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Sample records for coal flotation final

  1. Coal flotation technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, N. [C. Clarkson & Associates Pty. Ltd., Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    The Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) recently commissioned a study into the status of flotation in coal preparation, in order to direct limited funds to areas of maximum benefit. The primary purpose of the study was the assessment of new flotation technologies, including those commercially available and those still under development. Technologies examined included: the Jameson Cell, Microcel, and Ekof cell. Problems and advantages are discussed, with suggestions for future areas of research. 3 figs.

  2. Pyrolitics Oils in Coal Flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Čáblík, V.; Išek, J.; Herková, M.; Halas, J.; Čáblíková, L.; Vaculíková, L. (Lenka)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article was the research of new flotation reagents, which were formed through pyrolysis of different types of waste. Potential new flotation reagents are liquid organic phase pyrolysis of tires, plastic and wooden materials. Another goal is to achieve the coal flotation ash content quality below 10%. The results imply that it is possible to produce flotation collectors from various types of waste, which may be applicabe in black coal flotation. Producing and application of a s...

  3. Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-02-16

    During the past several years, significant research efforts have been made to develop process technology for the selective flotation of fossil resin from western coals. As a result of these efforts, several new flotation technologies have been developed. Operation of a proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit showed the selective flotation process to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry. However, little attention has been given to the refining of the fossil resin flotation concentrate although solvent refining is a critical step for the fossil resin to become a marketable product. In view of this situation, DOE funded this two-year project to evaluate the following aspects of the fossil resin refining technology: 1) Characterization of the fossil resin flotation concentrate and its refined products; 2) Kinetics of fossil resin extraction; 3) Effects of operating variables on solvent extraction; 4) Extraction solvents; 5) Proof-of-concept continuous refining tests; and 6) Technical and economic analysis. The results from this research effort have led to the following conclusions: Hexane- or heptane-refined fossil resin has a light-yellow color, a melting point of 140 - 142{degrees}C, a density of 1.034 gram/cm, and good solubility in nonpolar solvents. Among the four solvents evaluated (hexane, heptane, toluene and ethyl acetate), hexane is the most appropriate solvent based on overall technical and economic considerations. Batch extraction tests and kinetic studies suggest that the main interaction between the resin and the solvent is expected to be the forces associated with solvation phenomena. Temperature has the most significant effect on extraction rate. With hexane as the solvent, a recovery of 90% cam be achieved at 50{degrees}C and 10% solids concentration with moderate agitation for 1 hour.

  4. Pyrolitics Oils in Coal Flotation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čáblík, V.; Išek, J.; Herková, M.; Halas, J.; Čáblíková, L.; Vaculíková, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2014), s. 9-14 ISSN 1640-4920 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : pyrolytic oils * flotation, black coal * new flotation reagents Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://homen.vsb.cz/hgf/546/IM_2014_02.pdf

  5. Picobubble enhanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Y.J.; Liu, J.T.; Yu, S.; Tao, D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Froth flotation is widely used in the coal industry to clean -28 mesh fine coal. A successful recovery of particles by flotation depends on efficient particle-bubble collision and attachment with minimal subsequent particle detachment from bubble. Flotation is effective in a narrow size range beyond which the flotation efficiency drops drastically. It is now known that the low flotation recovery of particles in the finest size fractions is mainly due to a low probability of bubble-particle collision while the main reason for poor coarse particle flotation recovery is the high probability of detachment. A fundamental analysis has shown that use of picobubbles can significantly improve the flotation recovery of particles in a wide range of size by increasing the probability of collision and attachment and reducing the probability of detachment. A specially designed column with a picobubble generator has been developed for enhanced recovery of fine coal particles. Picobubbles were produced based on the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. They are characterized by a size distribution that is mostly below 1 {mu}m and adhere preferentially to the hydrophobic surfaces. The presence of picobubbles increases the probability of collision and attachment and decreases the probability of detachment, thus enhancing flotation recovery. Experimental results with the Coalberg seam coal in West Virginia, U.S.A. have shown that the use of picobubbles in a 2 in. column flotation increased fine coal recovery by 10-30%, depending on the feed rate, collector dosage, and other flotation conditions. Picobubbles also acted as a secondary collector and reduced the collector dosage by one third to one half.

  6. Surface chemical problems in coal flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Miller, K. J.; Deurbrouck, A. W.

    1981-02-01

    As the use of coal increases and more fine material is produced by mining and processing, the need for improved methods of coal beneficiation increases. While flotation techniques can help meet these needs, the technique is beset with many problems. These problems involve surface chemical and interfacial properties of the coal-mineral-water slurry systems used in coal flotation. The problems associated with coal flotation include non-selectivity, inefficient reagent utilization, and excessive variablity of results. These problems can be broadely classified as a lack of predictability. The present knowledge of coal flotation is not sufficient, in terms of surface chemical parameters, to allow prediction of the flotation response of a given coal. In this paper, some of the surface chemical properties of coal and coal minerals that need to be defined will be discussed in terms of the problems noted above and their impact on coal cleaning.

  7. Kinetic comparison of biological and conventional flotation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amini, E.; Oliazadeh, M.; Kolahdoozan, M. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    Froth flotation is commonly used in coal processing to selectively recover the organic material (coal) from inorganic waste material. Tabas coal, located in east Iran, contains fine disseminated pyrite which is floated with coal during flotation, and hence decreasing the quality of the final concentrate. Reagents, such as sodium cyanide, are typically added to depress pyrite. Due to the toxicity of cyanide, alternative strategies for depressing pyrite flotation are being investigated. In this paper the metallurgical performance of Tabas coal treated with sodium cyanide is compared to that of Tabas coal which has undergone bacterial treatment using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Results indicate that bacterial treatment decreases the flotation rate of pyrite and improves the selectivity between coal and gangue. The possibility of using bacteria in place of toxic chemicals such as cyanide has significant environmental benefit.

  8. Further Investigations on Simultaneous Ultrasonic Coal Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Gokhan Ozkan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the flotation performance of a representative hard coal slime sample (d80 particle size of minus 0.2 mm obtained from the Prosper-Haniel coal preparation plant located in Bottrop, Germany. Flotation was carried out with a newly designed flotation cell refurbished from an old ultrasonic cleaning bath (2.5 L volume equipped with a single frequency (35 kHz and two different power levels (80–160 W and a sub-aeration-type flotation machine operating at a stable impeller speed (1200 rpm and air rate (2.5 L/min. The reagent combination for conventional and simultaneous ultrasonic coal flotation tests was Ekofol-440 at variable dosages (40–300 g/t with controlling water temperature (20–25 °C at natural pH (6.5–7.0. The batch coal flotation results were analyzed by comparing the combustible recovery (% and separation efficiency (% values, taking mass yield and ash concentrations of the froths and tailings into account. It was found that simultaneous ultrasonic coal flotation increased yield and recovery values of the floated products with lower ash values than the conventional flotation despite using similar reagent dosages. Furthermore, particle size distribution of the ultrasonically treated and untreated coals was measured. Finely distributed coal particles seemed to be agglomerated during the ultrasonic treatment, while ash-forming slimes were removed by hydrodynamic cavitation.

  9. Picobubble enhanced column flotation of fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, D.; Yu, S.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The purpose is to study the effectiveness of picobubbles in the column flotation of -28 mesh fine coal particles. A flotation column with a picobubble generator was developed and tested for enhancing the recovery of ultrafine coal particles. The picobubble generator was designed using the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. A metallurgical and a steam coal were tested in the apparatus. The results show that the use of picobubbles in a 2in. flotation column increased the recovery of fine coal by 10 to 30%. The recovery rate varied with feed rate, collector dosage, and other column conditions. 40 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Effect of microwave radiation on coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbayoglu, G.; Depci, T.; Ataman, N. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2009-07-01

    Most low-rank coals are high in moisture and acid functional groups, therefore showing poor floatability. Drying, which removes the water molecules trapped in the pores and adsorbed at the surface of coal, decreases the hydrophilic character and improves the floatability. Microwave heating, whose simplest application is drying, was applied at 0.9 kW power level for 60 sec exposure time in the experiments to decrease the moisture content of coal in order to enhance the hydrophobicity. The flotation tests of microwave-treated coal by using heptanol and octanol lead to a higher flotation yield and ash removal than original coal.

  11. Picobubble column flotation of fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Tao; Samuel Yu; Xiaohua Zhou; R.Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Department of Mining Engineering

    2008-01-15

    Froth flotation is widely used in the coal industry to clean -28 mesh (0.6 mm) or -100 mesh (0.15 mm) fine coal. A successful recovery of particles by flotation depends on efficient particle-bubble collision and attachment with minimal subsequent particle detachment from bubble. Flotation is effective in a narrow size range, nominally 10-100 {mu}m, beyond which the flotation efficiency drops sharply. A fundamental analysis has shown that use of picobubbles can significantly improve the flotation recovery of particles by increasing the probability of collision and attachment and reducing the probability of detachment. A specially designed column with a picobubble generator has been developed for enhanced recovery of fine coal particles. Picobubbles were produced based on the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. Experimental results have shown that the use of picobubbles in a 5-cm diameter column flotation increased the combustible recovery of a highly floatable coal by up to 10% and that of a poorly floatable coal by up to 40%, depending on the feed rate, collector dosage, and other flotation conditions. 14 refs.

  12. Application of Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans in coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amini, E.; Hosseini, T.R.; Oliazadeh, M.; Kolahdoozan, M. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    Bioflotation is a potential method for removing pyritic sulphur from coal. Sodium cyanide is a well-known depressant for pyrite in flotation of sulphide minerals; however, for coal this reagent is unacceptable from the environmental point of view. This study investigates an alternate to sodium cyanide, Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans, a nonharmful bacterial reagent as a pyrite depressant. The flotation behavior of pyrite and other gangue particles using the sodium cyanide and the Ferrooxidans is compared by applying the general first-order flotation model. The kinetic parameters extracted from the model demonstrated that the modified flotation rate of pyrite was reduced, and the selectivity between coal and gangue was improved using the bacteria. These results indicate that Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans has potential in removing pyritic sulfur from coal.

  13. Studies on coal flotation in flotation column using statistical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.S. Jena; S.K. Biswal; K.K. Rao; P.S.R. Reddy [Institute of Minerals & Materials Technology (IMMT), Orissa (India)

    2009-07-01

    Flotation of Indian high ash coking coal fines to obtain clean coal has been reported earlier by many authors. Here an attempt has been made to systematically analyse factors influencing the flotation process using statistical design of experiments technique. Studies carried out in a 100 mm diameter column using factorial design to establish weightage of factors such as feed rate, air rate and collector dosage indicated that all three parameters have equal influence on the flotation process. Subsequently RSM-CCD design was used to obtain best result and it is observed that 94% combustibles can be recovered with 82.5% weight recovery at 21.4% ash from a feed containing 31.3% ash content.

  14. Coal flotation optimization using modified flotation parameters and combustible recovery in a Jameson cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapur, Hueseyin; Bayat, Oktay; Ucurum, Metin

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses a new coal flotation optimization approach. It is conducted using modified flotation parameters and combustible recovery. The experimental work was evaluated in two stages. In the first stage, recoveries (1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 min of flotation times) of Jameson flotation operating parameters were fitted to first-order kinetic model, R = R ∞ [1 - exp (-kt)] where R was recovery at t time, R ∞ was ultimate recovery and k was the first-order rate constant to draw the time recovery curves in the experimental study. Two parameters, the ultimate recovery (R ∞ ) and first-order rate constant (k), were then obtained from the model to fit an experimental time recovery curve. A modified flotation rate constant (K m ) defined as product of R ∞ and k, i.e., K m = R ∞ * k, and selectivity index (SI) defined as the ratio of the modified rate constant of coal to the modified rate constant of ash (SI)=K m of Coal/K m of Ash), which could be collectively called 'modified flotation parameters'. It was used to determine of the sub and upper values of operation variables. In the second one, combustible recovery (%) and ash content (%) were used to optimization of the Jameson flotation variables and it was found that d 80 = 0.250 mm particle size, 1/1 vegetable oil acids/kerosene ratio, 20% solids pulp density, 0.600 L/min wash water rate and 40 cm downcomer immersion dept could be used to separate efficiently coal from ash. Final concentrate was obtained with 94.83% combustible recovery and 17.86% ash content at optimum conditions after 8 min flotation time.

  15. Effect of flotation on preparation of coal-water slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K.; Laskowski, J.S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    In order to study the effect of flotation reagents on the properties of coal-water slurry, a sub-bituminous coal was cleaned via either forward flotation or reverse flotation. The froth product from the forward flotation, obtained with the use of diesel oil and MIBC, and the tailings of the reverse flotation, carried out with dextrin-tannic acid depressants and dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride collector, were used in the preparation of coal-water slurries. It was shown that while it was possible to obtain the coal-water slurry with a high-solids content from the coal rendered hydrophilic (tailings from the coal reverse flotation), in the case of the hydrophobic product (froth product from the forward flotation) a dispersing agent was required to obtain the coal-water slurry of the same high-solids content.

  16. A new mathematical model for coal flotation kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero-Pérez, Juan Sebastián; Barraza-Burgos, Juan Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study describes the development and formulation of a novel mathematical model for coal flotation kinetic. The flotation rate was considered as a function of chemical, operating and petrographic parameters for a global flotation order n. The equation for flotation rate was obtained by dimensional analysis using the Rayleigh method. It shows the dependency of flotation kinetic on operating parameters, such as air velocity and particle size; chemical parameters, such as reagents do...

  17. Flotation process diagnostics and modelling by coal grain analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofori, P; O' Brien, G.; Firth, B.; Jenkins, B. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2006-05-15

    In coal flotation, particles of different components of the coal such as maceral groups and mineral matter and their associations have different hydrophobicities and therefore different flotation responses. By using a new coal grain analysis method for characterising individual grains, more detailed flotation performance analysis and modelling approaches have been developed. The method involves the use of microscopic imaging techniques to obtain estimates of size, compositional and density information on individual grains of fine coal. The density and composition partitioning of coal processed through different flotation systems provides an avenue to pinpoint the actual cause of poor process performance so that corrective action may be initiated. The information on grain size, density and composition is being used as input data to develop more detailed flotation process models to provide better predictions of process performance for both mechanical and column flotation devices. A number of approaches may be taken to flotation modelling such as the probability approach and the kinetic model approach or a combination of the two. In the work reported here, a simple probability approach has been taken, which will be further refined in due course. The use of grain data to map the responses of different types of coal grains through various fine coal cleaning processes provided a more advanced diagnostic capability for fine coal cleaning circuits. This enabled flotation performance curves analogous to partition curves for density separators to be produced for flotation devices.

  18. Development of zero conditioning procedure for coal reverse flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.P. Patil; J.S. Laskowski [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Mining Engineering Department

    2008-04-15

    The zero conditioning method was developed to facilitate the flotation of gangue minerals in the reverse coal flotation process. Batch and continuous methods were developed to maintain the zero conditioning principle during reverse flotation. Batch zero conditioning was achieved by adding the required amount of DTAB in one step, as soon as the air was introduced into the system. The continuous zero conditioning method involves uninterrupted addition of DTAB through a specially built sparger in the form of aerosol during the flotation experiment. This produces active bubbles that carry collector. The addition of DTAB in the form of aerosol during reverse flotation proved to be better in reducing the ash of a sub-bituminous (LS-26) coal from 34.7% to 22.9% with a froth product (gangue) yield of 36.8% without any depressant. In the presence of coal depressant (dextrin, 0.5 kg/t), the ash content of LS-26 coal was reduced from 34.7% to 16.5% at a clean coal yield of 55%, whereas the conventional (forward) flotation with fuel oil provided a clean coal containing 16.5% ash with only 29.2% yield. These results prove that flotation of gangue minerals is very much improved by maintaining zero conditioning time conditions in a coal reverse flotation process.

  19. Desulphurization of coal: bioleaching versus bioconditioning and flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Zeki Dogan; Gulhan Ozbayoglu [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Faculty of Mining

    2007-07-01

    There are two bio-desulphurization methods for the removal of pyritic sulphur, namely, bacterial leaching and bacterial conditioning for pyrite depression followed by flotation of coal. Bacterial leaching is a slow process, consequently, microbial desulphurization is focused on conditioning coal by bacteria for a short time, followed by flotation. The application of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in bioconditioning followed by flotation process help the oxidation of pyrite surface and enhance its depression during the flotation of coal. By bacterial conditioning for 4 hours followed by flotation, almost 78 % pyritic sulphur removal was attained with the yield of 78 % in the floated coal, whereas bacterial leaching resulted in pyritic sulphur removal of 56.60 % in 10 days. 17 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Operating a pneumatic-mechanical flotation machine for coal-slurry flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmaenok, N M; Bedran, N G; Konstantinov, V K; Kochetkov, Yu I; Sysoev, V S

    1976-01-01

    The FPM-GMO-1.6 pneumatic-mechanical flotation machine is easy to operate and regulate and maintains a high throughput at a low energy consumption. The flotation process is stable, the quality of the concentrate and tailings satisfactory, and the selectivity of separation high. The machine cannot handle coal slurries at higher throughputs because the rate of froth removal is too low across the entire flotation front. Experience on the pneumatic-mechanical flotation machine at the ''Kolosnikovskaya'' Central Washery indicates that a similar machine should be developed for a throughput of 1000 m/sup 3//hr.

  1. Coal reverse flotation. Part II: Cleaning of a subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K.J.; Laskowski, J.S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. for Mining Engineering

    2006-01-15

    Reverse flotation of a subbituminous coal was investigated and it turned out that a large amount of DTAC was needed in this process. The application of the zero-conditioning time method along with the use of PAM significantly reduced DTAC consumption from over 6 kg/t down to 1.375 kg/t. Dextrin was necessary to improve the selectivity. The addition of a dispersant (tannic acid) improved further the quality of concentrate. The concentrate ash content of 16.7% at 50.4% yield was obtained for the feed ash content of 34.6%. Although this gives only about 64% combustible recovery, since the inherent ash content for this coal was determined to be 10% the room for further improvement is very limited. The best separation was obtained around a natural pH of 7.5-8.4 for this coal.

  2. Cross flow cyclonic flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ralph W.; Patton, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the separation of coal from pyritic impurities using a modified froth flotation system. The froth flotation column incorporates a helical track about the inner wall of the column in a region intermediate between the top and base of the column. A standard impeller located about the central axis of the column is used to generate a centrifugal force thereby increasing the separation efficiency of coal from the pyritic particles and hydrophillic tailings.

  3. Switching and optimizing control for coal flotation process based on a hybrid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiyong; Wang, Ranfeng; Fan, Minqiang; Fu, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Flotation is an important part of coal preparation, and the flotation column is widely applied as efficient flotation equipment. This process is complex and affected by many factors, with the froth depth and reagent dosage being two of the most important and frequently manipulated variables. This paper proposes a new method of switching and optimizing control for the coal flotation process. A hybrid model is built and evaluated using industrial data. First, wavelet analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) are applied for signal pre-processing. Second, a control model for optimizing the set point of the froth depth is constructed based on fuzzy control, and a control model is designed to optimize the reagent dosages based on expert system. Finally, the least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) is used to identify the operating conditions of the flotation process and to select one of the two models (froth depth or reagent dosage) for subsequent operation according to the condition parameters. The hybrid model is developed and evaluated on an industrial coal flotation column and exhibits satisfactory performance. PMID:29040305

  4. Bubble feature extracting based on image processing of coal flotation froth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Lu, M.; Liu, W. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept of Chemical Engineering and Environment

    2001-11-01

    Using image processing the contrast ratio between the bubble on the surface of flotation froth and the image background was enhanced, and the edges of bubble were extracted. Thus a model about the relation between the statistic feature of the bubbles in the image and the cleaned coal can be established. It is feasible to extract the bubble by processing the froth image of coal flotation on the basis of analysing the shape of the bubble. By means of processing the 51 group images sampled from laboratory column, it is thought that the use of the histogram equalization of image gradation and the medium filtering can obviously improve the dynamic contrast range and the brightness of bubbles. Finally, the method of threshold value cut and the bubble edge detecting for extracting the bubble were also discussed to describe the bubble feature, such as size and shape, in the froth image and to distinguish the froth image of coal flotation. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Coal and potash flotation enhancement using a clay binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, D.; Chen, G.L.; Zhou, X.H.; Zhao, C.; Fan, M.M.; Aron, M.; Wright, J. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The adverse effects of clay particles on coal and mineral processing operations such as gravity separation, flotation, filtration and thickening are well known in the mining industry. In particular, the presence of ultra-fine clay particles deteriorates froth flotation performance, which has been attributed to slime coatings that inhibit bubble attachment and to adsorption of the frother and/or collector by the clay particles. The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a clay binding agent developed by Georgia-Pacific Resins, Inc. in enhancing coal and mineral flotation performance. Mechanical flotation tests were carried out using coal and potash samples. Process parameters investigated included slurry solids percentage, impeller rotation speed, binder dosage, etc. Flotation results show that the use of GP reagents significantly enhanced flotation efficiency under different conditions. The required binder dosage and conditioning time were about 0.45 kg/t and 0.5 to 1 minute, respectively. More significant improvements in process performance were observed at higher solids percentage and higher impeller rotation speed.

  6. Biological removal of sulfur from coal flotation concentrate by culture isolated from coal washery plant tailing dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorjani, E. [Azad University, Tehran (Iran). Mining Engineering Dept.

    2005-10-15

    A combination of flotation and microbial leaching processes was used to achieve acceptable level of sulfur and ash in Tabas coal sample of Iran. Representative sample of the minus 500 micron size fraction was subjected to flotation separation for the removal of ash and sulfur. The final concentrate with recovery, combustion value and sulfur content of 86.03, 86.45 and 1.35% respectively was achieved at pH 8 and following reagent dosage and operating conditions: collector: diesel oil (1200 g/ton), frother: MIBC (5%) + pine oil (95%) with concentration of 120 (g/ton), depressant: sodium silicate (1000 g/ton), particle size: {lt} 500 {mu} m and pulp density: 7%. Because of fine distribution of sulfur on Tabas coal macerals and lithotypes, high percentage of total sulfur (79.9%) is distributed in flotation concentrate and only 20.1% is yielded in the tails. So microbial leaching using a species isolated from coal washery plant tailing dump was used in batch system to remove sulfur from flotation concentrate. The conditions were optimized for the maximum removal of sulfur. These conditions were found to be pH of 2, particle size less than 0.18 mm; pulp density: 8%, temperature: 30 {sup o}C, shaking rate: 150 rpm conditions. Total sulfur and ash content was reduced by bioleaching from 13.55 and 1.35 in flotation concentrate to 9.47 and 0.55 in the final leached concentrate, a reduction of 35 and 61.9% respectively. Sterilization of coal adversely affects the sulfur reduction. The results suggest that the isolated culture is sufficiently effective for depyritization of Tabas coal flotation concentrate in stirred system.

  7. Split and collectorless flotation to medium coking coal fines for multi-product zero waste concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Shobhana; Bhattacharyya, K.K. [Mineral Processing Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur-831007 (India)

    2007-06-15

    The medium coking coal fines of - 0.5 mm from Jharia coal field were taken for this investigation. The release analysis of the composite coal reveals that yield is very low at 10.0% ash, about 25% at 14% ash and 50% at 17% ash level. The low yield is caused by the presence of high ash finer fraction. The size-wise ash analysis of - 0.5 mm coal indicated that - 0.5 + 0.15 mm fraction contains less ash than - 0.15 mm fraction. Thus, the composite feed was split into - 0.5 + 0.15 mm and - 0.15 mm fractions and subjected to flotation separately. The low ash bearing fraction (- 0.5 + 0.15 mm) was subjected to two stages collectorless flotation to achieve the concentrate with 10% ash. The cleaner concentrate (18.9%) with 10% ash was recovered which has an application in metallurgical industries. The concentrate of 30.2% yield with 12.5% ash could be achieved in one stage collectorless flotation which is suitable for use in coke making as sweetener. As the - 0.15 mm fraction contains relatively high ash, collector aided flotation using sodium silicate was performed to get a concentrate of 23.6% yield with about 17% ash. The blending of this product with cleaner tail obtained from - 0.5 + 0.15 mm produces about 35.0% yield with 17% ash and that can be utilized for coke making. The reject from the two fractions can be used for conventional thermal power plant or cement industries using a 23.5% ash after one stage collector aided flotation and the final tailings produced content ash of 61.6% can be used for fluidization combustion bed (FBC). This eventually leads to complete utilization of coal. (author)

  8. Off-line image analysis for froth flotation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citir, C.; Aktas, Z.; Berber, R. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2004-05-15

    Froth flotation is an effective process for separating sulphur and fine minerals from coal. Such pre-cleaning of coal is necessary in order to reduce the environmental and operational problems in power plants. The separation depends very much on particle surface properties, and the selectivity can be improved by addition of a reagent. Image analysis can be used to determine the amount of reagent, by using the relation between surface properties and froth bubble sizes. This work reports some improvements in the efficiency of the image analysis, and in determination of bubble diameter distribution towards developing froth-based flotation models. Ultimate benefit of the technique would allow a pre-determined reagent addition profile to be identified for controlling the separation process.

  9. Coal-oil assisted flotation for the gold recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, S.; Seyrankaya, A.; Cilingir, Y. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2005-09-01

    Using coal-oil agglomeration method for free or native gold recovery has been a research subject for many researchers over the years. In this study, a new approach 'coal-oil assisted gold flotation' was used to recover gold particles. The coal-oil-gold agglomeration process considers the preferential wetting of coal and gold particles. The method takes advantage of the greater hydrophobicity and oleophilicity of coal and gold compared to that the most gangue materials. Unlike the previous studies about coal-oil-gold agglomeration, this method uses a very small amount of coal and agglomerating agents. Some experiments were conducted on synthetic gold ore samples to reveal the reaction of the coal-oil assisted gold flotation process against the size and the number of gold particles in the feed. It was observed that there is no significant difference in process gold recoveries for feeds assaying different Au. Although there was a slight decrease for coarse gold particles, the process seems to be effective for the recovery of gold grains as coarse as 300 {mu} m. The decrease in the finest size ({lt} 53 {mu} m) is considered to be the decrease in the collision efficiency between the agglomerates and the finest gold particles. The effect of changing coal quantity for constant ore and oil amounts was also investigated. The experiments showed that the process gives very similar results for both artificial and natural ore samples; the best results have been obtained by using 30/1 coal-oil ratio.

  10. Fine particles flotation of the Moatize coal/Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Amilton; de Brum, Irineu A. S.

    2017-11-01

    This study was done from a sample of coal mined at the Vale-Mozambique mine, located in Moatize district, Tete Province. The aim of this work is to analyze the reagent system in the flotation of coal fines belonging to the UCB layer. Among coal processing methods, flotation stands out as one of the most important for the concentration of this material, in particular in the treatment of fine particles. The total feed of the Vale-Mozambique processing plant is 8000 tph of coal, where 10% of this feed corresponds to the fine fraction that feeds the flotation circuit. The material used in this study had a particle size of 96% smaller than 0.25 mm. The reagents used in the flotation tests were Betacol and diesel oil as hydrophobizing agents and MIBC as frother. The range of Betacol concentrations in the first test phase was 200 g / t at 500 g / t, and in the second phase 200 g / t at 500 g / t of diesel oil and MIBC were kept constant at 300 g / t. The immediate analysis followed the Brazilian standards: NBR 8289, NBR 8293, NBR 8290, NBR 8299. The results showed that it is possible, from a feed with the ash content around 22.84%, to obtain products with levels below of 10% ash, with a mass recovery around 50%. The recovery of carbonaceous matter was also evaluated and presented positive results. Complementing this study, the effect of H2O recovery was evaluated and it was observed that for the concentrations of Betacol the recoveries ranged from 6 to 9%, and for diesel oil plus MIBC were 4 to 7%.

  11. Comparative study of the performance of conventional and column flotation when treating coking coal fines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, M.S.; Biswal, S.K.; Das, S.P.; Reddy, P.S.R. [Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR), Bhubaneswar - 751 013 (India)

    2008-12-15

    Investigations were carried out on coking coal fines by conventional cell and column flotation techniques. The effects of different operating parameters were evaluated for both conventional and column flotation. The coal fines were collected from Bhojudih washery, India. These coal fines averaged 24.4% ash, 19.8% volatile matter and 53.8% fixed carbon on a dry basis. A commercial grade sodium silicate, light diesel oil and pine oil were used as depressant, collector and frother respectively. The flotation performance was compared with release analysis. The conventional flotation results indicated that a clean coal with 14.4% ash could be obtained at 78.0% yield with 88.4% combustible recovery. The ash of the clean coal could be further reduced to 10.1% at 72.0% yield with 85.6% combustible recovery by using column flotation. The column flotation results were close to those obtained by release analysis. (author)

  12. Effects of coal composition and flotation reagents on the water resistance of binderless briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motaung, S.R.; Mangena, S.J.; de Korte, G.J. [Syngas & Coal Technology, Sasolburg (South Africa)

    2007-10-15

    The difference in the physical properties, particularly the water resistance or wet strength, of the binderless coal briquettes produced from flotation feed and concentrate was investigated using six bituminous coals from two collieries in the Witbank Coalfield. The coal samples were analyzed for their proximate, petrographic, and mineralogical properties. The presence, in the flotation concentrates, of the reagents used during the froth flotation process was also investigated using gas chromatography. Pillow-shaped binderless briquettes were produced from coal samples at various moisture contents and a pressure of approximately 17 MPA using a Komarek B-100A double-roll press. The briquettes were tested for some physical properties (i.e., dry- and wet-compressive strengths), which were thereafter compared with the properties determined for the coal samples. The binderless briquettes produced from the flotation concentrates were more water-resistant than those produced from the flotation feed. The flotation feed and concentrates of the coals tested were found to have similar petrographic properties. As expected, the ash and kaolinite contents were found to be lower in the flotation concentrates than in the flotation feed. Flotation reagents were detected in the flotation concentrates from both collieries. From the results obtained it is concluded that the increased water resistance of the binderless briquettes produced from flotation concentrates of the coals tested is due to a combination of the fineness of the coal particles, assisted by the amount of reactive macerals (most particularly vitrinite) with the lower ash and kaolinite contents, together with the presence of the flotation reagents, particularly the collector, in the flotation concentrate.

  13. An investigation into the effects of the froth phase on the recovery of coal by flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawshaw, S A.M. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (UK). Department of Mining Engineering

    1989-11-01

    The project aimed to investigate the effects of frother type and concentration on the recovery of coal by flotation, to study froth structure by photographic and image analysis techniques, and to use the information obtained in various modelling techniques to simulate the process of coal flotation. 221 refs., 136 figs., 6 apps.

  14. Cleaning of Egyptian coal by using column flotation to minimize the environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalek, M.A.A. [CMRDI, Cairo (Egypt)

    2002-07-01

    This work aims to decrease the sulfur content of the Egyptian coal by using column flotation technology to be suitable for various applications. In this study, the column flotation parameters as air flow-rate, wash water, frother dosage and feed rate with its solid percent were studied. A clean coal was obtained containing 1.01 % total sulfur with a yield of 82 %, from Maghara coal (Sinai-Egypt) which contains 3.3 % total sulfur as raw coal.

  15. Coal flotation - bench-scale study. Flotacao de carvao estudo em escala de bancada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, A.R. de; Almeida, S L.M. de; Santos, A.T. dos

    1979-01-01

    Run-of-mine coal and pre-washed coal from Santa Catarina, Brazil, were characterized using washability curves and by particle size analysis after crushing. Bench-scale froth flotation tests were then conducted with the pre-washed coal. Kerosene and diesel oil were used as the collectors, and pine oil as the frother. The influence of starch (as depressor) on flotation was also studied. The effects of feed particle size, pH, collector addition, frother addition, depressor addition and flotation time were investigated. A 9.5% ash content coal could be obtained with a mass recovery of about 29%. (17 refs.)

  16. Froth flotation as a promising method of coal preparation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, A.R. de; Almeida, S L.M. de; Santos, A.T. dos

    1979-01-01

    Run-of-mine coal and pre-washed coal from Santa Catarina, Brazil, were characterized using washability curves, and by particle analysis after crushing. Bench-scale froth flotation tests were then conducted with the pre-washed coal, using kerosene and diesel oil as the collectors and pine oil as the frother. The influence of starch (as depressor) on flotation was also studied. The effects of feed particle size; pH; collector, frother and depressor additions; and flotation time were investigated. A 9.5% ash content coal was obtained with a mass recovery of about 29%. (17 refs.)

  17. Effect of mechanical and chemical clay removals by hydrocyclone and dispersants on coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oats, W.J.; Ozdemir, O.; Nguyen, A.V. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). School of Chemical Engineering

    2010-04-15

    Fine minerals, mostly clays, are known to have a detrimental effect on coal flotation. This paper focuses on the effect of mechanical and chemical removals of fine minerals by hydrocyclone and dispersants on coal flotation. The experimental results showed that the flotation recovery slightly increased from medium acidic to medium alkaline ranges. The flotation experiments carried out with dispersants at different dosages showed that the dispersants did not enhance the flotation recovery significantly. However, the removal of the fine fraction from the feed using a hydrocyclone significantly increased the flotation recovery. The bubble-particle attachment tests also indicated that the attachment time between an air bubble and the coal particles increased in the presence of clay particles. These attachment time results clearly showed that the clay particles adversely affected the flotation of coal particles by covering the coal surfaces which reduced the efficiency of bubble-coal attachment. An analysis based on the colloid stability theory showed that the clay coating was governed by the van der Waals attraction and that the double-layer interaction played a secondary role. It was also concluded that the best way to increase the flotation recovery in the presence of clays was to remove these fine minerals by mechanical means such as hydrocylones.

  18. Recovery of clean coal fines through a combination of gravity concentrator and flotation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.K.; Banerjee, P.K.; Dutta, A.; Mishra, A. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India). Research & Development

    2007-07-01

    Flotation feed is a mixture of coarse and ultra-fine fractions. During conditioning of the flotation feed with collector and frother, the finer fraction consumes more reagents as compared to coarser particles. This is mainly due to more specific surface area of the ultra fine than the coarse fraction. This favors the adsorption of reagents toward ultra-finer fractions leads to less complete surface coverage of coarse particles and more entrainment of finer gangue particles. This results in the lower yield of coarse fractions from the flotation circuit and loss in selectivity. Hence, the major challenge is to improve the recovery of the coarser fraction and selectivity of ultra-fine fractions by improving flotation kinetics of all size fractions. This article deals with an approach to overcome the improper reagent adsorption by fine and coarse coal fractions in the flotation circuit through an innovative washing circuit containing gravity operation and flotation processes. Flotation performance between a new washing circuit having stub cyclone and flotation and normal single-stage reagent addition flotation process is compared in terms of selectivity, separation efficiency, rate constant, and size-wise recovery. The washing circuit having stub cyclone and flotation processes improves the fine clean coal yield by 10% and reduces the consumption of reagent compared to the normal single-stage reagent addition flotation process.

  19. Study on the flotation technology for deep-cleaning of coal slime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Xiao-heng; Shan Xiao-yun; Jiang He-jin; Li Xiang-li [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The paper introduced the basic principle and special features of deep-cleaning of coal slime by flotation, first, separating the slime by conventional flotation to give a relatively low ash concentrate, a tailing containing an ash as high as possible, followed by flocculation-flotation to recover additional low ash concentrate. The regressive release flotation test and microphoto indicated that the middling consists mainly of intergrowth particles of coal and minerals. Comparison between deep-cleaning and conventional flotation results denoted that, at approximately same concentrate ash, its yield by deep-cleaning was 46.06 percent point higher, and at similar yield, its concentrate ash, 1.78 percent point lower. The performance by deep-cleaning is even better than that by regressive release flotation test. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Improving coal flotation recovery using computational fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Koh [CSIRO Minerals (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    This work involves using the latest advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to increase understanding of the hydrodynamics in coal flotation and to identify any opportunities to improve design and operation of both the Microcel column and Jameson cell. The CSIRO CFD model incorporates micro-processes from cell hydrodynamics that affect particle-bubble attachments and detachments. CFD simulation results include the liquid velocities, turbulent dissipation rates, gas hold-up, particle-bubble attachment rates and detachment rates. This work has demonstrated that CFD modelling is a cost effective means of developing an understanding of particle-bubble attachments and detachments, and can be used to identify and test potential cell or process modifications.

  1. Coal Recycling from Tailings using Flotation with 2-Level Experimental Design Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Jannesar Malakooti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the possibility of producing coal with less than 11% ash from tailings of flotation process was investigated. The effect of six flotation parameters: collector type, collector consumption, frother type, frother consumption, pulp density and mixing rate were studied on a sample from a tailing dam. A software based experimental design approach (DX7 was applied to determine and model effective parameters as well as flotation optimization through fractional factorial. It was shown that collector type and flotation machine mixing rate were the most effective parameters on ash content of concentrate. The results indicated that the production of a desired ash content concentrate, i.e.

  2. Coal-oil gold agglomeration assisted flotation to recover gold from refractory ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, A.; Yue, C.

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the applicability of coal-oil gold agglomeration (CGA) assisted flotation to recover gold from a refractory ore. The ore with the grade of 2-5 g/t was tested with the CGA-flotation process in six different size fractions from 38 to 300 urn using different collector types and dosages. In addition, the flotation without CGA was performed under the same condition for comparison. The results showed that the higher gold grade and recovery were achieved by applying the CGA-flotation, compared with the flotation without CGA. More than 20-60 times grade increase from the head grade was obtained with CGA-flotation. The elemental analysis of gold and sulphur explained their relationship with gold recovery. The results well indicated the applicability of CGA to upgrade the refractory gold ore.

  3. Engineering development of advanced froth flotation. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.; Torak, E.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report is an account of findings related to the Engineering and Development of Advanced Froth Flotation project. The results from benchscale and proof-of-concept (POC) level testing are presented and the important results from this testing are used to refine a conceptual design and cost estimate for a 20 TPH Semi-Works Facility incorporating the final proposed technology.

  4. Mechanism underlying the action of waterglass in the flotation of Karaganda coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasova, N S; Shchegoleva, E N

    1979-05-01

    The effectiveness of activated waterglass in the flotation of coals containing a considerable amount of clay is governed basically by the selectivity of the silicic acid and its dissociation products in relation to the coal surface and the surface of the dirt, as well as its stability and the degree of hydration of the fixed layer of reagent.

  5. Mechanism of the action of water glass in the flotation of Karaganda coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasova, N S; Shchegoleva, E N

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of activated waterglass in the flotation of coals containing a considerable amount of clay is governed basically by the selctivity of the silicic acid and its dissociation products in relation to the coal surface and the surface of the dirt, as well as its stability and the degree of hydration of the fixed layer of reagent.

  6. Experimental study of desulfurization of Zhong Liang Shau high sulfur coal by flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Z.; Huang, B.; Cao, J. [China University of Mining and Technology (China). Beijing Graduate School

    1994-12-01

    Emission of large amount of SO{sub 2} from combustion of high sulfur coal causes serious environmental pollution. Pre-combustion desulfurization of high sulfur coal has become a necessity. This paper reports test results of fine coal desulfurization with different flotation technology and the effect of pyrite depressant. Test work showed that when the coal sample from Zhong Liang Shau was processed with a Free Jet Flotation Column its pyritic sulfur content was reduced from 3.08% to 0.84%, with 72.22% recovery of combustible matter in clean coal. The concept of Desulfurization Efficiency Index E{sub ds} for comprehensive evaluation of desulfurization process is proposed, which is defined as the product of the ratio of sulfur content reduction of clean coal and the recovery of combustible matters. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Effect of frothing and collecting agents for flotation behavior of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, S.; Sheikh, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    Coal flotation is a complex process involving several phases (particles, oil droplets and air bubbles). These phases simultaneously interact with each other and with other species such as the molecules of a promoting reagent and dissolved ions in water. The physical and chemical interactions determine the outcome of the flotation process. Although the interactions between the oil droplets and coal particles are actually favored, stabilization of the oil droplets by small amounts of fine hydrophobic particles may lead to decrease in selectivity and an increased in oil consumption. These problems could be remedied by use of promoters that modify the coal surface for suitable particle-particle, droplet-particle and particle-bubble contact while emulsifying the oil droplets. In this paper, a detailed description of the coal flotation, their physical and chemical interactions with each other in the flotation pulp, the major parameters (% volatiles, % fixed carbon and heating value) that affect these interactions and how these interactions, in turn, influence the flotation process are discussed. (author)

  8. Final flotation waste kinetics of sintering at different heating regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocić Mira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the copper extraction, especially during the process of flotation enrichment and the pyrometallurgical processing, the waste materials that represent huge polluters of environment are being generated. In order to examine the application of Final flotation waste (FFW in the manufacturing of new materials from the glass-ceramic group phase and mineral composition were examined as well as thermal properties. FFW kinetics of sintering has been tested at different dyamics (1°C/min, 29°C/min and 43°C/min, in order to find the optimum conditions for sintering with a minimum amount of energy and time consumption. The samples were examined using: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence analysis, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy and thermal microscopy. The best results for the production of glass ceramic materials were obtained during the sintering at heating regime of 29°C/min. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176010

  9. Adsorption of Crystal Violet on Activated Carbon Prepared from Coal Flotation Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogmus, Ramazan; Depci, Tolga; Sarikaya, Musa; Riza Kul, Ali; Onal, Yunus

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is firstly to investigate the floatability properties of Zilan- Van coal after microwave irradiation and secondly to produce activated carbon from flotation concentrate in order to remove Crystal Violet (CV) from waste water. The flotation experiments showed that microwave heating at 0.9 kW power level for 60 sec exposure time enhanced the hydrophobicity and increased the flotation yield. The activated carbon with remarkable surface area (696 m2/g) was produced from the flotation concentrate and used to adsorb CV from aqueous solution in a batch reactor at different temperature. The adsorption properties of CV onto the activated carbon are discussed in terms of the adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich) and found that the experimental results best fitted by the Langmuir model.

  10. Energy characteristics of finest coal particles surfaces versus their upgrading using flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerzy Sablik

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents selected results of investigations on energy properties of the fine coal particles, and methodological grounds for conducting such investigations. Using the discussed relationships, values of contact angle of coal particles with various degree of coalification in the range defined by the energy nonhomogeneity of the surfaces were computed. There have been determined the values of the contact angles of coal particles with hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces after coating with nonpolar and polar reagents. The energy state of the surfaces of coal particles in the feeds and products of industrial flotation were determined, which enabled to evaluate this process. 22 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  12. Study of gas holdup and pressure characteristics in a column flotation cell using coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, S.C.; Kundu, G.; Mukherjee, D. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-15

    Present work has been carried out to observe the effect of process variables (gas flow rate, feed flow rate, solid concentration and frother concentration) on gas holdup and pressure characteristics in flotation column using coal. Gas holdup has been estimated using phase separation method while piezometers have been used to obtain column's axial pressure profile. It was observed that gas holdup in collection zone was affected by both air as well as feed flow rates. Up to 6% change in gas holdup may occur when the feed flow rate changes from 1-2 cm/s. It was also observed that addition of coal decreased the gas holdup while addition of methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC) had opposite effect. Almost linear variation in columns axial pressure characteristics has been observed with gas flow rate. An empirical relationship between gas holdup in the flotation column with column's axial pressure difference was developed.

  13. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  14. Evaluation of frother performance in coal flotation: A critical review of existing methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Dey, S. [Indian School for Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. for Fuel & Mineral Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Separation efficiency in flotation depends, to a considerable extent, on the efficiency of the frother used. A successful frother must achieve a delicate balance between froth stability and non-persistency. Ideally, the frother is not supposed to influence the state of the surface of the coal and minerals. In practice, however, interaction does occur between the frother, other reagents, and solid surfaces. Various commercially available frothers can differ slightly or significantly in their influence on the flotation results. Therefore, a plant operator is in a dilemma when it comes to selecting a frother to be used in his plant. This article attempts to critically review the different methodologies, which are available to compare the performance of two or more frothers in order to decide which would best serve the purpose of the plant operator.

  15. Bioprocessing of coal - 10 - an application of microbial flotation to mineral processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, T. [and others] [CRIEPI, Abiko-shi (Japan). Abiko Research Lab.

    1996-09-01

    Microbial flotation for coal desulfurization is being developed. Pyrite in coal is removed by bacterial adhesion by changing the surface property of pyrite. The bacterial adhesion of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans to sulfide minerals (pyrite, galena, molybdenite, chalcocite and millerite), and pyrite removal from the mixture of these sulfide minerals by microbial flotation was investigated. To compare the adhesion of T. ferrooxidans to pyrite with that to the other four minerals mentioned, the surface areas of the minerals, where the bacterium could adhere, was measured. It was observed that the roughness on the mineral surfaces was much smaller than the size of the bacterial cells. Hence, it was suggested that the roughness did not affect the bacterial adhesion to mineral surfaces. Bacterial adhesion to pyrite was compared with that to the other minerals. The amount of adhering bacterium was estimated on the basis of the adherable surface area measured with microscopic method. The amount of adhering cells to pyrite was 421.6 x 10{sup 8} cells/cm{sup 2}. On the other hand, the amounts of adhering cells to the minerals, except for pyrite were in a range of 77.1 to 160.8 x 10{sup 8} cells/cm{sup 2}. The bacterium adheres more to pyrite than to the other minerals, and only adheres to pyrite even if the pyrite is mixed with other minerals. Hence, T. ferrooxidans could adhere selectively to pyrite. Pyrite removal from the mineral mixtures was investigated with microbial flotation. Pyrite removal was in a range of 83.7% to 95.1% and mineral recovery was 72.9% to 100%. The grade of recovered minerals was in a range of 79.2 to 86.0% and that of rejected pyrite was in a range of 78.7 to 90.0%. These results suggest that microbial flotation can be a novel technology for mineral processing.

  16. The influence of reagent type on the kinetics of ultrafine coal flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, R.B.; Camp, L.R.; Summers, M.S.; Rapp, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    A kinetic study has been conducted to determine the influence of reagent type on flotation rates of ultrafine coal. Two ultrafine coal samples, the Illinois No. 5 (Springfield) and Pittsburgh No. 8, have been evaluated with various reagent types in order to derive the rate constants for coal (kc), ash (ka), and pyrite (kc). The reagents used in the study include anionic surfactants, anionic surfactant-alcohol mixtures, and frothing alcohols. In general, the surfactant-alcohol mixtures tend to float ultrafine coal at a rate three to four times faster than either pure alcohols or pure anionic surfactants. Pine oil, a mixture of terpene alcohols and hydrocarbons, was an exception to this finding; it exhibited higher rate constants than the pure aliphatic alcohols or other pure anionic surfactants studied; this may be explained by the fact that the sample of pine oil used (70% alpha-terpineol) acted as a frother/collector system similar to alcohol/kerosene. The separation efficiencies of ash and pyrite from coal, as evidenced by the ratios of kc/ka or kc/kp, tend to indicate, however, that commercially available surfactant-alcohol mixtures are not as selective as pure alcohols such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol or methylisobutylcarbinol. Some distinct differences in various rate constants, or their ratios, were noted between the two coals studied, and are possibly attributable to surface chemistry effects. ?? 1989.

  17. Separation of unburned carbon from coal fly ash through froth flotation; Sekitanbai no shisshiki datsutanso gijutsu kaihatsu shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, T [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Murakami, T [The Coal Mining Research Center, Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    Coal ash tends to become containing more unburned carbon and porous substances depending on conditions of combustion, whose adverse effects to products due to water adsorbability, absorbability and color tones create obstacles in its utilization. Therefore, research and development works have been progressed on wet type carbon removing technology which is characterized in that coal is pulverized to preferable degrees and subjected to flotation. This paper reports the results obtained during fiscal 1995. The results may be summarized as follows: as a result of the comparison test on a column flotation machine and an FW type flotation machine of machine stirring type, the former machine showed better flotation efficiency; several methods were investigated on crushing as a treatment prior to flotation, whereas a mixer with greater circumferential speed and a homo mixer showed the highest efficiency; strength of the impact to the flotation efficiency was found to decrease in the order of pulp concentration > pretreatment time > collector addition ratio; and as a result of the evaluation on refined ash as a cement admixture and carbons as fuel, possibilities were found in them for practical application. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Prediction of coal response to froth flotation based on coal analysis using regression and artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorjani, E.; Poorali, H.A.; Sam, A.; Chelgani, S.C.; Mesroghli, S.; Shayestehfar, M.R. [Islam Azad University, Tehran (Iran). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-10-15

    In this paper, the combustible value (i.e. 100-Ash) and combustible recovery of coal flotation concentrate were predicted by regression and artificial neural network based on proximate and group macerals analysis. The regression method shows that the relationships between (a) in (ash), volatile matter and moisture (b) in (ash), in (liptinite), fusinite and vitrinite with combustible value can achieve the correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) of 0.8 and 0.79, respectively. In addition, the input sets of (c) ash, volatile matter and moisture (d) ash, liptinite and fusinite can predict the combustible recovery with the correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.63, respectively. Feed-forward artificial neural network with 6-8-12-11-2-1 arrangement for moisture, ash and volatile matter input set was capable to estimate both combustible value and combustible recovery with correlation of 0.95. It was shown that the proposed neural network model could accurately reproduce all the effects of proximate and group macerals analysis on coal flotation system.

  19. Multiple supply circuits for coal and molybdenite flotation; Circuits a alimentations multiples de flottation de charbon et de molybdenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuertenau, D.W. [Universite de Californie, Berkeley (United States); Williams, M.C. [Universite de Virginie, Morgantown (United States); Hu, W. [Universite de l' Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this experimental study is the design of a new flotation circuit for coal and molybdenite in which the supply is shared into two fractions: the concentrate of one stage is added to the second fraction which supplies the second stage and allows to reduce the reagents consumption. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  20. Investigation of the effects of various water mediums on desulfurization and deashing of a coal sample by flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayhan, F.D. [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various water mediums on desulfurization and deashing of a coal sample using flotation. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a coal sample containing high ash and sulfur contents. The effects of pH, solid concentration, collector amount and frother amount on the flotation were investigated separately in Mediterranean Sea water, Cermik thermal spring water, snow water and tap water. Flotation, results indicated that, when comparing the various water mediums, the following order for the ash content was obtained: snow water < Cermik thermal spring water < tap water < the Mediterranean Sea water. For the reduction of total sulfur, the following order was obtained: snow water > Cermik thermal spring water > Mediterranean Sea water > tap water. When snow water was used as a flotation medium, it was found that a concentrate containing 3.01% total sulfur and 27.64% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 57.06% was obtained from a feed containing 7.01% total sulfur and 4.1.17% ash.

  1. Study of the effects of collector-type and collectors mixing in coal flotation; Etude des effets du type de collecteur et de melanges de collecteurs en flottation de charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salch, A.M.; Ramadan, A.M.; Moharam, M.R. [Universite Al-Azhar, Le Caire (Egypt)

    2001-03-01

    This study deals with the effect of different types of collectors in the improvement of coal flotation process for the removal of impurities during the processing of poor quality coals. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  2. Accumulation of dissolved gases at hydrophobic surfaces in water and sodium chloride solutions: Implications for coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, M.A.; Nguyen, A.V. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Division of Chemical Engineering

    2009-08-15

    Dissolved gases can preferentially accumulate at the hydrophobic solid-water interface as revealed by neutron reflectivity measurements. In this paper, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to examine accumulation of dissolved gases at a hydrophobic surface in water and sodium chloride solutions. The solvent-exchange method was used to artificially form gaseous domains accumulated at the interface suitable for AFM imaging. Smooth graphite surfaces were used as model surfaces to minimize the secondary effect of surface roughness on the imaging. The concentration of NaCl up to 1 M was found to have a negligible influence on the geometry and population of pre-existing nanobubbles, nanopancakes and nanobubble-nanopancake composites. The implications of the findings on coal flotation in saline water are discussed in terms of attraction between hydrophobic surfaces in water, bubble-particle attachment and hydrophobic coagulation between particles.

  3. Final Report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Advanced Coal Technology workgroup reported to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee. This page includes the final report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee.

  4. Removal of organic and inorganic sulfur from Ohio coal by combined physical and chemical process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, Y.A.; Zeky, M.El.; Lei, W.W.; Bavarian, F.; Yu, S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1989-04-28

    This project consisted of three sections. In the first part, the physical cleaning of Ohio coal by selective flocculation of ultrafine slurry was considered. In the second part, the mild oxidation process for removal of pyritic and organic sulfur.was investigated. Finally, in-the third part, the combined effects of these processes were studied. The physical cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal was achieved using selective flocculation of ultrafine coal slurry in conjunction with froth flotation as flocs separation method. The finely disseminated pyrite particles in Ohio coals, in particular Pittsburgh No.8 seam, make it necessary to use ultrafine ({minus}500 mesh) grinding to liberate the pyrite particles. Experiments were performed to identify the ``optimum`` operating conditions for selective flocculation process. The results indicated that the use of a totally hydrophobic flocculant (FR-7A) yielded the lowest levels of mineral matters and total sulfur contents. The use of a selective dispersant (PAAX) increased the rejection of pyritic sulfur further. In addition, different methods of floc separation techniques were tested. It was found that froth flotation system was the most efficient method for separation of small coal flocs.

  5. Determining the ash content of coal flotation tailings using an MPOF optical ash meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, T; Sliwa, J

    1982-01-01

    The block layout, a description of the design and principles of operation of an automatic optical, continuous action MPOF type ash meter are presented. The difference in the optical properties of coal and rock is used in the ash meter. The identification of the ash content is conducted on the basis of the spectral characteristics of reflection of a finely dispersed aqueous coal and rock suspension.

  6. Application of the final flotation waste for obtaining the glass-ceramic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocić Mira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the investigation of the final flotation waste (FFW, originating from the RTB Bor Company (Serbia, as the main component for the production of glass-ceramic materials. The glass-ceramics was synthesized by the sintering of FFW, mixtures of FFW with basalt (10%, 20%, and 40%, and mixtures of FFW with tuff (20% and 40%. The sintering was conducted at the different temperatures and with the different time duration in order to find the optimal composition and conditions for crystallization. The increase of temperature, from 1100 to 1480°C, and sintering time, from 4 to 6h resulted in a higher content of hematite crystal in the obtained glass-ceramic (up to 44%. The glass-ceramics sintered from pure FFW (1080°C/36h has good mechanical properties, such as high propagation speed (4500 m/s and hardness (10800 MPa, as well as very good thermal stability. The glass-ceramics obtained from mixtures shows weaker mechanical properties compared to that obtained from pure FFW. The mixtures of FFW with tuff have a significantly lower bulk density compared to other obtained glass-ceramics. Our results indicate that FFW can be applied as a basis for obtaining the construction materials. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 176010: Composition, genesis, application, and contribution to the environmental sustainability

  7. Coal rebounds for the final quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soras, C.; Stodden, J.

    1987-11-01

    Coal production in the USA is up 0.3% by the end of September 1987 from the pace of one year ago. Most impressive has been the growth in demand at power plants where coal consumption is up by 13.5 million tons through the month of July. The coal markets turnabout is based upon the entire economic spectrum not upon a single large market. US steel mills represent intense power consuming activities as do the US chemicals, plastics, paper and pulp industries.

  8. Optimizing the air flotation water treatment process. Final report, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, B.

    1998-09-01

    The injection water for the Nelson Project is a combination of produced and make-up water, typical of many Eastern Kansas operations. The make-up water is a low-salinity salt water from the Arbuckle Formation and contains dissolved minerals and sulfides. The produced water contains suspended oil, suspended clay and silt particles, along with a combination of other dissolved minerals. The combination of the two waters causes several undesirable reactions. The suspended solids load contained in the combined waters would plug a 75-micron plant bag filter within one day. Wellhead filters of 75-micron size were also being used on the injection wells. The poor water quality resulted in severe loss of injectivity and frequent wellbore cleaning of the injection wells. Various mechanical and graded-bed filtration methods were considered for cleaning the water. These methods were rejected due to the lack of field equipment and service availability. A number of vendors did not even respond to the author`s request. The air flotation process was selected as offering the best hope for a long-term solution. The objective of this work is to: increase the cost effectiveness of the process through optimizing process design factors and operational parameters. A vastly modified air flotation system is the principal tool for accomplishing the project objective. The air flotation unit, as received from manufacturer Separation Specialist, was primarily designed to remove oil from produced water. The additional requirement for solids removal necessitated major physical changes in the unit. Problems encountered with the air flotation unit and specific modifications are detailed in the body of the report.

  9. Coal combustion aerothermochemistry research. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, A.B.; Gat, N.; Denison, M.R.; Cohen, L.M.

    1980-12-15

    On the basis of extensive aerothermochemistry analyses, laboratory investigations, and combustor tests, significant headway has been made toward improving the understanding of combustion phenomena and scaling of high swirl pulverized coal combustors. A special attempt has been made to address the gap between scientific data available on combustion and hardware design and scaling needs. Both experimental and theoretical investigations were conducted to improve the predictive capability of combustor scaling laws. The scaling laws derived apply to volume and wall burning of pulverized coal in a slagging high-swirl combustor. They incorporate the findings of this investigation as follows: laser pyrolysis of coal at 10/sup 6/ K/sec and 2500K; effect of coal particle shape on aerodynamic drag and combustion; effect of swirl on heat transfer; coal burnout and slag capture for 20 MW/sub T/ combustor tests for fine and coarse coals; burning particle trajectories and slag capture; particle size and aerodynamic size; volatilization extent and burnout fraction; and preheat level. As a result of this work, the following has been gained: an increased understanding of basic burning mechanisms in high-swirl combustors and an improved model for predicting combustor performance which is intended to impact hardware design and scaling in the near term.

  10. Coal surface structure and thermodynamics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J.W.; Wernett, P.C.; Glass, A.S.; Quay, D.; Roberts, J.

    1994-05-01

    Coals surfaces were studied using static surface adsorption measurements, low angle x-ray scattering (LAXS), inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and a new {sup 13}C NMR relaxation technique. A comparison of surface areas determined by hydrocarbon gas adsorption and LAXS led to the twin conclusions that the hydrocarbons had to diffuse through the solid to reach isolated pores and that the coal pores do not form interconnected networks, but are largely isolated. This conclusion was confirmed when IGC data for small hydrocarbons showed no discontinuities in their size dependence as usually observed with porous solids. IGC is capable of providing adsorption thermodynamics of gases on coal surfaces. The interactions of non-polar molecules and coal surfaces are directly proportioned to the gas molecular polarizability. For bases, the adsorption enthalpy is equal to the polarizability interaction plus the heat of hydrogen bond formation with phenol. Amphoteric molecules have more complex interactions. Mineral matter can have highly specific effects on surface interactions, but with most of the molecules studied is not an important factor.

  11. Method for increasing the yield of mined coal subjected to foam flotation. Verfahren zur Erhoehung der Ausbeute von unter Tage abgebauter Kohle, die einer Konzentration durch Schaumflotation unterworfen wird

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, R.E.

    1979-07-19

    The foam flotation of coal mined underground gives better yields if one uses a water in oil emulsion of sodium polyacrytate. It is best to use 0.007 to 0.227 kg of dry sodium polyacrylate on a tonne of dry coal. The use of an aliphatic hydrocarbon and a stabiliser for the emulsion is preferred. Several examples are given, which enable one to judge the results.

  12. Application of flotational reagents obtained from coke-industry byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.I. Nikitin; I.N. Nikitin; N.I. Toporkova [Khar' kov Polytechnic Institute (Ukraine)

    2007-06-15

    Today, the operational efficiency of coal-preparation shops at coke plants largely depends on the flotation process, since flotation is the basic method of regenerating the slurry water in the water-slurry systems and the basic enrichment process for small-grain coal slurries. At The Coal-Chemistry Institute, attempts have been made to address the growing demand for readily available and relatively inexpensive flotational reagents. In particular, a list of promising coke-industry byproducts for use as flotational reagents has been compiled, and the possibility of reducing their toxicity has been established. In addition, various industrial byproducts and wastes have been investigated in terms of flotational activity.

  13. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO(sub x) emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a$1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community

  14. Influence of rotor circumference speed on flotation cell aeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedek, F; Bortlik, V

    1978-01-01

    Laboratory test results of flotation experiments conducted in Czechoslovakia with the use of coal flotation particles <0.5 mm are presented. Three different cells and rotors were used, type MS, Denver, VRF 2 with various rotor diameters ranging from 40 mm to 95 mm. Nine tables show the results with varying flotation time, circumferenial velocity, flotation reagents and aeration. Test procedures are discussed; main results are that circumferenial velocity cannot be used as a decisive parameter for cell aeration and flotation efficiency, and that a direct transfer of parameters cannot be made to flotation cells with a different design and to larger industrial equipment. (4 refs.) (In German)

  15. Fundamental properties of flotation frothers and their effect on flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, F.; Laskowski, J.S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2006-05-15

    Froth flotation process requires the use of frothers. These important flotation agents are commonly characterized as either 'selective' or 'powerful' and are chosen following general guidelines and verification by laboratory and/or pilot plant tests. Fundamental properties of the flotation frothers have been extensively studied over the last few years. These studies have led to the development of standardised procedures to characterise frothers in terms of their ability to reduce bubble size and to increase foam stability. In this research project, the performance of five frothers in flotation of coal is evaluated and related to the fundamental properties of these agents. Since the recovery of water in the concentrate is closely related to the non-selective transport of solid particles by entrainment, the tested frothers are also assessed in terms of their ability to promote the transport of water towards the froth collection zone, both in absence and in presence of solids.

  16. EXPERIMENTS AND COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF PULVERIZED-COAL IGNITION; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel Owusu-Ofori; John C. Chen

    1999-01-01

    Under typical conditions of pulverized-coal combustion, which is characterized by fine particles heated at very high rates, there is currently a lack of certainty regarding the ignition mechanism of bituminous and lower rank coals as well as the ignition rate of reaction. furthermore, there have been no previous studies aimed at examining these factors under various experimental conditions, such as particle size, oxygen concentration, and heating rate. Finally, there is a need to improve current mathematical models of ignition to realistically and accurately depict the particle-to-particle variations that exist within a coal sample. Such a model is needed to extract useful reaction parameters from ignition studies, and to interpret ignition data in a more meaningful way. The authors propose to examine fundamental aspects of coal ignition through (1) experiments to determine the ignition temperature of various coals by direct measurement, and (2) modeling of the ignition process to derive rate constants and to provide a more insightful interpretation of data from ignition experiments. The authors propose to use a novel laser-based ignition experiment to achieve their first objective. Laser-ignition experiments offer the distinct advantage of easy optical access to the particles because of the absence of a furnace or radiating walls, and thus permit direct observation and particle temperature measurement. The ignition temperature of different coals under various experimental conditions can therefore be easily determined by direct measurement using two-color pyrometry. The ignition rate-constants, when the ignition occurs heterogeneously, and the particle heating rates will both be determined from analyses based on these measurements

  17. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of$438 million. Construction for the demonstration project was started in July 1993. Pre-operational tests were initiated in August 1995, and construction was completed in November 1995. Commercial operation began in November 1995, and the demonstration period was completed in December

  18. Characterization and suitability of superclean coals for hydroliquefaction feedstocks: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam

    1989-05-30

    Superclean coals have been studied for their suitability as liquefaction feedstocks. The effects of ash and sulfur contents and two catalysts on a hydrogen donor solvent liquefaction reaction have been studied. Experiments were run using a unique coal of small particle size (90% <22 microns). The coal was characterized in terms of its chemical and its physical properties. This information made it possible to determine the effects of the static tube flotation separation on the coal. Once characterized the coals were liquefied in the hydrogen donor tetralin under a hydrogen atmosphere of 500 psig. The first series of experiments was to determine the effects of the ash on the liquefaction reaction. The second group of experiments dealt with the effects of catalysts (ammonium molybdate and titanium carbide) on low ash coals at various conditions. A model for batch liquefaction in a hydrogen donor solvent is then developed. This model is based on the assumption that the reaction is due to two competing mechanisms; (1) a thermal decomposition of the coal and (2) a catalytic reaction. The thermal reaction produces unwanted products while the catalytic reaction produces the desired products. To accurately model the batch system, mass transfer is considered. 51 refs., 50 figs., 29 tabs.

  19. Creating value through application of flotation science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, M.E.; Brake, I.; Huls, B.J.; Smith, B.E.; Yu, M. [BHP Billiton, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia)

    2006-05-15

    A brief outline of some of the pioneering events in the development of flotation technology, which originated in Broken Hill at the start of the 1900s, is presented. The development of the original Potter-Delprat process, the introduction of oils to generate froth flotation and the achievement of selective flotation processing are described, all focussed on solving challenges with the Broken Hill Pb-Ag-Zn ores. Some recent initiatives in flotation at BHP Billiton operations are also outlined, covering coal, copper, lead-silver-zinc and diamonds. Some views are offered on the characteristics of innovation in flotation and on possible trends into the future.

  20. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  1. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  2. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  3. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  4. Molecular accessibility in solvent swelled coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1994-04-01

    The conversion of coal by an economically feasible catalytic method requires the catalyst to diffuse into the coal sample so that hydrogenation catalysis can occur from within as well as the normal surface catalysis. Thus an estimate of the size, shape, and reactivity, of the pores in the coal before and after the swelling with different solvents is needed so that an optimum sized catalyst will be used. This study characterizes the accessible area found in Argonne Premium Coal Samples (APCS) using a EPR spin probe technique. The properties deduced in this manner correlate well with the findings deduced from SANS, NMR, SEM, SAXS and light scattering measurements. The use of nitroxide spin probes with swelling solvents is a simple way in which to gain an understanding of the pore structure of coals, how it changes in the presence of swelling solvents and the chemistry that occurs at the pore wall. Hydrogen bonding sites occur primarily in low-rank coals and vary in reactive strength as rank is varied. Unswelled coals contain small, spherical pores which disappear when coal is swelled in the presence of polar solvents. Swelling studies of polystyrene-divinyl benzene copolymers implied that coal is polymeric, contains significant quantities of covalent cross-links and the covalent cross-link density increases with rank.

  5. E-commerce finally finds the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, M.

    2000-12-01

    In the last few months, new web sites have come online which are not only showcase for coal mining products and equipment but also act as sales platforms. A large set of sites deal with the purchase of coal and other raw materials. Most of them offer 24-hour news updates, a coal library and a reference section to help with financing, insurance and transportation of purchased coal. Another group focuses on the sale of equipment. Short writeups are given of 18 web sites. 1 photo.

  6. Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal Byproducts via a Closed Loop Leaching Process: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Richard [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Heinrichs, Michael [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Argumedo, Darwin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Winecki, Slawomir [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Johnson, Kathryn [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Lane, Ann [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Riordan, Daniel [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-08-31

    REEs using the ADP technology. In AOI 1, Ohio coal sources with the potential to provide a consistent source of rare earth element concentrations above 300 parts per million will be identified. Coal sample inventories from West Virginia and Pennsylvania will also be assessed for purposes of comparison. Three methods of preparing the coal ash will be evaluated for their potential to enhance the technical feasibility and economics of REE recovery. Three sources of coal ash are targeted for evaluation of the economics of REE recovery in this project: (1) coal ash from power generation stations, to include fly ash and/or bottom ash, (2) ash generated in a lower temperature ashing process, and (3) ash residual from Battelle’s coal liquefaction process. Making use of residual ash from coal liquefaction processes directly leverages work currently being conducted by Battelle for DOE NETL in response to DE-FOA-0000981 entitled “Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions Research and Development Leading to Cost-Competitive Coal-to-Liquids Based Jet Fuel Production.” Using the sample characterization results and regional information regarding REE concentration, availability and cost, a TEA will be developed. The previously generated laboratory testing results for leaching and REE recovery via the ADP will be used to perform the TEA, along with common engineering assumptions for scale up of equipment and labor costs. Finally, upon validation of the economic feasibility of the process by the TEA, limited laboratory testing will be performed to support the design of a bench scale system. In a future project phase, it is envisioned that the bench scale system will be constructed and operated to prove the process on a continuous basis.

  7. Final Safety Assessment of Coal Tar as Used in Cosmetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant-antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users.

  8. Separation of actinides and fission products from middle-active wastes by precipate flotation. Final report. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, K.; Strnad, J.; Rieger, W.; Rieger, C.

    1988-11-01

    1. Fluorine substituted 'Kalignost' derivatives are selective to Cesium and can be used as precipitation and/or extraction agents. 2. Plutonium(IV) can be separated from nitric acid solutions by recipitation with Alkylpyridinium salts. The concentration of Plutonium in the filtrate decreases under optimal conditions to 2x10 -7 mole/l. The method is selective, the precipitation agents stable in nitric acid and under high radioactive exposition. The theory of precipitation of hexanitrato complexes of metals in the fourth oxidation state is also presented. 3. An electroflotation apparatus has been constructed. It allows to adjust in one single step the appropriate oxidation states of the metals and the flotation of the metal-surfactant precipitates. (orig.) With 9 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs [de

  9. Low severity conversion of activated coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschon, A.S.; Ross, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The results suggest that coal contains regions with structural components significantly reactive under the hydrothermal environment. Although the specific mechanism for this process remains to be developed, this activity is reminiscent of findings in studies of accelerated maturation of oil shale, where hydrothermal treatment (hydrous pyrolysis) leads to the production of petroleum hydrocarbons. In line with what has been seen in the oil shale work, the pretreatment-generated hydrocarbons and phenols appear to represent a further or more complete maturation of some fraction of the organic material within the coal. These observations could have an impact in two areas. The first is in the area of coal structure, where immature, reactive regions have not been included in the structures considered at present. The second area of interest is the more practical one of conversions to coal liquids and pyrolytic tars. It seems clear that the hydrothermal pretreatment changes the coal in some manner that favorably affects the product quality substantially and, as in the CO/water liquefaction case, favorably affects the yields. The conversions of coals of lower rank, i.e., less mature coals, could particularly benefit in terms of both product quality and product quantity. The second portion of this project also shows important benefits to coal conversion technology. It deals with synthesizing catalysts designed to cleave the weak links in the coal structure and then linking these catalysts with the pretreatment methods in Task 2. The results show that highly dispersed catalysts can effectively be used to increase the yields of soluble material. An important aspect of highly dispersed catalysts are that they can effectively catalyze coal conversion even in poor liquefaction solvents, thus making them very attractive in processes such as coprocessing where inexpensive liquefaction media such as resids are used.

  10. Nuclear assay of coal. Volume 7. Coal rheology and its impact on nuclear assay. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, R.; Luckie, P.; Gozani, T.

    1979-01-01

    A number of possible techniques for introducing coal to a continuous on-line nuclear analysis of coal (CONAC) system have been evaluated, including flow methods and nonflow methods. A modified flat-belt feeder system was recommended. The success of such a coal-presentation technique would rely on proper entry to the feed hopper, shape of the withdrawal opening from the feed hopper, and a slow belt speed to minimize demixing

  11. Identification and quantification of radionuclides in coal ash. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleman, J.E.; Clikeman, F.M.; Skronski, T.

    1998-01-01

    One of the important environmental issues raised recently in regard to coal ash reuse for highway construction purposes (e.g., embankment development) is that of worker, and public, exposure to radiation which might possibly be emitted by these types of residues. This research project subsequently addressed the associated issue of radiation emission by coal ash residuals generated within the State of Indiana, covering both fly ash and bottom ash materials. Samples were obtained at sixteen different coal-fired power generating facilities within Indiana and subjected to quantitative analysis of their associated gamma-ray emission levels. After identifying the responsible radionuclides, a conservative approximation was then developed for the worst-case potential occupational exposure with construction employees working on this type of high-volume, coal ash embankment. In turn, these potential emissions levels were compared to those of other traditional construction materials and other common sources

  12. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO(sub x)). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process

  13. Nuclear techniques in the coal industry. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    With the aim of promoting advanced research and facilitating a more extensive application of nuclear techniques for environmental protection in the exploration and exploitation of coal, the IAEA established the present co-ordinated research programme (CRP) in 1989. This report includes an assessment of the current status and trends in nuclear techniques in the coal industry and the results obtained by the participants at the CRP. Proceedings of the final CRP on ``Nuclear Techniques in Exploration and Exploitation of Coal: On-line and Bulk Analysis and Evaluation of Potential Environmental Pollutants in Coal and Coke``, was held in Krakow, Poland, from 9 to 12 May 1994. Refs, figs, tabs.

  14. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, J.R.; Johnson, P.W.

    1992-11-30

    This report documents studies on the effects of gas sorption on coal, with the intent of eventually evaluating how sorption and strain affect permeability. These studies were, carried out at the University of Alabama during the period from 1989 through 1992. Two major experimental methods were developed and used. In the strain experiments, electronic strain gauges were attached to polished blocks of coal in order to measure linear and volumetric swelling due to gas sorption. The effects of bedding plane orientation, of gas type, and of coal type were investigated. In the gravimetric experiment the weight of small samples of coal was measured during exposure to high pressure gases. Sample measurements were corrected for buoyancy effects and for sample swelling, and the results were plotted in the form of Langmuir isotherms. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of grain size, coal type, moisture, and of sorbant gas. The advantage of this method is that it can be applied to very small samples, and it enabled comparison liptinite versus vitrinite concentrates, and kerogen rich versus kerogen depleted oil shales. Also included is a detailed discussion of the makeup of coal and its effect on gas sorption behavior.

  15. Evaluation of column flotation results with a film flotation method; Film fusenho wo mochiita column fusen kekkan no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, H.; Matsukata, M.; Ueyama, K. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science

    1996-10-28

    Change in wettability of coal particle surfaces due to kerosene adsorption was studied by using a film flotation method. The applicability of a film flotation method to coals modified by kerosene adsorption was first confirmed. In experiment, film flotation was applied to Illinois coal modified by aqueous methanol solution and kerosene adsorption, and the weight percent of residual particles on a gas-liquid interface and kerosene in aqueous methanol solution were analyzed to verify the applicability of a film flotation method. Film flotation was applied to Datong and Illinois coals modified by kerosene adsorption, and the weight percent of residual particles on a gas-liquid interface was plotted to surface tension of liquid. As a result, the weight percent of hydrophobic particles within 50mN/m in surface tension slightly increased in Datong coal and remarkably increased in Illinois coal with kerosene addition. It was thus suggested that in addition to surface tension, the distributions of hydrophilic and hydrophobic strengths on the surface of each coal particle should be considered to understand attachment of coal particles and bubbles. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Improved flotation recovery via hydrophobicity adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Ofori; Graham O' Brien; Bruce Firth; Clint McNally; Anh Nguyen [University of Queensland, Qld. (Australia). CSIRO

    2009-03-15

    The main goal of this project was to examine a new approach to maximising the recovery of product specification coal during coal flotation using new generation reagents complemented by the use of the Coal Grain Analysis tool. Laboratory flotation experiments in which the novel reagents were employed as promoters by adding small amounts before adding conventional collector (diesel oil) showed that flotation recovery was significantly increased with only a small product quality (ash%) penalty. The groups of reagents used included surfactants from the group of tri-block copolymers of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polypropylene oxide (PPO) often denoted as PEO/PPO/PEO or the reverse block copolymer PPO/PEO/PPO. Analysis of the flotation products using the grain analysis technique determined that whilst the recoveries of most grain types were improved, the coarse composite grains which were the components targeted for enhancement showed the most improvement. Plant scale test results confirmed the laboratory findings with remarkable improvements in recovery achieved for all components, especially for coarse inertite and composite grains. The difficult to float coals that are lost at this plant may be recovered without significant modification to the fines circuit by the use of targeted reagents.

  17. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL(reg s ign) Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL(reg s ign) Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL(reg s ign) mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL(reg s ign) was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL(reg s ign) was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of$90,664,000. ENCOAL(reg s ign) operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC(trademark)) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF(trademark)) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL(trademark)). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall

  18. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  19. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of$438 million

  20. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  1. Nuclear assay of coal. Volume 6. Mass flow devices for coal handling. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozani, T.; Elias, E.; Bevan, R.

    1980-04-01

    The mass of coal entering the boiler per unit time is an essential parameter for determining the total rate of heat input. The mass flow rate of coal on a conveyor belt is generally determined as a product of the instantaneous mass of material on a short section of the belt and the belt velocity. Belt loading could be measured by conventional transducers incorporating mechanical or electromechanical weighers or by gamma-ray attenuation gauge. This report reviews the state of the art in mass flow devices for coal handling. The various methods are compared and commented upon. Special design issues are discussed relative to incorporating a mass flow measuring device in a Continuous On-Line Nuclear Analysis of Coal (CONAC) system

  2. Dewatering of ultrafine coal: Final report, August 1984-December 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Shiao-Hung; Klinzing, G.E.; Morsi, B.I.; Tierney, J.W.; Badgujar, M.; Binkley, T.; Cheng, Yisun; Huang, Suxuan; Qamar, I.; Venkatadri, R.

    1986-12-01

    The surfactant, Aerosol-OT, was used to wash distilled water cakes. In previous studies, cakes were washed with Triton X-114. The dewatering performance and influence on cake structure of the two reagents are compared. Also, filter cakes were analyzed using an image analysis system and micrographic analysis of coal particles was initiated. In the area of theoretical modelling, the concept of bond-flow correlation greatly improved the network model predicting the experimental desaturation curves. Predicted results for treated cakes suggested that the effect of the presence of surface-active agents was adequately accounted for. The effects of the various operating conditions on the filtration/dewatering characteristics of the 10 ..mu..m coal particles were assessed and comparisons with the -32 mesh coal were made as to its trends in response to changes in the operating conditions. 20 refs., 75 figs., 17 tabs.

  3. Improving the performance of conventional and column froth flotation cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, B.J. [CQ Inc., Homer City, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Many existing mining operations hover on the brink of producing competitively priced fuel with marginally acceptable sulfur levels. To remain competitive, these operations need to improve the yield of their coal processing facilities, lower the sulfur content of their clean coal, or lower the ash content of their clean coal. Fine coal cleaning processes offer the best opportunity for coal producers to increase their yield of high quality product. Over 200 coal processing plants in the U.S. already employ some type of conventional or column flotation device to clean fines. an increase in efficiency in these existing circuits could be the margin required to make these coal producers competitive.

  4. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  5. Nuclear assay of coal. Volume 4. Moisture determination in coal: survey of electromagnetic techniques. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, R.; Luckie, P.; Gozani, T.; Brown, D.R.; Bozorgmanesh, H.; Elias, E.

    1979-01-01

    This survey consists of two basic parts. The first consists of a survey of various non-nuclear moisture determination techniques. Three techniques are identified as promising for eventual on-line application with coal; these are the capacitance, microwave attenuation, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The second part is devoted to an in-depth analysis of these three techniques and the current extent to which they have been applied to coal. With a given coal type, accuracies of +- 1% absolute in moisture content are achievable with all three techniques. The accuracy of the two electromagnetic techniques has been demonstrated in the laboratory and on-line in coal burning plants, whereas only small samples have been analyzed with NMR. The current shortcoming of the simple electromagnetic techniques is the sensitivity of calibrations to physical parameters and coal type. NMR is currently limited by small sample sizes and non-rugged design. These findings are summarized and a list of manufacturers of moisture analyzers is given in the Appendix

  6. Nuclear assay of coal. Volume 8. Continuous nuclear assay of coal (CONAC). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagarias, J.; Irminger, P.; Dodson, W.

    1979-01-01

    Using californium-252 as a source of exciting neutrons, prompt gamma photons emitted by elemental nuclei in the coal have been measured using several detectors, including sodium-iodide and germanium-lithium. Several coal types, including bituminous, subbituminous lignite and anthracite were crushed to various top sizes and analyzed carefully by traditional ASTM wet chemistry techniques at two or three different laboratories. The elements (sulfur, hydrogen, carbon, aluminum, silicon, iron, calcium, sodium, nitrogen, and chlorine) were determined by prompt neutron activations and the quantities compared with those of the wet chemical analyses. Since satisfactory correlation has been obtained at bench-scale level using 100 to 200 kG samples, an apparatus has been designed to analyze a coal stream of up to 50 ton/hour, at an electric power generating station

  7. Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy, Alaska final Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-14

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) provides the mechanism to evaluate the integrated coal combustion/emission control system being demonstrated by the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP) as part-of the third solicitation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT-III). The EMP monitoring is intended to satisfy two objectives: (1) to develop the information base necessary for identification, assessment, and mitigation of potential environmental problems arising from replication of the technology and (2) to identify and quantify project-specific and site-specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents (Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision). The EMP contains a description of the background and history of development of the project technologies and defines the processes that will take place in the combustion and spray dryer absorber systems, including the formation of flash-calcined material (FCM) and its use in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal from the flue gases. It also contains a description of the existing environmental resources of the project area. The EMP includes two types of environmental monitoring that are to be used to demonstrate the technologies of the HCCP: compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring. Compliance monitoring activities include air emissions, wastewater effluents, and visibility. Monitoring of these resources provide the data necessary to demonstrate that the power plant can operate under the required state and federal statutes, regulations, and permit requirements.

  8. Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals: Fifty selected seams from various coal fields: Final technical report, September 30, 1976-February 28, 1986. [50 coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.D.

    1986-09-01

    This final report is the result of a study initiated in 1976 to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifty coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay coal fields. The raw coal was crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch, 14 mesh and 65 mesh top sizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.60 specific gravities. A limited number of samples were also crushed to 200 and 325 mesh sizes prior to float-sink testing. Samples crushed to 65 mesh top size were also separated at 1.60 specific gravity and the float and sink products were characterized for proximate and ultimate analyses, ash composition and ash fusibility. 72 refs., 79 figs., 57 tabs.

  9. Kinetics assisted design of catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.; Foley, H.C.; Calkins, W.H.; Scouten, C.

    1998-02-01

    The thermal and catalytic reactions of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NBBM), a resid and coal model compound, were examined. Catalytic reaction of NBBM was carried out at 400 C under hydrogen with a series of transition metal-based catalytic materials including Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3}, Fe(CO){sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}CS{sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 5}, Mo(CO){sub 6}, Mn{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MoS{sub 2}. Experimental findings and derived mechanistic insights were organized into molecular-level reaction models for NBBM pyrolysis and catalysis. Hydropyrolysis and catalysis reaction families occurring during NBBM hydropyrolysis at 420 C were summarized in the form of reaction matrices which, upon exhaustive application to the components of the reacting system, yielded the mechanistic reaction model. Each reaction family also had an associated linear free energy relationship (LFER) which provided an estimate of the rate constant k{sub i} given a structural property of species i or its reaction. Including the catalytic reaction matrices with those for the pyrolysis model provided a comprehensive NBBM catalytic reaction model and allowed regression of fundamental LFER parameters for the catalytic reaction families. The model also allowed specification of the property of an optimal catalyst. Iron, molybdenum and palladium were predicted to be most effective for model compound consumption. Due to the low costs associated with iron and its disposal, it is a good choice for coal liquefaction catalysis and the challenge remains to synthesize small particles able to access the full surface area of the coal macromolecule.

  10. NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Farzan

    2001-01-01

    Under DOE sponsorship, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Minergy Corporation developed and evaluated a sludge derived fuel (SDF) made from sewage sludge. Our approach is to dry and agglomerate the sludge, combine it with a fluxing agent, if necessary, and co-fire the resulting fuel with coal in a cyclone boiler to recover the energy and to vitrify mineral matter into a non-leachable product. This product can then be used in the construction industry. A literature search showed that there is significant variability of the sludge fuel properties from a given wastewater plant (seasonal and/or day-to-day changes) or from different wastewater plants. A large sewage sludge sample (30 tons) from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was collected, dried, pelletized and successfully co-fired with coal in a cyclone-equipped pilot. Several sludge particle size distributions were tested. Finer sludge particle size distributions, similar to the standard B and W size distribution for sub-bituminous coal, showed the best combustion and slagging performance. Up to 74.6% and 78.9% sludge was successfully co-fired with pulverized coal and with natural gas, respectively. An economic evaluation on a 25-MW power plant showed the viability of co-firing the optimum SDF in a power generation application. The return on equity was 22 to 31%, adequate to attract investors and allow a full-scale project to proceed. Additional market research and engineering will be required to verify the economic assumptions. Areas to focus on are: plant detail design and detail capital cost estimates, market research into possible project locations, sludge availability at the proposed project locations, market research into electric energy sales and renewable energy sales opportunities at the proposed project location. As a result of this program, wastes that are currently not being used and considered an environmental problem will be processed into a renewable

  11. Biological upgrading of coal-derived synthesis gas: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S.; Johnson, E.R.; Ko, C.W.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1986-10-01

    The technical feasibility of the biological conversion of coal synthesis gas to methane has been demonstrated in the University of Arkansas laboratories. Cultures of microorganisms have been developed which achieve total conversion in the water gas shift and methanation reactions in either mixed or pure cultures. These cultures carry out these conversions at ordinary temperatures and pressures, without sulfur toxicity. Several microorganisms have been identified as having commercial potential for producing methane. These include a mixed culture of unidentified bacteria; P. productus which produces acetate, a methane precursor; and Methanothrix sp., which produces methane from acetate. These cultures have been used in mixed reactors and immobilized cell reactors to achieve total CO and H/sub 2/ conversion in a retention time of less than two hours, quite good for a biological reactor. Preliminary economic projections indicate that a biological methanation plant with a size of 5 x 10/sup 10/ Btu/day can be economically attractive. 42 refs., 26 figs., 86 tabs.

  12. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  13. New directions in flotation machine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, G.J. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    The theoretical background for flotation kinetics of ultrafine and coarse particles are explored. Recent advances in flotation technology for these difficult areas are reviewed, with a focus on improving the flotation rate of ultrafines, and extending the upper limit for coarse particle flotation. For ultra-fine particles, the theory suggests that the rate of flotation can be improved by increasing the rate of shear in the suspension of particles and bubbles. A new cell has been developed, the Concorde Cell, in which the pre-aerated feed is raised to supersonic velocities before passing into a high-shear zone in the flotation cell. The local dissipation rate is of the order of 100 kW/m{sup 3}, one to two orders of magnitude higher than is available in conventional mechanical cells. The Concorde Cell has been trialed on a finely ground PGM feed in South Africa, with excellent results. By recycling the tailings, and using the mass pull or solids recovery as the control variable, the Cell is capable of producing a high-grade concentrate at high recoveries, over a wide range of particle sizes. Theory for the upper limit of coarse particle flotation suggests that a quiescent flow field is necessary to prevent the particles from becoming detached from the bubbles. A liquid-fluidized bed provides a suitable environment. The flotation feed is introduced into the fluidized bed, and air bubbles are dispersed in the fluidizing water. Coarse particles attach to the bubbles rising through the bed and are lifted into the froth layer that is maintained on top of the cell in the usual way. Particles of galena up to 1 mm in diameter have been recovered in such a bed, while for particles of lower density such as quartz and coal, the upper limit for flotation has been extended to at least 2 mm and 5.6 mm respectively. The fluidized bed technology provides major advantages beyond the ability to recover coarse particles currently lost in existing operations.

  14. New developments in flotation. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuchowski, J.

    1993-01-01

    The following papers were presented at the meeting: sphalerite flotation XPS and calorimeter analyses; set-up of and first results from a column flotation pilot plant; alkenyl succinic acid semiester flotation collectors for apatite; laboratory- and pilot-scale apatite flotation by means of stirrer cells and pneumatic cells; a contribution to the use of a pneumatic flotation method for the treatment of oil-containing industrial waste water; technical development of the KEMCO processing plant, Thailand; computer-aided pneumatic flotation by example of a lead/zinc ore; combined flocculation/expansion flotation and electrofloation sewage treatment processes; deinking flotation -a comparison with mineral flotation; comparison of the new flotation cells: column cell, Jameson cell, pneumatic cell. (orig.) [de

  15. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  16. Flocculation of flotation tailings using thermosensitive polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogacz Wojciech

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The key feature of thermosensitive polymers is the reversible transition between the hydrophilic and hydrophopic forms depending on the temperature. Although the main research efforts are focused on their application in different kinds of drug delivery systems, this phenomenon also allows one to precisely control the stability of solid-liquid dispersions. In this paper research on the application of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide copolymers in processing of minerals is presented. In the experiments tailings from flotation plant of one of the coal mines of Jastrzębska Spółka Węglowa S.A. (Poland were used. A laser particle sizer Fritsch Analysette 22 was used in order to determine the Particle Size Distribution (PSD. It was proved that there are some substantial issues associated with the application of thermosensitive polymers in industrial practice which may exclude them from the common application. High salinity of suspension altered the value of Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST. Moreover, the co-polymers used in research proved to be efficient flocculating agents without any temperature rise. Finally, the dosage needed to achieve steric stabilization of suspension was greatly beyond economic justification.

  17. Chemical and colloidal aspects of collectorless flotation behavior of sulfide and non-sulfide minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Sajjad; Mousavinezhad, Seyed Kamal; Gharabaghi, Mahdi

    2015-11-01

    Flotation has been widely used for separation of valuable minerals from gangues based on their surface characterizations and differences in hydrophobicity on mineral surfaces. As hydrophobicity of minerals widely differs from each other, their separation by flotation will become easier. Collectors are chemical materials which are supposed to make selectively valuable minerals hydrophobic. In addition, there are some minerals which based on their surface and structural features are intrinsically hydrophobic. However, their hydrophobicities are not strong enough to be floatable in the flotation cell without collectors such as sulfide minerals, coal, stibnite, and so forth. To float these minerals in a flotation cell, their hydrophobicity should be increased in specific conditions. Various parameters including pH, Eh, size distribution, mill types, mineral types, ore characterization, and type of reaction in flotation cells affect the hydrophobicity of minerals. Surface analysis results show that when sulfide minerals experience specific flotation conditions, the reactions on the surface of these minerals increase the amount of sulfur on the surface. These phenomenons improve the hydrophobicity of these minerals due to strong hydrophobic feature of sulfurs. Collectorless flotation reduces chemical material consumption amount, increases flotation selectivity (grade increases), and affects the equipment quantities; however, it can also have negative effects. Some minerals with poor surface floatability can be increased by adding some ions to the flotation system. Depressing undesirable minerals in flotation is another application of collectorless flotation.

  18. Selective detachment process in column flotation froth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Ozsever, A.V.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2006-05-15

    The selectivity in flotation columns involving the separation of particles of varying degrees of floatability is based on differential flotation rates in the collection zone, reflux action between the froth and collection zones, and differential detachment rates in the froth zone. Using well-known theoretical models describing the separation process and experimental data, froth zone and overall flotation recovery values were quantified for particles in an anthracite coal that have a wide range of floatability potential. For highly floatable particles, froth recovery had a very minimal impact on overall recovery while the recovery of weakly floatable material was decreased substantially by reductions in froth recovery values. In addition, under carrying-capacity limiting conditions, selectivity was enhanced by the preferential detachment of the weakly floatable material. Based on this concept, highly floatable material was added directly into the froth zone when treating the anthracite coal. The enriched froth phase reduced the product ash content of the anthracite product by five absolute percentage points while maintaining a constant recovery value.

  19. Classification of Flotation Frothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Drzymala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a scheme of flotation frothers classification is presented. The scheme first indicates the physical system in which a frother is present and four of them i.e., pure state, aqueous solution, aqueous solution/gas system and aqueous solution/gas/solid system are distinguished. As a result, there are numerous classifications of flotation frothers. The classifications can be organized into a scheme described in detail in this paper. The frother can be present in one of four physical systems, that is pure state, aqueous solution, aqueous solution/gas and aqueous solution/gas/solid system. It results from the paper that a meaningful classification of frothers relies on choosing the physical system and next feature, trend, parameter or parameters according to which the classification is performed. The proposed classification can play a useful role in characterizing and evaluation of flotation frothers.

  20. Study of flotation performance of kerosene after ultrasonic emulsified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang Wen-ze; Wang Hui; Kong Xiao-hong; Lu Yu-ting; Hu Jung [Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, Harbin (China). School of Resource and Environmental Engineering

    2008-01-15

    A Setaram calorimeter, a contact angle gauge DCAT21, surface tension apparatus and a Leica electron microscope were used to study the nature of emulsified kerosene and kerosene and their effects on slime. Batch flotation tests were carried out. The results show that the particle diameter of emulsified kerosene, the dispersibility in water, the wetting heat with slime, changing contact angle and decreasing gas-solution interfacial tension are all better than those of kerosene. The consumption of emulsified kerosene is only one third of that of kerosene when equivalent yields of clean coal are obtained. The flotation speed of emulsified kerosene is faster than that of kerosene. The yield of clean coal with emulsified kerosene is higher than that of kerosene by 7.38% and the ash content of clean coal emulsified in kerosene is lower than that of kerosene by 0.98% when equivalent amounts of the two reagents are used in the flotation process. The study shows that flotation selectivity and efficiency of emulsified kerosene are all higher than those of kerosene and the consumption of reagent is lower than that of kerosene. 15 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Flotation of Biological Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Z. Kyzas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flotation constitutes a gravity separation process, which originated from the minerals processing field. However, it has, nowadays, found several other applications, as for example in the wastewater treatment field. Concerning the necessary bubble generation method, typically dispersed-air or dissolved-air flotation was mainly used. Various types of biological materials were tested and floated efficiently, such as bacteria, fungi, yeasts, activated sludge, grape stalks, etc. Innovative processes have been studied in our Laboratory, particularly for metal ions removal, involving the initial abstraction of heavy metal ions onto a sorbent (including a biosorbent: in the first, the application of a flotation stage followed for the efficient downstream separation of metal-laden particles. The ability of microorganisms to remove metal ions from dilute aqueous solutions (as most wastewaters are is a well-known property. The second separation process, also applied effectively, was a new hybrid cell of microfiltration combined with flotation. Sustainability in this field and its significance for the chemical and process industry is commented.

  2. Froth flotation of xenotime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yicheng

    Froth flotation as a fundamental method for processing complex minerals is commonly applied to the surface chemistry and beneficiation of rare-earth-bearing minerals. This is due to the fact that it is possible to process a wide range of fine particle sizes and the process can be tailored to the unique mineralogy of a given deposit. Flotation effectiveness is primarily controlled by the surface-chemical properties of the minerals and related adsorption phenomena at the liquid--solid interface. This research program was designed to investigate the principles of surface chemistry and froth flotation of xenotime and selected gangue minerals. This led to a better understanding of the factors affecting flotation performance and separation of xenotime from associated gangue minerals in an efficient way. This investigation includes MLA analysis, surface area measurement, zeta potential tests, and adsorption tests of xenotime, ilmenite, zircon, schorl, and staurolite under conditions of various reagent additions and different temperatures. Octano-hydroxamic acid, sodium oleate, sodium silicates, and ammonium lignosulfonate were used in microflotation behavior evaluation. Efforts were made to evaluate the effects of temperature, pH, concentration, addition order, and depressants in the microflotation of minerals with anionic collectors such as octano-hydroxamic acid and sodium oleate. Other factors, such as bubble surface tension and bubble particle size, are also discussed based on the literature review and lab observations.

  3. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  4. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT`s. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT`s in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT`s introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT`s in a number of countries.

  5. Fundamental study for improvement of dewatering of fine coal/refuse. Final report, August 1981-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, S.H.; Klinzing, G.E.; Morsi, B.I.; Tierney, J.W.; Binkley, T.; Chi, S.M.; Huang, S.; Qamar, I.; Venkatadri, R.

    1984-12-01

    Fine coal in slurry form must be dewatered to minimize handling and transportation problems and be reduced to a desirable level for subsequent preparation of coal/water mixtures as a substitute utility fuel. The current practice is inadequate for the dewatering of fine coal, particularly for coal particles with sizes smaller than 400 mesh. Therefore, it is most desirable to develop improved mechanical methods for reducing the moisture content of fine coal. In the light of this, a fundamental study of the dewatering of fine coal/refuse was initiated in June 1979 and continued through 1984. The overall objective of the study is to seek improved methods of dewatering through a better understanding of the filtration and post-filtration processes. As a first step, efforts have been focused on the mechanism of dewatering in terms of the basic properties of coal (and refuse) particles and the microstructures of filter cakes, and their relations to filtration rate and final moisture content. Pittsburgh seam-Bruceton Mine coal was used as a base coal. During the past year, filter cakes from coals with widely varying size ranges were micrographically characterized. The effects of a number of surface active agents and of entrapped air bubbles on the filter cake properties were also studied. Modules of the network model for calculating single phase and two phase permeabilities were formulated and tested. The report is divided into four parts: summary and deliverables; work forecast for 1984-1985; detailed description of technical progress; and appendices. 21 refs., 55 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Chemical kinetics and transport processes in supercritical fluid extraction of coal. Final report, August 10, 1990--December 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, B.J.; Smith, J.M.; Wang, M.; Zhang, C.J.

    1993-02-01

    The overall objective of this project was to study the supercritical fluid extraction of hydrocarbons from coal. Beyond the practical concern of deriving products from coal, the research has provided insights into the structure, properties, and reactivities of coal. Information on engineering fundamentals of coal thermolysis and extraction, including physical and chemical processes, is presented in this final report. To accomplish the goals of the project we developed continuous-flow experiments for fixed-bed samples of coal that allow two types of analysis of the extract: continuous spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the lumped concentration of extract, and chromatographic determinations of molecular-weight distributions as a function of time. Thermolysis of coal yields a complex mixture of many extract products whose molecular-weight distribution (MWD) varies with time for continuous-flow, semibatch experiments. The flow reactor with a differential, fixed bed of coal particles contacted by supercritical t-butanol was employed to provide dynamic MWD data by means of HPLC gel permeation chromatography of the extract. The experimental results, time-dependent MWDs of extract molecules, were interpreted by a novel mathematical model based on continuous-mixture kinetics for thermal cleavage of chemical bonds in the coal network. The parameters for the MWDs of extractable groups in the coal and the rate constants for one- and two-fragment reaction are determined from the experimental data. The significant effect of temperature on the kinetics of the extraction was explained in terms of one- and two-fragment reactions in the coal.

  7. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-24

    This document contains the third quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale flotation circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan, as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelve-month project schedule. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I -- Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI`s Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing; Phase II -- ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project was performed at PETC`s CPPRF from January through June, 1993, and was the major focus of the project. It involved testing of the continuous 200--300 lb/hr. circuit; and Phase III -- Project Finalization: The project finalization phase is occurring from July through September, 1993, at PTI`s Calumet offices and involves finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This Third Quarterly Technical Progress Report principally summarizes the results from the benchscale testing with the second coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Coal), which occurred in April through June, 1993. It also contains preliminary economic evaluations that will go into the Final Report, as well as the plan for the final reporting task.

  8. Flotation of PAH contaminated dredged sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulleneers, H.; Roubroeks, S.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.; Koopal, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    The applicability of dissolved air flotation to remediate contaminated sediments of "Overschie" (Rotterdam) and "Petrol Harbor" (Amsterdam) is studied. Several flotation reagents (Diesel Fuel, Montanol, Aerophine, Aerofroth) are applied to enhance the flotation efficiency. The physical chemical

  9. Bibliometric analysis on kaolinite flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lieberknecht

    Full Text Available Abstract The current work presents a bibliometric discussion on articles published worldwide concerning kaolinite flotation in international journals from 1992 to 2015. In total, 39 articles were selected from Elsevier's database, SciVerse ScienceDirect. This work allowed to recognize and identify which are the thematic and methodological trends that are being used, in addition to the main collectors used in kaolinite flotation. The results show that a significant amount of articles is produced by Chinese authors, especially from 2013, as China is the second highest aluminum producer in the world, and kaolinite is the reject in the reverse flotation process of diaspore. The results showed the difficulty of working with kaolinite flotation individually and confirmed that there is scientific collaboration among authors. Bibliometric analysis showed that the reagents used in kaolinite flotation tests are mostly derived from cationic nitrogenated compounds. Additionally, best recovery results from kaolinite flotation occurred in acidic media.

  10. Multichannel thickener of flotation tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratenko, A F; Shuliko, A N; Zinchenko, A F

    1983-04-01

    A multichannel thickener of flotation tailings developed by Ukrniiugleobogashchenie is described. Tailings with solid content ranging from 40 to 60 g/l are mixed with flocculation reagents (quantity ratio from 60 to 70 g/l) in a turbulent mixer: waste water with tailings fed to the mixer is divided into three streams, flocculation reagents are batched in stages with each water stream. After turbulent mixing, water, tailings and reagent are fed to the settling chamber. Settling chamber (dimensions 2.4 x 1.5 x 1.0 m) is divided into a number of channels by settling surfaces of 0.35 m/sup 2/ each, inclined at an angle of 55 degrees. Distance between the surfaces is 50 mm. The thickener has a total settling surface of 18.7 m/sup 2/. Water with tailings flows upwards, cleaned water is removed by a separating system and settled tailings move downward and accumulate in the compacting chamber (dimensions 1.5 x 1.5 x 0.9 m). From the compacting chamber thickened slurry with solid content from 90 to 150 g/l is removed by a hydraulic system. During performance testing in some plants preparing coal difficult to wash, thickening efficiency amounted to 100%. The results of performance testing are shown in two tables. Factors which influence thickener productivity are evaluated. (In Russian)

  11. Hydrodynamic aspects of flotation separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peleka Efrosyni N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flotation separation is mainly used for removing particulates from aqueous dispersions. It is widely used for ore beneficiation and recovering valuable materials. This paper reviews the hydrodynamics of flotation separations and comments on selected recent publications. Units are distinguished as cells of ideal and non-ideal flow. A brief introduction to hydrodynamics is included to explain an original study of the hybrid flotation-microfiltration cell, effective for heavy metal ion removal.

  12. Technical data. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This volume includes a description of the railway to transport the coal; possible unbalance in the electrical power supply is considered in detail, as well as communications, signalling, etc. The railway will also be used to transport ashes and sludges for waste disposal. Coal fines in the coal supply will be burned to generate power. A very brief description of the coal gasification plant and its components is accompanied by a printout of the dates final engineering is to be completed. Permit applications are listed and socio-economic factors are discussed. The financing plan is discussed in some detail: basically, a loan guarantee from the Synthetic Fuels Corporation; equity provided by investment tax credit, deferred taxes, AFUDC and the sponsors; price support; and gas purchase agreement (this whole section includes several legal details.). (LTN)

  13. Nuclear assay of coal. Volume 1. Coal composition by prompt neutron activation analysis: basic experiments. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, G.; Bozorganesh, H.; Elias, E.; Gozani, T.; Maung, T.; Orphan, V.

    1979-01-01

    Using californium-252 as a source of exciting neutrons, prompt gamma photons emitted by elemental nuclei in the coal have been measured using several detectors, including sodium--iodide and germanium--lithium. Several coal types, including bituminous, subbituminous lignite and anthracite were crushed to various top sizes and analyzed carefully be traditional ASTM wet chemistry techniques at two or three different laboratories. The elements (sulfur, hydrogen, carbon, aluminum, silicon, iron, calcium, sodium, nitrogen, and chlorine) were determined by prompt neutron activations and the quantities compared with those of the wet chemical analyses

  14. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  15. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  16. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  17. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1990-- April 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1992-02-15

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science (CFFLS) is currently engaged in a three year contract with the US Department of Energy investigating a range of research topics dealing with direct coal liquefaction. This report summarizes the results of this program in its second year, from May 1, 1990 to April 30, 1991. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Iron-based catalysts for coal liquefaction, exploratory research on coal conversion, novel coal liquefaction concepts, and novel catalysts for coal liquefaction.

  18. Chemomechanical phenomena in the grinding of coal. Final report, February 1, 1976--May 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macmillan, N.H.

    1977-08-01

    Vickers microhardness, drilling rate, grinding rate and zeta-potential measurements have been made on coals of various rank in both aqueous and organic environments in order to determine whether: (a) chemomechanical (Rebinder) effects exist in coal; and (b) any such effects as do exist can be used to improve the comminution of coal. The results reveal the mechanical behavior of coal to be remarkably environment-insensitive as compared to inorganic non-metals. As a result, it is concluded that chemomechanical phenomena offer little prospect of reducing the cost of comminuting coal.

  19. Flotation of sulphide minerals 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forssberg, K S.E. [ed.; Luleaa University of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden). Division of Mineral Processing

    1991-01-01

    A total of 27 papers presented at the workshop on flotation of sulphide minerals, reprinted from the International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 33, nos. 1-4, are included in this book. They cover various aspects of flotation of such minerals as chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, malachite and pyrite.

  20. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels. Volume 1, Final report and appendix A (Topical report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  1. Modelling Of Flotation Processes By Classical Mathematical Methods - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Ivana; Miljanović, Igor

    2015-12-01

    Flotation process modelling is not a simple task, mostly because of the process complexity, i.e. the presence of a large number of variables that (to a lesser or a greater extent) affect the final outcome of the mineral particles separation based on the differences in their surface properties. The attempts toward the development of the quantitative predictive model that would fully describe the operation of an industrial flotation plant started in the middle of past century and it lasts to this day. This paper gives a review of published research activities directed toward the development of flotation models based on the classical mathematical rules. The description and systematization of classical flotation models were performed according to the available references, with emphasize exclusively given to the flotation process modelling, regardless of the model application in a certain control system. In accordance with the contemporary considerations, models were classified as the empirical, probabilistic, kinetic and population balance types. Each model type is presented through the aspects of flotation modelling at the macro and micro process levels.

  2. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite. Final technical report, September 1990--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, Dawei

    1996-01-01

    This project seeks to advance the fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical processes occurring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, coal desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. Central to this research is the use of synthetic microsize particles of pyrite as model microelectrodes to investigate the semiconductor electrochemistry of pyrite. The research focuses on: (a) the synthesis of microsize particles of pyrite in aqueous solution at room temperature, (b) the formation of iron sulfide complex, the precursor of FeS or FeS{sub 2}, and (c) the relationship between the semiconductor properties of pyrite and its interfacial electrochemical behavior in the dissolution process. In Chapter 2, 3 and 4, a suitable protocol for preparing microsize particles of pyrite in aqueous solution is given, and the essential roles of the precursors elemental sulfur and ``FeS`` in pyrite formation are investigated. In Chapter 5, the formation of iron sulfide complex prior to the precipitation of FeS or FeS{sub 2} is investigated using a fast kinetics technique based on a stopped-flow spectrophotometer. The stoichiometry of the iron sulfide complex is determined, and the rate and formation constants are also evaluated. Chapter 6 provides a summary of the semiconductor properties of pyrite relevant to the present study. In Chapters 7 and 8, the effects of the semiconductor properties on pyrite dissolution are investigated experimentally and the mechanism of pyrite dissolution in acidic aqueous solution is examined. Finally, a summary of the conclusions from this study and suggestions for future research are presented in Chapter 9.

  3. A study of Multistage/Multifunction Column for Fine Coal Cleaning CRADA PC93-005, Final Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralph Lai; Shiao-Hung Chiang; Daxin He; Yuru Feng

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of the this research project is to explore the potential applicability of a multistage column for fine coal cleaning and other applications in fluid particle separation. The research work identifies the design parameters and their effects on the performance of the separation device. The results of this study provide an engineering data basis for further development of this technology in coal cleaning and in general areas of fluid and particle separations

  4. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  5. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael T. Klein; William H. Calkins; Jasna Tomic

    2000-01-01

    To provide a better understanding of the roles of a solid catalyst and the solvent in Direct Coal Liquefaction, a small reactor was equipped with a porous-walled basket which was permeable to the solvent but was not permeable to the coal or solid catalyst. With this equipment and a high volatile bituminous coal it was found that direct contact between the catalyst in the basket and the coal outside the basket is not required for catalyzed coal liquefaction. The character of the solvent in this system makes a significant difference in the conversion of the coal, the better solvents being strong donor solvents. Because of the extensive use of thermogravimetric analysis in this laboratory, it was noted that the peak temperature for volatiles evolution from coal was a reliable measure of coal rank. Because of this observation, a variety of coals of a range of ranks was investigated. It was shown in this work that measuring the peak temperature for volatiles evolution was a quite precise indicator of rank and correlated closely with the rank value obtained by measuring vitrinite reflectance, a more difficult measurement to make. This prompted the desire to know the composition of the volatile material evolved as a function of coal rank. This was then measured by coupling a TGA to a mass spectrometer using laser activation and photoionization detection TG-PI-MS. The predominant species in volatiles of low rank coal turned out to be phenols with some alkenes. As the rank increases, the relative amounts of alkene and aromatic hydrocarbons increases and the oxygenated species decrease. It was shown that these volatiles were actually pyrolytic products and not volatilization products of the coal. Solvent extraction experiments coupled with Thermogravimetric-photoionization-mass spectrometry (TG-PI-MS) indicated that the low boiling and more extractable material are essentially similar in chemical types to the non-extractable portions but apparently higher molecular weight

  6. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  7. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  8. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  9. Development of a pulsed coal combustor fired with CWM (coal-water mixture): Phase 3, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, M.N.; Durai-Swamy, K.

    1986-11-01

    This report presents the results of an R and D program aimed at developing a new burner technology for coal-water mixture (CWM) fuels to enable the substitution of these new fuels in utility and industrial boilers and process heaters currently firing oil and gas. The application of pulse combustion to CWM fuels is chosen to alleviate many of the physical plant and environmental constraints presently associated with the direct use of these fuels in equipment designed for oil and gas firing. Pulse combustion has been shown to be capable of high-intensity burning of coal for acceptably complete combustion within relatively small equipment volumes. It also has the inherent capability to agglomerate ash particles, thus rendering ash more easily separable from the combustion gas prior to its entrance into the convective section of the boiler or heater, thereby reducing ash buildup and pluggage. Pulse combustion is also well-suited to staged combustion for NO/sub x/ control and has excellent potential for enhanced in-furnace SO/sub 2/ removal due to the enhanced levels of mass transfer brought about by the vigorous flow oscillations. The primary objective of the Phase 2 work was to develop a detailed program for laboratory development and evaluation of the pulse CWM combustor and system design concepts. 112 refs., 40 figs., 94 tabs.

  10. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  12. Studies for the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures. Final report, August 1978-May 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsaris, G.D.; Glazman, Y.M.; Adams-Viola, M.

    1981-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures (COM) was developed. Aggregation of the coal particles was determined to control both the sedimentation and rheological properties of the COM. Sedimentation stability of COM prepared with coal, 80% < 200 mesh, is achieved by particle aggregation, which leads to the formation of a network of particles throughout the oil. The wettability of coal powders was evaluated by the Pickering emulsion test and a spherical agglomeration test to assess its effect on the stability of various COM formulations. Sedimentation stability of hydrophilic coal-oil-water mixtures (COWM) involves the formation of water bridges between the coal particles, while less stabilization of oleophilic COWM is achieved by the formation of an emulsion. Anionic SAA were least sensitive to the coal type and enhanced the aggregation stability of the suspension. The effect of cationic SAA, nonionic SAA and polymer additives depended upon the specific chemical structure of the SAA, the water content of the COM and the type of coal. The sedimentation stability of ultrafine COM was not directly due to the fineness of the powder but due to the formation of a network of flocculated particles.

  13. Coal supply and transportation markets during Phase One: Change, risk and opportunity. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, J.N.; Kaplan, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) required many utilities to sharply reduce sulfur emissions by January 1, 1995. This study describes and analyzes how the coal and transportation markets responded to this major development. The study focuses on five key coal supply regions and their associated transportation networks: the Uinta Basin (Colorado/Utah), Wyoming Powder River Basin, Illinois Basin, Monongahela region (Pittsburgh seam) and the central Appalachian region. From these regional studies, the report identifies key risk areas for future coal planning and general lessons for the fuels planning process. The study provides statistical information on coal production, demand, and transportation flows for each region. The analysis for each region focuses on developments which were generally unexpected; e.g., the relatively large volumes of medium-sulfur coal produced in the Illinois Basin and Monongahela region, the eastern penetration of Utah and Colorado coals, and the relatively modest growth in demand for central Appalachian coals. These developments generally worked to the advantage of utilities; i.e., medium- and low-sulfur coal was available at a lower price, in greater volumes and from a wider range of sources than many had expected. Utilities both took advantage of and helped to encourage these developments in the coal and transportation market. Looking ahead to Phase 11 strategies and future coal procurement, a major challenge will be to maintain the choice among supply and transportation alternatives which was so important to utility success in Phase 1. The report identifies rail transportation to be the major area of risk in most regions

  14. Temperature effects on chemical structure and motion in coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, G.E.

    1996-09-30

    The objective of this project was to apply recently developed, state-of-the-art nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to examine in situ changes in the chemical structure and molecular/macromolecular motion in coal as the temperature is increased above room temperature. Although alterations in the chemical structure of coal have been studied previously by {sup 13}C NMR, using quenched samples, the goal of this project was to examine these chemical structural changes, and changes in molecular/macromolecular mobility that may precede or accompany the chemical changes, at elevated temperatures, using modern {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR techniques, especially {sup 1}H dipolar-dephasing techniques and related experiments pioneered in the laboratory for examining pyridine-saturated coals. This project consisted of the following four primary segments and related efforts on matters relevant to the first four tasks. (1) {sup 1}H NMR characterization of coal structure and mobility as a function of temperature variation over a temperature range (30--240 C) for which substantial chemical transformations were not anticipated. (2) {sup 1}H NMR characterization of coal structure, mobility and conversion as a function of temperature variation over a temperature range (240--500 C) for which chemical transformations of coal are known to occur. (3) {sup 13}C NMR investigation of coal structure/mobility as a function of temperature over a temperature range (30--240 C) for which substantial chemical transformations were not anticipated. (4) {sup 13}C NMR investigation of coal structure, dynamics and conversion as a function of temperature variation over a range (240--500 C) for which chemical transformations of coal are known to occur. (5) Related matters relevant to the first four tasks: (a) {sup 1}H CRAMPS NMR characterization of oil shales and their kerogen concentrates; and (b) improved quantitation in {sup 13}C MAS characterization of coals.

  15. Wastewater treatment by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Puget

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the performance analysis of a separation set-up characterized by the ejector-hydrocyclone association, applied in the treatment of a synthetic dairy wastewater effluent. The results obtained were compared with the results from a flotation column (cylindrical body of a hydrocyclone operated both batch and continuously. As far as the experimental set-up studied in this work and the operating conditions imposed to the process, it is possible to reach a 25% decrease in the total effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD. This corresponds approximately to 60% of the COD of the material in suspension. The best results are obtained for ratios air flow rate-feed flow rate (Qair/Q L greater then 0.15 and for ratios underflow rate-overflow rate (Qu/Qo lower than 1.0.

  16. Waste water treatment by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Badulescu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The flotation is succesfully applied as a cleaning method of waste water refineries, textile fabrics (tissues, food industry, paper plants, oils plants, etc. In the flotation process with the released air, first of all, the water is saturated with air compressed at pressures between 0,3 – 3 bar, followed by the relaxed phenomenon of the air-water solution in a flotation cell with slowly flowing. The supersaturation could be applied in the waste water treatment. In this case the waste water, which is in the atmospheric equilibrum, is introduced in a closed space where the depression is 0,3 – 0,5 bar. Our paper presents the hypobaric flotation cell and the technological flow of cleaning of domestic waste waters

  17. Bibliometric analysis on kaolinite flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberknecht, Gabriela; Matai, Patrícia Helena Lara dos Santos; Leal Filho, Laurindo de Salles

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The current work presents a bibliometric discussion on articles published worldwide concerning kaolinite flotation in international journals from 1992 to 2015. In total, 39 articles were selected from Elsevier's database, SciVerse ScienceDirect. This work allowed to recognize and identify which are the thematic and methodological trends that are being used, in addition to the main collectors used in kaolinite flotation. The results show that a significant amount of articles is produc...

  18. Indium flotation from hydrometallurgical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviridov, V.V.; Mal'tsev, G.I.; Petryakova, N.K.; Gomzikov, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    The principal possibility of flotation of indium small quantities (10 -4 gxion/l) is established from sulphuric-acid solutions of leaching converter dusts of the copper melting production in the form of complex compounds with sodium hexametaphosphate and cation-active nitrogen-containing surfactants. It is shown that the flotation process effectiveness is determined by the molar ratio of hexametaphosphate and collector introduced into the solution, solution oxidity and surfactant nature

  19. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    Research on sulfate and metal (Mo, Sn) promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in the current year focused on optimization of conditions. Parameters varied included temperature, solvent, solvent-to-coal ratio, and the effect of presulfiding versus in situ sulfiding. Oil yields were found to increase approximately proportionately with both temperature and solvent-to-coal ratio. The donor solvent, tetralin, proved to give better total conversion and oil yields than either 1-methylnaphthalene or Wilsonville recycle oil. A significant enhancement of both total liquefaction yields and oil yields from lignites and subbituminous coals has been achieved by incorporating iron into the coal matrix by cation exchange. A study has been conducted on the synthesis of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten catalysts using a laser pyrolysis technique.

  20. Final report on dust monitoring near Kellingley coal mine, North Yorkshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallack, H.W.

    1992-06-01

    Dust deposition was monitored at a residential location near Kellingley Coal Mine over two four-weekly periods (November/December 1991 and March/April 1992) using a wet Frisbee dust deposit gauge. The mean rates of dust deposition for both periods (696.4 and 415.5 mg m -2 day -1 respectively) were well in excess of a proposed acceptable upper limit (195 mg m -2 day -1 ) for residential conditions. Mean estimated coal dust content during both periods (80.9 and 49.7 per cent) was also high. It is concluded that coal dust from Kellingley Coal Mine gave rise to excessively high levels of dust deposition at the monitoring site, especially during the first four-weekly period. The situation would appear to have deteriorated since a similar monitoring exercise was carried out in 1989. 4 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Cleavage and crosslinking of polymeric coal structures during pyrolysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillen, D.F.; Malhotra, R.

    1992-02-01

    The ultimate objective of this project was to develop a better understanding of volatiles production to help optimize the yield and character of condensable coproducts during coal pyrolysis or mild gasification. The specific objectives were to (1) Develop pyrolysis procedures that minimize secondary reactions; and (2) Develop coal pretreatments that current knowledge suggests will prorate bond scission or prevent retrograde reactions. Our approach was to study the pyrolysis of coals and tar-loaded coals by using several techniques that span a range of heating rates and pressures. Slow-heating pyrolyses were performed at low pressures in the inlet of a field ionization mass spectrometer and at atmospheric pressures in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Moderately rapid-heating pyrolyses were performed in a vacuum TGA apparatus and in sealed silica ampules heated in a molten-salt bath. The fastest heating rates were achieved with laser pyrolysis at about 30,000 X/s. The high tar yield seen in this work where the entire volume of the coal particle becomes hot and fluid at very nearly the same time, taken together with the evident non-vapor transport of the tar under these conditions, emphasizes the importance of better understanding the development of fluidity during coal heating. This specifically includes the profound effects--long-recognized but poorly understood that mild oxidation has in suppressing coal fluidity. It also includes the more recently recognized fact that heating in the presence of an inert gas produced substantially greater fluidity than does heating in the presence of combustion gases, even if the conditions are very fuel rich and all the oxygen itself has already been consumed when the coal particles are encountered.

  2. Determining the radiative properties of pulverized-coal particles from experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menguec, M.P.

    1992-02-01

    A comprehensive coupled experimental-theoretical study has been performed to determine the effective radiative properties of pulverized-coal/char particles. The results obtained show that the ``effective`` scattering phase function of coal particles are highly forward scattering and show less sensitivity to the size than predicted from the Lorenz-Mie theory. The main reason for this is the presence of smaller size particles associated with each larger particle. Also, the coal/char particle clouds display more side scattering than predicted for the same size range spheres, indicating the irregular shape of the particles and fragmentation. In addition to these, it was observed that in the visible wavelength range the coal absorption is not gray, and slightly vary with the wavelength. These two experimental approaches followed in this study are unique in a sense that the physics of the problem are not approximated. The properties determined include all uncertainties related to the particle shape, size distribution, inhomogeneity and spectral complex index of refraction data. In order to obtain radiative property data over a wider wavelength spectrum, additional ex-situ experiments have been carried out using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometer. The spectral measurements were performed over the wavelength range of 2 to 22 {mu}m. These results were interpreted to obtain the ``effective`` efficiency factors of coal particles and the corresponding refractive index values. The results clearly show that the coal/char radiative properties display significant wavelength dependency in the infrared spectrum.

  3. Characterization and dewatering of flotation technological tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorova I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of flotation tailings is today a subject of interest in mineral processing because of the potential of wasted materials as an actual mineral resource and because of environmental reasons. Decantation ponds are found at almost every mine in the world. They are large earth fill dams containing the residue of the milling process to extract metals from mined ores. Traditional wet tailings disposal has been problematic due to the risk of ground water contamination and the difficulty in rehabilitating storage sites. Tailings dams are at risk of failure due to leakage, instability, liquefaction, and poor design. In the last few years the use of paste technology in the disposal of mine tailings is increasingly studied as an option to conventional tailings dams. The Lucky Invest Concentrator is located in the Eastern Rhodopes Mountain of Bulgaria. Since 1959 lead-zinc ores are dressed. Finally, during the flotation cycle lead and zinc concentrates are produced. The final technological processing waste precipitates in tailing pond. Research and development program has started to established opportunities to obtain dry deposit of the ore processing residue and analyses the feature of new tailing disposal method. The tailings particle size distributions and chemical compositions were determined. The data from laboratory and pilot scale tests clearly illustrate that there are the possibilities to obtaine lead-zinc dewatered tailings. The experimental results show that new cyclone modifications have a potential in dewatering technology of flotation tailings. It appears that dewatering cyclones can be an approach on new tailings pond elimination technology.

  4. Steam coal processing technology: handling, high-order processing, COM, meth-coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, H.; Onodera, J.

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include: various handling techologies (overland and marine transport, storage, water removal, drying, comminution and sizing); various coal processing technologies (gravity concentration, magnetic separation, multi-stage flotation, liquid-phase pelletizing, chemical processing); production methods for coal-oil mixtures (COM), their physical properties, stability, storage, transport, advantages, plus recent trends in research and development; production of coal-methanol slurry (meth-coal), its stability, storage, transport, utilization and environmental problems, plus latest trends in research and development. (In Japanese)

  5. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  6. Relocation of belt conveyors along the final slope of the Belacevac surface coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimovic, N; Rosic, Z

    1987-07-01

    Describes how following a landslide on the northern wing of the Belacevac surface coal mine the belt conveyor lines had to be relocated in order to assure a reliable coal supply to the Kosovo A and Kosovo B thermal power stations. The relocation was achieved in three phases with new approach cuts being made, necessitating the removal of 280,000 m/sup 3/ of overburden in the first phase and 870,000 m/sup 3/ in the second phase of the reconstruction. Illustrates the relocation of the conveyor system by means of site plans and notes that the production of coal and the removal of overburden were not interrupted during the relocation exercise. 2 refs.

  7. Cationic flotation of some lithium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadao, G.E.S.; Peres, A.E.C.; Silva, H.C. da

    1984-01-01

    The cationic flotation of some lithium ores (spodumene, amblygonite, petalite, lepidolite) is studied by the measure of zeta potential and micro-flotation tests in Hallimond tube. The effect of some modifier agents (corn starch, meta sodium silicate) on the lithium flotation is studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Mechanisms of beryl flotation: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torem, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper shows a review about the investigations that have been done on the mechanisms of flotation of beryl and its dependence in relation to the presence of fluoride species. It is also analised the anionic flotation of the mineral and the effect of cations in the pulp of flotation. (author) [pt

  9. Treating effluents; recovering coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, F B; Bury, E

    1920-02-18

    Liquor obtained by scrubbing coal gas with sea-water or fresh water, and containing or having added to it finely-divided carbonaceous material in suspension, is subjected to a froth-flotation process to recover the carbonaceous matter and organic materials in the froth, and render the remaining liquor innocuous. Liquor obtained by scrubbing distillation gases, such as coal gas, may be used as a frothing-agent in a froth flotation process for the recovery of carbonaceous substances such as coal from materials containing them, thereby producing a froth containing the coal, etc., and also the organic materials from the liquor. In some cases the effluent may be diluted with sea-water, and, in recovering carbonaceous shales, there may be added to the liquor a small proportion of paraffin oil.

  10. FUNDAMENTAL KINETICS OF SUPERCRITICAL COAL LIQUEFACTION: EFFECT OF CATALYSTS AND HYDROGEN-DONOR SOLVENTS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin J. McCoy; J.M. Smith

    1998-01-01

    This report outlines a distribution kinetics approach to macromolecular reactions that has been applied to several processes. The objective was to develop an understanding of high-temperature, dense-phase thermolytic processes for complex macromolecular systems, such as coal. Experiments and theory are described for chemical models that simulate depolymerization of coal. The approach has been exceptionally successful for the model macromolecular systems. Development of a novel chemical reaction engineering analysis, based on distribution kinetics, was a major accomplishment of the current research

  11. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  12. Thermodynamic condition for ''Gamma'' flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaoma, J.; Yarar, B.

    1989-01-01

    Using the definition of the critical surface tension of wetting solids (Γc) and Gibb's adsorption isotherm, coupled with Young-Dupre's equation, the equilibrium thermodynamic condition for 'GAMMA' flotation has been derived. It is defined by the relation, Cos Oe=Γc/Γlg. At equilibrium for 'Gamma' flotation to occur, the liquid/gas interfacial tension (9γlg) should be larger than the critical surface tension of wetting of the solid surface, meaning that the equilibrium contact angle (Oe) should be greater than Zero, or cos Oe < 1, a Pre- requisite for the solid/gas bubble attachment. This definition holds for solid surfaces in the absence of any specific adsorption at the solid/liquid and solid/gas inter faces. Contact angle and flotation data are presented to sustain this definition. (author)., 15 refs., 9 figs

  13. Potential health and environmental impacts attributable to the nuclear and coal fuel cycles: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchy, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Estimates of mortality and morbidity are presented based on present-day knowledge of health effects resulting from current component designs and operations of the nuclear and coal fuel cycles, and anticipated emission rates and occupational exposure for the various fuel cycle facilities expected to go into operation during the next decade. The author concluded that, although there are large uncertainties in the estimates of potential health effects, the coal fuel cycle alternative has a greater health impact on man than the uranium fuel fycle. However, the increased risk of health effects for either fuel cycle represents a very small incremental risk to the average individual in the public for the balance of this century. The potential for large impacts exists in both fuel cycles, but the potential impacts associated with a runaway Greenhouse Effect from combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, cannot yet be reasonably quantified. Some of the potential environmental impacts of the coal fuel cycle cannot currently be realistically estimated, but those that can appear greater than those from the nuclear fuel cycle. 103 refs., 1 fig., 18 tabs

  14. Materials, process, product analysis of coal process technology. Phase I final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxton, J. C.; Roig, R. W.; Loridan, A.; Leggett, N. E.; Capell, R. G.; Humpstone, C. C.; Mudry, R. N.; Ayres, E.

    1976-02-01

    The purpose of materials-process-product analysis is a systematic evaluation of alternative manufacturing processes--in this case processes for converting coal into energy and material products that can supplement or replace petroleum-based products. The methodological steps in the analysis include: Definition of functional operations that enter into coal conversion processes, and modeling of alternative, competing methods to accomplish these functions; compilation of all feasible conversion processes that can be assembled from combinations of competing methods for the functional operations; systematic, iterative evaluation of all feasible conversion processes under a variety of economic situations, environmental constraints, and projected technological advances; and aggregative assessments (economic and environmental) of various industrial development scenarios. An integral part of the present project is additional development of the existing computer model to include: A data base for coal-related materials and coal conversion processes; and an algorithmic structure that facilitates the iterative, systematic evaluations in response to exogenously specified variables, such as tax policy, environmental limitations, and changes in process technology and costs. As an analytical tool, the analysis is intended to satisfy the needs of an analyst working at the process selection level, for example, with respect to the allocation of RDandD funds to competing technologies.

  15. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 1, sections 1--5: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. [ed.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles? What determines their composition? Whether or not particles deposit? How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes? remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  16. Ultrasonic characterization of coal liquefaction products. Final report, April 11, 1979-February 11, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffert, C. B.; Weisman, L.; Moore, D.

    1980-02-29

    The Wayne State University ultrasonic device and technique was used successfully to calibrate coal-derived 0 to 45% wt % asphaltene-in-oil mixtures (2 wt % increments) for transmitted signal strength versus temperature (25 to 100/sup 0/C). Computer-aided cross plots of the transmitted signal strength versus concentration of asphaltene showed that a wide range of concentration and temperature exists where the viscosity-dominated (lower temperature) sound absorption is such that a single-valued number for the concentration of the asphaltene can be obtained from measurement of the sample temperature and transmitted signal strength and thus obtain a measure of the quality of the coal-derived product. Sufficient samples were not provided to obtain a complete calibration of added particulate matter of ash and undissolved coal at all asphaltene in oil concentrations; however, calibrations were made of added ash to three concentrations of asphaltene-in-oil and the data showed the greatest effect at the higher temperatures indicating (as planned) that sound attenuation from Rayleigh scattering is predominant with the suspended particles. We conclude from these two sets of measurements that there is a excellent expectation that the Wayne State ultrasonic device and technique could be used to simultaneously measure (on-line) the suspended particle concentration as well as the quality of the coal-derived product.

  17. H-coal fluid dynamics. Final report, August 1, 1977-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-16

    This report presents the results of work aimed at understanding the hydrodynamic behavior of the H-Coal reactor. A summary of the literature search related to the fluid dynamic behavior of gas/liquid/solid systems has been presented. Design details of a cold flow unit were discussed. The process design of this cold flow model followed practices established by HRI in their process development unit. The cold fow unit has been used to conduct experiments with nitrogen, kerosene, or kerosene/coal char slurries, and HDS catalyst, which at room temperature have properties similar to those existing in the H-Coal reactor. Mineral oil, a high-viscosity liquid, was also used. The volume fractions occupied by gas/liquid slurries and catalyst particles were determined by several experimental techniques. The use of a mini-computer for data collection and calculation has greatly accelerated the analysis and reporting of data. Data on nitrogen/kerosene/HDS catalyst and coal char fines are presented in this paper. Correlations identified in the literature search were utilized to analyze the data. From this analysis it became evident that the Richardson-Zaki correlation describes the effect of slurry flow rate on catalyst expansion. Three-phase fluidization data were analyzed with two models.

  18. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite. Final technical report, September 1990--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, D.

    1996-01-01

    This project is concerned with the physiochemical processes occuring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. The use of synthetic particles of pyrite as model electrodes to investigate the semiconductor electrochemistry of pyrite is employed.

  19. Micronized Coal Reburning Demonstration for NOx Control: A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Micronized Coal Reburning (MCR) Demonstration for NO(sub x) Control, as described in a report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1999). The need to meet strict emissions requirements at a minimum cost prompted the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), in conjunction with Fuller Company, Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), and Fluor Daniel, to submit the proposal for this project to be sited at TVA's Shawnee Fossil Plant. In July 1992, TVA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct the study. However, because of operational and environmental compliance strategy changes, the Shawnee site became unavailable

  20. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  1. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1991--April 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    Extensive research continued on catalysts based on novel anion-treated (mainly sulfated) oxides and oxyhydroxides of iron [Fe{sub x}O{sub y}/SO{sub 4}]. In addition, sulfated oxides of tin as well as molybdenum promoted iron oxides were used. Incorporation of small amounts of sulfate, molybdate, or tungstate anions by wet precipitation/impregnation methods was found to increase the surface acidic character of iron oxides; more importantly, it reduced the grain sizes significantly with corresponding increases in specific surface areas. These anion-treated iron and tin oxides were more active for direct coal liquefaction and coal-heavy oil coprocessing than their untreated counterparts. With these catalyst systems, higher conversion levels are obtained as compared to the soluble precursors of iron and molybdenum at the same catalyst metalloading (3500 ppm iron and 50 ppm molybdenum with respect to coal). Sulfated iron oxides and oxyhydroxides were equally active as coal liquefaction catalysts. The sulfate, molybdate, and tungstate anions were found to have similar promotional effects on the properties and activities of iron oxides. One step in the synthesis of anion-treated iron and tin oxides is precipitation as hydroxides using either urea or ammonium hydroxide. The catalysts prepared using urea as a precipitation agent were more reproducible than those using ammonium, hydroxide in terms of activities and properties. These catalysts/catalyst precursors were characterized by several techniques to determine their physical (size and structure related) and chemical (acidity) properties. Sulfated and molybdated iron oxides were found to have grain sizes as small as 10-20 nm. An attempt was made to correlate the physicochemical properties of these catalysts with their activity for coal liquefaction.

  2. Semi-automated petrographic assessment of coal by coal grain analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, G.; Jenkins, B.; Ofori, P.; Ferguson, K. [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, Pullenvale, Qld. (Australia)

    2007-04-15

    A new classification method, coal grain analysis, which uses optical imaging techniques for the microscopic characterisation of the individual grains present in coal samples is discussed. This differs from other coal petrography imaging methods in that a mask is used to remove the pixels of mounting resin to obtain compositional information of the maceral (vitrinite, inertinite and liptinite) and mineral abundances on each individual grain within each image. Experiments were conducted to establish the density of individual constituents in order to enable the density of each grain to be determined and the results reported on a mass basis. The grains were sorted into eight grain classes of liberated (single component) and composite grains. By analysing all streams (feed, concentrate and tailings) of the flotation circuit at a coal washing plant, the flotation response of the individual grain classes was tracked. This has implications for flotation process diagnostics and optimisation.

  3. Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

    1991-10-01

    There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

  4. High resolution seismic survey (of the) Rawlins, Wyoming underground coal gasification area. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngberg, A.D.; Berkman, E.; Orange, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    In October 1982, a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Gulf Research and Development Company's underground coal gasification test site near Rawlins, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to utilize high resolution seismic technology to locate and characterize two underground coal burn zones. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow depths of interest. A three-dimensional grid of data was obtained over the Rawlins burn zones. Processing included time varying filters, trace composition, and two-dimensional areal stacking of the data in order to identify burn zone anomalies. An anomaly was discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse cavity associated with the burn zone which was studied in detail at the Rawlins 1 and 2 test sites. 21 refs., 20 figs.

  5. Recovering uranium from coal in-situ. Final report, February 1980-July 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    In Situ Technology, Inc., ''InTech,'' has designed a new process for recovery of uranium from coal in situ. Prime objectives of the program reported herein are to reduce two uncertainties related to eventual commercialization of the process. The first uncertainty concerns appropriate field sites and their potential. The work involved laboratory tests and analysis of field samples, burning the samples to ash and leaching uranium from residual ash at laboratory scale, and burning the samples to ash and leaching uranium from residual ash at pilot plant scale. Laboratory and pilot plant tests were designed to simulate significant elements of the underground process. Field samples from New Mexico averaged 0.061% U 3 O 8 and from North Dakota 0.058% of U 3 O 8 in the coal, both on a dry basis. Phase I laboratory tests on New Mexico field samples were successfully conducted with no difficulties in reducing uraniferous coal to ash. Leaching tests resulted in uranium recoveries to 77.9% with acid leach and to 56% with alkaline leach. Phase II laboratory and pilot plant scale tests were successfully conducted on North Dakota field samples, but required supplemental fuel and/or enrichment for reducing uraniferous coal to ash. Acid leaching of residual ash resulted in uranium recoveries to 83.8%. Acid consumption was 71.0 pounds per ton during pilot plant scale leaching tests. The overall analysis and test program is considered to be highly successful and resulted in significant reduction of the uncertainties for eventual commercialization of the process. 3 refs

  6. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char-for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests

  7. Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Phase I, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of a program for the development of a coal-fired residential combustion system. This phase consisted of the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of an advanced pulse combustor sized for residential space heating requirements. The objective was to develop an advanced pulse coal combustor at the {approximately} 100,000 Btu/hr scale that can be integrated into a packaged space heating system for small residential applications. The strategy for the development effort included the scale down of the feasibility unit from 1-2 MMBtu/hr to 100,000 Btu/hr to establish a baseline for isolating the effect of scale-down and new chamber configurations separately. Initial focus at the residential scale was concentrated on methods of fuel injection and atomization in a bare metal unit. This was followed by incorporating changes to the advanced chamber designs and testing of refractory-lined units. Multi-fuel capability for firing oil or gas as a secondary fuel was also established. Upon completion of the configuration and component testing, an optimum configuration would be selected for integrated testing of the pulse combustor unit. The strategy also defined the use of Dry Ultrafine Coal (DUC) for Phases 1 and 2 of the development program with CWM firing to be a product improvement activity for a later phase of the program.

  8. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  9. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Final report, September 1992--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-11-01

    The focus of much current work being performed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the Department of Energy on hot coal-derived fuel gas desulfurization is in the use of zinc-based sorbents. METC has shown interest in formulating and testing manganese-based pellets as alternative effective sulfur sorbents in the 700 to 1200{degree}C temperature range. To substantiate the potential superiority of Mn-based pellets, a systematic approach toward the evaluation of the desulfurizing power of single-metal sorbents is developed based on thermodynamic considerations. This novel procedure considered several metal-based sorbents and singled out manganese oxide as a prime candidate sorbent capable of being utilized under a wide temperature range, irrespective of the reducing power (determined by CO{sub 2}/CO ratio) of the fuel gas. Then, the thermodynamic feasibility of using Mn-based pellets for the removal of H{sub 2}S from hot-coal derived fuel gases, and the subsequent oxidative regeneration of loaded (sulfided) pellets was established. It was concluded that MnO is the stable form of manganese for virtually all commercially available coal-derived fuel gases. In addition, the objective of reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration below 150 ppMv to satisfy the integrated gasification combined cycle system requirement was shown to be thermodynamically feasible. A novel process is developed for the manufacture of Mn-based spherical pellets which have the desired physical and chemical characteristics required.

  10. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R ampersand D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications, (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at

  11. Proceedings of the international symposium on coal - science, technology, industry, business, environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, K.S.; Sen, S. [eds.

    1996-12-31

    Papers were presented which covered the areas of coal science, advanced coal preparation, coal utilization, coal chemicals and the environment. These included carbon aromaticity, mineral studies, utilization of low rank coals, bioconversion of methane, swelling of coals, photocatalytic activity, flotation and effects of oxidation, microbial desulfurization, deashing, briquetting, commercial scale conversion of coal to fuels and chemicals, role of coal in iron and steel making, coal-water mixtures, dyes and chemical products, nitrogen oxides emissions and pollution control. 45 papers have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  12. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 3, Appendices: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. [ed.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Kang, Shim-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the computer codes developed for the coal combustion project. In Subsection B.1 the FORTRAN code developed for the percolative fragmentation model (or the discrete model, since a char is expressed as a collection of discrete elements in a discrete space) is presented. In Subsection B.2 the code for the continuum model (thus named because mineral inclusions are distributed in a continuum space) is presented. A stereological model code developed to obtain the pore size distribution from a two-dimensional data is presented in Subsection B.3.

  13. Study of effect of slime processed by ultrasonic on flotation reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, W.; Wang, H.; Hu, J. [Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, Harbin (China)

    2006-12-15

    The changes of wetting heat, oil film thickness, contact angle and absorptive capacity of slime and kerosene before and after ultrasonic treatment were studied by Setaram calorimeter, DCAT21 gauge and a light meter. Batch flotation tests were made. The results show that: the wetting heat from slime and kerosene increases after ultrasonic treatment by 45.85%; the average oil film thickness is reduced by 38.84%; the contact angle of slime and kerosene decreases by 33.56{sup o}; and the absorptive capacity of slime in kerosene decreases by 30.40%. The consumption of flotation reagent after ultrasonic treatment was reduced by 75% while the yield of clean coal was the same. The study shows that ultrasonic treatment decreases the consumption of reagent and increases the efficiency and selectivity of flotation. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Environmental impact of coal ash on tributary streams and nearshore water or Lake Erie. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, K.G.

    1978-08-01

    The environmental impact of coal ash disposal at a landfill site in north-central Chautauqua County, New York was studied from June 1975 through July 1977. Water samples taken from wells, ponds, and streams at 67 sites were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, arsenic, calcium, cadmium, chloride, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, selenium, sodium, sulfate and zinc. Evidence suggests that ponds at the landfill were high in Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, and SO/sub 4/ compared to control pands. A stream adjacent to the site contained greater Mn (207 ug/1) and SO/sub 4/ (229 ppm) than control streams. Shallow alkaline test wells in the landfill had elevated As, Ca, and Se. Acid-neutral test wells had elevated As, Ca, Cr, Mg and Mn. Household wells in the vicinity of the landfill showed no evident contamination from the landfill. Average iron concentrations in the biota were tripled, and manganese concentrations doubled in biota affected by the coal ash dump. However, any effects of the disposal area on the distribution of the biota could not be separated from effects of varying environment factors such as water movements, substrate composition and food availability. No harmful effects could be demonstrated on the biota in the creek which flowed past the disposal area.

  15. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  16. Novel technique for coal pyrolysis and hydrogenation product analysis. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, L.D.; Boyle, J.

    1993-03-15

    A microjet reactor coupled to a VUV photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been used to obtain species measurements during high temperature pyrolysis and oxidation of a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds ranging from allene and acetylene to cyclohexane, benzene and toluene. Initial work focused on calibration of the technique, optimization of ion collection and detection and characterization of limitations. Using the optimized technique with 118 nm photoionization, intermediate species profiles were obtained for analysis of the hydrocarbon pyrolysis and oxidation mechanisms. The ``soft`` ionization, yielding predominantly molecular ions, allowed the study of reaction pathways in these high temperature systems where both sampling and detection challenges are severe. Work has focused on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures representative of coal pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis products. The detailed mass spectra obtained during pyrolysis and oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures is especially important because of the complex nature of the product mixture even at short residence times and low primary reactant conversions. The combustion community has advanced detailed modeling of pyrolysis and oxidation to the C4 hydrocarbon level but in general above that size uncertainties in rate constant and thermodynamic data do not allow us to a priori predict products from mixed hydrocarbon pyrolyses using a detailed chemistry model. For pyrolysis of mixtures of coal-derived liquid fractions with a large range of compound structures and molecular weights in the hundreds of amu the modeling challenge is severe. Lumped models are possible from stable product data.

  17. Combustion of pulverized coal in vortex structures. Final report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gollahalli, S.R.; Butuk, N.

    1996-03-01

    The objectives of the project were: (i) to understand the effects of heating one of the streams on the characteristics of shear layers, (ii) to investigate the changes in the characteristics of large scale vortex structures in the shear layer caused by the introduction of inert solid particles in one of the feed streams; (iii) to understand the effects of pyrolyzing solids on the shear layer behavior; and (iv) to study the effects of combustion of particles and their pyrolysis products on the shear layer structure, heat release rate, and pollutant emission characteristics. An experimental facility for generating two-dimensional shear layers containing vortex structures has been designed and fabricated. The experimental facility is essentially a low speed wind tunnel designed to (i) provide two gas streams, initially with uniform velocity profiles and isotropic turbulence, mixing at the end of a splitter plate, (ii) introduce vorticity by passively perturbing one of the streams, (iii) allow heating of one of the streams to temperatures high enough to cause pyrolysis of coal particles, and (iv) provide a natural gas flame in one of the streams to result in ignition and burning of coal particles.

  18. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO(sub x) in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO(sub x) emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames-particularly under low NO(sub x) conditions. A CO/H(sub 2)/O(sub 2)/N(sub 2) flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state(sup 13)C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  19. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction infratechnology and generic technology development: Final report, October 1, 1985 to December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1987-06-29

    During the first year of its research program, the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science has made significant progress in many areas of coal liquefaction and coal structure research. Research topics for which substantial progress has been made include integrated coal structure and liquefaction studies, investigation of differential liquefaction processes, development and application of sophisticated techniques for structural analysis, computer analysis of multivariate data, biodesulfurization of coal, catalysis studies, co-processing of coal and crude oil, coal dissolution and extraction processes, coal depolymerization, determination of the liquefaction characteristics of many US coals for use in a liquefaction database, and completion of a retrospective technology assessment for direct coal liquefaction. These and related topics are discussed in considerably more detail in the remainder of this report. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base.

  20. Effect of some column flotation parameters on the fine concentration of phosphate from Itataia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Junior, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The present investigation aims, at a higher detail level, to identify, from systematic studies, the most important variables of the column flotation and also to check continuous flotation circuits ntegrating columns and mechanical cells to process the -10μm + 3μm fraction from the Itataia ore. The results obtained with the use of only one column as the rougher stage of direct flotation demonstrated a good selectivity, leading to P 2 O 5 and R 2 O 3 (Fe 2 O 3 + Al 2 O 3 ) grade of 24.2 % and 2.79 %, respectively, with p 2 O 5 recovery of 68.5 %. The results of this investigation indicate that the combination of the column concentrate with that of the conventional flotation circuit increases the overall recovery of P 2 O 5 an U 3 O 5 in 5%, in the physical concentration, without impairing the utilization of the final concentrate. (author) [pt

  1. Solids throttling valves for coal conversion and utilization development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sine, G.C.

    1980-11-01

    A complete test system to test, evaluate, and develop control valves for slurry letdown service in coal liquefaction plants is needed. The site identified for the test system was the SRC II Pilot Plant located at Ft. Lewis, Washington. The US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, requested a test system design that would enable testing of various configuration letdown valves that would be compatible with the existing facility and have minimum impact on Pilot Plant operations. Drawings and specifications for such a test system were prepared, coordinated with Ft. Lewis personnel, revised to reflect Ft. Lewis operating personnel comments, and approved for use by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. These drawings and specifications will enable the test system to be built, installed, and integrated with the existing facility by a general contractor.

  2. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  3. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  4. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  5. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    Volume II of this report on an assessment of research needs for coal liquefaction contains reviews of the five liquefaction technologies---direct, indirect, pyrolysis, coprocessing, and bioconversion. These reviews are not meant to be encyclopedic; several outstanding reviews of liquefaction have appeared in recent years and the reader is referred to these whenever applicable. Instead, these chapters contain reviews of selected topics that serve to support the panel's recommendations or to illustrate recent accomplishments, work in progress, or areas of major research interest. At the beginning of each of these chapters is a brief introduction and a summary of the most important research recommendations brought out during the panel discussions and supported by the material presented in the review. A review of liquefaction developments outside the US is included. 594 refs., 100 figs., 60 tabs.

  6. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  7. COAL CONVERSION WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY CATALYTIC OXIDATION IN SUPERCRITICAL WATER; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillip E. Savage

    1999-01-01

    Wastewaters from coal-conversion processes contain phenolic compounds in appreciable concentrations. These compounds need to be removed so that the water can be discharged or re-used. Catalytic oxidation in supercritical water is one potential means of treating coal-conversion wastewaters, and this project examined the reactions of phenol over different heterogeneous oxidation catalysts in supercritical water. More specifically, we examined the oxidation of phenol over a commercial catalyst and over bulk MnO(sub 2), bulk TiO(sub 2), and CuO supported on Al(sub 2) O(sub 3). We used phenol as the model pollutant because it is ubiquitous in coal-conversion wastewaters and there is a large database for non-catalytic supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) with which we can contrast results from catalytic SCWO. The overall objective of this research project is to obtain the reaction engineering information required to evaluate the utility of catalytic supercritical water oxidation for treating wastes arising from coal conversion processes. All four materials were active for catalytic supercritical water oxidation. Indeed, all four materials produced phenol conversions and CO(sub 2) yields in excess of those obtained from purely homogeneous, uncatalyzed oxidation reactions. The commercial catalyst was so active that we could not reliably measure reaction rates that were not limited by pore diffusion. Therefore, we performed experiments with bulk transition metal oxides. The bulk MnO(sub 2) and TiO(sub 2) catalysts enhance both the phenol disappearance and CO(sub 2) formation rates during SCWO. MnO(sub 2) does not affect the selectivity to CO(sub 2), or to the phenol dimers at a given phenol conversion. However, the selectivities to CO(sub 2) are increased and the selectivities to phenol dimers are decreased in the presence of TiO(sub 2) , which are desirable trends for a catalytic SCWO process. The role of the catalyst appears to be accelerating the rate of formation of

  8. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  9. The Influence of Roasting Temperature on the Flotation Properties of Muscovite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayan Tang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Roasting and flotation are common techniques used in mineral processing, and they have increasingly been combined for the pre-concentration of muscovite from stone coal. The research was mainly to study flotation properties of muscovite after roasting at 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 °C, respectively. The changes of chemical and physical properties of muscovite during the roasting process were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Zeta potential measurements, particle size analysis, and the BET surface area measurements. The results indicated that the dehydroxylation of crystal structure took place at temperatures over 600 °C. A large number of hydroxyl groups were removed from the crystal structure of muscovite at 600–1000 °C. The layer structure, surface element distribution, and electrical properties of muscovite remained after roasting. The flotation recovery of roasted muscovite samples increased with the increase in roasting temperature in the same flotation system, because the specific surface and the adsorption capacity of dodecylamine (DDA were reduced when roasting temperature was over 600 °C. A suitable roasting temperature and dosage of reagents can be provided for the roasting-flotation of muscovite.

  10. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  11. Beneficiation of a Sedimentary Phosphate Ore by a Combination of Spiral Gravity and Direct-Reverse Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In China, direct-reverse flotation is proved to be applicable to most phosphate ores. However, because the ratio of froth product is generally high, current direct-reverse technology faces challenges in terms of high reagent consumptions and cost. A new gravity and flotation combined process has been developed for the recovery of collophanite from sedimentary phosphate ore from the beneficiation plant of Hubei, China. In this process, 53% of the collophanite was firstly recovered by gravity separation, reducing the mass flow to direct flotation. The gravity tailing was the feed for the direct flotation. The flotation concentrate, mixed with gravity concentrate, was then subjected to reverse flotation. A final concentrate with a grade of 30.41% P2O5 at a recovery of 91.5% was produced from the feed analyzing 21.55% P2O5. Compared to the conventional direct-reverse flotation 86.1% recovery at 31.69% P2O5, it was found that pre-recovery of collophanite by spiral separation could significantly reduce the flotation reagent consumption and lead to improved overall collophanite recovery. The benefits of the new process in terms of cost savings were also discussed.

  12. Flotation as a remediation technique for heavily polluted dredged material. 2. Characterisation of flotated fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauwenberg, P; Verdonckt, F; Maes, A

    1998-01-19

    The particle size distribution and the metal speciation of the heavy metals were investigated on dredged sediment and on the fractions obtained by mechanical agitated (Denver) flotation. The transition metal ions (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) were flotated specifically independent of the particle size. Particle size analysis, EDTA extraction and sequential extracts indicated that during flotation a redistribution of metals occurred due to the oxidation of metal sulphides. This oxidation process was more pronounced when the flotation was performed at higher pH values and resulted in a decrease in flotation specificity.

  13. Effects of long-term coal supply contracts on technology adoption and improvements in the mining of coal. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.R.; Hawkins, S.A.; Webb, P.F.; Kauffman, P.W.

    1979-08-01

    The relationship between long-term coal supply contracts and the adoption of new technology in the coal mining industry is a complex one. From this study certain conclusions can be drawn. New technologies and improvements in the mining of coal can be logically categorized into three areas: evolutionary technology, transitional technology, or innovative technology. Evolutionary improvements in technology can be categorized as improvements, or increased production capacities, in existing equipment. Transitional technology involves the adoption of existing or proven technologies into new conditions, or, proceeding from one technology type to a newer type for the same function. Innovative technology includes equipment, concepts, and systems not readily available, or untried, in the existing mining environment (seam conditions, etc.). Technology adoption is an economic decision. This point was repeatedly emphasized by industry representatives contacted during the study. The long-term coal supply contract influences the decision to adopt new technology and mining improvements in several ways depending on the technology type (i.e., evolutionary, transitional, or innovative), and also the coal supplier type (i.e., captive or independent producer). Several examples of the adoption of new technologies in mines under long-term coal supply contracts are discussed. (LTN)

  14. Improving the stability of coal slurries: Final report. [Polygalacturonic acid and gum tragacanth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.

    1988-12-01

    Polysaccharides were found to stabilize colloidal dispersions (such as coal particles and polystyrene latex particles) even at high ionic strengths. The stability studies with various kinds of polysaccharides showed that rod-like molecules (such as poly (galacturonic acid) and gum tragacanth) are much more effective stabilizers than highly-branched molecules such as arabinogalactan. This effective stabilization with the rod-like molecules was found to result from the adsorption of polysaccharides on the particles, i.e., the steric stabilization mechanism. The stability depends significantly on the solution pH, the molecular weight and the surface charge of particles. Adsorption isotherms, the zeta potential and the conformation of adsorbed molecules (the steric layer thicknesses) were measured as a function of the solution pH, the molecular weight and the surface charge. Photon correlation spectroscopy studies showed that the conformation of adsorbed molecules is strongly dependent on the solution pH, the molecular weight and the surface charge, suggesting that the dependence of stability on these parameters is due to the change of the conformation of the molecules adsorbed on the surface. In addition, the solution pH has a significant effect on the flocculation behavior of particles and can be modulated to bring about peptization of particles. This type of stabilization is referred to as electrosteric stabilization whereby steric stabilization is induced by changing the electrical properties of the system (the solution pH in this case). 41 refs., 43 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Safety-technical characteristics of biomass, coal and straw. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A.

    1995-12-31

    Safety-technical factors related to spontaneous ignition and dust explosions of biomasses were investigated. Parametres of dust explosions and effect of inertisation on the maximum pressure (pmax) and the maximum rate of pressure rise (Kstmax) were studied at elevated initial pressure (1-9 bar). The level of inertisation required to prevent dust explosions totally was determined at different initial pressures. The sensitivity of fuels to spontaneous ignition and the effect of pressure on the sensitivity to and temperature of spontaneous ignition were studied on a pressurised dynamic self-ignition equipment. The effect of inertisation on the self-ignition temperature and alternatives of preventing spontaneous ignition by effective inertisation in the pressure ranges of 1 and 25 bar were investigated. As an example of application, results obtained with the laboratory test equipment were extrapolated to bin sizes used in practice. As a factor contributing to spontaneous ignition, the flowability of different fuels in bins and lock-hoppers (stagnant fuel layers are especially sensitive to spontaneous ignition) in continuous flow and in flow stopped for a storage time of 1 hour was also studied. Walker`s rotating ring shear equipment and Jenike`s linear shear equipment based on shearing the fuel were used in the flowability measurements. The effect of fuel temperature (22 deg C, 40 deg C) on flowability was determined for forest residue chips. Dynamic friction coefficients between fuels and handling equipment were determined for stainless steel and rusty metal surface. As an example of application, results obtained with laboratory test equipment were extrapolated to a bin size of 21 m{sup 3} by calculating the size of the minimum discharge opening required by mass flow of different coals and forest residue chips and the minimum angle of repose of the conical part for a bin of stainless steel

  16. Novel catalysts for upgrading coal-derived liquids. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.T.; Savage, P.E.; Briggs, D.E.

    1995-03-31

    Research described in this report was aimed at synthesizing and evaluating supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen from model and authentic coal-derived liquids. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported oxynitrides and oxycarbides were synthesized via the temperature programmed reaction of supported molybdenum oxides or hydrogen bronzes with NH{sub 3} or an equimolar mixture of CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}. Phase constituents and composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, CHN analysis, and neutron activation analysis. Oxygen chemisorption was used to probe the surface structure of the catalysts. The reaction rate data was collected using specially designed micro-batch reactors. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides were competitively active for quinoline hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), benzothiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). In fact, the HDN and HDO specific reaction rates for several of the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were higher than those of a commercial Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hydrotreatment catalyst. Furthermore, the product distributions indicated that the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were more hydrogen efficient than the sulfide catalysts. For HDN and HDS the catalytic activity was a strong inverse function of the Mo loading. In contrast, the benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) activities did not appear to be affected by the Mo loading but were affected by the heating rate employed during nitridation or carburization. This observation suggested that HDN and HDS occurred on the same active sites while HDO was catalyzed by a different type of site.

  17. Safety-technical characteristics of biomass, coal and straw. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C; Rautalin, A

    1996-12-31

    Safety-technical factors related to spontaneous ignition and dust explosions of biomasses were investigated. Parametres of dust explosions and effect of inertisation on the maximum pressure (pmax) and the maximum rate of pressure rise (Kstmax) were studied at elevated initial pressure (1-9 bar). The level of inertisation required to prevent dust explosions totally was determined at different initial pressures. The sensitivity of fuels to spontaneous ignition and the effect of pressure on the sensitivity to and temperature of spontaneous ignition were studied on a pressurised dynamic self-ignition equipment. The effect of inertisation on the self-ignition temperature and alternatives of preventing spontaneous ignition by effective inertisation in the pressure ranges of 1 and 25 bar were investigated. As an example of application, results obtained with the laboratory test equipment were extrapolated to bin sizes used in practice. As a factor contributing to spontaneous ignition, the flowability of different fuels in bins and lock-hoppers (stagnant fuel layers are especially sensitive to spontaneous ignition) in continuous flow and in flow stopped for a storage time of 1 hour was also studied. Walker`s rotating ring shear equipment and Jenike`s linear shear equipment based on shearing the fuel were used in the flowability measurements. The effect of fuel temperature (22 deg C, 40 deg C) on flowability was determined for forest residue chips. Dynamic friction coefficients between fuels and handling equipment were determined for stainless steel and rusty metal surface. As an example of application, results obtained with laboratory test equipment were extrapolated to a bin size of 21 m{sup 3} by calculating the size of the minimum discharge opening required by mass flow of different coals and forest residue chips and the minimum angle of repose of the conical part for a bin of stainless steel

  18. Geochemistry of Toxic Elements and Their Removal via the Preparation of High-Uranium Coal in Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piaopiao Duan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High-uranium (U coal is the dominant form of coal in Southwestern China. However, directly utilizing this resource can also harm the environment because this element is radioactive; it is, therefore, necessary to clean this kind of coal before burning. This research studied the geochemistry of toxic elements and their partitioning during the preparation of high-U coal in China. The results show that high-U coals are mainly distributed in Southwestern China and are characterized by a high organic sulfur (S content and vanadium (V-chromium (Cr-molybdenum (Mo-U element assemblage. These elements are well-correlated with one another, but are all negatively related to ash yield, indicating that all four are syngenetic in origin and associated with organic materials. A mineralogical analysis shows that U in Ganhe and Rongyang coal occurs within fine-grained anatase, clay minerals, guadarramite, and pyrite, while V occurs in clay minerals, pyrite, and dolomite, and Cr occurs in dolomite. Other elements, such as fluorine (F, lead (Pb, selenium (Se, and mercury (Hg, mainly occur in pyrite. By applying a gravity separation method to separate minerals from coal, the content of the enrichment element assemblage of V-Cr-Mo-U in Rongyang coal is still shown to be higher than, or close to, that of the original feed because this element assemblage is derived from hydrothermal fluids during syngenetic or early diagenetic phases, but other elements (beryllium [Be], F, manganese [Mn], zinc [Zn], Pb, arsenic [As], Se, Hg can be efficiently removed. Once cleaned, the coal obtained by gravity separation was subject to a flotation test to separate minerals; these results indicate that while a portion of V and Cr can be removed, Mo and U remain difficult to extract. It is evident that the two most commonly utilized industrialized coal preparation methods, gravity separation and flotation, cannot effectively remove U from coal where this element occurs in large

  19. Gasification in pulverized coal flames. Final report (Part I). Pulverized coal combustion and gasification in a cyclone reactor: experiment and model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhart, J. S.; Laurendeau, N. M.

    1979-05-01

    A unified experimental and analytical study of pulverized coal combustion and low-BTU gasification in an atmospheric cyclone reactor was performed. Experimental results include several series of coal combustion tests and a coal gasification test carried out via fuel-rich combustion without steam addition. Reactor stability was excellent over a range of equivalence ratios from .67 to 2.4 and air flowrates from 60 to 220 lb/hr. Typical carbon efficiencies were 95% for air-rich and stoichiometric tests and 80% for gasification tests. The best gasification results were achieved at an equivalence ratio of 2.0, where the carbon, cold gas and hot gas efficiencies were 83, 45 and 75%, respectively. The corresponding product gas heating value was 70 BTU/scf. A macroscopic model of coal combustion in the cyclone has been developed. Fuel-rich gasification can also be modeled through a gas-phase equilibrium treatment. Fluid mechanics are modeled by a particle force balance and a series combination of a perfectly stirred reactor and a plug flow reactor. Kinetic treatments of coal pyrolysis, char oxidation and carbon monoxide oxidation are included. Gas composition and temperature are checked against equilibrium values. The model predicts carbon efficiency, gas composition and temperature and reactor heat loss; gasification parameters, such as cold and hot gas efficiency and make gas heating value, are calculated for fuel-rich conditions. Good agreement exists between experiment and theory for conditions of this investigation.

  20. Superacid Catalyzed Depolymerization and Conversion of Coals. Final Technical Report. [HF:BF{sub 2}/H{sub 2}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, G.

    1980-01-01

    We were interested in applying superacid catalyzed cleavage-depolymerization and ionic hydrogenation low temperature conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbon, as well as obtaining information about the reactions involved and the structure of intermediates of the coal liquefaction process. In order to show the feasibility of our proposed research we have carried out preliminary investigation in these areas. Preceding our work there was no practical application of a superacid system to coal liquefaction. We carried out an extensive study of the potential of the HF:BF{sub 3}/H{sub 2} system for coal hydroliquefaction. Under varying conditions of reactant ratio, reaction time and temperature, we were able to obtain over 95% pyridine extractible product by treating coal in HF:BF{sub 3}:H{sub 2} system at approx. 100 degrees C for 4 hours. The coal to acid ratio was 1:5 and FB{sub 3} at 900 psi and H{sub 2} at 500 psi were used. These are extremely encouraging results in that the conditions used are drastically milder than those used in any known process, such as Exxon donor solvent and related processes. The cyclohexane extractibility of the treated coal was as high as 27% and the yield of liquid distillate at 400 degrees C/5 x 10{sup -3}/sup torr/ was approx. 30%. The infrared spectrum of product coal, extracts and distillates were distinctly different from the starting coal and show a significant increase in the amount of saturates. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of cyclohexane extract of the treated coal shows essentially all aliphatic photons. The spectra of other treated coal extracts show increased amounts and types of aliphatic protons as well as significant amounts of protons bound to unsaturated sites. This again indicates that the HF-BF{sub 3} system is depolymerizing the coal to small fragments which are soluble in non-polar solvents.

  1. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities: Phase 1 final report. Volume 1: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Pisupati, S.V. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1997-01-31

    The first phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities has been completed. The objectives of the project are to: decrease DOD`s dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase 1 activities were focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. The specific objective in Phase 1 was to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or DMC. This was achieved through a project consisting of fundamental, pilot-sale, and demonstration-scale activities investigating coal beneficiation and preparation, and MCWM and DMC combustion performance. In addition, detailed engineering designs and an economic analysis were conducted for a boiler located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, near Crane, Indiana. Results are reported on MCWM and DMC combustion performance evaluation; engineering design; and cost/economic analysis.

  2. Dynamic Modeling and Real-Time Monitoring of Froth Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushaal Popli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic fundamental model was developed linking processes from the microscopic scale to the equipment scale for batch froth flotation. State estimation, fault detection, and disturbance identification were implemented using the extended Kalman filter (EKF, which reconciles real-time measurements with dynamic models. The online measurements for the EKF were obtained through image analysis of froth images that were captured and analyzed using the commercial package VisioFroth (Metsor Minerals. The extracted image features were then correlated to recovery using principal component analysis and partial least squares regression. The performance of real-time state estimation and fault detection was validated using batch flotation of pure galena at various operating conditions. The image features that were strongly representative of recovery were identified, and calibration and validation were performed against off-line measurements of recovery. The EKF successfully captured the dynamics of the process by updating the model states and parameters using the online measurements. Finally, disturbances in the air flow rate and impeller speed were introduced into the system, and the dynamic behavior of the flotation process was successfully tracked and the disturbances were identified using state estimation.

  3. Model Predictive Control of Mineral Column Flotation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Tian

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Column flotation is an efficient method commonly used in the mineral industry to separate useful minerals from ores of low grade and complex mineral composition. Its main purpose is to achieve maximum recovery while ensuring desired product grade. This work addresses a model predictive control design for a mineral column flotation process modeled by a set of nonlinear coupled heterodirectional hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs and ordinary differential equations (ODEs, which accounts for the interconnection of well-stirred regions represented by continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs and transport systems given by heterodirectional hyperbolic PDEs, with these two regions combined through the PDEs’ boundaries. The model predictive control considers both optimality of the process operations and naturally present input and state/output constraints. For the discrete controller design, spatially varying steady-state profiles are obtained by linearizing the coupled ODE–PDE model, and then the discrete system is obtained by using the Cayley–Tustin time discretization transformation without any spatial discretization and/or without model reduction. The model predictive controller is designed by solving an optimization problem with input and state/output constraints as well as input disturbance to minimize the objective function, which leads to an online-solvable finite constrained quadratic regulator problem. Finally, the controller performance to keep the output at the steady state within the constraint range is demonstrated by simulation studies, and it is concluded that the optimal control scheme presented in this work makes this flotation process more efficient.

  4. Effects of calcium magnesium acetate on the combustion of coal-water slurries. Final project report, 1 September 1989--28 February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Wise, D.; Metghalchi, H.; Cumper, J.; Atal, A.; Estrada, K.R.; Murphy, B.; Steciak, J.; Hottel, H.C.; Simons, G.

    1993-07-01

    To conduct studies on the combustion of coal water fuels (CWFs) an appropriate facility was designed and constructed. The main components were (1) a high-temperature isothermal laminar flow furnace that facilitates observation of combustion events in its interior. The design of this system and its characterization are described in Chapter 1. (2) Apparatus for slurry droplet/agglomerate particle generation and introduction in the furnace. These devices are described in Chapters 1 and 3 and other attached publications. (3) An electronic optical pyrometer whose design, construction theory of operation, calibration and performance are presented in Chapter 2. (4) A multitude of other accessories, such as particle fluidization devices, a suction thermometer, a velocimeter, high speed photographic equipment, calibration devices for the pyrometer, etc., are described throughout this report. Results on the combustion of CWF droplets and CWF agglomerates made from micronized coal are described in Chapter 3. In the same chapter the combustion of CWF containing dissolved calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) axe described. The combustion behavior of pre-dried CWF agglomerates of pulverized grain coal is contrasted to that of agglomerates of micronized coal in Chapter 4. In the same chapter the combustion of agglomerates of carbon black and diesel soot is discussed as well. The effect of CMA on the combustion of the above materials is also discussed. Finally, the sulfur capture capability of CMA impregnated micronized and pulverized bituminous coals is examined in Chapter 5.

  5. Recovery of primary cassiterite by flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.F. de; Penna, M.T.M.; Adamian, R.

    1985-01-01

    The flotation of cassiterite ores using samples of primary ore from Pela Ema, Brazil is studied. The cassiterite was characterized by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The samples were submitted to size reduction up ro minus loo m in order to obtain liberation of cassiterite in excess of 95%. The flotation tests were carried out without desliming. Several collectors and depressants were investigated, as well as the influence of the concentration of these reactants and the pH factor upon flotation of cassiterite. The results were analysed considering the flotability of the minerals, and the electrophoretic mobility of cassiterite, both in the presence and absence of selected collectors. (Author) [pt

  6. Underground coal gasification: Development of theory, laboratory experimentation, interpretation, and correlation with the Hanna field tests: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, R.D.; Krantz, W.B.

    1987-03-01

    The following report is a description of a 7 year effort to develop a theoretical understanding of the underground coal gasification process. The approach used is one of the mathematical model development from known chemical and principles, simplification of the models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models with laboratory experiments and field test data. Chapter I contains only introductory material. Chapter II describes the development of two models for reverse combustion: a combustion model and a linearized model for combustion front instability. Both models are required for realistic field predictions. Chapter III contains a discussion of a successful forward gasification model. Chapter IV discusses the spalling-enhanced-drying model is applicable to prediction of cavity growth and subsidence. Chapter VI decribes the correct use of energy and material balances for the analysis of UCG field test data. Chapter VII shows how laboratory experiments were used to validate the models for reverse combustion and forward gasification. It is also shown that laboratory combustion tube experiments can be used to simulate gas compositions expected from field tests. Finally, Chapter VII presents results from a comprehensive economic analysis of UCG involving 1296 separate cases. 37 refs., 49 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Exploration of coal-based pitch precursors for ultra-high thermal conductivity graphite fibers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, G.V. [Amoco Performance Products, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-27

    Goal was to explore the utility of coal-based pitch precursors for use in ultra high thermal conductivity carbon (graphite) fibers. From graphite electrode experience, it was established that coal-based pitches tend to form more highly crystalline graphite at lower temperatures. Since the funding was limited to year 1 effort of the 3 year program, the goal was only partially achieved. The coal-base pitches can form large domain mesophase in spite of high N and O contents. The mesophase reactivity test performed on one of the variants of coal-based pitch (DO84) showed that it was not a good candidate for carbon fiber processing. Optimization of WVU`s isotropic pitch process is required to tailor the pitch for carbon fiber processing. The hetero atoms in the coal pitch need to be reduced to improve mesophase formation.

  8. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  9. Dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products containing coal tar and menthol for over-the-counter human use; amendment to the monograph. Final rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule amending the final monograph (FM) for over-the-counter (OTC) dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products to include the combination of 1.8 percent coal tar solution and 1.5 percent menthol in a shampoo drug product to control dandruff. FDA did not receive any comments or data in response to its previously proposed rule to include this combination. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products.

  10. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  11. Performance of a diesel engine operating on raw coal-diesel fuel and solvent refined coal-diesel fuel slurries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, H.P.

    1980-03-01

    Performance tests using an 11 kW single cylinder diesel engine were made to determine the effects of three different micronized coal-fuel oil slurries being considered as alternative fuels. Slurries containing 20, 32, and 40%-wt micronized raw coal in No. 2 fuel oil were used. Results are presented indicating the changes in the concentrations of SO/sub X/ and NO/sub X/ in the exhaust, exhaust opacity, power and efficiency, and in wear rates relative to operation on fuel oil No. 2. The engine was operated for 10 h at full load and 1400 rpm on al fuels except the 40%-wt slurry. This test was discontinued because of extremely poor performance.

  12. Australian black coal statistics 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This third edition of Australian black coal statistics covers anthracite, bituminous and subbituminous coals. It includes maps and figures on resources and coal fields and statistics (mainly based on the calendar year 1991) on coal demand and supply, production, employment and productivity in Australian coal mines, exports, prices and ports, and domestic consumption. A listing of coal producers by state is included. A final section presents key statistics on international world trade in 1991. 54 tabs.

  13. Recovery of molybdenum in froth flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlman, R.M.; Bresson, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Beta-mercaptoethanol has been found to be an effective suppressant for such minerals as copper, iron and lead in a molybdenum sulfide ore froth flotation operation. The recovery process and a suppressant utilizing said compound are claimed

  14. Utilisation potential of products of microbial coal liquefaction. Final report; Verwertungspotential der Produkte der mikrobiellen Kohleverfluessigung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepsel, R.; Schmiers, H.; Grosse, S.; Weber, A.

    2002-07-01

    Ever since the discovery in the 1980s that microorganisms are capable of converting coal into soluble products research groups all over the world have been exploring the bioconversion of coal. It was at an advance stage of the present integrated project, which initially only involved microbiology research groups, that the need for a chemical working group with knowledge and experience in the area of coal chemistry and structural analysis of coal was recognised. The task of the chemical working group was to provide knowledge on the chemical nature of bioconversion products and the chemical processes of coal bioconversion. This involved identifying structural changes occurring in the feed coal as well as in its constituent humic acids and macromolecular matrix as a result of the activity of coal degrading microorganisms. [German] Nachdem Anfang der achtziger Jahre entdeckt wurde, dass sich Kohlen durch Mikroorganismen in loesliche Produkte ueberfuehren lassen, agieren weltweit Forschergruppen auf dem Gebiet der Biokonversion von Kohle. In einem fortgeschrittenen Bearbeitungsstadium des Verbundprojektes, an dem zunaechst nur mikrobiologische Arbeitsgruppen beteiligt waren, wurde die Notwendigkeit erkannt, eine chemische Arbeitsgruppe mit Kenntnissen und Erfahrungen auf den Gebieten der Kohlechemie und der Strukturanalytik von Kohlen zu integrieren. Aufgabenstellung der chemischen Arbeitsgruppe war und ist es, Erkenntnisse ueber die chemische Natur der Biokonversionsprodukte und die chemischen Ablaeufe der mikrobiellen Kohlekonversion bereitstellen. Die Aufgabenstellung umfasst die Aufklaerung der strukturellen Veraenderung der Einsatzkohle sowie ihrer Komponenten Huminsaeuren und makromolekulare Matrix durch die Einwirkung kohleabbauender Mikroorganismen. (orig.)

  15. Floatability characteristics: A case study with three typical Indian prime coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, D.; Singh, A.K.; Banerjee, P.K. [Tata Steel Ltd., Jamshedpur (India). Division for Research & Development

    2008-07-01

    Three types of prime coking coals (coals A, B, and C) from Jharia coalfield, India, were investigated for the variations in their floatability characteristics. Among the three coals studied, coal A showed the least floatability. However, its floatability improved to some extent at higher dosages of collector and frother. Other two types of coal, i.e., coals B and C, showed almost similar flotation performance, which was much better as compared to coal A. The studies revealed that coal showed the least floatability characteristics, primarily due to the least concentration of vitrinite and liptinite content and a high percentage of inertinite and mineral matters in the coal. Also, the lower type of vitrinite (V7-V9) was present in the coal in greater proportion as compared to the other two coals and the proportion of ultra fines (-0.053mm) in coal A was higher as compared to the other two coals.

  16. Waste pyritic coal as a raw material for energetic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasiorek, J. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Poznan (Poland). Dept. of Research and Technology

    1997-11-01

    Results are presented of large laboratory studies on coal desulphurisation with foam flotation method improved by application of bioadsorption of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria to the modification of superficial properties of pyrite particulates from hydrophobic to hydrophillic ones. Results of coal desulfurization with and without bioadsorption have been compared. Bioadsorption improved pyritic sulfur removal by 30% (for coal from `Sierza mine`, coal size 0.3 to 0.102 mm, S pyritic content 1.69%) after 6-week adaptation of bacteria and 30 min of bioadsorption. Bacteria concentration in 5% water suspension of coal reached 22 {mu}g of biomass cm{sup -3}. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  18. Flotation separation of waste plastics for recycling-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jian-gang; Liu, You-nian

    2015-07-01

    The sharp increase of plastic wastes results in great social and environmental pressures, and recycling, as an effective way currently available to reduce the negative impacts of plastic wastes, represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Froth flotation is a promising method to solve the key problem of recycling process, namely separation of plastic mixtures. This review surveys recent literature on plastics flotation, focusing on specific features compared to ores flotation, strategies, methods and principles, flotation equipments, and current challenges. In terms of separation methods, plastics flotation is divided into gamma flotation, adsorption of reagents, surface modification and physical regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  20. Evaluation of the effect of coal cleaning of fugitive elements. Part II. Analytical methods. Final report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosshart, R.E.; Price, A.A.; Ford, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    This report contains the analytical and test methods which were used routinely at Bituminous Coal Research, Inc. during the project. The procedures contained herein should aid coal industry laboratories and others, including commercial laboratories, who might be required to determine trace elements in coal. Some of the procedures have been presented in previous BCR reports; however, this report includes additional procedures which are described in greater detail. Also presented are many as the more basic coal methods which have been in use at BCR for many years, or which have been adapted or refined from other standard reference sources for coal and water. The basis for choosing specific analytical procedures for trace elements in coal is somewhat complex. At BCR, atomic absorption was selected as the basic method in the development of these procedures. The choice was based on sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, practicability, and economy. Whenever possible, the methods developed had to be both adequate and amenable for use by coal industry laboratories by virtue of relative simplicity and cost. This is not to imply that the methods described are simple or inexpensive; however, atomic abosrption techniques do meet these criteria in relation to more complex and costly methods such as neutron activation, mass spectrometry, and x-ray fluorescence, some of which require highly specialized personnel as well as access to sophisticated nuclear and computational facilities. Many of the analytical procedures for trace elements in coal have been developed or adapted specifically for the BCR studies. Their presentation is the principal purpose of this report.

  1. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  2. Clean Coal Technology III: 10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption final project performance and economics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.

    1995-08-01

    The 10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) program is a government and industry co-funded technology development. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the performance of the GSA system in treating a 10 MW slipstream of flue gas resulting from the combustion of a high sulfur coal. This project involves design, fabrication, construction and testing of the GSA system. The Project Performance and Economics Report provides the nonproprietary information for the ``10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Project`` installed at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Power Station, Center for Emissions Research (CER) at Paducah, Kentucky. The program demonstrated that the GSA flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) technology is capable of achieving high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (greater than 90%), while maintaining particulate emissions below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), without any negative environmental impact (section 6). A 28-day test demonstrated the reliability and operability of the GSA system during continuous operation. The test results and detailed discussions of the test data can be obtained from TVA`s Final Report (Appendix A). The Air Toxics Report (Appendix B), prepared by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EERC) characterizes air toxic emissions of selected hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from the GSA process. The results of this testing show that the GSA system can substantially reduce the emission of these HAP. With its lower capital costs and maintenance costs (section 7), as compared to conventional semi-dry scrubbers, the GSA technology commands a high potential for further commercialization in the United States. For detailed information refer to The Economic Evaluation Report (Appendix C) prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors.

  3. Review biodepyritisation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, C.; Sukla, L.B.; Misra, V.N. [Regional Research Lab., Orissa (India)

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a detailed summary of the recent and past research activities in the area of biodesulfurisation of coal. It provides information about microorganisms important for biodesulfurisation of coal, with the emphasis on Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The review presents an insight into various methods of desulfurisation of coal combining physical and biological methods. Also, there are discussions on coal structure, distribution, mechanism and kinetics of pyrite oxidation and jarosite precipitation. Finally, areas requiring further research are identified.

  4. Flotoflocculation of coal by the application of Rhodotorula glutinis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecko, P.; Zelingerova, I.; Drobik, M. [Mining University Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic). Inst. of Environmental Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The papers deals with applications of flotoflocculation by yeast Rhodotorula glutinis on the samples of coal of the Frantisek pit in the Czech Republic. It was found from mineralogy analysis that these coal are of very good quality. In the paper two technologies are compared: classical flotation and flotoflocculation by yeast Rhodotorula glutinis. From the results it follows that flotoflocculation gives concentrates of better yield of good quality concentrate. And the combined technology consisting of one basic and one cleaning flotation gives saleable concentrates with ash contents under 7%. The best results were with application of Montanol as a collector. 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. On the role of cavitation in particle collection in flotation - A critical review. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.A.; Xu, Z.H.; Finch, J.A.; Masliyah, J.H.; Chow, R.S. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    Research in applying hydrodynamic cavitation to recovery of natural resources during the last decade is reviewed. The existence and formation of tiny bubbles or gas nuclei (diameter from microns down to nano sizes) in natural water were verified from both direct and in-direct measurements, providing a foundation for applying hydrodynamic cavitation to flotation systems. The interactions between tiny bubbles and fine particles in aqueous slurry were analysed. Tiny bubbles generated by hydrodynamic cavitation increased contact angle of solids and hence attachment force, bridge fine particles to form aggregates, minimize slime coating, remove oxidation layers on particle surfaces, and in hence reduce reagents consumption. Experiments revealed that the energy dissipation levels for cavity formation in a flowing liquid could be much lower than predicted, depending on the content of dissolved gases, presence of free gas nuclei and design of cavitation tubes. Application of hydrodynamic cavitation to fine and coarse particle flotation, high intensity conditioning, oil agglomeration of fine coal, and oil sands processing has confirmed the role of tiny bubbles formed by cavitation in improving recovery efficiency. Increased flotation kinetics by hydrodynamic cavitation could be attributed to a dual role: some collapsing cavity bubbles serving to break interfacial layers on particle surfaces while other cavity bubbles attaching to those freshly exposed mineral surfaces. The role of water vapor and other gases within cavity bubbles in particle-bubble attachment remains to be explored. Incorporating hydrodynamic cavitation into flotation systems to take advantage of its unique features is expected to develop the next generation of flotation machines.

  6. Flotation process of lead-, copper-, uranium-, and rare earth minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broman, P.G.; Kihlstedt, P.G.; Du Rietz, C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a flotation process of oxide or sulfide ores containing lead-, copper-, uranium-, and rare earth minerals applicating a new collector. Flotation is in the presence of a tertiary amine

  7. Vitrification of copper flotation waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamanov, Alexander [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Science, G. Bonchev Str. Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: karama@ing.univaq.it; Aloisi, Mirko [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of L' Aquila, 67040 Monteluco di Roio, L' Aquila (Italy); Pelino, Mario [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of L' Aquila, 67040 Monteluco di Roio, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-02-09

    The vitrification of an hazardous iron-rich waste (W), arising from slag flotation of copper production, was studied. Two glasses, containing 30 wt% W were melted for 30 min at 1400 deg. C. The first batch, labeled WSZ, was obtained by mixing W, blast furnace slag (S) and zeolite tuff (Z), whereas the second, labeled WG, was prepared by mixing W, glass cullet (G), sand and limestone. The glass frits showed high chemical durability, measured by the TCLP test. The crystallization of the glasses was evaluated by DTA. The crystal phases formed were identified by XRD resulting to be pyroxene and wollastonite solid solutions, magnetite and hematite. The morphology of the glass-ceramics was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. WSZ composition showed a high rate of bulk crystallization and resulted to be suitable for producing glass-ceramics by a short crystallization heat-treatment. WG composition showed a low crystallization rate and good sinterability; glass-ceramics were obtained by sinter-crystallization of the glass frit.

  8. Dissolved air flotation and me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edzwald, James K

    2010-04-01

    This paper is mainly a critical review of the literature and an assessment of what we know about dissolved air flotation (DAF). A few remarks are made at the outset about the author's personal journey in DAF research, his start and its progression. DAF has been used for several decades in drinking water treatment as an alternative clarification method to sedimentation. DAF is particularly effective in treating reservoir water supplies; those supplies containing algae, natural color or natural organic matter; and those with low mineral turbidity. It is more efficient than sedimentation in removing turbidity and particles for these type supplies. Furthermore, it is more efficient in removing Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. In the last 20 years, fundamental models were developed that provide a basis for understanding the process, optimizing it, and integrating it into water treatment plants. The theories were tested through laboratory and pilot-plant studies. Consequently, there have been trends in which DAF pretreatment has been optimized resulting in better coagulation and a decrease in the size of flocculation tanks. In addition, the hydraulic loading rates have increased reducing the size of DAF processes. While DAF has been used mainly in conventional type water plants, there is now interest in the technology as a pretreatment step in ultrafiltration membrane plants and in desalination reverse osmosis plants. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitrification of copper flotation waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanov, Alexander; Aloisi, Mirko; Pelino, Mario

    2007-02-09

    The vitrification of an hazardous iron-rich waste (W), arising from slag flotation of copper production, was studied. Two glasses, containing 30wt% W were melted for 30min at 1400 degrees C. The first batch, labeled WSZ, was obtained by mixing W, blast furnace slag (S) and zeolite tuff (Z), whereas the second, labeled WG, was prepared by mixing W, glass cullet (G), sand and limestone. The glass frits showed high chemical durability, measured by the TCLP test. The crystallization of the glasses was evaluated by DTA. The crystal phases formed were identified by XRD resulting to be pyroxene and wollastonite solid solutions, magnetite and hematite. The morphology of the glass-ceramics was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. WSZ composition showed a high rate of bulk crystallization and resulted to be suitable for producing glass-ceramics by a short crystallization heat-treatment. WG composition showed a low crystallization rate and good sinterability; glass-ceramics were obtained by sinter-crystallization of the glass frit.

  10. Vitrification of copper flotation waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamanov, Alexander; Aloisi, Mirko; Pelino, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The vitrification of an hazardous iron-rich waste (W), arising from slag flotation of copper production, was studied. Two glasses, containing 30 wt% W were melted for 30 min at 1400 deg. C. The first batch, labeled WSZ, was obtained by mixing W, blast furnace slag (S) and zeolite tuff (Z), whereas the second, labeled WG, was prepared by mixing W, glass cullet (G), sand and limestone. The glass frits showed high chemical durability, measured by the TCLP test. The crystallization of the glasses was evaluated by DTA. The crystal phases formed were identified by XRD resulting to be pyroxene and wollastonite solid solutions, magnetite and hematite. The morphology of the glass-ceramics was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. WSZ composition showed a high rate of bulk crystallization and resulted to be suitable for producing glass-ceramics by a short crystallization heat-treatment. WG composition showed a low crystallization rate and good sinterability; glass-ceramics were obtained by sinter-crystallization of the glass frit

  11. Studies on upgrading quality of zircon concentrate by flotation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duy Phap; Nguyen Duc Hung; Nguyen Duc Thai and others

    2004-01-01

    Results of this study show that it is possible to apply flotation to upgrading quality of zircon concentrate based on a simple technological flow-sheet and simple flotation agents. It is possible to use flotation equipment of Mexanov. Product criteria include ZrO 2 >64%; TiO 2 2 O 3 <0.1%. Flotation agents are simple, little noxious and easy for preparation. (PQM)

  12. Radiotracer investigations of the flotation process in copper ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petryka, L.; Przewlocki, K.

    1983-01-01

    Optimization of copper ore processing requires in particular the investigation of the flotation process. 64 Cu induced in natural ore by activation was used as a tracer. Detailed measurements were performed in an industrial flotation plant consisting of 14 cells. As a result the mean residence time of different grain size fractions of natural copper sulphide was determined for all parts of the flotation plant together with the efficiency of the flotation process. (author)

  13. Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prausnitz, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions toward establishing the desired understanding: (1) Characterization of Coal Tars for Dew-Point Calculations; (2) Fugacity Coefficients for Dew-Point Calculations in Coal-Gasification Process Design; (3) Vapor Pressures of High-Molecular-Weight Hydrocarbons; (4) Estimation of Vapor Pressures of High-Boiling Fractions in Liquefied Fossil Fuels Containing Heteroatoms Nitrogen or Sulfur; and (5) Vapor Pressures of Heavy Liquid Hydrocarbons by a Group-Contribution Method.

  14. Energy conservation in coal conversion. Final report, September 15, 1977--September 1, 1978. Selected case studies and conservation methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcupile, J.C.

    1978-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply the methodologies developed in the Energy Conservation in Coal Conversion August, 1977 Progress Report - Contract No. EY77S024196 - to an energy efficient, near-term coal conversion process design, and to develop additional, general techniques for studying energy conservation and utilization in coal conversion processes. The process selected for study was the Ralph M. Parsons Company of Pasadena, California ''Oil/Gas Complex, Conceptual Design/Economic Analysis'' as described in R and D Report No. 114 - Interim Report No. 4, published March, 1977, ERDA Contract No. E(49-18)-1975. Thirteen papers representing possible alternative methods of energy conservation or waste heat utilization have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  15. Determining ash content in flotation wastes by means of the MPOF optical ash meter. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, T; Sliwa, J

    1982-03-01

    The paper evaluates an experimental unit of the MPOF optical ash meter, developed by the EMAG Research and Production Center for Electrical Engineering and Mining Automation. The MPOF, which is being tested at the coal preparation plant of the 30 lecia PRL mine, is the first system for continuous determination of ash content in flotation tailings developed in Poland. A block scheme of the system is given. It consists of a measuring head and electronic system which processes data supplied by the measuring head and calculates ash content. System operation is based on the principle of determining ash content in a mixture of coal and mineral wastes by measuring mixture reflectivity. Determining ash content in the mixture is possible as reflectivity coefficients for coal and ash are constant. Performance of the MPOF optical ash meter is evaluated; the results are shown in a table and a scheme. Measurement accuracy is satisfactory.

  16. Removal of chlorine from Illinois coal by high-temperature leaching: Final report, March 1--December 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Han Lin

    1988-03-01

    The objectives of this research are to: (1) conduct experimental investigations of the removal of chlorine from coal by high- temperature leaching; (2) identify important factors affecting the chlorine removal process; (3) understand the mechanisms involved; and (4) develop a mathematical model to describe the process. A generalized mathematical model based on diffusion and relaxation has been developed for water leaching of chlorine from coal. The model has been fitted to four different samples of Illinois No. 6 coal: C22175, C22651, C8601, and C8602. The weight percent of chlorine ranged from 0.42 to 0.82. The experimental data on these samples covered a temperature range of 297 to 370K and a particle size range of 60 to 325 mesh. Based on the type of coal and the conditions of leaching, it was found that 40 to 80% of the original chlorine could be leached from the coal matrix. The model based on diffusion-relaxation concept predicted the leaching data within +-5% average absolute deviation. The diffusion rate constants at different temperatures were correlated to Arrhenius type relations. Attempts made to correlate the constants in the Arrhenius equations with the chlorine content in coal and with particle size have been discussed. The water leaching data were used to extract Fickian diffusivities based on the time required for 50% desorption. The calculated diffusivity values ranged from 0.6 to 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/11/ cm/sup 2//sec. The effect of chemical additives on the rate of leaching has also been studied. Both HNO/sub 3/ and NH/sub 4/OH were used as additives. 28 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Coal marketing manual 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This manual presents information for the use of marketers, consumers, analysts and investors. The information is presented in a series of tables and figures. Statistics are given for: Australian export tonnages and average export values for 1978-1985; international pig iron production 1976 to 1985; and international crude steel production 1979 to 1985. Trends in Australian export tonnages and prices of coal are reviewed. Details of international loading and discharge ports are given, together with a historical summary of shipping freight-rates since 1982. Long term contract prices for thermal and coking coal to Japan are tabulated. A review of coal and standards is given, together with Australian standards for coal and coke. A section on coal quality is included containing information on consumer coal quality preferences and Australian and Overseas coal brands and qualities. Finally an index is given of contact details of Australian and Overseas exporting companies, government departments, and the Australian Coal Association.

  18. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Walker, Harold [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2005-07-15

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from January 3, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to investigate the long-term use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners for ponds and wetlands. The objective of the research program was to establish long-term field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD byproducts generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small-scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, mediumscale wetland experiments, and monitoring of a full-scale FGD-lined pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications especially in the design of daily covers and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches, and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small-scale laboratory tests and monitoring of the full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds. Actual long-term permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. The FGD wetland experiments indicated no significant differences in phosphorus retention between the clay and FGD

  19. Physically absorbable reagents-collectors in elementary flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.A. Kondrat' ev; I.G. Bochkarev [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Mining

    2007-09-15

    Based on the reviewed researches held at the Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, the effect of physically absorbable reagents-collectors on formation of a flotation complex and its stability in turbulent pulp flows in flotation machines of basic types is considered. The basic requirements for physically absorbable reagents-collectors at different flotation stages are established.

  20. Revised users manual, Pulverized Coal Gasification or Combustion: 2-dimensional (87-PCGC-2): Final report, Volume 2. [87-PCGC-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1987-12-01

    A two-dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and non-reactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. Recent code revisions and additions are described. The model, referred to as 87-PCGC-2, is applicable to cylindrical axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using either a flux method or discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a Lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. Several multi-step coal devolatilization schemes are included along with a heterogeneous reaction scheme that allows for both diffusion and chemical reaction. Major gas-phase reactions are modeled assuming local instantaneous equilibrium, and thus the reaction rates are limited by the turbulent rate mixing. A NO/sub x/ finite rate chemistry submodel is included which integrates chemical kinetics and the statistics of the turbulence. The gas phase is described by elliptic partial differential equations that are solved by an iterative line-by-line technique. Under-relaxation is used to achieve numerical stability. The generalized nature of the model allows for calculation of isothermal fluid mechanicsgaseous combustion, droplet combustion, particulate combustion and various mixtures of the above, including combustion of coal-water and coal-oil slurries. Both combustion and gasification environments are permissible. User information and theory are presented, along with sample problems. 106 refs.

  1. Dissolved air flotation of polishing wastewater from semiconductor manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J C; Lien, C Y

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of the dissolved air flotation (DAF) process in treating chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) wastewater was evaluated in this study. Wastewater from a local semiconductor manufacturer was sampled and characterised. Nano-sized silica (77.6 nm) with turbidity of 130 +/- 3 NTU was found in the slightly alkaline wastewater with traces of other pollutants. Experimental results indicated removal efficiency of particles, measured as suspended particle or turbidity, increased with increasing concentration of cationic collector cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). When CTAB concentration was 30 mg/L, pH of 6.5 +/- 0.1 and recycle ratio of 30%, very effective removal of particles (> 98%) was observed in saturation pressure range of 4 to 6 kg/cm2, and the reaction proceeded faster under higher pressure. Similarly, the reaction was faster under the higher recycle ratio, while final removal efficiency improved slightly as the recycle ratio increased from 20 to 40%. An insignificant effect of pH on treatment efficiency was found as pH varied from 4.5 to 8.5. The presence of activator, Al3+ and Fe3+, enhanced the system performance. It is proposed that CTAB adsorbs on silica particles in polishing wastewater through electrostatic interaction and makes particles more hydrophobic. The increase in hydrophobicity results in more effective bubble-particle collisions. In addition, flocculation of silica particles through bridging effect of collector was found; it is believed that flocculation of particles also contributed to flotation. Better attachment between gas bubble and solid, higher buoyancy and higher air to solid ratio all lead to effective flotation.

  2. Method of concentrating oil shale by flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, M

    1941-01-28

    A method is described of concentrating oil shale by flotation. It is characterized by grinding the shale to a grain size which, roughly speaking, is less than 0.06 mm. and more conveniently should be less than 0.05 mm., and followed by flotation. During the process the brown foam formed is separated as concentrate, while the black-brown to all-black foam is separated as a middle product, ground fine again, and thereafter floated once more. The patent contains five additional claims.

  3. Flotation extraction of tributyl phosphate from s olutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrylev, L.D.; Tkachenko, N.V.; Sazonova, V.F.

    1983-01-01

    Results of investigations, conducted for revealing the possibility of flotation extraction of emulsificated and actually dissolved extractants, tributyl phosphate (TBP) in particular, are given. The possibility of flotation extraction of emulsificated and actually dissolved TBP by its non-reagent flotation was established experimeptally. It was also established that the kinetics of flotation TBP extraction is described by the equation, similar to the reaction equation of the first order. The process of non-reagent TBP flotation proceeds most successfully in pH=6.5-7.5 range

  4. Regulations implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: determining coal miners' and survivors' entitlement to benefits. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    This final rule revises the Black Lung Benefits Act (BLBA or Act) regulations to implement amendments made by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA amended the BLBA in two ways. First, it revived a rebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis for certain claims. Second, it reinstituted automatic entitlement to benefits for certain eligible survivors of coal miners whose lifetime benefit claims were awarded because they were totally disabled due to pneumoconiosis. These regulations clarify how the statutory presumption may be invoked and rebutted and the application and scope of the survivor-entitlement provision. The rule also eliminates several unnecessary or obsolete provisions.

  5. Enrichment of reactive macerals in coal: its characterization and utilization in coke making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Debjani; Kopparthi, P.; Dash, P. S.; Saxena, V. K.; Chandra, S.

    2018-01-01

    Macerals in coal are of different types: reactive and inert. These macerals are differ in their physical and chemical properties. Column flotation method has been used to separate the reactive macerals in a non-coking coal. The enriched coal is then characterized in order to understand the changes in the coking potential by different techniques. It is then used in making of metallurgical coke by proper blending with other coals. Enriched coal enhance the properties of metallurgical coke. This shows a path of utilization of non-coking coal in metallurgical coke making.

  6. Collective sulphide flotation of the polymetallic molybdenic ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazanek, C.; Maselko, J.; Rycerz, L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of investigations on polymetallic molybdenic ore are presented. The useful minerals of this ore are as follows: molybdenite, sphalerite, galena and chalcopyrite whereas quartz, feldspars, chlorite and sericite are barren rocks. The flotation process parameters are established i.e. the consumption of flotation reagents, the flotation time and the most advantageous grain composition of the ore submitted to flotation. Taking into consideration the established parameters, a collective sulphide flotation of ore and a control flotation of wastes were carried out. The obtained concentrate was submitted to a single cleaning flotation whereby a concentrate was obtained containing: 4,65% Mo, 2,51% Cu, 0,9% Zn, 0,69% Pb, and 1,4% Bi. (author)

  7. A novel concept for high conversion of coal to liquids. Final report, 1 September 1988--31 August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W.H.; Shabtai, J.

    1994-04-01

    A batch microreactor was designed and fabricated as a means of investigating maximum yields of liquids obtainable in very short reaction times of the order of a few seconds, and the maximum ratios of liquids/hydrocarbon (HC) gases obtainable under those conditions. A Wyodak sub-bituminous coal, crushed and sieved to {minus}200 mesh particle size, was used in the experiments, with a temperature of 500{degrees}C and a pressure of 1500 psi. The fine coal particles were fed dry to the reactor and heated to reaction temperature in times of one to two seconds. At a time of 3 seconds at reaction temperature, in a single pass a liquid yield of 60% by weight of the coal was obtained, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/(HC) gases of 30/1. When the unreacted solids were recycled to the reactor, and the results combined with those of the first pass, a liquid yield of 82% by weight of the coal was achieved, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/HC gases of 30/1. This ratio represents only about 3 wt percent HC gases, much lower that is produced in current advanced technologies, and represents a large saving in hydrogen consumption. A simulated distillation technique was applied to the liquids. The liquid product contained 86% by weight (of the liquids) total distillables (boiling point below 538{degrees}C), including 70% by weight of low-boiling fractions in the gasoline, kerosene and gas oil range (boiling point up to 325{degrees}C). The liquid product exhibited a H/C ratio of 1.5, which is considerably higher than observed in current advanced technologies for the primary liquids. Several catalysts were investigated. Iron catalysts, specifically ferric chloride hexahydrate and ferric sulfate pentahydrate, each produced these high conversions and high ratios of liquids/HC gases.

  8. Electroosmotically enhanced dewatering/deliquoring of fine-particle coal: Final report, January 1--December 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sami, Sedat [Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Davis, Philip K. [Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Smith, James G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1989-03-01

    This research is an investigation of the use of electroosmosis to dewater/deliquor ultrafine coal. Post-beneficiation dewatering/deliquoring methods for ultrafine coal are inadequate and generally require subsequent thermal drying. Thermal drying is not only expensive and time consuming, it also does not recover liquids for reuse in beneficiation processes. The degree of difficulty associated with dewatering increases as surface forces become more important than gravimetric forces. Electroosmotic flow has advantages for dewatering because it is much less sensitive to pore size than hydraulic gradient flow for the 1 to 75 ..mu..m ultrafine size range. The first year of this project focused upon preparation of ultrafine coal samples, development of test equipment and test cells, identification of variables affecting electroosmosis, and trial runs. Techniques and procedures not previously used by researchers of electroosmotic dewatering have revealed important information about the dynamics of the electroosmosis process. The identification of the first few millimeters of the cathode region of the cell as the sink for most of the energy input into the process provides the potential for improving efficiency by concentrating the second year effort on intervention in that region. Information gathered about differences in FTIR spectra as a function of location in the dewatering cell will be investigated. Changes in pH with temperature and by the application of electroosmotic current flow will receive attention, as well. 178 refs., 16 figs.

  9. Bioenergetic studies of coal sulfur oxidation by extremely thermophilic bacteria. Final report, September 15, 1992--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, R.M.; Han, C.J.

    1997-12-31

    Thermoacidophilic microorganisms have been considered for inorganic sulfur removal from coal because of expected improvements in rates of both biotic and abiotic sulfur oxidation reactions with increasing temperature. In this study, the bioenergetic response of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon, Metallosphaera sedula, to environmental changes have been examined in relation to its capacity to catalyze pyrite oxidation in coal. Given an appropriate bioenergetic challenge, the metabolic response was to utilize additional amounts of energy sources (i.e., pyrite) to survive. Of particular interest were the consequences of exposing the organism to various forms of stress (chemical, nutritional, thermal, pH) in the presence of coal pyrite. Several approaches to take advantage of stress response to accelerate pyrite oxidation by this organism were examined, including attempts to promote acquired thermal tolerance to extend its functional range, exposure to chemical uncouplers and decouplers, and manipulation of heterotrophic and chemolithotrophic tendencies to optimize biomass concentration and biocatalytic activity. Promising strategies were investigated in a continuous culture system. This study identified environmental conditions that promote better coupling of biotic and abiotic oxidation reactions to improve biosulfurization rates of thermoacidophilic microorganisms.

  10. The application of the coal grain analysis method to coal liberation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, G.; Firth, B.; Adair, B. [CSIRO Earth Science & Resource Engineering Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    Emerging coal markets such as the use of coal for conversion to liquid fuels and its use in fuels cells and as coal water slurries in diesel engines require coal products with different coal quality specifications than those applicable to traditional coal markets of coke making and conventional power generation. As well as quantifying coals in terms of their chemical and physical properties, detailed knowledge of the mineral inclusions within the coal particles is required to identify coals that are suited to economically produce the low-ash value coals required for these markets. After mining and processing, some particles can consist of essentially pure components of a single maceral or mineral phase whilst others are composite particles that are comprised of varying amounts of macerals and minerals. The proportion of particles that are present as pure components or as composites will be a function of the characteristics of the coal and the particle size. In general, it is considered that size reduction will result in liberation and hence increased yield. The amount of liberation that occurs during crushing or grinding a coal is however coal specific. Particle characterization information provided by an optical microscopic-imaging method, Coal Grain Analysis, was used to identify coals that might benefit from additional crushing to improve recovery of clean coal by new density separation techniques and by flotation. As expected, the results of these studies suggest that the degree of liberation that is obtained is coal specific, and, hence, yield improvements are also coal specific. Hence a quantitative method of investigating this issue is required.

  11. Studies of leaching of copper ores and flotation wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawszczak, D.; Deptula, A.; Lada, W.; Smolinski, T.; Olczak, T.; Brykala, M.; Wojtowicz, P.; Rogowski, M.; Milkowska, M.; Chmielewski, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    In Poland, there are significant deposits of copper ores. During the copper extraction, large amounts of flotation wastes are produced. In the ores and flotation wastes many other important elements are present. The main goal of this work was analysis of uranium content and to elaborate procedures for recovery of U from these materials. Two types of ores and four types of waste were examined. It has been found that uranium content varies from 4.5 to 25 ppm. The other elements have also been determined in these materials: Cu (4-5 % in ores and 0.3-1.7 % in waste), Ag, Re, Mo, La, Ni, V, etc. For leaching, sulfuric acid and sodium carbonates of various concentrations (temperature, time) were used. The optimum conditions for leaching have been found. The concentration of uranium in the final solution was generally less than 25 μg/mL. The other elements are also present in the leaching solutions. Simultaneous liquid-liquid extraction of uranium with these elements from leaching solution is under study. In our opinion, only such combined procedure for the recovery of uranium together with the accompanying elements could be cost-effective. (author)

  12. Flotation of uraniferous phosphorus ore from Itataia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, J.A. de

    1984-01-01

    Flotation conditions, in laboratory and pilot scale, were established in a sample of Itataia uraniferous phosphorus ore which was basically constitute of apatite and calcite. The system of reagents-tall oil, collamil and sodium silicate-was studied in rougher, scavenger and cleaner stage. (M.A.C.) [pt

  13. (2-PYRIDYLAZO)RESORCINOL FOR FLOTATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Iron(II), Fe-PAR complex, Flotation, Spectrophotometry, Soils, Zinc sulfide concentrates. INTRODUCTION. 4-(2-Pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) is one of the most popular analytical reagents. It forms colored complexes with many metal ions and can be used for their spectrophotometric determination. A well-known ...

  14. 77 FR 19937 - Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Advancement Act OMB Office of Management and Budget PFD Personal flotation device STP Standards Technical... using existing inflatable PFDs, and would enable marketing of existing inflatable PFDs to youth. The... approved, and thus does not affect the availability, use, or marketing of existing PFDs to or by the youth...

  15. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  16. Use of pyrolysis gas from coal as reburn fuel. Final report; Einsatz von kohlestaemmigem Pyrolysegas als Reduktionsbrennstoff. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greul, U.; Magel, C.; Moersch, O.; Ruediger, H.; Storm, C.; Schnell, U.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G.

    1996-12-31

    The research project`s aim was to reduce nitrogen emissions from pulverized-coal furnaces by fuel staging with pyrolysis gas from coal. The test fuels were 6 German and Australian coals. The aim achieved has been the statement that the described method is an adequate means to attain to and remain below emission values of 200 mg/m{sup 3}. The method of fuel staging using coal-original gases was investigated with tests focussing the most important process parameters such as coal type, devolatilization ratio, temperature, residence time, and stoichiometry. The relevant features determined with an entrained flow reactor and with a fluidized-bed reactor were the impact of devolatilization temperatures on carbonized residue and pyrolysis products, the distribution of fuel nitrogen, and the quality of gas and tar, including the respective effects on NO{sub x} formation and reduction in staged combustion. The validation of the mathematical model was done with the experimentally obtained data. The criteria considered fundamental for achieving the NO{sub x} reduction level are temperature, air ratio, and residence time in the reduction zone of the furnace. The pyrolysis tests manifested the strong influence of the coal type and the devolatilization conditions on the composition of the gases and the attainable NO{sub x} reduction. The tars in the pyrolysis gases, with their nitrogen compounds, improve the reducing effect of available nitrogen oxides. By using pyrolysis gases from coal as reburning fuel, NO{sub x} emissions of less than 200 mg/m{sup 3} can be obtained at air ratios around 0.95. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Das Forschungsprojekt verfolgte das Ziel mit 6 deutschen und australischen Kohlen die Stickoxidemissionen aus Kohlestaubfeuerungen durch Brennstoffstufung mit Pyrolysegas als Reduktionsbrennstoff zu verringern. Das erreichte Ziel war der Nachweis, dass mit dem beschriebenen Verfahren NO{sub x}-Emissionswerte von 200 mg/m{sup 3} erreicht und unterschritten werden

  17. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  18. Anisotropic surface physicochemical properties of spodumene and albite crystals: Implications for flotation separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Longhua; Peng, Tiefeng; Tian, Jia; Lu, Zhongyuan; Hu, Yuehua; Sun, Wei

    2017-12-01

    Aluminosilicate minerals (e.g., spodumene, albite) have complex crystal structures and similar surface chemistries, but they have poor selectivity compared to traditional fatty acid collectors, making flotation separation difficult. Previous research has mainly considered the mineral crystal structure as a whole. In contrast, the surface characteristics at the atomic level and the effects of different crystal interfaces on the flotation behavior have rarely been investigated. This study focuses on investigating the surface anisotropy quantitatively, including the chemical bond characteristics, surface energies, and broken bond densities, using density functional theory and classical theoretical calculations. In addition, the anisotropy of the surface wettability and adsorption characteristics were examined using contact angle, zeta potential, and Fourier-transform infrared measurements. Finally, these surface anisotropies with different flotation behaviors were investigated and interpreted using molecular dynamics simulations, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This systematic research offers new ideas concerning the selective grinding and stage flotation of aluminosilicate minerals based on the crystal characteristics.

  19. Novel approaches to a study of the fundamental organic chemistry of coal. Final report, September 1, 1977-September 1, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giam, C.S.; Goodwin, T.E.; Tabor, R.L.; Neff, G.; Smith, S.; Ionescu, F.; Trujillo, D.

    1979-01-01

    The studies are preliminary in nature, and the following conclusions are tentative. (1) The results with mixed carboxylic-sulfonic anhydrides seem to indicate an increase in polymerization of the coal molecular structure, when based on the results of pyrolysis/gas chromatographic analyses. The mixed anhydrides are such powerful acylating reagents that they should be capable of causing profound and dramatic structural modifications of coal and the results suggest sub-optimal reaction conditions. The results may also be due to the presence of only a small number of ether linkages connecting large molecular units together. Possibly, at elevated pressures and larger concentrations of mixed anhydride, a greater extent of depolymerization would occur, coupled perhaps with acylation. (2) The Nimz lignin degradation reaction has now been fully implemented and good conditions have been found for lignite reaction. The products from this degradation were basically hydrocarbon in nature. Thus, in the absence of monolignols, we postulate that such phenolic linkages of the type found in lignin are not found to a large degree in Texas lignites. (3) Our recently developed technique of analyzing methylene to methyl ratios by IR spectroscopy represents a useful method for characterization of both soluble and insoluble coal-derived products. The technique is less expensive than mass spectroscopy and not limited by solubility as in the case of NMR spectroscopy. (4) From the measurements of the acidic hydrogen content of the lignites studies, we have formed a postulate as to the involvement of heteroatoms (especially oxygen) in the lignite structure. We feel that heteroatoms in Texas lignites are involved mainly in carbonyl, low molecular weight alkoxy and/or heterocyclic units. (5) Conditions for depolymerizing and solubilizing lignites by use of t-butyllithium have been developed and utilized successfully.

  20. Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for use in gas separation and recovery processes. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois Basin coals are a suitable feedstock for the production of CMS and to evaluate the potential application of these products in commercial gas separation processes. In Phase 1 of this project, gram quantities of char were prepared from Illinois coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of pyrolysis and activation conditions. Chars having surface areas of 1,500--2,100 m{sup 2}/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the chemical activant. These high surface area (HSA) chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, e.g., O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}, on these chars at 25 C was determined. Several chars showed good potential for efficient O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} separation. In Phase 2 of this project, larger quantities of char are being prepared from Illinois coal in a batch fluidized-bed reactor and in a continuous rotary tube kiln. The ability of these chars to separate binary gas mixtures is tested in an adsorption column/gas chromatography system. Oxygen and nitrogen breakthrough curves obtained for selected chars were compared to those of a commercial zeolite. Selected chars were subjected to a nitric acid oxidation treatment. The air separation capability of nitric acid treated char was strongly dependent on the outgassing conditions used prior to an O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} adsorption experiment. An outgassing temperature of 130--160 C produced chars with the most favorable air separation properties. 61 refs.

  1. Screening of candidate corrosion resistant materials for coal combustion environments -- Volume 4. Final report, January 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    The development of a silicon carbide heat exchanger is a critical step in the development of the Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) power system. SiC is the only material that provides the necessary combination of resistance to creep, thermal shock, and oxidation. While the SiC structural materials provide the thermomechanical and thermophysical properties needed for an efficient system, the mechanical properties of the SiC tubes are severely degraded through corrosion by the coal combustion products. To obtain the necessary service life of thousands of hours at temperature, a protective coating is needed that is stable with both the SiC tube and the coal combustion products, resists erosion from the particle laden gas stream, is thermal-shock resistant, adheres to SiC during repeated thermal shocks (start-up, process upsets, shut-down), and allows the EFCC system to be cost competitive. The candidate protective materials identified in a previous effort were screened for their stability to the EFCC combustion environment. Bulk samples of each of the eleven candidate materials were prepared, and exposed to coal slag for 100 hours at 1,370 C under flowing air. After exposure the samples were mounted, polished, and examined via x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. In general, the alumina-based materials behaved well, with comparable corrosion depths in all five samples. Magnesium chromite formed a series of reaction products with the slag, which included an alumina-rich region. These reaction products may act as a diffusion barrier to slow further reaction between the magnesium chromite and the slag and prove to be a protective coating. As for the other materials; calcium titanate failed catastrophically, the CS-50 exhibited extension microstructural and compositional changes, and zirconium titanate, barium zironate, and yttrium chromite all showed evidence of dissolution with the slag.

  2. Too Much Coal, Too Little Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick van der Ploeg; Cees Withagen

    2011-01-01

    Optimal climate policy is studied. Coal, the abundant resource, contributes more CO2 per unit of energy than the exhaustible resource, oil. We characterize the optimal sequencing oil and coal and departures from the Herfindahl rule. "Preference reversal" can take place. If coal is very dirty compared to oil, there is no simultaneous use. Else, the optimal outcome starts with oil, before using oil and coal together, and finally coal on its own, The "laissez-faire" outcome uses coal forever or ...

  3. Modeling and prediction of flotation performance using support vector regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despotović Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous efforts have been made in recent year to improve the process of paper recycling, as it is of critical importance for saving the wood, water and energy resources. Flotation deinking is considered to be one of the key methods for separation of ink particles from the cellulose fibres. Attempts to model the flotation deinking process have often resulted in complex models that are difficult to implement and use. In this paper a model for prediction of flotation performance based on Support Vector Regression (SVR, is presented. Representative data samples were created in laboratory, under a variety of practical control variables for the flotation deinking process, including different reagents, pH values and flotation residence time. Predictive model was created that was trained on these data samples, and the flotation performance was assessed showing that Support Vector Regression is a promising method even when dataset used for training the model is limited.

  4. Influence of flotation cell volume and solids mass on kinetics of sulfide ore flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plawski Michal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on the influence of flotation cell capacity and mass of solids in the suspension on the flotation kinetics of sulfide copper ore. A sample of copper ore that was collected from the Polkowice Mine of KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. in Poland was used in the experiments. It was determined that neither the volume of flotation cell nor the mass of solids had influence on the type of kinetics equation of flotation. Copper-bearing minerals floated according to the second-order equation, while the remaining components according to the first-order equation. The kinetic rate constants and maximum recovery of the studied components decreased with increasing solids mass in the flotation cell, regardless of the capacity of the cell. The best results were obtained for tests using a 1.0 dm3 cell, while the less favorable kinetics results were observed in the test with the smallest cell of 0.75 dm3 volume. The obtained results can be helpful in choosing the most appropriate methodology of upgrading the sulfide copper ore from Poland in order to obtain the best kinetics results.

  5. The Effect of Conditioning on the Flotation of Pyrrhotite in the Presence of Chlorite

    OpenAIRE

    Yanfei Chen; Qing Shi; Qiming Feng; Yiping Lu; Wencai Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The influence of conditioning on the flotation of pyrrhotite in the presence of chlorite was investigated through flotation tests, sedimentation tests, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The flotation results show that chlorite slimes dramatically impair the flotation of pyrrhotite. Sedimentation and flotation tests reveal that conditioning can effectively remove chlorite slimes from pyrrhotite surfaces, resulting in an enhanced flotation recovery of pyrrhotite. When mixed m...

  6. Tracer studies of flotation in laboratory and plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, A.J.; Thereska, J.; Plasari, E.; Kacaj, M.

    1992-01-01

    Froth flotation is used for the industrial extraction of valuable minerals from ores. Its progress depends on the properties of minerals being processed and on flotation practices. While flotation is basically a kinetic process, it functions industrially in continuous flow vessels whose flow patterns influence the separation effected. Radioisotope tracers have proven to be a necessary tool in the acquisition of both kinetic and flow pattern data

  7. Innovations in the flotation of fine and coarse particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D.; Filippov, L. O.

    2017-07-01

    Research on the mechanisms of particle-bubble interaction has provided valuable information on how to improve the flotation of fine (100 µm) with novel flotation machines which provide higher collision and attachment efficiencies of fine particles with bubbles and lower detachment of the coarse particles. Also, new grinding methods and technologies have reduced energy consumption in mining and produced better mineral liberation and therefore flotation performance.

  8. Challenges related to flotation cleaning of oil shales. Issues due to compositional and surface features and post-grinding surface behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altun N. Emre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil shale is an important energy resource alternative. Despite its recognition as an unconventional oil source, oil shale is also considered as an important solid fossil fuel alternative to coal and lignites due to the solid form and remarkable extent of organic content. Utilization possibilites, similar to coal and lignites, have been considered in the past decades and direct use of oil shales in thermal power production has been possible in countries like Estonia and China. In the perspective of utilization of oil shales in a similar manner to coal and lignites, problems and restrictions related to the inorganic ash-making and potentially pollutant constituents are applied. In this respect, cleaning of this important energy source through mineral processing methods, particularly by flotation, is an outstanding option. However, on the basis of unique features and distinctive characteristics, treatment of oil shales like a type of coal is a big perception and may be highly misleading. This paper discusses specific challenges regarding flotation behavior of oil shales with reference to the surface characteristics and behavior of oil shale entities – probably the most important aspect that determines the efficiency and success of the flotation based cleaning process.

  9. Flotation study on scheelite ore of chitral khyber pakhtoonkhwa, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, M.A.; Kazmi, K.R.; Mehmood, R.; Akram, A.

    2014-01-01

    The beneficiation of a siliceous scheelite ore of Chitral, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan, was investigated by flotation process to determine the optimum conditions for obtaining maximum grade and recovery of the scheelite concentrate. The variables studied were including pH and pulp density maintained during conditioning, type and quantity of reagents added, conditioning time and froth collecting time. The results achieved were plotted against the grade and recovery of the rougher concentrate. Several methods of cleaning rougher concentrate were attempted. An ore initially containing 0.34% WO/sub 3/ was upgraded into a final concentrate assaying 64.66% WO/sub 3/ with 70.36% recovery. The tungsten concentrate obtained meets the specifications required to produce ferrotungsten and tungsten chemicals. (author)

  10. Modelling and control of a flotation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, L.; Gustafsson, T.

    1999-01-01

    A general description of a flotation process is given. The dynamic model of a MIMO nonlinear subprocess in flotation, i. e. the pulp levels in five compartments in series is developed and the model is verified with real data from a production plant. In order to reject constant disturbances five extra states are introduced and the model is modified. An exact linearization has been made for the non-linear model and a linear quadratic gaussian controller is proposed based on the linearized model. The simulation result shows an improved performance of the pulp level control when the set points are changed or a disturbance occur. In future the controller will be tested in production. (author)

  11. Potential controlled flotation of Sarcheshmeh Molybdenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolahdoozan, M.; Noori, H.

    2007-01-01

    Molybdenite flotation in the Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex was studied as a function of pulp potential, controlled using two types of sodium sulfide, a mineral origin and a chemical nature. Air and either plant or laboratory nitrogen were used as flotation careers. Potential readings took place in rougher cells, as it was proved to be vital in the molybdenite circuit. Results showed that, at reducing potentials between -525 and -575 mv, the highest molybdenum recovery of 93% and the lowest copper recovery of 4-15% can be achieved. These potentials did not change considerably by adding extra amounts of sodium sulfide. At more oxidizing potentials, i.e. more than -450 mv, copper recovery increases while the recovery of Molybdenite drops

  12. Ultrasonic flotational separation of syrup with polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng SiXian; Qiu TaiQiu; Xie XiongFei; Hu SongQing

    1998-01-01

    A 60 degrees Bx solution of Australian raw sugar was treated at 80 degrees C with 300 ppm phosphoric acid and neutralized to pH 7 with Ca(OH)2. The resulting syrup (as model cane syrup rather than phosphatated liquor?) was subjected to flotational separation with and without ultrasonic vibration (16.5-33 kHz, 20-300 W) and/or addition of polyacrylamide (PAM; dose not stated)

  13. Dissolved Air Flotation of arsenic adsorbent particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Enrique Santander Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of arsenic from synthetic effluent was studied using the adsorbent particle flotation technique (APF and dissolved air flotation (DAF. A sample of an iron mineral was used as adsorbent particles of arsenic, ferric chloride as coagulant, cationic poly-acrylamide (NALCO 9808 as flocculants, and sodium oleate as collector. Adsorption studies to determine the pH influence, contact time, and adsorbent particles concentration on the adsorption of arsenic were carried out along with flotation studies to determine the removal efficiency of adsorbents particles. The results achieved indicate that the adsorption kinetic of arsenic is very rapid and that in range of pH’s from 2 to 7 the adsorption percentages remain constant. The equilibrium conditions were achieved in 60 minutes and about 95% of arsenic was adsorbed when used an adsorbent concentration of 2 g/L and pH 6.3. The maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent particles was 4.96 mg/g. The mean free energy of adsorption (E was found to be 2.63 kJ/mol, which suggests physisorption. The results of the flotation studies demonstrated that when synthetic effluents with 8.9 mg/L of arsenic were treated under the following experimental conditions; 2 g/L of adsorbent particles, 120 mg/L of Fe(III, 2 mg/L of Nalco 9808, 20 mg/L of sodium oleate, and 40% of recycle ratio in the DAF, it was possible to reach 98% of arsenic removal and 6.3 NTU of residual turbidity in clarified synthetic effluent.

  14. Flotation process control optimisation at Prominent Hill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, Josephine; Muhamad, Nur; Weidenbach, M.

    2012-01-01

    OZ Minerals' Prominent Hill copper- gold concentrator is located 130 km south east of the town of Coober Pedy in the Gawler Craton of South Australia. The concentrator was built in 2008 and commenced commercial production in early 2009. The Prominent Hill concentrator is comprised of a conventional grinding and flotation processing plant with a 9.6 Mtpa ore throughput capacity. The flotation circuit includes six rougher cells, an IseMill for regrinding the rougher concentrate and a Jameson cell heading up the three stage conventional cell cleaner circuit. In total there are four level controllers in the rougher train and ten level controllers in the cleaning circuit for 18 cells. Generic proportional — integral and derivative (PID) control used on the level controllers alone propagated any disturbances downstream in the circuit that were generated from the grinding circuit, hoppers, between cells and interconnected banks of cells, having a negative impact on plant performance. To better control such disturbances, FloatStar level stabiliser was selected for installation on the flotation circuit to account for the interaction between the cells. Multivariable control was also installed on the five concentrate hoppers to maintain consistent feed to the cells and to the IsaMill. An additional area identified for optimisation in the flotation circuit was the mass pull rate from the rougher cells. FloatStar flow optimiser was selected to be installed subsequent to the FloatStar level stabiliser. This allowed for a unified, consistent and optimal approach to running the rougher circuit. This paper describes the improvement in the stabilisation of the circuit achieved by the FloatStar level stabiliser by using the interaction matrix between cell level controllers and the results and benefits of implementing the FloatStar flow optimiser on the rougher train.

  15. The Influence of Backwater Al3+ on Diaspore Bauxite Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaojun Fang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Al3+ in backwater on the flotation of diaspore bauxite was investigated by micro-flotation tests and the underlying mechanisms were investigated by inductively coupled plasma (ICP measurement, zeta potential measurements, solution chemistry analyses, and synchrotron near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS analyses. The ICP measurement results show the concentration of Al3+ in backwater was up to 1 × 10−4 mol/L. The micro-flotation results indicated that backwater Al3+ reduced the flotation recovery of diaspore and improved the flotation recovery of kaolinite at pH 9, which was the pH value used in the industrial flotation. The adsorption of Al3+ species changed the zeta potential, the Al atomic abundance, and the number of active sites on the mineral surface. In particular, the result of solution chemistry analyses and synchrotron NEXAFS analyses show that the Al3+ in backwater was adsorbed on the mineral surface in the form of Al(OH3 (s, and the bond of –Al–O–Al–(OH2 or –Al/Si–O–Al–(OH2 was formed at pH 9. It changed the intensity of hydrogen bond force between minerals and collectors, and resulted in the depression of diaspore flotation and the activation of kaolinite flotation. This study can be used to guide the application of backwater in the flotation of diaspore bauxite in industry.

  16. Influence of agitation intensity on flotation rate of apatite particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gregianin Testa

    Full Text Available Abstract The agitation intensity has a directly influence on flotation performance, lifting the particles and promoting the contact of bubbles and particles. In this paper, the energy input by the agitation on apatite flotation was investigated. The influence of pulp agitation in the flotation rate of particles with different sizes and two dosage levels was evaluated by batch testing. The flotation tests were conducted in an oscillating grid flotation cell (OGC, developed to promote a near isotropic turbulence environment. The cell is able to control the intensity of agitation and measure the energy transferred to the pulp phase. A sample of pure apatite was crushed (P80=310µm, characterized and floated with sodium oleate as collector. Four levels of energy dissipation, from 0.1 to 2 kWm-3, and two levels of collector dosage are used during the tests. The flotation kinetics by particle size were determined in function of the energy transferred. The results show a strong influence of the agitation intensity on the apatite flotation rate with both low and high dosage. For fine particles, when increasing the energy input, the flotation rate increase too, and this fact can be attributed to elevation of bubble-particle collisions. The kinetic result for the coarse particles demonstrated a reduction of the flotation rate whenever the energy input for this particle size was increased, whereby the turbulence caused by the agitation promotes the detachment of bubble-particle.

  17. Flotation separation of strontium via phosphate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Luong H V; Liu, J C

    2017-06-01

    Flotation separation of strontium (Sr) from wastewater via phosphate precipitation was investigated. While 37.33% of Sr precipitated at highly alkaline pH in the absence of PO 4 3- , it completely precipitated as Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 at a molar ratio ([PO 4 3- ]:[Sr 2+ ]) of 0.62 at a lower pH value. The presence of Ca 2+ hindered Sr precipitation, yet it could be overcome by increasing the PO 4 3- dose. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was a better collector for dispersed air flotation of Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 than cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, or mixed collector systems of SDS and saponin. The highest separation efficiency of 97.5% was achieved at an SDS dose of 40 mg/L. The main mechanism in the precipitate flotation is adsorption of anionic SDS on the positively charged surface of colloidal Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 via electrostatic interaction. SDS enhanced the aggregation of Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 precipitates as the size increased from 1.65 to 28.0 μm, which was beneficial to separation as well.

  18. Experimental studies on the group ignition of a cloud of coal particles: Volume 2, Pyrolysis and ignition modeling. Final report, August 15, 1988--October 15, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annamalai, K.; Ryan, W.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objectives of this work are to formulate a model to simulate transient coal pyrolysis, ignition, and combustion of a cloud of coal particles and to compare results of the program with those reported in the literature elsewhere.

  19. Low-rank coal research. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--June 30, 1989, including quarterly report, April--June 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  20. Bimetallic promotion of cooperative hydrogen transfer and heteroatom removal in coal liquefaction. Final technical report, September 1, 1988--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisch, J.J.

    1992-04-07

    The ultimate objective of this research has been to uncover novel reagents and experimental conditions for heteroatom removal and hydrogen transfer processes, which would be applicable to the liquefaction of coal under low-severity conditions. To this end, one phase of this research has investigated the cleavage of carbon-heteroatom bonds involving sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and halogen by subvalent transition-metal complexes. A second phase of the study has assessed the capability of the same transition-metal complexes or of organoaluminum Lewis acids to catalyze the cleavage of carbon-hydrogen bonds in aromatics and hence to promote hydrogen shuttling. Finally, a third phase of our work has uncovered a remarkable synergistic effect of combinations of transition metals with organoaluminum Lewis acids on hydrogen shuttling between aromatics and hydroaromatics. (VC)

  1. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a coal slurry from waste streams using Illinois coal that is ideally suited for a gasification feed. The principle items to be studied are (1) methods of concentrating pyrite and decreasing other ash forming minerals into a high grade gasification feed using froth flotation and gravity separation techniques; (2) chemical and particle size analyses of coal slurries; (3) determination of how that slurry can be densified and to what degree of densification is optimum from the pumpability and combustibility analyses; and (4) reactivity studies.

  2. Simulated coal-gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plant system verification. Final report, September 1990--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate fuel cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct fuel cell (DFC) which does not need an external fuel reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual fuel power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate fuel cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate fuel cell power produced to date, at 74% fuel utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate fuel cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.

  3. Ground level measurement of nuclei from coal development in the northern Great Plains: baseline measurements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B. L.; Johnson, L. R.; Sengupta, S.; Yue, P. C.

    1978-11-01

    The Institute of Atmospheric Sciences of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has completed 20 months of ambient air sampling at rural and remote sites in a five-state region of the northern Great Plains. Sampling was accomplished by use of a 27-ft motor home laboratory containing living accommodations for a field crew of two. The laboratory was outfitted with a number of instruments for measurement of pollutant parameters: cloud condensation nuclei, ice nuclei, Aitken nuclei, size distribution information for Aitken size particulate, sulfur dioxide, ozone, raindrop size distributions, and pH of precipitation. In addition, an instrumented meteorological tower provided wind speed, wind direction, ambient air temperature, and dew-point temperature. Instruments varied as to durability and success of operation, but better than 90% data retrieval was possible for the entire 20-month sampling study. Analyses of the large quantities of data obtained were not possible under the initial baseline measurement program, but examination of most parameters indicate that the air masses in the northern Great Plains are still relatively clean and are influenced primarily by local sources of contamination rather than large regional sources. Particulate concentrations in these remote areas are representative of mountain stations or clean rural conditions, and sulfur dioxide concentrations are at the threshold of detectability of the instrument. Precipitation is only very slightly acidic, and no significant quantity of amorphous particles (such as coal dust or combustion products) is found in the quantitative analyses of the high-volume filter collections. A summary of ''average'' conditions observed over the study area is tabulated.

  4. The effect of lizardite surface characteristics on pyrite flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Bo; Feng Qiming; Lu Yiping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two kinds of lizardite samples have different effect on the flotation of pyrite. ► Acid leaching changed the surface characteristics of lizardite mineral. ► The leached lizardite has less magnesium on its surface. ► The electro-kinetic behavior of lizardite aqueous suspensions is mainly a function of the Mg/Si atomic ratio on mineral surface. - Abstract: The effect of lizardite surface characteristics on pyrite flotation has been investigated through flotation tests, adsorption tests, zeta potential measurements, FTIR study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and sedimentation tests. The flotation results show that at pH value 9, where flotation of nickel sulfide ores is routinely performed, two kinds of lizardite samples (native lizardite and leached lizardite) have different effects on the flotation of pyrite. The native lizardite adheres to the surface of pyrite and reduces pyrite flotation recovery while the leached lizardite does not interfere with pyrite flotation. Infrared analyses and XPS tests illustrate that acid leaching changed the surface characteristics of lizardite mineral and the leached lizardite has less magnesium on its surface. It has been determined that the electro-kinetic behavior of lizardite aqueous suspensions is mainly a function of the Mg/Si atomic ratio on lizardite surface. So, the low isoelectric point observed in the leached sample has been linked to values of this ratio lower than that of the native lizardite.

  5. Treatment of shower and laundry liquid radwaste by foam flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, In Ha; Lee, Jeong Won; Park, Hee Seong; Lee, Chul Yong; Kang, Kwon Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    Shower and laundry water containing surfactant were treated by precipitate flotation and adsorbing colloidal flotation. In precipitate flotation, 99.8% of removal efficiency was attained at cobalt ion concentration 50ppm, pH 9.5, gas flow rate 70ml/min and flotation time 30min. In adsorbing colloidal flotation using Fe(III) as a collector, 99.8% removal efficiency was attained at initial cobalt ion concentration 50ppm, pH 8.5, gas flow rate 70ml/min and flotation time 15 min. By adding Al(III) 20ppm after coprecipitating cobalt ion with Fe(III), operation pH range was more enlarged than using Fe(III) or Al(III) each. NaNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, NaCl, CaCl{sub 2} were added as foreign ions. Removal efficiency by precipitate flotation and adsorbing colloidal flotation for the cobalt solution containing 0.1M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were about 90% and 72% due to the decreased Zeta potential and the interruption of precipitation. Using Al(III) as a activator at solution containing 0.1M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the removal efficiency was increased up to 99%. (author). 24 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  6. 21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... body pressure. The device is used to prevent and treat decubitus ulcers (bed sores). (b) Classification... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5550 Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification...

  7. Possibilities for rutile extraction from Norwegian eclogite by flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan; Sandvik, Knut

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary flotations tests towards rutile extraction from Norwegian eclogites (Verving deposit) have been carried out. Various sulfonate type flotation reagents (produced by Hoechts) have been tested. Selectivity between rutile/pyroxene has been targeted. Rutile separation from pyrite and garnet has been further identified as principal problem.

  8. Separation of oily materials in radioactive waste waters by flotation. Flotation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores E, R.M.; Ortiz O, H.B.

    2003-01-01

    The rate of separation of oil and total cobalt in the oleaginous residual water previously treated by coagulation/flocculation with a quaternary ammonium amine (25 mgL -1 ) and with modified anionic polyacrylamide (1.5 mgL -1 ) (pH = 7, G 1 = 300 s -1 and G 2 = 30 s -1 ) was determined. The experimental essays to determine the flotation kinetics, its were carried out using as operation and control parameters the air/solids relationship (G/S 0.35), pressure (P =620 kPa) and volume of air-water mixture (V = 37% of V f ), obtained in previous essays, at two different pressure levels and volume of discharged mixture. The kinetic studies of flotation obtained for the flotation system with conventional air dissolved (DAF) its suggest a first order kinetics that it can be represented by the SCC model. At the same time its show that the separation of the present pollutants in the residual water is governed by the removal velocity of the oil. Meanwhile, the concentration of total Co below 1 mgL -1 , on the other hand, the concentration of the 60 Co at the end of the flotation process resulted smaller than 0.008 Bq/ml, as long as the one 54 Mn were not detectable. (Author)

  9. Separation of four flavonol glycosides from Solanum rostratum Dunal using aqueous two-phase flotation followed by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lin; Shao, Qian; Xi, Xingjun; Chu, Qiao; Wei, Yun

    2017-02-01

    Aqueous two-phase flotation followed by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was used to separate four flavonol glycosides from Solanum rostratum Dunal. In the aqueous two-phase flotation section, the effects of sublation solvent, solution pH, (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 concentration in aqueous solution, cosolvent, N 2 flow rate, flotation time, and volumes of the polyethylene glycol phase on the recovery were investigated in detail, and the optimal conditions were selected: 50 wt% polyethylene glycol 1000 ethanol solvent as the flotation solvent, pH 4, 350 g/L of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 concentration in aqueous phase, 40 mL/min of N 2 flow rate, 30 min of flotation time, 10.0 mL of flotation solvent volume, and two times. After aqueous two-phase flotation concentration, the flotation products were purified by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. The purities of the final products A and B were 98.1 and 99.0%. Product B was the mixture of three compounds based on the analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography at the temperature of 10°C, while product A was hyperoside after the identification by nuclear magnetic resonance. Astragalin, 3'-O-methylquercetin 3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside, and 3'-O-methylquercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside were obtained with the purity of 93.8, 97.1, and 99.2%, respectively, after the further separation of product B using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Flotation of zinc and lead oxide minerals from Olkusz region calamine ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cichy Krystian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents chemical and mineralogical characteristics of calamine ore from the Pomorzany mine. A flowsheet for recovery of sulphide minerals of zinc and lead in the form of the Zn-Pb bulk concentrate was presented. In the following part, preparation of the feed for flotation of Zn-Pb oxide minerals and optimal conditions for separation from it iron sulphide minerals, represented by marcasite, were determined. In the final section the results of flotation of Zn-Pb oxide minerals with anionic collector AM2 belonging to the hydroxyamide group of collectors and a cationic collector in the form of a coconut amine, being a mixture of primary aliphatic amines, were presented. Basing on the obtained results, a technological flowsheet for the recovery of Zn-Pb sulphide and oxide minerals from the calamine ore of the Pomorzany mine was presented.

  11. Study on the technology of decreasing ash and sulfur in coking coal concentrate by deep-cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, A.; Li, P.; Chen, S. [Hefei Design and Research Institute of Coal Industry, Hefei (China)

    2007-06-15

    Middling fractions of coking coal, a rare resource in China, were analysed for their embedded minerals both in kind and distribution. Observation with a microscope shows that most are clay minerals of very small particle size. The embedded minerals can be liberated from middling by grinding. Clean coal can be obtained from ground middling by the flocculation-flotation process. The yield of clean coal could thus be increased and its ash and sulfur content decreased. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Integrated Approaches for the Study of Real Mineral Flotation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gerson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is more common than not, for mineral processing studies to proceed via the examination of model flotation systems with the resulting data often lacking statistical verification. The resultant concentrates and tails may then be subjected to a restricted range of analyses, for diagnosis of the flotation behavior variations observed, that themselves bias the outcomes. For instance surface analysis may be undertaken without reference to solution speciation, or liberation may be studied but surface speciation may not be taken into account. We propose an integrated approach whereby firstly the flotation data are vigorously scrutinized and the mineralogy, liberation, surface and solution speciation are examined in parallel to establish a chemical over view of the system. It is proposed that to make progress in the understanding of flotation systems, in terms of the minerals chemistry, that a multi-dimensional analytical approach is utilized and that the focus shifts towards the analysis of real ores and industrial flotation systems.

  13. Yeast Flocculation—Sedimentation and Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham G. Stewart

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Unlike most fermentation alcohol beverage production processes, brewers recycle their yeast. This is achieved by employing a yeast culture’s: flocculation, adhesion, sedimentation, flotation, and cropping characteristics. As a consequence of yeast recycling, the quality of the cropped yeast culture’s characteristics is critical. However, the other major function of brewer’s yeast is to metabolise wort into ethanol, carbon dioxide, glycerol, and other fermentation products, many of which contribute to beer’s overall flavour characteristics. This review will only focus on brewer’s yeast flocculation characteristics.

  14. Upgrading of boron ores and colemanite flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarar, B.; Mager, J.

    1979-01-01

    Processes applied for the processing and upgrading of sodium and calcium borates in Turkey are described. Details of froth flotation study where a low grade colemanite ore containing calcite and clays as a gangue minerals are given. It has been found that, at the natural pH of a colemanite-containing pulp (pH=9,2) it is possible to float colemanite selectively using dodecyl benzene sulphonate or its combinations with a non-polar reagent or naphthenic acids. (author)

  15. Betatron activation analysis of cupriferous flotation pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, R.; Matenko, J.; Mencel, J.; Janiczek, J.; Kielsznia, J.

    1974-01-01

    A method of copper determination in cupriferous flotation pulp by photo-activation analysis using betatron and another equipments of existent ''analytical line'' intended for copper determination in dry samples has been described. An activation has been achieved with 14.9 MeV γ-photons. The excitation activity was investigated by using two scintillation detectors and a fast coincidence circuit with resolution time 80 ns. The precision of method was determined as +- 4.25% in 0.95 confidence level for pulp with concentration 5% Cu and +- 24% for 0.06% Cu. (author)

  16. Contents and occurrence of cadmium in the coals from Guizhou province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dangyu; Wang, Mingshi; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2008-10-01

    Eleven raw coal samples were collected from Liuzhi, Suicheng, Zunyi, Xingren, Xingyi, and Anlong districts in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. The content of cadmium (Cd) in coal was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cd contents ranged from 0.146 to 2.74 ppm (whole coal basis), with an average of 1.09 ppm. In comparison with the arithmetic means of Cd in Chinese coal (0.25 ppm), this is much higher. In order to find its occurrence in coal, float-sink analysis and a coal flotation test by progressive release were conducted on two raw coal samples. The content of the Cd and ash yield of the flotation products were determined. The organic matter was removed by low-temperature ashing (LTA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to differentiate the main, minor, and trace minerals in the LTA from different flotation subproducts. Quartz, kaolinite, pyrite, and calcite were found to dominate the mineral matters, with a proportion of anatase, muscovite, and illite. Then quantitative analysis of minerals in LTA was conducted using material analysis using diffraction (MAUD) based on the Rietveld refinement method. Results show that Cd has a strong association with kaolinite.

  17. Contents and occurrence of cadmium in the coals from Guizhou Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangyu Song; Mingshi Wang; Junying Zhang; Chuguang Zheng [Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo (China). Institute of Resources and Environment

    2008-10-15

    Eleven raw coal samples were collected from Liuzhi, Suicheng, Zunyi, Xingren, Xingyi, and Anlong districts in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. The content of cadmium (Cd) in coal was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cd contents ranged from 0.146 to 2.74 ppm (whole coal basis), with an average of 1.09 ppm. In comparison with the arithmetic means of Cd in Chinese coal (0.25 ppm), this is much higher. In order to find its occurrence in coal, float-sink analysis and a coal flotation test by progressive release were conducted on two raw coal samples. The content of the Cd and ash yield of the flotation products were determined. The organic matter was removed by low-temperature ashing (LTA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to differentiate the main, minor, and trace minerals in the LTA from different flotation subproducts. Quartz, kaolinite, pyrite, and calcite were found to dominate the mineral matters, with a proportion of anatase, muscovite, and illite. Then quantitative analysis of minerals in LTA was conducted using material analysis using diffraction (MAUD) based on the Rietveld refinement method. Results show that Cd has a strong association with kaolinite.

  18. Test and evaluate the tri-gas low-Btu coal-gasification process. Final report, October 21, 1977-October 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabetakis, M.G.

    1980-12-01

    This report describes the continuation of work done to develop the BCR TRI-GAS multiple fluidized-bed gasification process. The objective is the gasification of all ranks of coals with the only product being a clean, low-Btu fuel gas. Design and construction of a 100 lb/h process and equipment development unit (PEDU) was completed on the previous contract. The process consists of three fluid-bed reactors in series, each having a specific function: Stage 1 - pretreatment; Stage 2- - gasification; Stage 3 - maximization of carbon utilization. Under the present contract, 59 PEDU tests have been conducted. A number of these were single-stage tests, mostly in Stage 1; however, integrated PEDU tests were conducted with a western coal (Rosebud) and two eastern coals (Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam). Both Rosebud and Pittsburgh seam coals were gasified with the PEDU operating in the design mode. Operation with Illinois No. 6 seam coal was also very promising; however, time limitations precluded further testing with this coal. One of the crucial tasks was to operate the Stage 1 reactor to pretreat and devolatilize caking coals. By adding a small amount of air to the fluidizing gas, the caking properties of the coal can be eliminated. However, it was also desirable to release a high percentage of the volatile matter from the coal in this vessel. To accomplish this, the reactor had to be operated above the agglomerating temperature of caking coals. By maintaining a low ratio of fresh to treated coal, this objective was achieved. Both Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam coals were treated at temperatures of 800 to 900 F without agglomerating in the vessel.

  19. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  20. Recovery of value-added fossil resin from El-Maghara coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, S.S.; Mostafa, S.I. [Central Metallurgical R and D Inst., Cairo (Egypt)

    2003-06-01

    El-Maghara coal was confirmed to contain a substantial amount of fossil resin intimately associated with its macerals. Macroscopic identification as well as physical diagnosis of solvent refined resinite material proved its particular significance and sufficient value to justify a fossil resin industry in Egypt. This resin has thermosetting properties superior to most synthetics resins available from petrochemicals. It could compete in the market as a chemical commodity in high-speed printing and high-performance adhesive applications. It could have also special values as a feedstock for high-density jet fuel after proper hydrogenation. The froth flotation technique was applied to recover this valuable material from El-Maghara ground coal. The solvent extraction method using commercial solvents was used to refine the resinite fraction collected as flotation concentrate. The variables affecting the flotation technique were studied. Characterization of refined resin was applied. (orig.)

  1. Concentration of uranium in seawater by flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Toru; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    1986-01-01

    A method has been developed for the concentration of uranium in seawater by precipitation flotation-carbonate extraction-ion flotation. Uranium in seawater was coprecipitated with hydrated iron (III) oxide by adjusting the pH to 5.5 after addition of 1.0 x 10 -3 mol/l of iron (III) and agitating for 1 hr, and the precipitate was floated with 1.0 x 10 -5 mol/l of sodium oleate and 5.0 x 10 -5 mol/l of sodium lauryl sulfate by bubbling nitrogen through the seawater for 15 min. Uranium was extracted from the precipitate scum at the yield of 89 % with 100 ml of 1.8 % of ammonium carbonate solution by agitating for 2 hr, and floated with 1.2 x 10 -3 mol/l of cetylpyridinium chloride by bubbling nitrogen through the extract diluted 5-fold for 30 min in the recovery of about 100 %. The fairly selective recovery of uranium was obtained from 4 l of seawater at the yield of 87 % throughout the entire process. (author)

  2. Kaolinite removal from bauxite by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávia Martins Silva Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a potential condition to separate kaolinite through flotation when it is present in bauxite ore. This research anticipates a Brazilian industry requirement, considering the tendency towards the need for aluminosilicates removal from bauxite ores, as has already occurred in China. Kaolinite is the most abundant aluminosilicate, and gibbsite is the main aluminum bearing mineral in Brazilian bauxite ores. The first step was a fundamental study involving microflotation experiments with pure samples of kaolinite and gibbsite. Ammonium quaternary salts and amines were used as the collector and corn starch as the depressant. In a fundamental study, the best conditions determined in the first step were evaluated for the flotation of kaolinite from bauxite ore using laboratory scale experiments. Tests with AQ142/starch (pH 10 and CTAB (pH 7 led to satisfactory results. In general, the highest values of alumina/silica mass ratio were obtained with AQ142/starch and the highest values of mass recovery and metallurgical recovery were achieved with CTAB.

  3. Selective flotation for the removal of radionuclides from contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.D.; Yu, Q.; Lu, Y.Q.

    1995-01-01

    Low-level radioactive contaminated soils (10--500 pci/gm) created by defense-related activities at certain Superfund sites, such as Nevada Test Site (NTS), is a current environmental concern. Many of these contaminated sites may require appropriate cleanup and restoration, which could cost billions of dollars and put tremendous pressure on limited financial resources. Therefore, the development of a selective flotation process to separate such radionuclides from contaminated soils should be considered. In this study, both a pure depleted UO 2 sample and three synthetic UO 2 /soil mixtures were used to evaluate surface chemistry features and to examine the possibility for the flotation of fine UO 2 particles from selected soils. It was intended that this model system would be a reasonable representation of contaminated soils such as those found the Nevada Test Site which are reported to be contaminated by PuO 2 fallout. The effect of reagent schedule, particle size distribution, and surface charge are discussed with respect to the flotation separation of the UO 2 /soil mixtures. It was found that both commercial fatty acids and reagent grade sodium oleate are effective collectors for UO 2 flotation provided the pH is adjusted to the range of pH 8--9. The bench-scale flotation results successfully demonstrated that froth flotation technology can be used to remove UO 2 from such model contaminated soils with appropriate flotation chemistry conditions which depend on the soil characteristics and other pretreatment procedures

  4. Removal of Cobalt Ions by Precipitate Foam Flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, In Ha; Lee, Jung Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-09-30

    Simulated waste liquid containing 50 ppm cobalt ion was tested by precipitate flotation using a sodium lauryl sulfate as a collector. The effects of initial cobalt ion concentration, pH, surfactant concentration, flotation time, gas flow rate and foreign ions on removal efficiency of cobalt ion were studied. Pretreatment of the waste liquid with 35% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} prior to precipitate flotation made shift of optimal flotation pH from the strong alkalinity to weak alkaline range and made a favorable flotation of cobalt ion in wide range of pH. For the result of this experiment, 99.8% removal efficiency was obtained on the conditions of initial cobalt ion concentration 50 ppm, pH 9.5, gas flow rate 70 ml/min, flotation time 30 min. The simulate ion was formed to be the most harmful ion against removal of cobalt by precipitate flotation of the species which were tested. The presence of 0.1 M of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion decreased removal efficiency of cobalt to 90% while the cobalt were almost entirely removed in the absence of sulfate ion. (author). 11 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Design of a new flotation system for industrial waters treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, J E; Diaz, J; Blandon V R

    1999-01-01

    The air flotation is a process of physical separation for the industrial wastewater treatment that removes oils and suspended solids. Although methods different from flotation have been used in petroleum industry, their application is subjected to numerous operational and economic limitations. In this work some comparisons of these flotation techniques are discussed and, a new system for the treatment of residual waters by flotation is the developed. This system is the result of several years of research both in laboratory and in pilot plants. The new design uses characteristics from other techniques, it is based on a modification of a system of induced air flotation as to operate like a system of dissolved air flotation, which improves its performance at lower costs and reduces operational problems associated with equipment maintenance. The developed system has several characteristics that improve its operation, including the use of nozzles for gas injection and dispersion in the liquid phase. As opposed to conventional systems, there is no need to use motorized bubble generating equipment for each flotation cell, diminishing therefore power requirements

  6. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, M.; Placha, M.; Bethell, P. [and others

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of fine coal cleaning. The project will be completed in two phases: bench-scale testing and demonstration of four advanced flotation cells and; in-plant proof-of-concept (POC) pilot plant testing of two flotation cells individually and in two-stage combinations. The goal is to ascertain if a two-stage circuit can result in reduced capital and operating costs while achieving improved separation efficiency. The plant selected for this project, Cyprus Emerald Coal Preparation plant, cleans 1200 tph of raw coal. The plant produces approximately 4 million tonnes of clean coal per year at an average as received energy content of 30.2 MJ/Kg (13,000 Btu/lb).

  7. Preliminary Beneficiation and Washability Studies on Ghouzlou's Low-Ash Coal Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataallah Bahrami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present research work, a low-ash coal, from Ghouzlou deposit in Iran, with an average ash content of 12% was subjected to some beneficiation experiments such as heavy media separation and flotation. Sieve analysis showed that 62.3% of the coal sample with the size of +2 mm had around 7.3% ash contents. Also, heavy media tests carried out on five size fractions revealed that by setting the separation density at 1.4 g/cm3 for the coarse fraction (+1 mm, a 5% ash product with more than 70% coal recovery was obtainable. Samples with lower ash content (5% based on the Mayer curves to produce a 5% coal product. Moreover, flotation tests on -1 mm fraction could reduce the ash content from more 13.2% to 10.4%.

  8. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, M.; Placha, M.; Bethell, P.

    1995-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of fine coal cleaning. The project will be completed in two phases: bench-scale testing and demonstration of four advanced flotation cells and; in-plant proof-of-concept (POC) pilot plant testing of two flotation cells individually and in two-stage combinations. The goal is to ascertain if a two-stage circuit can result in reduced capital and operating costs while achieving improved separation efficiency. The plant selected for this project, Cyprus Emerald Coal Preparation plant, cleans 1200 tph of raw coal. The plant produces approximately 4 million tonnes of clean coal per year at an average as received energy content of 30.2 MJ/Kg (13,000 Btu/lb)

  9. Separation of oily materials in radioactive waste waters by flotation. Determination of operation and control parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz O, H.B.; Flores E, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the determination of the operation and control parameters (air/solids ratio G/S, retention time Θ, pressure P and de pressurized volume of mixed air-water V), of the flotation system used in the treatment of oleaginous residual water (polluted mainly with 60 Co) coming from the decontamination process of worn out oils, using as response parameters the concentration of oleaginous material and the residual turbidity. The obtained results allowed to observe the dependence of G/S with the pressure and volume of air-water given. At the same time it was settled down that the set of operation conditions that offers the greater separation percentage of G As and turbidity in the smallest time, they are those obtained by V 2 = 0.0012 m 3 and P 2 = 620 kPa, (G/S = 0.30 - 0.35, = 14-16 min) for what were employees as the ideal values of operation and control in the flotation system. As long as, the concentration of total Co is found under 1 mgL -1 . Finally, the selected flotation system showed high separation levels of 60 Co, whose specific activity are below of 0.007 BqmL -1 . (Author)

  10. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Final report - Part 10. Variability in the inorganic content of United States' coals: a multivariate statistical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glick, D.C.; Davis, A.

    1984-07-01

    The multivariate statistical techniques of correlation coefficients, factor analysis, and cluster analysis, implemented by computer programs, can be used to process a large data set and produce a summary of relationships between variables and between samples. These techniques were used to find relationships for data on the inorganic constituents of US coals. Three hundred thirty-five whole-seam channel samples from six US coal provinces were analyzed for inorganic variables. After consideration of the attributes of data expressed on ash basis and whole-coal basis, it was decided to perform complete statistical analyses on both data sets. Thirty variables expressed on whole-coal basis and twenty-six variables expressed on ash basis were used. For each inorganic variable, a frequency distribution histogram and a set of summary statistics was produced. These were subdivided to reveal the manner in which concentrations of inorganic constituents vary between coal provinces and between coal regions. Data collected on 124 samples from three stratigraphic groups (Pottsville, Monongahela, Allegheny) in the Appalachian region were studied using analysis of variance to determine degree of variability between stratigraphic levels. Most variables showed differences in mean values between the three groups. 193 references, 71 figures, 54 tables.

  11. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  12. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, P.; Boogerd, F.C.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  13. Post-test analysis of 20kW molten carbonate fuel cell stack operated on coal gas. Final report, August 1993--February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A 20kW carbonate fuel cell stack was operated with coal gas for the first time in the world. The stack was tested for a total of 4,000 hours, of which 3,900 hours of testing was conducted at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Incorporated, Plaquemine, Louisiana outdoor site. The operation was on either natural gas or coal gas and switched several times without any effects, demonstrating duel fuel capabilities. This test was conducted with 9142 kJ/m{sup 3} (245 Btu/cft) coal gas provided by a slipstream from Destec`s entrained flow, slagging, slurry-fed gasifier equipped with a cold gas cleanup subsystem. The stack generated up to 21 kW with this coal gas. Following completion of this test, the stack was brought to Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and a detailed post-test analysis was conducted to identify any effects of coal gas on cell components. This investigation has shown that the direct fuel cell (DFC) can be operated with properly cleaned and humidified coal-as, providing stable performance. The basic C direct fuel cell component materials are stable and display normal stability in presence of the coal gas. No effects of the coal-borne contaminants are apparent. Further cell testing at ERC 1 17, confirmed these findings.

  14. Sumpor u ugljenu (Sulphur in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2004-12-01

    utilisation of coals with low sulphur concentrations (typically < 1 wt %, the removal of cleaning prior to utilisation. The methods for the removal of sulphur from coal can be divided into: physical, chemical and microbiological. The mineral sulphur components can be removed or reduced by commercial methods of coal washing, flotation and agglomeration. A number of chemical desulphurization for the removal of, both, pyritic and organic sulphur have been advocated. The chemical desulphurization methods however, have two major drawbacks. Namely, they are often expensive and they destroy the caking properties of coal. Certain microorganisms have been used to consume or convert selectively most of the pyritic sulphur as well as some of the organic sulphur in coal. The process is also cheaper than chemical desulphurization and does not affect the caking properties of coking coal.

  15. Heavy metal removal from waste waters by ion flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, H; Erdogan, D

    2007-09-05

    Flotation studies were carried out to investigate the removal of heavy metals such as copper (II), zinc (II), chromium (III) and silver (I) from waste waters. Various parameters such as pH, collector and frother concentrations and airflow rate were tested to determine the optimum flotation conditions. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide were used as collectors. Ethanol and methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC) were used as frothers. Metal removal reached about 74% under optimum conditions at low pH. At basic pH it became as high as 90%, probably due to the contribution from the flotation of metal precipitates.

  16. Highly Polluted Wastewaters Treatment by Improved Dissolved Air Flotation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moga, I. C.; Covaliu, C. I.; Matache, M. G.; Doroftei, B. I.

    2017-06-01

    Numerous investigations are oriented towards the development of new wastewater treatment technologies, having high efficiencies for removing even low concentrations of pollutants found in water. These efforts were determined by the destroyer impact of the pollutants to the environment and human’s health. For this reason this paper presents our study concerning an improved dissolved air flotation technology for wastewater treatment. There is described a dissolved air flotation (DAF) installation composed by two equipments: pressurized capsule and lamellar settling. Also, there are presented some advantages of using nanoparticles as flotation collectors.

  17. Coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    ACR's Coal 1992, the successor to the ACR Coal Marketing Manual, contains a comprehensive set of data on many aspects of the Australian coal industry for several years leading up to 1992. Tables and text give details of coal production and consumption in New South Wales, Queensland and other states. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, China, Colombia, Poland and ex-USSR. Also listed are prices of Australian coking and non-coking coal, Australian coal stocks (and those of other major countries), loading port capacities, freight rates and coal quality requirements (analysis of coals by brand and supplier). A listing of Australian coal exporting companies is provided. A description of the spot Coal Screen Dealing System is given. World hard coal imports are listed by country and coal imports by major Asian countries tabulated. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is included.

  18. Flotation separation of uranium from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, M.; Mehta, R.; Garcia, H.; Chai, C.D.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The volume of low-level contaminated soil at the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapon Sites are in the order of several million tons. Most of the contaminants are uranium, plutonium, other heavy metals and organic compounds. Selected physical separation processes have shown demonstrated potential in concentrating the radionuclides in a small fraction of the soil. Depending upon the size, nature of bonding and distributions of radionuclides, more than 90% of the radionuclide activity can be concentrated in a small volume of fraction of the soil. The physico-chemical separation processes such as flotation in a mechanical and microbubble tall column cell have shown promising applications in cleaning up the high volume contaminated soil

  19. Zircon-rutile-ilmenite froth flotation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Denham, D.L. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for separating a mixture of minerals comprising at least zircon, ilmenite and rutile. It comprises adding an acid solution to the mixture to acidify to a pH of between about 2.0 and 6.0; adding starch to the mixture to depress the ilmenite and the rutile; adding a source of fluoride ions to the mixture to provide a negative surface charge on the zircon surface to activate the zircon; adding an amine cationic collector to the mixture to float the activated zircon; subjecting the mixture containing the added acid solution, the fluoride ions, the starch and the cationic collector, to froth flotation; and withdrawing a float product comprising the zircon and a sink product comprising the ilmenite and rutile

  20. Beneficiation of the gold bearing ore by gravity and flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Alim; Kangal, Olgaç; Sirkeci, Ayhan A.; Önal, Güven

    2012-02-01

    Gold concentration usually consists of gravity separation, flotation, cyanidation, or the combination of these processes. The choice among these processes depends on the mineralogical characterization and gold content of the ore. Recently, the recovery of gold using gravity methods has gained attention because of low cost and environmentally friendly operations. In this study, gold pre-concentrates were produced by the stepwise gravity separation and flotation techniques. The Knelson concentrator and conventional flotation were employed for the recovery of gold. Gold bearing ore samples were taken from Gümüşhane Region, northern east part of Turkey. As a result of stepwise Knelson concentration experiments, a gold concentrate assaying around 620 g/t is produced with 41.4wt% recovery. On the other hand, a gold concentrate about 82 g/t is obtained with 89.9wt% recovery from a gold ore assaying 6 g/t Au by direct flotation.

  1. Raman spectroscopic study of some chalcopyrite-xanthate flotation products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andreev, GN

    2003-12-16

    Full Text Available of normal vibrations of the corresponding individual compounds. The latter facilitated the Raman spectroscopic elucidation of the reaction products formed on the chalcopyrite surface in real industrial flotation conditions with a sodium isopropyl xanthate...

  2. Removal of adsorbent particles od copper ions by Jet flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santander, M.; Tapia, P.; Pavez, O.; Valderrama, L.; Guzman, D.

    2009-01-01

    The present study shows the results obtained on the removal of copper ions from synthetic effluents by using the adsorbent particles flotation technique (APF) in a Jet flotation cell (Jameson type). In a typical experimental run, a mineral with high quartz content was used as adsorbent particles in the adsorption and flotation experiments, to determine optimal pH conditions, adsorbent particles concentration; flotation reagents dosage and air/effluent flow ratio for applying in the Jet cell to maximize the efficiency of copper ions adsorptions and the removal of particles adsorbents containing the absorbed copper ions. The results indicate the at pH>7 and at adsorbent particles concentration of 2 kg.m - 3, 99% of copper ions is adsorbed and, when the air/effluent flow ratio applied in the Jet cell is 0,2, 98% of absorbent particles containing the adsorbed copper ions is removed. (Author) 39 refs.

  3. Recovery of copper ion by flotation with potassium amylxanthate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Serrano, B.; Coello-Velazquez, A. L.; Bernardo, A.; Afif, E.; Menendez-Aguado, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a study about the column flotation process of copper ion employing potassium amylxanthate as collector reagent is carried out. The effect on the recovery of copper ion by the modification of variables such as collector/metal relation and surface velocity of gas and liquid was determined experimentally by the analysis of the statistic-mathematical model of the copper flotation process, as well as the physico-chemical phenomena that take place, showing the effect of the collector/metal relation in the process. The effect of pH as the main properties of the chemical system in the recovery and the kinetic of the flotation process is made too. The experimental results shows that the recovery of copper in the pH range of 4,5 - 12 is possible with prevalence of precipitate flotation. (Author) 43 refs.

  4. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  5. The Effect of Conditioning on the Flotation of Pyrrhotite in the Presence of Chlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of conditioning on the flotation of pyrrhotite in the presence of chlorite was investigated through flotation tests, sedimentation tests, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis. The flotation results show that chlorite slimes dramatically impair the flotation of pyrrhotite. Sedimentation and flotation tests reveal that conditioning can effectively remove chlorite slimes from pyrrhotite surfaces, resulting in an enhanced flotation recovery of pyrrhotite. When mixed minerals were conditioned under the natural atmosphere, a faster conditioning speed and longer conditioning time decreased the flotation recovery of pyrrhotite. However, when mixed minerals were conditioned under a nitrogen atmosphere, a more intensive conditioning process provided better flotation results. XPS analyses illustrate that a faster conditioning speed and longer conditioning time under the natural atmosphere accelerates the oxidation of pyrrhotite, leading to a decrease in the flotation recovery of pyrrhotite.

  6. Treatment of oily water by flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz O, H.B.

    2002-01-01

    The operation of the nuclear power plants such as Laguna Verde (CLV) with nuclear reactors of the boiling water type (BWR) produce radioactive waste solids, liquids and gaseous which require of a special treatment in their operation and arrangement. Such is the case of the liquid wastes from CLV which are a mixture of water and synthetic oils coming from leaks and spilling by pressure of maintenance of electro-mechanical equipment associated to the performance of the nuclear power plant. This mixture of water and spent oils is pretreated by means of sedimentation, centrifugation and evaporation. However the realized efforts by the CLV, the spent oil obtained from the pretreatment contains concentrations of radioactive material higher than the tolerance limits established in the normative in force in radiological safety (0.37 Bq m L -1 for 60 Co and 54 Mn). In this context it was necessary to design an efficient treatment system and economically profitable which separates the oil, the heavy metals and the leftovers of radioactive material that could be present in water, with the purpose of fulfil with the Mexican Official Standards corresponding for its unload or even it can reuse it in the wash process of treated oil. The treatment system of oily water waste consists of: a) Coagulation-flocculation, b) Flotation system with modified air dissolved (DAFm). The proposed flotation process allows to reach a higher separation efficiencies of: Concentration of greases and oils: 94.11 %; Turbidity: 98.6 %; 60 Co: 82.3 % ; Co: 94.8 % and Cr: 99.9 % (Author)

  7. Modified binders on the basis of flotation tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, N. A.; Zagorodnyuk, L. Kh; Shchekina, A. Yu; Gorodov, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    The article proposes compositions of efficient modified composite binders on the basis of portland cement and flotation tailings; the new binders attain the ultimate compressive stress that is twice as high as that of the cement stone. At that, use of annually growing volume of flotation tailings in the production of the composite binder is a rational way for recycling this type of waste and allows saving the planet's natural resources.

  8. Chelation and flotation in endodontic practice: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, G G

    1986-10-01

    The removal of broken instruments and silver points, as well as pulp tissue, may be accomplished by careful instrumentation, irrigation, and flotation. Flotation and recapitulation with smaller instruments and irrigation with copious amounts of sodium hypochlorite can clean out microorganisms and the organic matter from the tubular structure which provides a more ideal surface for sealing the root canal system. A sterile environment was obtained by removing the substrate and creating a more ideal environment for better healing.

  9. Heavy metal removal from waste waters by ion flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Polat, Hürriyet; Erdoğan, D.

    2007-01-01

    Flotation studies were carried out to investigate the removal of heavy metals such as copper (II), zinc (II), chromium (III) and silver (I) from waste waters. Various parameters such as pH, collector and frother concentrations and airflow rate were tested to determine the optimum flotation conditions. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide were used as collectors. Ethanol and methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC) were used as frothers. Metal removal reached about 74% under o...

  10. A review of zinc oxide mineral beneficiation using flotation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejtemaei, Majid; Gharabaghi, Mahdi; Irannajad, Mehdi

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, extraction of zinc from low-grade mining tailings of oxidized zinc has been a matter of discussion. This is a material which can be processed by flotation and acid-leaching methods. Owing to the similarities in the physicochemical and surface chemistry of the constituent minerals, separation of zinc oxide minerals from their gangues by flotation is an extremely complex process. It appears that selective leaching is a promising method for the beneficiation of this type of ore. However, with the high consumption of leaching acid, the treatment of low-grade oxidized zinc ores by hydrometallurgical methods is expensive and complex. Hence, it is best to pre-concentrate low-grade oxidized zinc by flotation and then to employ hydrometallurgical methods. This paper presents a critical review on the zinc oxide mineral flotation technique. In this paper, the various flotation methods of zinc oxide minerals which have been proposed in the literature have been detailed with the aim of identifying the important factors involved in the flotation process. The various aspects of recovery of zinc from these minerals are also dealt with here. The literature indicates that the collector type, sulfidizing agent, pH regulator, depressants and dispersants types, temperature, solid pulp concentration, and desliming are important parameters in the process. The range and optimum values of these parameters, as also the adsorption mechanism, together with the resultant flotation of the zinc oxide minerals reported in the literature are summarized and highlighted in the paper. This review presents a comprehensive scientific guide to the effectiveness of flotation strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Remediation of metal-contaminated urban soil using flotation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermont, G., E-mail: dermonge@gmail.com [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490, rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bergeron, M.; Richer-Lafleche, M.; Mercier, G. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490, rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2010-02-01

    A soil washing process using froth flotation technique was evaluated for the removal of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from a highly contaminated urban soil (brownfield) after crushing of the particle-size fractions > 250 {mu}m. The metal contaminants were in particulate forms and distributed in all the particle-size fractions. The particle-by-particle study with SEM-EDS showed that Zn was mainly present as sphalerite (ZnS), whereas Cu and Pb were mainly speciated as various oxide/carbonate compounds. The influence of surfactant collector type (non-ionic and anionic), collector dosage, pulp pH, a chemical activation step (sulfidization), particle size, and process time on metal removal efficiency and flotation selectivity was studied. Satisfactory results in metal recovery (42-52%), flotation selectivity (concentration factor > 2.5), and volume reduction (> 80%) were obtained with anionic collector (potassium amyl xanthate). The transportation mechanisms involved in the separation process (i.e., the true flotation and the mechanical entrainment) were evaluated by the pulp chemistry, the metal speciation, the metal distribution in the particle-size fractions, and the separation selectivity indices of Zn/Ca and Zn/Fe. The investigations showed that a great proportion of metal-containing particles were recovered in the froth layer by entrainment mechanism rather than by true flotation process. The non-selective entrainment mechanism of the fine particles (< 20 {mu}m) caused a flotation selectivity drop, especially with a long flotation time (> 5 min) and when a high collector dose is used. The intermediate particle-size fraction (20-125 {mu}m) showed the best flotation selectivity.

  12. Flotation atomic absorption determination of bismuth in nonferrous metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ososkov, V.K.; Plintus, A.M.; Kornelli, M.Eh.; Zakhariya, A.N.; Lozanova, E.V.

    1986-01-01

    Technique of flotation concentration and atomic absorption determination of bismuth microquantities in alloys on the basis of copper and zinc has been developed. Fine-dispersed EhDEh-10P anionite was used as a carrier in flotation concentration. State standard samples (SSS) of brasses and German silver were used as analysed objects. Effect of macrocomponents on the results of bismuth content determination has been studied. Satisfactory coincidence of the results obtained and SSS certificates is shown

  13. Remediation of metal-contaminated urban soil using flotation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermont, G; Bergeron, M; Richer-Laflèche, M; Mercier, G

    2010-02-01

    A soil washing process using froth flotation technique was evaluated for the removal of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from a highly contaminated urban soil (brownfield) after crushing of the particle-size fractions >250microm. The metal contaminants were in particulate forms and distributed in all the particle-size fractions. The particle-by-particle study with SEM-EDS showed that Zn was mainly present as sphalerite (ZnS), whereas Cu and Pb were mainly speciated as various oxide/carbonate compounds. The influence of surfactant collector type (non-ionic and anionic), collector dosage, pulp pH, a chemical activation step (sulfidization), particle size, and process time on metal removal efficiency and flotation selectivity was studied. Satisfactory results in metal recovery (42-52%), flotation selectivity (concentration factor>2.5), and volume reduction (>80%) were obtained with anionic collector (potassium amyl xanthate). The transportation mechanisms involved in the separation process (i.e., the true flotation and the mechanical entrainment) were evaluated by the pulp chemistry, the metal speciation, the metal distribution in the particle-size fractions, and the separation selectivity indices of Zn/Ca and Zn/Fe. The investigations showed that a great proportion of metal-containing particles were recovered in the froth layer by entrainment mechanism rather than by true flotation process. The non-selective entrainment mechanism of the fine particles (flotation selectivity drop, especially with a long flotation time (>5 min) and when a high collector dose is used. The intermediate particle-size fraction (20-125 microm) showed the best flotation selectivity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Contribution to the study of xenotime and zircon flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scorzeli, Isabella Bernstein; Torem, Mauricio Leonardo

    1995-01-01

    Flotation and electrokinetics behaviour have studied with xenotime (YPO 4 ) and zircon (Zr Si O 4 ) from a mixture of grains with 90% xenotime and 10% zircon, produced in cassiterite concentration process. Micro flotation and zeta potential have been also studied, by using oleic acid P.A. and DP1-6256 as collectors, and sodium metasillicate and Procol DA911 as modifier agents

  15. Investigation of impact of water type on borate ore flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, S G; Acar, A

    2004-04-01

    In this work, the impact of water type on borate ore flotation was investigated, while various physical parameters during flotation were considered in order to compare the results. Two different colemanite samples from Emet deposits of Turkey, named as Emet-A and Emet-B contained 44% B(2)O(3) and 40% B(2)O(3), respectively. The flotation tests were performed at feed particle size range of -210 +20 microm. Optimal consumption values for the reagents were determined as 2000 gt(-1) for AeroPromoter R825 from Cytec Company, a sulphonate type collector, 1500 gt(-1) for Procol CA927 from Allied Colloids Company, a sulphosuccinamate type collector and 100 gt(-1) for AeroFrother 70 from Cytec Company, an alcohol-type frother. In the tests, the impeller speed of the Denver-type flotation machine was set to 1200 rpm and the samples were fed into a litre cell at 25% solid/liquid ratio and at natural pH value of the slurry at room temperature. The flotation results obtained from the tests with use of tap water, demineralised water and the artificial water prepared with Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) cations deliberately added into demineralised water were compared to each other in optimal flotation conditions.

  16. Flotation of uranium from uranium ores in Canada. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthuswami, S.V.; Vigayan, S.; Woods, D.R.; Banerjee, S.

    1983-01-01

    About 150 flotation tests were done on Elliot Lake ore with 15 reagents as collectors in order to screen and choose an attractive collector for uranium flotation. Several variables were studied including pH, conditioning time and mode of collector addition. The tests were done in a Denver or Agitair subaeration cell. The particle size of the ore was kept at 85% below -325 mesh. Three reagents (Kelex 00, TOPO, and cupferron) were identified as having the most promise. The best results were obtained with cupferron, where 93-95% of the uranium was recovered in 25-30% of the mass of original ore. Radium in the tails varied between 5 and 30 pCi/g depending on the mass of uranium floated. Radium was recovered in proportion to uranium in the tests done at neutral pH. The preconcentration results obtained by flotation alone were comparable to those obtained using pyrite flotation and wet high-intensity magnetic separation of uranium. The consumption of cupferron was 4 kg/Mg ore for each flotation stage. This was 10-15 times larger than the collector usage in conventional oxide flotation. This scheme did not require other reagents as depressants, activators or modifiers. Reproducibility was good and similar recoveries were obtained with fresh or old ores, and with distilled or mine water. The selectivity of cupferron for uranium in the ore studied was outstanding

  17. On the hydrodynamics and the scale-up of flotation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, H.

    1986-01-01

    In flotation machines, turbulence is process-determining. Macroturbulence is necessary for suspension, microturbulence controls the air dispersion, the rate of the particle-bubble collisions and the stresses on agglomerates. Consequently, the hydrodynamic optimization of flotation processes plays an important role for the flotation efficiency. In the paper the following aspects are considered: the turbulent microprocesses of flotation processes; the integral hydrodynamic characterization of flotation processes; correlations between particle size and optimum hydrodynamics; correlations between flocculation of fine particles and optimum-hydrodynamics; and hydrodynamic scale-up of flotation processes

  18. Polyethoxylated carboxylic surfactant for ion foam flotation: fundamental study from solution to foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micheau, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Ion foam flotation allows to concentrate ions in a foam phase formed by a soap. For classical systems, the strong interaction between ions and surfactant generally leads to the formation of precipitates and of froth. When the froth collapses, the solid residue thus recovered requires a recycling or conversion. In order to remedy this, the present work uses as collector a polyethoxylated carboxylic surfactant, AKYPO RO 90 VG, which forms soluble ion/surfactant complexes, even with multi-charge ions. This work presents a detailed study of the fundamental mechanisms that govern the extraction of ions by foaming. In the first part, surface activity and acid/base properties of the surfactant in solution are determined by combining numerous independent techniques which are pH-metric dosage, tensiometry and small angle scattering. The evolution of these properties in the presence of different nitrate salts (Nd, Eu, Ca, Sr, Cu, Li, Na, Cs) coupled with electrophoretic measurements give a first approach to selectivity. Finally, all of these data combined with a study of the formation of surfactant/ion complexes allow us to determine the speciation of Nd/AKYPO system as a function of pH. In the second part, the analysis of the foam by conductivity and neutron scattering provides information on the wetness and foam film thickness, parameters governing foam stability. The pH and the nature of the added ions, their number of charge and also their chemical nature thus appear to be major parameters that governed wetness and foam film thickness. The last part is devoted to the understanding of the ion extraction/separation experiments by flotation based on all previous results. It is shown that the flotation of neodymium is strongly related to its speciation, which could lead to its re-extraction or its flotation in precipitated form. It is shown that, neodymium induces a phenomenon of mono-charge ion depletion in the foam. This ionic specificity allows to consider the studied

  19. Multi-Stage Flotation for the Removal of Ash from Fine Graphite Using Mechanical and Centrifugal Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangning Bu; Tuantuan Zhang; Yaoli Peng; Guangyuan Xie; Erdong Wu

    2018-01-01

    Graphite ore collected from Hunan province, south China was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy. Rougher and multi-stage flotation tests using a mechanical flotation cell and a flotation column containing an additional centrifugal force field were carried out to promote its grade and economic value. In rougher flotation, both the mechanical flotation cell and flotation column reduced the ash content of the graphite ore from 15.43% to 10.8%, while the ...

  20. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region V. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    This report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. This volume is specifically for the states of Washington, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.

  1. Features Extraction of Flotation Froth Images and BP Neural Network Soft-Sensor Model of Concentrate Grade Optimized by Shuffled Cuckoo Searching Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-sheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For meeting the forecasting target of key technology indicators in the flotation process, a BP neural network soft-sensor model based on features extraction of flotation froth images and optimized by shuffled cuckoo search algorithm is proposed. Based on the digital image processing technique, the color features in HSI color space, the visual features based on the gray level cooccurrence matrix, and the shape characteristics based on the geometric theory of flotation froth images are extracted, respectively, as the input variables of the proposed soft-sensor model. Then the isometric mapping method is used to reduce the input dimension, the network size, and learning time of BP neural network. Finally, a shuffled cuckoo search algorithm is adopted to optimize the BP neural network soft-sensor model. Simulation results show that the model has better generalization results and prediction accuracy.

  2. Effect of Flotation Time on the Deinking Process and Properties of Deinked Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami İmamoğlu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of flotation time on the ink removal and physical properties of resulting deinked pulp. Flotation deinking of high quality office paper, printed in a digital duplicating machine based on screen-printing system, was studied using a laboratory cell with a nominal capacity of 10 L. Formamidine sulfinic acid was used in a pulper and pulping conditions such as temperature, retention time, chemical dosage and consistency were held constant prior to flotation process. During the flotation process while pulp consistency, agitation speed, air flow rate and other conditions keeping constant, only flotation time were analyzed in terms of physical properties of resulting pulp quality, pulp yield, filler and fibre balance and waste water quality aspects at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 minutes. Increased flotation time substantially affected optical properties of pulp up to some point then became steady. Yield losses increased as might be expected with increasing flotation time by the 9th minute as flotation sludge skimmed off on top of the flotation cell. Filler content of flotation sludge increased with increasing flotation time while fibre content was decreasing to a certain extent. Thanks to removal of ink and filler materials from pulp physical properties of evaluated handsheets enhanced. The overall results demonstrate that increasing flotation time increased physical and optical properties of resulting pulp. On the other hand flotation time should be increased up to critical point. Exceeding critical point increased yield losses, consumed time and energy without gaining significant pulp qualities.

  3. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  4. The environment, public relations and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, W.J. (Coal Association of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1990-09-01

    Information is presented in note format. The presentation covers world environmental issues such as the greenhouse effect, an overview of the coal industry's role in atmospheric emissions of CO{sub 2}, and finally, the need for the coal industry to make the public aware of coal's current and future role in our economic and energy future.

  5. Green-House-Gas-Reduced Coal-and-Biomass-to-Liquid-Based Jet Fuel (GHGR-CBTL) Process - Final Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Kenneth [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Imam, Thamina [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Chevanan, Nehru [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Namazian, Mehdi [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-11-03

    This Final Technical Report describes the work and accomplishments of the project entitled, “Green-House-Gas-Reduced Coal-and-Biomass-to-Liquid-Based Jet Fuel (GHGR-CBTL) Process”. The main objective of the project was to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the GHGR-CBTL fuel-production technology from TRL 4 to TRL 5 by producing a drop-in synthetic Jet Propellant 8 (JP-8) with a greenhouse-gas footprint less than or equal to petroleum-based JP-8 by utilizing mixtures of coal and biomass as the feedstock. The system utilizes the patented Altex fuel-production technology, which incorporates advanced catalysts developed by Pennsylvania State University. While the system was not fabricated and tested, major efforts were expended to design the 1-TPD and a full-scale plant. The system was designed, a Block-Flow Diagram (BFD), a Process-Flow Diagram (PFD), and Piping-and-Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs) were produced, a Bill of Materials (BOM) and associated spec sheets were produced, commercially available components were selected and procured, custom components were designed and fabricated, catalysts were developed and screened for performance, and permitting activities were conducted. Optimization tests for JP-8 production using C2 olefin as the feed were performed over a range of temperatures, pressures and WHSVs. Liquid yields of between 63 to 65% with 65% JP-8 fraction (41-42% JP-8 yield) at 50 psig were achieved. Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA) was performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and a GHGR-CBTL module was added to the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model. Based upon the experimental results, the plant design was reconfigured for zero natural-gas imports and minimal electricity imports. The LCA analysis of the reconfigured process utilizing the GREET model showed that if the char from the process was utilized to produce combined heat and power (CHP) then a feed containing 23 wt% biomass and

  6. Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhijian; Wang, Xuming; Liu, Haining; Zhang, Huifang; Miller, Jan D

    2016-09-01

    Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation including hydration phenomena, associations and interactions between collectors, air bubbles, and water-soluble mineral particles are presented. Flotation carried out in saturated salt solutions, and a wide range of collector concentrations for effective flotation of different salts are two basic aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation. Hydration of salt ions, mineral particle surfaces, collector molecules or ions, and collector aggregates play an important role in water-soluble mineral flotation. The adsorption of collectors onto bubble surfaces is suggested to be the precondition for the association of mineral particles with bubbles. The association of collectors with water-soluble minerals is a complicated process, which may include the adsorption of collector molecules or ions onto such surfaces, and/or the attachment of collector precipitates or crystals onto the mineral surfaces. The interactions between the collectors and the minerals include electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and specific interactions, with electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions being the common mechanisms. For the association of ionic collectors with minerals with an opposite charge, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could have a synergistic effect, with the hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the previously associated collectors and the hydrophobic groups of oncoming collectors being an important attractive force. Association between solid particles and air bubbles is the key to froth flotation, which is affected by hydrophobicity of the mineral particle surfaces, surface charges of mineral particles and bubbles, mineral particle size and shape, temperature, bubble size, etc. The use of a collector together with a frother and the use of mixed surfactants as collectors are suggested to improve flotation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of Cobalt Ion by Adsorbing Colloidal Flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, In Ha; Lee, Jung Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-09-30

    Simulated waste liquid containing 50 ppm cobalt ion was treated by adsorbing colloidal flotation using Fe(III) or Al(III) as flocculant and a sodium lauryl sulfate as a collector. Parameters such as pH, surfactant concentration, Fe(III) or Al(III) concentration, gas flow rate, etc., were considered. The flotation with Fe(III) showed 99.8% removal efficiency of cobalt on the conditions of initial cobalt ion concentration 50 ppm, pH 9.5, gas flow rate 70 ml/min, and flotation time 30 min. When the waste solution was treated with 35% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} prior to adsorbing colloidal flotation, the optimal pH for removing cobalt shifted to weak alkaline range and flotation could be applied in wider range of pH as compared to non-use of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Additional use of 20 ppm Al(III) after precipitation of 50 ppm Co(II) with 50 ppm Fe(III) made the optimal pH range for preferable flotation wider. Foreign ions such as, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} were adopted and their effects were observed, Of which sulfate ion was found to be detrimental to removal of cobalt ion by flotation. Coprecipitation of Co ion with Fe(III) and Al(III) resulted in better removal efficiency of cobalt ion in the presence of sulfate ion. (author). 14 refs., 13 figs.

  8. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  9. Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal fired, closed cycle, magnetohydrodynamic power generation are detailed. These accomplishments relate to all system aspects of a CCMHD power generation system including coal combustion, heat transfer to the MHD working fluid, MHD power generation, heat and cesium seed recovery and overall systems analysis. Direct coal firing of the combined cycle has been under laboratory development in the form of a high slag rejection, regeneratively air cooled cyclone coal combustor concept, originated within this program. A hot bottom ceramic regenerative heat exchanger system was assembled and test fired with coal for the purposes of evaluating the catalytic effect of alumina on NO/sub x/ emission reduction and operability of the refractory dome support system. Design, procurement, fabrication and partial installation of a heat and seed recovery flow apparatus was accomplished and was based on a stream tube model of the full scale system using full scale temperatures, tube sizes, rates of temperature change and tube geometry. Systems analysis capability was substantially upgraded by the incorporation of a revised systems code, with emphasis on ease of operator interaction as well as separability of component subroutines. The updated code was used in the development of a new plant configuration, the Feedwater Cooled (FCB) Brayton Cycle, which is superior to the CCMHD/Steam cycle both in performance and cost. (WHK)

  10. Flotation performances and surface properties of chalcopyrite with xanthate collector added before and after grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huiqing; Wu, Di; Abdelmonem, Mohamed

    In this study, effects of the collector added before grinding and after grinding on the subsequent flotation and mineral surface properties were investigated. The pH was controlled at 10 during the grinding and flotation processes opened to the atmosphere. With enough amounts of sodium butyl xanthate addition, adding the collector before grinding recovered more chalcopyrite than adding it after grinding in single mineral flotation. The Eh of each ground pulp before and after conditioning were measured and it was found that adding collector before grinding obtained higher and relatively suitable pulp potential for chalcopyrite flotation. Particle size analyses of the flotation products indicate that the different flotation recoveries occurred due to the different flotation losses in fine particles (flotation feedings and found that more carbon and oxygen, and less iron were remained on mineral surfaces when the collector was added before grinding, due to the higher collector adsorption capacity, larger free oxygen adsorbance and less iron oxide/hydroxide species.

  11. New coal-based energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1986-01-01

    Conversion of coal into liquid fuels or into coal gas is considered and the use of high temperature nuclear reactors whose waste heat can be used for remote (district) heating mentioned. The use of high temperature reactors as energy source for coal gasification is also examined and, finally, the extraction of heat from combined coal, steel and high temperature nuclear reactors is suggested. (G.M.E.)

  12. Optimizing dissolved air flotation design system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Féris

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved Air (Pressure Flotation-DAF, is a well-established separation process that employs micro-bubbles as a carrier phase. This work shows results concerning bubble generation at low working pressures in modified DAF-units to improve the collection of fragile coagula by bubbles. DAF of Fe (OH3 (as model was studied as a function of saturation pressure in the absence and presence of surfactants in the saturator. DAF was possible at 2 atm by lowering the air/water surface tension. This fact, which leads to substantial energy savings, was explained in terms of decreasing the "minimum" energy required for bubble nucleation and cavity in the nozzle. More, bubbles-fragile coagula attachment was improved by dividing the recycling water into two: 1 the inclined inlet to the cell (traditional and 2 inside the separation tank through a water flow inlet situated below the floating bed using a "mushroom" type diffuser. Because of the reduction observed in the degree of turbulence in the conventional collection zone, DAF performance improved yielding high precipitate recoveries.

  13. Surface modification and column flotation of a massive ilmenite ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, X.; Rowson, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    The main problems with ilmenite flotation in impeller-type flotation machines are the poor flotation behaviour of ilmenite and the negative effect of slimes. These cause high ilmenite losses in tailings even when a large dosage of fatty acid and fuel oil is consumed. In this study, microwave radiation pre-treatment and ilmenite surface activation were used to modify the surface properties of a massive ilmenite ore sample from Norway to improve ilmenite flotability. A column cell was used to minimize the negative effect of slimes on ilmenite separation efficiency. When ilmenite flotation was performed in a 1 litre Denver cell, the flotation recovery of titanium dioxide from the ilmenite ore sample was only 68.5% (31.1% TiO 2 ) under conventional flotation conditions. After microwave radiation pre-treatment for three minutes at 2600 W and 2.45 GHz, the ferrous ions on ilmenite particle surfaces were converted into ferric ions; hence, the recovery increased from 68.5% to 86.8%. The concentrate grade increased from 31.1% TiO 2 to 32.1% TiO 2 . In ilmenite activation flotation, Pb 2+ ions can be selectively adsorbed on to ilmenite particle surfaces as active sites and therefore enhance the adsorption of oleate ions on ilmenite surfaces. With the addition of 60 g/ton Pb(NO 3 ) 2 , ilmenite flotation recovery increased from 68.5% to 85.1%. However, the quality of ilmenite concentrates was not improved due to the negative effect of slimes. After a two stage cleaning, the grade of ilmenite concentrates was only about 31% TiO 2 . The combination of microwave radiation pre-treatment and the application of a column cell overcame both problems of poor flotability and the negative effect of slimes. When the Denver cell was replaced by a column cell and the massive ilmenite ore sample was pre-treated using microwave radiation for three minutes, the ilmenite concentrate grade increased from 31.1% TiO 2 to 42.9% TiO 2 and the titanium dioxide recovery increased from 68.5% to 90

  14. A summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. Considerable emphasis is placed on postmining assistance. This volume is specifically for the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio.

  15. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region IV. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas and Louisiana.

  16. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia and Virginia.

  17. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida.

  18. Flotation of copper-bearing shale in solutions of inorganic salts and organic reagents

    OpenAIRE

    Ratajczak Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Flotation data on copper-bearing shale in aqueous solutions of inorganic electrolytes (NaCl, Na2SO4, KPF6, NH4Cl) and organic reagents (ethylamine, propylamine) as frothers were presented and discussed. The relationships between shale flotation, surface tension of aqueous solution and foam height during bubbling with air in the flotation system were presented. It has been found that flotation of shale in the presence of inorganic salts the yield was directly proportional to the surface tensio...

  19. Radiotracer investigations of benefication copper ore in the industrial flotation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petryka, L.; Przewlocki, K.

    1983-01-01

    Optimization of copper ore processing requires in particular the investigation of the flotation process. 64 Cu induced in natural ore by activation was used as a tracer. Detailed measurements were performed in an industrial flotation plant consisting of 14 cells. As a result the mean residence time of different grain size fractions of natural copper sulphide was determined for all parts of the flotation plant together with the efficiency of the flotation process. (author)

  20. Recovery of kaolinite from tailings of Zonouz kaolin-washing plant by flotation-flocculation method

    OpenAIRE

    Kianoush Barani; Masoud Kalantari

    2018-01-01

    The traditional processing of kaolin is achieved by dispersion of the mined ore and classification by multistage hydrocyclone plants. The inefficiencies inherent to cyclones produce a middling product that is commonly disposed back into the quarry. In this research, recovery of kaolinite from tailings of Zonouz kaolin washing plant, which is located in Iran was investigated by flotation and flotation- flocculation. Flotation experiments show that the flotation of kaolinite from the tailings i...

  1. Multi-Stage Flotation for the Removal of Ash from Fine Graphite Using Mechanical and Centrifugal Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangning Bu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphite ore collected from Hunan province, south China was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy. Rougher and multi-stage flotation tests using a mechanical flotation cell and a flotation column containing an additional centrifugal force field were carried out to promote its grade and economic value. In rougher flotation, both the mechanical flotation cell and flotation column reduced the ash content of the graphite ore from 15.43% to 10.8%, while the yield of the flotation column (91.41% was much higher than that of the mechanical flotation cell (50%. In the presence of hydrophobic graphite, the seriously entrained gangue restricted further improvement in the quality and economic value of the graphite ore. Therefore, multi-stage flotation circuits were employed to diminish this entrainment. Multi-stage flotation circuits using the two flotation devices further decreased the ash content of the graphite ore to ~8%, while the yield when using the flotation column was much higher than that obtained from the mechanical flotation cell employed. On the other hand, the ash removal efficiency of the flotation column was 3.82-fold higher than that observed for the mechanical flotation cell. The Cleaner 3 flotation circuit using the flotation column decreased the ash content in graphite from 15.43% to 7.97% with a yield of 77.53%.

  2. 1988 coal price negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senmura, Akira

    1988-12-01

    In the negotiation on raw coal price for 1988, which began at the end of 1987, Australia requested price rise of 4 - 5 dollars for the reason of rise of Australian dollars, conditions of mines, price drop in the past five years, and world supply/demand of coal. Japan insisted to maintain the price of preceding year. The talk ended in a dead lock which could last a long time. Negotiation on the Canadian coal price also encountered difficulties but an agreement was obtained in March as Japan accepted the increased price. After which, Japan and Australia agreed to raise the price by 2.90 dollars and an increase over last year. Producing countries also requested a wide price rise as 7.50 dollars for general coal, making in this area very difficult to progress. Finally, they agreed to raise the price by 6.30 dollars and the electric power utility in Japan responded by importing of U.S. coal, which has a lower heat output but is also cheaper. It depends on Australia for 70% of coal supply but started to diversify the source. 3 tabs.

  3. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, D.J.; Jones, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  4. Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  5. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report, 10/1/1996 - 3/31/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Whitlach, Jr., E. Earl [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2000-12-31

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from October 1, 1996 to March 31, 2000 to investigate the use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners. The objective of the research program was to establish field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD by-products generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, medium-scale wetland mesocosms, and a full-scale pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications including design of daily cover and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small scale laboratory tests, medium scale mesocosm wetland experiments, and construction and monitoring of a full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds, and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Actual permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by properly compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. Constructed FGD-lined wetlands offer the opportunity for increased phosphorous

  6. Effects of Flotation-REST on Muscle Tension Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Kjellgren

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the floating form of the restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST may be applied within the field of pain relief. Flotation-REST consists of a procedure whereby an individual is immersed in a tank filled with water of an extremely high salt concentration. Thirty-seven patients (14 men and 23 women suffering from chronic pain consisting of aching muscles in the neck and back area participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either a control group (17 participants or an experimental group (20 participants. The experimental group received nine opportunities to use the flotation-REST technique in the water tank over a three-week period. The results indicated that the most severe perceived pain intensity was significantly reduced, whereas low perceived pain intensity was not influenced by the floating technique. Further, the results indicated that circulating levels of the noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol were reduced significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group following treatment, whereas endorphin levels were not affected by flotation. Flotation-REST treatment also elevated the participants' optimism and reduced the degree of anxiety or depression; at nighttime, patients who underwent flotation fell asleep more easily. The present findings describe possible changes, for the better, in patients presenting with chronic pain complaints.

  7. Effects of flotation-REST on muscle tension pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, A; Sundequist, U; Norlander, T; Archer, T

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the floating form of the restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST) may be applied within the field of pain relief. Flotation-REST consists of a procedure whereby an individual is immersed in a tank filled with water of an extremely high salt concentration. Thirty-seven patients (14 men and 23 women) suffering from chronic pain consisting of aching muscles in the neck and back area participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either a control group (17 participants) or an experimental group (20 participants). The experimental group received nine opportunities to use the flotation-REST technique in the water tank over a three-week period. The results indicated that the most severe perceived pain intensity was significantly reduced, whereas low perceived pain intensity was not influenced by the floating technique. Further, the results indicated that circulating levels of the noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol were reduced significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group following treatment, whereas endorphin levels were not affected by flotation. Flotation-REST treatment also elevated the participants' optimism and reduced the degree of anxiety or depression; at nighttime, patients who underwent flotation fell asleep more easily. The present findings describe possible changes, for the better, in patients presenting with chronic pain complaints.

  8. A study of bauxite tailing quality improvement by reverse flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, W.; Purwasasmita, M.; Sanwani, E.; Malatsih, W.; Fadilla, F.

    2018-01-01

    The pre-treatment of bauxite ore from Tayan, West Kalimantan includes washing and screening fine bauxite particles (-2mm) prior as the feed to the Bayer process for producing alumina. These fine particles are believed to have high content of silica which is detrimental to the process. This washed bauxite tailing still has a significant amount of alumina content. Previous research has indicated that bauxite ore can be upgraded by applying reverse flotation method to reduce its silica content in the ore. Therefore, this study is aimed to utilize reverse flotation method to recover alumina content from washed bauxite tailing. The reverse flotation experiments were carried out at pH of 6 and 8; while the particle sizes were varied at - 140+270 mesh and -270 mesh, using a batch and circuit configuration. The result of this study shows that the batch reverse flotation can recover alumina in the tailing up to 81.4%, however the silica content is still significant. The complexity of silica-alumina minerals in the tailing prevents a complete separation of the ores by only using reverse flotation.

  9. Selective Flotation of Calcite from Fluorite: A Novel Reagent Schedule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluorite is an important strategic mineral. In general, fluorite ores will contain a certain amount of calcite gangue mineral. Thus, they need to be separated from each other. For an economic separation, a reverse flotation process is used to float calcite gangue from fluorite. However, little information on the separation is available. In this study, a novel reagent schedule using citric acid (CA as the depressant, sodium fluoride (NaF as the regulator and sulfoleic acid (SOA as the collector, was developed to separate calcite from fluorite. The results demonstrated a high selectivity for the flotation of calcite from fluorite using this new reagent schedule. The best selective separation for a single mineral and mixed binary minerals was obtained when 200 mg/L of NaF, 50 mg/L of CA, and 6 mg/L of SOA were used at pH 9. In addition, a batch flotation experiment was carried out using a run-of-mine feed material. Selective separation was achieved with 85.18% calcite removal while only 11.2% of fluorite was lost. An attempt was made to understand the effect of the new reagent schedule on the flotation of calcite. The results from both microflotation and bench scale flotation demonstrated a great potential for industrial application using this novel reagent schedule to upgrade fluorite ore.

  10. Immobilization of copper flotation waste using red mud and clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruh, Semra

    2008-10-01

    The flash smelting process has been used in the copper industry for a number of years and has replaced most of the reverberatory applications, known as conventional copper smelting processes. Copper smelters produce large amounts of copper slag or copper flotation waste and the dumping of these quantities of copper slag causes economic, environmental and space problems. The aim of this study was to perform a laboratory investigation to assess the feasibility of immobilizing the heavy metals contained in copper flotation waste. For this purpose, samples of copper flotation waste were immobilized with relatively small proportions of red mud and large proportions of clinoptilolite. The results of laboratory leaching demonstrate that addition of red mud and clinoptilolite to the copper flotation waste drastically reduced the heavy metal content in the effluent and the red mud performed better than clinoptilolite. This study also compared the leaching behaviour of metals in copper flotation waste by short-time extraction tests such as the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), deionized water (DI) and field leach test (FLT). The results of leach tests showed that the results of the FLT and DI methods were close and generally lower than those of the TCLP methods.

  11. Leaching characteristics of copper flotation waste before and after vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruh, Semra; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2006-12-01

    Copper flotation waste from copper production using a pyrometallurgical process contains toxic metals such as Cu, Zn, Co and Pb. Because of the presence of trace amounts of these highly toxic metals, copper flotation waste contributes to environmental pollution. In this study, the leaching characteristics of copper flotation waste from the Black Sea Copper Works in Samsun, Turkey have been investigated before and after vitrification. Samples obtained from the factory were subjected to toxicity tests such as the extraction procedure toxicity test (EP Tox), the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the "method A" extraction procedure of the American Society of Testing and Materials. The leaching tests showed that the content of some elements in the waste before vitrification exceed the regulatory limits and cannot be disposed of in the present form. Therefore, a stabilization or inertization treatment is necessary prior to disposal. Vitrification was found to stabilize heavy metals in the copper flotation waste successfully and leaching of these metals was largely reduced. Therefore, vitrification can be an acceptable method for disposal of copper flotation waste.

  12. Drones for Provision of Flotation Support in Simulated Drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckman, Anders; Hollenberg, Jacob; Svensson, Leif; Ringh, Mattias; Nordberg, Per; Djärv, Therese; Forsberg, Sune; Hernborg, Olof; Claesson, Andreas

    The feasibility and potential of using drones for providing flotation devices in cases of drowning have not yet been assessed. We hypothesize that a drone carrying an inflatable life buoy is a faster way to provide flotation compared with traditional methods. The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility and efficiency of using a drone for delivering and providing flotation support to conscious simulated drowning victims. A simulation study was performed with a simulated drowning victim 100 m from the shore. A drone (DJI Phantom 4; dji, Shenzhen, China) equipped with an inflatable life buoy of 60 N was compared with traditional surf rescue swimming for providing flotation. The primary outcome was delay (minutes:seconds). A total number of 30 rescues were performed with a median time to delivery of the floating device of 30 seconds (interquartile range [IQR] = 24-32 seconds) for the drone compared with 65 seconds (IQR = 60-77 seconds) with traditional rescue swimming (P drone had an accuracy of 100% in dropping the inflatable life buoy drones to deliver inflatable life buoys is safe and may be a faster method to provide early flotation devices to conscious drowning victims compared with rescue swimming. Copyright © 2018 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  14. Venezuelan coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, L.U.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

  15. A spatial analysis of China's coal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Dunguo; Li Zhi

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of China's energy structure and the distribution of its coal resources make coal transportation a very important component of the energy system; moreover, coal transportation acts as a bottleneck for the Chinese economy. To insure the security of the coal supply, China has begun to build regional strategic coal reserves at some locations, but transportation is still the fundamental way to guaranty supply security. Here, we study China's coal transportation quantitatively with a linear programming method that analyses the direction and volume of China's coal flows with the prerequisite that each province's supply and demand balance is guaranteed. First, we analyse the optimal coal transportation for the status quo coal supply and demand given the bottleneck effects that the Daqin Railway has on China's coal flow; second, we analyse the influence of future shifts in the coal supply zone in the future, finding that China's coal flows will also change, which will pressure China to construct railways and ports; and finally, we analyse the possibility of exploiting Yangtze River capacity for coal transportation. We conclude the paper with suggestions for enhancing China's coal transportation security. - Highlights: ► We use linear programming to study China's coal transportation. ► First, analyse the optimal coal flow under the status quo condition. ► Second, analyse influences of coal supply zone shifts to Neimeng and Xinjiang. ► Third, analyse the influence of using Yangtze River for coal transportation. ► At last, we give suggestions about infrastructure construction to guaranty China's long-run coal supply security.

  16. Influence of some ions on the apatite flotation of Itataia ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, J.A. de.

    1987-01-01

    The production process by flotation for uranium phosphor ore in Itataia-Ce, Brazil is shown. A flotation scheme with mass balance and characterization on the samples is analyzed. The analysis methods with some results of concentration effect of Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Cl - e Na + in the direct flotation are demonstrated. (M.J.C.) [pt

  17. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a coal slurry from waste streams using Illinois coal that is ideally suited for a gasification feed. The principle items to be studied are (1) methods of concentrating pyrite and decreasing other ash forming minerals into a high grade gasification feed using froth flotation and gravity separation techniques; (2) chemical and particle size analyses of coal slurries; (3) determination of how that slurry can be densified and to what degree of densification is optimum from the pumpability and combustibility analyses; and (4) reactivity studies.

  18. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  19. State-of-the-art study of resource characterization and planning for underground coal mining. Final technical report as of June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.; Ingham, W.; Kauffman, P.

    1980-06-01

    With the rapid developments taking place in coal mining technology and due to high investment costs, optimization of the structure of underground coal mines is crucial to the success of the mining project. The structure of a mine, once it is developed, cannot be readily changed and has a decisive influence on the productivity, safety, economics, and production capacity of the mine. The Department of Energy desires to ensure that the resource characterization and planning activity for underground coal mining will focus on those areas that offer the most promise of being advanced. Thus, this project was undertaken by Management Engineers Incorporated to determine the status in all aspects of the resource characterization and planning activities for underground coal mining as presently performed in the industry. The study team conducted a comprehensive computerized literature search and reviewed the results. From this a selection of the particularly relevant sources were annotated and a reference list was prepared, catalogued by resource characterization and mine planning activity. From this data, and discussions with industry representatives, academia, and research groups, private and federal, an assessment and evaluation was made of the state-of-the-art of each element in the resource characterization and mine planning process. The results of this analysis lead to the identifcation of areas requiring research and, specifically, those areas where DOE research efforts may be focused.

  20. Intensification of the Reverse Cationic Flotation of Hematite Ores with Optimization of Process and Hydrodynamic Parameters of Flotation Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poperechnikova, O. Yu; Filippov, L. O.; Shumskaya, E. N.; Filippova, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    The demand of high grade iron ore concentrates is a major issue due to the depletion of rich iron-bearing ores and high competitiveness in the iron ore market. Iron ore production is forced out to upgrade flowsheets to decrease the silica content in the pelettes. Different types of ore have different mineral composition and texture-structural features which require different mineral processing methods and technologies. The paper presents a comparative study of the cationic and anionic flotation routes to process a fine-grain oxidized iron ore. The modified carboxymethyl cellulose was found as the most efficient depressant in reverse cationic flotation. The results of flotation optimization of hematite ores using matrix of second-order center rotatable uniform design allowed to define the collector concentration, impeller rotation speed and air flowrate as the main flotation parameters impacting on the iron ore concentrate quality and iron recovery in a laboratory flotation machine. These parameters have been selected as independent during the experiments.

  1. Improvement of the Separation Efficiency of Ion Flotation and Adsorbing Colloid Flotation by the Synergistic Effect of Mixed Surfactant Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.H.; Seo, E.J.; Choi, S.J. [Dept. of. Env. Eng., Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    Experimental investigations on the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous ablution were carried out through two foam separation techniques : ion floatation and adsorbing colloid flotation with Fe(III). The optimum pH for good removal was found to be about 6.4 for the former and about 11 for the latter. The effect of flotation time. pH, surfactant(sodium lauryl sulfate), foreign ions(Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, No{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 2}{sup -4} ) on the efficiency of Cd(II) removal were discussed. The presence of foreign ions inhibit the Cd(II) removal by foam flotation. It was suggested that the limitation of foam flotation on Cd(II) removal may be overcome by the surface activity of mixed surfactant solution. The application of the synergistic effect of mixed surfactant solutions to the improvement of the removal efficiency of foam flotation was experimentally verified in this work. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. The flotation of gold, uranium, and pyrite from Witwatersrand ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, P.J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Witwatersrand reefs contain gold, uranium, and pyrite in the following average concentrations: 0,001 per cent, 0,02 per cent, and 1,7 per cent respectively. The paper discusses the flotation of pyrite to produce a sulphide concentrate, reviews work done on the production of gold concentrates, discusses attempts to produce maximum concentrates, and closes with a review of processes for the simultaneous flotation of these three species. It is concluded that high recoveries of all three species can be achieved only if a rougher concentrate of perhaps 20 per cent of the feed (by mass) is produced, and it is suggested that reverse leaching (leaching before cyanidation) of this concentrate, followed by a cleaning flotation step for the recovery of the pyrite, would be more efficient than the routes employed at present [af

  3. Selective flotation of PVC using gelatin and lignin alkali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenial, Unzile; Kangal, Olgaç; Güney, Ali

    2013-06-01

    Recycling has become one of the most important issues as a result of increasing waste mass in present day. This is especially important for polymer wastes as they are hard to degenerate in nature. Today, most of the practical methods used for the recycling of waste mass, such as hand sorting, gravity separation, etc., cannot be performed successfully owing to close densities of polymers. Froth flotation can be used successfully and economically for this purpose. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of plasticizer reagents and the success of froth flotation at plastic recycling. In this study, lignin alkali and gelatin were used as plasticizer reagents. The effect of these reagents was searched with the parameters of pH, concentration, conditioning and flotation time. In the case of post-consumed polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 98.9% purity of PVC was obtained at optimum conditions.

  4. Use of adsorption colloidal flotation for sea water microelement extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhorov, V.A.; Barannik, V.P.; Lyashenko, S.V.; Kirchanova, A.I.; Kobylyanskaya, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    The colloidal flotation is studied of copper, molybdenum and uranium from sea water, a hydrated iron oxide being used as a sorbent. Used as particle collectors are octadecanoic and indolyloleic acids, and as foamers-''Stearox 6''. Optimal conditions for the separation of copper, uranium and molybdenum from sea water have been found. The sorption isotherm equation is shown as being suitable for the description of the flotation process as regards these elements. The colloidal flotation process for the case under study is shown to obey the law of mass action in the pH range 0.5 to 0.7 and on the sorbent mass variation from 0.1 to 5.0 mg

  5. Control of clay minerals effect in flotation. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Hasan Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased exposure to low grade ores highlights the importance of understanding phyllosilicate gangue mineralogy which consists of common gangue minerals. To improve the flotation performance and ore quality the negative effect of the clay minerals on flotation should be identified. The presence of clay minerals leads to problems, such as changing the froth stability, which are related to swelling behaviour, increase in pulp viscosity, overconsumption of reagents, slime coating and mechanical entrainment. The clay content in the ore is changing from time to time and it is necessary to provide quick solutions to the issues caused by the new ore composition. The objective of this paper is to give an overview how to control the colloidal properties of clay minerals on flotation.

  6. Fe(II)-regulated moderate pre-oxidation of Microcystis aeruginosa and formation of size-controlled algae flocs for efficient flotation of algae cell and organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jing; Lan, Huachun; Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2018-06-15

    The coagulation/flocculation/flotation (C/F/F) process is becoming a popular method for algae-laden water treatment. However, the efficiency of flotation is highly dependent on the ability of the preceding coagulation/flocculation process to form flocculated algae flocs. This study aims to improve the Microcystis aeruginosa flotation efficiency from algae cell and organic matter aspects by applying Fe(II)-regulated pretreatment enhanced Al coagulation process. The ability of the C/F/F process to remove cyanobacterial cells can be enhanced from 8% to 99% at a Fe(II) dose of 30 μM. The Al dose needed can be reduced by more than half while achieving successful flotation. The introduced Fe(II) after KMnO 4 can not only realize moderate pre-oxidation of cyanobacterial cells, but also form in-situ Fe(III). The DOC value can also be decreased significantly due to the formation of in-situ Fe(III), which is more efficient in dissolved organic matter (DOM) removal compared with pre-formed Fe(III). In addition, the gradually hydrolyzed in-situ Fe(III) can facilitate the hydrolysis of Al as a dual-coagulant and promote the clustering and cross-linking of Al hydrolyzates, which can enhance the formation of size-controlled algae flocs. Finally, the size-controlled algae flocs can be effectively floated by the bubbles released in the flotation process due to the efficient collision and attachment between flocs and bubbles. Therefore, the efficient flotation of algae cell and organic matter can be realized by the Fe(II) regulated moderate pre-oxidation of M. aeruginosa and formation of size-controlled algae flocs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coal summit II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Various papers were presented on world coal trade. Papers include: Poland as a producer and exporter of coal; the dynamics of world coal trade; Cerrejon coal production perspectives; present state of the Australian coal industry; present state of the EC coal market and future prospects; prospects of US coal exports to Europe; forecast of Italian coal supply and demand through 1990; statistics from coal transportation outlook; status of world coal ports.

  8. Molecular design of flotation collectors: A recent progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangyi; Yang, Xianglin; Zhong, Hong

    2017-08-01

    The nature of froth flotation is to selectively hydrophobize valuable minerals by collector adsorption so that the hydrophobized mineral particles can attach air bubbles. In recent years, the increasing commercial production of refractory complex ores has been urgent to develop special collectors for enhancing flotation separation efficiency of valuable minerals from these ores. Molecular design methods offer an effective way for understanding the structure-property relationship of flotation collectors and developing new ones. The conditional stability constant (CSC), molecular mechanics (MM), quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), and first-principle theory, especially density functional theory (DFT), have been adopted to build the criteria for designing flotation collectors. Azole-thiones, guanidines, acyl thioureas and thionocarbamates, amide-hydroxamates, and double minerophilic-group surfactants such as Gemini, dithiourea and dithionocarbamate molecules have been recently developed as high-performance collectors. To design hydrophobic groups, the hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance parameters have been extensively used as criteria. The replacement of aryl group with aliphatic group or CC single bond(s) with CC double bond(s), reduction of carbon numbers, introduction of oxygen atom(s) and addition of trisiloxane to the tail terminal have been proved to be useful approaches for adjusting the surface activity of collectors. The role of molecular design of collectors in practical flotation applications was also summarized. Based on the critical review, some comments and prospects for further research on molecular design of flotation collectors were also presented in the paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of arsenic in flotation of galena and sphalerite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dae-hwan; Kim, Min-kyu; Han, Oh-hyung; Park, Chul-hyun

    2017-04-01

    In Korea, Janggun mine that produces the concentrate of galena (PbS) /sphalerite (ZnS) containing arsenic of 1.3% charges a penalty of US 3/ton to LS-Nikko smelter. Hence in this work, flotation tests for removal of arsenopyrite (FeAsS) from sulfide minerals were carried out using lab scale flotation cell, which maintain grade and recovery of PbS and ZnS in comparison to flotation plant. Particularly, this study was focused on investigating the combination of several chemical reagents such as depressant, collector, activator and etc. that affect flotation performance. In the straight differential flotation for PbS, a PbS grade of 67.80% and a recovery of 80.2% could be obtained with FeAsS removal of 84.1% (0.2% As) under the conditions of 20% feed solids concentration, pH 8.5, 50g/t frother (AF65), 50g/t collector (AP242) and 600g/t As depressant (NaHSO3) and 600g/t Zn depressant (ZnSO4). In the ZnS flotation, the maximum separation achievable for ZnS has been shown to be a grade of 50.27% and a recovery of 88.7%. At this time, FeAsS removal of 87.8% (0.16% As) could be successfully accomplished under pH 11, and 1.2kg/t Zn activator (CuSO4), 100g/t frother (AF65), 100g/t collector (AP211) and 400g/t As depressant (NaHSO3). Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Energy and Resources Engineering Program Grant funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Korea

  10. Remediation of metal-contaminated urban soil using flotation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermont, G.; Bergeron, M.; Richer-Lafleche, M.; Mercier, G.

    2010-01-01

    A soil washing process using froth flotation technique was evaluated for the removal of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from a highly contaminated urban soil (brownfield) after crushing of the particle-size fractions > 250 μm. The metal contaminants were in particulate forms and distributed in all the particle-size fractions. The particle-by-particle study with SEM-EDS showed that Zn was mainly present as sphalerite (ZnS), whereas Cu and Pb were mainly speciated as various oxide/carbonate compounds. The influence of surfactant collector type (non-ionic and anionic), collector dosage, pulp pH, a chemical activation step (sulfidization), particle size, and process time on metal removal efficiency and flotation selectivity was studied. Satisfactory results in metal recovery (42-52%), flotation selectivity (concentration factor > 2.5), and volume reduction (> 80%) were obtained with anionic collector (potassium amyl xanthate). The transportation mechanisms involved in the separation process (i.e., the true flotation and the mechanical entrainment) were evaluated by the pulp chemistry, the metal speciation, the metal distribution in the particle-size fractions, and the separation selectivity indices of Zn/Ca and Zn/Fe. The investigations showed that a great proportion of metal-containing particles were recovered in the froth layer by entrainment mechanism rather than by true flotation process. The non-selective entrainment mechanism of the fine particles ( 5 min) and when a high collector dose is used. The intermediate particle-size fraction (20-125 μm) showed the best flotation selectivity.

  11. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing the SNOX innovative clean coal technology demonstration. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utilities. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study; Results presents the concentration data on HAPs in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data; and Special Topics report on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/solid distributions of HAPs. Volume 2: Appendices include quality assurance/quality control results, uncertainty analysis for emission factors, and data sheets. This study involved measurements of a variety of substances in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration (ICCT) of the Wet Sulfuric Acid-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SNOX) process. The SNOX demonstration is being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Niles Boiler No. 2 which uses cyclone burners to burn bituminous coal. A 35 megawatt slipstream of flue gas from the boiler is used to demonstrate SNOX. The substances measured at the SNOX process were the following: 1. Five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; 2. Acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); 3. Ammonia and cyanide; 4. Elemental carbon; 5. Radionuclides; 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOC); 7. Semi-volatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); and 8. Aldehydes.

  12. Briquetting of coal fines and sawdust - effect of particle-size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, D.P.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B.K.; Honaker, R. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2009-07-01

    The coal industry usually discards fine-size (-150 microns) coal because of its high-moisture content and handling problems. One avenue for utilization is to either pelletize or briquette this material. However, industry has not adopted this route due in large part to significant drying and binder costs. In an effort to reduce these costs, compacting and briquetting studies were conducted to determine the effect of combining a coarse (1.18x0.15mm) spiral separator product with a fine coal flotation product (-150microns), with and without adding sawdust. Maximizing the packing density of the coal and wood waste mixture could potentially reduce the binder requirement by minimizing the void space as well as reducing shipping costs. Accordingly, work reported here focused on evaluating the impact of the particle-size distribution of different blends of fine and coarse coal, with and without sawdust and/or binder. The modified Proctor density of compacted blends along with the porosity and compressive strengths of briquettes made from each blend were determined. For the coal-only blends, the packing density was maximized by a relatively high (70% to 80%) coarse coal content. However, the packing density did not correlate with the compressive strength of the briquette that instead maximized with 100% fine flotation coal and continuously decreased as higher proportions of coarse coal were added. Similar compaction and compressive-strength results were obtained with mixtures of sawdust and varying proportions of coarse and fine coal. With the addition of a binder, the highest strengths were no longer obtained with 100% fine coal but instead maximized between 20% and 50% coarse coal addition depending on how long the briquettes were cured.

  13. Relative flotation response of zinc sulfide: Mineral and precipitate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, S.R.; Finch, J.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering; Zhou, Z.; Xu, Z. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    1998-04-01

    Flotation continues to extend to nonmineral applications, including recycling of materials, soil remediation, and effluent treatment. A study has been conducted to compare the floatability of fine zinc sulfide (ZnS) precipitates and sphalerite particles. The floatability of the precipitates was significantly poorer compared to sphalerite particles when xanthate was used as the collector. The floatability was improved by using dodecylamine as the collector, and the difference in floatability between the precipitates was further improved significantly by incorporating a hydrodynamic cavitation tube in a conventional (mechanical) flotation cell. The improved kinetics was attributed to in-situ gas nucleation on the precipitates.

  14. CHAIN EXTENDER AND EMULSIFIER APPLICATION IN IRON ORE FLOTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the reverse flotation performance of iron ore, using collector (amine, in the presence and absence of chain extender (diesel oil and emulsifier (sodium lauryl sulfate.Six tests were realized with duplicate. Tests using amine, diesel oil and sodium lauryl sulphate show the better results, with metallurgical recovery of 91.82% and the concentrate silica equal 1.68%. Thus, it is found that the use of emulsifier and chain extender together with the amine, shows better results in the flotation, in terms of metal recovery and selectivity, when compared to using only amine or amine and diesel oil.

  15. THE DEPRESSION OF PYRITE FLOTATION BY THIOBACILLUS FERROOXIDANS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The experimental studies on the microbial flotation of a pure pyrite sample using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was conducted in the laboratory. The results indicate that Thiobacillus ferrooaidans has strong depression effect on the flotation of pyrite. Thiobacillus f errooxidans can adsorb on the surface of pyrite in a very short time (a few min. ), changing the surface from hydrophobic into hydrophilic and making the pyrite particles to lose their floatability. Therefore, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is an effective microbial depressant of pyrite. It has also been pointed out that the depression of pyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is caused by the adsorption of the microbial colloids, but not by the oxidation effect.

  16. Activation of Sphalerite by Ammoniacal Copper Solution in Froth Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation of sphalerite particles by ammoniacal copper solution (ACS was investigated in this study. This microflotation study was conducted on a single sphalerite mineral with the particles size of 38 μm to 75 μm. Results showed that ACS has somewhat better activation effect than copper sulphate (a traditional activator with sodium isobutyl xanthate as the collector. Agglomeration observation, contact angle measurement, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement results of sphalerite particles verified the superiority of this new activator. Therefore, the substitution of copper sulphate with ACS would increase the separation efficiency not only in marmatite flotation but also in sphalerite flotation.

  17. A Study of the Optimal Model of the Flotation Kinetics of Copper Slag from Copper Mine BOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojlović, Rodoljub D.; Sokolović, Jovica M.

    2014-10-01

    In this study the effect of mixtures of copper slag and flotation tailings from copper mine Bor, Serbia on the flotation results of copper recovery and flotation kinetics parameters in a batch flotation cell has been investigated. By simultaneous adding old flotation tailings in the ball mill at the rate of 9%, it is possible to increase copper recovery for about 20%. These results are compared with obtained copper recovery of pure copper slag. The results of batch flotation test were fitted by MatLab software for modeling the first-order flotation kinetics in order to determine kinetics parameters and define an optimal model of the flotation kinetics. Six kinetic models are tested on the batch flotation copper recovery against flotation time. All models showed good correlation, however the modified Kelsall model provided the best fit.

  18. Mechanism of selective ion flotation. 1. Selective flotation of transition metal cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkowiak, W.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation is presented of the batch ion flotation of the transition metal cations Cr 3+ , Fe 3+ , Mn 2+ , Co 2+ , Zn 2+ , Ag + , Cd 2+ , and In 3+ from acidic aqueous solutions with sodium dodecylsulfonate and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate as anionic surfactants. The selectivity sequences Mn 2+ 2+ 2+ 3+ 3+ and Ag + 2+ 3+ are established, both from data for single and multi-ion metal cations solutions, where sublate was not formed in the bulk solution. Good agreement between the selectivity sequences and the values of ionic potential of metal cations was found. An experimental investigation was also performed on the solubility of sublates. The sublates solubility values are discussed in terms of ionic potentials of metal cations as well as of the surfactant size

  19. Method for enhancing selectivity and recovery in the fractional flotation of particles in a flotation column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunder, Edgar B [Bethel Park, PA

    2011-08-09

    The method relates to particle separation from a feed stream. The feed stream is injected directly into the froth zone of a vertical flotation column in the presence of a counter-current reflux stream. A froth breaker generates a reflux stream and a concentrate stream, and the reflux stream is injected into the froth zone to mix with the interstitial liquid between bubbles in the froth zone. Counter-current flow between the plurality of bubbles and the interstitial liquid facilitates the attachment of higher hydrophobicity particles to bubble surfaces as lower hydrophobicity particles detach. The height of the feed stream injection and the reflux ratio may be varied in order to optimize the concentrate or tailing stream recoveries desired based on existing operating conditions.

  20. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  1. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.; Hackley, K.; Dagamac, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Berger, R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Schanche, G. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This research was an investigation of calcium hydroxide, a sulfur-capturing sorbent, as a binder for coal fines. The reaction of carbon dioxide with calcium hydroxide, referred to as carbonation, was studied as a method for improving pellet quality. Carbonation forms a cementitious matrix of calcium carbonate. Research has demonstrated that calcium hydroxide is a viable binder for coal fines and that a roller-and-die pellet mill is an effective method of pellet formation. From a minus 28 mesh preparation plant fine coal sample, a roller-and-die pellet mill produced strong pellets when 5 and 10% calcium hydroxide was used as a binder. The pellets containing 10% calcium hydroxide strengthened considerably when air cured. This increase in strength was attributed to carbonation via atmospheric carbon dioxide. Pellets containing 10 wt% calcium hydroxide were produced using an extruder but pellets formed in this manner were much weaker than pellets produced with the roller-and-die mill. In tests performed using a laboratory hydraulic press, the effect of particle size and compaction pressure on pellet strength was studied. Particle distributions with mean sizes of 200, 90 and 40 microns were tested. The results indicate that pellet strength increased with decreasing particle size and increasing compaction pressure when calcium hydroxide was used as a binder. Pellets containing 10 wt% calcium hydroxide increased in strength by approximately 40% when air dried for one day. As above, this increase in strength was attributed to carbonation of the calcium hydroxide via atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  2. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Phase 3 final report, November 1992--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    A three phase research and development program has resulted in the development and commercialization of a Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}), capable of being fueled by pulverized coal, natural gas, and other solid, gaseous, or liquid fuels, for the vitrification of industrial wastes. The Phase 3 research effort focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added glass products from the vitrification of boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project was to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential for successful commercialization. The demonstration test consisted of one test run with a duration of 105 hours, approximately one-half (46 hours) performed with coal as the primary fuel source (70% to 100%), the other half with natural gas. Approximately 50 hours of melting operation were performed vitrifying approximately 50,000 lbs of coal-fired utility boiler flyash/dolomite mixture, producing a fully-reacted vitrified product.

  3. Converting coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avigliano, A. [Bedeschi (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    In September 2005, Bedeschi was commissioned to design and supply a coal unloading, conveying and storage facility for a new raw coal line system within Hatien II Cement Co. The new plant is composed of a grab unloader, a conveyor system, a storage shed with stacking and reclaiming facilities, a complete dedusting system and civil and steel structure engineering. The scope of supply includes a local fabrication portion; however, main components will be imported. The project will be completed in 21 months. The paper looks into the mechanics of loading and unloading coal. 4 figs., 4 photos.

  4. Increasing the Fine Flaky Graphite Recovery in Flotation via a Combined MultipleTreatments Technique of Middlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Peng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As the residual flaky graphite ores become miscellaneous and fine, a single treatment technique for the middlings from the flotation process of graphite ore cannot efficiently recover the valuable graphite in the multistage grinding-flotation technology. In the study, the existence form of graphite and relationship of graphite with the associated gangue minerals were estimated by optical microscope analysis. The results indicated that the fine flaky graphite particles embedded with gangue minerals like a honeycomb, making it difficult to be beneficiated using the typical flotation technique. A combination technique of individual process and concentrated returning for the treatment of middlings was used to increase the graphite recovery based on the co-existing relationship between graphite and gangue minerals in the middlings. The graphite recovery of the final concentrate upgraded from 51.81% to 91.14% at a fixed carbon (FC content of 92.01% by a beneficiation process consisted of once coarse (94.41% passing 74 μm and rougher, five stages regrinding and six stages cleaning. The proposed treatment technique for middlings is of great significance to increase the recovery of fine flaky graphite.

  5. Effect of Dissolved Air Flotation Process on Thickening of Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamaleki A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Sludge is an inescapable component of all wastewaters that originated from their treatment. dissolved air flotation (DAF process as an alternative clarifier is used in treatment of drinking water, pretreatment of wastewater, and as a phase separator in sludge activation processes. This study aimed to calibrated the usage of DAF process in a laboratory scale and under various conditions, to achieve the optimum efficiency in recycling the activated sludge. Instrument & Methods: In this experimental study, of Kashan's Shahid Beheshti hospital and immediately transported to the laboratory. The optimal dose of polyaluminum chloride coagulant and pH was determined and then applied in DAF process. Finally turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC and total solids (TS parameters were measured and compared with control sample. Findings: The optimal pH and optimal dose of coagulant were 6.5 and 25mg/l, respectively. Also Optimal process efficiency to reduce EC, TS and turbidity parameters were 23.4, 44.5 and 88%, respectively. Conclusion: Dissolved air flotation process removes the turbidity, EC and TS effectively; however, it has minimal impact on EC and TS.

  6. Influence of Froth Height on Column Flotation of Kaolin Ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pita

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the froth height in the reverse flotation of kaolinitic ore was analyzed based on the recovery by entrainment and by true flotation of iron, titanium and manganese oxides (FeO, TiO2 and MnO. Also, the influence of the particle size in the drainage process was analyzed. The recovery by entrainment and by true flotation of the three oxides is inversely proportional to the froth height. The entrained particles are drained more easily in the froth phase than the floated particles since they are not attached to the bubbles. The recovery by entrainment and drainage of the entrained material is similar for the three oxides. However, the recovery by true flotation and drainage of the floated material is different for the three oxides. FeO has the lowest recovery, as a consequence of the minor contribution of its hydrophobic minerals, while MnO has the greatest recovery values. For the entrained material, the finest fraction is entrained more easily, but it is also drained more easily, meaning these particles have more mobility in the froth zone. For the true floated material, the finest fraction is drained more easily, indicating the greater mobility of these particles in the froth; however, the coarsest fraction is drained more easily than the two intermediate fractions, indicating the weaker attachment of the larger particles to the bubbles.

  7. Zeta potentials in the flotation of oxide and silicate minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerstenau, D W; Pradip

    2005-06-30

    Adsorption of collectors and modifying reagents in the flotation of oxide and silicate minerals is controlled by the electrical double layer at the mineral-water interface. In systems where the collector is physically adsorbed, flotation with anionic or cationic collectors depends on the mineral surface being charged oppositely. Adjusting the pH of the system can enhance or prevent the flotation of a mineral. Thus, the point of zero charge (PZC) of the mineral is the most important property of a mineral in such systems. The length of the hydrocarbon chain of the collector is important because of chain-chain association enhances the adsorption once the surfactant ions aggregate to form hemimicelles at the surface. Strongly chemisorbing collectors are able to induce flotation even when collector and the mineral surface are charged similarly, but raising the pH sufficiently above the PZC can repel chemisorbing collectors from the mineral surface. Zeta potentials can be used to delineate interfacial phenomena in these various systems.

  8. Lar mountain phosphate ore processing using flotation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharabaghi, M.; Noaparast, M.; Shafaei Tonkaboni, S. Z.

    2007-01-01

    The sample of Lar Mountain Phosphate deposit which is located in the southwest of Iran, was studied to upgrade its phosphate grade. The results obtained from mineralogical studies showed the presence of apatite, CaO, Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 and SiO 2 , in which carbonate was detected as the main gangue. Two sets of direct and reverse flotation tests were performed using samples from this deposit with 10% P 2 O 5 . In phosphate flotation (direct approach), the samples were conditioned with sodium silica, oleic acid-fuel oil and Armac T-fuel oil. The direct flotation at pH=9.2 yielded a product with 23.2% of P 2 O 5 and 75.16% recovery. The reverse flotation tests were carried out at pH=5.2, with floating carbonate and pulp de-oiling, using H 2 SO 4 and wash water, and phosphate was then floated from siliceous gangue. In the second sets of the reverse approach, depressing the phosphate and floating silica with Amines in natural pH were done. However the best concentrate assay was 31.2% P 2 O 5 with a 71.12% recovery, which was obtained from reverse tests

  9. Selective recovery of micrometer bioparticles using aggregation and air flotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hee, P.

    2006-01-01

    Air flotation is a separation technique that makes use of the air-water interface for separation of particles and molecules from mixtures. This thesis discusses its use for separation of bioparticle mixtures. Particulate bioproducts, such as crystals, inclusion bodies, virus-like particles and

  10. Concentration of beryl by flotation: review of art state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torem, M.L.; Peres, A.E.C.; Adamian, R.

    1988-01-01

    The concentration of beryl has been mainly investigated to develop a product as good as the ''hand-cobbed'' mineral used in the extrative metallurgy of beryllium. The purpose of this paper is to show a review of the concentration of beryl by cationic and anionic flotation depicting their principal aspects. (author) [pt

  11. Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.D.; Yi, Y.; Yu, Q.

    1994-06-07

    A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method. 12 figs.

  12. Influence of attrition variables on iron ore flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Fonseca Fortes

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of slimes is harmful to the flotation process: the performance and consumption of reagents are negatively affected. Traditionally, the desliming stage has been responsible for removing slimes. However, depending on the porosity of the mineral particles, desliming may not be sufficient to maximize the concentration results. An attrition process before the desliming operation can improve the removal of slime, especially when slimes cover the surface and/or are confined to the cavities/pores of the mineral particles. Attrition is present in the flowcharts of the beneficiation process of phosphate and industrial sand (silica sand. Research has been undertaken for its application to produce pre-concentrates of zircon and iron ore. However, there is still little knowledge of the influence of the attrition variables on the beneficiation process of iron ore. This study presents a factorial design and analysis of the effects of these variables on the reverse flotation of iron ore. The standard of the experimental procedures for all tests included the attrition of pulp, under the conditions of dispersion, desliming and flotation. The parameter analysed (variable response was the metallurgical recovery in reverse flotation tests. The planning and analysis of the full factorial experiment indicated that with 95% reliability, the rotation speed of the attrition cell impeller was the main variable in the attrition process of the iron ore. The percentage of solid variables in the pulp and the time of the attrition, as well as their interactions, were not indicated to be significant.

  13. Ionic flotation of uranium contained in industrial phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jdid; Blazy; Bessiere

    1983-01-01

    A new process for uranium recovery from industrial phosphoric acid at 30% of P 2 O 5 is applied by the ionic flotation process. Research is carried out on determination of the nature of ionic species of U in H 3 PO 4 5.5 M and the behavior of reagents from CECA Co. in very acid media. Reagents able to form complexes directly with uranium and stable in phosphoric acid selected are: potassium ethylene diamine tetra (methylene phosphonate) (INIPOL AD32) and sodium dialkyldiphosphonate (34S). Uranium IV, obtained by reduction of uranium VI with iron powder, is precipitated by these reagents. Flotation of the precipitate obtained with INIPOL AD 32 is realized by addition of hexylamino bis (methylene phosphonic acid). A recovery of 80 wt% is obtained. Flotation of the coprecipitate 34S-U(IV) is obtained without any other additions because 34S is a surfactant. Metal recovery is better than 90% and the coprecipitate contains more than 10% U. The process is fast precipitation 10 minutes and flotation 5 minutes and is efficient even at 60 0 C [fr

  14. Thioamides as collectors at flotation of sulfide minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, B.M.; Solozhenkin, P.M.; Rukhadze, E.G.; Lyubavina, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    The collective properties of thioamides at flotation of number of sulfide minerals are considered. It is defined that studied thioamides fix on the surface of minerals with formation of appropriate complexes. The spectres of copper thioamides are studied by means of electron paramagnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy.

  15. Flotation and remediation of contaminated sludge and soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopal, L.K.; Mulleneers, H.A.E.

    2003-01-01

    Flotation, traditionally applied in mineralogy, has been used more recently in wastewater treatment, soil and sediment remediation and paper de-inking. The latter types of application may differ from mineral separation by the fact that the particles that should be floated are often partially

  16. Flotation mechanisms of molybdenite fines by neutral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing-quan; Gu, Guo-hua; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-cai; Fu, Jian-gang; Wang, Chong-qing

    2018-01-01

    The flotation mechanisms of molybdenite fines by neutral oils were investigated through microflotation test, turbidity measurements, infrared spectroscopy, and interfacial interaction calculations. The results of the flotation test show that at pH 2-11, the floatability of molybdenite fines in the presence of transformer oil is markedly better than that in the presence of kerosene and diesel oil. The addition of transformer oil, which enhances the floatability of molybdenite fines, promotes the aggregation of molybdenite particles. Fourier transform infrared measurements illustrate that physical interaction dominates the adsorption mechanism of neutral oil on molybdenite. Interfacial interaction calculations indicate that hydrophobic attraction is the crucial force that acts among the oil collector, water, and molybdenite. Strong hydrophobic attraction between the oily collector and water provides the strong dispersion capability of the collector in water. Furthermore, the dispersion capability of the collector, not the interaction strength between the oily collectors and molybdenite, has a highly significant role in the flotation system of molybdenite fines. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of molybdenite flotation.

  17. DRUCKFLAMM - Investigation on combustion and hot gas cleanup in pulverized coal combustion systems. Final report; DRUCKFLAMM - Untersuchungen zur Verbrennung und Heissgasreinigung bei der Druckkohlenstaubfeuerung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, K.R.G.; Benoehr, A.; Schuermann, H.; Stroehle, J.; Klaiber, C.; Kuhn, R.; Maier, J.; Schnell, U.; Unterberger, S.

    2001-07-01

    The ambitions of making energy supply more efficient and less polluting brought forth the development of coal based combined cycle power plants allowing considerable increases in net efficiencies. One of the regarded firing concepts for a coal based combined cycle power plant is represented by the pressurised pulverised coal combustion process which has the highest efficiency potential compared with the other coal based concepts. The fundamental purpose of the project was to gain firm knowledge concerning firing behaviour of coal in a pressurised pulverised coal combustion system. Detailed investigations were carried out in a pressurised entrained flow reactor taking into account fuel conversion and particle behaviour, pollutant formation and material behaviour under conditions of a pressurised pulverised coal firing. During the project's investigations several different measurement techniques were tested and partially also acquired (e.g. a two-colour-pyrometry system to measure simultaneous particle surface temperature and particle diameter of burning fuel particles). Calculation models under pressurised conditions for pressure vessel simulation and better scale-up were developed synchronously with the experimental investigations. The results gained using the pressurised entrained flow reactor show that many combustion mechanisms are influenced by increased pressure, for instance the fuel conversion is intensified and at the same time pollutant emissions decreased. The material investigations show that the ceramic materials used due to the very high combustion temperatures are very sensitive versus slagging and fast temperature changes, therefore further development requirements are needed to fully realise the high durability of ceramics in the pressurised furnace. Concerning the improvement of existing models for furnace simulation under pressurised conditions, a good resemblance can be observed when considering the actual measurement results from the test

  18. Commission on energy and the environment. Coal study. An overview paper by the NCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The environmental effects of deep-mined production and opencast coal production are examined. Methods of using coal and some environmental consequences of coal utilisation are considered. Finally it describes the geographical pattern of coal production and exploration and deals briefly with the planning and employment implications - particularly for new capacity. (25 refs.) Available from IEA Coal Research, please quote ICTIS/M0105.

  19. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  20. Dependence of liquefaction behavior on coal characteristics. Part VI. Relationship of liquefaction behavior of a set of high sulfur coals to chemical structural characteristics. Final technical report, March 1981 to February 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, P. H.; Given, P. H.

    1984-09-01

    The initial aim of this research was to use empirical mathematical relationships to formulate a better understanding of the processes involved in the liquefaction of a set of medium rank high sulfur coals. In all, just over 50 structural parameters and yields of product classes were determined. In order to gain a more complete understanding of the empirical relationships between the various properties, a number of relatively complex statistical procedures and tests were applied to the data, mostly selected from the field of multivariate analysis. These can be broken down into two groups. The first group included grouping techniques such as non-linear mapping, hierarchical and tree clustering, and linear discriminant analyses. These techniques were utilized in determining if more than one statistical population was present in the data set; it was concluded that there was not. The second group of techniques included factor analysis and stepwise multivariate linear regressions. Linear discriminant analyses were able to show that five distinct groups of coals were represented in the data set. However only seven of the properties seemed to follow this trend. The chemical property that appeared to follow the trend most closely was the aromaticity, where a series of five parallel straight lines was observed for a plot of f/sub a/ versus carbon content. The factor patterns for each of the product classes indicated that although each of the individual product classes tended to load on factors defined by specific chemical properties, the yields of the broader product classes, such as total conversion to liquids + gases and conversion to asphaltenes, tended to load largely on factors defined by rank. The variance explained and the communalities tended to be relatively low. Evidently important sources of variance have still to be found.

  1. Removal of arsenopyrite from complex sulfide minerals by froth flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-young; Kim, Yang-soo; Kim, Dong-gyu; Han, Oh-hyung; Park, Chul-hyun

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic (As) is one of hazardous materials and a penalty element in metal concentrates and so metal concentrates containing arsenic of over 0.5% has been currently restricted in import and export trade. It also corrodes a smelting furnace as well as shortens its life cycle. In korea, Janggun mine that produces galena (PbS) /sphalerite (ZnS) concentrate containing arsenic of 1.78% charges a penalty of US 2/ton to LS-Nikko smelter. Hence in this work, flotation tests for removal of arsenopyrite (FeAsS) from sulfide mineral concentrates were carried out using lab scale flotation cell, which maintain grade and recovery of PbS and ZnS in comparison to flotation plant. Particularly, this study was focused on investigating the combination of several chemical reagents (depressant, collector, activator and etc.) that affect flotation performance. In the straight differential flotation for PbS, a PbS grade of 75.80% and a recovery of 90.12% could be obtained with FeAsS removal of 84.1% (0.2% As) under the conditions of 20% feed solids concentration, pH 8.5, 50g/t frother (AF65), 40g/t collector (AP242) and 800g/t As depressant (NaHSO3) and 600g/t Zn depressant (ZnSO4). In the ZnS flotation, the maximum separation achievable for ZnS using froth flotation has been shown to be a grade of 72.57% and a recovery of 95.43%. At this time, FeAsS removal of 87.8% (0.16% As) could be successfully accomplished under pH 11, and 800g/t Zn activator (CuSO4), 75g/t frother (AF65), 60g/t collector (AP211) and 600g/t As depressant (NaHSO3). Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Energy and Resources Engineering Program Grant funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Korea

  2. Measurement of the residence time distribution in industrial flotation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yianatos, Juan; Diaz, F; Rodriguez, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    This work presents a determination of the effective liquid and solid residence time in mechanical cell banks of primary and sweep flotation, and in cleaning flotation columns, at Codelco-Chile's Salvador Division. The determination was carried out using the residence time distribution (RTD) measurement with radioactive tracers. Br-82 was used as the trace element for the liquid. Different kinds of minerals were used to trace the solid: a) activated global tailing (non floatable), b) tailing activated by size classifications (non floatable) and c) activated floatable mineral. The residence time measurement defined effective volumes of 50-80% of the total volume in flotation cell banks, and effective volumes of 77% of the total volume of large-size flotation solids. The effective residence time of the solid (23%+212 microns) in industrial flotation cell banks was 5% below that for the liquid. The residence time of the mineral decreased with increased particle size. Thick mineral (>150 microns) showed a residence time 8% below that for thin mineral (<45 microns). The RTD of industrial mechanical cell banks is adequately represented with a number of perfect mixers in series equivalent to the number of real bank cells. The RTD of the industrial columns equals less than two perfect mixers in series and adjusts better when considering a perfect mixers in series model, but in a different size. Common operating problems could also be observed and analyzed through the RTD measurement, such as embankment of the equipment and the deficient regulation of the outflow, used to control the pulp level (Cw)

  3. Coal - 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards

  4. 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology; Dai 6 kai sekitan riyo gijutsu kaigi koenshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The paper compiled the papers presented in the 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology held in September 1996. With relation to the fluidized bed boiler, reported were Field operation test of Wakamatsu PFBC combined cycle power plant and Development of pressurized internally circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Regarding the coal reformation, Development of advanced coal cleaning process, Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process, etc. Concerning the combustion technology, Study of the O2/CO2 combustion technology, Development of pressurized coal partial combustor, etc. About the CWM, Development of low rank coals upgrading and their CWM producing technology, Technique of CWM distribution system, etc. Relating to the coal ash, Engineering characteristics of the improved soil by deep mixing method using coal ash, Employment of fluidized bed ash as a basecourse material, On-site verification trials using fly ash for reclamation behind bulkheads, Water permeabilities of pulverized fuel ash, Separation of unburned carbon from coal fly ash through froth flotation, Practical use technology of coal ash (POZ-O-TEC), etc

  5. Field study for disposal of solid wastes from Advanced Coal Processes: Ohio LIMB Site Assessment. Final report, April 1986--November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, A.; Coel, B.J.; Butler, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    New air pollution regulations will require cleaner, more efficient processes for converting coal to electricity, producing solid byproducts or wastes that differ from conventional pulverized-coal combustion ash. Large scale landfill test cells containing byproducts were built at 3 sites and are to be monitored over at least 3 years. This report presents results of a 3-y field test at an ash disposal site in northern Ohio; the field test used ash from a combined lime injection-multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant. The landfill test cells used LIMB ash wetted only to control dusting in one cell, and LIMB ash wetted to optimize compaction density in the other cell. Both test cells had adequate load-bearing strength for landfill stability but had continuing dimensional instability. Heaving and expansion did not affect the landfill stability but probably contributed to greater permeability to infiltrating water. Leachate migration occurred from the base, but effects on downgradient groundwater were limited to increased chloride concentration in one well. Compressive strength of landfilled ash was adequate to support equipment, although permeability was higher and strength was lower than anticipated. Average moisture content has increased to about 90% (dry weight basis). Significant water infiltration has occurred; the model suggests that as much as 20% of the incident rainfall will pass through and exit as leachate. However, impacts on shallow ground water is minimal. Results of this field study suggest that LIMB ash from combustion of moderate to high sulfur coals will perform acceptably if engineering controls are used to condition and compact the materials, reduce water influx to the landfill, and minimize leachate production. Handling of the ash did not pose serious problems during cell construction; steaming and heat buildup were moderate.

  6. Solid state 13C NMR analysis of shales and coals from Laramide Basins. Final report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miknis, F.P.; Jiao, Z.S.; Zhao, Hanqing; Surdam, R.C.

    1998-12-31

    This Western Research Institute (WRI) jointly sponsored research (JSR) project augmented and complemented research conducted by the University of Wyoming Institute For Energy Research for the Gas Research Institute. The project, {open_quotes}A New Innovative Exploitation Strategy for Gas Accumulations Within Pressure Compartments,{close_quotes} was a continuation of a project funded by the GRI Pressure Compartmentalization Program that began in 1990. That project, {open_quotes}Analysis of Pressure Chambers and Seals in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana,{close_quotes} characterized a new class of hydrocarbon traps, the discovery of which can provide an impetus to revitalize the domestic petroleum industry. In support of the UW Institute For Energy Research`s program on pressure compartmentalization, solid-state {sup 13}C NMR measurements were made on sets of shales and coals from different Laramide basins in North America. NMR measurements were made on samples taken from different formations and depths of burial in the Alberta, Bighorn, Denver, San Juan, Washakie, and Wind River basins. The carbon aromaticity determined by NMR was shown to increase with depth of burial and increased maturation. In general, the NMR data were in agreement with other maturational indicators, such as vitrinite reflectance, illite/smectite ratio, and production indices. NMR measurements were also obtained on residues from hydrous pyrolysis experiments on Almond and Lance Formation coals from the Washakie Basin. These data were used in conjunction with mass and elemental balance data to obtain information about the extent of carbon aromatization that occurs during artificial maturation. The data indicated that 41 and 50% of the original aliphatic carbon in the Almond and Lance coals, respectively, aromatized during hydrous pyrolysis.

  7. Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal-fired, closed-cycle MHD power generation are reported. This volume contains the following appendices: (A) user's manual for 2-dimensional MHD generator code (2DEM); (B) performance estimates for a nominal 30 MW argon segmented heater; (C) the feedwater cooled Brayton cycle; (D) application of CCMHD in an industrial cogeneration environment; (E) preliminary design for shell and tube primary heat exchanger; and (F) plant efficiency as a function of output power for open and closed cycle MHD power plants. (WHK)

  8. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  9. Methane emissions from coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.; Mitchell, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper outlines some of the problems associated with the prediction of levels of methane emission from underground and surface coal mines. Current knowledge of coal mining emissions sources is outlined. On the basis of this information the methodology proposed by the IPCC/OECD Programme on National Inventories is critically examined and alternatives considered. Finally, the technical options for emissions control are examined together with their feasibility. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Black coal. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An overview is given of the situation of the world energy industry with regard to all energy carriers. Then energy-political conclusions are drawn for German black coal and the resulting prospects are detailed. Finally, some socio-political aspects are considered with regard to German black-coal mining: Workforce policy, tariff policy, social security and social safeguards for the adaptation process. (orig.) [de

  11. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/Wet FGD system. Volume 1, Sampling, results, and special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE-PETC in 1993 as mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act. It is organized into 2 volumes; Volume 1 describes the sampling effort, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations. The study involved solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at Coal Creek Station Unit No. 1, Underwood, North Dakota (1100 MW mine-mouth plant burning lignite from the Falkirk mine located adjacent to the plant). This plant had an electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber flue gas desulfurization unit. Measurements were conducted on June 21--24, 26, and 27, 1993; chemicals measured were 6 major and 16 trace elements (including Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Se, As, Be, Ni), acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate), ammonia and cyanide, elemental C, radionuclides, VOCs, semivolatiles (incl. PAH, polychlorinated dioxins, furans), and aldehydes. Volume 2: Appendices includes process data log sheets, field sampling data sheets, uncertainty calculations, and quality assurance results.

  12. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-16

    The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

  13. Particulate behavior in a controlled-profile pulverized coal-fired reactor: A study of coupled turbulent particle dispersion and thermal radiation transport. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, M.; Webb, B.W.

    1996-06-01

    To aid in the evaluation and development of advanced coal-combustion models, comprehensive experimental data sets are needed containing information on both the condensed and gas phases. To address this need a series of test were initiated on a 300 kW laboratory-scale, coal-fired reactor at a single test condition using several types of instrumentation. Data collected on the reactor during the course of the test includes: gas, particle, and wall temperature profiles; radiant, total, and convective heat fluxes to the walls; particle size and velocity profiles; transmission measurements; and gas species concentrations. Solid sampling was also performed to determine carbon and total burnout. Along with the extensive experimental measurements, the particle dispersion and radiation submodels in the ACERC comprehensive 2D code were studied in detail and compared to past experimental measurements taken in the CPR. In addition to the presentation and discussion of the experimental data set, a detailed description of the measurement techniques used in collecting the data, including a discussion of the error associated with each type of measurement, is given.

  14. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  15. Coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  16. Australian coal prospects and response to air quality issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Australia is unique in its high dependency on coal as a domestic energy source and as a major export commodity. Coal provides about 41% of Australia's primary energy and is the country's largest export. Australia's domestic air quality issues and standards are reviewed and current Australian research aimed at reducing emissions from both bituminous and brown coal combustion is summarized. Australia's greenhouse policy is also discussed. The future role of coal in the world, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region, where three quarters of Australia's coal exports are sold, is reviewed. Forecasts of the world import demand for both metallurgical coal and thermal coal to the year 2000 are provided. The supply capacity of major coal exporting countries in summarized and estimates of export coal market shares in 2000 given. Finally, the future of Australia's domestic use of coal is discussed, in the light of climate change concerns

  17. Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dismukes, E.B.

    1994-10-20

    This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

  18. Environmental determinants of the spatial distribution of Mesocestoides spp. and sensitivity of flotation method for the diagnosis of mesocestoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széll, Z; Tolnai, Z; Sréter, T

    2015-09-15

    Mesocestoides spp. are zoonotic cestodes of wild and domesticated carnivores. Although the adult stages are relatively harmless intestinal parasites, the metacestode stages (tetrathyridia) can be responsible for life-threatening peritonitis and pleuritis in several species including dogs, cats, non-human primates and probably man. The aim of the present study was to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of Mesocestoides spp. in the most important final hosts, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), to analyse the relationship of these patterns with landscape and climate by geographical information systems and to evaluate faecal flotation method for the detection of infection in the final host. Fox carcasses, representing 0.5% of the total fox population were randomly selected out of all the foxes of Hungary. The intestinal tract was examined by sedimentation and counting technique. The sensitivity of the flotation method was evaluated by the testing of the faecal samples of 180 foxes infected with Mesocestoides spp. The prevalence of infection was high in foxes (45.8%; 95% CI=41.0-50.6%), and the parasite was detected in all areas of Hungary. The high prevalence of the parasite in foxes suggests that the infection might also be common in outdoor dogs and cats. Mesocestoides infection could not be detected in any of the foxes by flotation method indicating that the sensitivity of the method is less than 0.6%. Therefore, almost all canine and feline infections remain undetected in the veterinary practice. Based on the statistical analysis, the altitude was the only determinant of the spatial distribution of Mesocestoides spp. indicating that infections in carnivores including dogs and cats can be expected mainly in midland regions (150-750 m above sea level). It might be attributed to the altitude-dependent species richness and abundance of the intermediate and final hosts of the parasite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Distilling coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  20. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 5, Appendix D: Cost support information: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro`s estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  1. Study on the reliability of large coal-fired and nuclear power plants. Factors affecting power plant reliability. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The study consisted of a comparative evaluation of 2 nuclear units (Indian Point 2 - Consolidated Edison of New York, Turkey Point 4 - Florida Power and Light Company) and 2 coal-fired units (Bull Run and Widows Creek Unit 8 - Tennessee Valley Authority). The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the underlying causes of unit reliability and the causes of the observed differences in reliability performance of the units. Recommended actions for improving the reliability of one of the study units was to be presented in a format useful to other utility companies for improving reliability of their generating units. The emphasis of the study was on the aspects of management, manning, operations, and maintenance which had a significant impact on unit reliability. Volume 1 includes a summary, a description of the major findings from the comparative evaluation, conclusions based on these findings, and recommendations for improving the reliability of the below average units

  2. Field performance of wood-burning and coal-burning appliances in Crested Butte during the 1989-90 heating season. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaasma, D.R.; Champion, M.R.; Gundappa, M.

    1991-10-01

    The field performance of woodburning and coalburning appliances in and around Crested Butte, CO, has been evaluated. Measurements included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and weekly average burn rates. Woodburning appliances included conventional airtight stoves, EPA-certified catalytic stoves, and EPA-certified noncatalytic stoves. Compared to the emissions measured from conventional stoves, the certified stoves reduced PM emission factors (g/kg) by 53% and CO emission factors by 49%. Coalburning appliances included a commercial scale boiler, a residential stoker, and hand-fired coalstove. The coalburning appliances were compared to conventional woodstoves on a grams of pollutant per joule of heat output basis. The automatically stoked coal appliances reduced PM and CO emissions by roughly 84% and 85%, respectively. The hand-fired stove was cleaner than expected, reducing PM by 55% and CO by 27%

  3. Tracer studies of flotation in the laboratory and in mineral processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, A.J.; Thereska, J.; Plasari, E.; Kacaj, M.

    1993-01-01

    Radioisotope tracers have a proven application for the extraction of residence time distributions and the evaluation of flotation rates in industry. This paper shows how values of the rate factor k are scaled up on the basis of flotation in the laboratory and tracer tests in plant. The procedure is illustrated by a theoretical study and by experimental data. The information obtained can be introduced into models of larger flotation systems. (author)

  4. Effect of pH on Pulp Potential and Sulphide Mineral Flotation

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKTEPE, Ferihan

    2014-01-01

    Control of pH is one of the most widely applied methods for the modulation of mineral flotation. In this study the effect of pH on potential in solution and sulphur minerals flotation is discussed with various electrodes. The electrodes were platinum, gold, chalcopyrite, pyrite and galena. In solution, potentials were linearly dependent on pH with a different slope for each electrode. Chalcopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite and galena minerals flotation tests were performed in a microflot...

  5. The adsorption of oleate and its effect on the flotation of monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Tam; Cheng, Tawui; Patridge, A.C.; Wong, P.L.M.

    1993-01-01

    The absorption of sodium oleate during the flotation of monazite has been investigated. Thermodynamic modelling was employed to study the surface chemistry of monazite. The experimental results show that the ionic distribution of the first hydroxyl rare earth species, RE(OH) 2+ , correlates well with the adsorption and flotation results. It is suggested that hydroxylation of rare earth cations at mineral surfaces could provide active sites for the chemisorption of oleate ions (sodium oleate) which enhances flotation. 13 refs., 11 figs

  6. Statistical Evaluation and Optimization of Factors Affecting the Leaching Performance of Copper Flotation Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Çoruh, Semra; Elevli, Sermin; Geyikçi, Feza

    2012-01-01

    Copper flotation waste is an industrial by-product material produced from the process of manufacturing copper. The main concern with respect to landfilling of copper flotation waste is the release of elements (e.g., salts and heavy metals) when in contact with water, that is, leaching. Copper flotation waste generally contains a significant amount of Cu together with trace elements of other toxic metals, such as Zn, Co, and Pb. The release of heavy metals into the environment has resulted in ...

  7. Selective separation of Cu, Zn, and As from solution by flotation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalidis, G.A.; Matis, K.A.; Lazaridis, N.K.

    1989-01-01

    The selective precipitation and flotation of copper, zinc, and arsenic ions from dilute aqueous solutions were investigated. Phase separation was accomplished effectively by the dissolved-air technique for the production of fine gas bubbles, and a short-chain xanthate was applied as the collector for copper ions, dialkyl-dithiocarbamate for zinc, and ferric sulfate for the pentavalent arsenic. The procedures followed were ion flotation for copper and zinc, and adsorbing colloid flotation for arsenic (without a surfactant)

  8. Flotation of kaolinite from tailings of kaolin-washing plants by cationic collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Barani Kianoush

    2016-01-01

    Traditional processing of kaolin is achieved by dispersion of the mined ore and classification by means of multistage hydrocyclones. The inefficiencies inherent to cyclones produce a middling product that is commonly disposed back to the quarry. In this research recovery of kaolinite from tailings of the Zonoupz kaolin washing plant, which is located in Iran, was investigated by cationic flotation. Flotation experiments showed that flotation of kaolinite from tailings was much better in an ac...

  9. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (USA)); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA)); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  10. British coal-down to the line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The long-running saga of British Coal's decline is in its final stages with virtually no change from last October when the British government announced plants to close 31 of the 50 remaining mines. That announcement produced a political outcry but having privatized the electricity industry in 1990 the government had effectively left itself up the creek without a paddle. It had no powers to force the generators to buy more coal. The status of the British coal industry is discussed

  11. Conditioning in the flotation of gold, uranium oxide, and pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stassen, F.J.N.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of conditioning energy on the flotation of gold, U 3 O 8 , and pyrite was investigated in the range 0,1 to 100 kWh per tonne of dry ore for various combinations of conditioning time and impeller speed in a cylindrical conditioning tank. It was found that, when the conditioning energy was increased to between 5 and 10 kWh per tonne of dry ore, the total recovery and flotation rate of the valuable minerals (expressed as Klimpel parameters) increased substantially. The Klimpel parameters are dependent on conditioning energy, but are independent of conditioning time or impeller speed (at constant conditioning energy). The Klimpel parameters of the gangue are independent of conditioning energy. 23 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs

  12. The flotation of rare earths - a contribution to industrial hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, W.H.; Collins, D.N.; Hollick, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional processing of heavy mineral deposits containing radioactive rare earth minerals such as monazite and xenotime may cause industrial hygiene problems through atmospheric dust and contamination of product concentrates. An alternative procedure has been developed by Wimmera Industrial Mineral Pty. Ltd. at the Drung South deposit in Victoria. The radioactive minerals are removed from bulk heavy mineral concentrates by flotation with little loss of other economic minerals. With fine ores, recoveries of over 95% have been achieved and with coarse ores over 80%. The potential for generation of radioactive dust or product contamination in subsequent processing is correspondingly reduced. Several flotation regimes, which have proven effective are discussed. 7 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  13. State of the art on ion and precipitate flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, In Ha; Yang, Myung Seung; Bae, Ki Kwang; Shon, Jong Sik; Cho, Young Hyun

    1997-08-01

    This report is contained research status of foam separation technique and thus theoretical backgrounds, the kinds of surfactants using for the foam separation technique, their characteristics, general structure and role, surfactant absorption mechanism at liquid/vapor/solid interfaces, effectiveness and efficiency were interpreted with well known models. Ion flotation and precipitate flotation which are applicable for the treatment of very low radioactive liquid wastes were analyzed on the effect of pH, foreign ions, initial concentration of metal ion through the recent presented papers. As the result of technical analysis of foam separation technique, foam separation technique seems to be applicable for the treatment of very low radioactive liquid wastes such as laundry and shower waste. (author). 42 refs., 2 tabs., 37 figs

  14. Flotation of phosphorous-uraniferous minerals from Itataia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, J.A. de.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental conditions were established, in laboratory and pilot scales, for the flotation of a sample of a phosphorus-uraniferous mineral from Itataia mines (CE, Brazil), basically composed of apatite and calcite. Laboratory investigations led to the optimization of the most important flotation variables and of the reagents system (tall-oil, collamil and sodium silicate) in the roughing, scavenging and cleaning steps of the process. In pilot scale, flowsheet tests were performed under the same conditions proposed for laboratory studies. The optimization of laboratory conditions led to the following yields: 29.3% of P 2 O 5 concentrates and 73.5% P 2 O 5 recovery. In the pilot scale tests, 28.4% of P 2 O 5 concentrates and 76.7% P 2 O 5 recovery yields were obtained. (Author) [pt

  15. Metal biosorption-flotation. Application to cadmium removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matis, K A; Zouboulis, A I; Grigoriadou, A A; Lazaridis, N K; Ekateriniadou, L V

    1996-05-01

    Biosorption using suspended non-living biomass, and flotation (for consequent solid/liquid separation of the metal-loaded biomass) have been studied in the laboratory as a possible combined process, for the removal of toxic metals (i.e., cadmium) from dilute aqueous solutions. The various parameters of the process were investigated in depth, including re-use of biosorbent. A filter aid (contained in the biomass industrial waste used) was found not really to interfere. Zeta-potential measurements of the aforementioned system were also carried out. Promising results were obtained during continuous-flow experiments. A flotation residence time of 4 min was achieved. Metal removal and suspended biomass recovery were generally over 95%.

  16. Flotation tailings as a raw material for ceramic building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmistrov, V N; Karpunina, T I; Smolin, V N

    1986-02-01

    The VNIIstrom research institute developed a method for utilizing flotation tailings for production of bricks. Tailings are dewatered using filter presses. After dewatering, moisture content in the tailings ranges from 25 to 26%. Tailings are mixed with chamotte with a grain size to 2 mm. Using 30% chamotte improves mechanical and physical properties of the bricks and reduces energy consumption of brick firing. Tailings mixed with chamotte are granulated and dried on a conveyor. Granules with moisture content reduced to the optimum level are mixed a second time and formed in a press. The bricks are fired in a tunnel kiln with modified design. The bricks made of flotation tailings mixed with 30% chamotte are characterized by mechanical properties comparable to those of high quality bricks made of conventional materials.

  17. Flotation separation of marmatite from pyrrhotite using DMPS as depressant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wei; LIU Run-qing; CAO Xue-feng; HU Yue-hua

    2006-01-01

    Mercapto organic compound DMPS was used as the depressant for separation of copper activated marmatite from pyrrhotite in the presence of butyl xanthate. The flotation tests of single mineral show that DMPS has strong depressing effect on pyrrhotite in the absence and presence of copper ion, but has activated effect on marmatite in the presence of copper ion. The floatability of marmatite is improved in the pH range of 2-12. The flotation test of mixture mineral shows that copper-activated marmatite can be separated efficiently from pyrrhotite using DMPS as depressant. Infrared adsorption spectra demonstrate that there are a number of function groups such as -SH and -SO3 in the molecular structure ofDMPS. Xanthate and DMPS compete in their adsorption on sulfide minerals.

  18. Watertightness in anti-flotation slabs: MIS-RJ case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Britez

    Full Text Available It is common in coastal cities as Rio de Janeiro, that buildings located close to the shoreline have their basements below water table level. In most cases, the engineering solution for these buildings is to design a massive anti-flotation slab to satisfy, principally, the issues related to structural dimensioning and calculation hypothesis. On the other hand, the execution of this solution imply in significant construction problems related to reinforced concrete watertightness and durability. This paper presents a case study about challenges and solutions devised to execute an anti-flotation, 1m thick, 1200m³ reinforced concrete slab for the new Museu de Imagem e Som (MIS - Sound and Image Museum, located at 50m from the seashore, at Copacabana in Rio de Janeiro, RJ. The results show that concrete proportions, concreting plan and pouring method adopted were decisive in obtaining a watertight structure, avoiding thus the employment of traditional waterproofing alternatives.

  19. Thiosulphate leaching of gold-, silver-, copper flotation concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samikhov, Sh.R.; Zinchenko, Z.A.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to thiosulphate leaching of gold-, silver-, copper flotation concentrates. For the purpose to improve the process of thiosulphate leaching the ore samples were calcined at temperature 600 ℃ during two hours. During the calcination process of gold-sulphide ores and concentrates the minerals pyrite and arsenopyrite oxidize which lead to opening of gold contains in them. It was defined that thiosulphate leaching can be recommended as an alternative to cyanic process.

  20. Flotation separation of hafnium(IV) from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, D.M.; Narick, C.N.; Cohen, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple, rapid method for the separation of hafnium from aqueous solutions was investigated using sup(175+181)Hf tracer. Cationic hafnium complex ions were floated from dilute acid solutions with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and anionic hafnium complexes were floated from basic and oxalic acid solutions with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (HTMAB). The conditions necessary for quantitative recovery of the metal and mechanisms of flotation are described. (author)

  1. Flotation separation of hafnium(IV) from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downey, D.M.; Narick, C.N.; Cohen, T.A.

    1985-09-01

    A simple, rapid method for the separation of hafnium from aqueous solutions was investigated using sup(175 + 181)Hf tracer. Cationic hafnium complex ions were floated from dilute acid solutions with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and anionic hafnium complexes were floated from basic and oxalic acid solutions with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (HTMAB). The conditions necessary for quantitative recovery of the metal and mechanisms of flotation are described. (author). 21 refs.; 5 figs.

  2. Flotation concentration for tellurium determination in industrial sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skripchuk, V.G.; Bormotova, L.V.; Lukoyanova, L.P.; Tret'yakova, M.I.

    1983-01-01

    Combination of the flotation of tellurium (4) precipitate with papaverine toluene and extraction-photometric determination of Te with butylrhodamine C allows one to determine 0.002-0.1 mg Te/l without its preliminary precipitation. Accompanying elements found in non-ferrous metallurgy sewage have no effect upon it. The duration of analysis of 10 samples is 1 to 1.5 h. Relative error is 12%. The method is introduced at the ''Uralelektromed'' plant

  3. Flotation: A promising microalgae harvesting and dewatering technology for biofuels production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndikubwimana, Theoneste; Chang, Jingyu; Xiao, Zongyuan; Shao, Wenyao; Zeng, Xianhai; Ng, I-Son; Lu, Yinghua

    2016-03-01

    Microalgal biomass as renewable energy source is believed to be of great potential for reliable and sustainable biofuels production. However, microalgal biomass production is pinned by harvesting and dewatering stage thus hindering the developing and growing microalgae biotechnology industries. Flotation technology applied in mineral industry could be potentially applied in microalgae harvesting and dewatering, however substantial knowledge on different flotation units is essential. This paper presents an overview on different flotation units as promising cost-effective technologies for microalgae harvesting thus bestowing for further research in development and commercialization of microalgae based biofuels. Dispersed air flotation was found to be less energy consuming. Moreover, Jameson cell flotation and dispersed ozone flotation are believed to be energy efficient microalgae flotation approaches. Microalgae harvesting and dewatering by flotation is still at embryonic stage, therefore extended studies with the focus on life cycle assessment, sustainability of the flotation unit, optimization of the operating parameters using different algal species is imperative. Though there are a number of challenges in microalgae harvesting and dewatering, with well designed and developed cultivation, harvesting/dewatering, extraction and conversion technologies, progressively, microalgae technology will be of great potential for biological carbon sequestration, biofuels and biochemicals production. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Ambient Temperature Flotation of Sedimentary Phosphate Ore Using Cottonseed Oil as a Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoyang Ruan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The mid-low grade sedimentary phosphate ore, abundant in silicate and carbonate gangue minerals, exhibits a poor processability. It is conventionally enriched using high temperature flotation to remove silicate gangues with fatty acid as a collector. Cottonseed oil has been proved to be an efficient collector for achieving ambient temperature flotation of the sedimentary phosphate ore used in this study. Flotation kinetics was investigated to ascertain the excellent collecting performance of cottonseed oil, as compared with oleic acid, and the phosphate flotation fitted well with the first-order flotation model. Based on the analysis of flotation reagent effect on the direct flotation process using the response surface methodology (RSM, a closed circuit of direct-reverse flotation for stepwise removing silicate and carbonate gangues from the sedimentary phosphate ore was established. Consequently, a required high quality of phosphate concentrate containing 30.16% P2O5 was obtained, with a recovery of 90.90%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD of the flotation products confirmed that the majority of silicate and carbonate gangues were effectively removed from the concentrate products.

  5. Optimizing the grain size distribution for talc-magnesite ore flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škvarla Jiøí

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Flotation is the only separation method with an universal utilization. Along with the separation of particulate valuable or hazardous components from primary and seconadry mineral raw materials, it is of usage in biotechnologies and water cleaning. The success of the flotation separation crucially depends on the particle size distribution or composition of the ore charge entering the process. The paper deals with the problem of flotation treatment of talc-magnesite ore. The main components of the ore, i.e. talc and magnesite are appreciably different in their grindability and floatability. For such a type of raw material, grinding of the charge plays a very important role in the process. The (unwanted influence of ultrafine particles on the course of the flotation process is well known. On the other hand, in order to liberate and subsequently to selectively separate both the components, a maximum particle size has to be respected.An influence of artificial samples of selected particle size fractions on the flotation efficiency has been studied experimentally by the quantitative evaluation of flotation products. The flotation experiments on the samples provided an information not obtainable from traditional flotation tests. An adverse effect of the size fraction 0 – 0.04 mm was revealed, decreasing the flotation selectivity appreciably. These results are of theoretical and practical importance.

  6. Influence of the amount of collector on ion flotation of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushakova, L.I.; Berezyuk, V.G.; Kasimov, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Flotation methods based on chemical interaction of the metal ion to be extracted (colligend) with an oppositely charged surfactant ion (collector) are now attracting attention increasingly in purification of wastewaters. Extraction of small amounts of metals by flotation from industrial wastes provides solutions of problems associated with prevention of pollution of natural water supplies by toxic pollutants, and also with concentration of valuable elements for subsequent utilization. Niobium is one such metal, extraction of which from aqueous solutions is of considerable interest. The results of an experimental study of the influence of the amount of flotation reagent on ion flotation of niobates are discussed in this paper

  7. Comparative results of copper flotation from smelter slag and granulated smelter slag

    OpenAIRE

    Milanović, Dragan; Stanujkić, Dragiša; Ignjatović, Miroslav R.

    2013-01-01

    Smelter slag is obtained in the process of metallurgical converting of copper concentrate in the Smelter Plant in Bor, Serbia. Today, the reserves of this material are evaluated at about more of a year, with the average copper content of 0.6-0.9%. Production of copper concentrate by flotation of smelter slag has started in 2001. Flotation concentrate goes to the Copper Smelter once more for production of copper cathodes and the rough flotation tailings go to the flotation tailing dump. Copper...

  8. Using statistical experimental design techniques to determine the most effective variables for the control of the flotation deinking of mixed recycled paper grades

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pauck, WJ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available to break up remaining dirt into sub-visible particles and ? finally oxidative and/or reductive bleaching to improve the optical properties. In more advanced processing plants producing higher quality recycled pulps, second stages of flotation..., such as residual ink concentration (ERIC) or dirt count are sometime performed. In addition, the yield is often monitored, as it impacts on the economics of the process. Process control of deinking plants Typical deinking processes offer few opportunities...

  9. Removal of Cobalt ion by Foam Flotation(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, I.H.; Park, H.S.; Moon, J.S.; Yim, S.P.; Bae, K.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    Simulated liquid waste containing 50 ppm cobalt ion was treated by precipitate flotation using the surfactant of sodium lauryl sulfate. The effects of initial cobalt ion concentration, pH, surfactant concentration, removal time, gas flow rate and foreign ions were estimated on removal efficiency. 35% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was added for pre-treatment stage before precipitate flotation. As the result of pre-treatment, optimum removal pH and the pH of treated water being discharged were lowed and optimum removal pH range was broadened. For the result of this experiment, 99.8% removal efficiency was obtained at the condition of 50ppm of initial cobalt ion concentration, pH 9.5, 70 mL/min of gas flow rate, and 30 min of removal time. Attraction between precipitate and surfactant was supposed to be influenced by solubility and chemical affinity among species in solution as well as zeta potential. The influence of foreign ions such as, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup +2} on the removal efficiency was also observed. Removal efficiency by precipitate flotation containing o.1 M of SO4{sup -}2 ion decreased to 90% due to the decrease of zeta potential and interruption of precipitation. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Mathematical simulation of column flotation in pilot scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.; Jordan, D.; Cifuentes, G.; Morales, A.; Briones, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Procemin-I area of the Centro Minero Metalurgico Tecnologia y Servicio (CIMM T and S), has a full milling and flotation pilot plant in which several experiences are developed as: optimization of circuits, plant design, procurement of operating parameters, etc. Ones of the equipment in operation is the column flotation to pilot scale, witch have a medium level of automation. The problem presented in the operation of the column flotation is the low relationship during the operation between the operating basis parameters and the metallurgical results. The mathematical models used today to estimate the metallurgical results (i.e.: concentrate, tailing, enrichment and recovery) depending on variables that are manipulated by hand according the operator experience. But the process engineer needs tools without subjective vision to obtain the best performance of the column. The method used to help the column operation was a mathematical model based on the Stepwise Regression then considering empirical relationships between operational variables and experimental results. All the mathematical relationship developed in this study have a good correlation (up 90 % of precision), except one (up 70 %) due by non regular mineralogical feed. (Author) 7 refs.

  11. Treatment of wastewater containing dissolved metals by extraction-flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puget, Flavia Pereira

    2002-02-01

    In this work an alternative process for treating a wastewater containing dissolved metals (uranium and zirconium) is considered. In order to develop this work, a continuous separation unit, characterized by the association of solvent extraction and liquid-liquid flotation is used. Alamina 336 (a mixture of tri-octyl and tri-decyl amines) is used as extractant in the the extraction process, carried out inward the ejector. The splitting of the amine-water emulsion formed is carried out in a continuously operated flotation column (of approximately 2.5 L volume). The solvent extraction results showed that it is possible to reach an efficiency of about 95% for the uranium and zirconium extraction, for a metal in the feed concentration of 10 ppm and for a Q fa /Q fo ratio around 200. An efficiency of about 80% is reached in the flotation column when the liquid flowrate is equal 0.05 Lmin -1 and the air flowrate is equal 3.3 Lmin -1 . (author)

  12. Impact of flocculation on flotation tailing's hydro-cycloning properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Dinko N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research results of hydro-cycloning of flocculated and non-flocculated flotation tailing from the lead and zinc open pit mine 'Suplja stijena', Sula - Montenegro have been shown in this paper. Reason for this research was finding conditions in order to separate fraction that is suitable for embankment erection. Flotation tailings has been tested in the very state that it goes out from the flotation process and tailings which is flocculated by anionic flocculant. The object was to determine the impact of flocculation on properties of hydro-cycloning products and disposal process. In hydro-cycloning process greater underflow mass is being separated with non-flocculated tailing. Values of geomechanical parameters are significantly different, especially hydro-cyclone's underflow. All geomechanical parameters of hydro-cyclone's underflow are suitable for erecting embankment which shall be made from non-flocculated tailing. Underflow drainage of non-flocculated tailing is faster while overflow drainage is slower and problematic with both tailings.

  13. Characterisation of flotation froth colour and structure by machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia; Volpe, Fabio; Zuco, Riccardo

    2001-11-01

    It is well known and well recognised that flotation is a process that is complex to monitor and study if a classical approach based on the evaluation of the signals resulting from sensors is adopted. Sensors are usually strategically positioned in the bank cells and detect global process variables such as pH, reagent addition, froth level, on-stream chemical analysis, particle size distribution, etc. In the last ten years several studies have been carried out with the main goal to utilise imaging techniques to detect froth bubbles characteristics and to evaluate the flotation process performance. In this paper an approach of this type is described. More specifically, image processing techniques to automatically measure the colour and the structure of the froth bubbles are presented and the results are discussed. All the investigations are carried out on digital sample images collected in an industrial flotation plant operating in steady-state conditions. The colour analysis is performed on the whole surface of the froth images considering different colour reference systems (RGB, HSV, HSI); the morphological measurements are obtained after the application of selected enhancement and segmentation techniques, necessary to consider the bubbles as separate domains. The multiple correlation analysis performed between froth mineral concentrations (Cu, MgO, Zn and Pb content) and the extracted colour and structure parameters are good in most situations.

  14. Heterocoagulation of chalcopyrite and pyrite minerals in flotation separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Timothy K; Nguyen, Anh V; Evans, Geoffrey M

    2005-06-30

    Heterocoagulation between various fine mineral particles contained within a mineral suspension with different structural and surface chemistry can interfere with the ability of the flotation processes to selectively separate the minerals involved. This paper examines the interactions between chalcopyrite (a copper mineral) and pyrite (an iron mineral often bearing gold) as they approach each other in suspensions with added chemicals, and relates the results to the experimental data for the flotation recovery and selectivity. The heterocoagulation was experimentally studied using the electrophoretic light scattering (ELS) technique and was modelled by incorporating colloidal forces, including the van der Waals, electrostatic double layer and hydrophobic forces. The ELS results indicated that pyrite has a positive zeta potential (zeta) up to its isoelectric point (IEP) at approximately pH 2.2, while chalcopyrite has a positive zeta up to its IEP at approximately pH 5.5. This produces heterocoagulation of chalcopyrite with pyrite between pH 2.2 and pH 5.5. The heterocoagulation was confirmed by the ELS spectra measured with a ZetaPlus instrument from Brookhaven and by small-scale flotation experiments.

  15. Estimated water requirements for the conventional flotation of copper ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a perspective on the amount of water used by a conventional copper flotation plant. Water is required for many activities at a mine-mill site, including ore production and beneficiation, dust and fire suppression, drinking and sanitation, and minesite reclamation. The water required to operate a flotation plant may outweigh all of the other uses of water at a mine site, [however,] and the need to maintain a water balance is critical for the plant to operate efficiently. Process water may be irretrievably lost or not immediately available for reuse in the beneficiation plant because it has been used in the production of backfill slurry from tailings to provide underground mine support; because it has been entrapped in the tailings stored in the TSF, evaporated from the TSF, or leaked from pipes and (or) the TSF; and because it has been retained as moisture in the concentrate. Water retained in the interstices of the tailings and the evaporation of water from the surface of the TSF are the two most significant contributors to water loss at a conventional flotation circuit facility.

  16. Optimal carbon tax with a dirty backstop: Oil, coal, or renewables?

    OpenAIRE

    van der Ploeg, Frederick; Withagen, Cees A.

    2011-01-01

    Optimal climate policy is studied. Coal, the abundant resource, contributes more CO2 per unit of energy than the exhaustible resource, oil. We characterize the optimal sequencing oil and coal and departures from the Herfindahl rule. "Preference reversal" can take place. If coal is very dirty compared to oil, there is no simultaneous use. Else, the optimal outcome starts with oil, before using oil and coal together, and finally coal on its own. The "laissez-faire" outcome uses coal forever or ...

  17. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  18. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  19. Direct Flotation of Niobium Oxide Minerals from Carbonatite Niobium Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiao

    Currently the recovery of niobium oxide minerals from carbonatite niobium ores relies on the use of non-selective cationic collectors. This leads to complicated process flowsheets involving multiple desliming and multiple reverse flotation stages, and low niobium recovery. In this research, anionic collectors that are capable of strong chemisorption on the niobium minerals were studied with the objective of directly floating the niobium oxide minerals from the carbonatite ores. In the flotation of both high purity minerals and Niobec ores, it was shown that the combination of hydroxamic acid and sodium metaphosphate was an effective reagent scheme for the direct flotation of niobium oxide from its ores. Batch flotation on the Niobec Mill Feed showed that over 95% of niobium oxide was recovered into a rougher concentrate that was less than 47% of the original feed mass. Preliminary cleaning tests showed that the reagent scheme could also be used to upgrade the rougher concentrate, although the depression of iron oxide minerals required further study. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) measurement results confirm that OHA (octyl hydroxamic acid) could chemisorb on pyrochlore surface while only physically adsorb on calcite, judging by the chemical shifts of electron binding energies in the elements in both OHA and the mineral surfaces. When hydroxamic acid was adsorbed on calcite surface, the binding energies of the N 1s electrons, at 400.3 eV, did not shift. However, after adsorption on pyrochlore, the N 1s binding energy peak split into two peaks, one at a binding energy of around 399 eV, representing chemically adsorbed OHA, the other at between 400 and 401 eV. The experimental data suggested a strong chemisorption of the OHA on pyrochlore surface in the form of a vertical head-on orientation of the OHA molecules so that the pyrochlore was strongly hydrophobized even at low OHA concentrations, followed by possibly randomly oriented physisorbed OHA molecules

  20. 76 FR 56294 - Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... direct final rule, UL 1191 was revised to return this value to 10%. Another commenter expressed concern... into effect, would facilitate teens using existing inflatable PFDs, and would enable the marketing of existing inflatable PFDs to youth. The commenter also expressed concern that this rulemaking is premature...