean coal technology, problems related to coal preparation technology, potentialities of Australian brown coal, coal utilization in power generation, need of new technology development, current state of coal utilization in Australia, coal utilization in metal-making industry, international cooperation on technology, etc. (NEDO)

  13. Clean Coal Day '94 Hokkaido International Seminar; Clean coal day '94 Hokkaido kokusai seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    The lectures given at the seminar were 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Clean coal technology in the United Kingdom, and 3) How clean coal should be in Australia. In lecture 1), remarks are made on the importance of coal and its future, coal that protects forest, whether coal is a dirty fuel, coal combustion tests started relative to environmental pollution, acid rain in China and coal combustion, briquets effective in energy conservation, etc. In lecture 2), remarks are made on the importance of coal utilization in the United Kingdom, current state of coal utilization in power generation, problems related to gasification furnaces, problems related to combustors, problems related to high-temperature gas cleaning, function of cleaning filters, advantages of high-temperature gas treatment, actualities of gas combustors, studies of gas combustors, etc. In lecture 3), remarks are made on Australia's coal situation, problems related to clean coal technology, problems related to coal preparation technology, potentialities of Australian brown coal, coal utilization in power generation, need of new technology development, current state of coal utilization in Australia, coal utilization in metal-making industry, international cooperation on technology, etc. (NEDO)

  14. Coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    ACR's Coal 1992, the successor to the ACR Coal Marketing Manual, contains a comprehensive set of data on many aspects of the Australian coal industry for several years leading up to 1992. Tables and text give details of coal production and consumption in New South Wales, Queensland and other states. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, China, Colombia, Poland and ex-USSR. Also listed are prices of Australian coking and non-coking coal, Australian coal stocks (and those of other major countries), loading port capacities, freight rates and coal quality requirements (analysis of coals by brand and supplier). A listing of Australian coal exporting companies is provided. A description of the spot Coal Screen Dealing System is given. World hard coal imports are listed by country and coal imports by major Asian countries tabulated. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is included.

  15. Computer-aided planning of brown coal seam mining in regard to coal quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesielski, R.; Lehmann, A.; Rabe, H.; Richter, S.

    1988-09-01

    Discusses features of the geologic SORVER software developed at the Freiberg Fuel Institute, GDR. The program processes geologic data from exploratory wells, petrographic characteristics of a coal seam model, technological mining parameters and coal quality requirements of consumers. Brown coal reserves of coking coal, gasification coal, briquetting coal and steam coal are calculated. Vertical seam profiles and maps of seam horizon isolines can be plotted using the program. Coal quality reserves along the surface of mine benches, mining block widths and lengths for excavators, maximum possible production of individual coal qualities by selective mining, and coal quality losses due to mining procedures are determined. The program is regarded as a means of utilizing deposit reserves more efficiently. 5 refs.

  16. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  17. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  18. Coal technology in a sustainable society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    Coal is a major world energy resource. For many countries it is the primary fuel in electricity generation. As world energy demand increases so also will the demand for coal. Steel and aluminium-essential elements in the fabric of modern society -also rely heavily on coal. This article points out that the Australian coal industry is responding to the challenges facing coal by investigating a sustainable development strategy and examining the full life cycle outcomes of coal as fuel and reductant. The challenge is to deliver much more efficient ways of extracting energy from coal. The most effective strategies are seen to be: ash displacement credits, synergies with renewables and integration with other industries

  19. Ninth annual coal-fueled heat engines, advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustion, and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Welcoming address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    The market for retrofit and new capacity in the electric utility is expected to be very large: 250 gigawatt (GW) and 500 GW by the year 2030--an amount which equals the presently installed capacity in the US Overseas, the market is even larger exclamation point This large market will be driven by a number of key ''drivers.'' In order for power generation systems to compete in this market, they will have to satisfy the market drivers. This will lead us inevitably to modular, low cost, super clean, efficient, and reliable products which are fuel flexible and can meet either retrofit, repowering, or new capacity applications. I believe clean coal technologies that we are developing will meet these market demands and will penetrate--and eventually dominate--the power generation market of the next century. But for this market penetration and widespread deployment to take place, the products we are jointly developing must be continuously improved. We must together set our goals on a rapid march down the learning curve from the present high ''projected costs'' of these systems to an acceptable market clearing price on the order of $1000 to $1200 per kilowatt (kw) and with heat rates approaching 7500 Btu per kilowatt-hour (kWh). The projected learning curve for integrated gasification combined cycle systems is a good illustration of the aggressive goals we need to achieve

  20. Catalytic hydroprocessing of coal-derived gasification residues to fuel blending stocks: effect of reaction variables and catalyst on hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), and hydrodesulfurization (HDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieter Leckel [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

    2006-10-15

    Gas liquors, tar oils, and tar products resulting from the coal gasification of a high-temperature Fischer-Tropsch plant can be successfully refined to fuel blending components by the use of severe hydroprocessing conditions. High operating temperatures and pressures combined with low space velocities ensure the deep hydrogenation of refractory oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. Hydrodeoxygenation, particularly the removal of phenolic components, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrodenitrogenation were obtained at greater than 99% levels using the NiMo and NiW on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Maximum deoxygenation activity was achieved using the NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst having a maximum pore size distribution in the range of 110-220{angstrom}. The NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, which also has a relatively high proportion of smaller pore sizes (35-60 {angstrom}), displays lower hydrogenation activity. 30 refs., 1 fig. 8 tabs.

  1. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  2. Latest condition of the steam coal market and outlook for supply cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, A.

    1988-11-01

    The following factors affecting coal prices are identified: rises in the prices of fuels which compete with coal, especially petroleum; the supply cost of coal; coal supply and demand; the balance of power between sellers and buyers; and foreign exchange rates. Coal supply costs are discussed. 5 figs.

  3. Successful completion of the development and testing of a coal to fuel cell grade hydrogen technology package for New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony H. Clemens; Tana P. Levi; Robert S. Whitney; Alister I. Gardiner

    2009-07-01

    A technology package for the production, from New Zealand lignite, of high purity hydrogen suitable for use in an alkaline fuel cell has been successfully developed and tested. The technology involves the integration of an air-blown 1 tonne per day fluidised bed gasifier with a range of downstream syngas clean-up components leading to the fuel cell. The development of the technology package was built on earlier work that showed New Zealand lignites to be among the most reactive in the world and well suited to fluidised bed gasification. The reason for their high reactivity was shown to be due to the presence of ion-exchanged calcium within the lignite structure. The clean-up line is comprised of some commonly used 'off the shelf' technologies. These include a cyclone and Venturi scrubber for particulate and condensables capture respectively and a high temperature water gas shift reactor. It also contains a less commonly used counterflow caustic wash packed column for H{sub 2}S removal and an experimental membrane for final hydrogen separation. The clean-up line is constructed so that it may be used to testbed other new syngas clean-up technologies. The paper describes the new technology package, considers several issues that arose during its development and how these were addressed. It also considers the future development of the technology including co-gasification with biomass and conversion to an oxygen blown unit for synfuel production. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Proceedings of the international symposium on coal - science, technology, industry, business, environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, K.S.; Sen, S. [eds.

    1996-12-31

    Papers were presented which covered the areas of coal science, advanced coal preparation, coal utilization, coal chemicals and the environment. These included carbon aromaticity, mineral studies, utilization of low rank coals, bioconversion of methane, swelling of coals, photocatalytic activity, flotation and effects of oxidation, microbial desulfurization, deashing, briquetting, commercial scale conversion of coal to fuels and chemicals, role of coal in iron and steel making, coal-water mixtures, dyes and chemical products, nitrogen oxides emissions and pollution control. 45 papers have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  5. Green-House-Gas-Reduced Coal-and-Biomass-to-Liquid-Based Jet Fuel (GHGR-CBTL) Process - Final Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Kenneth [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Imam, Thamina [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Chevanan, Nehru [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Namazian, Mehdi [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-11-03

    This Final Technical Report describes the work and accomplishments of the project entitled, “Green-House-Gas-Reduced Coal-and-Biomass-to-Liquid-Based Jet Fuel (GHGR-CBTL) Process”. The main objective of the project was to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the GHGR-CBTL fuel-production technology from TRL 4 to TRL 5 by producing a drop-in synthetic Jet Propellant 8 (JP-8) with a greenhouse-gas footprint less than or equal to petroleum-based JP-8 by utilizing mixtures of coal and biomass as the feedstock. The system utilizes the patented Altex fuel-production technology, which incorporates advanced catalysts developed by Pennsylvania State University. While the system was not fabricated and tested, major efforts were expended to design the 1-TPD and a full-scale plant. The system was designed, a Block-Flow Diagram (BFD), a Process-Flow Diagram (PFD), and Piping-and-Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs) were produced, a Bill of Materials (BOM) and associated spec sheets were produced, commercially available components were selected and procured, custom components were designed and fabricated, catalysts were developed and screened for performance, and permitting activities were conducted. Optimization tests for JP-8 production using C2 olefin as the feed were performed over a range of temperatures, pressures and WHSVs. Liquid yields of between 63 to 65% with 65% JP-8 fraction (41-42% JP-8 yield) at 50 psig were achieved. Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA) was performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and a GHGR-CBTL module was added to the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model. Based upon the experimental results, the plant design was reconfigured for zero natural-gas imports and minimal electricity imports. The LCA analysis of the reconfigured process utilizing the GREET model showed that if the char from the process was utilized to produce combined heat and power (CHP) then a feed containing 23 wt% biomass and

  6. Clean coal technology: coal's link to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Coal, the world's most abundant fossil fuel, is very important to the world's economy. It represents about 70% of the world's fossil energy reserves. It produces about 27% of the world's primary energy, 33% of the world's electricity, and it is responsible for about $21 billion in coal trade - in 1990, 424 million tons were traded on the international market. And, most importantly, because of its wide and even distribution throughout the world, and because of its availability, coal is not subject to the monopolistic practices of other energy options. How coal can meet future fuel demand in an economical, efficient and environmentally responsive fashion, with particular reference to the new technologies and their US applications is discussed. (author). 6 figs

  7. CCS. Coal's biggest challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ligang [CanmentENERGY, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Coal, next to oil, is the second most important energy source due to wide distribution and large quantity. Coal is a very economical fuel about $0.50/GJ-$2.50/GJ (NG usually is $6/GJ-$12/GJ. Currently it is $4.03/GJ for July, 2011 delivery). It is the largest fuel source for power generation: 40% world electricity is generated by coal; its shares are about 80% in China and 50% in the U.S. An extensive coal based energy infrastructure has been built up over the years and is in good service.

  8. Coal, energy and environment: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, J.S.; Hawse, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This international conference held in Czechoslovakia was a bold attempt to establish working relationships among scientists and engineers from three world areas: Taiwan, the United States of America, and Czechoslovakia. The magic words unifying this gathering were ''clean coal utilization.'' For the ten nationalities represented, the common elements were the clean use of coal as a domestic fuel and as a source of carbon, the efficient and clean use of coal in power generation, and other uses of coal in environmentally acceptable processes. These three world areas have serious environmental problems, differing in extent and nature, but sufficiently close to create a working community for discussions. Beyond this, Czechoslovakia is emerging from the isolation imposed by control from Moscow. The need for each of these nations to meet and know one another was imperative. The environmental problems in Czechoslovakia are extensive and deep-seated. These proceedings contain 63 papers grouped into the following sections: The research university and its relationship with accrediting associations, government and private industry; Recent advances in coal utilization research; New methods of mining and reclamation; Coal-derived waste disposal and utilization; New applications of coal and environmental technologies; Mineral and trace elements in coal; Human and environmental impacts of coal production and utilization in the Silesian/Moravian region; and The interrelationships between fossil energy use and environmental objectives. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  9. The application of the coal grain analysis method to coal liberation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, G.; Firth, B.; Adair, B. [CSIRO Earth Science & Resource Engineering Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    Emerging coal markets such as the use of coal for conversion to liquid fuels and its use in fuels cells and as coal water slurries in diesel engines require coal products with different coal quality specifications than those applicable to traditional coal markets of coke making and conventional power generation. As well as quantifying coals in terms of their chemical and physical properties, detailed knowledge of the mineral inclusions within the coal particles is required to identify coals that are suited to economically produce the low-ash value coals required for these markets. After mining and processing, some particles can consist of essentially pure components of a single maceral or mineral phase whilst others are composite particles that are comprised of varying amounts of macerals and minerals. The proportion of particles that are present as pure components or as composites will be a function of the characteristics of the coal and the particle size. In general, it is considered that size reduction will result in liberation and hence increased yield. The amount of liberation that occurs during crushing or grinding a coal is however coal specific. Particle characterization information provided by an optical microscopic-imaging method, Coal Grain Analysis, was used to identify coals that might benefit from additional crushing to improve recovery of clean coal by new density separation techniques and by flotation. As expected, the results of these studies suggest that the degree of liberation that is obtained is coal specific, and, hence, yield improvements are also coal specific. Hence a quantitative method of investigating this issue is required.

  10. Coal: a revival for France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brones, W.

    2007-01-01

    All energy consumption forecasts indicate a world production peak of fossil fuels around 2030 followed by a rapid decline. The oil peak should probably occur earlier. In this context the huge worldwide reserves of coal represent a fantastic opportunity to meet the world power demand which should double between 2002 and 2030 with in particular a huge growth in China and India. If promising alternate technologies (coal liquefaction..) exist which would allow to replace petroleum by coal, the main question remains the management of CO 2 . Capture and sequestration techniques are already implemented and tested and the search for new coal deposits is going on, in particular in France in the Nievre area. Economic studies about the profitability of coal exploitation in France stress on the socio-economical advantage that a revival of this activity would represent, in particular in terms of employment. (J.S.)

  11. Coal liquids -- Who needs them?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the global energy demand situation as presented at the last World Energy Congress. The total energy demand was calculated for each country and projected to 2100. The paper then discusses the energy situation in the United States, especially the forecasted demand for crude oil and natural gas liquids. Imports will be needed to make up the shortfall in domestic production. The shortfall in conventional petroleum could be supplied by converting coal into liquid fuels. Currently the cost of high quality coal liquids is too high to compete with petroleum, but trends suggest that the price will be competitive in the year 2030 using current technology. Continuing research on coal liquefaction will reduce the price of coal liquids so that coal liquids could play a significant role sooner

  12. Indian coal industry: Growth perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Growth perspective of Indian coal industry and their environmental aspects, are discussed. The complete coal chain comprises of mining including preparation and processing, transport, usage and disposal of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes. Proper environmental protection measures are therefore, required to be integrated at every stage. At mining stage, land reclamation, restoration of surface damaged by subsidence and proper treatment of effluents are the minimum requirement for effective environmental protection. Since coal will continue to be the major source of commercial energy in coming decades initiative will have to be taken in making coal a clean fuel from the point of view of its usage in different industries. Washing of high ash coals for reducing the ash content will go a long way in reducing the atmospheric pollution through better plant performance and reduced environmental pollution at the power plants. (author)

  13. Coal: an economic source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Ali, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Coal, in spite its abundance availability in Pakistan, is a neglected source of energy. Its role as fuel is not more than five percent for the last four decades. Some of the coal, mined, in used as space heating in cold areas of Pakistan but more than 90% is being used in brick kilns. There are 185 billion tonnes of coal reserves in the country and hardly 3 million tonnes of coal is, annually, mined. Lakhra coal field is, presently, major source of coal and is considered the largest productive/operative coal field of Pakistan. It is cheaper coal compared to other coals available in Pakistan. As an average analysis of colas of the country, it shows that most of the coals are lignitic in nature with high ash and sulfur content. The energy potential is roughly the same but the cost/ton of coal is quite different. It may be due to methods of mining. There should be some criteria for fixing the cost of the coal. It should be based on energy potential of unit mass of coal. (author)

  14. Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  15. Coal 95; Kol - 95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C

    1996-12-31

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO{sub 2} removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO{sub x} cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO{sub x} burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs.

  16. Venezuelan coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, L.U.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

  17. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO 2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO 2 emissions by more than 90% and NO x emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  18. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 'Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States', the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD 50 < 10 μg/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants

  19. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-11-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), `Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States`, the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD{sub 50} < 10 {mu}g/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants.

  20. Experimental investigation of the oxy-fuel combustion of hard coal in a circulating fluidized-bed combustion; Experimentelle Untersuchung der Oxy-Fuel-Verbrennung von Steinkohle in einer zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofbauer, Gerrit Arne

    2017-03-16

    between the operating parameters and the combustion characteristics were presented and the underlying mechanisms were identified. During the tests CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} concentrations in the flue gas were measured, as well as the total organic carbon content of both the facility's inventory and the fly ash from the combustion. The tests showed a similar behaviour regarding excess oxygen and combustion temperature as one would expect from air combustion. The increased CO{sub 2} partial pressure slows down the homogenous CO oxidation reaction. Alongside that, higher CO concentrations in the flue gas can be observed to occur. Moreover, combustion losses cannot be estimated by the sole measurement of CO concentration as they show a deviating behaviour. Analysis of the solid combustion losses shows unchanged values when increasing the inlet oxygen concentration. The flue gas recirculation would seem to have the greatest influence on the different variables during oxy-fuel combustion. It further accelerates the capture of SO{sub 2} by the fuel ash. The reduction of the recirculation rate that results from higher inlet oxygen concentrations weakens the associated effects, for example this leads to a decrease of the reduction of NO{sub x}. The experiments carried out can be seen to be in very good agreement with the current findings of both fundamental and combustion research that has been conducted and published by other research groups. Current understanding has been increased through the effects associated with a change of the inlet oxygen concentration and the recirculation rate. A final evaluation of the results considering the transferability to large scale plants completes the investigations. As a result of this work it is possible to confirm the feasibility of oxy-fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized as an excellent technology for the capture of CO{sub 2} from coal fired plants.

  1. The World Coal Quality Inventory: South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Alex W.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Bragg, Linda J.; Finkelman, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary-Introduction: The concepts of a global environment and economy are strongly and irrevocably linked to global energy issues. Worldwide coal production and international coal trade are projected to increase during the next several decades in an international energy mix that is still strongly dependent on fossil fuels. Therefore, worldwide coal use will play an increasingly visible role in global environmental, economic, and energy forums. Policy makers require information on coal, including coal quality data, to make informed decisions regarding domestic coal resource allocation, import needs and export opportunities, foreign policy objectives, technology transfer policies, foreign investment prospects, environmental and health assessments, and byproduct use and disposal issues. The development of a worldwide, reliable, coal quality database would help ensure the most economically and environmentally efficient global use of coal. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with many agencies and scientists from the world's coal producing countries, originally undertook a project to obtain representative samples of coal from most of the world's producing coal provinces during a limited period of time (roughly 1998-2005), which is called the World Coal Quality Inventory (WoCQI). The multitude of producing coal mines, coal occurrences, or limited accessibility to sites in some countries can preclude collecting more than a single sample from a mine. In some areas, a single sample may represent an entire coal mining region or basin. Despite these limitations in sampling and uneven distribution of sample collection, the analytical results can still provide a general overview of world coal quality. The USGS intends to present the WoCQI data in reports and, when possible, in Geographic Information System (GIS) products that cover important coal bearing and producing regions.

  2. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Part 1 - Construction and test operation); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Sono 1 - Koji shiken unten hen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, research and development was conducted of a coal gas production technology using the oxygen-blown coal gasification technology, and the fiscal 2001 results are put together. In the construction of the pilot test facility, work involved the road in the site, road illumination system installation in the site, and an unauthorized entry prevention system. In the construction of the coal gasification facility, work involved electrical instrumentation and painting for the coal feeding system, coal gasification furnace, heat recovery boiler, and so forth, and the installation of a series of devices was completed. In July following the completion, power was received and test operations were started, which included the operation of the coal gasification facility alone. Renting was started in August for the coal pretreatment facility, air separation facility, and the slag treatment device. In the study of the operation control technology for the oxygen-blown coal gasification furnace system, test operations were conducted based on the operating procedures prepared in the preceding fiscal year, which included a test operation performed for the pilot test facility alone. Parameters for equipment control obtained through the test operations, and improvements on operating steps carried out as required, were all reflected on the operating procedures. (NEDO)

  3. Coal summit II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Various papers were presented on world coal trade. Papers include: Poland as a producer and exporter of coal; the dynamics of world coal trade; Cerrejon coal production perspectives; present state of the Australian coal industry; present state of the EC coal market and future prospects; prospects of US coal exports to Europe; forecast of Italian coal supply and demand through 1990; statistics from coal transportation outlook; status of world coal ports.

  4. Brown coal gasification made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Few Victorians will be aware that gas derived from coal was first used in 1849 to provide lighting in a baker's shop in Swanston Street, long before electric lighting came to the State. The first commercial 'gas works' came on stream in 1856 and Melbourne then had street lighting run on gas. By 1892 there were 50 such gas works across the State. Virtually all were fed with black coal imported from New South Wales. Brown coal was first discovered west of Melbourne in 1857, and the Latrobe Valley deposits were identified in the early 1870s. Unfortunately, such wet brown coal did not suit the gas works. Various attempts to commercialise Victorian brown coal met with mixed success as it struggled to compete with imported New South Wales black coal. In June 1924 Yallourn A transmitted the first electric power to Melbourne, and thus began the Latrobe Valley's long association with generating electric power from brown coal. Around 1950, the Metropolitan Gas Company applied for financial assistance to build a towns gas plant using imported German gasification technology which had been originally designed for a brown coal briquette feed. The State Government promptly acquired the company and formed the Gas and Fuel Corporation. The Morwell Gasification Plant was opened on 9 December 1956 and began supplying Melbourne with medium heating value towns gas

  5. Coal: Energy for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  6. Nuclear vs coal: comparing cost trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrer, B.; Nieves, L.

    1981-01-01

    The leading competitors in the new-capacity-addition options, from now to 1990, will be nuclear and coal-fired units. As an alternative viewpoint to the coal vs nuclear economic comparison presented in the October 1981 issue of Electrical World, this study represents an analysis of cost data for generating electricity from the two fuel sources. The economic impacts on nuclear and coal units of varying the levels of several key cost parameters are examined and analyzed. 13 figures

  7. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  8. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  9. Coal marketing in Asia: Opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingner, D.

    1996-01-01

    In Asia, coal currently accounts for over 40 percent of the fossil fuel used for commercial energy. This paper briefly surveys the forces that are likely to decide the future role coal will play as a prime source of energy in the vigorous economies of Asia. As Australia is well placed to profit from Asia's growing need for coal, the challenge to Australian coal suppliers is how to maximize its potential contribution. Four-fifths of all new coal fired electrical generating capacity in the world in the next decade will be located in Asia. Three-quarters of Australia's coal exports are to Asian customers and, conversely, 40 percent of Asian imports are from Australia. Australian coal suppliers have established ties and a depth of marketing experience in the region on which to build. However, pricing policies, and the emergence of the private power producers, together with environmental pressures, will present challenges for the future. (author). 1 fig

  10. Economics of coal-based electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemming, D F; Johnston, R; Teper, M

    1979-01-01

    The report deals with base-load electricity generation from coal and compares the economics of four alternative technologies: conventional pulverised-fuel (PF) boiler with steam cycle; atmospheric fluidised-bed (AFB) boiler with steam cycle; pressurised fluidised-bed (PFB) boiler with combined cycle; and integrated air-blown coal gasification with combined cycle systems are compared for both a high sulphur (3.5%) coal with environmental regulations requiring 85% sulphur removal, and for a low sulphur coal without sulphur removal. The results indicate that there is no single clear 'winner' among the advanced technologies. The optimum system depends on coal price, required rate-of-return, sulphur content of the coal, taxation regime etc. (34 refs.) (Available from IEA Coal Research, Economic Assessment Service)

  11. News technology utilization fossil fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blišanová Monika

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel – “alternative energy“ is coal, petroleum, natural gas. Petroleum and natural gas are scarce resources, but they are delimited. Reserves petroleum will be depleted after 39 years and reserves natural gas after 60 years.World reserves coal are good for another 240 years. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel. It is the least expensive energy source for generating electricity. Many environmental problems associated with use of coal:in coal production, mining creates environmental problems.On Slovakia representative coal only important internal fuel – power of source and coal is produced in 5 locality. Nowadays, oneself invest to new technology on utilization coal. Perspective solution onself shows UCG, IGCC.

  12. Technology for the Recovery of Fuel and Adsorbent Carbons from Coal Burning Utility Ash Ponds and Landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.G. Groppo; T.L. Robl

    2005-09-30

    marketable lightweight aggregate and recover a high-grade fuel product. Spiral concentration provided acceptable grade lightweight aggregate with yields of only 10 to 20%. Incorporating a sieve bend into the process to recover coarse, porous ash particles from the outside race of the spirals increased aggregate yield to as high as 75%, however, the carbon content of the aggregate also increased. An opening size of 28 mesh on the sieve bend appeared to be sufficient. Lightweight concrete blocks (28 to 32 lbs) were produced from bottom ash and results show that acceptable strength could be attained with a cement/concrete ratio as low as 1/4. A mobile Proof-of-Concept (POC) field unit was designed and fabricated to meet the processing objectives of the project. The POC plant consisted of two trailer-mounted modules and was completely self sufficient with respect to power and water requirements. The POC unit was hauled to Coleman Station and operated at a feed rate of 2 tph. Results showed that the spirals operated similarly to previous pilot-scale operations and a 500 lb composite sample of coarse carbon was collected with a grade of 51.7% C or 7279 Btu/lb. Flotation results compared favorably with release analysis and 500 lbs of composite froth product was collected with a grade of 35% C or 4925 Btu/lb. The froth product was dewatered to 39% moisture with vacuum filtration. Pan pelletization and briquetting were evaluated as a means of minimizing handling concerns. Rotary pan pelletization produced uniform pellets with a compressive strength of 4 lbf without the use of any binder. Briquettes were produced by blending the coarse and fine carbon products at a ratio of 1:10, which is the proportion that the two products would be produced in a commercial operation. Using 3% lime as a binder produced the most desirable briquettes with respect to strength, attrition and drop testing. Additionally, the POC carbon products compared favorably with commercial activated carbon when used

  13. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  14. Coal use in Italy and environmental compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Fossil fuels have in Italy great importance. In Italy, in terms of environmental protection and for social acceptance, coal has had a real opposition not verified in other countries. Environmental compatibility of coal cycle and related technologies are discussed also consequently at the Kyoto protocol [it

  15. Observer-Based Fuel Control Using Oxygen Measurement. A study based on a first-principles model of a pulverized coal fired Benson Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Mortensen, Jan Henrik; Just Nielsen, Rene; Soendergaard Pedersen, Tom [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Control Engineering

    2005-01-01

    This report describes an attempt to improve the existing control of coal mills used at the Danish power plant Nordjyllandsvaerket Unit 3. The coal mills pulverize raw coal to a fine-grained powder, which is injected into the furnace of the power plant. In the furnace the coal is combusted, producing heat, which is used for steam production. With better control of the coal mills, the power plant can be controlled more efficiently during load changes, thus improving the overall availability and efficiency of the plant. One of the main difficulties from a control point of view is that the coal mills are not equipped with sensors that detect how much coal is injected into the furnace. During the project, a fairly detailed, non-linear differential equation model of the furnace and the steam circuit was constructed and validated against data obtained at the plant. It was observed that this model was able to capture most of the important dynamics found in the data. Based on this model, it is possible to extract linearized models in various operating points. The report discusses this approach and illustrates how the model can be linearized and reduced to a lower-order linear model that is valid in the vicinity of an operating point by removing states that have little influence on the overall response. A viable adaptive control strategy would then be to design controllers for each of these simplified linear models, i.e., the control loop that sets references to the coal mills and feedwater, and use the load as a separate input to the control. The control gains should then be scheduled according to the load. However, the variations and uncertainties in the coal mill are not addressed directly in this approach. Another control approach was taken in this project, where a Kalman filter based on measurements of air flow blown into the furnace and the oxygen concentration in the flue gas is designed to estimate the actual coal flow injected into the furnace. With this estimate

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.602-4 - Procurement of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement of coal. 101... PROGRAM 26.6-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.602-4 Procurement of coal. (a) Federal agencies desiring to participate in the Defense Fuel Supply Center coal contracting program for carload delivery...

  17. Clean fuel technology for world energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunjay, Sunjay

    2010-09-15

    Clean fuel technology is the integral part of geoengineering and green engineering with a view to global warming mitigation. Optimal utilization of natural resources coal and integration of coal & associated fuels with hydrocarbon exploration and development activities is pertinent task before geoscientist with evergreen energy vision with a view to energy security & sustainable development. Value added technologies Coal gasification,underground coal gasification & surface coal gasification converts solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation, chemical production, as well as the option of being converted into liquid fuels.

  18. Converting coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avigliano, A. [Bedeschi (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    In September 2005, Bedeschi was commissioned to design and supply a coal unloading, conveying and storage facility for a new raw coal line system within Hatien II Cement Co. The new plant is composed of a grab unloader, a conveyor system, a storage shed with stacking and reclaiming facilities, a complete dedusting system and civil and steel structure engineering. The scope of supply includes a local fabrication portion; however, main components will be imported. The project will be completed in 21 months. The paper looks into the mechanics of loading and unloading coal. 4 figs., 4 photos.

  19. Developing Engineered Fuel (Briquettes) Using Fly Ash from the Aquila Coal-Fired Power Plant in Canon City and Locally Available Biomass Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Carrasco; H. Sarper

    2006-06-30

    The objective of this research is to explore the feasibility of producing engineered fuels from a combination of renewable and non renewable energy sources. The components are flyash (containing coal fines) and locally available biomass waste. The constraints were such that no other binder additives were to be added. Listed below are the main accomplishments of the project: (1) Determination of the carbon content of the flyash sample from the Aquila plant. It was found to be around 43%. (2) Experiments were carried out using a model which simulates the press process of a wood pellet machine, i.e. a bench press machine with a close chamber, to find out the ideal ratio of wood and fly ash to be mixed to get the desired briquette. The ideal ratio was found to have 60% wood and 40% flyash. (3) The moisture content required to produce the briquettes was found to be anything below 5.8%. (4) The most suitable pressure required to extract the lignin form the wood and cause the binding of the mixture was determined to be 3000psi. At this pressure, the briquettes withstood an average of 150psi on its lateral side. (5) An energy content analysis was performed and the BTU content was determined to be approximately 8912 BTU/lb. (6) The environmental analysis was carried out and no abnormalities were noted. (7) Industrial visits were made to pellet manufacturing plants to investigate the most suitable manufacturing process for the briquettes. (8) A simulation model of extrusion process was developed to explore the possibility of using a cattle feed plant operating on extrusion process to produce briquettes. (9) Attempt to produce 2 tons of briquettes was not successful. The research team conducted a trial production run at a Feed Mill in La Junta, CO to produce two (2) tons of briquettes using the extrusion process in place. The goal was to, immediately after producing the briquettes; send them through Aquila's current system to test the ability of the briquettes to flow

  20. Prospects For Coal And Clean Coal Technologies In Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    The coal sector in Kazakhstan is said to have enough reserves to last over 100 years, but the forecasted reserves are expected to last several hundreds of years. This makes investing in the fuel and energy sector of the country an attractive option for many international and private organisations. The proven on-shore reserves will ensure extraction for over 30 years for oil and 75 years for gas. The future development of the domestic oil sector depends mainly on developing the Kazakh sector of the Caspian Sea. The coal sector, while not a top priority for the Kazakh government, puts the country among the world's top ten coal-rich countries. Kazakhstan contains Central Asia's largest recoverable coal reserves. In future, the development of the raw materials base will be achieved through enriching and improving the quality of the coal and the deep processing of coal to obtain fluid fuel and synthetic substances. Developing shale is also topical. The high concentration of methane in coal layers makes it possible to extract it and utilise it on a large scale. However, today the country's energy sector, which was largely established in the Soviet times, has reached its potential. Kazakhstan has about 18 GW of installed electricity capacity, of which about 80% is coal fired, most of it built before 1990. Being alert to the impending problems, the government is planning to undertake large-scale modernisation of the existing facilities and construct new ones during 2015-30. The project to modernise the national electricity grid aims to upgrade the power substations to ensure energy efficiency and security of operation. The project will result in installation of modern high-voltage equipment, automation and relay protection facilities, a dispatch control system, monitoring and data processing and energy management systems, automated electricity metering system, as well as a digital corporate telecommunication network.

  1. Chemical and physical aspects of refining coal liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Y. T.; Stiegel, G. J.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    1981-02-01

    Increasing costs and declining reserves of petroleum are forcing oil importing countries to develop alternate energy sources. The direct liquefaction of coal is currently being investigated as a viable means of producing substitute liquid fuels. The coal liquids derived from such processes are typically high in nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur besides having a high aromatic and metals content. It is therefore envisaged that modifications to existing petroleum refining technology will be necessary in order to economically upgrade coal liquids. In this review, compositional data for various coal liquids are presented and compared with those for petroleum fuels. Studies reported on the stability of coal liquids are discussed. The feasibility of processing blends of coal liquids with petroleum feedstocks in existing refineries is evaluated. The chemistry of hydroprocessing is discussed through kinetic and mechanistic studies using compounds which are commonly detected in coal liquids. The pros and cons of using conventional petroleum refining catalysts for upgrading coal liquids are discussed.

  2. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  3. Coal fights back

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ince, R.

    1990-01-01

    During the twentieth century coal has moved from being the dominant energy hero that fueled the industrial revolution to a background role: a fuel of last choice, a supplemental resource, and sometimes a convenient villain in the environmental debate. But, as this paper points out, the other side of the coin is that coal is dependable, plentiful, and the price is right. To examine the issue as it merits, reason will have to be substituted for emotion. We are currently in what the author of this paper calls the crisis enrichment stage of the debate. In this stage, when definitive knowledge is lacking, there is a temptation to imagine the worst, overcorrect the problem, and do considerable damage to energy supply and economic needs. The environmental movement has provoked a hunt for someone to blame for the world's current environmental situation. Without a proven culprit to blame for disturbances to some of the world's lakes and forests, it has been decided that coal is the cause. This paper makes a plea for balance, urging all parties to find some acceptable middle ground between energy production and environmental protection

  4. A newer concept of setting up coal refineries in coal utilising industries through environmentally sound clean coal technology of organosuper refining of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    In order to reduce the losses of premium organic matter of coal and its immense potential energy which is present in the form of stronger interatomic and intramolecular bonding energies, a newer and convenient technique of recovering the premium organic matter from low grade coals by organosuper-refining technique which operates under ambient pressure conditions has been developed. The residual coal obtained can be used as environmentally clean fuel or as a feedstock for the industries based on carbonization and gasification. It is suggested that a beginning be made by setting up coal refineries in coal utilizing industries on the basis of the presently developed new technology of organosuper-refining of coals to recover premium grade organic chemical feed stocks from coals before utilizing coal by techniques such as bubble bed or recirculatory fluidized bed or pulverized coal combustion in thermal power stations, carbonization in steel plants or other carbonization units, gasification in fertilizer industries or in integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. Thus, coal refineries may produce value added aromatic chemical feed stocks, formed coke or coke manufacturing; and carbon fillers for polymers. (author). 100 refs., 1 fig

  5. Microbial diversity of western Canadian subsurface coal beds and methanogenic coal enrichment cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, Tara J.; Foght, Julia M. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Budwill, Karen [Carbon and Energy Management, Alberta Innovates-Technology Futures, 250 Karl Clark Road, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-05-01

    Coalbed methane is an unconventional fuel source associated with certain coal seams. Biogenic methane can comprise a significant portion of the gas found in coal seams, yet the role of microbes in methanogenesis in situ is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to detect and identify major bacterial and archaeal species associated with coal sampled from sub-bituminous methane-producing coal beds in western Canada, and to examine the potential for methane biogenesis from coal. Enrichment cultures of coal samples were established to determine how nutrient amendment influenced the microbial community and methane production in the laboratory. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed using DNA extracted and amplified from uncultured coal samples and from methanogenic coal enrichment cultures. Libraries were screened using restriction fragment length polymorphism, and representative clones were sequenced. Most (> 50%) of the bacterial sequences amplified from uncultured coal samples were affiliated with Proteobacteria that exhibit nitrate reduction, nitrogen fixation and/or hydrogen utilization activities, including Pseudomonas, Thauera and Acidovorax spp., whereas enrichment cultures were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and/or Lactobacillales. Archaeal 16S rRNA genes could not be amplified from uncultured coal, suggesting that methanogens are present in coal below the detection levels of our methods. However, enrichment cultures established with coal inocula produced significant volumes of methane and the archaeal clone libraries were dominated by sequences closely affiliated with Methanosarcina spp. Enrichment cultures incubated with coal plus organic nutrients produced more methane than either nutrient or coal supplements alone, implying that competent methanogenic consortia exist in coal beds but that nutrient limitations restrict their activity in situ. This report adds to the scant literature on coal bed microbiology and suggests how microbes may be

  6. Conversion of metallurgical coke and coal using a Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) moving bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Siwei; Bayham, Samuel; Zeng, Liang; McGiveron, Omar; Chung, Elena; Majumder, Ankita; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Accumulated more than 300 operation hours were accomplished for the moving bed reducer reactor. • Different reactor operation variables were investigated with optimal conditions identified. • High conversions of sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were achieved without flow problems. • Co-current and counter-current contact modes were tested and their applicability was discussed. - Abstract: The CLC process has the potential to be a transformative commercial technology for a carbon-constrained economy. The Ohio State University Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process directly converts coal, eliminating the need for a coal gasifier oran air separation unit (ASU). Compared to other solid-fuel CLC processes, the CDCL process is unique in that it consists of a countercurrent moving bed reducer reactor. In the proposed process, coal is injected into the middle of the moving bed, whereby the coal quickly heats up and devolatilizes, splitting the reactor roughly into two sections with no axial mixing. The top section consists of gaseous fuel produced from the coal volatiles, and the bottom section consists of the coal char mixed with the oxygen carrier. A bench-scale moving bed reactor was used to study the coal conversion with CO 2 as the enhancing gas. Initial tests using metallurgical cokefines as feedstock were conducted to test the effects of operational variables in the bottom section of the moving bed reducer, e.g., reactor temperature, oxygen carrier to char ratio, enhancer gas CO 2 flow rate, and oxygen carrier flow rates. Experiments directly using coal as the feedstock were subsequently carried out based on these test results. Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and Illinois #6 coal were tested as representative sub-bituminous and bituminous coals, respectively. Nearly complete coal conversion was achieved using composite iron oxide particles as the oxygen carriers without any flow problems. The operational results demonstrated that a

  7. Ninth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference - proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Over 200 papers are presented under the following headings: coal preparation; Clean Coal Technology Program status; pre- and post-utilization processing; advanced conversion technologies; integrated gasification combined cycle; indirect liquefaction; advanced liquefaction process development; conversion processes; coal - from a user's perspective; issues associated with coal use in heat engines; fundamentals of combustion; advanced combustion systems; low quality fuel applications/fluidised beds; combustion systems; ash and sludge disposal/utilization; developing SO 2 /NO x control technologies; technical overview of air toxics; scientific, economic and policy perspectives on global climate change; Clean Air Act compliance strategies; environmental policy/technology; spontaneous combustion; and special topics

  8. Cofiring of rice straw and coal in a coal-fired utility boiler: thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia, Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Cofiring combustion of biomass and coal is a near-term, low cost alternative for reduction fossil greenhouse gas emissions in coal fired power plants. Recent reviews identified over 288 applications in over 16 countries with promising results for different coal and biomass combinations. In Brazil, there is no previous experience of cofiring biomass and coal, resulting in new challenges to fuel handling and boiler operation. A first experience is now proposed into an existing coal power plant, using rice straw as biomass fuel. A thermodynamic model was developed in order to predict operating and emissions data, which should be used in cofiring system design. For 10% of biomass input, the total CO{sub 2} emission is expected to slightly increase. However, considering only the coal CO{sub 2} emission, it is expected to decrease in about 10%. Also, the corresponding SO{sub 2} emission decreases in about 8%. (author)

  9. CoalVal-A coal resource valuation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; McIntosh, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    ; operating cost per ton; and discounted cash flow cost per ton to mine and process the resources. Costs are calculated as loaded in a unit train, free-on-board the tipple, at a rate of return prescribed by the evaluator. The recoverable resources (in short tons) may be grouped by incremental cost over any range chosen by the user. For example, in the Gillette coalfield evaluation, the discounted cash flow mining cost (at an 8 percent rate of return) and its associated tonnage may be grouped by any applicable increment (for example, $0.10 per ton, $0.20 per ton, and so on) and using any dollar per ton range that is desired (for example, from $4.00 per ton to $15.00 per ton). This grouping ability allows the user to separate the coal reserves from the nonreserve resources and to construct cost curves to determine the effects of coal market fluctuations on the availability of coal for fuel whether for the generation of electricity or for coal-to-liquids processes. Coking coals are not addressed in this report.

  10. FT-IR and XRD analysis of coal from Makum coalfield of Assam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    iliary fuels, such as natural gas or imported coals to satisfy the coal quality requirement for ther- mal power generation, particularly from the emis- sion point of view. Since mineral matter affects almost all aspects of coal utilization, the accep- tance of coal for industrial application depends critically on both organic and ...

  11. Comparative analysis of large biomass & coal co-utilization units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liszka, M.; Nowak, G.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Favrat, D.; Marechal, F.

    2010-01-01

    The co-utilization of coal and biomass in large power units is considered in many countries (e.g. Poland) as fast and effective way of increasing renewable energy share in the fuel mix. Such a method of biomass use is especially suitable for power systems where solid fuels (hard coal, lignite) are

  12. The two faces of coal : uncertainty the common prospect for metallurgical and thermal coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlotnikov, D.

    2010-01-01

    Although the methods of producing thermal and metallurgical coal are the same, metallurgical coal is destined to cross the world for steel manufacturing and thermal coal is destined for power plants close to where it was mined. This article discussed the factors influencing the price of these 2 coals. The production of thermal coal can remain steady during an economic crisis because coal-fired power plants generally provide low-cost-base-load electricity that remains stable during economic cycles. However, the demand for metallurgical coal is more volatile during an economic crisis because it is directly related to the demand for steel products in the construction and automotive industry, which are very sensitive to the state of the economy. There have been recent indications that Canada's export market for thermal coal is on the rise. In 2008, China became a net importer of coking coal. China's need for more coal to fuel its growing economy despite the global economic slowdown has meant that producers are diverting excess supply from European markets to China. Higher-end thermal coal offers low sulphur content and higher energy content, both desirable traits for power utilities facing strict emissions control. In addition to having huge reserves of very high-quality coal that is becoming increasingly important to China, Canada has the advantage of having the available transportation capacity in its west coast terminals and on its rail network. 3 figs.

  13. The Czech base of hard coal, problems, possibilities for utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermak, T.; Roubicek, V.

    1993-01-01

    The Czech coal and power engineering base is in a deep restructuring period now. The basic problems represents the changeover from the system of the centrally planned state economy to the market model of the energy resources mining, production and consumption. The Czech economy will have to face to up to now unknown competitive forces on the coal market in Europe where American, Canadian, Australian and South African coals compete. The paper discusses historical aspects of the development of the coal mining industry in the Czechoslavakia, the present coal preparation techniques for coking coals, the coking industry, and the utilization of brown coal. How to utilize the domestic coal base and coal generally is closely connected with the global restructuralization of the Czech economy. The most difficult step of this process is undoubtedly the adaptation of the Czech fuel and energy base to the market economy conditions

  14. Tasks in development of the USSR coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratchenko, B F

    1981-08-01

    Minister of the Soviet coal industry evaluates social and economic development plan of the Soviet coal industry from 1981 to 1985. Planned coal production should increase to 770-800 Mt, exceeding coal production in 1980 by 53 to 83 Mt. Proportion of coal mined by surface methods will further increase. Investment program concentrates on: construction of the Kansk-Achinsk fuel and energy basin, construction of the South Yakut coal basin and further development of surface mines in the Ehkibastuz basin. Proportion of coal mined in the Kuzbass will increase to 45% of the total coal output. Construction of the Kansk-Achinsk basin has the highest priority among the investment projects. Investment projects (construction of new coal mines and modernization of existing mines) in major coal basins in 1981 are analyzed. Mining machines and equipment for underground and surface black and brown coal mining are evaluated. Plans for developing new mining systems are described (e.g. narrow web coal cutter with chainless haulage system for thin and medium coal seams with drive system with power ranging from 110 to 315 kW). The following types of machines are discussed: coal cutters, shearer loaders, heading machines, belt conveyors, loaders. Selected social problems associated with manpower shortages for underground mining and for coal mines operating under extreme climatic conditions are also discussed.

  15. Losses in the coal supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This report examines the way coal can change as it passes along the coal chain. A great deal of the change is intended, through separation and sizing, to ensure the coal being mined matches the specification demanded by the customer. This report attempts to identify these changes and presents some of the issues faced by the coal supplier and user. Much of the change leads to a loss of mass in the coal. Some of the coal is left in the ground (intentionally and unintentionally), while elsewhere, full extraction might occur with the addition of non-coal materials from the surrounding rocks. In both cases, the mined coal often requires further processing. Coal processing by separation at preparation plants refines coal further and is where most of the mass loss occurs. Value is added by reducing ash content and improving heating value, thus providing a much more saleable product for the market. As soon as the coal leaves the mine, mass loss can occur either through natural deterioration of the fuel, through spillage or dust, or in extreme cases theft. In all cases measuring the amount of coal as it passes through the supply chain is required to verify that the coal reaching the consumer is of satisfactory quality and quantity. This can be done crudely by measuring stockpiles, to more sophisticated weighing systems at various points along the supply chain, and even measuring the volume held in a ship. Measurement is subject to error which must be minimised. Biomass needs to be processed in much the same way as coal, such as removing mineral matter and taking care in avoiding contamination.

  16. The European Coal Market: Will Coal Survive the EC's Energy and Climate Policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    The European coal industry is at a crossroads. The European Commission (EC) Energy Policy by 2020, the 20/20/20 targets, is not favourable to coal: a 20% decrease in CO 2 emissions does not favour coal compared with natural gas, its main competitor in electricity generation; a 20% increase in energy efficiency will lead to a decrease in energy/coal consumption; a 20% increase in renewables will displace other energy sources, including coal. The recent EC Energy road-map to 2050 targets a cut in GHG emissions by 80-95%. Under such a tough emissions reduction target, the future use of coal is tied with CCS technologies for which public acceptance and an adequate CO 2 price are crucial. The Large Combustion Plants Directive has already had a huge impact on EU coal-fired electricity generation. In UK, a third of coal-fired power capacity will be closed by the end of 2015 at the latest. Phase III of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme requires CO 2 allowances to be auctioned from January 2013, adding a new burden on fossil fuel power plants. The end of state aid to European hard coal production by 2018, in line with EC Council Decision 2010/787/EU, means that domestic production is going to decrease. Does this mean the end of coal in Europe? Maybe not, and certainly not by 2020, although its future after that date is quite uncertain. Coal provides 17% of the EU s primary energy supply, and represents 25% of electricity generation. With the phasing out of nuclear energy in some countries (mainly Germany), coal has gained a period of grace before the transition to a less-carbonised economy. Its consumption by European power utilities increased by 7% in the first half of 2012, boosted by low CO 2 prices and relatively high gas prices. European production still accounts for 60% of the total coal supply in the EU. Coal therefore gives the EU a certain degree of independence and contributes to its security of supply. Hard coal and lignite represent approximately 80% of EU

  17. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors are used in greenhouse gas inventories to estimate emissions from coal combustion. In the absence of direct measures, emissions factors are frequently used as a quick, low cost way to estimate emissions values. Coal combustion has been a major contributor to the CO2 flux into the atmosphere. Nearly all of the fuel carbon (99 % in coal is converted to CO2 during the combustion process. The carbon content is the most important coal parameter which is the measure of the degree of coalification (coal rank. Coalification is the alteration of vegetation to form peat, succeeded by the transformation of peat through lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous to anthracite coal. During the geochemical or metamorphic stage, the progressive changes that occur within the coal are an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen and oxygen content resulting in a loss of volatiles. Heterogeneous composition of coal causes variation in CO2 emission from different coals. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has produced guidelines on how to produce emission inventories which includes emission factors. Although 2006 IPCC Guidelines provided the default values specified according to the rank of the coal, the application of country-specific emission factors was recommended when estimating the national greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the differences between country-specific emission factors and default IPCC CO2 emission factors, EF(CO2, for coals. Also, this study estimated EF(CO2 for two different types of coals and peat from B&H, on the basis fuel analyses. Carbon emission factors for coal mainly depend on the carbon content of the fuel and vary with both rank and geographic origin, which supports the idea of provincial variation of carbon emission factors. Also, various other factors, such as content of sulphur, minerals and macerals play an important role and influence EF(CO2 from coal. Carbonate minerals

  18. Research on mechanism of and catalysts for extraction liquefaction of coal using coal-based solvents; Sekitankei yozai ni yoru sekitan no chushutsu ekika kiko to shokubai no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    Papers of Professor Yoshio Kamiya of Tokyo University are compiled into this report. The list of the papers includes (1) Synthesis of heavy fuel oils from coal; (2) Research and development of coal liquefaction; (3) Dissolution reaction of coal by hydrogen-donating aromatic solvents (I); (4) Effect of hydrogen-donor solvent on the liquefaction of coal; (5) Recent studies on the chemical structure of solvent refined coal; (6) Dissolution reaction of coal by hydrogen-donating aromatic solvents (II); (7) Future of coal as energy material; (8), (9), (10) same as (6) in the subject discussed; (11) Recent studies on coal liquefaction catalysts; (12) Environmental problems and drain treatment to accompany processes of converting fossil resources into fuels; (13) Chemistry of coal oxidation; (14) Fractionation and analysis of solvent refined coal by gel permeation chromatography; (15) Current state of research and development of coal liquefaction; (16) Properties and components of coal oils from coal liquefaction processes under development; (17) Solvent effect of coal derived aromatic compounds on the liquefaction of Akabira coal; (18) Chemistry of coal liquefaction; (19) Research and development of coal liquefaction in the U.S.; (20) Thermal treatment of coal-related aromatic ethers in tetralin solution; (21) Recent technology of utilizing heavy carbon resources; (22) Chemical properties and reactivity of coal; (23) Current state and future of development of coal liquefaction processes; and (24) Development of overseas coal liquefaction projects. (NEDO)

  19. Case study on comparative assessment of nuclear and coal-fueled electricity generation options and strategy for nuclear power development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shiping; Shi Xiangjun; Bao Yunqiao; Mo Xuefeng; Wei Zhihong; Fang Dong; Ma Yuqing; Li Hong; Pan Ziqiang; Li Xutong

    2001-01-01

    China, as other countries in the world, is seeking for a way of sustainable development. In energy/electricity field, nuclear power is one of electric energy options considering the Chinese capability of nuclear industry. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of nuclear power in Chinese energy/electricity system in future by comprehensive assessment. The main conclusions obtained from this study are: (1) China will need a total generation capacity of 750 - 879 GW in 2020, which means new power units of 460 - 590 GW generation capacity will be built from 2001 to 2020. (2) the total amount of SO 2 emission from power production will rise to 16 - 18 Mt in 2020, about 2.8 - 3.2 times of 1995, even if the measures to control SO 2 emission are taken for all new coal units. (3) CO 2 emission from electricity generation will reach 21 - 24 Gt in 2020. (4) the environmental impacts and health risks of coal-fired energy chain are greater than that of nuclear chain. The normalized health risk caused by coal chain is 20.12 deaths/GW·a but 4.63 deaths/GW·a by nuclear chain in China. (5) As estimated by experts, there will be a shortage of 200 GW in 2050 in China even if considering the maximum production of coal, the utilization of hydropower and renewable resource. Nuclear power is the only way to fill the gap between demand and supply

  20. Distilling coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  1. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells (Research using pilot test facility - for public release); 2000 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, research and development was conducted of a coal gas production technology using the oxygen-blown coal gasification technology, and the fiscal 2000 results are put together. In the construction of the pilot test facility, part of the road in the site was constructed as continued from the preceding fiscal year. In the construction of the coal gasification facility, some of the devices were built, which were the coal feeding system, coal gasification furnace, heat recovery boiler, and the char recovery device, and some of the thus-built devices and procured devices were installed. In the study of the control of the operation of the oxygen-blown coal gasification system, the pilot test facility was divided into unit devices and, for each of the unit devices, detailed procedures for pre-start preparation, start, stop, and for the stop of accessorise were deliberated, and important operating steps were worked out. Timing charts were prepared for the operation of each of the facilities during plant start/stop operations. In the effort to deal with serious accidents, special operation procedures were studied and prepared on the case-by-case basis. (NEDO)

  2. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report Number 8, 1 July, 1993--30 September, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Task 1, the preparation of catalyst materials, is proceeding actively. At WVU, catalysts based on Mo are being prepared using a variety of approaches to alter the oxidation state and environment of the Mo. At UCC and P, copper-based zinc chromite spinel catalysts will be prepared and tested. The modeling of the alcohol-synthesis reaction in a membrane reactor is proceeding actively. Under standard conditions, pressure drop in the membrane reactor has been shown to be negligible. In Task 2, base case designs had previously been completed with a Texaco gasifier. Now, similar designs have been completed using the Shell gasifier. A comparison of the payback periods or production cost of these plants shows significant differences among the base cases. However, a natural gas only design, prepared for comparison purposes, gives a lower payback period or production cost. Since the alcohol synthesis portion of the above processes is the same, the best way to make coal-derived higher alcohols more attractive economically than natural gas-derived higher alcohols is by making coal-derived syngas less expensive than natural gas-derived syngas. The maximum economically feasible capacity for a higher alcohol plant from coal-derived syngas appears to be 32 MM bbl/yr. This is based on consideration of regional coal supply in the eastern US, coal transportation, and regional product demand. The benefits of economics of scale are illustrated for the base case designs. A value for higher alcohol blends has been determined by appropriate combination of RVP, octane number, and oxygen content, using MTBE as a reference. This analysis suggests that the high RVP of methanol in combination with its higher water solubility make higher alcohols more valuable than methanol.

  3. Power Generation from Coal 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Coal is the biggest single source of energy for electricity production and its share is growing. The efficiency of converting coal into electricity matters: more efficient power plants use less fuel and emit less climate-damaging carbon dioxide. This book explores how efficiency is measured and reported at coal-fired power plants. With many different methods used to express efficiency performance, it is often difficult to compare plants, even before accounting for any fixed constraints such as coal quality and cooling-water temperature. Practical guidelines are presented that allow the efficiency and emissions of any plant to be reported on a common basis and compared against best practice. A global database of plant performance is proposed that would allow under-performing plants to be identified for improvement. Armed with this information, policy makers would be in a better position to monitor and, if necessary, regulate how coal is used for power generation. The tools and techniques described will be of value to anyone with an interest in the more sustainable use of coal.

  4. Reduced emissions from inexpensive high-sulphur coal briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Wachter, E.A.; Wade, J.; Wilson, D.L.; Haas, J.W.; Ahmad, N.; Siltain, F.; Raza, M.Z.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne emissions were measured during the combustion of Pakistani high-sulphur coal, cold briquetted with lime and clay; comparison was made to emissions from raw coal and traditional fuels burnt in a native, mud-lined Angethi stove. Compared to raw coal, the amended coal gave fourfold reduced emission of respirable-size particles (RSP) and threefold reduced total releases of SO 2 . In domestic cooking, substitution of the amended coal briquettes for traditional fuels will not worsen indoor air quality with respect to CO, SO 2 , NO x , and RSP. The high peak amounts of CO (100--250 ppm), SO 2 (2--5 ppm), and NO x (1--5 ppm) were limited to the early phase of burning. The high thermal value of the coal briquettes together with a simple briquetting technology, make this fuel an attractive energy alternative in countries that are underdeveloped, developing, or experiencing major restructuring

  5. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  6. Comparative study of coal and biomass co-combustion with coal burning separately through emissions analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M.; Asadullah, A.; Khan, G.; Soomro, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate eco-friendly methos to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal and coal biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal cow dung and 100% banana tree leaves emits less emission of CO, CO/sub 2/, NOx and SO/sub 2/ as compared to 100% coal, Maximum amount of CO emission were 1510.5 ppm for bannana tree waste and minimum amount obtained for lakhra coal and cow dung manure (70:30) of 684.667 leaves (90:10) and minimum amount of SO/sub 2/ present in samples is in lakhra coal-banana tree waste (80:20). The maximum amount of NO obtained for banana tree waste were 68 ppm whereas amount from cow dung manure (30.83 ppm). The study concludes that utilization of biomass with coal could make remedial action against environment pollution. (author)

  7. Report on Seminar on Clean Coal Technology '93; Clean coal technology kokusai seminar hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The program of the above clean coal technology (CCT) event is composed of 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Research on CCT in America (study of coal structure under electron microscope), and 3) Research on CCT in Australia (high intensity combustion of ultrafine coal particles in a clean way). Remarks under item 1) are mentioned below. As for SO{sub 2} emissions base unit, Japan's is 1 at its coal-fired thermal power station while that of America is 7.8. As for the level of SO{sub 2}/NOx reduction attributable to coal utilization technologies, it rises in the order of flue gas desulfurizer-aided pulverized coal combustion, normal pressure fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation/fuel cell. As for the level of CO2 reduction attributable to power generation efficiency improvement, provided that Japan's average power generation efficiency is 39% and if China's efficiency which is now 28% is improved to be similar to that of Japan, there will be a 40% reduction in CO2 emissions. Under item 2) which involves America's CCT program, reference is made to efforts at eliminating unnecessary part from the catalytic process and at reducing surplus air, to the export of CCT technology, and so forth. Under item 3), it is stated that coal cleaning may govern reaction efficiency in a process of burning coal particles for gasification. (NEDO)

  8. Coal: the metamorphosis of an industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Marie Martin-Amouroux

    2008-07-01

    Coal, a fuel that once dominated the global energy scene, is staging a come-back despite being environmentally dirty. The purpose of the paper is to analyse the return of King Coal to find out whether it is likely to be regain its dominance in the global energy in the future. In analysing the metamorphosis of the coal industry, the paper looks at the historical evolution of the industry and analyses the factors behind the change. The deficiencies of coal's competitors are also analysed. Using a scenario analysis, the future role of coal in the global energy mix is estimated as well. The paper finds that despite the domination of hydrocarbons in the global energy mix, coal has maintained a steady share and in some countries, it remained the main fuel. With the concerns of high-oil prices and peak oil, coal is regaining its domination in the power sector around the world. The industry has reformed and restructured itself to remain competitive. Consequently, it has the possibility of staging a come back as a dominant fuel.

  9. Low smoke coal in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surridge, A.D.; Asamoah, J.K.; Grobbelaar, C.J. [Department of Minerals and Energy, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1997-09-01

    The South African government has started a low-smoke coal programme to reduce air pollution from combustion of coal, which is used for cooking and heating in some residential areas despite electrification. Government policy is to assist the private sector to manufacture and market low-smoke fuels and to encourage use of cleaner fuels. The philosophy and the implementation of this programme are discussed. Preliminary results from a macro scale experiment, that involved supplying low-smoke fuel to a township for a period of one to two weeks and monitoring the impacts, are reported.

  10. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  11. Issues and prospects for coal utilization in Zimbabwe's rural households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    The increasing shortage of traditional fuels in Zimbabwe has prompted government to consider seriously the use of coal in rural households. In this regard, both government and the privately owned coal industry have begun pilot projects in selected rural areas to initiate the introduction of coal stoves and coal fuels. These efforts by government and the coal industry need to be informed by knowledge of the financial and economic dimensions of coal diffusion to rural economies, the environmental implications of widespread coal use in rural households, and the general acceptability of coal as a fuel to households with a long tradition of free fuels. This paper summarizes the results of a study undertaken to provide such background information. Conducted over six months during 1988, the study included field surveys of four districts in Zimbabwe: Murewa, Shurugwi, Mberengwa, and Mazoe Citrus Estates. All but the Mazoe district are rural settings with severe shortages of fuelwood. Mazoe Citrus Estates is a semi-urban plantation community which has had over twenty years' experience with coal use in households under a company-sponsored programme which supplies both fuels and stoves free of charge

  12. Coal: a human history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freese, B.

    2002-12-01

    Prized as 'the best stone in Britain' by Roman invaders who carved jewellery out of it, coal has transformed societies, powered navies, fueled economies, and expanded frontiers. It made China a twelfth-century superpower, inspired the writing of the Communist Manifesto, and helped the northern states win the American Civil War. Yet the mundane mineral that built our global economy - and even today powers our electrical plants - has also caused death, disease, and environmental destruction. As early as 1306, King Edward I tried to ban coal (unsuccessfully) because its smoke became so obnoxious. Its recent identification as a primary cause of global warming has made it a cause celebre of a new kind. In this book, Barbara Freese takes us on an historical journey that begins three hundred million years ago and spans the globe. From the 'Great Stinking Fogs' of London to the rat-infested coal mines of Pennsylvania, from the impoverished slums of Manchester to the toxic city streets of Beijing, this book describes an ordinary substance that has done extraordinary things.

  13. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  14. Fuel saving, carbon dioxide emission avoidance, and syngas production by tri-reforming of flue gases from coal- and gas-fired power stations, and by the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halmann, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2006-01-01

    Flue gases from coal, gas, or oil-fired power stations, as well as from several heavy industries, such as the production of iron, lime and cement, are major anthropogenic sources of global CO 2 emissions. The newly proposed process for syngas production based on the tri-reforming of such flue gases with natural gas could be an important route for CO 2 emission avoidance. In addition, by combining the carbothermic reduction of iron oxide with the partial oxidation of the carbon source, an overall thermoneutral process can be designed for the co-production of iron and syngas rich in CO. Water-gas shift (WGS) of CO to H 2 enables the production of useful syngas. The reaction process heat, or the conditions for thermoneutrality, are derived by thermochemical equilibrium calculations. The thermodynamic constraints are determined for the production of syngas suitable for methanol, hydrogen, or ammonia synthesis. The environmental and economic consequences are assessed for large-scale commercial production of these chemical commodities. Preliminary evaluations with natural gas, coke, or coal as carbon source indicate that such combined processes should be economically competitive, as well as promising significant fuel saving and CO 2 emission avoidance. The production of ammonia in the above processes seems particularly attractive, as it consumes the nitrogen in the flue gases

  15. THE ISSUE OF BROWN COAL QUALITY ON THE BASIS OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Škvarekova, Erika; Kozakova, L'ubica

    2011-01-01

    Coal is expected to remain the dominant fuel for electricity generation in the Slovak republic for a considerable time in the future. Mining of lignite and brown coal is necessary for security and stabilizes the electricity systems of this republic through the heat power Nováky (ENO). Coal combustion processes represent a significant potential for contamination of environmental components. The elemental composition of coal from the mine Cígeľ showed that coal contains variable amount of arsen...

  16. Evaluation of hard fossil fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, S.; Nuic, J.

    1999-01-01

    Because of its inexhaustible supplies hard fossil fuel will represent the pillar of the power systems of the 21st century. Only high-calorie fossil fuels have the market value and participate in the world trade. Low-calorie fossil fuels ((brown coal and lignite) are fuels spent on the spot and their value is indirectly expressed through manufactured kWh. For the purpose of determining the real value of a tonne of low-calorie coal, the criteria that help in establishing the value of a tonne of hard coal have to be corrected and thus evaluated and assessed at the market. (author)

  17. Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shan-Wen [Steel and Aluminum Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 812 (China); Chen, Wei-Hsin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China); Lucas, John A. [School of Engineering of the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals departing from the general trend. One of the coals with the fuel ratio of 6.22 has shown its merit in combustion, implying that the blending ratio of the coal in PCI operation can be raised for a higher coke replacement ratio. The experiments also suggested that increasing blast temperature was an efficient countermeasure for promoting the combustibility of the injected coals. Higher fuel burnout could be achieved when the particle size of coal was reduced from 60-100 to 100-200 mesh. However, once the size of the tested coals was in the range of 200 and 325 mesh, the burnout could not be improved further, resulting from the agglomeration of fine particles. Considering coal blend reactions, the blending ratio of coals in PCI may be adjusted by the individual coal burnout rather than by the fuel ratio. (author)

  18. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-02-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  19. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  20. How long is coal's future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotty, R M; Weinberg, A M

    1977-03-01

    Nearly all scenarios for future U.S. energy supply systems show heavy dependence on coal ranging from 700 million tons to 3300 million tons per year. However, potential climate change resulting from increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations may prevent coal from playing a major role. The carbon in the carbon dioxide produced from fossil fuels each year is about 1/10 the net primary production by terrestrial plants, but the fossil fuel production has been growing exponentially at 4.3% per year. Observed atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations have increased from 315 ppM in 1958 to 330 ppM in 1974--in 1900, before much fossil fuel was burned, it was about 290-295 ppM. Atmospheric models suggest a global warming of about 2 K if the concentration were to rise to two times its pre-1900 value--enough to change the global climate in major (but largely unknown) ways. With the current rate of increase in fossil fuel use, the atmospheric concentration should reach these levels by about 2030--earlier if coal replaces oil and gas.

  1. Coal Quality Expert: Status and software specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    Under the Clean Coal Technology Program (Clean Coal Round 1), the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) are funding the development and demonstration of a computer program called the Coal Quality Expert (CQE trademark). When finished, the CQE will be a comprehensive PC-based program which can be used to evaluate several potential coal cleaning, blending, and switching options to reduce power plant emissions while minimizing generation costs. The CQE will be flxible in nature and capable of evaluating various qualities of coal, available transportation options, performance issues, and alternative emissions control strategies. This allows the CQE to determine the most cost-effective coal and the least expensive emissions control strategy for a given plant. To accomplish this, the CQE will be composed of technical models to evaluate performance issues; environmental models to evaluate environmental and regulatory issues; and cost estimating models to predict costs for installations of new and retrofit coal cleaning processes, power production equipment, and emissions control systems as well as other production costs such as consumables (fuel, scrubber additive, etc.), waste disposal, operating and maintenance, and replacement energy costs. These technical, environmental, and economic models as well as a graphical user interface will be developed for the CQE. And, in addition, to take advantage of already existing capability, the CQE will rely on seamless integration of already proven and extensively used computer programs such as the EPRI Coal Quality Information Systems, Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM trademark), and NO x Pert. 2 figs

  2. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  3. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  4. Coal marketing manual 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This manual provides information on the international coal market in tabulated format. Statistics are presented for the Australian coal industry, exports, currency movements, world coal production, coal and coke imports and exports. Detailed information is provided on the Australian coal industry including mine specific summaries. Pricing summaries for thermal and coking coal in 1987, coal quality standards and specifications, trends in coal prices and stocks. Imports and exports for World coal and coke, details of shipping, international ports and iron and steel production. An exporters index of Australian and overseas companies with industry and government contacts is included. 15 figs., 67 tabs.

  5. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  6. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  7. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  8. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  9. Coal and gas competition in global markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Global consumption of commercial energy totalled 18 Gt of coal equivalent in 2010. With a 28% share, coal ranked second after oil as one of the major sources of primary energy and natural gas (at 21%) ranked third. Gross power generation with coal was approximately 41% and gas 22%. Natural gas as a global commodity is growing rapidly with the advent of unconventional sources such as shale gas. Recently, gas has become the fuel of choice for new power generating plants in some countries. Overall production of coal has increased in the same time-frame. The share of coal in electricity production was constant in Europe from early 2000 but recently increased. This was due to the high cost of gas in Europe and a low emissions penalty levied by the regulator, making coal currently more competitive in Europe compared to gas. Coal utilisation continues to increase in Asia but is facing serious competition with gas in the USA, where the share of electricity generated with coal dropped in 2012. However, natural gas used to generate electricity in early 2013 was below the high level seen during the comparable 2012 period, when low natural gas prices led to significant displacement of coal by natural gas for power generation. The current consensus in the USA is that while coal may recover ground in the short term, it loses in the long term as coal plants are retired. The discovery, production and availability of significant amounts of gas have implications for not only the price of natural gas but also the price of coal as well as supply and demand, and utilisation of both fuels internationally. The interaction between coal and gas in the global markets today is investigated in this review and the near-term outlook and impact on both fuels is presented. In this report, reserves, production and trade, supply and demand, pricing, utilisation and consumption, public attitudes and finally near/short to medium-term prospects are discussed for both coal and gas.

  10. Residential conference on science in the use of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-01-01

    The ''Residential Conference on Science in the Use of Coal'' was held in the Chemistry Department of the University of Sheffield on April 15-17, 1958. The proceedings have been published by the Institute of Fuel, 18 Devonshire Street, Portland Place, London, W.1, England. Sessions involved the physics and chemistry of coal, coal preparation and breakage, coal carbonization, coal and coke combustion and gasification and the reactivity of cokes and chars. Forty-three papers have been entered individually into EDB. (LTN)

  11. Coal and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  12. Comparative Study of Coal and Biomass Co-Combustion With Coal Burning Separately Through Emissions Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siddique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate eco-friendly methods to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal & coal-biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass' were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves. Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal-biomass blends and their emissions. The study revealed that the ratio of 80:20 of coal (lignite-cow dung and 100% banana tree leaves emits less emissions of CO, CO2, NOx and SO2 as compared to 100% coal. Maximum amount of CO emissions were 1510.5 ppm for banana tree waste and minimum amount obtained for lakhra coal and cow dung manure (70:30 of 684.667 ppm. Maximum percentage of SO2 (345.33 ppm was released from blend of lakhra coal and tree leaves (90:10 and minimum amount of SO2 present in samples is in lakhra coal-banana tree waste (80:20. The maximum amount of NO obtained for banana tree waste were 68 ppm whereas maximum amount of NOx was liberated from lakhra coal-tree leaves (60:40 and minimum amount from cow dung manure (30.83 ppm. The study concludes that utilization of biomass with coal could make remedial action against environment pollution.

  13. Geology and coal potential of Somaliland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Y. Ali [Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-01

    Geological field mapping along with available geological and drilling data suggest that Somaliland (Northwestern Somalia) has favourable stratigraphy and structure for coal deposits. Lignitic to sub-bituminous coal deposits with ages from Jurassic to Oligocene-Miocene occur in various locations across the country including Hed-Hed valley south of Onkhor, Guveneh hills north of Las Dureh and Daban Basin southeast of Berbera. However, the coal occurrence at Hed-Hed has both the greatest thickness and highest quality. These deposits have the potential to provide an important alternative fuel resource which could alleviate the growing shortage of traditional fuels and assist in reducing the country's dependence on imported energy. However, further investigation, including drilling and laboratory analyses, still needs to be carried out, particularly on the Upper Cretaceous coal seams to evaluate the quality and resource potential of the deposits.

  14. Simulated coal spill causes mortality and growth inhibition in tropical marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kathryn L E; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P

    2016-05-13

    Coal is a principal fossil fuel driving economic and social development, and increases in global coal shipments have paralleled expansion of the industry. To identify the potential harm associated with chronic marine coal contamination, three taxa abundant in tropical marine ecosystems (the coral Acropora tenuis, the reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus and the seagrass Halodule uninervis) were exposed to five concentrations (0-275 mg coal l(-1)) of suspended coal dust (coal exposure can cause considerable lethal effects on corals, and reductions in seagrass and fish growth rates. Coral survivorship and seagrass growth rates were inversely related to increasing coal concentrations (≥38 mg coal l(-1)) and effects increased between 14 and 28 d, whereas fish growth rates were similarly depressed at all coal concentrations tested. This investigation provides novel insights into direct coal impacts on key tropical taxa for application in the assessment of risks posed by increasing coal shipments in globally threatened marine ecosystems.

  15. Fiscal 2001 achievement report. Development of coal gas production technology for fuel cells - Research using pilot test facility - for public release (Test result report - 3/3); 2001 nendo seika hokokusho (Kokai you). Nenryo denchi you sekitan gas seizo gijutsu kaihatsu - Pilot shiken setsubi ni yoru kenkyu (Shiken kekka hokokusho 3/3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the development of a coal gasification furnace optimum for fuel cells, a pilot test facility was constructed, and the results of tests and inspections conducted therefor are put together. They include a test operation of the expansion turbine in the air separation facility, test operation of the lubricating oil pump for the expansion turbine in the same, test operation of the oxygen compressor in the same, test operation of the medium pressure nitrogen compressor in the same, test operation of the lubricating oil pump for the medium pressure nitrogen compressor in the same, test operation of the high pressure nitrogen compressor in the same, performance verification test for the air separation facility, sequence test for upper/lower stage normal pressure coal hopper purge master in the gasification facility, sequence test for upper/lower stage initial coal loading master in the same, sequence test for char system rock hopper pressure application master in the same, sequence test for gasification furnace light oil leak check master in the same, sequence test for coal rock hopper pressure application master in the same, sequence test for upper/lower coal rock hopper coal reception master in the same, sequence test for slag hopper quenching operation master in the same, and sequence test for gasification steam drum water filling master in the same. (NEDO)

  16. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  17. Destructive distillation of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollason, A

    1918-08-23

    To obtain light oils and ammonia from coals having volatile and oxygen contents, the crushed material is mixed with 5 percent of ground amorphous calcium carbonate and distilled slowly in a cast iron retort to remove the water and light oils, the ammonia being synthesized at a later stage. The crushed residue is gasified in a producer by a blast of air and superheated steam at about 950/sup 0/C. The steam and air are passed very slowly at low pressure through the fuel to cause the dissociation of the atmospheric nitrogen molecules into atoms. The gases are then passed to a heater, having a temperature of 500/sup 0/C, and thence to a continuously working externally-heated retort charged with fuel, such as the hard retort residues, maintained below 850/sup 0/C. The water vapor in the gases is dissociated by the incandescent fuel, the oxygen combining with the carbon, and the lime present in the fuel causes the hydrogen to combine with the free nitrogen atoms, thus forming ammonia. The gases after leaving the retort are cooled down to 85 to 95/sup 0/C and the ammonia may be recovered by conversion into ammonium sulphate. The resultant cooled gases may again be charged with superheated steam and utilized again in the heater and retort.

  18. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  19. Greenhouse gas implications of using coal for transportation: Life cycle assessment of coal-to-liquids, plug-in hybrids, and hydrogen pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Wakeley, Heather; Meisterling, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    Using coal to produce transportation fuels could improve the energy security of the United States by replacing some of the demand for imported petroleum. Because of concerns regarding climate change and the high greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with conventional coal use, policies to encourage pathways that utilize coal for transportation should seek to reduce GHGs compared to petroleum fuels. This paper compares the GHG emissions of coal-to-liquid (CTL) fuels to the emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) powered with coal-based electricity, and to the emissions of a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) that uses coal-based hydrogen. A life cycle approach is used to account for fuel cycle and use-phase emissions, as well as vehicle cycle and battery manufacturing emissions. This analysis allows policymakers to better identify benefits or disadvantages of an energy future that includes coal as a transportation fuel. We find that PHEVs could reduce vehicle life cycle GHG emissions by up to about one-half when coal with carbon capture and sequestration is used to generate the electricity used by the vehicles. On the other hand, CTL fuels and coal-based hydrogen would likely lead to significantly increased emissions compared to PHEVs and conventional vehicles using petroleum-based fuels.

  20. Coal fired air turbine cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Pegg, R. W.

    Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

  1. Coal statistics 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statistical Office of the European Communities

    1978-01-01

    Presents tables of data relating to the coal market in the European Community in 1977. The tables cover hard coal production, supply and trade; briquettes; cokes; lignite, brown coal briquettes and peat; and mines and coke ovens.

  2. Australian coal yearbook 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, A [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This yearbook contains a mine directory; details of coal export facilities and ports; annual coal statistics; a buyers' guide; names and addresses of industry organisations and an index of coal mine owners.

  3. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  4. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  5. Coal, economic development and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallboys, Richard.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the current importance of coal to the world's energy supply. It outlines its growing importance as a fuel for many developing economies around the world and for the most dynamic industrialised countries of Asia. It then refers to the key environmental issues that are involved in a growing worldwide use of coal and emphasises the role that coal will increasingly play in generating the electricity that accompanies an improving standard of living for the world's poor. Finally, the environmental consequences of economic development by and for those who want to live at a standard of living that Australians take for granted are discussed. 4 tabs

  6. The long term means coal market improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soras, C.G.; Stodden, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Statistical data for the US coal industry in 1987 are presented - coal production, energy consumption, inventories, exports, operating rate, employment, hours worked, wages, electric power output, raw steel production, new orders for blast furnaces and steel mills, and fuel oil prices - and contrasted with the situation a year before. The US economy and trade figures are discussed. It is believed that the coal industry stands to benefit from the changing mix of economic activity but must strive to keep competitive. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  7. Australian black coal statistics 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This second edition of Australian black coal statistics replaces the Joint Coal Board's publication 'Black coal in Australia'. It includes an expanded international coal trade supplement. Sections cover resources of black coal, coal supply and demand, coal production, employment and productivity of mines, export data, coal consumption and a directory of producers.