WorldWideScience

Sample records for coal fired boiler

  1. Economic evaluation of a coal fired boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briem, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper provides basic information on boiler economics which will assist steam users in analyzing the feasibility of using coal to generate steam - in either new or existing facilities. The information presented covers boilers ranging in size from 10,000 to 100,000 pounds per hour steaming capacity

  2. Biomass Cofiring in Coal-Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-06-01

    Cofiring biomass-for example, forestry residues such as wood chips-with coal in existing boilers is one of the easiest biomass technologies to implement in a federal facility. The current practice is to substitute biomass for up to 20% of the coal in the boiler. Cofiring has many benefits: it helps to reduce fuel costs as well as the use of landfills, and it curbs emissions of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide, and the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels. This Federal Technology Alert was prepared by the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program to give federal facility managers the information they need to decide whether they should pursue biomass cofiring at their facilities.

  3. Firing a sub-bituminous coal in pulverized coal boilers configured for bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Spitz; R. Saveliev; M. Perelman; E. Korytni; B. Chudnovsky; A. Talanker; E. Bar-Ziv [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2008-07-15

    It is important to adapt utility boilers to sub-bituminous coals to take advantage of their environmental benefits while limiting operation risks. We discuss the performance impact that Adaro, an Indonesian sub-bituminous coal with high moisture content, has on opposite-wall and tangentially-fired utility boilers which were designed for bituminous coals. Numerical simulations were made with GLACIER, a computational-fluid-dynamic code, to depict combustion behavior. The predictions were verified with full-scale test results. For analysis of the operational parameters for firing Adaro coal in both boilers, we used EXPERT system, an on-line supervision system developed by Israel Electric Corporation. It was concluded that firing Adaro coal, compared to a typical bituminous coal, lowers NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions, lowers LOI content and improves fouling behavior but can cause load limitation which impacts flexible operation. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    In this literature report is provided a status for the present knowledge level on ash properties when co-firing coal and biomass. The fly ash formed in boilers using co-firing of coal and straw do have a large influence on ash deposit formation, boiler corrosion, fly ash utilization and operation...

  5. Slagging in a pulverised-coal-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devir, G.P.; Pohl, J.H.; Creelman, R.A. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a technique to evaluate the severity of slagging of a coal in a pulverised-coal-fired boiler. There are few data in the literature on the nature of in-situ boiler slags, their rate of growth and/or their strength properties relevant to sootblowing. The latter is thought to be of more concern to boiler operators and gives rise to the significance of selecting suitable strength tests. As well as standardised methods for characterising pulverised coal performance in a boiler, several novel and less popular techniques are discussed in detail. A suite of three sub-bituminous coals from the Callide Coalfields, Biloela (600 km north of Brisbane), has been selected for slagging tests in the 350 MW{sub e} units of Callide 'B' power station. Disposable air-cooled mild steel slagging probes have been constructed to simulate the conditions for deposit formation in the boiler region. To date, tests for one of these coals has been completed and preliminary results are presented. Once testing for the remaining coals has been completed, it is anticipated that the differences exhibited in deposit growth and strength may be correlated with typical variations in physical and chemical properties of the pulverised coal.

  6. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-01-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems

  7. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected

  8. Neural networks improve performance of coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radl, B.J. [Pegasus Technologies Ltd., Painesville, OH (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Work sponsored by the US Department of Energy through its NICE{sup 3} programme, and co-funded by industry partners First Energy Corp. (host organisation and co-funder) and Pegasus Technologies (inventor, developer and supplier), has resulted in the development of online, real-time neural networks which help coal-fired utility boilers to dynamically adjust combustion setpoints. The payoff is a system which helps reduce NOx emissions up to 60%, while improving heat rate up to 2% overall. The system has avoided or postponed large capacity expenditures while meeting environmental compliance requirements. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Simulation of pulverized coal fired boiler: reaction chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, C.P.; Lansarin, M.A.; Secchi, A.R.; Mendes, T.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Modelagem, Simulacao, Controle e Otimizacao de Processos)]. E-mail: {cperdomo, marla, arge, talita}@enq.ufrgs.br

    2005-06-15

    This work is part of a joint project to built a computational tool for power plant simulation, dealing specifically with the reaction chamber (place of the boiler where the fuel is burned). In order to describe the conversion of chemical energy to thermal energy, an one dimensional pseudo-homogeneous mathematical model, with variable physical properties, and based on mass and energy balances, was developed. The equations were implemented in the gPROMS simulator and the model parameters were estimated using the module gEST of this software, with experimental data from a large-scale coal-fired utility boiler and kinetic data from the open literature. The results showed that the model predicts the composition of the outlet combustion gas satisfactorily. (author)

  10. Multi-objective Optimization of Coal-fired Boiler Combustion Based on NSGA-II

    OpenAIRE

    Tingfang Yu; Hongzhen Zhu; Chunhua Peng

    2013-01-01

    NOx emission characteristics and overall heat loss model for a 300MW coal-fired boiler were established by Back Propagation (BP) neural network, by which the the functional relationship between outputs (NOx emissions & overall heat loss of the boiler) and inputs (operational parameters of the boiler) of a coal-fired boiler can be predicted. A number of field test data from a full-scale operating 300MWe boiler were used to train and verify the BP model. The NOx emissions & heat loss pr...

  11. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  12. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

    2003-12-31

    This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

  13. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    The properties of the ash from co-firing of coal and straw have a large influence on boiler operation, flue gas cleaning equipment and appropriate utilization of the fly ash. A study on the fuel composition and local conditions influence on fly ash properties has been done by making entrained flo...

  14. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    To study the influence of local conditions on the reaction between gaseous KCl and kaolin or coal fly ash experiments were done on CHECs electrically heated entrained flow reactor, which can simulate the local conditions in suspension fired boilers. The experimental results were compared with mod...

  15. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-06-30

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a new effort was begun on the development of a corrosion management system for minimizing the impacts of low NOx combustion systems on waterwalls; a kickoff meeting was held at the host site, AEP's Gavin Plant, and work commenced on fabrication of the probes. FTIR experiments for SCR catalyst sulfation were finished at BYU and indicated no vanadium/vanadyl sulfate formation at reactor conditions. Improvements on the mass-spectrometer system at BYU have been made and work on the steady state reactor system shakedown neared completion. The slipstream reactor continued to operate at AEP's Rockport plant; at the end of the quarter, the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 1000 hours. Some operational problems were addressed that enable the reactor to run without excessive downtime by the end of the quarter.

  16. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-09-30

    This is the seventeenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. The SCR slipstream reactor was assembled and installed at Plant Gadsden this quarter. Safety equipment for ammonia had not been installed at the end of the quarter, but will be installed at the beginning of next quarter. The reactor will be started up next quarter. Four ECN corrosion probes were reinstalled at Gavin and collected corrosion data for approximately one month. Two additional probes were installed and removed after about 30 hours for future profilometry analysis. Preliminary analysis of the ECN probes, the KEMA coupons and the CFD modeling results all agree with the ultrasonic tube test measurements gathered by AEP personnel.

  17. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-01-01

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates

  18. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-06-30

    This is the sixteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. During an unplanned outage, damage occurred to the electrochemical noise corrosion probes installed at the AEP Gavin plant; testing is expected to resume in August. The KEMCOP corrosion coupons were not affected by the unplanned outage; the coupons were removed and sent for analysis. BYU conducted a series of tests before the ISSR lab was relocated. Ammonia adsorption experiments provided clear evidence of the types of acidic sites present on catalyst surfaces. Data collected this quarter indicate that surface sulfation decreases Lewis acid site concentrations for all catalysts thus far studied, confirming that catalytic activity under commercial coal-based SCR conditions occurs primarily on Br{o}nsted acid sites and would be susceptible to basic impurities such as alkali and alkaline earth oxides, chlorides, and sulfates. SCR activity tests based on MS analysis showed that increasing sulfation generally increases NO reduction activity for both 0% and 1% vanadia catalysts. During this quarter, the slipstream reactor at Rockport operated for 720 hours on flue gas. Catalyst exposure time reached 4500 hours since installation. The reactor is out of service at the Rockport plant and plans are being made to move it to the Gadsden Plant. At Gadsden, modifications have begun in preparation for installation of the slipstream reactor next quarter.

  19. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

  20. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-03-31

    This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do

  1. Cofiring of rice straw and coal in a coal-fired utility boiler: thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia, Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Cofiring combustion of biomass and coal is a near-term, low cost alternative for reduction fossil greenhouse gas emissions in coal fired power plants. Recent reviews identified over 288 applications in over 16 countries with promising results for different coal and biomass combinations. In Brazil, there is no previous experience of cofiring biomass and coal, resulting in new challenges to fuel handling and boiler operation. A first experience is now proposed into an existing coal power plant, using rice straw as biomass fuel. A thermodynamic model was developed in order to predict operating and emissions data, which should be used in cofiring system design. For 10% of biomass input, the total CO{sub 2} emission is expected to slightly increase. However, considering only the coal CO{sub 2} emission, it is expected to decrease in about 10%. Also, the corresponding SO{sub 2} emission decreases in about 8%. (author)

  2. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-09-30

    This is the thirteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. The corrosion probe task is proceeding: Two plant visits were made to prepare for field testing and shakedown tests for the probes were conducted at the University of Utah''s L1500 furnace. Corrosion probes will be installed at the Gavin Plant site in the next quarter. Laboratory studies of SCR catalyst continued this quarter. FTIR studies of catalyst sulfation and of adsorption of NH3 and NO were continued at BYU. NO activities have been measured for a number of samples of BYU catalyst and insights have been gained from the results. Plans are being detailed to test monolith and plate catalysts exposed in the field. In this quarter, the catalysts in the slipstream reactor at AEP's Rockport plant were exposed to the dusty flue gas for 1695 hours. Thus the cumulative catalyst exposure to flue gas rose from 980 hours last quarter to 2677 hours in this quarter. Loss of catalyst activity was noted between April (when the catalysts were fresh) and August. Further analysis of activity data will be needed.

  3. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2003-01-30

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

  4. APPLICATION OF REBURNING TO COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS IN TAIWAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives an overview of the characteristics of coal-fired industrial boilers in Taiwan and projections of the cost and performance data for retrofitting several boilers with reburning. The impacts of reburning fuel type on the reburning system design and cost effectivenes...

  5. Cofiring of biofuels in coal fired boilers: Results of case study analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, D.A. [Ebasco Environmental, Sacramento, CA (United States); Hughes, E. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Gold, B.A. [TVA, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Ebasco Environmental and Reaction Engineering, under contract to EPRI, performed a case study analysis of cofiring biomass in coal-fired boilers of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The study was also sponsored by DOE. This analysis included evaluating wood fuel receiving, preparation, and combustion in pulverized coal (PC) boilers and cyclone furnaces and an assessment of converting wood into pyrolysis oil or low Btu gas for use in a new combined cycle combustion turbine (CCCT) installation. Cofiring wood in existing coal-fired boilers has the most immediate potential for increasing the utilization of biofuels in electricity generation. Cofiring biofuels with coal can potentially generate significant benefits for utilities including: (1) reducing emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}; (2) reducing the net emissions of CO{sub 2}; (3) potentially reducing the fuel cost to the utility depending upon local conditions and considering biomass is potentially exempt from the proposed Btu tax and may get a 1.5 cent/kWh credit for energy generated by wood combustion; (4) supporting local industrial forest industry; and (5) providing a long term market for the development of a biofuel supply and delivery industry. Potential benefits are reviewed in the context of cofiring biofuel at a rate of 15% heat input to the boiler, and compares this cofiring strategy and others previously tested or developed by other utilities. Other issues discussed include: (1) wood fuel specifications as a function of firing method; (2) wood fuel receiving and preparation system requirements; (3) combustion system requirements for cofiring biofuels with coal; (4) combustion impacts of firing biofuels with coal; (5) system engineering issues; (6) the economics of cofiring biofuel with coal. The Allen, TN 330 MW(e) cyclone boiler and Kingston, TN 135 MW(e) Boiler {number_sign}1, a tangentially fired PC unit, case studies are then summarized in the paper, highlighting the cofiring opportunities.

  6. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China.

  7. Analysis and study on the membrane method of CO2 removal of coal-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fangqin, Li; Henan, Li; Jianxing, Ren; Jiang, Wu; Zhongzhu, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is one kind of harmful substances from the burning process of fossil fuel. CO 2 emissions cause serious pollution on atmospheric environment, especially greenhouse effect. In this paper, CO 2 formation mechanism and control methods were researched. Membrane technology was studied to control CO 2 emissions from coal-fired boilers. The relationship between CO 2 removal efficiency and parameters of membrane contactor was analyzed. Through analysis and study, factors affecting on CO 2 removal efficiency were gotten. How to choose the best parameters was known. This would provide theoretical basis for coal-fired utility boilers choosing effective way of CO 2 removal. (author)

  8. Feasibility of applying coal-fired boiler technology to process heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, T F

    1978-01-01

    The preponderance of coal in US fossil fuel reserves has raised the question of the conversion of hydrocarbon process heaters to coal firing. A review undertaken in 1977 by an API sub-committee concluded that neither existing heaters nor existing heater designs were capable of modification or revision to burn coal, and that new coal-fired design consistent with process requirements would be needed for this purpose. In recognition of this need a cooperative investigation was undertaken by Combustion Engineering and Lummus. The present paper, reporting on this investigation, reviews existing coal-fired boiler equipment and techniques and describes their adaptation to the development of a design concept for a coal-fired process heater. To this end, the design parameters for both steam boilers and fired heaters have been compared and have been incorporated into a workable coal-fired process heater design which includes the following features; a coutant bottom for ash removal, an ash-hopper located under both radiant and convection chambers, a tangent type finned wall construction, a straight through gas flow pattern, a vertical tube convection section, horizontal firing using round burners, and an overall geometry allowing a coil arrangement capable of accommodating varying numbers of parallel serpentine coils. These features are integrated into a conceptual heater design which is detailed in a series of illustrations.

  9. Experimental investigation on a 0.35 MWth coal-fired horizontal circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Aihong; Li, Qinghai; Zhang, Yanguo; Wang, Zhaojun; Dang, Wenda [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The capacities of industrial coal-fired boilers are normally less than 20-30 MWe. And these coal-fired boilers of low capacity are facing the severe situation of low efficiency and heavy environmental pollution. Hence, an innovative horizontal circulating fluidized bed (HCFB) boiler was developed to enhance heat efficiency and reduce pollutant emission of industrial boilers in China. The chamber in the HCFB boiler consists of primary combustion chamber, secondary combustion chamber and burnout chamber, which were combined horizontally side by side. To verify the conception of horizontal fluidized circulation and to obtain the characteristic data, a 0.35 MWth coal-combustion HCFB boiler was designed and installed to perform some experiments of combustion and mass circulation. In the boiler there were two mass circulating paths, one is inner circulating through the inertia separator and another was external circulating through the cyclone separator. The connection bottom of the secondary chamber and the burnout chamber was designed as an inertia separator, in which separated and collected solid materials were returned to the primary combustion. In fact the secondary separator was a small cyclone separator connecting to the exit of the burnout chamber. Heat efficiency and separating efficiency of the experimental boiler were measured and analyzed. Furthermore, mass and temperature distribution along the chambers height were also investigated. The results showed that the heat efficiency of the bare boiler was 82%. The mass balance based on ash content was measured and analyzed. Separating efficiency of the inertia separator and cyclone separator was 60 and 99.9%, respectively. It showed that the two stage material separation and circulation enhanced coal combustion in the HCFB boiler and help to minimize the height of the furnace.

  10. Advanced char burnout models for the simulation of pulverized coal fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Severin; S. Wirtz; V. Scherer [Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany). Institute of Energy Plant Technology (LEAT)

    2005-07-01

    The numerical simulation of coal combustion processes is widely used as an efficient means to predict burner or system behaviour. In this paper an approach to improve CFD simulations of pulverized coal fired boilers with advanced coal combustion models is presented. In simple coal combustion models, first order Arrhenius rate equations are used for devolatilization and char burnout. The accuracy of such simple models is sufficient for the basic aspects of heat release. The prediction of carbon-in-ash is one aspect of special interest in the simulation of pulverized coal fired boilers. To determine the carbon-in-ash levels in the fly ash of coal fired furnaces, the char burnout model has to be more detailed. It was tested, in how far changing operating conditions affect the carbon-in-ash prediction of the simulation. To run several test cases in a short time, a simplified cellnet model was applied. To use a cellnet model for simulations of pulverized coal fired boilers, it was coupled with a Lagrangian particle model, used in CFD simulations, too. 18 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings for boiler tube protection in coal-fired low NOx boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings are currently being considered for enhanced sulfidation resistance in coal-fired low NO{sub x} boilers. The use of these materials is currently limited due to hydrogen cracking susceptibility, which generally increases with an increase in aluminum concentration of the deposit. The overall objective of this program is to attain an optimum aluminum content with good weldability and improved sulfidation resistance with respect to conventional materials presently in use. Research has been initiated using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) in order to achieve this end. Under different sets of GTAW parameters (wire feed speed, current), both single and multiple pass overlays were produced. Characterization of all weldments was conducted using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Resultant deposits exhibited a wide range of aluminum contents (5--43 wt%). It was found that the GTAW overlays with aluminum contents above {approximately}10 wt% resulted in cracked coatings. Preliminary corrosion experiments of 5 to 10 wt% Al cast alloys in relatively simple H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S gas mixtures exhibited corrosion rates lower than 304 stainless steel.

  12. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A TANGENTIALLY COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (YORKTOWN LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes activities conducted and results achieved in an EPA-sponsored program to demonstrate Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on a tangentially fired coal-burning utility boiler, Virginia Power's 180-MWe Yorktown Unit No. 2. his successfully d...

  13. PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

  14. NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

  15. NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  16. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  17. Environment protection by coupling of a municipal waste incinerator to an existing coal fire steam boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionel, I.; Stanescu, P.D.O.; Gruescu, C.; Savu, A.; Ungureanu, C. [University of Politehnic Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2006-12-15

    The paper offers an analysis of the potential coupling of a municipal waste incinerator in Romania, to an existing coal fired steam boiler. Considering the retention of heavy metals as well as HCl from the waste flue gases before entering the boiler, the simulation analysis of the boiler, under the situation that the gases from the scrubber are introduced, are presented As general conclusion one notes that it is possible to apply the concept even if the analysed case is of less importance, but more potential application are viewed for larger industrial application, for new concepts of modern power plants, to meet EU environmental regulations, especially for CO{sub 2} reduction.

  18. Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, T.M.; Melick, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), in cooperation with the University of Alabama and Jim Walter Resources, has been awarded a DOE contract to retrofit an existing fire-tube boiler with a coal-water slurry firing system. Recognizing that combustion efficiency is the principle concern when firing slurry in fire-tube boilers, EER has focused the program on innovative approaches for improving carbon burnout without major modifications to the boiler. This paper reports on the program which consists of five tasks. Task 1 provides for the design and retrofit of the host boiler to fire coal-water slurry. Task 2 is a series of optimization tests that will determine the effects of adjustable parameters on boiler performance. Task 3 will perform about 1000 hours of proof-of-concept system tests. Task 4 will be a comprehensive review of the test data in order to evaluate the economics of slurry conversions. Task 5 will be the decommissioning of the test facility if required

  19. Fuel characterization requirements for cofiring biomass in coal-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinzing, D.E.; Tillman, D.A.; Harding, N.S.

    1993-01-01

    The cofiring of biofuels with coal in existing boilers, or the cofiring of biofuels in combined cycle combustion turbine (CCCT) systems presents significant potential benefits to utilities, including reductions in SO 2 and NO x emissions as a function of reducing the mass flow of sulfur and nitrogen to the boiler, reducing CO 2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels; potentially reducing fuel costs both by the availability of wood residues and by the fact that biofuels are exempt from the proposed BTU tax; and providing support to industrial customers from the forest products industry. At the same time, cofiring requires careful attention to the characterization of the wood and coal, both singly and in combination. This paper reviews characterization requirements associated with cofiring biofuels and fossil fuels in boilers and CCCT installations with particular attention not only to such concerns as sulfur, nitrogen, moisture, and Btu content, but also to such issues as total ash content, base/acid ratio of the wood ash and the coal ash, alkali metal content in the wood ash and wood fuel (including converted fuels such as low Btu gas or pyrolytic oil), slagging and fouling indices, ash fusion temperature, and trace metal contents in the wood and coal. The importance of each parameter is reviewed, along with potential consequences of a failure to adequately characterize these parameters. The consequences of these parameters are reviewed with attention to firing biofuels with coal in pulverized coal (PC) and cyclone boilers, and firing biofuels with natural gas in CCCT installations

  20. Application of the decree 2910 for coal fired boilers; Application de l`arrete 2910 aux chaudieres a charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hing, K. [CDF Energie, Charbonnages de France, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1997-12-31

    The impacts of the new French decree 2910 concerning the classification of all combustion equipment with regards to their energy sources, energy efficiency and pollution control, on 2 to 20 MW coal-fired boilers, are discussed, with emphasis on their pollutant emissions (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and ashes). The compositions of several coals is presented and the various types of coal-fired boilers adapted to the new decree are presented: automatic boilers, dense fluidized bed boilers, vibrating and chain grids with fume tubes and water tubes

  1. A Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Optimized for Oxyfuel Combustion Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Dlouhý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on modifying a pulverized coal-fired steam boiler in a 250 MWe power plant for oxygen combustion conditions. The entry point of the study is a boiler that was designed for standard air combustion. It has been proven that simply substituting air by oxygen as an oxidizer is not sufficient for maintaining a satisfactory operating mode, not even with flue gas recycling. Boiler design optimization aggregating modifications to the boiler’s dimensions, heating surfaces and recycled flue gas flow rate, and specification of a flue gas recycling extraction point is therefore necessary in order to achieve suitable conditions for oxygen combustion. Attention is given to reducing boiler leakage, to which external pre-combustion coal drying makes a major contribution. The optimization is carried out with regard to an overall power plant conception for which a decrease in efficiency due to CO2 separation is formulated.

  2. Metallurgical Analysis of Cracks Formed on Coal Fired Boiler Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor, Rajat; Kyada, Tushal; Goyal, Rajesh K.; Kathayat, T. S.

    2015-02-01

    Metallurgical failure analysis was carried out for cracks observed on the outer surface of a boiler tube made of ASME SA 210 GR A1 grade steel. The cracks on the surface of the tube were observed after 6 months from the installation in service. A careful visual inspection, chemical analysis, hardness measurement, detailed microstructural analysis using optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were carried out to ascertain the cause for failure. Visual inspection of the failed tube revealed the presence of oxide scales and ash deposits on the surface of the tube exposed to fire. Many cracks extending longitudinally were observed on the surface of the tube. Bulging of the tube was also observed. The results of chemical analysis, hardness values and optical micrographs did not exhibit any abnormality at the region of failure. However, detailed SEM with EDS analysis confirmed the presence of various oxide scales. These scales initiated corrosion at both the inner and outer surfaces of the tube. In addition, excessive hoop stress also developed at the region of failure. It is concluded that the failure of the boiler tube took place owing to the combined effect of the corrosion caused by the oxide scales as well as the excessive hoop stress.

  3. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane.

  4. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskinazi, D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Tavoulareas, E.S. [Energy Technologies Enterprises Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  5. Co-firing straw and coal in a 150-MWe utility boiler: in situ measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. F.B.; Andersen, Karin Hedebo; Wieck-Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    A 2-year demonstration program is carried out by the Danish utility I/S Midtkraft at a 150-MWe PF-boiler unit reconstructed for co-firing straw and coal. As a part of the demonstration program, a comprehensive in situ measurement campaign was conducted during the spring of 1996 in collaboration...... with the Technical University of Denmark. Six sample positions have been established between the upper part of the furnace and the economizer. The campaign included in situ sampling of deposits on water/air-cooled probes, sampling of fly ash, flue gas and gas phase alkali metal compounds, and aerosols as well...... deposition propensities and high temperature corrosion during co-combustion of straw and coal in PF-boilers. Danish full scale results from co-firing straw and coal, the test facility and test program, and the potential theoretical support from the Technical University of Denmark are presented in this paper...

  6. Online Monitoring System of Air Distribution in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Based on Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żymełka, Piotr; Nabagło, Daniel; Janda, Tomasz; Madejski, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA) nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS) data.

  7. Online Monitoring System of Air Distribution in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Based on Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żymełka Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS data.

  8. Computational fluid dynamic simulations of coal-fired utility boilers: An engineering tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efim Korytnyi; Roman Saveliev; Miron Perelman; Boris Chudnovsky; Ezra Bar-Ziv [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this study was to develop an engineering tool by which the combustion behavior of coals in coal-fired utility boilers can be predicted. We presented in this paper that computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes can successfully predict performance of - and emission from - full-scale pulverized-coal utility boilers of various types, provided that the model parameters required for the simulation are properly chosen and validated. For that purpose we developed a methodology combining measurements in a 50 kW pilot-scale test facility with CFD simulations using the same CFD code configured for both test and full-scale furnaces. In this method model parameters of the coal processes are extracted and validated. This paper presents the importance of the validation of the model parameters which are used in CFD codes. Our results show very good fit of CFD simulations with various parameters measured in a test furnace and several types of utility boilers. The results of this study demonstrate the viability of the present methodology as an effective tool for optimization coal burning in full-scale utility boilers. 41 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS OF SO2 AND NOX FROM EXISTING COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report reviews information and estimated costs on 15 emissioncontrol technology categories applicable to existing coal-fired electric utility boilers. he categories include passive controls such as least emission dispatching, conventional processes, and emerging technologies ...

  10. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bradley [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davis, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Senior, Constance [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shim, Hong Shim [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Otten, Brydger Van [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fry, Andrew [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, Eric [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Paschedag, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaddix, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cox, William [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Tree, Dale [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4

  11. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bradley R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fry, Andrew R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Senior, Constance L. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shim, Hong Shig [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Otten, Brydger Van [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shaddix, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tree, Dale [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes Year 2 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Year 2 focused extensively on obtaining experimental data from the bench-scale, lab-scale and pilot-scale reactors. These data will be used to refine and validate submodels to be implemented in CFD simulations of full-scale boiler retrofits. Program tasks are on schedule for Year 3 completion. Both Year 2 milestones were completed on schedule and within budget.

  12. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  13. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007–2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM 10 , PM 2.5 , SO 2 , NO x , CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NO x and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers. - Highlights: • A unit-based emission inventory of coal-fired industrial boilers is developed. • Temporal trend of historical period 2007–2013 and the future till 2030 is

  14. Low NO{sub x} burner modifications to front-fired pulverized coal boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, R G; Wagner, M

    1998-07-01

    Madison Gas and Electric Blount Street Station Units 8 and 9 are Babcock and Wilcox pulverized coal fired and natural gas fired boilers. These boilers were build in the late 1950's and early 1960's with each boiler rated at 425,000 lb./hr of steam producing 50 MW of electricity. The boilers are rated at 9,500 F at 1,350 psig. Each unit is equipped with one Ljungstroem air heater and two B and W EL pulverizers. These units burn subbituminous coal with higher heating value of 10,950 Btu/LB on an as-received basis. The nitrogen content is approximately 1.23% with 15% moisture. In order to comply with the new Clean Air Act Madison Gas and Electric needs to reduce NO{sub x} on these units to less than .5 LB/mmBtu. Baseline NO{sub x} emissions on these units range between .8--.9 lb./mmBtu. LOIs average approximately 8%. Madison Gas and Electric contracted with RJM Corporation to modify the existing burners to achieve this objective. These modifications consisted of adding patented circumferentially and radially staged flame stabilizers, modifying the coal pipe, and replacing the coal impeller with a circumferentially staged coal spreader. RJM Corporation utilized computational fluid dynamics modeling in order to design the equipment to modify these burners. The equipment was installed during the March 1997 outage and start-up and optimization was conducted in April 1997. Final performance results and economic data will be included in the final paper.

  15. Ash fouling monitoring and key variables analysis for coal fired power plant boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yuanhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash deposition on heat transfer surfaces is still a significant problem in coal-fired power plant utility boilers. The effective ways to deal with this problem are accurate on-line monitoring of ash fouling and soot-blowing. In this paper, an online ash fouling monitoring model based on dynamic mass and energy balance method is developed and key variables analysis technique is introduced to study the internal behavior of soot-blowing system. In this process, artificial neural networks (ANN are used to optimize the boiler soot-blowing model and mean impact values method is utilized to determine a set of key variables. The validity of the models has been illustrated in a real case-study boiler, a 300MW Chinese power station. The results on same real plant data show that both models have good prediction accuracy, while the ANN model II has less input parameters. This work will be the basis of a future development in order to control and optimize the soot-blowing of the coal-fired power plant utility boilers.

  16. Assessment of nitrogen oxide emission for designing boilers fired with coal dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Gusev, L.N.; Babii, V.I.

    1983-09-01

    A method for forecasting emission of nitrogen oxides from steam boilers fired with coal is described. The method produces accurate results when nitrogen oxide emission from furnaces with straight-flow burners and turbulent-type burners fired with coal dusts is forecast. Oxides formed by decomposition of chemical compounds in coal (so-called 'fuel' nitrogen oxides) and nitrogen oxides formed by oxidation of molecular nitrogen by atomic oxygen (so-called 'thermal' nitrogen oxides) are evaluated. Zones in which the two types of nitrogen oxide are formed in flames are characterized. Factors which influence formation of nitrogen oxides in a furnace are evaluated: excess air, flue gas recirculation, design of a furnace and burners, movement of air and coal dust mixture in a furnace, temperature, methods for coal dust preparation, coal dust properties. Equations for forecasting emission of nitrogen oxides from furnaces are derived. Nomograms for easy calculation of emission are also given. Examples of using the method for forecasting emission of nitrogen oxides from furnaces fired with coal from the Kuzbass, the Donbass and Ehkibastuz are discussed. Comparisons of emission of nitrogen oxides calculated on the basis of the method and emission determined experimentally show that forecasting accuracy is high and errors do not exceed 10%. 5 references.

  17. CFD analysis of temperature imbalance in superheater/reheater region of tangentially coal-fired boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, A. F.; Hasini, H.; Fadhil, S. S. A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a CFD analysis of the flow, velocity and temperature distribution in a 700 MW tangentially coal-fired boiler operating in Malaysia. The main objective of the analysis is to gain insights on the occurrences in the boiler so as to understand the inherent steam temperature imbalance problem. The results show that the root cause of the problem comes from the residual swirl in the horizontal pass. The deflection of the residual swirl due to the sudden reduction and expansion of the flow cross-sectional area causes velocity deviation between the left and right side of the boiler. This consequently results in flue gas temperature imbalance which has often caused tube leaks in the superheater/reheater region. Therefore, eliminating the residual swirl or restraining it from being diverted might help to alleviate the problem.

  18. Backstepping-based nonlinear adaptive control for coal-fired utility boiler-turbine units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Fang; Wei, Le

    2011-01-01

    The control system of boiler-turbine unit plays an important role in improving efficiency and reducing emissions of power generation unit. The nonlinear, coupling and uncertainty of the unit caused by varying working conditions should be fully considered during the control system design. This paper presents an efficient control scheme based on backstepping theory for improving load adaptability of boiler-turbines in wide operation range. The design process of the scheme includes model preprocessing, control Lyapunov functions selection, interlaced computation of adaptive control laws, etc. For simplification and accuracy, differential of steam pipe inlet pressure and integral terms of target errors are adopted. Also, to enhance practicality, implementation steps of the scheme are proposed. A practical nonlinear model of a 500 MW coal-fired boiler-turbine unit is used to test the efficiency of the proposed scheme in different conditions.

  19. [Hazard evaluation modeling of particulate matters emitted by coal-fired boilers and case analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Ting; Du, Qian; Gao, Jian-Min; Bian, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Pu; Dong, He-Ming; Han, Qiang; Cao, Yang

    2014-02-01

    In order to evaluate the hazard of PM2.5 emitted by various boilers, in this paper, segmentation of particulate matters with sizes of below 2. 5 microm was performed based on their formation mechanisms and hazard level to human beings and environment. Meanwhile, taking into account the mass concentration, number concentration, enrichment factor of Hg, and content of Hg element in different coal ashes, a comprehensive model aimed at evaluating hazard of PM2.5 emitted by coal-fired boilers was established in this paper. Finally, through utilizing filed experimental data of previous literatures, a case analysis of the evaluation model was conducted, and the concept of hazard reduction coefficient was proposed, which can be used to evaluate the performance of dust removers.

  20. Integrating multi-objective optimization with computational fluid dynamics to optimize boiler combustion process of a coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xingrang; Bansal, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A coal fired power plant boiler combustion process model based on real data. • We propose multi-objective optimization with CFD to optimize boiler combustion. • The proposed method uses software CORBA C++ and ANSYS Fluent 14.5 with AI. • It optimizes heat flux transfers and maintains temperature to avoid ash melt. - Abstract: The dominant role of electricity generation and environment consideration have placed strong requirements on coal fired power plants, requiring them to improve boiler combustion efficiency and decrease carbon emission. Although neural network based optimization strategies are often applied to improve the coal fired power plant boiler efficiency, they are limited by some combustion related problems such as slagging. Slagging can seriously influence heat transfer rate and decrease the boiler efficiency. In addition, it is difficult to measure slag build-up. The lack of measurement for slagging can restrict conventional neural network based coal fired boiler optimization, because no data can be used to train the neural network. This paper proposes a novel method of integrating non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II) based multi-objective optimization with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to decrease or even avoid slagging inside a coal fired boiler furnace and improve boiler combustion efficiency. Compared with conventional neural network based boiler optimization methods, the method developed in the work can control and optimize the fields of flue gas properties such as temperature field inside a boiler by adjusting the temperature and velocity of primary and secondary air in coal fired power plant boiler control systems. The temperature in the vicinity of water wall tubes of a boiler can be maintained within the ash melting temperature limit. The incoming ash particles cannot melt and bond to surface of heat transfer equipment of a boiler. So the trend of slagging inside furnace is controlled. Furthermore, the

  1. Dynamic behavior of tobacco waste in the coal-fired fluidized-bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Chang, Jian; Chen, Honggang; Yang, Yongping [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). National Eng Lab for Biomass Power Generation Equipment; Yu, Bangting [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Heavy Oil Processing

    2013-07-01

    Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology is an advanced method for utilizing coal and other solid fuels in an environmentally acceptable manner. During the processing procedure in the nicotiana tabacum plants, lots of tobacco stem wastes are produced, which are normally being dumped to the landfill field. If this kind of waste can be used as a part of the fuel to be added into the coal in a CFB combustor, it will reduce the use of coal and then cut the net carbon emissions. To understand the complicated fluid dynamics of nicotiana tabacum wastes in the coal-fired CFB boiler, the mixing and segregation behavior of tobacco stalk are preliminary measured in a cylindrical fluidized bed. Obvious segregation behavior is found due to distinct differences in density and shape between tobacco stem and coal, which results in poor fluidization quality and bad combustion efficiency. To overcome this disadvantage, a jet with high gas velocity is introduced through the air distributor and a detailed experimental study is conducted in a fluidized bed made up of stem-sand mixture with different solid components at various jet velocities, which greatly improve the mixing performance of stem in the fluidized bed. The above findings are helpful for the technological upgrading of small- or middle-sized CFB boiler with adding tobacco stem into coal.

  2. Concept selection for advanced low-emission coal fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorrell, R.L. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States); Rodgers, L.W.; Farthing, G.A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) with subcontract to Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSIT), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and United Engineers and Constructors (UE&C) has begun development of an advanced low-emission boiler system (LEBS). The initial phase of this multi-phase program required a thorough review and assessment of potential advanced technologies and techniques for control of combustion and flue gas emissions. Results of this assessment are presented in this paper.

  3. Assessing the Exergy Costs of a 332-MW Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. Rangel-Hernandez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the exergy costs of a real large industrial boiler with the aim of improving efficiency. Specifically, the 350-MW front-fired, natural circulation, single reheat and balanced draft coal-fired boiler forms part of a 1050-MW conventional power plant located in Spain. We start with a diagram of the power plant, followed by a formulation of the exergy cost allocation problem to determine the exergy cost of the product of the boiler as a whole and the expenses of the individual components and energy streams. We also define a productive structure of the system. Furthermore, a proposal for including the exergy of radiation is provided in this study. Our results show that the unit exergy cost of the product of the boiler goes from 2.352 to 2.5, and that the maximum values are located in the ancillary electrical devices, such as induced-draft fans and coil heaters. Finally, radiation does not have an effect on the electricity cost, but affects at least 30% of the unit exergy cost of the boiler’s product.

  4. Application of Coal Thermal Treatment Technology for Oil-Free Firing of Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyarov, B.; Mergalimova, A.; Zhalmagambetova, U.

    2018-04-01

    The theoretical and practical introduction of this kind of firing boiler units in coal thermal power plants is considered in the article. The results of an experimental study of three types of coals are presented in order to obtain the required gaseous fuel. The aim of the study is to develop a new, economically and ecologically more acceptable method for firing boilers at thermal power plants, which is able to exclude the use of expensive and inconvenient fuel oil. The tasks of the experiment are to develop a technological scheme of kindling of boilers at thermal power plants, using as a type of ignition fuel volatile combustible substances released during the heating of coal, and to investigate three types of coal for the suitability of obtaining gaseous fuels, in sufficient volume and with the required heat of combustion. The research methods include the analysis of technical and scientific-methodological literature on the problem of the present study, the study of the experience of scientists of other countries, the full-scale experiment on the production of volatile combustible substances. During the full-scale experiment, the coal of 3 fields of Kazakhstan has been studied: Shubarkul, Maikuben and Saryadyr. The analysis has been performed and the choice of the most convenient technology for boiler kindling and maintenance of steady burning of the torch has been made according to the proposed method, as well as the corresponding technological scheme has been developed. As a result of the experiment, it can be stated that from coal in the process of its heating (without access to oxygen), it is possible to obtain a sufficient amount of combustible volatile substances. The released gaseous fuel has the necessary parameters and is quite capable of replacing an expensive fuel oil. The resulting gaseous fuel is quite convenient to use and environmentally cleaner. The piloting scheme developed as a result of the experiment can be introduced in pulverized-coal

  5. Assessment of the economics of basic natural gas cofiring in coal-fired stoker boilers. Topical report, June 1991-June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluestein, J.

    1992-06-01

    The report analyzes the possible benefits of basic gas cofiring in coal-fired stoker boilers. It presents data on the population of stoker boilers, the potential benefits of basic cofiring in stoker boilers and their value to the boiler operator. In particular, it quantifies the economic value of environmental and operational benefits known or thought to arise from cofiring

  6. Comparative study of computational intelligence approaches for NOx reduction of coal-fired boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Li, Xiaolu; Xu, Lijun; Cheng, Yanting

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on NO x emission prediction and operating parameters optimization for coal-fired boilers. Support Vector Regression (SVR) model based on CGA (Conventional Genetic Algorithm) was proposed to model the relationship between the operating parameters and the concentration of NO x emission. Then CGA and two modified algorithms, the Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and SAGA (Simulated Annealing Genetic Algorithm), were employed to optimize the operating parameters of the coal-fired boiler to reduce NO x emission. The results showed that the proposed SVR model was more accurate than the widely used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model when employed to predict the concentration of NO x emission. The mean relative error and correlation coefficient calculated by the proposed SVR model were 2.08% and 0.95, respectively. Among the three optimization algorithms implemented in this paper, the SAGA showed superiority to the other two algorithms considering the quality of solution within a given computing time. The SVR plus SAGA method was preferable to predict the concentration of NO x emission and further to optimize the operating parameters to achieve low NO x emission for coal-fired boilers. - Highlights: • The CGA based SVR model is proposed to predict the concentration of NO x emission. • The CGA based SVR model performs better than the widely used ANN model. • CGA and two modified algorithms are compared to optimize the parameters. • The SAGA is preferable for its high quality of solution and low computing time. • The SVR plus SAGA is successfully employed to optimize the operating parameters

  7. Waterwall corrosion evaluation in coal-fired boilers using electrochemical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, K.; Lee, C.; Seeley, R.; Harding, S.; Heap, M.; Cox, W.

    2000-07-01

    Until recently, waterwall corrosion in North American coal-fired boilers was uncommon and relatively mild. However, the introduction of combustion modifications to reduce in-furnace NOx formation has led to notable increases in the frequency and severity of waterwall wastage. Reaction Engineering International (REI) has worked with the Department of Energy and EPRI to improve predictive capabilities and provide solutions for furnace wall wastage for a wide range of coal-fired furnaces. To date, this work has emphasized computational simulations. More recently, REI in partnership with Corrosion Management has begun complementary efforts to improve their services by evaluating technologies capable of determining the location/rate of high water wall wastage resulting from corrosion. After an evaluation of commercially available options, electrochemical noise (EN) technology has been chosen for continued development. This approach has been successfully applied to corrosion-related problems involving acid dewpoint corrosion in flue gas ductwork, FGD systems, cooling water systems, oil and gas production, and acid cleaning (Cox et al, 1999). This paper presents the results of preliminary testing of an EN probe in a high temperature environment typical of the lower furnace of a cyclone-fired boiler operating under staged conditions. The relationship between electrochemical responses and (1) stoichiometry and (2) local hydrogen sulfide concentration is investigated and the qualitative and quantitative usefulness of the approach for on-line risk management is considered.

  8. Co-firing of coal with biomass and waste in full-scale suspension-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Johansen, Kim; Frandsen, Flemming J.; Jensen, Peter A.; Jensen, Anker D. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of chemical and Biochemical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The energy policy in Denmark has for many years focused on lowering the net CO{sub 2} emission from heat and power production by replacing fossil fuels by renewable resources. This has been done by developing dedicated grate-fired boilers for biomass and waste fuels but also by developing coal-based suspension-fired boilers to accept still higher fractions of biomass or waste material as fuels. This last development has been challenging of many reasons, including pre-treatment of fuels, and solving potential emission and operational problems during the simultaneous development of supercritical steam cycles with steam temperatures close to 600 C, providing power efficiencies close to 50% (Hein KRG, Sustainable energy supply and environment protection - strategies, resources and technologies. In: Gupta R, Wall T, Hupa M, Wigley F, Tillman D, Frandsen FJ (eds) Proceedings of international conference on impact of fuel quality on power production and the environment, Banff Conference Centre, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 29 Sept-4 Oct, 2008). For 25 years the CHEC (Combustion and Harmful Emission Control) Research Centre at DTU Chemical Engineering, has attained a leading role in research, supporting power producing industry, plant owners and boiler manufacturers to optimize design and operation and minimize cost and environmental impact using alternative fuels in suspension fired boilers. Our contribution has been made via a combination of full-scale measuring campaigns, pilot-scale studies, lab-scale measurements and modeling tools. The research conducted has addressed many issues important for co-firing, i.e. fuel processing, ash induced boiler deposit formation and corrosion, boiler chamber fuel conversion and emission formation, influence on flue gas cleaning equipment and the utilization of residual products. This chapter provides an overview of research activities, aiming at increasing biomass shares during co-firing in suspension, conducted in close collaboration with

  9. Mitsubishi latest coal fired USC boiler technology (CFE Pacifico 700 MW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T.; Sakamoto, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan). Power Systems; Fujitab, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Power Systems

    2013-07-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has successfully completed commissioning work for CFE (Comision Federal de Electricidad) Pacifico 700 MW coal-fired unit in March 2010 which is the first supercritical unit in Latin America. This supercritical boiler was designed with state of the art technologies such as low NOx burners, high fineness pulverizers, advanced vertical furnace wall technology and so on. Especially the advanced vertical furnace wall technology with some improvements is a key technology to realize swift load changes such as 5% load per minute ramping rate with assuring dynamic characteristics. Recently the requirement of the high efficiency and the swift load changes for the power boilers has been increased so that even a coal-fired unit needs flexible operation characteristics for balancing variety of power sources. One of the challenges for the swift load change is to keep the furnace wall metal temperature low during the load change, which the advanced vertical furnace wall could realize. The report describes the features of the unit and commissioning result including load swing test results in details.

  10. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of coal/biomass co-firing in pulverised fuel boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghtaderi, B.; Meesri, C. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). CRC for Coal in Sustainable Development, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The present study is concerned with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of coal/biomass blends co-fired under conditions pertinent to pulverised fuel (PF) boilers. The attention is particularly focused on the near burner zone to examine the impact of biomass on the flame geometry and temperature. The predictions are obtained by numerical solution of the conservation equations for the gas and particle phases. The gas phase is solved in the Eulerian domain using steady-state time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations while the solution of the particle phase is obtained from a series of Lagrangian particle tracking equations. Turbulence is modelled using the {kappa}-{epsilon} and Reynolds Stress models. The comparison between the predictions and experimental measurement reported in the literature resulted in a good agreement. Other influences of biomass co-firing are observed for fuel devolatilisation and burnout. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Radiological investigation in the boiler's maintenance operations in a Coal-Fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Beatriz; Mora, Juan C.; Cancio, David; Baeza, Antonio; Corbacho, Jose A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a study being performed in the four biggest coal-fired power plants in Spain, the formation of scales of radioisotopes in parts of the heat recovery system was investigated. This effect should be more important in the case of 210 Po and 210 Pb. Thereby, it is likely in given specific chemical conditions that scales could be formed with a high concentration of 210 Pb, probably in secular equilibrium with 210 Po and 210 Bi. Those scales could reach activity concentrations of some hundreds of Bq g -1 . In order to study within the boiler this scale formation, an investigation during the maintenance operations programmed in the 'Compostilla' coal-fired power plant (Ponferrada-Spain) was carried out. Those operations are performed each 2-3 years and last for around 30 or 40 days. Measurements of ambient dose equivalent (H * (10)) in the boiler before and after the entrance of the operators, together with beta surface contamination on the bottom ashes attached in the walls and on the tubes, were performed. The last measurements were carried out for screening purposes in order to select those areas on the tubes which could present Po scales. Even if chemical conditions are in general oxidising within the boiler, since conditions are not homogeneous, some zones were localized in which surface contamination was measured. In these spots, samples were collected and then measured in the laboratory. Moreover, an analysis of maintenance tasks, used personal protection equipment, working times and other important parameters was also carried out. This analysis is important in order to perform radiological evaluations, as realistic as possible, of the effective doses that could be received by maintenance operators. In the present study, the values of the measurements performed and the results of the assessment of the effective doses for the workers are presented. (author)

  12. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

    2009-06-30

    This report summarizes Year 1 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Through the course of Year 1 activities, great progress was made toward understanding the issues associated with oxy-combustion retrofit of coal-fired boilers. All four Year 1 milestones and objectives have been, or will be, completed on schedule and within budget. Progress in the four milestone areas may be summarized as follows: • University of Utah has performed size segregated ash composition measurements in the Oxy-Fuel Combustor (OFC). These experiments indicate that oxy-combustion retrofit may impact ash aerosol mineral matter composition. Both flame temperature and flue gas composition have been observed to influence the concentration of calcium, magnesium and iron in the fine particulate. This could in turn impact boiler fouling and slagging. • Sandia National Labs has shown that char oxidation rate is dependent on particle size (for sizes between 60 and 100 microns) by performing fundamental simulations of reacting char particles. These predictions will be verified by making time-resolved optical measurements of char particle temperature, velocity and size in bench-scale experiments before the end of Year 1. • REI and Siemens have completed the design of an oxy-research burner that will be mounted on University of Utah’s pilot-scale furnace, the L1500. This burner will accommodate a wide range of O2, FGR and mixing strategies under conditions relevant for utility boiler operation. Through CFD modeling of the different burner designs, it was determined that the key factor influencing flame stabilization location is particle heat-up rate. The new oxy-research burner and associated equipment is scheduled for delivery before the end of Year 1. • REI has completed a literature survey of slagging and

  13. Computational intelligence approach for NOx emissions minimization in a coal-fired utility boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hao; Zheng Ligang; Cen Kefa

    2010-01-01

    The current work presented a computational intelligence approach used for minimizing NO x emissions in a 300 MW dual-furnaces coal-fired utility boiler. The fundamental idea behind this work included NO x emissions characteristics modeling and NO x emissions optimization. First, an objective function aiming at estimating NO x emissions characteristics from nineteen operating parameters of the studied boiler was represented by a support vector regression (SVR) model. Second, four levels of primary air velocities (PA) and six levels of secondary air velocities (SA) were regulated by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) so as to achieve low NO x emissions combustion. To reduce the time demanding, a more flexible stopping condition was used to improve the computational efficiency without the loss of the quality of the optimization results. The results showed that the proposed approach provided an effective way to reduce NO x emissions from 399.7 ppm to 269.3 ppm, which was much better than a genetic algorithm (GA) based method and was slightly better than an ant colony optimization (ACO) based approach reported in the earlier work. The main advantage of PSO was that the computational cost, typical of less than 25 s under a PC system, is much less than those required for ACO. This meant the proposed approach would be more applicable to online and real-time applications for NO x emissions minimization in actual power plant boilers.

  14. Optimized scheme in coal-fired boiler combustion based on information entropy and modified K-prototypes algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hui; Zhu, Hongxia; Cui, Yanfeng; Si, Fengqi; Xue, Rui; Xi, Han; Zhang, Jiayu

    2018-06-01

    An integrated combustion optimization scheme is proposed for the combined considering the restriction in coal-fired boiler combustion efficiency and outlet NOx emissions. Continuous attribute discretization and reduction techniques are handled as optimization preparation by E-Cluster and C_RED methods, in which the segmentation numbers don't need to be provided in advance and can be continuously adapted with data characters. In order to obtain results of multi-objections with clustering method for mixed data, a modified K-prototypes algorithm is then proposed. This algorithm can be divided into two stages as K-prototypes algorithm for clustering number self-adaptation and clustering for multi-objective optimization, respectively. Field tests were carried out at a 660 MW coal-fired boiler to provide real data as a case study for controllable attribute discretization and reduction in boiler system and obtaining optimization parameters considering [ maxηb, minyNOx ] multi-objective rule.

  15. Performance of double source boiler with coal-fired and solar power tower heat for supercritical power generating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Maolong; Du, Xiaoze; Pang, Liping; Xu, Chao; Yang, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    An approach of high-efficiency utilization of solar energy was proposed, by which the high concentrated heat received by the solar tower was integrated to the supercritical coal-fired boiler. Two schemes that solar energy was used to heat superheat steam or subcooled feed water were presented. The thermodynamic and heat transfer models were established. For a practical 660 MW supercritical power generating unit, the standard coal consumption of power generation could be decreased by more than 17 g/kWh by such double source boiler. The drawbacks of both schemes were found and then were amended by adding a flue gas bypass to the boiler. It also can be concluded that the maximum solar contribution of two schemes for the gross power generation are 6.11% and 4.90%, respectively. The solar power efficiency of the re-modified designs were demonstrated be superior to that of PS10. In terms of turbine efficiency, the comparisons with Solar Two plant having similar initial temperature found that the efficiency of Scheme I was 5.25% higher than that of Solar Two while the advantage of Scheme II was existing either. Additionally, in two schemes with flue bypass when the medium was extracted, the thermal efficiency of boiler could be improved as well. - Highlights: • High concentrated solar tower heat is integrated to the supercritical coal-fired boiler. • The double source boiler can use solar energy to heat superheat steam or subcooled feed water. • Power generating coal consumption can be reduced by more than 17 g/kWh by the double source boiler. • The solar contribution of double source boiler for the gross power generation can be as high as 6.11%.

  16. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  17. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO(sub x) in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO(sub x) emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames-particularly under low NO(sub x) conditions. A CO/H(sub 2)/O(sub 2)/N(sub 2) flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state(sup 13)C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  18. Statistical modeling of an integrated boiler for coal fired thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreepradha Chandrasekharan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The coal fired thermal power plants plays major role in the power production in the world as they are available in abundance. Many of the existing power plants are based on the subcritical technology which can produce power with the efficiency of around 33%. But the newer plants are built on either supercritical or ultra-supercritical technology whose efficiency can be up to 50%. Main objective of the work is to enhance the efficiency of the existing subcritical power plants to compensate for the increasing demand. For achieving the objective, the statistical modeling of the boiler units such as economizer, drum and the superheater are initially carried out. The effectiveness of the developed models is tested using analysis methods like R2 analysis and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance. The dependability of the process variable (temperature on different manipulated variables is analyzed in the paper. Validations of the model are provided with their error analysis. Response surface methodology (RSM supported by DOE (design of experiments are implemented to optimize the operating parameters. Individual models along with the integrated model are used to study and design the predictive control of the coal-fired thermal power plant. Keywords: Chemical engineering, Applied mathematics

  19. Statistical modeling of an integrated boiler for coal fired thermal power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Sreepradha; Panda, Rames Chandra; Swaminathan, Bhuvaneswari Natrajan

    2017-06-01

    The coal fired thermal power plants plays major role in the power production in the world as they are available in abundance. Many of the existing power plants are based on the subcritical technology which can produce power with the efficiency of around 33%. But the newer plants are built on either supercritical or ultra-supercritical technology whose efficiency can be up to 50%. Main objective of the work is to enhance the efficiency of the existing subcritical power plants to compensate for the increasing demand. For achieving the objective, the statistical modeling of the boiler units such as economizer, drum and the superheater are initially carried out. The effectiveness of the developed models is tested using analysis methods like R 2 analysis and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). The dependability of the process variable (temperature) on different manipulated variables is analyzed in the paper. Validations of the model are provided with their error analysis. Response surface methodology (RSM) supported by DOE (design of experiments) are implemented to optimize the operating parameters. Individual models along with the integrated model are used to study and design the predictive control of the coal-fired thermal power plant.

  20. Co-firing coal and hospital waste in a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulthard, E.J.; Korenberg, J.; Oswald, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center and the Pennsylvania Energy Development Authority are co-funding a project which will demonstrate the reduction of infectious hospital waste to an environmentally safe disposable ash by cofiring the waste with coal in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The main objective of this paper is increased utilization of coal but the project also provides a solution to a problem which has grown rapidly and become very visible in recent years (e.g., hospital waste washed up on beaches). The application of CFB boilers in hospitals introduces an economical clean coal technology into a size range and market dominated by gas and oil combustion systems. The use of CFB represents the utilization of state-of-the-art technology for burning coal in an environmentally benign manner. SO 2 , NO x , CO and particulate emissions lower than the latest New Source Performance Standards have proven to be achievable in CFB combustion systems. By processing the infectious waste in a steam generation system which operates continuously, the problem of creating excessive gaseous emissions during repeated start-ups (as is the case with current incinerator technology) is avoided. The operating conditions with respect to residence time, temperature and turbulence that are inherent to a CFB combustion system, provide an excellent environment for complete combustion and destruction of potentially hazardous solid and gaseous emissions (e.g., dioxins). The limestone, which is injected into the combustion system to reduce SO 2 emissions, will also react with chlorine. Thus chlorine compound emissions and the corrosive nature of the flue gas are reduced. The work efforts to date indicate that infectious waste thermal processing in a coal-fired CFB is a technically and economically viable on-site disposal option

  1. Modelling of limestone injection for SO2 capture in a coal fired utility boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacik, G.J.; Reid, K.; McDonald, M.M.; Knill, K.

    1997-01-01

    A computer model was developed for simulating furnace sorbent injection for SO 2 capture in a full scale utility boiler using TASCFlow TM computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The model makes use of a computational grid of the superheater section of a tangentially fired utility boiler. The computer simulations are three dimensional so that the temperature and residence time distribution in the boiler could be realistically represented. Results of calculations of simulated sulphur capture performance of limestone injection in a typical utility boiler operation were presented

  2. Prediction method of unburnt carbon for coal fired utility boiler using image processing technique of combustion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, M.; Sugano, A.; Kimura, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Ishiyama, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a method predicting unburnt carbon in a coal fired utility boiler developed using an image processing technique. The method consists of an image processing unit and a furnace model unit. temperature distribution of combustion flames can be obtained through the former unit. The later calculates dynamics of the carbon reduction from the burner stages to the furnace outlet using coal feed rate, air flow rate, chemical and ash content of coal. An experimental study shows that the prediction error of the unburnt carbon can be reduced to 10%

  3. Evaluation of activated carbon for control of mercury from coal-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.; Laudal, D.; Dunham, G.

    1995-01-01

    The ability to remove mercury from power plant flue gas may become important because of the Clean Air Act amendments' requirement that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with these emissions. One approach for mercury removal, which may be relatively simple to retrofit, is the injection of sorbents, such as activated carbon, upstream of existing particulate control devices. Activated carbon has been reported to capture mercury when injected into flue gas upstream of a spray dryer baghouse system applied to waste incinerators or coal-fired boilers. However, the mercury capture ability of activated carbon injected upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse operated at temperatures between 200 degrees and 400 degrees F is not well known. A study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric power Research Institute is being conducted at the University of North Dakota Energy ampersand Environmental Research Center (EERC) to evaluate whether mercury control with sorbents can be a cost-effective approach for large power plants. Initial results from the study were reported last year. This paper presents some of the recent project results. Variables of interest include coal type, sorbent type, sorbent addition rate, collection media, and temperature

  4. Evaluation of activated carbon for control of mercury from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.; Laudal, D.; Dunham, G. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The ability to remove mercury from power plant flue gas may become important because of the Clean Air Act amendments` requirement that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with these emissions. One approach for mercury removal, which may be relatively simple to retrofit, is the injection of sorbents, such as activated carbon, upstream of existing particulate control devices. Activated carbon has been reported to capture mercury when injected into flue gas upstream of a spray dryer baghouse system applied to waste incinerators or coal-fired boilers. However, the mercury capture ability of activated carbon injected upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse operated at temperatures between 200{degrees} and 400{degrees}F is not well known. A study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric power Research Institute is being conducted at the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to evaluate whether mercury control with sorbents can be a cost-effective approach for large power plants. Initial results from the study were reported last year. This paper presents some of the recent project results. Variables of interest include coal type, sorbent type, sorbent addition rate, collection media, and temperature.

  5. Low NOx combustion and SCR flow field optimization in a low volatile coal fired boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Tan, Houzhang; Wang, Yibin; Yang, Fuxin; Mikulčić, Hrvoje; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven

    2018-08-15

    Low NO x burner redesign and deep air staging have been carried out to optimize the poor ignition and reduce the NO x emissions in a low volatile coal fired 330 MW e boiler. Residual swirling flow in the tangentially-fired furnace caused flue gas velocity deviations at furnace exit, leading to flow field unevenness in the SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system and poor denitrification efficiency. Numerical simulations on the velocity field in the SCR system were carried out to determine the optimal flow deflector arrangement to improve flow field uniformity of SCR system. Full-scale experiment was performed to investigate the effect of low NO x combustion and SCR flow field optimization. Compared with the results before the optimization, the NO x emissions at furnace exit decreased from 550 to 650 mg/Nm³ to 330-430 mg/Nm³. The sample standard deviation of the NO x emissions at the outlet section of SCR decreased from 34.8 mg/Nm³ to 7.8 mg/Nm³. The consumption of liquid ammonia reduced from 150 to 200 kg/h to 100-150 kg/h after optimization. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Probabilistic approach to determining the optimum replacement of a superheater stage in 680 MW coal-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, Robert; Star, Ruud van der [Nuon Power Generation, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    The boiler of the NUON power plant HW08 that went into operation in 1993 is designed as Benson boiler and mainly fired with hard coal. A creep-related tube failure occurred in the tertiary superheater that had been due to increased wall temperature caused by steam side formation of oxide layers. The theoretical lifetime of the components was calculated with the aid of the results of steam side oxide measurements and condition evaluation of the tertiary superheater with the aid of tube samples. The objective is to establish an operation and maintenance schedule for the desired operating lifetime of 300,000 hours. (orig.)

  7. Analysis and study on the performance variation of SCR DeNOx catalyst of Coal-Fired Boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianxing, Ren; Fangqin, Li; Jiang, Wu; Qingrong, Liu; Yongwen, Yang; Zhongzhu, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are one kind of harmful substances from the burning process of fossil fuel and air at high temperature. NO x emissions cause serious pollution on atmospheric environment. In this paper, coal-fired utility boilers were chosen as the object, NO x formation mechanism and control were studied, and SCR deNO x technology was used to control NO x emissions from coal-fired boilers. Analyzed the relationship between deNO x efficiency and characteristics of SCR DeNO x catalyst. Through analysis, affecting SCR DeNO x catalyst failure factors, change law of catalytic properties and technical measures to extend the service life of the catalyst were gotten. (author)

  8. Transformations and affinities for sulfur of Chinese Shenmu coal ash in a pulverized coal-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.; Zhou, J.H.; Liu, J.Z.; Cao, X.Y.; Cen, K.F. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2009-07-01

    The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less than 10% is retained in the bottom ash. About 70% of the sulfur element fed into the furnace is emitted as SO{sub 2} in the flue gas, while less than 10% is retained in the fly ash and less than 1% is retained in the bottom ash. The mineralogical compositions of feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the initial amorphous phase content is 91.17% and the initial CaCO{sub 3} phase content is 2.07% in Shenmu coal. The vitreous phase and sulfation product CaSO{sub 4} contents are, respectively, 70.47% and 3.36% in the fly ash obtained at full capacity, while the retained CaCO{sub 3} and CaO contents are, respectively, 4.73% and 2.15%. However, the vitreous phase content is only 25.68% and no CaSO{sub 4} is detected in the bottom ash obtained at full capacity. When the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%, the vitreous phase content in fly ash decreases from 70.47% to 67.41% and that in bottom ash increases from 25.68% to 28.10%.

  9. Low cost combustion tuning and fuel nozzles modification to reduce NOx emission in large coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Chudnovsky; L. Levin; A. Talanker; E. Bar-Ziv; A. Vikhansky; A.F. Sarofim [Israel Electric Corporation (IEC), Haifa (Israel)

    2003-07-01

    This work focuses on low-cost combustion tuning to reduce NOx emission in coal-fired tangential boilers, testing the furnace in various operation modes. We have also experimented different coal nozzle types. The measurements were accompanied by computer simulations of the combustion process. We also used an on-line supervision system. The data obtained from 575 MW boilers show that with tuning and modified nozzles NOx was considerably reduced. The emission of NOx was reduced from 1200 to 570 mg/dNm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2} for South African coal at full load. At partial load NOx emission dropped from 1400 to 750-850 mg/dNm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2}. High volatile coal firing led to additional NOx reduction. A series of tests were performed with Colombian and Indonesian coals as well, dropping NOx emission to 400-450 mg/dNm{sup 3} at6% O{sub 2} at full load. Sootblowing optimization using the supervision system enabled us to further reduce NOx emission by approximately 10%. The boiler and unit performance was not influenced by any of the techniques used for NOx reduction. In such a manner, the results presented in this work clearly show that technological methods for reduction NOx are available and capable of obtaining the required NOx emission. We believe that the conclusions of the present study are general and may be applied to other utility boilers as well. 13 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Coal-fired boiler houses in Cracow present state and possibilities to improve their efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyklis, P. [Institute of Industrial Equipment and Power Engineering, Cracow (Poland); Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A significant amount of heat energy both for heating and process purposes is generated in Cracow, Poland in small-and medium size local boiler houses. The operating procedure of these boiler houses is most often economically and ecologically ineffective because of the bad condition of boilers and lack of funds to install automation, control and measurement equipment. Within the Polish-American Program of Elimination of Low Emission Sources financed by the US Department of Energy, the ENERGOEKSPERT Co., Ltd. investigated chosen boiler houses in Cracow, commissioned by the Cracow Development Office. The results of these investigations were subject of engineering analysis carried out at the Institute of Industrial Equipment and Power Engineering, Technical University, Cracow. The analysis proved that the low-cost improvement of economic efficiency and reduction of air pollutant emission is feasible for combustion of coal fuels.

  11. Research into properties of dust from domestic central heating boiler fired with coal and solid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konieczyński Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the content and composition of the pollutants emitted by domestic central heating boilers equipped with an automatic underfeed fuel delivery system for the combustion chamber. The comparative research was conducted. It concerned fuel properties, flue gas parameters, contents of dust (fl y ash and gaseous substances polluting the air in the flue gases emitted from a domestic CH boiler burning bituminous coal, pellets from coniferous wood, cereal straw, miscanthus, and sunflower husks, coniferous tree bark, and oats and barley grain. The emission factors for dust and gaseous air pollutants were established as they are helpful to assess the contribution of such boilers in the atmospheric air pollution. When assessing the researched boiler, it was found out that despite the development in design and construction, flue gases contained fly ash with a significant EC content, which affected the air quality.

  12. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of

  13. Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-megawatt utility boiler in Taiwan firing bituminous coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Lee, Hsiu-Hsia; Hwang, Jyh-Feng; Chen, Wang

    2010-05-01

    Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-MW tangential-fired utility boiler in Taiwan burning Australian and Chinese bituminous coal blends was investigated. Flue gases were simultaneously sampled at the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) inlet, the SCR outlet, the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, and the stack. Samplings of coal, lime, bottom ash/slag, fly ash, and gypsum slurry were also conducted. Results indicated that flue gases at the inlet to SCR contained a great potion of particle-bound mercury (Hg(p)), 59-92% of the total mercury. Removal of mercury was not observed for the SCR system. However, repartitioning of mercury species across the SCR occurred that significantly increased the portion of elemental mercury (Hg0) to up to 29% and oxidized mercury (Hg2+) to up to 33% in the SCR outlet gas. Overreporting of Hg(p) at the inlet of SCR may cause the observed repartitioning; the high ammonia/nitric oxide circumstance in the SCR unit was also speculated to cause the mercury desorption from ash particles and subsequent reentrance into the gas phase. ESP can remove up to 99% of Hg(p), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) can remove up to 84% of Hg2+. Mercury mass balances were calculated to range between 81 and 127.4%, with an average of 95.7% wherein 56-82% was in ESP fly ash, 8.7-18.6% was retained in the FGD gypsum, and 6.2-26.1% was emitted from the stack. Data presented here suggest that mercury removal can be largely enhanced by increasing the conversion of Hg0 into Hg(p) and Hg2+.

  14. High Temperature Behavior of Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings in the Actual Coal-Fired Boiler Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Sidhu, Hazoor Singh; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2015-03-01

    Erosion-corrosion is a serious problem observed in steam-powered electricity generation plants, and industrial waste incinerators. In the present study, four compositions of Cr3C2-(Ni-20Cr) alloy coating powder were deposited by high-velocity oxy-fuel spray technique on T-91 boiler tube steel. The cyclic studies were performed in a coal-fired boiler at 1123 K ± 10 K (850 °C ± 10 °C). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis and elemental mapping analysis techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. All the coatings deposited on T-91 boiler tube steel imparted hot corrosion resistance. The 65 pctCr3C2 -35 pct (Ni-20Cr)-coated T-91 steel sample performed better than all other coated samples in the given environment.

  15. Full Scale Deposition Trials at 150 MWe PF-boiler Co-firing COal and Straw: Summary of Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karin Hedebo; Frandsen, Flemming; Hansen, Peter Farkas Binderup

    1999-01-01

    A conventional PF-fired boiler at the Danish energy company I/S Midtkraft has been converted to coal-straw co-combustion and a two-year demonstration programme was initiated in January 1996 addressing several aspects of coal-straw co-combustion. Deposition trials were performed as part...... during co-combustion with straw. In addition, where Fe dominated upstream deposits are found in the hottest positions during pure coal combustion, Ca, and to some degree Si, are playing the major role during co-combustion. The addition of straw to the fuel is also seen to lead to a change in the texture...... of the upstream deposits, from an ordered dendritic structure of the larger particles with small particles in between during pure coal combustion, to a more random deposition of the larger particles among the small during co-combustion. No deposition of chlorine species was observed in the SEM-EDX analysis...

  16. Development of Cost Effective Oxy-Combustion Retrofitting for Coal-Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Farzan

    2010-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to further develop the oxy-combustion technology for commercial retrofit in existing wall-fired and Cyclone boilers by 2012. To meet this goal, a research project was conducted that included pilot-scale testing and a full-scale engineering and economic analysis.

  17. Reduction of NOx and particulate emissions from coal-fired boilers by modification of coal nozzles and combustion tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, B.; Talanker, A.; Mugenstein, A.; Shpon, G.; Vikhansky, A.; Elperin, T.; Bar-Ziv, E.; Bockelie, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.F. [Israel Electric Corporation, Haifa (Israel). Engineering Division

    2001-07-01

    In the present paper two issues are discussed: the effect of the burner replacement on boiler performance and NOx emissions and the effect of the burner replacement on performance and efficiency of electrostatic precipitators (ESP). We also have experimented with different coal types and found the coals that together with combustion tuning met commonly accepted emission limits for NOx (less than 600 mg/dNm{sup 3}) and levels of carbon in fly ash (LOI) (approximately 5-6%) for existing boilers without low NOx burners. Our measurements were accompanied by computer simulations of the combustion of the combustion process in the boiler. Special attention was paid to detailed simulation of the flow and ignition in the near-burner zone. 7 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay, Samudra; DeCarolis, Joseph F.; Srivastava, Ravi K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology cost and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO x control configurations on a large subset of the existing coal-fired, utility-owned boilers in the US. The resultant data are used to create technology-specific marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) and also serve as input to an integer linear program, which minimizes system-wide control costs by finding the optimal distribution of NO x controls across the modeled boilers under an emission constraint. The result is a single optimized MACC that accounts for detailed, boiler-specific information related to NO x retrofits. Because the resultant MACCs do not take into account regional differences in air-quality standards or pre-existing NO x controls, the results should not be interpreted as a policy prescription. The general method as well as NO x -specific results presented here should be of significant value to modelers and policy analysts who must estimate the costs of pollution reduction.

  19. Co-firing of Coal with Biomass and Waste in Full-scale Suspension-fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Johansen, Kim; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    and boiler manufacturers to optimize design and operation and minimize cost and environmental impact using alternative fuels in suspension fired boilers. Our contribution has been made via a combination of full-scale measuring campaigns, pilot-scale studies, lab-scale measurements and modeling tools....... The research conducted has addressed many issues important for co-firing, i.e. fuel processing, ash induced boiler deposit formation and corrosion, boiler chamber fuel conversion and emission formation, influence on flue gas cleaning equipment and the utilization of residual products. This paper provides...... research has provided results with implications for operation of milling and burner equipment, appropriate fuel mixing strategies, minimization of ash deposit formation and corrosion, minimization of NO formation, appropriate operation of SCR catalyst equipment and utilization of residual products...

  20. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    Appendix C: Paper in Fuel 87 (2008) 3304-3312: A kinetic study of gaseous potassium capture by coal minerals in a high temperature fixed-bed reactor......Appendix C: Paper in Fuel 87 (2008) 3304-3312: A kinetic study of gaseous potassium capture by coal minerals in a high temperature fixed-bed reactor...

  1. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO x emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O ampersand M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO x removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system

  2. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorge, J.N.; Larrimore, C.L.; Slatsky, M.D.; Menzies, W.R.; Smouse, S.M.; Stallings, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy Innovative Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objectives of the demonstration is to determine the long-term NOx reduction performance of advanced overfire air (AOFA), low NOx burners (LNB), and advanced digital control optimization methodologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. The focus of this paper is to report (1) on the installation of three on-line carbon-in-ash monitors and (2) the design and results to date from the advanced digital control/optimization phase of the project.

  3. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from a Coal-Fired Boiler Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuikov, Andrey V.; Feoktistov, Dmitry V.; Koshurnikova, Natalya N.; Zlenko, Lyudmila V.

    2016-02-01

    During combustion of fossil fuels a large amount of harmful substances are discharged into the atmospheres of cities by industrial heating boiler houses. The most harmful substances among them are nitrogen oxides. The paper presents one of the most effective technological solutions for suppressing nitrogen oxides; it is arrangement of circulation process with additional mounting of the nozzle directed into the bottom of the ash hopper. When brown high-moisture coals are burnt in the medium power boilers, generally fuel nitrogen oxides are produced. It is possible to reduce their production by two ways: lowering the temperature in the core of the torch or decreasing the excess-air factor in the boiler furnace. Proposed solution includes the arrangement of burning process with additional nozzle installed in the lower part of the ash hopper. Air supply from these nozzles creates vortex involving large unburned fuel particles in multiple circulations. Thereby time of their staying in the combustion zone is prolonging. The findings describe the results of the proposed solution; and recommendations for the use of this technological method are given for other boilers.

  4. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from a Coal-Fired Boiler Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuikov Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During combustion of fossil fuels a large amount of harmful substances are discharged into the atmospheres of cities by industrial heating boiler houses. The most harmful substances among them are nitrogen oxides. The paper presents one of the most effective technological solutions for suppressing nitrogen oxides; it is arrangement of circulation process with additional mounting of the nozzle directed into the bottom of the ash hopper. When brown high-moisture coals are burnt in the medium power boilers, generally fuel nitrogen oxides are produced. It is possible to reduce their production by two ways: lowering the temperature in the core of the torch or decreasing the excess-air factor in the boiler furnace. Proposed solution includes the arrangement of burning process with additional nozzle installed in the lower part of the ash hopper. Air supply from these nozzles creates vortex involving large unburned fuel particles in multiple circulations. Thereby time of their staying in the combustion zone is prolonging. The findings describe the results of the proposed solution; and recommendations for the use of this technological method are given for other boilers.

  5. Studies of the fate of sulfur trioxide in coal-fired utility boilers based on modified selected condensation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Zhou, Hongcang; Jiang, Wu; Chen, Chien-Wei; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2010-05-01

    The formation of sulfur trioxide (SO(3)) in coal-fired utility boilers can have negative effects on boiler performance and operation, such as fouling and corrosion of equipment, efficiency loss in the air preheater (APH), increase in stack opacity, and the formation of PM(2.5). Sulfur trioxide can also compete with mercury when bonding with injected activated carbons. Tests in a lab-scale reactor confirmed there are major interferences between fly ash and SO(3) during SO(3) sampling. A modified SO(3) procedure to maximize the elimination of measurement biases, based on the inertial-filter-sampling and the selective-condensation-collecting of SO(3), was applied in SO(3) tests in three full-scale utility boilers. For the two units burning bituminous coal, SO(3) levels starting at 20 to 25 ppmv at the inlet to the selective catalytic reduction (SCR), increased slightly across the SCR, owing to catalytic conversion of SO(2) to SO(3,) and then declined in other air pollutant control device (APCD) modules downstream to approximately 5 ppmv and 15 ppmv at the two sites, respectively. In the unit burning sub-bituminous coal, the much lower initial concentration of SO(3) estimated to be approximately 1.5 ppmv at the inlet to the SCR was reduced to about 0.8 ppmv across the SCR and to about 0.3 ppmv at the exit of the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD). The SO(3) removal efficiency across the WFGD scrubbers at the three sites was generally 35% or less. Reductions in SO(3) across either the APH or the dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in units burning high-sulfur bituminous coal were attributed to operating temperatures being below the dew point of SO(3).

  6. Control of mercury emissions from coal fired electric uitlity boilers: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal-fired power plants in the U.S. are known to be the major anthropogenic source of domestic mercury emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently proposed to reduce emissions of mercury from these plants. In March 2005, EPA plans to promulgate final regulat...

  7. The behavior of ash species in suspension fired biomass boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt

    While fluid bed and grate fired boilers initially was the choice of boilers used for power production from both wood and herbaceous biomass, in recent years suspension fired boilers have been increasingly used for biomass based power production. In Denmark several large pulverized fuel boilers have...... been converted from coal to biomass combustion in the last 15 years. This have included co-firing of coal and straw, up to 100% firing of wood or straw andthe use of coal ash as an additive to remedy problems with wood firing. In parallel to the commercialization of the pulverized biomass firing...... technology a long range of research studies have been conducted, to improve our understanding of the influence and behavior of biomass ash species in suspension fired boilers. The fuel ash plays a key role with respect tooptimal boiler operation and influences phenomena’s as boiler chamber deposit formation...

  8. Temperature prediction in a coal fired boiler with a fixed bed by fuzzy logic based on numerical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyikoglu, A.; Akcayol, M.A.; Oezdemir, V.; Sivrioglu, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, steady state combustion in boilers with a fixed bed has been investigated. Temperature distributions in the combustion chamber of a coal fired boiler with a fixed bed are predicted using fuzzy logic based on data obtained from the numerical solution method for various coal and air feeding rates. The numerical solution method and the discretization of the governing equations of two dimensional turbulent flow in the combustion chamber and one dimensional coal combustion in the fixed bed are explained. Control Volume and Finite Difference Methods are used in the discretization of the equations in the combustion chamber and in the fixed bed, respectively. Results are presented as contours within the solution domain and compared with numerical ones. Comparison of the results shows that the difference between the numerical solution and fuzzy logic prediction throughout the computational domain is less than 1.5%. The statistical coefficient of multiple determinations for the investigated cases is about 0.9993 to 0.9998. This accuracy degree is acceptable in predicting the temperature values. So, it can be concluded that fuzzy logic provides a feasible method for defining the system properties

  9. Demonstration of SCR technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, W.S. [W.S. Hinton and Associates, Cantonment, FL (United States); Maxwell, J.D.; Healy, E.C.; Hardman, R.R. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Baldwin, A.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the completed Innovative Clean Coal Technology project which demonstrated SCR technology for reduction of flue gas NO{sub x} emissions from a utility boiler burning US high-sulfur coal. The project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, managed and co-funded by Southern Company Services, Inc. on behalf of the Southern Company, and also co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and Ontario Hydro. The project was located at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit 5 (a 75 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning US coals that had a sulfur content ranging from 2.5--2.9%), near Pensacola, Florida. The test program was conducted for approximately two years to evaluate catalyst deactivation and other SCR operational effects. The SCR test facility had nine reactors: three 2.5 MW (5,000 scfm), and operated on low-dust flue gas. The reactors operated in parallel with commercially available SCR catalysts obtained from suppliers throughout the world. Long-term performance testing began in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. A brief test facility description and the results of the project are presented in this paper.

  10. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented. Two nocogeneration base cases are included: coal fired and residual fired process boilers.

  11. Co-firing Coal and Straw in a 150 MWe Utility Boiler: Deposition Propensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karin Hedebo; Hansen, Peter Farkas Binderup; Wieck-Hansen, Kate

    1996-01-01

    In order to meet a 20 % reduction in CO2 emissions, based on 1988 levels, by the year 2005, the Danish Government has committed the power companies in Denmark to burn 1.2 million tons of straw per year from the year 2000. A conventional pf-fired boiler at the Danish Power Company Midtkraft has been...... on temperature controlled probes and in-situ measurements of flue gas temperature, flue gas compositions including alkali metal concentrations and particle and aerosol loading and composition. The study is carried out as collaborative research projects between the Midtkraft Power Company and the Combustion...

  12. Increase of Ecological Safety, Reliability and Efficiency of Coal-Fired Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov E.P.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The changes of environmental legislation of the Russian Federation will lead to a drastic increase of the ecological payments for environmental pollution in excess of technological standards. Significant excess in relative emissions of nitrogen oxides take place in burning solid fuel with liquid slag-tap removal. The purpose of this article was to develop technical solutions for low-cost reconstruction of the boilers to ensure efficient combustion of the fuel and technological standards of emissions of nitrogen oxides. As shown the use of straight-flow burners with compulsory optimization of the aerodynamics of the furnace and the organization of staged combustion of fuel will provide low nitrogen oxide emissions and efficient fuel combustion. Research on physical models has demonstrated the feasibility of increasing the angle of the pulverized coal burners down to 65-70o, and also achieved a more uniform distribution and increase the speed of the jets coming from upper and lower tertiary air vertical compartments of nozzles through the installation of the vertical extra sheets, which guide the flow in a space between jets. The results obtained allow the transfer of existing boilers with slag-tag removal to a solid with the installation of direct-flow burners and optimization of the aerodynamics of the furnace, which provides regulations for energy efficiency and ecological safety corresponding to the best, achieved technologies, and dramatically reduces environmental payments. The proposed technology in boiler BKZ-210-140F allowed reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides by more than 2 times when burning highly reactive Kuznetsk coal, as shown as an example.

  13. A collaborative project on the effects of coal quality on NO{sub x} emissions and carbon burnout in pulverised coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, H.A.; O`Connor, M.; Stephenson, P.L.; Whitehouse, M.; Richards, D.G.; Hesselmann, G.; MacPhail, J.; Lockwood, F.C.; Williamson, J.; Williams, A.; Pourkashanian, M. [ETSU, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a UK Department of Trade and Industry-supported collaborative project entitled `The Effects of Coal Quality on Emission of Oxides of Nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and Carbon Burnout in Pulverised Coal-fired Utility Boilers`. The project involved extensive collaboration between the UK power generators, boiler and burner manufacturers and research groups in both industry and academia, together with several of the world`s leading computational fluid dynamics (CFD) `software houses`. The prime objectives of the project were to assess the relationship between NO{sub x} emissions and carbon burnout and to develop and validate predictive tools for assessing coals. Experimental work was carried out on various laboratory-scale apparatus and on single burner test facilities ranging from 160 kW{sub th} to 40 MW{sub th} in size and measurements were obtained from full-scale 500 MW{sub e} utility boiler trials. This data and basic coal data were then used to develop mathematical models to predict full-scale boiler performance with respect to NO{sub x} emissions and carbon-in-ash. Results showed good correlations for NO{sub x} and carbon burnout when comparing data from full-scale and large-scale rig trials. Laboratory-scale tests were found to be useful but the influence of burner aerodynamics was more difficult to quantify. Modelling showed that predicted NO{sub x} emissions were encouragingly close to measured emissions but predicting carbon burnout was less successful. 24 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. JV Task 106 - Feasibility of CO2 Capture Technologies for Existing North Dakota Lignite-Fired Pulverized Coal Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Jones; Brandon M. Pavlish; Melanie D. Jensen

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this project is to provide a technical review and evaluation of various carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technologies, with a focus on the applicability to lignite-fired facilities within North Dakota. The motivation for the project came from the Lignite Energy Council's (LEC's) need to identify the feasibility of CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing North Dakota lignite-fired, pulverized coal (pc) power plants. A literature review was completed to determine the commercially available technologies as well as to identify emerging CO{sub 2} capture technologies that are currently in the research or demonstration phase. The literature review revealed few commercially available technologies for a coal-fired power plant. CO{sub 2} separation and capture using amine scrubbing have been performed for several years in industry and could be applied to an existing pc-fired power plant. Other promising technologies do exist, but many are still in the research and demonstration phases. Oxyfuel combustion, a technology that has been used in industry for several years to increase boiler efficiency, is in the process of being tailored for CO{sub 2} separation and capture. These two technologies were chosen for evaluation for CO{sub 2} separation and capture from coal-fired power plants. Although oxyfuel combustion is still in the pilot-scale demonstration phase, it was chosen to be evaluated at LEC's request because it is one of the most promising emerging technologies. As part of the evaluation of the two chosen technologies, a conceptual design, a mass and energy balance, and an economic evaluation were completed.

  15. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  16. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  17. Staged combustion - main method for suppressing nitrogen oxides in pulverized-coal fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R. (Vsesoyuznyi Teplotekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1989-08-01

    Describes principles behind staged combustion, which is based on organizing furnace operations so that only part of the air from the fuel is taken into the furnace. The remaining air, which is needed for combustion, is fed as a tertiary blast jet into the intermediate flame zone. Following inflammation and combustion of the volatile matter, the oxygen concentration in the flame drops sharply causing a retardation of the oxidation reactions forming NO and an intensification of the reactions causing the nitrogen-containing radicals NH{sub i} and CN to be converted into N{sub 2}. When the reducing agents CO, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} are present in certain flame zones, even the nitrogen oxide is reduced to N{sub 2}. The NO concentrations in the flame are reduced until the jet of tertiary air is introduced. Discusses with reference to practice in the USA and Western Europe how to achieve maximum effect of this method for different types of boiler and presents the results of observations of the introduction of staged combustion to the BKZ-210-140 boiler burning Kuznetsk gassy coal. 5 refs.

  18. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Various advanced energy conversion systems (ECS) are compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidates which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented for coal fired process boilers. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented.

  19. Potential for visible plume formation at a coal-fired boiler using ammonia injection for non-catalytic NOx control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, T.

    1993-01-01

    Circulating fluidized bed boilers utilizing ammonia injection for non-catalytic NO x reduction have been highly successful in reducing NO x emissions to very low levels. However, one limitation on this technology is the potential for the formation of visible plumes. One plant, with uncontrolled NO x of about 190 ppm, reduces NO x concentrations to the 20-25 ppm range by injecting ammonia in the boiler's cyclones. However, infrequent, short-lived, white, detached plumes have been noted extending for short distances downwind of the stack. Because unreacted ammonia is present in the flue gas along with HCl from coal combustion, the formation of solid NH 4 Cl in the atmosphere was suspected to be the most likely cause of the visible plume. Simple thermodynamic calculations predict the formation of solid ammonium chloride very soon after the flue gas mixes with cooler ambient air and plume optical density calculations are in reasonable agreement with observed plume density. Stack testing and other tests have been conducted during both plume and non-plume events to confirm that NH 4 Cl formation is the most likely cause of the capacity. As presented in this paper, the test data and theoretical calculations indicate that a visible plume may be expected when as little as 5 ppm of ammonia and HCl are present in the flue gas, depending on observation conditions. Analyses of fuel samples taken during stack tests show about 40% of the chlorine in the low chloride coal fired, typically less than 0.04%, is released from the stack as HCl. Ammonia slip is somewhat variable depending on combustion conditions in the boiler and the temperature at the ammonia injection points

  20. Least Square Fast Learning Network for modeling the combustion efficiency of a 300WM coal-fired boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Niu, Peifeng; Wang, Huaibao; Liu, Yongchao

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a novel artificial neural network with a very fast learning speed, all of whose weights and biases are determined by the twice Least Square method, so it is called Least Square Fast Learning Network (LSFLN). In addition, there is another difference from conventional neural networks, which is that the output neurons of LSFLN not only receive the information from the hidden layer neurons, but also receive the external information itself directly from the input neurons. In order to test the validity of LSFLN, it is applied to 6 classical regression applications, and also employed to build the functional relation between the combustion efficiency and operating parameters of a 300WM coal-fired boiler. Experimental results show that, compared with other methods, LSFLN with very less hidden neurons could achieve much better regression precision and generalization ability at a much faster learning speed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The application of RANS CFD for design of SNCR technology for a pulverized coal-fired boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruszak Monika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the technology of NOx emission abatement by SNCR method. The scope of research included CDF simulations as well as design and construction of the pilot plant and tests of NOx reduction by urea in the plant located in industrial pulverized-coal fired boiler. The key step of research was to determine the appropriate temperature window for the SNCR process. The proposed solution of the location of injection lances in the combustion chamber enabled to achieve over a 30% reduction of NOx. It is possible to achieve higher effectiveness of the proposed SNCR technology and meet the required emission standards via providing prior reduction of NOx to the level of 350 mg/um3 using the primary methods.

  2. [Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

  3. A novel least squares support vector machine ensemble model for NOx emission prediction of a coal-fired boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, You; Liu, Jizhen; Yang, Tingting; Zeng, Deliang

    2013-01-01

    Real operation data of power plants are inclined to be concentrated in some local areas because of the operators’ habits and control system design. In this paper, a novel least squares support vector machine (LSSVM)-based ensemble learning paradigm is proposed to predict NO x emission of a coal-fired boiler using real operation data. In view of the plant data characteristics, a soft fuzzy c-means cluster algorithm is proposed to decompose the original data and guarantee the diversity of individual learners. Subsequently the base LSSVM is trained in each individual subset to solve the subtask. Finally, partial least squares (PLS) is applied as the combination strategy to eliminate the collinear and redundant information of the base learners. Considering that the fuzzy membership also has an effect on the ensemble output, the membership degree is added as one of the variables of the combiner. The single LSSVM and other ensemble models using different decomposition and combination strategies are also established to make a comparison. The result shows that the new soft FCM-LSSVM-PLS ensemble method can predict NO x emission accurately. Besides, because of the divide and conquer frame, the total time consumed in the searching the parameters and training also decreases evidently. - Highlights: • A novel LSSVM ensemble model to predict NO x emissions is presented. • LSSVM is used as the base learner and PLS is employed as the combiner. • The model is applied to process data from a 660 MW coal-fired boiler. • The generalization ability of the model is enhanced. • The time consuming in training and searching the parameters decreases sharply

  4. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO(sub 3) and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was underway at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. This represents the first long-term full-scale testing of this class of products. Modifications to the flue gas conditioning system at Jim Bridger, including development of alternate injection lances, was also undertaken to improve chemical spray distribution and to avoid spray deposition to duct interior surfaces. Also in this quarter, a firm commitment was received for another long-term test of the cohesivity additives. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative

  5. PCDDs/PCDFs, dl-PCBs and HCB in the flue gas from coal fired CFB boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowalski, Adam; Konieczyński, Jan

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the project was to measure the actual emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from four selected power plants in Poland in order to update the national inventory of PCDDs/PCDFs emission. Relatively low PCDDs/PCDFs as well as dl-PCBs concentrations in flue gas obtained in measurements in this study for four different circulated fluidized bed (CFB) boilers indicate practical absence of any hazards caused by PCDDs/PCDFs emission from these units. The results of PCDDs/PCDFs determination obtained in this study indicate that hard coal combustion in large CFB in the four central heating plants (CHP) is not a significant source of PCDDs/PCDFs emission to the environment even if operated by co-firing of waste coal. PCDDs/PCDFs concentration in flue gases as well as emission factors were recorded in the range of 0.012-0.060 ng I-TEQ/m(n)(3) and 7.51-46.4 microg I-TEQ/TJ, respectively. Dl-PCBs concentration was practically below the LOQ=0.006 ng WHO-PCB TEQ/m(n)(3) in all experiments. HCB concentration as well as emission factors were recorded in the range of 11.5-42.0 ng/m(n)(3) and 6.19-26.7 mg/TJ, respectively, where the highest value was obtained for co-firing of waste coal, however. Obtained in this work emission factors will be used for national emission inventory purposes instead of the factors proposed by Toolkit or taken from previous measurements. However, consideration should be given to the fact that the measurements in most cases are related to single installations. Therefore, the need for further development of national factors for the power generation industry in Poland is desired.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

  7. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 15, April 15 1996--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-19

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering; Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quote} Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis and Phases II and III on a cost-share basis.

  8. Self-cementitious properties of fly ashes from CFBC boilers co-firing coal and high-sulphur petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Guanghong; Li Qin; Zhai Jianping; Li Feihu

    2007-01-01

    Self-cementitious properties of fly ash from circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler co-firing coal and high-sulphur petroleum coke (CPFA) were investigated. CPFA was self-cementitious which was affected by its fineness and chemical compositions, especially the contents of SO 3 and free lime (f-CaO). Higher contents of SO 3 and f-CaO were beneficial to self-cementitious strength; the self-cementitious strength increases with a decrease of its 45 μm sieve residue. The expansive ratio of CPFA hardened paste was high because of generation of ettringite (AFt), which was influenced by its water to binder ratio (W/A), curing style and grinding of the ash. The paste cured in water had the highest expansive ratio, and grinding of CPFA was beneficial to its volume stability. The hydration products of CPFA detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were portlandite, gypsum, AFt and hydrated calcium silicate (C-S-H)

  9. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology costs and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO...

  10. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  11. Survey of radionuclide emissions from coal-fired power plants and examination of impacts from a proposed circulating fluidized bed boiler power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, C.P.; Militana, L.M.; Harvey, K.A.; Kinsey, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature survey that examined radionuclide emissions from coal-fired power plants. Literature references from both the US and foreign countries are presented. Emphasis is placed on references from the US because the radionuclide emissions from coal-fired power plants are related to radionuclide concentrations in the coal, which vary widely throughout the world. The radionuclides were identified and quantified for various existing power plants reported in the literature. Applicable radionuclide emissions criteria discovered in the literature search were then applied to a proposed circulating fluidized bed boiler power plant. Based upon the derived radionuclide emission rates applied to the proposed power plant, an air quality modeling analysis was performed. The estimated ambient concentrations were compared to the most relevant existing regulatory ambient levels for radionuclides

  12. FUNDAMENTALS OF MERCURY SPECIATION AND CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the progress of an experimental investigation of the speciation of mercury in simulated coal combustion flue gasses. The effects of flue gas parameters and coal fly ash on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo) in the presence of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in ...

  13. Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Processes for Potential Use on Army Coal-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    SYSTEMS ALKALI- LIME/LIMESTONE AMMONIA SCRUBBING LIME OR LIMESTONE HC SCRUBBER INJECTION DRY SYSTEMS NAHCOLITE INJECTION BOILER INJECTION...requirements, and flexibility. Single-alkali flue gas scrubbers are gas-Hquid contacting devices that use the chemical reactions between soluble alkali... scrubbers are gas-liquid contacting devices that use the chemical reactions between limestone (mostly CaC03) and SOp to remove the oxides of sulfur from

  14. EVALUATION AND MITIGATION OF VISIBLE ACIDIC AEROSOL PLUMES FROM COAL FIRED POWER BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formation of sulfur trioxide during the combustion of coal can increase significantly following the installation and operation of selective catalytic reduction systems for reduction of nitrogen oxides. This can in turn lead to adverse environmental impacts, including visible...

  15. The effects of coal quality on NO{sub x} emissions and carbon burnout in pulverised coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, M. [National Power plc, Swindon (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-01

    A comprehensive study is reported on the impact of coal quality on nitrogen oxides emissions and carbon burnout in utility boilers, with the aim of assessing their relationship and developing predictive tools for assessing coals. Experimental work was carried out on various laboratory-scale apparatus and on single burner test facilities ranging from 160 kW{sub th} to 40 MW{sub th} in size and measurements were obtained from full-scale 500 MW{sub e} utility boiler trials. This data and basic coal data were then used to develop mathematical models to predict full-scale boiler performance with respect to NO{sub x} emissions and carbon burnout. Power station trials demonstrated that coal quality effects nitrogen oxides and burnout. The variability in boiler conditions also impacted on these factors. Lower nitrogen and higher volatile coals generally produced less NO{sub x}. Volatile content was the most important generic coal property for predicting burnout. Modelling rig tests, using data from advanced laboratory-scale tests, were found to be just as successful as using rig tests for predicting NO{sub x} performance of different coals. Laboratory-scale tests were found to be successful in providing accurate predictions of burnout for the coals studied. Mathematical models, however, were found to be less successful in this area and further work to develop this is required. A major achievement was CFD solutions of full-scale utility boiler furnaces in a single mesh. 32 refs., 15 figs., 33 tabs., 2 apps.

  16. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Topical report, LNCFS Levels 1 and 3 test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-17

    This report presents results from the third phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICC-1) project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The purpose of this project was to study the NO{sub x} emissions characteristics of ABB Combustion Engineering`s (ABB CE) Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) Levels I, II, and III. These technologies were installed and tested in a stepwise fashion at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2. The objective of this report is to provide the results from Phase III. During that phase, Levels I and III of the ABB C-E Services Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System were tested. The LNCFS Level III technology includes separated overfire air, close coupled overfire air, clustered coal nozzles, flame attachment coal nozzle tips, and concentric firing. The LNCFS Level I was simulated by closing the separated overfire air nozzles of the LNCFS Level III system. Based upon long-term data, LNCFS Level HI reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 45 percent at full load. LOI levels with LNCFS Level III increased slightly, however, tests showed that LOI levels with LNCFS Level III were highly dependent upon coal fineness. After correcting for leakage air through the separated overfire air system, the simulated LNCFS Level I reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 37 percent. There was no increase in LOI with LNCFS Level I.

  17. Mercury Emission Measurement in Coal-Fired Boilers by Continuous Mercury Monitor and Ontario Hydro Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanqun; Zhou, Jinsong; He, Sheng; Cai, Xiaoshu; Hu, Changxin; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Le; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2007-06-01

    The mercury emission control approach attaches more importance. The accurate measurement of mercury speciation is a first step. Because OH method (accepted method) can't provide the real-time data and 2-week time for results attained, it's high time to seek on line mercury continuous emission monitors(Hg-CEM). Firstly, the gaseous elemental and oxidized mercury were conducted to measure using OH and CEM method under normal operation conditions of PC boiler after ESP, the results between two methods show good consistency. Secondly, through ESP, gaseous oxidized mercury decrease a little and particulate mercury reduce a little bit, but the elemental mercury is just the opposite. Besides, the WFGD system achieved to gaseous oxidized mercury removal of 53.4%, gaseous overall mercury and elemental mercury are 37.1% and 22.1%, respectively.

  18. Summary of workshop on materials issues in low emission boilers and high efficiency coal-fired cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to review with experts in the field the materials issues associated with two of the primary coal power systems being developed by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy. The DOE-FE Advanced Power Systems Program includes natural gas-based and coal-based power systems. Major activities in the natural gas-based power systems area include the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program, the Fuel Cells Program, and Hybrid Cycles. The coal-based power systems projects include the Low Emissions Boiler Systems (LEBS) Program, the High-Performance Power Systems Program (HIPPS), the Integrated (Coal) Gasification Combined-Cycle Program, and the Fluidized-Bed Combustion Program. This workshop focused on the materials issues associated with the LEBS and HIPPS technologies.

  19. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. Phase II subsystem test design and plan - an addendum to the Phase II RD & T Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Shortly after the year 2000 it is expected that new generating plants will be needed to meet the growing demand for electricity and to replace the aging plants that are nearing the end of their useful service life. The plants of the future will need to be extremely clean, highly efficient and economical. Continuing concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further then regulations. In the late 1980`s it was commonly believed that coal-fired power plants of the future would incorporate either some form of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBS) technologies. However, recent advances In emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements In steam turbine and cycle design have clearly indicated that pulverized coal technology can continue to be competitive In both cost and performance. In recognition of the competitive potential for advanced pulverized coal-fired systems with other emerging advanced coal-fired technologies, DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) began a research and development initiative In late 1990 named, Combustion 2000, with the intention of preserving and expanding coal as a principal fuel In the Generation of electrical power. The project was designed for two stages of commercialization, the nearer-term Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program, and for the future, the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. B&W is participating In the LEBS program.

  20. Composition and microstructure of a furnace ash deposit from a coal-fired utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessler, R R

    1980-07-01

    An exploratory study of the structure and composition of furnace-ash deposits was carried out using optical metallography, electron microprobe analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The results of these analyses were supplemented by studies of particulate melting temperature using hot-stage microscopy to measure melting temperature, and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses to measure composition of melted particles. It was found that the general structure of the ash deposit was a matrix of glassy, spherical particles having a wide range of composition in which unfused particles containing iron oxide and calcium oxide were dispersed. At the imprint of the tube surface a considerable concentration of calcium, sulphur and iron was found. Near the fused outer surface of the deposit, the glassy materials had melted into a porous, glassy slag containing spherical globules of iron oxide combined with other materials. There were no systematic compositional gradients from the tube surface to the fused outer layer except for the sulfur layer found only at the tube surface. However, there were significant differences in composition from particle to particle and these differences were similar to those found in the coal mineral matter as isolated by low-temperature ashing. Single particles of low-temperature ash were found having low fusion temperatures, in the range of fusion temperatures for particles in furnance has. Thus, the glassy spheres found in furnace deposits could originate from single coal particles, without the need of interactions among coal particles or ash particles.

  1. Techno-economic analysis of a coal-fired CHP based combined heating system with gas-fired boilers for peak load compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haichao; Jiao Wenling; Lahdelma, Risto; Zou Pinghua

    2011-01-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP) plants dominate the heating market in China. With the ongoing energy structure reformation and increasing environmental concerns, we propose gas-fired boilers to be deployed in underperforming heating substations of heating networks for peak load compensation, in order to improve both energy efficiency and environmental sustainability. However, due to the relatively high price of gas, techno-economic analysis is required for evaluating different combined heating scenarios, characterized by basic heat load ratio (β). Therefore, we employ the dynamic economics and annual cost method to develop a techno-economic model for computing the net heating cost of the system, considering the current state of the art of cogeneration systems in China. The net heating cost is defined as the investment costs and operations costs of the system subtracted by revenues from power generation. We demonstrate the model in a real-life combined heating system of Daqing, China. The results show that the minimum net heating cost can be realized at β=0.75 with a cost reduction of 16.8% compared to coal heating alone. Since fuel cost is the dominating factor, sensitivity analyses on coal and gas prices are discussed subsequently. - Highlights: ► Combined heating systems comply with the energy structure reformation in China. ► We consider the current state of the art of cogeneration systems in China. ► Combined heating systems can be economically more feasible and sustainable. ► The net heating cost of a combined heating system is more sensitive to coal price. ► The optimal basic heat load ratio is more easily influenced by gas price.

  2. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10

    Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood

  3. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

    2009-07-15

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Numerical study of flow, combustion and emissions characteristics in a 625 MWe tangentially fired boiler with composition of coal 70% LRC and 30% MRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adiyah, Devy; Bangga, Galih; Widodo, Wawan; Ikhwan, Nur

    2017-08-01

    Tangential fired boiler is one of the methods that can produce more complete combustion. This method applied in Suralaya Power Plant, Indonesia. However, the boiler where supposed to use low rank coal (LRC), but at a given time must be mixed with medium rank coal (MRC) from another unit because of lack of LRC coal. Accordingly to the situation, the study about choosing the right position of LRC and MRC in the burner elevation must be investigated. The composition of coal is 70%LRC / 30%MRC where MRC will be placed at the lower (A & C - Case I)) or higher (E & G - Case II) elevation as the cases in this study. The study is carried out using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The simulation with original case (100%LRC) has a good agreement with the measurement data. As the results, MRC is more recommended at the burner elevation A & C rather than burner elevation E & G because it has closer temperature (880 K) compared with 100%LRC and has smaller local heating area between upper side wall and front wall with the range of temperature 1900 - 2000 K. For emissions, case I has smaller NOx and higher CO2 with 104 ppm and 15,6%. Moreover, it has samller O2 residue with 5,8% due to more complete combustion.

  5. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  6. Demonstration of advanced combustion NO(sub X) control techniques for a wall-fired boiler. Project performance summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The project represents a landmark assessment of the potential of low-NO(sub x) burners, advanced overtire air, and neural-network control systems to reduce NO(sub x) emissions within the bounds of acceptable dry-bottom, wall-fired boiler performance. Such boilers were targeted under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Testing provided valuable input to the Environmental Protection Agency ruling issued in March 1994, which set NO(sub x) emission limits for ''Group 1'' wall-fired boilers at 0.5 lb/10(sup 6) Btu to be met by January 1996. The resultant comprehensive database served to assist utilities in effectively implementing CAAA compliance. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. Five nationally competed solicitations sought cost-shared partnerships with industry to accelerate commercialization of the most advanced coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The Program, valued at over$5 billion, has leveraged federal funding twofold through the resultant partnerships encompassing utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. This project was one of 16 selected in May 1988 from 55 proposals submitted in response to the Program's second solicitation. Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS) conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation's (FWEC) advanced overfire air (AOFA), low-NO(sub x) burners (LNB), and LNB/AOFA on wall-fired boiler NO(sub x) emissions and other combustion parameters. SCS also evaluated the effectiveness of an advanced on-line optimization system, the Generic NO(sub x) Control Intelligent System (GNOCIS). Over a six-year period, SCS carried out testing at Georgia Power Company's 500-MWe Plant Hammond Unit 4 in Coosa, Georgia. Tests proceeded in a logical sequence using rigorous statistical analyses to

  7. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; K.A. Davis; M.P. Heap; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

    2000-04-01

    Reduction of NO{sub x} emission is an important environmental issue in pulverized coal combustion. The most cost-effective approach to NO{sub x} reduction is air-staging which can also operate with additional down-stream techniques such as reburning [1]. Air staging promotes the conversion of NO{sub x} precursors (HCN, NH{sub 3}, etc.) to N{sub 2} by delaying the oxygen supply to the greatest extent when those nitrogen species are released during devolatilization. Such a delay gives the primary volatiles a chance to undergo secondary reactions, including tar cracking and soot formation. Secondary reactions of volatiles largely determine the fate of the ultimate NO{sub x} production from pyrolysis, therefore a detailed investigation into the transformation of nitrogen species during secondary reactions and effects of soot on nitrogen release is critical for design and implementation of new pollution control strategies. Current nitrogen models (including the CPD model at BYU) only simulate the nitrogen release during primary pyrolysis, which happens at low temperatures. This project helps to build a nitrogen release model that accounts for secondary reactions and the effects of soot at temperatures relevant to industrial burners.

  8. Purification of coal fired boiler flue gas and fertilizer production by using electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maezawa, Akihiko

    1996-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation technology which is applied in electron accelerators is used in a variety of fields, including industry, medicine and etc.. In collaboration with the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ebara Corporation has developed a novel flue-gas treatment process by making use of the electron beam for the purification of flue gas emitted from industrial plant such as thermal power station. The E-beam flue gas treatment process (EBA Process) is applied to clean flue gas generated in the combustion of coal containing sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are chemical pollutants responsible for acid rain. As a by-product of this process, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate mixture is obtained. This mixture can be recovered from the process as a valuable fertilizer to promote the growth of agricultural produce. The EBA process thus serves two important purposes at the same time: It helps prevent environmental pollution and produces a fertilizer that is vitally important for increasing food production to meet the world's future population growth. (J.P.N.)

  9. Estimation of Scale Deposition in the Water Walls of an Operating Indian Coal Fired Boiler: Predictive Modeling Approach Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Amrita; Das, Suchandan Kumar; Srivastava, Prem Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Application of computational intelligence for predicting industrial processes has been in extensive use in various industrial sectors including power sector industry. An ANN model using multi-layer perceptron philosophy has been proposed in this paper to predict the deposition behaviors of oxide scale on waterwall tubes of a coal fired boiler. The input parameters comprises of boiler water chemistry and associated operating parameters, such as, pH, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, specific conductivity, iron and dissolved oxygen concentration of the feed water and local heat flux on boiler tube. An efficient gradient based network optimization algorithm has been employed to minimize neural predictions errors. Effects of heat flux, iron content, pH and the concentrations of total dissolved solids in feed water and other operating variables on the scale deposition behavior have been studied. It has been observed that heat flux, iron content and pH of the feed water have a relatively prime influence on the rate of oxide scale deposition in water walls of an Indian boiler. Reasonably good agreement between ANN model predictions and the measured values of oxide scale deposition rate has been observed which is corroborated by the regression fit between these values.

  10. Staged fluidized-bed coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmat, A.; Dorfman, L.; Shibayama, G.; Waibel, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Staged Fluidized-Bed Coal Combustion System (ASC) is a novel clean coal technology for either coal-fired repowering of existing boilers or for incremental power generation using combined-cycle gas turbines. This new technology combines staged combustion for gaseous emission control, in-situ sulfur capture, and an ash agglomeration/vitrification process for the agglomeration/vitrification of ash and spent sorbent, thus rendering solid waste environmentally benign. The market for ASC is expected to be for clean coal-fired repowering of generating units up to 250 MW, especially for units where space is limited. The expected tightening of the environmental requirements on leachable solids residue by-products could considerably increase the marketability for ASC. ASC consists of modular low-pressure vessels in which coal is partially combusted and gasified using stacked fluidized-bed processes to produce low-to-medium-Btu, high-temperature gas. This relatively clean fuel gas is used to repower/refuel existing pulverized-coal, natural gas, or oil-fired boilers using bottom firing and reburning techniques. The benefits of ASC coal-fired repowering include the ability to repower boilers without obtaining additional space while meeting the more stringent environmental requirements of the future. Low NO x , SO x , and particulate levels are expected while a nonleachable solid residue with trace metal encapsulation is produced. ASC also minimizes boiler modification and life-extension expenditures. Repowered efficiencies can be restored to the initial operating plant efficiency, and the existing boiler capacity can be increased by 10%. Preliminary cost estimates indicate that ASC will have up to a $250/kW capital cost advantage over existing coal-fired repowering options. 4 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Variations of emission characterization of PAHs emitted from different utility boilers of coal-fired power plants and risk assessment related to atmospheric PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruwei; Liu, Guijian; Zhang, Jiamei

    2015-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) represent important source of atmospheric PAHs, however, their emission characterization are still largely unknown. In this work, the concentration, distribution and gas-particle partitioning of PM10- and gas-phase PAHs in flue gas emitted from different coal-fired utility boilers were investigated. Moreover, concentration and distribution in airborne PAHs from different functional areas of power plants were studied. People's inhalatory and dermal exposures to airborne PAHs at these sites were estimated and their resultant lung cancer and skin cancer risks were assessed. Results indicated that the boiler capacity and operation conditions have significant effect on PAH concentrations in both PM10 and gas phases due to the variation of combustion efficiency, whereas they take neglected effect on PAH distributions. The wet flue gas desulphurization (WFGD) takes significant effect on the scavenging of PAH in both PM10 and gas phases, higher scavenging efficiency were found for less volatile PAHs. PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption into organic matter and accompanied by adsorption onto PM10 surface. In addition, different partitioning mechanism is observed for individual PAHs, which is assumed arising from their chemical affinity and vapor pressure. Risk assessment indicates that both inhalation and dermal contact greatly contribute to the cancer risk for CFPP workers and nearby residents. People working in workshop are exposed to greater inhalation and dermal exposure risk than people living in nearby vicinity and working office. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  13. Fast fluid bed coal gasification for conversion of existing oil-fired boilers - an investigation of conditions precedent for commercial realization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-06-01

    The syndicate Nordisk Fluidbaeddfoergasning which is made up of the following Scandinavian companies. A. Ahlstroem o/y Burmeister and Wain AB, Svenska Maskinverken AB and Svenska Cellulosa AB has been working with the development of a gas generator which makes it possible for the oil-fired boilers to use coal. The report describes a pre-project and presents the calculation of costs and the estimation of the market potential. The following appraisements have been made: (i) a commercially functioning plant can be erected (ii) the energy cost can be lower than the corresponding cost of conversion to coal powder fuel or competing gasifiers, and (iii) the size of the market is sufficiently large.

  14. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology to Control Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers: A DOE Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal Energy Technology Center

    1999-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment of a project selected in CCT Round 2. The project is described in the report ''Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Technology for the Control of Nitrogen Oxide (NO(sub x)) Emissions from High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers'' (Southern Company Services 1990). In June 1990, Southern Company Services (Southern) entered into a cooperative agreement to conduct the study. Southern was a cofunder and served as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. Other participants and cofunders were EPRI (formerly the Electric Power Research Institute) and Ontario Hydro. DOE provided 40 percent of the total project cost of$23 million. The long-term operation phase of the demonstration was started in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. This independent evaluation is based primarily on information from Southern's Final Report (Southern Company Services 1996). The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH(sub 3)) into boiler flue gas and passing the 3 flue gas through a catalyst bed where the NO(sub x) and NH(sub 3) react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The objectives of the demonstration project were to investigate: Performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and manufacturing methods at typical U.S. high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions; Catalyst resistance to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals but not present, or present at much lower concentrations, in fuels from other countries; and Effects on the balance-of-plant equipment

  15. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix D. Assessment of NO/sub x/ control technology for coal fired utility boilers. [Low-excess-air, staged combustion, flu gas recirculation and burner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    An NOx control technology assessment study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of low-excess-air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, and current burner/boiler designs as applied to coal-fired utility boilers. Significant variations in NOx emissions exist with boiler type, firing method, and coal type, but a relative comparison of emissions control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion modification technique. Staged combustion and low-excess-air operation were identified as the most cost-effective methods for existing units. Close control of local air/fuel ratios and rigorous combustion equipment maintenance are essential to the success of both methods. Flue gas recirculation is relatively ineffective and has the added concern of tube erosion. More research is needed to resolve potential corrosion concerns with low-NOx operating modes. Low-NOx burners in conjunction with a compartmentalized windbox are capable of meeting a 0.6-lb/million Btu emission level on new units. Advanced burner designs are being developed to meet research emission goals of approximately 0.25 lb/MBtu.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF THE CHEMICAL FORMS OF MERCURY AND OTHER TARGET POLLUTANTS IN COAL-FIRED BOILER FLUE GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terence J. McManus, Ph.D.

    1999-06-30

    Since approximately 55% of the electrical power produced in the U. S. is generated by coal-based power utility plants, there is serious concern about the massive amounts of coal combustion products emitted into the atmosphere annually. Furthermore, Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) requires the measurement and inventory of a possible 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from any stationary source producing more than 10 tons per year of any one pollutant or more than 25 tons per year of total pollutants. Although power utilities are not presently included on the list of source categories, the CAAA requires the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency to carry out a study of emissions from electricity generation using fossil fuels. Since many of these HAPs are known to be present in coal derived flue gas, coal-fired electric power utilities may be subject to regulation following these studies if Congress considers it necessary. In a cooperative effort with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) initiated such a study in 1991. DOE-FETC commissioned five primary contractors to conduct emission studies at eight different coal-fired electric utilities. The eight sites represented a cross section of feed coal type, boiler designs, and particulate and gaseous pollutant control technologies. The major goal of these studies was to determine the sampling and analytical methodologies that could be used efficiently to perform these emission tests while producing representative and reliable emission data. The successful methodology could then be recommended to the EPA for use in compliance testing in the event the regulation of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants is implemented. A secondary purpose of the testing was to determine the effectiveness of the control technologies in reducing target hazardous air pollutants. Advanced Technology Systems, Inc

  17. Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Varkaus (Finland). Varkaus Global New Products

    1997-12-31

    Laempoevoima Oy`s Kymijaervi power plant gasification project is to demonstrate the direct gasification of wet biofuel and the use of hot, raw and very low-calorific gas directly in the existing coal-fired boiler. The gasification of biofuels and co-combustion of gases in the existing coal-fired boiler offers many advantages such as: recycling of CO{sub 2}, decreased SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, efficient way to utilize biofuels and recycled refuse fuels, low investment and operation costs, and utilization of the existing power plant capacity. Furthermore, only small modifications are required in the boiler, possible disturbances in the gasifier do not shut down the power plant. (author)

  18. Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Varkaus (Finland). Varkaus Global New Products

    1998-12-31

    Laempoevoima Oy`s Kymijaervi power plant gasification project is to demonstrate the direct gasification of wet biofuel and the use of hot, raw and very low-calorific gas directly in the existing coal-fired boiler. The gasification of biofuels and co-combustion of gases in the existing coal-fired boiler offers many advantages such as: recycling of CO{sub 2}, decreased SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, efficient way to utilize biofuels and recycled refuse fuels, low investment and operation costs, and utilization of the existing power plant capacity. Furthermore, only small modifications are required in the boiler, possible disturbances in the gasifier do not shut down the power plant. (author)

  19. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels; Montgomery, Melanie; Hede Larsen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. To avoid such high corrosion rates, woodchip...... has also been utilised as a fuel. Combustion of woodchip results in a smaller amount of ash, and potassium and chlorine are present in lesser amounts. However, significant corrosion rates were still seen. A case study of a woodchip fired boiler is described. The corrosion mechanisms in both straw-fired...... and woodchip fired boilers are discussed....

  20. Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the heat flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Eddings, E.G.; Ring, T.; Thornock, J.; Draper, T.; Isaac, B.; Rezeai, D.; Toth, P.; Wu, Y.; Kelly, K.

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this task is to produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers. Validation data came from the Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF) for tangentially fired, oxy-coal operation. This task brings together experimental data collected under Alstom’s DOE project for measuring oxy-firing performance parameters in the BSF with this University of Utah project for large eddy simulation (LES) and validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ). The Utah work includes V/UQ with measurements in the single-burner facility where advanced strategies for O2 injection can be more easily controlled and data more easily obtained. Highlights of the work include: • Simulations of Alstom’s 15 megawatt (MW) BSF, exploring the uncertainty in thermal boundary conditions. A V/UQ analysis showed consistency between experimental results and simulation results, identifying uncertainty bounds on the quantities of interest for this system (Subtask 9.1) • A simulation study of the University of Utah’s oxy-fuel combustor (OFC) focused on heat flux (Subtask 9.2). A V/UQ analysis was used to show consistency between experimental and simulation results. • Measurement of heat flux and temperature with new optical diagnostic techniques and comparison with conventional measurements (Subtask 9.3). Various optical diagnostics systems were created to provide experimental data to the simulation team. The final configuration utilized a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) camera to measure heat flux and temperature, which was synchronized with a high-speed, visible camera to utilize two-color pyrometry to measure temperature and soot concentration. • Collection of heat flux and temperature measurements in the University of Utah’s OFC for use is subtasks 9.2 and 9.3 (Subtask 9.4). Several replicates were carried to better assess the experimental error. Experiments were specifically designed for the

  1. Variations of emission characterization of PAHs emitted from different utility boilers of coal-fired power plants and risk assessment related to atmospheric PAHs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruwei; Liu, Guijian; Zhang, Jiamei

    2015-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) represent important source of atmospheric PAHs, however, their emission characterization are still largely unknown. In this work, the concentration, distribution and gas-particle partitioning of PM_1_0- and gas-phase PAHs in flue gas emitted from different coal-fired utility boilers were investigated. Moreover, concentration and distribution in airborne PAHs from different functional areas of power plants were studied. People's inhalatory and dermal exposures to airborne PAHs at these sites were estimated and their resultant lung cancer and skin cancer risks were assessed. Results indicated that the boiler capacity and operation conditions have significant effect on PAH concentrations in both PM_1_0 and gas phases due to the variation of combustion efficiency, whereas they take neglected effect on PAH distributions. The wet flue gas desulphurization (WFGD) takes significant effect on the scavenging of PAH in both PM_1_0 and gas phases, higher scavenging efficiency were found for less volatile PAHs. PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption into organic matter and accompanied by adsorption onto PM_1_0 surface. In addition, different partitioning mechanism is observed for individual PAHs, which is assumed arising from their chemical affinity and vapor pressure. Risk assessment indicates that both inhalation and dermal contact greatly contribute to the cancer risk for CFPP workers and nearby residents. People working in workshop are exposed to greater inhalation and dermal exposure risk than people living in nearby vicinity and working office. - Highlights: • PAH distribution in PM_1_0 and gas phases primarily depend on the vapor pressure. • Combustion conditions and WFGD show typical effects on PAH level and profile. • PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption and also accompanied by adsorption. • Individual PAHs show different partitioning mechanisms in PM_1_0- and gas-phases. • People in workshop suffer greater cancer

  2. Variations of emission characterization of PAHs emitted from different utility boilers of coal-fired power plants and risk assessment related to atmospheric PAHs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruwei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710075, Shanxi (China); Liu, Guijian, E-mail: lgj@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710075, Shanxi (China); Zhang, Jiamei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2015-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) represent important source of atmospheric PAHs, however, their emission characterization are still largely unknown. In this work, the concentration, distribution and gas-particle partitioning of PM{sub 10}- and gas-phase PAHs in flue gas emitted from different coal-fired utility boilers were investigated. Moreover, concentration and distribution in airborne PAHs from different functional areas of power plants were studied. People's inhalatory and dermal exposures to airborne PAHs at these sites were estimated and their resultant lung cancer and skin cancer risks were assessed. Results indicated that the boiler capacity and operation conditions have significant effect on PAH concentrations in both PM{sub 10} and gas phases due to the variation of combustion efficiency, whereas they take neglected effect on PAH distributions. The wet flue gas desulphurization (WFGD) takes significant effect on the scavenging of PAH in both PM{sub 10} and gas phases, higher scavenging efficiency were found for less volatile PAHs. PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption into organic matter and accompanied by adsorption onto PM{sub 10} surface. In addition, different partitioning mechanism is observed for individual PAHs, which is assumed arising from their chemical affinity and vapor pressure. Risk assessment indicates that both inhalation and dermal contact greatly contribute to the cancer risk for CFPP workers and nearby residents. People working in workshop are exposed to greater inhalation and dermal exposure risk than people living in nearby vicinity and working office. - Highlights: • PAH distribution in PM{sub 10} and gas phases primarily depend on the vapor pressure. • Combustion conditions and WFGD show typical effects on PAH level and profile. • PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption and also accompanied by adsorption. • Individual PAHs show different partitioning mechanisms in PM{sub 10}- and gas-phases. • People in

  3. Reducing NOx Emissions for a 600 MWe Down-Fired Pulverized-Coal Utility Boiler by Applying a Novel Combustion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lun; Fang, Qingyan; Lv, Dangzhen; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yiping; Chen, Gang; Duan, Xuenong; Wang, Xihuan

    2015-11-03

    A novel combustion system was applied to a 600 MWe Foster Wheeler (FW) down-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler to solve high NOx emissions, without causing an obvious increase in the carbon content of fly ash. The unit included moving fuel-lean nozzles from the arches to the front/rear walls and rearranging staged air as well as introducing separated overfire air (SOFA). Numerical simulations were carried out under the original and novel combustion systems to evaluate the performance of combustion and NOx emissions in the furnace. The simulated results were found to be in good agreement with the in situ measurements. The novel combustion system enlarged the recirculation zones below the arches, thereby strengthening the combustion stability considerably. The coal/air downward penetration depth was markedly extended, and the pulverized-coal travel path in the lower furnace significantly increased, which contributed to the burnout degree. The introduction of SOFA resulted in a low-oxygen and strong-reducing atmosphere in the lower furnace region to reduce NOx emissions evidently. The industrial measurements showed that NOx emissions at full load decreased significantly by 50%, from 1501 mg/m3 (O2 at 6%) to 751 mg/m3 (O2 at 6%). The carbon content in the fly ash increased only slightly, from 4.13 to 4.30%.

  4. Impact of coal fly ash addition on ash transformation and deposition in a full-scale wood suspension-firing boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Bashir, Muhammad Shafique; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Ash transformation and deposition during pulverized wood combustion in a full-scale power plant boiler of 800 MWth were studied with and without the addition of coal fly ash. The transient ash deposition behavior was characterized by using an advanced deposit probe system at two boiler locations...... constant after a few hours. The formed deposits, especially those at the location with low flue gas temperatures, contained a considerable amount of K2SO4, KCl, and KOH/K2CO3. With the addition of a large amount (about 4 times of the mass flow of wood ash) of coal fly ash to the boiler, these alkali...

  5. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yager, J.W.; Hicks, J.B.; Fabianova, N. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States). Environment Group

    1997-08-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study was undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites-inorganic arsenic (As), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impacter air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions {ge} 3.5 {mu}m. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (Sigma As) metabolites was 16.9 {mu}g As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 {mu}g/m{sup 3} arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration f the Sigma As urinary metabolites was 13.2 {mu}g As/g creatinine. Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic.

  6. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry in an industrial internal circulating fluidized bed boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Jiang, Xiumin; Zhou, Lingsheng; Wang, Hui; Han, Xiangxin

    2009-08-15

    Incineration has been proven to be an alternative for disposal of sludge with its unique characteristics to minimize the volume and recover energy. In this paper, a new fluidized bed (FB) incineration system for treating oil sludge is presented. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry (CWS) was investigated in the new incineration system to study combustion characteristics, gaseous pollutant emissions and ash management. The study results show the co-firing of oil sludge with CWS in FB has good operating characteristic. CWS as an auxiliary fuel can flexibly control the dense bed temperatures by adjusting its feeding rate. All emissions met the local environmental requirements. The CO emission was less than 1 ppm or essentially zero; the emissions of SO(2) and NO(x) were 120-220 and 120-160 mg/Nm(3), respectively. The heavy metal analyses of the bottom ash and the fly ash by ICP/AES show that the combustion ashes could be recycled as soil for farming.

  7. Toxecon Retrofit for Mercury and Mulit-Pollutant Control on Three 90-MW Coal-Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Derenne; Robin Stewart

    2009-09-30

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) project was based on a cooperative agreement between We Energies and the DOE Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to design, install, evaluate, and demonstrate the EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} air pollution control process. Project partners included Cummins & Barnard, ADA-ES, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The primary goal of this project was to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Michigan. Additional goals were to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter emissions; allow reuse and sale of fly ash; advance commercialization of the technology; demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use at power plants; and demonstrate recovery of mercury from the sorbent. Mercury was controlled by injection of activated carbon upstream of the TOXECON{trademark} baghouse, which achieved more than 90% removal on average over a 44-month period. During a two-week test involving trona injection, SO{sub 2} emissions were reduced by 70%, although no coincident removal of NOx was achieved. The TOXECON{trademark} baghouse also provided enhanced particulate control, particularly during startup of the boilers. On this project, mercury CEMs were developed and tested in collaboration with Thermo Fisher Scientific, resulting in a reliable CEM that could be used in the power plant environment and that could measure mercury as low as 0.1 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. Sorbents were injected downstream of the primary particulate collection device, allowing for continued sale and beneficial use of captured fly ash. Two methods for recovering mercury using thermal desorption on the TOXECON{trademark} PAC/ash mixture were successfully tested during this program. Two methods for using the TOXECON

  8. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  9. Gas fired boilers and atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaranello, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A general analysis concerning atmospheric pollution is presented: chemical composition and vertical distribution of atmosphere and pollutants, chemical reactions, ozone destruction and production cycles, COx, NOx and SOx pollutions. The gas fired boiler number and repartition in France are presented and the associated pollution is analyzed (CO2, CO, NOx) and quantified. Various pollution control technics concerning gas fired boiler pollutants are described and a pollution criterion for clean gas fired generators is proposed

  10. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  11. A new conceptual cold-end design of boilers for coal-fired power plants with waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yongping; Xu, Cheng; Xu, Gang; Han, Yu; Fang, Yaxiong; Zhang, Dongke

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new cold-end design of boilers for CFPPs with waste heat recovery is proposed. • Thermodynamic and economic analyses are quantitatively conducted. • Higher energy efficiency improvement and greater economic benefits are achieved. • Lower exergy destruction and better matched energy level are obtained. - Abstract: After conducting an in-depth analysis of the conventional boiler cold-end design for waste heat recovery, this work proposed a new conceptual boiler cold-end design integrated with the steam cycle in a 1000 MW CFPP, in which the preheating of air was divided into high-temperature air preheater (HTAP), main air preheater (MAP) and low-temperature air preheater (LTAP). The HTAP and an economizer were installed in separate flue ducts, and the low temperature economizer (LTE) was situated between the MAP and the LTAP in the main flue duct to heat the condensed water. In the proposed boiler cold-end design, the flue gas waste heat was not only used to heat condensed water, but also to further preheat the combustion air. The air temperature at the air-preheater outlet increases and part of the steam bleeds with high exergy can be saved, resulting in greater energy-savings and better economics. Results showed that, for a typical 1000 MW CFPP in China, using the proposed boiler cold-end design for waste heat recovery could produce 13.3 MW e additional net power output with a heat rate reduction of approximately 112.0 kJ/kW h and could yield a net benefit of up to $85.8 M per year, which is much greater than those of the conventional cases. Exergy destruction is also reduced from 49.9 MW th in the conventional boiler cold-end design to 39.6 MW th in the proposed design

  12. A review: Fly ash and deposit formation in PF fired biomass boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years suspension fired boilers have been increasingly used for biomass based heat and power production in several countries. This has included co-firing of coal and straw, up to 100% firing of wood or straw and the use of additives to remedy problems with biomass firing. In parallel...

  13. Coal reburning technology for cyclone boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagiela, A.S.; Maringo, G.J.; Newell, R.J.; Farzan, H.

    1990-01-01

    Babcock and Wilcox has obtained encouraging results from engineering feasibility and pilot-scale proof-of-concept studies of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO x control. Accordingly, B and W completed negotiations for a clean coal cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to demonstrate coal reburning technology for cyclone boilers. The host site for the demonstration is the Wisconsin Power and Light (WP and L) Company's 100MWe Nelson Dewey Station. Reburning involves the injection of a supplemental fuel (natural gas, oil, or coal) into the main furnace to produce locally reducing stoichiometric conditions which convert the NO x produced therein to molecular nitrogen, thereby reducing overall NO x emissions. There are currently no commercially-demonstrated combustion modification techniques for cyclone boilers which reduce NO x emissions. The emerging reburning technology offers cyclone boiler operators a promising alternative to expensive flue gas cleanup techniques for NO x emission reduction. This paper reviews baseline testing results at the Nelson Dewey Station and pilot-scale results simulating Nelson Dewey operation using pulverized coal (PC) as the reburning fuel. Outcomes of the model studies as well as the full-scale demonstration preliminary design are discussed

  14. Application of zonal combustion model for on-line furnace analysis of 575MW tangential coal firing boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, B.; Karasina, E.; Livshits, B.; Talanker, A. [Israel Electric Corporation (Israel). Engineering Division

    1999-07-01

    An advanced code for calculating heat transfer in the boiler of furnaces is considered. The code can be used to compute the flue gas temperature in the furnace volume and the absorbed and incident heat fluxes. The number of zones in the furnace, the points of the injection of the fuel, air and flue gas recirculation (if applicable), the radiative heat transfer properties of the flue gases as well as all the factors determining performance are taken into account in the calculation. The code also predicts water wall and superheater temperature and NO{sub x} emission. The validity of the proposed model was confirmed by comparison between calculated and measured values. The predicted results show good agreement with the experimental data. The code developed is for engineers using advanced PCS at the stage of designing new boilers as well as when retrofitting and adjusting boilers already in operation. In comparison with existing complex computational models the proposed system can be used in modern monitoring systems for the furnace diagnostic problems including NO{sub x} emission. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  15. A dynamic model used for controller design of a coal fired once-through boiler-turbine unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ji-Zhen; Yan, Shu; Zeng, De-Liang; Hu, Yong; Lv, You

    2015-01-01

    Supercritical OTB (once-through boiler) units with high steam temperature and pressure have been widely used in modern power plants due to their high cycle efficiency and less emissions. To ensure the effective operation of such power generation systems, it is necessary to build a model for the design of the overall control system. There are already detailed models of once-through boilers; however, their complexity prevents them from being applied in the controller design. This study describes a lumped parameter dynamic model that has a relatively low complexity while faithfully capturing the essential overall plant dynamics. The model structure was derived by fundamental physical laws utilizing reasonable simplifications and data analysis to avoid the phase transition position problem. Parameter identification for the model structure was completed using operational data from a 1000 MW ultra-supercritical OTB. The model was determined to be reasonable by comparison tests between computed data and measured data for both steady and dynamic states. The simplified model is verified to have appropriate fidelity in control system design to achieve effective and economic operation of the unit. - Highlights: • A simplified dynamic model of once-through boiler-turbine unit is given. • The essential dynamics of active power and throttle pressure is presented. • The change of phase transition position is avoided in modeling process. • The model has appropriate complexity and fidelity for controller design.

  16. Coal-fired power materials - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, V.; Purgert, R.; Rawls, P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Part 1 discussed some general consideration in selection of alloys for advanced ultra supercritical (USC) coal-fired power plant boilers. This second part covers results reported by the US project consortium, which has extensively evaluated the steamside oxidation, fireside corrosion, and fabricability of the alloys selected for USC plants. 3 figs.

  17. Coal fired air turbine cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Pegg, R. W.

    Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

  18. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  19. SAMPLING, ANALYSIS, AND PROPERTIES OF PRIMARY PM-2.5: APPLICATION TO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Eric Lipsky; Charles Stainer; Natalie Anderson; Satoshi Takahama; Sarah Rees

    2003-02-01

    A dilution sampler was used to examine the effects of dilution ratio and residence time on the particulate emissions from a pilot-scale pulverized coal combustor. Measurements include the particle size distribution from 0.003 to 2.5 {micro}m, PM{sub 2.5} mass emission rate and PM2.5 composition (OC/EC, major ions, and elemental). Hot filter samples were also collected simultaneously in order to compare the dilution sampler measurement with standard stack sampling methodologies such as EPA Method 5. Measurements were made both before and after the bag-house, the particle control device used on the coal combustor. Measurements were made with three different coal types and a coal-biomass blend. The residence time and dilution ratio do not influence the PM{sub 2.5} mass emission rate, but have a significant effect on the size distribution and total number emissions. Measurements made before the bag-house showed increasing the residence time dramatically decreases the total particle number concentration, and shifts the particle mass to larger sizes. The effects of residence time can be explained quantitatively by the coagulation of the emitted particles. Measurements made after the bag-house were not affected by coagulation due to the lower concentration of particles. Nucleation of sulfuric acid vapor within the dilution was an important source of ultrafine particles. This nucleation is strongly a function of dilution ratio because of the competition between condensation and nucleation. At low dilution ratios condensation dominates and little nucleation is observed; increasing the dilution ratio promotes nucleation because of the corresponding decrease in available surface area per unit volume for condensation. No nucleation was observed after the bag house where conditions greatly favor nucleation over condensation; we suspect that the bag house removed the SO{sub 3} in the flue gas. Exhaust SO{sub 3} levels were not measured during these experiments. Dilution caused

  20. Influence of staged-air on airflow, combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler with direct flow split burners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Kuang, Min; Zhang, Jia; Han, Yunfeng; Zhu, Qunyi; Yang, Lianjie; Kong, Weiguang

    2010-02-01

    Cold airflow experiments were conducted to investigate the aerodynamic field in a small-scale furnace of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler arranged with direct flow split burners enriched by cyclones. By increasing the staged-air ratio, a deflected flow field appeared in the lower furnace; larger staged-air ratios produced larger deflections. Industrial-sized experiments on a full-scale boiler were also performed at different staged-air damper openings with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner region and near the right-side wall, wall heat fluxes, and gas components (O(2), CO, and NO(x)) in the near-wall region. Combustion was unstable at staged-air damper openings below 30%. For openings of 30% and 40%, late ignition of the pulverized coal developed and large differences arose in gas temperatures and heat fluxes between the regions near the front and rear walls. In conjunction, carbon content in the fly ash was high and boiler efficiency was low with high NO(x) emission above 1200 mg/m(3) (at 6% O(2) dry). For fully open dampers, differences in gas temperatures and heat fluxes, carbon in fly ash and NO(x) emission decreased yielding an increase in boiler efficiency. The optimal setting is fully open staged-air dampers.

  1. Coal fired power plant fireside problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, P.; Manolescu, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the recent experience with fireside problems in coal fired subcritical boilers at Ontario Hydro*, and is concerned with boiler tube wastage. Problems with other components such as burners, air pre-heaters and ''back-end'' ductwork are not discussed. In most utilities, boiler tube failures account for a sizable portion of the total forced outages (typically about25%) as well as a very large part of the maintenance outages. The failures shown under the external deterioration category are of interest because they indicate the proportion of problems caused by the tube metal wastage processes initiated on the fireside of the boilers. Fireside problems remain an important cause of boiler tube failures year after year in spite of concentrated efforts to mitigate them

  2. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2003-12-01

    ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) has successfully completed a research and development program granted by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to develop a family of non-toxic flue gas conditioning agents to provide utilities and industries with a cost-effective means of complying with environmental regulations on particulate emissions and opacity. An extensive laboratory screening of potential additives was completed followed by full-scale trials at four utility power plants. The developed cohesivity additives have been demonstrated on a 175 MW utility boiler that exhibited poor collection of unburned carbon in the electrostatic precipitator. With cohesivity conditioning, opacity spiking caused by rapping reentrainment was reduced and total particulate emissions were reduced by more than 30%. Ammonia conditioning was also successful in reducing reentrainment on the same unit. Conditioned fly ash from the process is expected to be suitable for dry or wet disposal and for concrete admixture.

  3. Update of progress for Phase II of B&W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, D.K. [Babcock & Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States); Madden, D.A.; Rodgers, L.W. [Babcock & Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Over the past five years, advances in emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements in steam turbine and cycle design have significantly altered the governing criteria by which advanced technologies have been compared. With these advances, it is clear that pulverized coal technology will continue to be competitive in both cost and performance with other advanced technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) technologies for at least the next decade. In the early 1990`s it appeared that if IGCC and PFBC could achieve costs comparable to conventional pulverized coal plants, their significantly reduced NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions would make them more attractive. A comparison of current emission control capabilities shows that all three technologies can already achieve similarly low emissions levels.

  4. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  5. Compliance Testing of Grissom AFB Central Heating Plant Coal-Fired Boilers 3 and 4, Grissom AFB Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    the absolute value of the flow angle taken at each traverse point must be less than or equal to 20 degrees. The flow angle in the bypass stack averaged...are permitted: with the test include a zero and span cedures approved by the Board or the (I) Fires celebrating Twelfth Night calibration check at the...HUMIDITY DATA ALL TEMPS INPUT IN DEGREES FARENHEIT AND CONVERTED TO DEG. K. AMBIENT DRY BULB (K) = 279.2611 AMBIENT WET BULB (K) = 276.4833 - SOURCE

  6. Compliance Testing of Grissom AFB Central Heating Plant Coal-Fired Boilers 3, 4, and 5, Grissom AFB, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Occupational and Environmental Health Laboratory (AFSC) Human Systems Division Brooks Air Force Base, Texas 78235-5501 89 8 28 48 UNCLASSIFIED SE(t"cr...IIiZ .nQ ,P %.6 PO 9𔃼 TOTA I’A53O0 1~~jy &~J7 52c’ f.-~O Qri,_00i -Loc o I I or 0QQ~i -5mcI) 0 c 4003 -5 3 -00o ) Ivf 2 ’?00 13, 1-4I __ -0-31. rA4...The laboratory data sheets were not suitable for reproduction ; therefore, the coal analysis results are presented in the following table. AS RECEIVED

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Kerr, D. R.

    1999-09-01

    Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an important component of any plan to reduce total emissions and resource consumption. A life cycle assessment (LCA) on the production of electricity from coal was performed in order to examine the environmental aspects of current and future pulverized coal boiler systems. Three systems were examined: (1) a plant that represents the average emissions and efficiency of currently operating coal-fired power plants in the US (this tells us about the status quo), (2) a new coal-fired power plant that meets the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and (3) a highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler system (LEBS).

  8. Compliance Testing of Grissom Air Force Base Central Heating Plant Coal- Fired Boilers 3, 4, and 5, Grissom Air Force Base, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    WILLIAMS WS-07 C7 - l ASSISTANT FOREMAUP ,~~~ 7 -- BOILER #5 T!M L.T STEAi PLOW COAL FP. 2C Fab 92 ¢I00 56314 6,055 02U, 563S4 6,06: 0300 570 05 6...92P[H’, RUN U METER BOX ’? METER 80;: l -, METER BG Y’ .40 RH -. 8840 P: 1. 8840 P !;!’ DELTA H? DELTP H’ DELTA H" - --- RUEI BAPR PRESS BAR FFE: Bpp

  9. Behavior of Mercury Emissions from a Commercial Coal-Fired Utility Boiler: TheRelationship Between Stack Speciation and Near-Field Plume Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reduction of divalent gaseous mercury (HgII) to elemental gaseous mercury (Hg0) in a commercial coal-fired power plant (CFPP)exhaust plume was investigated by simultaneous measurement in-stack and in-plume as part of a collaborative study among the U.S....

  10. CFD analysis of the pulverized coal combustion processes in a 160 MWe tangentially-fired-boiler of a thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cristiano V. da; Beskow, Arthur B. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Misses (LABSIM/GEAPI/URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia e Ciencia da Computacao. Grupo de Engenharia Aplicada a Processos Industriais], Emails: cristiano@uricer.edu.br, Arthur@uricer.edu.br; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza S. [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica], E-mail: sperbindrusiak@via-rs.net

    2010-10-15

    The strategic role of energy and the current concern with greenhouse effects, energetic and exegetic efficiency of fossil fuel combustion greatly enhance the importance of the studies of complex physical and chemical processes occurring inside boilers of thermal power plants. The state of the art in computational fluid dynamics and the availability of commercial codes encourage numeric studies of the combustion processes. In the present work the commercial software CFX Ansys Europe Ltd. was used to study the combustion of coal in a 160 MWe commercial thermal power plant with the objective of simulating the operational conditions and identifying factors of inefficiency. The behavior of the flow of air and pulverized coal through the burners was analyzed, and the three-dimensional flue gas flow through the combustion chamber and heat exchangers was reproduced in the numeric simulation. (author)

  11. Howden-Microcoal system for the conversion of industrial oil or gas fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J

    1985-01-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the conversion of an industrial boiler designed for oil firing at Courtaulds plc Greenfield site in North Wales to Howden-Microcoal firing are discussed. The production of Howden-Micro coal (an ultrafine or 'micronised' coal) is described and the Howden-Microcoal processor is compared with other fluid energy and mechanical mills. A typical boiler installation and modifications required for conversion to Howden-Microcoal firing are presented along with the main results of the Courtauld's tests. Cost, conversion time and the effect on average steam generation costs are considered.

  12. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearized versions of the model are analyzed and show large variations in system gains at steady state as function of load whereas gain variations near the desired bandwidth are small. An analys...

  13. Computer simulation of the fire-tube boiler hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov Sergei A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element method was used for simulating the hydrodynamics of fire-tube boiler with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Hydrodynamic structure and volumetric temperature distribution were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. Complete geometric model of the fire-tube boiler based on boiler drawings was considered. Obtained results are suitable for qualitative analysis of hydrodynamics and singularities identification in fire-tube boiler water shell.

  14. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Appendix, Book 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Based on the industry need for a pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, Babcock Wilcox (B&W) designed, fabricated, and installed such a facility at its Alliance Research Center (ARC) in 1985. The project involved conversion of an existing pulverized coal-fired facility to be cyclone-firing capable. Additionally, convective section tube banks were installed in the upper furnace in order to simulate a typical boiler convection pass. The small boiler simulator (SBS) is designed to simulate most fireside aspects of full-size utility boilers such as combustion and flue gas emissions characteristics, fireside deposition, etc. Prior to the design of the pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, the various cyclone boiler types were reviewed in order to identify the inherent cyclone boiler design characteristics which are applicable to the majority of these boilers. The cyclone boiler characteristics that were reviewed include NO{sub x} emissions, furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) carbon loss, and total furnace residence time. Previous pilot-scale cyclone-fired furnace experience identified the following concerns: (1) Operability of a small cyclone furnace (e.g., continuous slag tapping capability). (2) The optimum cyclone(s) configuration for the pilot-scale unit. (3) Compatibility of NO{sub x} levels, carbon burnout, cyclone ash carryover to the convection pass, cyclone temperature, furnace residence time, and FEGT.

  15. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belošević Srđan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by combustion modifications in the 350 MWe Kostolac B boiler furnace, tangentially fired by pulverized Serbian lignite, is investigated in the paper. Numerical experiments were done by an in-house developed three-dimensional differential comprehensive combustion code, with fuel- and thermal-NO formation/destruction reactions model. The code was developed to be easily used by engineering staff for process analysis in boiler units. A broad range of operating conditions was examined, such as fuel and preheated air distribution over the burners and tiers, operation mode of the burners, grinding fineness and quality of coal, boiler loads, cold air ingress, recirculation of flue gases, water-walls ash deposition and combined effect of different parameters. The predictions show that the NOx emission reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by a proper combustion organization in the case-study furnace, with the flame position control. Impact of combustion modifications on the boiler operation was evaluated by the boiler thermal calculations suggesting that the facility was to be controlled within narrow limits of operation parameters. Such a complex approach to pollutants control enables evaluating alternative solutions to achieve efficient and low emission operation of utility boiler units. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in

  16. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...

  17. Boiler briquette coal versus raw coal: Part I--Stack gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, S; Bai, Z; Liu, W; Zhu, T; Wang, T; Qing, S; Zhang, J

    2001-04-01

    Stack gas emissions were characterized for a steam-generating boiler commonly used in China. The boiler was tested when fired with a newly formulated boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) and when fired with conventional raw coal (R-coal). The stack gas emissions were analyzed to determine emission rates and emission factors and to develop chemical source profiles. A dilution source sampling system was used to collect PM on both Teflon membrane filters and quartz fiber filters. The Teflon filters were analyzed gravimetrically for PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for trace elements. The quartz fiber filters were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) using a thermal/optical reflectance technique. Sulfur dioxide was measured using the standard wet chemistry method. Carbon monoxide was measured using an Orsat combustion analyzer. The emission rates of the R-coal combustion (in kg/hr), determined using the measured stack gas concentrations and the stack gas emission rates, were 0.74 for PM10, 0.38 for PM2.5, 20.7 for SO2, and 6.8 for CO, while those of the BB-coal combustion were 0.95 for PM10, 0.30 for PM2.5, 7.5 for SO2, and 5.3 for CO. The fuel-mass-based emission factors (in g/kg) of the R-coal, determined using the emission rates and the fuel burn rates, were 1.68 for PM10, 0.87 for PM2.5, 46.7 for SO2, and 15 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 2.51 for PM10, 0.79 for PM2.5, 19.9 for SO2, and 14 for CO. The task-based emission factors (in g/ton steam generated) of the R-coal, determined using the fuel-mass-based emission factors and the coal/steam conversion factors, were 0.23 for PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5, 6.4 for SO2, and 2.0 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 0.30 for PM10, 0.094 for PM2.5, 2.4 for SO2, and 1.7 for CO. PM10 and PM2.5 elemental compositions are also presented for both types of coal tested in the study.

  18. Boiler Briquette Coal versus Raw Coal: Part I-Stack Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Su; Bai, Zhipeng; Liu, Weili; Zhu, Tan; Wang, Tongjian; Qing, Sheng; Zhang, Junfeng

    2001-04-01

    Stack gas emissions were characterized for a steam-generating boiler commonly used in China. The boiler was tested when fired with a newly formulated boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) and when fired with conventional raw coal (R-coal). The stack gas emissions were analyzed to determine emission rates and emission factors and to develop chemical source profiles. A dilution source sampling system was used to collect PM on both Teflon membrane filters and quartz fiber filters. The Teflon filters were analyzed gravimetrically for PM 10 and PM 2.5 mass concentrations and by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for trace elements. The quartz fiber filters were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) using a thermal/optical reflectance technique. Sulfur dioxide was measured using the standard wet chemistry method. Carbon monoxide was measured using an Orsat combustion analyzer. The emission rates of the R-coal combustion (in kg/hr), determined using the measured stack gas concentrations and the stack gas emission rates, were 0.74 for PM 10 , 0.38 for PM 25 , 20.7 for SO 2 , and 6.8 for CO, while those of the BB-coal combustion were 0.95 for PM 10 , 0.30 for PM 2 5 , 7.5 for SO 2 , and 5.3 for CO. The fuel-mass-based emission factors (in g/kg) of the R-coal, determined using the emission rates and the fuel burn rates, were 1.68 for PM 10 , 0.87 for PM 25 , 46.7 for SO 2 , and 15 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 2.51 for PM 10 , 0.79 for PM 2.5 , 19.9 for SO 2 , and 14 for CO. The task-based emission factors (in g/ton steam generated) of the R-coal, determined using the fuel-mass-based emission factors and the coal/ steam conversion factors, were 0.23 for PM 10 , 0.12 for PM 2.5 , 6.4 for SO 2 , and 2.0 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 0.30 for PM 10 , 0.094 for PM 2.5 , 2.4 for SO 2 , and 1.7 for CO. PM 10 and PM 2.5 elemental compositions are also presented for both types of coal tested in the study.

  19. Deposit Formation during Coal-Straw Co-Combustion in a Utility PF-Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karin Hedebo

    1998-01-01

    the combustion conditions, including the method of introduction of the straw to the boiler, as well as the amount of Fe introduced as Pyrite with the coal.No significant effect could be found in the deposition probe samples for an increase in probe metal temperature from 540°C to 620°C. The importance of deposit...... area. The evaluation was performed for an opposed-wall fired and tangentially fired boiler, which are compared to the wall-fired MKS1. Two major aspects were evaluated: The effect of flue gas temperatures and the effect of mixing. However, no final recommandation for choise of boilertype can be given...

  20. Coal utilization in industrial boilers in China - a prospect for mitigating CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.; Zeng, T.; Yang, L.I.S.; Oye, K.A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    It is estimated from GEF statistical data for 1991 that more than 500,000 industrial boilers (mostly stoker-fired) in China consume over 400 million tons of coal per year. Each year, because of low boiler efficiency, 75 million tons of coal is wasted and 130 million tons of excess CO 2 are emitted. An analysis of 250 boiler thermal-balance test certificates and 6 field visits in three provinces have shown that: (1) boilers with efficiencies of less than 70% account for 75% of the total boiler-population; (2) the main causes of the low efficiencies are high excess air and unburned carbon in the slag and fly ash. The effect of unburned carbon on CO 2 emission is a balance of positive and negative contributions: while the unburned carbon does not produce CO 2 emissions, its replacement carbon, burned at a low efficiency, contributes to a net increase in CO 2 emissions. It seems from the analysis that the average boiler efficiency can be raised to 73% by relatively simple means, such as the size grading of the coal, improved boiler operating practice and some inexpensive equipment modifications. This could then result in savings each year of 34 million tons of coal and a reduction in CO 2 emissions of 63 million tons at an estimated cost of $10 per ton of CO 2 . (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Slagging behavior of upgraded brown coal and bituminous coal in 145 MW practical coal combustion boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Katsuya; Pak, Haeyang; Takubo, Yoji [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Kobe (Japan). Mechanical Engineering Research Lab.; Tada, Toshiya [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Takasago (Japan). Coal and Energy Technology Dept.; Ueki, Yasuaki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Energy Science Div.; Yoshiie, Ryo; Naruse, Ichiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Science and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate behaviors of ash deposition during combustion of Upgraded Brown Coal (UBC) and bituminous coal in a 145 MW practical coal combustion boiler. A blended coal consisting 20 wt% of the UBC and 80 wt% of the bituminous coal was burned for the combustion tests. Before the actual ash deposition tests, the molten slag fractions of ash calculated by chemical equilibrium calculations under the combustion condition was adopted as one of the indices to estimate the tendency of ash deposition. The calculation results showed that the molten slag fraction for UBC ash reached approximately 90% at 1,523 K. However, that for the blended coal ash became about 50%. These calculation results mean that blending the UBC with a bituminous coal played a role in decreasing the molten slag fraction. Next, the ash deposition tests were conducted, using a practical pulverized coal combustion boiler. A water-cooled stainless-steel tube was inserted in locations at 1,523 K in the boiler to measure the amount of ash deposits. The results showed that the mass of deposited ash for the blended coal increased and shape of the deposited ash particles on the tube became large and spherical. This is because the molten slag fraction in ash for the blended coal at 1,523 K increased and the surface of deposited ash became sticky. However, the mass of the deposited ash for the blended coal did not greatly increase and no slagging problems occurred for 8 days of boiler operation under the present blending conditions. Therefore, appropriate blending of the UBC with a bituminous coal enables the UBC to be used with a low ash melting point without any ash deposition problems in a practical boiler.

  2. Effect of kind of solid fuel onto noxious compound emissions in the firing up process of a low output water boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilk, R.; Szymczyk, J.; Zielinski, Z.; Wystemp, E.

    1992-01-01

    NO x , SO 2 , CO and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon emission tests were carried out during the firing up process of a low output boiler for three kinds of smokeless solid fuels and boiler coal. It has been stated that the use of low emissive fuels in low output boilers did not protect against noxious compound emissions during firing up the boiler. (author). 13 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  3. The impact of co-firing sunflower husk pellets with coal in a boiler on the chemical composition of flue gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajemska Monika

    2017-01-01

    The calculations showed that the most important influence on the composition of the flue gas from the co-firing process of coal with sunflower husk has a composition of biomass. It should be emphasized that the results of computer simulations obtained by the authors have an useful aspect and can be applied in practice, especially to the analysis of the mechanism of chloride corrosion which is possible to occur due to the chlorine content in the biomass. They may also be useful for evaluating the unburned hydrocarbons produced by combustion of rich mixtures (λ < 1.0.

  4. Efficient boiler operations sourcebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, F.W. (comp.)

    1985-01-01

    This book emphasizes the practical aspects of industrial and commercial boiler operations. It starts with a comprehensive review of general combustion and boiler fundamentals and then deals with specific efficiency improvement methods, and the cost savings which result. The book has the following chapter headings: boiler combustion fundamentals; boiler efficiency goals; major factors controlling boiler efficiency; boiler efficiency calculations; heat loss; graphical solutions; preparation for boiler testing; boiler test procedures; efficiency-related boiler maintenance procedures; boiler tune-up; boiler operational modifications; effect of water side and gas side scale deposits; load management; auxillary equipment to increase boiler efficiency; air preheaters and economizers; other types of auxillary equipment; combustion control systems and instrumentation; boiler O/sub 2/ trim controls; should you purchase a new boiler.; financial evaluation procedures; case studies. The last chapter includes a case study of a boiler burning pulverized coal and a case study of stoker-fired coal.

  5. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearised versions of the model are analysed to determine how gain, time constants and right half plane zeros (caused by the shrink-and-swell phenomenon) depend on the steam flow load. Furthermore...... the interactions in the system are inspected to analyse potential benefit from using a multivariable control strategy in favour of the current strategy based on single loop theory. An analysis of the nonlinear model is carried out to further determine the nonlinear characteristics of the boiler system...... and to verify whether nonlinear control is needed. Finally a controller based on single loop theory is used to analyse if input constraints become active when rejecting transient behaviour from the disturbance steam flow. The model analysis shows large variations in system gains at steady state as function...

  6. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500-MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired cmbustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Field chemical emissions monitoring, Overfire air and overfire air/low NO{sub x} burner operation: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This report summarizes data gathered by Radian Corporation at a coal-fired power plant, designated Site 16, for a program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services (SCS), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Concentrations of selected inorganic and organic substances were measured in the process and discharge streams of the plant operating under two different types of combustion modifications: overfire air (OFA) and a combination of overfire air with low-NO{sub x} burners (OFA/LNB). Information contained in this report will allow DOE and EPRI to determine the effects of low-NO{sub x} modifications on plant emissions and discharges. Sampling was performed on an opposed wall-fired boiler burning medium-sulfur bituminous coal. Emissions were controlled by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). The testing was conducted in two distinct sampling periods, with the OFA test performed in March of 1991 and the OFA/LNB test performed in May of 1993. Specific objectives were: to quantify emissions of target substances from the stack; to determine the efficiency of the ESPs for removing the target substances; and to determine the fate of target substances in the various plant discharge streams.

  7. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A WALL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (EDGEWATER LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the full-scale demonstration of Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on the coal-fired, 105 MW, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station. eveloped as a technology aimed at moderate levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen ...

  8. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000 to 2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB

  9. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2002-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB

  10. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin coal

  11. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB

  12. Ash transformation during co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2007-01-01

    Co-firing straw with coal in pulverized fuel boilers can cause problems related to fly ash utilization, deposit formation, corrosion and SCR catalyst deactivation due to the high contents of Cl and K in the ash. To investigate the interaction between coal and straw ash and the effect of coal...... quality on fly ash and deposit properties, straw was co-fired with three kinds of coal in an entrained flow reactor. The compositions of the produced ashes were compared to the available literature data to find suitable scaling parameters that can be used to predict the composition of ash from straw...... and coal co-firing. Reasonable agreement in fly ash compositions regarding total K and fraction of water soluble K was obtained between co-firing in an entrained flow reactor and full-scale plants. Capture of potassium and subsequent release of HCl can be achieved by sulphation with SO2 and more...

  13. Slagging and fouling evaluation of PC-fired boilers using AshPro{sup SM}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhanhua; Iman, Felicia; Lu, Pisi [SmartBurn, LLC, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-07-01

    SmartBurn {sup registered} applied AshPro{sup SM} model to two 512 MW Tangential-fired (T-fired) boilers firing US western sub- bituminous coals to evaluate the boiler slagging behaviors with different operating conditions and OFA. The boiler convective pass fouling behaviors with three different coals were also evaluated. The slagging evaluation results indicate that the OFA configuration and air flow distribution have dramatically impacts on the ash impaction rates and slagging patterns on the furnace walls. Deposit growth and strength vary at the different regions of the furnace walls. The fouling evaluation reveals that the tube bank configuration, the amount of incoming ash, the profiles of flue gas temperature, velocity, and species all have significant impacts on fouling deposit formation, growth, and strength development. In addition, the varying ash particle sizes and chemical compositions from different coals also play important roles on the fouling deposit strength development and removal. The investigation demonstrated that AshPro{sup SM} model can be used to evaluate localized slagging and fouling problems that are related to specific boiler configuration and operating conditions. It can be used to identify the major causes of ash deposition and can guide changes in boiler operation.

  14. Decoupled numerical simulation of a solid fuel fired retort boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryfa, Arkadiusz; Buczynski, Rafal; Chabinski, Michal; Szlek, Andrzej; Bialecki, Ryszard A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with numerical simulation of the retort boiler fired with solid fuel. Such constructions are very popular for heating systems and their development is mostly based on the designer experience. The simulations have been done in ANSYS/Fluent package and involved two numerical models. The former deals with a fixed-bed combustion of the solid fuel and free-board gas combustion. Solid fuel combustion is based on the coal kinetic parameters. This model encompasses chemical reactions, radiative heat transfer and turbulence. Coal properties have been defined with user defined functions. The latter model describes flow of water inside a water jacked that surrounds the combustion chamber and flue gas ducts. The novelty of the proposed approach is separating of the combustion simulation from the water flow. Such approach allows for reducing the number of degrees of freedom and thus lowering the necessary numerical effort. Decoupling combustion from water flow requires defining interface boundary condition. As this boundary condition is unknown it is adjusted iteratively. The results of the numerical simulation have been successfully validated against measurement data. - Highlights: • New decoupled modelling of small scale boiler is proposed. • Fixed-bed combustion model based on kinetic parameters is introduced. • Decoupling reduced the complexity of the model and computational time. • Simple and computationally inexpensive coupling algorithm is proposed. • Model is successfully validated against measurements

  15. Boiler tube failure prevention in fossil fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    It is the common experience of power generating companies worldwide that the main causes of forced outages on power plant are those due to boiler tube failures on fossil units. The main reason for the large number of failures are the severe environmental conditions in fossil boilers as the effects of stress, temperature, temperature gradients, corrosion, erosion and vibration combine to produce degradation of the tube steel. Corrosion by oxidation, by combustion products and by impure boiler water can significantly reduce the tube wall thickness and result in failure of a tube many years before its designed service life. Errors can also occur in the design manufacturer, storage, operation, and maintenance of boiler tubing and the wrong material installed in a critical location can lead to premature failure. Altogether, experts in the US and UK, from many different disciplines, have identified seven broad categories of boiler tube failure mechanisms. 1 tab., 2 figs

  16. Boiler materials for ultra supercritical coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgert, Robert [Energy Industries of Ohio, Independence, OH (United States); Shingledecker, John [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Pschirer, James [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (Untied States); Ganta, Reddy [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (Untied States); Weitzel, Paul [The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Baberton, OH (United States); Sarver, Jeff [The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Baberton, OH (United States); Vitalis, Brian [Riley Power Inc., Worchester, WA (United States); Gagliano, Michael [Foster Wheeler North America Corp., Hampton, NJ (United States); Stanko, Greg [Foster Wheeler North America Corp., Hampton, NJ (United States); Tortorelli, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have undertaken a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). A limiting factor to achieving these higher temperatures and pressures for future A-USC plants are the materials of construction. The goal of this project is to assess/develop materials technology to build and operate an A-USC boiler capable of delivering steam with conditions up to 760°C (1400°F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). The project has successfully met this goal through a focused long-term public-private consortium partnership. The project was based on an R&D plan developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and an industry consortium that supplemented the recommendations of several DOE workshops on the subject of advanced materials. In view of the variety of skills and expertise required for the successful completion of the proposed work, a consortium led by the Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO) with cost-sharing participation of all the major domestic boiler manufacturers, ALSTOM Power (Alstom), Babcock and Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc. (B&W), Foster Wheeler (FW), and Riley Power, Inc. (Riley), technical management by EPRI and research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developed. The project has clearly identified and tested materials that can withstand 760°C (1400°F) steam conditions and can also make a 700°C (1300°F) plant more economically attractive. In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys have been assessed to provide a basis for

  17. Improved NOx emissions and combustion characteristics for a retrofitted down-fired 300-MWe utility boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Ren, Feng; Chen, Zhichao; Liu, Guangkui; Xu, Zhenxing

    2010-05-15

    A new technique combining high boiler efficiency and low-NO(x) emissions was employed in a 300MWe down-fired boiler as an economical means to reduce NO(x) emissions in down-fired boilers burning low-volatile coals. Experiments were conducted on this boiler after the retrofit with measurements taken of gas temperature distributions along the primary air and coal mixture flows and in the furnace, furnace temperatures along the main axis and gas concentrations such as O(2), CO and NO(x) in the near-wall region. Data were compared with those obtained before the retrofit and verified that by applying the combined technique, gas temperature distributions in the furnace become more reasonable. Peak temperatures were lowered from the upper furnace to the lower furnace and flame stability was improved. Despite burning low-volatile coals, NO(x) emissions can be lowered by as much as 50% without increasing the levels of unburnt carbon in fly ash and reducing boiler thermal efficiency.

  18. Exergetic Modelling of Oil-Fired Steam Boilers | Ohijeagbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance variables and potential for energy savings in oil-fired industrial steam boilers were studied. Operational parameters of steam boilers using low pour fuel oil (LPFO) and diesel were used to determine thermodynamic properties of material streams and exergetic parameters. Analysis of thermodynamic ...

  19. Wood-Fired Boiler System Evaluation at Fort Stewart, GA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Noel

    2002-01-01

    Part of the plan to modernize the central energy plant (CEP) at Fort Stewart, GA is focused on the installations wood-fired boiler, which provides steam for heating, cooling, and domestic hot water. The U.S...

  20. Advanced technique for computing fuel combustion properties in pulverized-fuel fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R. (Vsesoyuznyi Teplotekhnicheskii Institut (Russian Federation))

    1992-03-01

    Reviews foreign technical reports on advanced techniques for computing fuel combustion properties in pulverized-fuel fired boilers and analyzes a technique developed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. (USA). Characteristics of 25 fuel types, including 19 grades of coal, are listed along with a diagram of an installation with a drop tube furnace. Characteristics include burn-out intensity curves obtained using thermogravimetric analysis for high-volatile bituminous, semi-bituminous and coking coal. The patented LFP-SKM mathematical model is used to model combustion of a particular fuel under given conditions. The model allows for fuel particle size, air surplus, load, flame height, and portion of air supplied as tertiary blast. Good agreement between computational and experimental data was observed. The method is employed in designing new boilers as well as converting operating boilers to alternative types of fuel. 3 refs.

  1. Deposit Probe Measurements in Large Biomass-Fired Grate Boilers and Pulverized-Fuel Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    A number of full-scale deposit probe measuring campaigns conducted in grate-fired and suspension-fired boilers, fired with biomass, have been reviewed and compared. The influence of operational parameters on the chemistry of ash and deposits, on deposit build-up rates, and on shedding behavior has...... of the deposits formed is determined by the fly ash composition and the flue gas temperature; increases in the local flue gas temperature lead to higher contents of Si and Ca and lower contents of Cl in the deposits. The net deposit build-up rates in grate-fired and suspension-fired boilers are at similar levels....../wood-firing in suspension-fired boilers, shedding occurred by debonding with incomplete removal at flue gas temperatures of 600–1000 °C and by debonding with complete removal during wood-firing in suspension-fired boilers at high flue gas temperatures (1300 °C). Shedding events were not observed during wood suspension...

  2. Observer-Based Fuel Control Using Oxygen Measurement. A study based on a first-principles model of a pulverized coal fired Benson Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Mortensen, Jan Henrik; Just Nielsen, Rene; Soendergaard Pedersen, Tom [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Control Engineering

    2005-01-01

    This report describes an attempt to improve the existing control of coal mills used at the Danish power plant Nordjyllandsvaerket Unit 3. The coal mills pulverize raw coal to a fine-grained powder, which is injected into the furnace of the power plant. In the furnace the coal is combusted, producing heat, which is used for steam production. With better control of the coal mills, the power plant can be controlled more efficiently during load changes, thus improving the overall availability and efficiency of the plant. One of the main difficulties from a control point of view is that the coal mills are not equipped with sensors that detect how much coal is injected into the furnace. During the project, a fairly detailed, non-linear differential equation model of the furnace and the steam circuit was constructed and validated against data obtained at the plant. It was observed that this model was able to capture most of the important dynamics found in the data. Based on this model, it is possible to extract linearized models in various operating points. The report discusses this approach and illustrates how the model can be linearized and reduced to a lower-order linear model that is valid in the vicinity of an operating point by removing states that have little influence on the overall response. A viable adaptive control strategy would then be to design controllers for each of these simplified linear models, i.e., the control loop that sets references to the coal mills and feedwater, and use the load as a separate input to the control. The control gains should then be scheduled according to the load. However, the variations and uncertainties in the coal mill are not addressed directly in this approach. Another control approach was taken in this project, where a Kalman filter based on measurements of air flow blown into the furnace and the oxygen concentration in the flue gas is designed to estimate the actual coal flow injected into the furnace. With this estimate

  3. Numerical investigation of ash deposition in straw-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    in the design phase of straw-fired boilers. Some of the primary model outputs include improved heat transfer rate predictions and detailed information about local deposit formation rates. This information is essential when boiler availability and efficiency is to be estimated. A stand-alone program has been...... accumulation rates encountered during straw combustion in grate-fired boilers. The sub-models have been based on information about the combustion and deposition properties of straw gathered from the literature and combined into a single Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based analysis tool which can aid...... transfer mechanisms have a pronounced influence on the combustion pattern. The combined set of sub-models has been evaluated using the straw-fired boiler at Masnedø CHP plant as a test case. The predicted grate combustion and KCl release patterns are in qualitative agreement with experimental findings...

  4. How can we reduce carbon in ash in firing pulverized coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, W. (and others)

    1992-12-01

    The article discusses solutions to the problem of reducing carbon in ash in firing pulverized coal. Suggested solutions to the problem include: reviewing air flow through the mills; examining the pulverizers for coal fineness variations; investigating air distribution in the burners; review dual-firing equations; examining the burners for slag build up; checking coal fineness is appropriate to the boiler; increasing air flow; and checking instrumentation. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  5. Compliance Testing of Eielson Air Force Base Central Heating and Power Plant, Coal Fired Boiler Number 3, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    a flue gas grab sample for orsat analysis (measures oxygen, and carbon dioxide for stack gas molecular weight determination and emissions correction... molecular weight, was obtained during particulate sampling. Testing was initially started on boiler 2 at the maximum rated steam output of 120,000 lbs/hr...I, r*~td AN[D l FL B( R\\ ViQ( lPjN L!II(,t 1 (d) Open burning of put.rcible iear- i\\ % ~i~ emisions , ec.dirig c dn jc p. c ,f1 pre- cri :rig pair

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Integrated Waste Heat Utilization Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants Based on In-Depth Boiler-Turbine Integration and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the system-level heat integration, three retrofit concepts of waste heat recovery via organic Rankine cycle (ORC, in-depth boiler-turbine integration, and coupling of both are proposed, analyzed and comprehensively compared in terms of thermodynamic and economic performances. For thermodynamic analysis, exergy analysis is employed with grand composite curves illustrated to identify how the systems are fundamentally and quantitatively improved, and to highlight key processes for system improvement. For economic analysis, annual revenue and investment payback period are calculated based on the estimation of capital investment of each component to identify the economic feasibility and competitiveness of each retrofit concept proposed. The results show that the in-depth boiler-turbine integration achieves a better temperature match of heat flows involved for different fluids and multi-stage air preheating, thus a significant improvement of power output (23.99 MW, which is much larger than that of the system with only ORC (6.49 MW. This is mainly due to the limitation of the ultra-low temperature (from 135 to 75 °C heat available from the flue gas for ORC. The thermodynamic improvement is mostly contributed by the reduction of exergy destruction within the boiler subsystem, which is eventually converted to mechanical power; while the exergy destruction within the turbine system is almost not changed for the three concepts. The selection of ORC working fluids is performed to maximize the power output. Due to the low-grade heat source, the cycle with R11 offers the largest additional net power generation but is not significantly better than the other preselected working fluids. Economically, the in-depth boiler-turbine integration is the most economic completive solution with a payback period of only 0.78 year. The ORC concept is less attractive for a sole application due to a long payback time (2.26 years. However, by coupling both

  7. Raising the Reliability, Efficiency, and Ecological Safety of Operation of the BKZ-210-140F Boiler Transferred to Stage Firing of Kuznetsk Coal in a U-Shape Flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagner, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    The BKZ-210-140F boiler of the West-Siberian Cogeneration Plant was equipped initially with four uniflow tangentially oriented burners and tertiary air nozzles. In order to raise the efficiency of operation and lower harmful emissions the boiler was reconstructed. U-shape aerodynamics was organized in the furnace by mounting 8 burners, 8 secondary air nozzles, and 8 tertiary air nozzles on the front and rear walls of the furnace. The reconstruction ensured higher stability of ignition of pulverized coal without flame division and rated temperatures of the superheater metal, lowered the optimum excess air factor at the outlet from the superheater to 1.2 - 1.25, decreased the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the combustion products to 360 - 380 mg/m 3 , and increased the gross efficiency of the boiler to 91.5 - 91.7%

  8. [Combustion zone investigation and modelling in fuel flexible suspension fired boilers]. Result summary and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovmand Hvid, S.

    2011-12-15

    The project has been designed to obtain data from a power plant boiler with co-combustion, partly to gain greater knowledge of particle turnover in the fuel zone, partly to support the development of modeling tools. Data collection occurred at Studstrup Power Station Unit 4, where the fuel is a combination of coal and biomass. The boiler is equipped with 24 dust burners, four of which have been converted to firing with biomass. Measurements have been carried out in the flame zone with different fuels: coal alone, coal + straw and coal + wood. During the experiments velocity fields, temperature fields and gas concentration fields were measured in the firing zone. Also, particle samples from the flame zone ware collected. Several measurements are performed with well-known techniques, but in addition, the project developed new optical measurement methods based on UV spectroscopy. They allow measuring other gases than the hitherto known methods and allow you to gain insight into the dynamic variations beyond just mean fields. The collection of particle samples from the boiler was, as expected, a very challenging task under the given conditions, but was carried out with a largely satisfactory result. Analysis of the samples has initially failed to lead to an increased recognition of the speed of the conversion process, but the samples will be analyzed in more detail in other projects. (LN)

  9. Evaluation of NOX emissions from TVA coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.W.; Stamey-Hall, S.

    1991-01-01

    The paper gives results of a preliminary evaluation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from 11 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) coal-fired power plants. Current EPA AP-42 emission factors for NOx from coal-fired utility boilers do not account for variations either in these emissions as a function of generating unit load, or in designs of boilers of the same general type, particularly wall-fired boilers. The TVA has compiled short-term NOx emissions data from 30 units at 11 TVA coal-fired plants. These units include cyclone, cell burner, single wall, opposed wall, single tangential, and twin tangential boiler firing designs. Tests were conducted on 29 of the 30 units at high load; 18 were also tested at reduced load. NOx emissions rates were calculated for each test and compared to the calculated rate for each boiler type using AP-42. Preliminary analysis indicates that: (1) TVA cyclone-fired units emit more NOx than estimated using AP-42; (2) TVA cell burner units emit considerably more NOx than estimated; (3) most TVA single-wall-fired units emit slightly more NOx than estimated; (4) most TVA single-furnace tangentially fired units emit less NOx than estimated at high load, but the same as (or more than) estimated at reduced load; and (5) most TVA twin-furnace tangentially fired units, at high load, emit slightly more NOx than estimated using AP-42

  10. Study of flame combustion of off-design binary coal blends in steam boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustyanskii, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    Changes in the structure of the fuel consumption by the thermal power stations of Ukraine caused by failure in supplying anthracite from the Donets Basin are analyzed and the major tasks of maintaining the functioning of the coal industry are formulated. The possibility of using, in the near future, the flame combustion of off-design solid fuels in the power boilers of the thermal power plants and combined heat and power plants is studied. The article presents results of expert tests of the TPP-210A and TP-15 boilers under flame combustion of mixtures of anthracites, lean coal, and the coal from the RSA in various combinations. When combusting, such mixtures have higher values of the combustibles yield and the ash fusibility temperature. The existence of the synergetic effect in the flame combustion of binary coal blends with different degrees of metamorphism is discussed. A number of top-priority measures have been worked out that allow for switching over the boilers designed to be fired with anthracite to using blends of coals of different ranks. Zoned thermal analysis of the TP-15 boiler furnace was performed for numerical investigation of the temperature distribution between the furnace chamber zones and exploration of the possibility of the liquid slag disposal and the temperature conditions for realization of this process. A positive result was achieved by combusting anthracite culm (AC), the coal from the RSA, and their mixtures with lean coal within the entire range of the working loads of the boilers in question. The problems of normalization of the liquid slag flow were also successfully solved without closing the slag notch. The results obtained by balance experiments suggest that the characteristics of the flame combustion of a binary blend, i.e., the temperature conditions in the furnace, the support flame values, and the degree of the fuel burnout, are similar to the characteristics of the flame of the coal with a higher reactive capacity, which

  11. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanovskii, A. G.; Olkhovsky, G. G.

    2015-01-01

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed

  12. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumanovskii, A. G., E-mail: vti@vti.ru; Olkhovsky, G. G. [JSC “All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute,” (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed.

  13. Steam generation: fossil-fired systems: utility boilers; industrial boilers; boiler auxillaries; nuclear systems: boiling water; pressurized water; in-core fuel management; steam-cycle systems: condensate/feedwater; circulating water; water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of development in steam generation is presented. First, fossil-fired systems are described. Progress in the design of utility and industrial boilers as well as in boiler auxiliaries is traced. Improvements in coal pulverizers, burners that cut pollution and improve efficiency, fans, air heaters and economisers are noted. Nuclear systems are then described, including the BWR and PWR reactors, in-core fuel management techniques are described. Finally, steam-cycle systems for fossil-fired and nuclear power plants are reviewed. Condensate/feedwater systems, circulating water systems, cooling towers, and water treatment systems are discussed

  14. Failure analysis of boiler tubes in lakhra coal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.; Baluch, M.M.; Ali, A.

    2010-01-01

    Present work deals with the failure analysis of a boiler tube in Lakhra fluidized bed combustion power station. Initially, visual inspection technique was adopted to analyse the fractured surface. Detailed microstructural investigations of the busted boiler tube were carried out using light optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The hardness tests were also performed. A 50 percent decrease in hardness of intact portion of the tube material and from area adjacent to failure was measured, which was found to be in good agreement with the wall thicknesses measured of the busted boiler tube i.e. 4 mm and 2 mm from unaffected portion and ruptured area respectively. It was concluded that the major cause of failure of boiler tube is erosion of material which occurs due the coal particles strike at the surface of the tube material. Since the temperature of boiler is not maintained uniformly. The variations in boiler temperature can also affect the material and could be another reason for the failure of the tube. (author)

  15. Potential to cofire high-sulfur coal and MSW/RDF in Illinois utility boilers: A survey and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The disposal of refuse is of ever-increasing concern for municipalities and other organizations and agencies throughout the United States. Disposal in landfills is becoming more costly, and new landfills are more difficult to site because of stricter environmental regulations. Mass burning incinerators for municipal solid wastes (MSW) have also met with increased public resistance due to excessive emissions. Nevertheless, increased awareness of the need for alternative disposal techniques has led to a new interest in cofiring MSW with coal. In addition to solid waste concerns, the requirements to reduce SO 2 and NO x emissions from coal-fired utility boilers in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, present an opportunity to cofire MSW/RDF with coal as an emission control measure. These issues were the impetus for a 1992 study (conducted by ANL for the Illinois Clean Coal Institute) to examine the potential to cofire coal with MSW/RDF in Illinois utility boilers. This paper will provide a synopsis of the ANL/ICCI report. It will summarize (1) the combustibility and emission characteristics of high-sulfur coal and MSW/RDF; (2) the facilities firing RDF and/or producing/selling RDF, together with their combustion and emissions experience; (3) the applicable emissions regulations in Illinois; and (4) the analysis of candidate utility boilers in Illinois capable of cofiring, together with the effect on coal consumption and SO 2 and NO x emissions that would result from 20% cofiring with RDF/MSW

  16. Numerical simulation of a biomass fired grate boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis of the thermal flow in the combustion furnace of a biomass-fired grate boiler provides crucial insight into the boiler's performance. Quite a few factors play important roles in a general CFD analysis, such as grid, models, discretization scheme and so on....... For a grate boiler, the modeling the interaction of the fuel bed and the gas phase above the bed is also essential. Much effort can be found in literature on developing bed models whose results are introduced into CFD simulations of freeboard as inlet conditions. This paper presents a CFD analysis...... of the largest biomass-fired grate boiler in Denmark. The focus of this paper is to study how significantly an accurate bed model can affect overall CFD results, i.e., how necessarily it is to develop an accurate bed model in terms of the reliability of CFD results. The ultimate purpose of the study is to obtain...

  17. Numerical modelling of a straw-fired grate boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a 33 MW straw-fired grate boiler. Combustion on the grate plays akey-role in the analysis of these boilers and in this work a stand-alone code was used to provide inlet conditions for the CFD analysis. Modelpredictions were compa...... mixing in the furnace is a key issue leading to these problems. q 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Numerical modelling of a straw-fired grate boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a 33 MW straw-fired grate boiler. Combustion on the grate plays akey-role in the analysis of these boilers and in this work a stand-alone code was used to provide inlet conditions for the CFD analysis. Modelpredictions were...... compared with available gas temperature and species concentration measurements showing good agreement. Combustionof biomass in grate-based boilers is often associated with high emission levels and relatively high amounts of unburnt carbon in the fly ash.Based on the CFD analysis, it is suggested that poor...

  19. Modelling and simulating fire tube boiler performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    A model for a flue gas boiler covering the flue gas and the water-/steam side has been formulated. The model has been formulated as a number of sub models that are merged into an overall model for the complete boiler. Sub models have been defined for the furnace, the convection zone (split in 2......: a zone submerged in water and a zone covered by steam), a model for the material in the boiler (the steel) and 2 models for resp. the water/steam zone (the boiling) and the steam. The dynamic model has been developed as a number of Differential-Algebraic-Equation system (DAE). Subsequently Mat......Lab/Simulink has been applied for carrying out the simulations. To be able to verify the simulated results experiments has been carried out on a full scale boiler plant....

  20. Imulation of temperature field in swirl pulverized coal boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; Wu, Weifeng; Chen, Chen; Chen, Weifeng; Qi, Guoli; Zhang, Songsong

    2018-02-01

    In order to achieve the goal of energy saving and emission reduction and energy efficient utilization, taking a 58MW swirl pulverized coal boiler as the research object, the three-dimensional model of the rotor is established. According to the principle of CFD, basic assumptions and boundary conditions are selected, the temperature field in the furnace of 6 kinds of working conditions is numerically solved, and the temperature distribution in the furnace is analyzed. The calculation results show that the temperature of the working condition 1 is in good agreement with the experimental data, and the error is less than 10%,the results provide a theoretical basis for the following calculation. Through the comparison of the results of the 6 conditions, it is found that the working condition 3 is the best operating condition of the pulverized coal boiler.

  1. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US

  2. Deposit Formation in a 150 MWe Utility PF-Boiler during Co-combustion of Coal and Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karin Hedebo; Frandsen, Flemming; Hansen, P. F. B.

    2000-01-01

    A conventional pc-fired boiler at the Danish energy company I/S Midtkraft has been converted to coal-straw co-combustion, and a 2 year demonstration program was initiated in January 1996, addressing several aspects of coal-straw co-combustion. Deposition trials were performed as part of the demon......A conventional pc-fired boiler at the Danish energy company I/S Midtkraft has been converted to coal-straw co-combustion, and a 2 year demonstration program was initiated in January 1996, addressing several aspects of coal-straw co-combustion. Deposition trials were performed as part...... problematic deposits. Go-firing straw also caused a change in the structure of the upstream deposits. During coal combustion an ordered, "finger" structure of the larger particles with small particles between was observed, whereas during co-combustion a more random deposition of the larger particles among...... arise when burning other coals, particularly coals with a high S or alkali metal content or a low content of ash. The behavior of K, Ca, S, and Cl was evaluated by use of thermodynamic calculations. The thermodynamically stable species agree with the observed behavior in the experiments, i.e. formation...

  3. Low NOx firing systems for bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyrim, W.; Scheffknecht, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the case of lignite fluidized boilers the denitrification down to less than 200 mg/m 3 was possible with primary measures on the firing side only. On account of the excellent results achieved with the reconstructed plants the firing systems for the new generation of brown coal fire steam generators with a capacity of 800 MW and more is designed in a similar way. For bituminous coal fire steam generators the primary measures on the firing side are nor sufficient to keep the German NO x emission limit. Therefore these units had to be retrofitted with a SCR-DENOX plant. The experience with the new firing system made in a 110 MW steam generator in Austria with a wide range of fuels is introduced. One of the largest bituminous coal fired once-trough steam generator built by EVT is the boiler for the power station Bexbach I (750 MW). The firing system is designed as a tangential firing system with 32 jet burners. These are arranged in pairs in the corners and divided into 4 burner levels with 4 burner pairs each. One mill is allocated to each burner level. An important characteristic feature is that the four bowl mills are arranged on one side of the steam generator. The plant is constructed with upper air nozzles which are arranged above the top burner level for the reduced of nitrogen oxides. During tests at steam generator with similar design, the nO x formation could be reduced from 750 to 500 mg/m 3 s.t.p. (dry, 6% O 2 ) with an addition of upper air of 20% at 100% unit capacity and constant total flow. As a main approach for the further reduction of the primary NO x emission at bituminous coal fired steam generators with tangential firing systems, the experience gained from the firing of brown coal has also been taken into account. A fundamental aspect in this respect was the vertical air staging in the direction of the furnace height. The results of many tests in a test reactor have shown that the differences of the achievable NO x values of brown and

  4. 46 CFR 52.01-35 - Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and heating boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, and... (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-35 Auxiliary, donkey, fired thermal... requirements for miscellaneous boiler types, such as donkey, fired thermal fluid heater, heating boiler, etc...

  5. New fuel air control strategy for reducing NOx emissions from corner-fired utility boilers at medium-low loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Sinan; Fang, Qingyan; Yin, Chungen

    2017-01-01

    Due to the rapidly growing renewable power, the fossil fuel power plants have to be increasingly operated under large and rapid load change conditions, which can induce various challenges. This work aims to reduce NOx emissions of large-scale corner-fired boilers operated at medium–low loads....... The combustion characteristics and NOx emissions from a 1000 MWe corner-fired tower boiler under different loads are investigated experimentally and numerically. A new control strategy for the annular fuel air is proposed and implemented in the boiler, in which the secondary air admitted to the furnace through...... the air annulus around each coal nozzle tip is controlled by the boiler load, instead of being controlled by the output of the connected mill as commonly used in this kind of power plant. Both the experimental and simulation results show that the new control strategy reduces NOx emissions at the entrance...

  6. A novel direct-fired porous-medium boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasartkaew, Boonrit

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, power and heat generation systems pay an important role in all economic sectors. These systems are mainly based on combustion reaction and operated under the second law of thermodynamics. A conventional boilers, a main component of heat and power generators, have thermal efficiency in the range of 70 to 85%, mainly owing to they have flue gas heat loss. This paper proposes a novel type of boiler, called a Direct-fired Porous-medium Boiler (DPB). Due to being operated without flue gas heat loss, its thermal efficiency cloud be approximately close to 100%. The steam produced from the proposed boiler; however, is not pure water steam. It is the composite gases of steam and combustion-product-gases. This paper aims at presenting the working concept and reporting the experimental results on the performance of the proposed boiler. The experiments of various operating parameters were performed and collected data were used for the performance analysis. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed boiler can be operated as well as the conceptual design and then it is promising. It can be possibly further developed to be a high efficiency boiler by means of reducing or suppressing the surface heat loss with better insulator and/or refractory lined.

  7. CFD simulation of coal and straw co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Helle; Hvid, Søren L.; Larsen, Ejvind

    This paper presents the results of a major R&D program with the objective to develop CFD based tools to assess the impact of biomass co-firing in suspension fired pulverized coal power plants. The models have been developed through a series of Danish research projects with the overall objective...... to collect results from fundamental research and make it operational in boiler design through implementation in a Computational Fluid Dynamics based simulation tool. This paper summarizes the developments in modeling of; particle motion, particle conversion, ash deposition on heat transfer surfaces, and NOx...

  8. [Emission characteristics of fine particles from grate firing boilers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Xiao; Zhao, Xiu-Juan; Li, Xing-Hua; Wei, Wei; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-04-15

    Grate firing boilers are the main type of Chinese industrial boilers, which accounts for 85% of the industrial boilers and is one of the most important emission sources of primary air pollutants in China. In this study, five boilers in three cities were selected and tested to measure the emission characteristics of PM2.5, and gaseous pollutants were applied by a compact dilution sampling system, which was developed for this field study. Results showed that particles mass size distributions for the five industrial boilers presented single peak or double peak, former peaks near 0.14 microm and the later peaks after 1.0 microm; the cyclone dust remover and wet scrubber dust remover had effective removal efficiencies not only to PM2.5, but also to PM1.0; and under the condition of same control techniques, grate firing boiler with high capacity has less PM2.5 emission than the boiler with low capacity. In the PM2.5 collected from flue gases, SO4(2-) was the most abundant ion, accounted for 20%-40% of the PM2.5; and C was the most abundant element (7.5%-31.8%), followed by S (8.4%-18.7%). Carbon balance method was applied to calculate the emission factors of these pollutants. The emission factors of PM2.5, NO, and SO2 were in the range of 0.046-0.486 g x kg(-1), 1.63-2.47 g x kg(-1), 1.35-9.95 g x kg(-1) respectively. The results are useful for the emission inventory development of industrial boilers and the source analysis of PM2.5 in atmospheric environment.

  9. Coal-fired power plants and the causes of high temperature corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakey, J E; Simms, N J [British Coal Corporation, Coal Technology Development Div., Cheltenham, Glos (United Kingdom); Tomkings, A B [ERA Technology Ltd., Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The heat exchangers in all types of coal-fired power plant operate in aggressive, high temperature environments where high temperature corrosion can severely limit their service lives. The extent of this corrosion is governed by the combined effects of the operating conditions of the heat exchanger and the presence of corrosive species released from the coal during operation. This paper reviews the coal-related factors, such as ash deposition, which influence the operating environments of heat exchangers in three types of coal-fired power plant - conventional pulverized coal boilers, fluidized bed boilers and coal gasification systems. The effects on the performance of the materials used for these heat exchangers are then compared. (au) 35 refs.

  10. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  11. SEM Investigation of Superheater Deposits from Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming; Hansen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    , mature superheater deposit samples were extracted from two straw-fired boilers, Masnedø and Ensted, with fuel inputs of 33 MWth and 100 MWth, respectively. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images and EDX (energy dispersive X-ray) analyses were performed on the deposit samples. Different strategies...

  12. Numerical investigation of heat transfer characteristics in utility boilers of oxy-coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yukun; Li, Hailong; Yan, Jinyue

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Air-coal and oxy-coal combustion in an industrial scale PF boiler were simulated in ANSYS FLUENT. • The O 2 concentration of 33 vol% in the oxy-coal combustion case matches the air-coal combustion case most closely. • The moisture in the flue gas has little impact on flame temperature, but positive impact on surface incident radiation. - Abstract: Oxy-coal combustion has different flue gas composition from the conventional air-coal combustion. The different composition further results in different properties, such as the absorption coefficient, emissivity, and density, which can directly affect the heat transfer in both radiation and convection zones of utility boilers. This paper numerically studied a utility boiler of oxy-coal combustion and compares with air-coal combustion in terms of flame profile and heat transferred through boiler side walls in order to understand the effects of different operating conditions on oxy-coal boiler retrofitting and design. Based on the results, it was found that around 33 vol% of effective O 2 concentration ([O 2 ] effective ) the highest flame temperature and total heat transferred through boiler side walls in the oxy-coal combustion case match to those in the air-coal combustion case most; therefore, the 33 vol% of [O 2 ] effective could result in the minimal change for the oxy-coal combustion retrofitting of the existing boiler. In addition, the increase of the moisture content in the flue gas has little impact on the flame temperature, but results in a higher surface incident radiation on boiler side walls. The area of heat exchangers in the boiler was also investigated regarding retrofitting. If boiler operates under a higher [O 2 ] effective , to rebalance the load of each heat exchanger in the boiler, the feed water temperature after economizer can be reduced or part of superheating surfaces can be moved into the radiation zone to replace part of the evaporators

  13. The application of zonal trademark combustion monitoring and tuning system to coal boilers for efficiency improvement and emissions reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guang; Zhou, Wei; Widmer, Neil C.; Moyeda, David K. [GE Energy, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Coal-fired boilers equipped with Low NO{sub x} Burner (LNB) and Overfire Air (OFA) are challenged with maintaining good combustion conditions. In many cases, the significant increases in carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned carbon levels can be attributed to local poor combustion conditions as a result of poorly controlled fuel-air distribution within the furnace. The Zonal trademark combustion monitoring and tuning system developed by GE is available to detect and correct the furnace air-fuel distribution imbalance. The system monitors the boiler excess oxygen (O{sub 2}) and combustible gases, primarily carbon monoxide (CO), by using spatially distributed multipoint sensors located in the boiler's high temperature upper convective backpass region. At these locations, the furnace flow is still significantly stratified allowing tracing of poor combustion zones to specific burners and OFA ports. Using a model-based tuning system, operators can rapidly respond to poor combustion conditions by redistributing airflows to select burners and OFA ports. By improving combustion at every point within the furnace, the boiler can operate at reduced excess O{sub 2} and reduced furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) while also reducing localized hot spots, corrosive gas conditions, slag formation, and carbon-in-ash. Benefits include improving efficiency, reducing NO{sub X} emissions, increasing output and maximizing availability. This chapter presents the results from implementing the Zonal combustion monitoring and tuning system on a 460 MW tangential-fired coal boiler in the Western United States.

  14. Installations of SNCR on bark-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjalmarsson, A.K.; Hedin, K.; Andersson, Lars

    1997-01-01

    Experience has been collected from the twelve bark-fired boilers in Sweden with selective non catalytic reduction (SNCR) installations to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides. Most of the boilers have slope grates, but there are also two boilers with cyclone ovens and two fluidized bed boilers. In addition to oil there are also possibilities to burn other fuel types in most boilers, such as sludge from different parts of the pulp and paper mills, saw dust and wood chips. The SNCR installations seems in general to be of simple design. In most installations the injection nozzles are located in existing holes in the boiler walls. The availability is reported to be good from several of the SNCR installations. There has been tube leakage in several boilers. The urea system has resulted in corrosion and in clogging of one oil burner. This incident has resulted in a decision not to use SNCR system with the present design of the system. The fuel has also caused operational problems with the SNCR system in several of the installations due to variations in the moisture content and often high moisture content in bark and sludge, causing temperature variations. The availability is presented to be high for the SNCR system at several of the plants, in two of them about 90 %. The results in NO x reduction vary between the installations depending on boiler, fuel and operation. The emissions are between 45 and 100 mg NO 2 /MJ fuel input and the NO x reduction rates are in most installations between 30 and 40 %, the lowest 20 and the highest 70 %. 13 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-07-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NO, reduction (70VO) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Depatiment of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was petformed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NO, emission level of 0.73 lb/1 OG Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50Y0. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NO, in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of' natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NO, emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX

  16. 46 CFR 62.35-20 - Oil-fired main boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil-fired main boilers. 62.35-20 Section 62.35-20... AUTOMATION Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-20 Oil-fired main boilers. (a) General. (1) All main boilers, regardless of intended mode of operation, must be provided with the...

  17. Empirical prediction of ash deposition propensities in coal-fired utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.

    1997-01-01

    This report contain an outline of some of the ash chemistry indices utilized in the EPREDEPO (Empirical PREdiction of DEPOsition) PC-program, version 1.0 (DEPO10), developed by Flemming Frandsen, The CHEC Research Programme, at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. DEPO10 is a 1st generation FTN77 Fortran PC-programme designed to empirically predict ash deposition propensities in coal-fired utility boilers. Expectational data (empirical basis) from an EPRI-sponsored survey of ash deposition experiences at coal-fired utility boilers, performed by Battelle, have been tested for use on Danish coal chemistry - boiler operational conditions, in this study. (au) 31 refs.

  18. Influence of declivitous secondary air on combustion characteristics of a down-fired 300-MWe utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengqi Li; Feng Ren; Zhichao Chen; Zhao Chen; Jingjie Wang [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

    2010-02-15

    Industrial experiments were performed with a 300-MWe full-scale down-fired boiler. New data is reported for (i) gas temperature distributions within the primary air and coal mixture flows, (ii) gas compositions, such as O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx, and (iii) gas temperatures within the near-wall region. The data complements previously-obtained data from the same utility boiler before being modified by declination of the F-tier secondary air. By directing secondary air under the arches, the region where the primary air and pulverized coal mixture is ignited is brought forward within the boiler. Gas temperatures rose in the fuel-burning zone and fell in the fuel-burnout zone. As a result the quantity of unburned carbon in fly ash and the gas temperature at the furnace outlet were both lowered. 20 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Gain-Scheduled Control of a Fossil-Fired Power Plant Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hangstrup, M.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    1999-01-01

    -scheduling which interpolates between unstable controllers is not allowed using traditional schemes. The results show that a considerable optimization of the conventional controlled system is obtainable. Also the gain-scheduled optimizing controller is seen to have a superior performance compared to the fixed LTI......In this paper the objective is to optimize the control of a coal fired 250 MW power plant boiler. The conventional control system is supplemented with a multivariable optimizing controller operating in parallel with the conventional control system. Due to the strong dependence of the gains...... and dynamics upon the load, it is beneficial to consider a gain-scheduling control approach. Optimization using complex mu synthesis results in unstable LTI controllers in some operating points of the boiler. A recent gain-scheduling approach allowing for unstable fixed LTI controllers is applied. Gain...

  20. Thermal Effects by Firing Oil Shale Fuel in CFB Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshumayev, D.; Ots, A.; Parve, T.; Pihu, T.; Plamus, K.; Prikk, A.

    It is well known that during firing of oil shale fuel the amount of heat released during its combustion per kg of fuel is significantly affected by the endothermic and exothermic processes taking place in mineral matter. These thermal effects are calcite and dolomite decomposing, marcasite FeS2 oxidising, CaO sulphation and formation of the new minerals. The given paper deals with the experimental study of the influence of these thermal effects of oil shale fuel having different heating value on total amount of heat released during combustion in calorimetric bomb, circulating fluidized bed (CFB) and pulverized-firing boiler (PFB). The large-scale (250 MWth) experiments were performed in the K11-1 CFB boiler of the Balti Power Plant. During experiments low heating value of a fuel varied within the range 8.5-11 MJ/kg. At the end some conclusions were drawn.

  1. Thermal Spray Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection in Biomass Co-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.; Kärki, J.

    2015-01-01

    There are over 1000 biomass boilers and about 500 plants using waste as fuel in Europe, and the numbers are increasing. Many of them encounter serious problems with high-temperature corrosion due to detrimental elements such as chlorides, alkali metals, and heavy metals. By HVOF spraying, it is possible to produce very dense and well-adhered coatings, which can be applied for corrosion protection of heat exchanger surfaces in biomass and waste-to-energy power plant boilers. Four HVOF coatings and one arc sprayed coating were exposed to actual biomass co-fired boiler conditions in superheater area with a probe measurement installation for 5900 h at 550 and 750 °C. The coating materials were Ni-Cr, IN625, Fe-Cr-W-Nb-Mo, and Ni-Cr-Ti. CJS and DJ Hybrid spray guns were used for HVOF spraying to compare the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr coating structures. Reference materials were ferritic steel T92 and nickel super alloy A263. The circulating fluidized bed boiler burnt a mixture of wood, peat and coal. The coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance at 550 °C compared to the ferritic steel. At higher temperature, NiCr sprayed with CJS had the best corrosion resistance. IN625 was consumed almost completely during the exposure at 750 °C.

  2. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF MERCURY CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the existing knowledge base applicable to mercury (Hg) control in coal-fired boilers and outlines the gaps in knowledge that can be filled by experimentation and data gathering. Mercury can be controlled by existing air pollution control devices or by retrofit...

  3. Apparatus and method of controlling the thermal performance of an oxygen-fired boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Armand A.; Kang, Shin G.; Kenney, James R.; Edberg, Carl D.

    2017-09-05

    Disclosed herein is a method of controlling the operation of an oxy-fired boiler; the method comprising combusting a fuel in a boiler; producing a heat absorption pattern in the boiler; discharging flue gases from the boiler; recycling a portion of the flue gases to the boiler; combining a first oxidant stream with the recycled flue gases to form a combined stream; splitting the combined stream into several fractions; and introducing each fraction of the combined stream to the boiler at different points of entry to the boiler.

  4. Numerical investigation on the flow, combustion, and NOX emission characteristics in a 660 MWe tangential firing ultra-supercritical boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out to study the pulverized-coal combustion process in a tangentially fired ultra-supercritical boiler. The realizable k-ε model for gas coupled with discrete phase model for coal particles, P-1 radiation model for radiation, two-competing-rates model for devolatilization, and kinetics/diffusion-limited model for combustion process are considered. The characteristics of the flow field, particle motion, temperature distribution, species components, and NOx emissions were numerically investigated. The good agreement of the measurements and predictions implies that the applied simulation models are appropriate for modeling commercial-scale coal boilers. It is found that an ideal turbulent flow and particle trajectory can be observed in this unconventional pulverized-coal furnace. With the application of over-fire air and additional air, lean-oxygen combustion takes place near the burner sets region and higher temperature at furnace exit is acquired for better heat transfer. Within the limits of secondary air, more steady combustion process is achieved as well as the reduction of NOx. Furthermore, the influences of the secondary air, over-fire air, and additional air on the NOx emissions are obtained. The numerical results reveal that NOx formation attenuates with the decrease in the secondary air ratio (γ2nd and the ratio of the additional air to the over-fire air (γAA/γOFA was within the limits.

  5. Cocombustion of biomass in coal-fired power plants; Meestoken van biomassa in kolengestookte E-centrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrink, W.G.M. [Stork Thermeq, Hengelo (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the desk study is to determine to what degree several types of biomass can be cofired with existing coal fired utility boilers in the Netherlands. All results with regard to boiler performances are obtained by making use of a computer model of a typical coal fired boiler which make part of a 600 MWe coal fired power plant. Because the existing coal fired units in the Netherlands do deviate more or less from the used model all outcomes and conclusions of this study are indicative. Slagging and corrosion which become more important when firing biogas in a coal fired boiler are considered superficially. More close investigations are necessary when carry out concrete projects. Furthermore all results are based on 100% boiler load and may not be used or extrapolated to part load conditions. The extent of firing biomass gas may depend on available space in the boiler house and correlated restrictions for necessary constructive adaptations. These aspects were leave out of consideration. For information the necessary size of piping for biomass gas from gasifier to the boiler has been determined for several amounts of biomass. [Dutch] Het doel van de studie is te onderzoeken hoeveel biomassa, in percentage van het thermisch vermogen, volgens verschillende concepten kan worden meegestookt in een kolengestookte elektriciteitscentrale. Dit wordt in deze studie behandeld aan de hand van een aantal aspecten: Rookgashoeveelheden door de ketel. Hierbij kornen de volgende zaken aan de orde: snelheden, drukval, belasting van DeNox, DeSox en E-filters, capaciteit van de ventilatoren; Rookgastemperaturen. Dit betreft temperaturen uitlaat vuurhaard, uitlaat ketel en uitlaat LUVO (luchtverhitter); Verslakking en corrosie van oververhitters; Water/stoomzijdige flows. Dit betreft aspecten als flows, temperaturen, flow door de turbine (slikvermogen) en uitlaatconditie stoomturbine (vochtgehalte). Voor de verwerking van biomassa worden alleen vergassing (in hoofdzaak) en, minder

  6. Advanced In-Furnace NOx Control for Wall and Cyclone-Fired Boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarv, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    A NO x minimization strategy for coal-burning wall-fired and cyclone boilers was developed that included deep air staging, innovative oxygen use, reburning, and advanced combustion control enhancements. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was applied to refine and select the best arrangements. Pilot-scale tests were conducted by firing an eastern high-volatile bituminous Pittsburgh No.8 coal at 5 million Btu/hr in a facility that was set up with two-level overfire air (OFA) ports. In the wall-fired mode, pulverized coal was burned in a geometrically scaled down version of the B and W DRB-4Z(reg sign) low-NO x burner. At a fixed overall excess air level of 17%, NO x emissions with single-level OFA ports were around 0.32 lb/million Btu at 0.80 burner stoichiometry. Two-level OFA operation lowered the NO x levels to 0.25 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment in the staged burner reduced the NO x values to 0.21 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment plus reburning and 2-level OFA operation further curbed the NO x emissions to 0.19 lb/million Btu or by 41% from conventional air-staged operation with single-level OFA ports. In the cyclone firing arrangement, oxygen enrichment of the cyclone combustor enabled high-temperature and deeply staged operation while maintaining good slag tapping. Firing the Pittsburgh No.8 coal in the optimum arrangement generated 112 ppmv NO x (0.15 lb/million Btu) and 59 ppmv CO. The optimum emissions results represent 88% NO x reduction from the uncontrolled operation. Levelized costs for additional NO x removal by various in-furnace control methods in reference wall-fired or cyclone-fired units already equipped with single-level OFA ports were estimated and compared with figures for SCR systems achieving 0.1 lb NO x /10 6 Btu. Two-level OFA ports could offer the most economical approach for moderate NO x control, especially for smaller units. O 2 enrichment in combination with 2-level OFA was not cost effective for wall-firing. For cyclone units

  7. Development of I and C system for the coal feeder of coal firing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Teak Soo; Park, Chan Ho [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    KECC(Kepco Coal Feeder Control System) receives coal weight, conveyor speed and boiler demand signals. It controls coal flow by generating speed signal of feeder which conveys coal in hopper to pulverizer, displaying measured coal quantity and providing local auto and manual manipulator (author). 33 figs.

  8. Fire-side corrosion in power-station boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, A J.B.; Flatley, T; Hay, K A

    1978-10-01

    The steel tubing of a modern power-station boiler operates at up to 650/sup 0/C (a dull red heat) in the very corrosive environment produced by the combustion gases and ash particles. Within the tubes, whose walls are around 5mm thick, 2000 tons of steam are generated per hour at temperatures up to 565/sup 0/C and pressures up to 170 bar. Several forms of metal corrosion may occur on the fireside surface of these tubes and on other boiler components. The designed 20-year operating life of the stainless-steel superheater and reheater tubes can be much reduced at temperatures above 600/sup 0/C by attack from molten salts formed beneath the deposited ash on the upstream tube surfaces. Mild steel evaporator tubes lining the furnace wall may suffer similarly if flame impingement allows the local release of volatile chlorine compounds from coal particles on the tube surface. Uncooled metal components supporting and aligning the boiler tubes may reach 1000/sup 0/C and are particularly susceptible to corrosion. CEGB research effort has been applied to quantify the rate of corrosion and to obtain an understanding of the complex corrosion mechanisms, so that ways of minimizing or preventing their occurrence may be found. These include the optimization of the combustion chemistry, design modifications such as shielding certain vulnerable tubes, and the selection of improved alloys and the use of ''co-extruded'' tubing.

  9. Pilot-scale test for electron beam purification of flue gas from coal-combustion boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Hideki; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Hashimoto, Shoji; Doi, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Shinji; Izutsu, Masahiro

    1995-01-01

    A pilot-scale test for electron beam treatment of flue gas (12,000m 3 N/hr) from coal-fired boiler was conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chubu Electric Power Company and Ebara Corporation, in the site of Shin-Nagoya Thermal Power Plant in Nagoya, Japan. During 14 months operation, it was proved that the method is possible to remove SO 2 and NO x simultaneously in wide concentration range of SO 2 (250-2,000ppm) and NO x (140-240ppm) with higher efficiency than the conventional methods, with appropriate operation conditions (dose, temperature etc.). The pilot plant was easily operated with well controllability and durability, and was operated for long period of time without serious problems. The byproduct, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, produced by the treatment was proved to be a nitrogenous fertilizer with excellent quality. (author)

  10. Upgrading and efficiency improvement in coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Improving the efficiencies of the large number of older coal-fired power plants operating around the world would give major savings in CO2 emissions together with significant other benefits. This report begins with a summary of the ways efficiency can become degraded and of the means available to combat the decrease in performance. These include improvements to operating and maintenance practices and more major techniques that are available, including boiler and turbine retrofits. There is also an update on fuel drying developments as a route to higher efficiency in plants firing high moisture lignites. The largest chapter of the report contains a number of descriptions of case study improvement projects, to illustrate measures that have been applied, benefits that have been achieved and identify best practices, which are summarised. Major national and international upgrading programmes are described.

  11. Oil fired boiler/solar tank- and natural gas burner/solar tank-units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Frederiksen, Karsten Vinkler

    1999-01-01

    During the last few years new units consisting of a solar tank and either an oil fired boiler or a natural gas burner have been introduced on the Danish market. Three different marketed units - two based on a natural gas burner and one based on an oil fired boiler - have been tested in a heat...

  12. Field test corrosion experiences when co-firing straw and coal: 10 year status within Elsam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rasmus Berg; Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, Ole Hede

    2007-01-01

    and straw at the 150 MW pulverized coal fired boiler Studstrup unit 1. Two exposure series lasting 3000 hours each were performed for co-firing 10 and 20% of straw (% energy basis) with coal. Using built in test tubes in the hot end of the actual superheaters and air/water cooled corrosion probes...... to 575 degrees C and for the flue gas from 1025 to 1300 degrees C. All these test tubes have been removed during the last three years at one year intervals for corrosion studies. The corrosion studies performed on all investigated tubes included measurements of the corrosion attack, light optical...

  13. CO(2), CO, and Hg emissions from the Truman Shepherd and Ruth Mullins coal fires, eastern Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Henke, Kevin R; Hower, James C; Engle, Mark A; Stracher, Glenn B; Stucker, J D; Drew, Jordan W; Staggs, Wayne D; Murray, Tiffany M; Hammond, Maxwell L; Adkins, Kenneth D; Mullins, Bailey J; Lemley, Edward W

    2010-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) emissions were quantified for two eastern Kentucky coal-seam fires, the Truman Shepherd fire in Floyd County and the Ruth Mullins fire in Perry County. This study is one of the first to estimate gas emissions from coal fires using field measurements at gas vents. The Truman Shepherd fire emissions are nearly 1400t CO(2)/yr and 16kg Hg/yr resulting from a coal combustion rate of 450-550t/yr. The sum of CO(2) emissions from seven vents at the Ruth Mullins fire is 726+/-72t/yr, suggesting that the fire is consuming about 250-280t coal/yr. Total Ruth Mullins fire CO and Hg emissions are estimated at 21+/-1.8t/yr and >840+/-170g/yr, respectively. The CO(2) emissions are environmentally significant, but low compared to coal-fired power plants; for example, 3.9x10(6)t CO(2)/yr for a 514-MW boiler in Kentucky. Using simple calculations, CO(2) and Hg emissions from coal-fires in the U.S. are estimated at 1.4x10(7)-2.9x10(8)t/yr and 0.58-11.5t/yr, respectively. This initial work indicates that coal fires may be an important source of CO(2), CO, Hg and other atmospheric constituents.

  14. Intelligent emissions controller for substance injection in the post-primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifman, Jaques; Feldman, Earl E.; Wei, Thomas Y. C.; Glickert, Roger W.

    2003-01-01

    The control of emissions from fossil-fired boilers wherein an injection of substances above the primary combustion zone employs multi-layer feedforward artificial neural networks for modeling static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected substances into the upper region of the furnace and the emissions exiting the furnace. Multivariable nonlinear constrained optimization algorithms use the mathematical expressions from the artificial neural networks to provide the optimal substance distribution that minimizes emission levels for a given total substance injection rate. Based upon the optimal operating conditions from the optimization algorithms, the incremental substance cost per unit of emissions reduction, and the open-market price per unit of emissions reduction, the intelligent emissions controller allows for the determination of whether it is more cost-effective to achieve additional increments in emission reduction through the injection of additional substance or through the purchase of emission credits on the open market. This is of particular interest to fossil-fired electrical power plant operators. The intelligent emission controller is particularly adapted for determining the economical control of such pollutants as oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) and carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by fossil-fired boilers by the selective introduction of multiple inputs of substances (such as natural gas, ammonia, oil, water-oil emulsion, coal-water slurry and/or urea, and combinations of these substances) above the primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers.

  15. Optimized CO2-flue gas separation model for a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Mohsin, Muhammad [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The detailed description of the CO2 removal process using mono-ethylamine (MEA) as a solvent for coal-fired power plant is present in this paper. The rate based Electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the Aspen Plus. The complete removal process with re-circulating solvent back to the absorber was implemented with the sequential modular method in Aspen Plus. The most significant cost related to CO2 capture is the energy requirement for re-generating solvent, i.e. re-boiler duty. Parameters’ effects on re-boiler duty were studied, resulting decreased re-boiler duty with the packing height and absorber packing diameter, absorber pressure, solvent temperature, stripper packing height and diameter. On the other hand, with the flue gas temperature, re-boiler duty is increased. The temperature profiles and CO2 loading profiles were used to check the model behavior.

  16. Experiment research of slag renovation in the corner-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Zhijun; Wu, Wenfei [Inner Mongolia Univ. of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    Aiming at serious slag on the water wall around the burner of corner-fired boiler with low-ash-fusion-point coal, cold experimental model has been established. In this experiment, particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been employed to accurately measure aerodynamic field of burner region, and the experimental research of furnace slag renovation has been conducted through changing the burner jet arrangement. The experiment results show that it has significantly effect on aerodynamic field in the furnace by changing burner jet deflection angle. A reasonable actual tangential circle diameter can be formed through adjusting the burner jet deflection angle, to prevent primary air attacking the wall, and further more, to effectively prevent serious slag on the water wall around the burner.

  17. Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    detect coal fire regions based on surface tem- perature ..... and non-coal fire regions have been delineated well in the ..... System Development Notes; Paterson Grant and Watson .... Schloemer S 2006 Innovative technologies for exploration,.

  18. PIV measurements of the turbulence integral length scale on cold combustion flow field of tangential firing boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-fei; Xie, Jing-xing; Gong, Zhi-jun; Li, Bao-wei [Inner Mongolia Univ. of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). Inner Mongolia Key Lab. for Utilization of Bayan Obo Multi-Metallic Resources: Elected State Key Lab.

    2013-07-01

    The process of the pulverized coal combustion in tangential firing boiler has prominent significance on improving boiler operation efficiency and reducing NO{sub X} emission. This paper aims at researching complex turbulent vortex coherent structure formed by the four corners jets in the burner zone, a cold experimental model of tangential firing boiler has been built. And by employing spatial correlation analysis method and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique, the law of Vortex scale distribution on the three typical horizontal layers of the model based on the turbulent Integral Length Scale (ILS) has been researched. According to the correlation analysis of ILS and the temporal average velocity, it can be seen that the turbulent vortex scale distribution in the burner zone of the model is affected by both jet velocity and the position of wind layers, and is not linear with the variation of jet velocity. The vortex scale distribution of the upper primary air is significantly different from the others. Therefore, studying the ILS of turbulent vortex integral scale is instructive to high efficiency cleaning combustion of pulverized coal in theory.

  19. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  20. Influence of start-ups with fuel-oil on the operation of electrostatic precipitators in pulverised coal boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarrete, B.; Vilches, L.F.; Canadas, L.; Salvador, L. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2004-04-01

    This article describes the results of a series of tests carried out in a pilot fly ash electrostatic precipitation facility operating with real gases from a 550 MWe pulverized coal-fired power station. The main goal of these tests was to determine the effects of boiler start-ups on the performance of the electrostatic preciptator. The tests were carried out during start-ups of the power station boiler. All tests were carried out with the same fuel. An evaluation was made of the effects of the use of fuel-oil as auxillary fuel in start-ups and shut-downs of the boiler, and different electrostatic precipitators operation procedures were tested during start-ups and shut-downs. The results of the experiments made it possible to assess the relative importance of different variables on the possible deterioration of the efficiency of the precipitators. Also evaluated were operational modes that have demonstrated an improvement in the performance of the precipitators after the transient stage of these operations. As a result of this study, a number of important operational recommendations are made on boiler start-up and shut-down procedures.

  1. Characterization and quantification of deposits build up and removal in straw suspension fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Wedel, Stig

    This project deals with ash deposit formation in suspension fired biomass power plant boilers. The project has been conducted in a tight collaboration between Vattenfall and the CHEC Research Centre at DTU Department of Chemical Engineering. A large part of the project has been performed by condu......This project deals with ash deposit formation in suspension fired biomass power plant boilers. The project has been conducted in a tight collaboration between Vattenfall and the CHEC Research Centre at DTU Department of Chemical Engineering. A large part of the project has been performed...... by conducting advanced probe measurements at the Amagerværkets Vattenfall owed boilers. It was the objective of the project to provide an improved understanding of ash deposit formation and removal in biomass suspension fired boilers. The project have provided a large amount of knowledge on the following issues......: 1) The influence of local boiler conditions on deposit formation in suspension fired boilers using wood or co-firing straw and wood, 2) quantification of deposit removal in biomass suspension firing boilers with regards both to natural shedding and soot blower induced shedding, 3) established...

  2. Emissions from three wood-fired domestic central heating boilers - heat load dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The flue gases from three wood-fired domestic central heating boilers have been characterized. Measurements were made at three part loads; 3, 7 and 15 kW. Two of the boilers were modern multi-fuel boilers, with inverse firing and natural draught. The third boiler was a single-fuel wood boiler, with inverse firing and combustion air supply through a fan. All boilers were environmentally approved; the tar emissions were below 30 mg/MJ at nominal heat load. The following parameters were measured: - CO, CO 2 , NO x , total hydrocarbons (THC), - tar and particulates, - twelve volatile organic compounds (VOC). The limit value for tar emission was heavily exceeded for all three boilers at the part loads at which they were tested. For the two multi-fuel boilers the tar emissions decreased with increasing load level, while the opposite was found for the wood boiler with a fan. The NO x emissions varied between 20 and 120 mg/MJ. The multi-fuel boilers showed increasing NO x emissions with increasing heat load. The single-fuel wood boiler showed NO x emissions at about 60 mg/MJ, independent of load level. The CO and THC levels in general were high. The CO levels varied between 1000 and 2000 mg/MJ. While the THC levels varied between 300 and 4000 mg/MJ. Broadly speaking, the CO and THC levels decreased with increasing load levels for the multi-fuel boilers. For the single-fuel wood boiler the CO and THC levels were roughly the same at all load levels. Out of the twelve VOC compounds which were measured, the following could be detected and quantified. With FTIR analysis: Methane, ethylene, propene and acetylene. With GC analysis: Methanol, phenol and acetic acid. (1 ref., 31 figs., 7 tabs.)

  3. Coal-fired electricity generation in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    This report examines coal-fired electricity generation in Ontario and recommends actions to be taken by the provincial government to protect the environment. The recommendations are also designed to assist in making decisions about the environmental safeguards needed for a competitive electricity industry. The report examines air emissions from coal-fired generating plants in the larger context of air pollution in the province; summarizes background information on key air pollutants; provides an individual profile of all coal-fired power stations in the province; and benchmarks Ontario's emissions performance by comparing it with 19 nearby U.S. jurisdictions. Current and proposed environmental controls for fossil fuel power generation in the province are elaborated. Options for maximizing environmental performance and the framework for strengthening environmental protection are reviewed. The report also contains a series of findings and recommendations which are deemed necessary before the moratorium imposed on the sale of coal-fired electricity plants imposed in May 2000, can be lifted. tabs., figs

  4. CFD study of temperature distribution in full scale boiler adopting in-furnace coal blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhil, S S A; Hasini, H; Shuaib, N H

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation of temperature characteristics of an in-furnace combustion using different coals in a 700 MW full scale boiler. Single mixture fraction approach is adopted for combustion model of both primary and secondary coals. The primary coal was based on the properties of Adaro which has been used as the design coal for the boiler under investigation. The secondary blend coal was selected based on sub-bituminous coal with higher calorific value. Both coals are simultaneously injected into the furnace at alternate coal burner elevations. The general prediction of the temperature contours at primary combustion zone shows identical pattern compared with conventional single coal combustion in similar furnace. Reasonable agreement was achieved by the prediction of the average temperature at furnace exit. The temperature distribution is at different furnace elevation is non-uniform with higher temperature predicted at circumferential 'ring-like' region at lower burner levels for both cases. The maximum flame temperature is higher at the elevation where coal of higher calorific value is injected. The temperature magnitude is within the accepTable limit and the variations does not differ much compared to the conventional single coal combustion.

  5. Investigations of combustion process in combined cooker-boiler fired on solid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Dragoslava D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to make some reconstructions on the existing stove used for cooking and baking and to obtain the combined cooker-boiler which will fulfill the demands of European standard EN 12815. Implementation of modern scientific achievements in the field of combustion on stoves and furnaces fired on solid fuels was used. During the investigations four various constructions were made with different fresh air inlet and secondary air supply with the intention to obtain more complete combustion with increased efficiency and reduced CO emission. Three different fuels were used: firewood, coal, and wood briquette. A numerous parameters were measured: fuel weight changes during the combustion process, temperature of inlet and outlet water, flue gas composition (O2, CO, SO2, CO2, NOx, flue gas temperature, ash quantity etc. The result of the investigations is the stove with the efficiency of more than 75% - boiler Class 1 (according EN 12815 and CO emission of about 1% v/v. The results obtained during the measurements were used as parameters for modeling of combustion process. .

  6. Result of design and test operation of a coal boiler at Hyogo Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yasuhiko; Sato, Noriyuki

    1987-05-01

    This boiler is the first coal boiler for the oil refineries in Japan (Installed in Oct., 1986 at Idemitsu Petrochemical Co.) Causes for using coal as a fuel are a conversion to less expensive fuel and offering a technical service to the users of coal through the combustion of coal and learning of a handling technique. The type of boiler is Babcock single barrel radiant type and has 150 t/d capacity with single fuel combustion of coal. Auxiliary equipments are a pulverizer, a transportation and storage unit, a denitration unit, a dust collector, a desulfurization unit, and an ash disposal unit. Main considerations in the design are measures for the security of finely pulverized coal, clogging prevention for coal and ash. A test operation revealed 7 % of combustible loss and 160 - 250 ppm of NOx content at a charge inlet of denitration unit. Actual operation exhibited no clogging at the denitration unit of troubles due to scaling. Design for raw materials is to blend 4 imported coals (from Australia and Canada, etc) and 3 Japanese ones. (7 figs, 2 tabs)

  7. Measurements and simulation for design optimization for low NOx coal-firing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Bar-Ziv; Y. Yasur; B. Chudnovsky; L. Levin; A. Talanker [Ben-Gurion University of Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2003-07-01

    The information required to design a utility steam generator is the heat balance, fuel analysis and emission. These establish the furnace wall configuration, the heat release rates, and the firing technology. The furnace must be sized for (1) residence time for complete combustion with low NOx, and (2) reduction of flue gas temperature to minimize ash deposition. To meet these, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of the combustion process in the furnace were performed and proven to be a powerful tool for this purpose. Still, reliable numerical simulations require careful interpretation and comparison with measurements. We report numerical results and measurements for a 575 MW pulverized coal tangential firing boiler of the Hadera power plant of Israel Electric Corporation (IEC). Measured and calculated values were found to be in reasonable agreement. We used the simulations for optimization and investigated temperature distribution, heat fluxes and concentration of chemical species. We optimized both the furnace flue gas temperature entering the convective path and the staged residence time for low NOx. We tested mass flow rates through close-coupled and separate overfire air ports and its arrangement and the coal powder fineness. These parameters can control the mixing rate between the fuel and the oxidizer streams and can affect the most important characteristics of the boiler such as temperature regimes, coal burning rate and nitrogen oxidation/reduction. From this effort, IEC started to improve the boiler performance by replacing the existing typical tangential burners to low NOx firing system to ensure the current regulation requirements of emission pollutions.

  8. EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT IN INDUSTRIAL BOILER BY FLUE GAS DUCT INSULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay H. Zala

    2017-01-01

    Now a days in industry major losses are find out so here we calculate these losses and find out efficiency of boiler. Boiler efficiency and energy losses from boiler are important parameter for any industry using boiler. In this work a detailed analysis was carried out for boiler at Anish Chemicals Bhavnagar. It is a combined water and fire tube boiler using biomass coal as fuel. Boiler efficiency calculated by direct method is in range of (78.5% to 81.6%). Major losses from boiler are heat ...

  9. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  10. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo [Shanghai Univ. of Electric Power (China); Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  11. Analysis of residual swirl in tangentially-fired natural gas-boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasril Hasini; Muhammad Azlan Muad; Mohd Zamri Yusoff; Norshah Hafeez Shuaib

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation on residual swirl flow in a 120 MW natural gas, full-scale, tangential-fired boiler. Emphasis is given towards the understanding of the behavior of the combustion gas flow pattern and temperature distribution as a result of the tangential firing system of the boiler. The analysis was carried out based on three-dimensional computational modeling on full scale boiler with validation from key design parameter as well as practical observation. Actual operating parameters of the actual boiler are taken as the boundary conditions for this modeling. The prediction of total heat flux was found to be in agreement with the key design parameter while the residual swirl predicted at the upper furnace agrees qualitatively with the practical observation. Based on this comparison, detail analysis was carried out for comprehensive understanding on the generation and destruction of the residual swirl behavior in boiler especially those with high capacity. (author)

  12. Coal quality influence on availability and reliability of two 620 MW lignite fired units after 100 000 operating hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, Dragomir

    1997-01-01

    General statistics data on operation of two 620 MW low calorific value coal fired units are foundation for analysis of influence of variable coal characteristics on availability and reliability. Changeable mineralogical structure, ash contents and heating value cause the following problems: increased abrasive wear and unstable firing. Almost 23 % of plant shutting down are caused by the mentioned reasons, which have multiplied in the last years. Analysis will show how it is possible to plan terms of overhaul of boilers with respect to quality of used coal and reliability of pipe system and maintenance of high level of availability and reliability in spite of periodical low heating value of coal. Described experiences are also important for planning, design, construction and operation of new power plants firing with same coal. (Author)

  13. Mass spectra features of biomass burning boiler and coal burning boiler emitted particles by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; Li, Mei; Shi, Guoliang; Wang, Haiting; Ma, Xian; Wu, Jianhui; Shi, Xurong; Feng, Yinchang

    2017-11-15

    In this study, single particle mass spectra signatures of both coal burning boiler and biomass burning boiler emitted particles were studied. Particle samples were suspended in clean Resuspension Chamber, and analyzed by ELPI and SPAMS simultaneously. The size distribution of BBB (biomass burning boiler sample) and CBB (coal burning boiler sample) are different, as BBB peaks at smaller size, and CBB peaks at larger size. Mass spectra signatures of two samples were studied by analyzing the average mass spectrum of each particle cluster extracted by ART-2a in different size ranges. In conclusion, BBB sample mostly consists of OC and EC containing particles, and a small fraction of K-rich particles in the size range of 0.2-0.5μm. In 0.5-1.0μm, BBB sample consists of EC, OC, K-rich and Al_Silicate containing particles; CBB sample consists of EC, ECOC containing particles, while Al_Silicate (including Al_Ca_Ti_Silicate, Al_Ti_Silicate, Al_Silicate) containing particles got higher fractions as size increase. The similarity of single particle mass spectrum signatures between two samples were studied by analyzing the dot product, results indicated that part of the single particle mass spectra of two samples in the same size range are similar, which bring challenge to the future source apportionment activity by using single particle aerosol mass spectrometer. Results of this study will provide physicochemical information of important sources which contribute to particle pollution, and will support source apportionment activities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Environmental performance assessment of utility boiler energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changchun; Gillum, Craig; Toupin, Kevin; Park, Young Ho; Donaldson, Burl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sustainability analyses of utility boilers are performed. • Natural gas fired boilers have the least CO_2 emissions in fossil fueled boilers. • Solar boilers rank last with an emergy yield ratio of 1.2. • Biomass boilers have the best emergy sustainability index. - Abstract: A significant amount of global electric power generation is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. Steam boilers are one of the most important components for steam and electricity production. The objective of this paper is to establish a theoretical framework for the sustainability analysis of a utility boiler. These analyses can be used by decision-makers to diagnose and optimize the sustainability of a utility boiler. Seven utility boiler systems are analyzed using energy and embodied solar energy (emergy) principles in order to evaluate their environmental efficiencies. They include a subcritical coal fired boiler, a supercritical coal fired boiler, an oil fired boiler, a natural gas fired boiler, a concentrating solar power boiler utilizing a tower configuration, a biomass boiler, and a refuse derived fuel boiler. Their relative environmental impacts were compared. The results show that the natural gas boiler has significantly lower CO_2 emission than an equivalent coal or oil fired boiler. The refuse derived fuel boiler has about the same CO_2 emissions as the natural gas boiler. The emergy sustainability index of a utility boiler system is determined as the measure of its sustainability from an environmental perspective. Our analyses results indicate that the natural gas boiler has a relatively high emergy sustainability index compared to other fossil fuel boilers. Converting existing coal boilers to natural gas boilers is a feasible option to achieve better sustainability. The results also show that the biomass boiler has the best emergy sustainability index and it will remain a means to utilize the renewable energy within the Rankine steam cycle. Before

  15. No more coal-fired units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    According to Minister of the Environment Pekka Haavisto natural gas, bioenergy and renewables are the ways of responding to future base load power need. Greenhouse gas emissions using natural gas are around 60 % of those with coal. Increasing the share of generation accounted for by natural gas in the Nordic region is just as feasible in principle as elsewhere in Europe. A good proportion of new power stations elsewhere in the community are natural gas-fired. Vattenfall is planning a combined cycle station in the 700 - 900 MW range for Imatra, and Imatran Voima a 600 MW gas-fired unit for Inkoo. Replacing coal with natural gas is an essential part of efforts to stabile CO 2 emissions

  16. Improving the effectiveness of boiler units with coal dust systems equipped with mill-ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsukov, V. K.

    2007-09-01

    Problems pertinent to controlling the load of steam boilers and coal dust systems equipped with mill-ventilators are analyzed. A comprehensive set of patented technical solutions for these problems is presented. A formula for determining the ventilation output of mill-ventilators as a function of the fuel charge is proposed.

  17. Mathematical modelling of flue gas tempered flames produced from pulverised coal fired with oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breussin, A.; Weber, R.; Kamp, W.L. van de

    1997-10-01

    The combustion of pulverised coal in conventional utility boilers contributes significantly to global CO{sub 2} emissions. Because atmospheric air is used as the combustion medium, the exhaust gases of conventional pulverised coal fired utility boilers contain approximately 15 % CO{sub 2}. This relatively low concentration makes separating and recovering CO{sub 2} a very energy-intensive process. This process can be simplified if N{sub 2} is eliminated from the comburent before combustion by firing the pulverised coal with pure oxygen. However, this concept will result in very high flames temperatures. Flue gas recirculation can be used to moderate the flame temperature, whilst generating a flue gas with a CO{sub 2} concentration of 95 %. In this presentation, both experimental and modelling work will be described. The former deals with identifying the issues related to the combustion of pulverised coal in simulated turbine exhaust gas, particularly with respect to stability, burnout and pollutant emissions. The second part of this presentation describes mathematical modelling of type 2 as well as type 1 swirling pulverised coal flames. Future work will concentrate on high CO{sub 2} levels environments. (orig.)

  18. Environmentally Friendly Replacement of Mature 200 MW Coal-Fired Power Blocks with 2 Boilers Working on One 500 MW Class Steam Turbine Generator (2on1 Unit Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeszczak, Jan; Grela, Łukasz; Achter, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    The paper covers problems of the owners of a fleet of long-operated conventional power plants that are going to be decommissioned soon in result of failing to achieve new admissible emissions levels or exceeding pressure elements design lifetime. Energoprojekt-Katowice SA, Siemens AG and Rafako SA presents their joint concept of the solution which is a 2on1 concept - replacing two unit by two ultra-supercritical boilers feeding one turbine. Polish market has been taken as an example.

  19. Coal combustion by-product quality at two stoker boilers: Coal source vs. fly ash collection system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardon, Sarah M. [Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection, Division of Water, Frankfort, KY 40601 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Department of Physical Sciences, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Marks, Maria N. [Environmental Consulting Services, Lexington, KY 40508 (United States); Hedges, Daniel H. [University of Kentucky, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Fly ashes from two stoker boilers burning Pennsylvanian Eastern Kentucky high volatile A bituminous coal blends were examined for their petrology and chemistry. The source coals have similar trace element contents. One of the ash collection systems was retrofitted with a baghouse (fabric filter) system, collecting a finer fly ash at a cooler flue gas temperature than the plant that has not been reconfigured. The baghouse ash has a markedly higher trace element content than the coarser fly ash from the other plant. The enhanced trace element content is most notable in the As concentration, reaching nearly 9000 ppm (ash basis) for one of the collection units. Differences in the ash chemistry are not due to any substantial differences in the coal source, even though the coal sources were from different counties and from different coal beds, but rather to the improved pollution control system in the steam plant with the higher trace element contents. (author)

  20. Coal-peat compositions for co-combustion in local boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Михайлов

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In article results of experiments on creation of coal and peat fuel compositions for burning in solid-fuel boilers are described. The main objective of research consisted in development of combination of coal dust and natural peat without binding additives. The role of peat consists that it increases efficiency of process of granulation, being natural binding. The method of granulation allows to utilize waste of the coal industry. Joint burning of two types of fuel – coal dust and peat reduces emission of sulfur dioxides. The cost of peat raw materials is lower, than artificial binding, applied to briquetting of coal dust. The composition of mix of coal dust and peat varied in the ratio 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 in volume ratio at humidity of mix before extrusion of 65 %. In the course of preparatory operations of coal raw materials its crushing and sifting through sieve of 24 mesh (0,707 mm was carried out. Procedure of hashing of samples of coal and peat was carried out before receiving homogeneous mixture. After hashing mix was located in piston press for receiving granules. Coal dust and wet peat pass semifixed extrusion on piston press with formation of cylindrical granules with a diameter of 16 mm. After extrusion of granule are dried to operational humidity of 25 %. Coal and peat fuel granules showed sufficient mechanical strength for transportation and power feed in solid-fuel boilers. Burning of coal and peat fuel granules in vitro at temperature of 800 °C does not lead to ashes agglomeration. The conducted preliminary researches showed prospects of utilization of coal waste by granulation method in mix with natural peat.

  1. Analysis of the use of waste heat obtained from coal-fired units in Organic Rankine Cycles and for brown coal drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Łukowicz, Henryk; Kochaniewicz, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The ever-increasing restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions have created a need for new energy technologies. One way to meet these new requirements is to optimise the efficiency of power units. This paper presents two energy technologies that, if used, will increase the efficiency of electricity generation. One of the most effective ways to improve the efficiency of brown coal-fired units is by drying the coal that is fed into the boiler. Here, we describe a technology that uses the waste heat obtained from exhaust gases. This paper also presents an analysis of the feasibility of and potential for using waste heat obtained from exhaust gases to feed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs). Several low-temperature working fluids were considered, which were selected based on properties that were best suited for these types of cycles. The impact of these working fluids on the efficiency and capacity of the ORC was also examined. The calculations for ORCs fed with waste heat obtained from exhaust gases from hard coal- and brown coal-fired boilers were compared. -- Highlights: ► We describe a technology that uses the waste heat obtained from exhaust gases. ► The impact of using different working fluids with a low boiling point is examined. ► We describe integrating the ORC with the power unit. ► The use of waste heat from boiler exhaust gases to dry brown coal is proposed. ► We demonstrate a possible increase in power unit efficiency.

  2. Source profiles of particulate matter emissions from a pilot-scale boiler burning North American coal blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S W

    2001-11-01

    Recent awareness of suspected adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM) emission has prompted publication of new standards for fine PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). However, scientific data on fine PM emissions from various point sources and their characteristics are very limited. Source apportionment methods are applied to identify contributions of individual regional sources to tropospheric particulate concentrations. The existing industrial database developed using traditional source measurement techniques provides total emission rates only, with no details on chemical nature or size characteristics of particulates. This database is inadequate, in current form, to address source-receptor relationships. A source dilution system was developed for sampling and characterization of total PM, PM2.5, and PM10 (i.e., PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 pm) from residual oil and coal combustion. This new system has automatic control capabilities for key parameters, such as relative humidity (RH), temperature, and sample dilution. During optimization of the prototype equipment, three North American coal blends were burned using a 0.7-megawatt thermal (MWt) pulverized coal-fired, pilot-scale boiler. Characteristic emission profiles, including PM2.5 and total PM soluble acids, and elemental and carbon concentrations for three coal blends are presented. Preliminary results indicate that volatile trace elements such as Pb, Zn, Ti, and Se are preferentially enriched in PM2.5. PM2.5 is also more concentrated in soluble sulfates relative to total PM. Coal fly ash collected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) contains about 85-90% PM10 and 30-50% PM2.5. Particles contain the highest elemental concentrations of Si and Al while Ca, Fe, Na, Ba, and K also exist as major elements. Approximately 4-12% of the materials exists as soluble sulfates in fly ash generated by coal blends containing 0.2-0.8% sulfur by mass

  3. Optimization of a lignite-fired open pulverizing system boiler process based on variations in the drying agent composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Youfu; Zhang, Hua; Yuan, Yichao; Wang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates three lignite-fired OPSB (open pulverizing system boiler) processes, named OPSB-A, OPSB-B and OPSB-C, corresponding to three options of drying agents used for the pulverizing systems. OPSB-B is similar to our previous work [18] on drying agent composition. Performances of the three OPSBs were calculated and compared with a 600 MW lignite-fired boiler as the reference. The results showed that the coal savings of OPSB-A and OPSB-C were 5.41% and 4.06% in comparison with the reference boiler, whereas for OPSB-B, the savings was 2.57%. Accordingly, emissions of each OPSB could be reduced in proportion to the coal savings. Among the three OPSBs, OPSB-C showed the best performance of water recovery from mill-exhausts because it had the highest mill-exhaust water dew point of 73.2 °C, whereas the exhaust dew points of OPSB-A and OPSB-B were 63.9 °C and 70.9 °C, respectively. Both OPSB-C and OPSB-B are beneficial for achieving a high mill-exhaust humidity ratio, which facilitates water recovery from the mill-exhaust, and a low oxygen content in mill-exhaust, which improves the operating safety of the pulverizing systems, whereas OPSB-A is relatively inferior in these respects. The OPSB-C process is recommended for engineering applications because of its favorable overall performances. - Highlights: • Three lignite-fired OPSB processes are analyzed based on a conventional 600 MW boiler. • OPSB-A, OPSB-B and OPSB-C show coal savings of 5.41%, 2.57 and 4.06%, respectively. • All OPSBs have a great advantage of water recovery from the flue gas, especially OPSB-C. • OPSB-C process is recommended in view of its favorable overall performances

  4. Oxygen-Fired CO{sub 2} Recycle for Application to Direct CO{sub 2} Capture form Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Gale

    2010-09-26

    The Southern Research/Southern Company 1 MWth Pilot-Scale Coal-Fired Test Facility was successfully retrofit to fire in either the traditional air-fired mode or with 100% oxygen and recycled flue gas, with a fully integrated feedback and control system, including oxygen and recycled flue gas modulation during startup, transfer, and shutdown, safety and operational interlocks, and data acquisition. A MAXON Staged Oxygen Burner for Oxy-Coal Applications produced a stable flame over a significant range of firing turn-down, staging, and while firing five different U.S. coal types. The MAXON burner design produces lower flame temperatures than for air firing, which will enable (A) Safe operation, (B) Reduction of recycle flow without concern about furnace flame temperatures, and (C) May likely be affective at reducing slagging and fouling in the boiler and super heater at full-scale Power Plants. A CFD model of the Oxy-fired Combustion Research Facility (OCRF) was used to predict the flame geometry and temperatures in the OCRF and make a comparison with the air-fired case. The model predictions were consistent with the experimental data in showing that the MAXON burner fired with oxygen produced lower flame temperatures than the air-fired burner while firing with air.

  5. Model-based Control of a Bottom Fired Marine Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Andersen, Palle

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on applying model based MIMO control to minimize variations in water level for a specific boiler type. A first principles model is put up. The model is linearized and an LQG controller is designed. Furthermore the benefit of using a steam °ow measurement is compared to a strategy...... relying on estimates of the disturbance. Preliminary tests at the boiler system show that the designed controller is able to control the boiler process. Furthermore it can be concluded that relying on estimates of the steam flow in the control strategy does not decrease the controller performance...

  6. Model-based Control of a Bottom Fired Marine Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Andersen, Palle

    This paper focuses on applying model based MIMO control to minimize variations in water level for a specific boiler type. A first principles model is put up. The model is linearized and an LQG controller is designed. Furthermore the benefit of using a steam °ow measurement is compared to a strategy...... relying on estimates of the disturbance. Preliminary tests at the boiler system show that the designed controller is able to control the boiler process. Furthermore it can be concluded that relying on estimates of the steam flow in the control strategy does not decrease the controller performance...

  7. Small, modular, low-cost coal-fired power plants for the international market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauderer, B.; Frain, B.; Borck, B. [Coal Tech Corp., Merion Station, PA (United States); Baldwin, A.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents recent operating results of Coal Tech`s second generation, air cooled, slagging coal combustor, and its application to power plants in the 1 to 20 MW range. This 20 MMBtu/hour combustor was installed in a new demonstration plant in Philadelphia, PA in 1995. It contains the combustion components of a 1 MWe coal fired power plant, a 17,500 lb/hour steam boiler, coal storage and feed components, and stack gas cleanup components. The plant`s design incorporates improvements resulting from 2,000 hours of testing between 1987 and 1993 on a first generation, commercial scale, air cooled combustor of equal thermal rating. Since operations began in early 1996, a total of 51 days of testing have been successfully completed. Major results include durability of the combustor`s refractory wall, excellent combustion with high ash concentration in the fuel, removal of 95% to 100% of the slag in the combustor, very little ash deposition in the boiler, major reduction of in-plant parasitic power, and simplified power system control through the use of modular designs of sub-systems and computer control. Rapid fuel switching between oil, gas, and coal and turndown of up to a factor of three was accomplished. All these features have been incorporated in advanced coal fired plant designs in the 1 to 20 MWe range. Incremental capital costs are only $100 to $200/kW higher than comparable rated gas or oil fired steam generating systems. Most of its components and subsystems can be factory assembled for very rapid field installation. The low capital, low operating costs, fuel flexibility, and compatibility with very high ash fuels, make this power system very attractive in regions of the world having domestic supplies of these fuels.

  8. Emission analysis of the best available wood-fired central heating boilers on the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axell, M.; Gustavsson, Lennart; Persson, Henrik; Leckner, B.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present project is to study the emissions from some of the best available wood-fired central heating boilers on the market. The aim is to identify the critical factors which determine the emission levels by means of emission measurements as well as temperature measurements in the combustion chamber. Four boilers with different design characteristics have been included in the project. All boilers use reversed combustion and fan-assisted combustion air supply, and have shown low tar emissions in earlier environmental tests. Boiler A is a boiler with a rather large mass of ceramics in the grate and in the burn-out zone, and a large volume of water. Boiler B has a smaller mass in the cast-iron grate and in the burn-out zone and a small water volume. Boiler C is a boiler with tertiary air and an incorporated accumulator tank. Boiler D has a zirconia-cell probe for continuous control of the air-excess ratio. The measurements have been made with the boilers in accumulator operation, i.e. at maximum heat output, since they are intended for this type of operation. Tests have, in addition to normal operating conditions, been made with high fuel moisture contents, high draught and a low boiler temperature at the start of the test. Measurements have been made of excess-air ratios, contents of CO, total hydrocarbons (THC), NO x and a number of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the flue gases as well as of combustion temperatures below the grate

  9. Characterization and Quantification of Deposits Buildup and Removal in Biomass Suspension-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of biomass as wood or straw in large suspension­fired boilers is an efficient method to reduce the use of fossil fuels consumption and to reduce the net CO2 formation. However, the presence of chlorine and alkali metals in biomass (straw) generate ash with a low melting point and induce...... large problems of ash deposit formation on the superheater tubes. Full scale studies on biomass ash deposition and removal had been done on biomass grate boilers, while only limited data is available from biomass suspension­firing. The aim of this study was to investigate deposit mass uptake, heat...... uptake reduction, fly ash and deposit characteristics, and deposit removal by using an advanced online deposit probe in a suspension­fired boiler using wood and straw pellets as fuel. The influence of fuel type and probe exposure time on the ash deposition rate, the heat uptake, the fly ash and deposit...

  10. ANALISA KEHILANGAN ENERGI PADA FIRE TUBE BOILER KAPASITAS 10 TON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditio Primayudi Aji Nugroho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penulisan ini adalah menghitung kinerja boiler dengan mengetahui kerugian energi pada saat produksi steam. Analisa teknis pada boiler sangat diperlukan, sebagai upaya peningkatan efisiensi dan mengetahui banyaknya energi yang terbuang sebagai kerugian. Faktorfaktor penyebab kehilangan panas/heat loss terbesar pada boiler antara lain : “kehilangan panas akibat gas buang kering, kandungan steam dalam gas buang, kandungan air dalam bahan bakar, kandungan air dalam suplai udara dan lain-lain”.Kehilangan panas/heat loss atau juga bisa disebut kehilangan energi merupakan salah satu faktor penting yang sangat berpengaruh dalam mengidentifikasi efisiensi pada boiler.Untuk itu dilakukan studi analisa dengan perhitungan kehilangan panas dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui besarnya penurunan performance dan penyebab dari penurunan performance. Berdasarkan data dan analisa metode direct diketahui penurunan sebesar 21% pada kondisi normal (operasi 79% dan dari hasil perhitungan kehilangan panas indirect sebesar 16.68% efisiensi boiler sebesar 83.32% maka dari itu adanya kehilangan panas, perlu adanya perbaikan dalam control pengaturan bahan bakar dan udara yang masuk secara optimum dengan cara menggunakan Oxygen Trim Control yang berfungsi untuk mengukur konsentrasi oksigen pada cerobong dan secara otomatis mengatur oksigen pada udara yang masuk burner sehingga dihasilkan pembakaran dengan efisiensi yang optimal.dan dengan menggunakan economizer pada pemanasan awal suhu air umpan dapat menaikan efisiensi boiler.

  11. Fire-Side Corrosion: A Case Study of Failed Tubes of a Fossil Fuel Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asnavandi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The failures of superheater and reheater boiler tubes operating in a power plant utilizing natural gas or mazut as a fuel have been analysed and the fire-side corrosion has been suggested as the main reason for the failure in boiler tubes. The tubes have been provided by a fossil fuel power plant in Iran and optical and electron microscopy investigations have been performed on the tubes as well as the corrosion products on their surfaces. The results showed that the thickness of the failed tubes is not uniform which suggests that fire-side corrosion has happened on the tubes. Fire-side corrosion is caused by the reaction of combustion products with oxide layers on the tube surface resulting in metal loss and consequently tubes fracture. However, the tubes corrosion behaviour did not follow the conventional models of the fire-side corrosion. Given that, using the corrosion monitoring techniques for these boiler tubes seems essential. As a result, the thickness of the boiler tubes in different parts of the boiler has been recorded and critical points are selected accordingly. Such critical points are selected for installation of corrosion monitoring probes.

  12. Combustion and NOx emission characteristics of a retrofitted down-fired 660 MWe utility boiler at different loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.Q.; Liu, G.K.; Zhu, Q.Y.; Chen, Z.C.; Ren, F. [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2011-07-15

    Industrial experiments were performed for a retrofitted 660 MWe full-scale down-fired boiler. Measurements of ignition of the primary air/fuel mixture flow, the gas temperature distribution of the furnace and the gas components in the furnace were conducted at loads of 660, 550 and 330 MWe. With decreasing load, the gas temperature decreases and the ignition position of the primary coal/air flow becomes farther along the axis of the fuel-rich pipe in the burner region under the arches. The furnace temperature also decreases with decreasing load, as does the difference between the temperatures in the burning region and the lower position of the burnout region. With decreasing load, the exhaust gas temperature decreases from 129.8{sup o}C to 114.3{sup o}C, while NOx emissions decrease from 2448 to 1610 mg/m{sup 3}. All three loads result in low carbon content in fly ash and great boiler thermal efficiency higher than 92%. Compared with the case of 660 MWe before retrofit, the exhaust gas temperature decreased from 136 to 129.8{sup o}C, the carbon content in the fly ash decreased from 9.55% to 2.43% and the boiler efficiency increased from 84.54% to 93.66%.

  13. A Novel Low-Temperature Fiffusion Aluminide Coating for Ultrasupercritical Coal-Fried Boiler Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying

    2009-12-31

    An ultrasupercritical (USC) boiler with higher steam temperature and pressure is expected to increase the efficiency of the coal-fired power plant and also decrease emissions of air pollutants. Ferritic/martensitic alloys have been developed with good creep strength for the key components in coal-fired USC plants. However, they typically suffer excessive steam-side oxidation, which contributes to one of main degradation mechanisms along with the fire-side corrosion in coal-fired boilers. As the steam temperature further increases in USC boilers, oxidation of the tube internals becomes an increasing concern, and protective coatings such as aluminide-based diffusion coatings need to be considered. However, conventional aluminizing processes via pack cementation or chemical vapor deposition are typically carried out at elevated temperatures (1000-1150 C). Thermochemical treatment of ferritic/martensitic alloys at such high temperatures could severely degrade their mechanical properties, particularly the alloy's creep resistance. The research focus of this project was to develop an aluminide coating with good oxidation resistance at temperatures {le} 700 C so that the coating processing would not detrimentally alter the creep performance of the ferritic/martensitic alloys. Nevertheless, when the aluminizing temperature is lowered, brittle Al-rich intermetallic phases, such as Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and FeAl{sub 3}, tend to form in the coating, which may reduce the resistance to fatigue cracking. Al-containing binary masteralloys were selected based on thermodynamic calculations to reduce the Al activity in the pack cementation process and thus to prevent the formation of brittle Al-rich intermetallic phases. Thermodynamic computations were carried out using commercial software HSC 5.0 for a series of packs containing various Cr-Al binary masteralloys. The calculation results indicate that the equilibrium partial pressures of Al halides at 700 C were a function of Al

  14. Measurement of O2 in the Combustion Chamber of Apulverized Coal Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Břetislav Janeba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational measurements of the O2 concentration in the combustion chamber of a pulverized coal boiler are not yet common practice. Operators are generally satisfied with measuring the O2 concentration in the second pass of the boiler, usually behind the economizer, where a flue gas sample is extracted for analysis in a classical analyzer. A disadvantage of this approach is that there is a very weak relation between the measured value and the condition in specific locations in the fireplace, e.g. the function of the individual burners and the combustion process as a whole. A new extractionline was developed for measuring the O2 concentration in the combustion chamber. A planar lambda probe is used in this approach. The extraction line is designed to get outputs that can be used directly for diagnosis or management of the combustion in the boiler.

  15. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be

  16. Effect of air ingress on the energy performance of coal fired thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddhartha Bhatt, M.

    2007-01-01

    Ingress of air in boilers leads to drops in energy efficiency. This paper presents the effects of air ingress in the combustion zone, post-combustion zone and air pre-heater (APH) on the energy efficiency and loading capacity of a coal fired thermal power plant operating on fuel with high ash (35-45%). The optimal O 2 in the flue gas for a pulverized coal fired system is 3.5% (corresponding to 20% excess air). The operating values are in the range of 4.2-6.0% in membrane type boilers and up to 10% in refractory type boilers (after sustained periods of operation). The leakage rate of boilers (up to the entrance of the APH) is designed at 0.2% while the average operating values are 7.25% for membrane type enclosures and 33.61% for refractory enclosures. The leakage rate of the APH is designed at 5.0% while the operating values range from 13.66% to 20.13% for rotary and tubular APHs. When the O 2 in the combustion zone varies from 3.5% to 8.0%, efficiency drops of 2.0% points are experienced in the boiler and turbine separately, and the gross overall efficiency drop is ∼3.0% points. The units do not experience any capacity drop up to an O 2 in the flue gas of 6.0% before the APH. At an O 2 in the flue gas (before APH) of 7.2%, a mild limitation on the unit capacity of around 2-3% is experienced. When O 2 in the flue gas (before APH) reaches a level of 9.0%, 20% capacity drop of the unit is experienced due to which the plant load cannot be raised higher than 80%. Beyond the level of 9.0% (rare occurrence), the unit is quite difficult to operate and has to be taken off for overhaul

  17. Technical report on NEDO-conducted Western US steam coal (for power generation and boiler) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) conducted studies covering Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and North Dakota, all in the West. Illinois and Gulf-Texas are also included. The bituminous coal of Utah and Colorado is given the highest priority as coal to be exported to Japan. It is feared, however, that the price of the bituminous coal from these areas may soar if demand increases. As for sub-bituminous coal, its price is far more stable because its reserves are basically limitless. The sub-bituminous coal, however, is not expected to be imported to Japan in the very near future because it is low in calorific power and fails to meet the conditions prerequisite to Japan's boiler fuel. Illinois can receive large orders but its coal contains more sulfur than the Western coal and a longer distance has to be covered for its transportation. As for transportation to the West Cost, freight cars are available and the port capacity can be enlarged dependent on the magnitude of demand for coal. Loading a deep draft bulk ship off shore with coarse coal slurry by pipeline is an attractive scheme. (NEDO)

  18. Technical report on NEDO-conducted Western US steam coal (for power generation and boiler) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) conducted studies covering Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and North Dakota, all in the West. Illinois and Gulf-Texas are also included. The bituminous coal of Utah and Colorado is given the highest priority as coal to be exported to Japan. It is feared, however, that the price of the bituminous coal from these areas may soar if demand increases. As for sub-bituminous coal, its price is far more stable because its reserves are basically limitless. The sub-bituminous coal, however, is not expected to be imported to Japan in the very near future because it is low in calorific power and fails to meet the conditions prerequisite to Japan's boiler fuel. Illinois can receive large orders but its coal contains more sulfur than the Western coal and a longer distance has to be covered for its transportation. As for transportation to the West Cost, freight cars are available and the port capacity can be enlarged dependent on the magnitude of demand for coal. Loading a deep draft bulk ship off shore with coarse coal slurry by pipeline is an attractive scheme. (NEDO)

  19. Southeast Asia - air pollution control and coal-fired power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soud, H.N.

    1997-12-01

    Coal-fired power generation in Southeast Asia continues to grow in order to satisfy the increasing demand for electricity throughout the region. Emissions standards have been adopted in some Southeast Asian countries. Particulate matter, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions are the main air pollutants for which standards have been introduced. Coal cleaning, and upgrading are not used much currently. Blending is used in Thailand and is being investigated in Indonesia. Pulverised coal combustion continues to dominate the coal-fired generating capacity. FBC is used at smaller scale and in a few cases. PFBC and IGCC are considered only as options for the future. Control priority is given to particulate matter and ESPs are installed on most (existing and new) coal-fired plants. Although FGD has been installed at Mae Moh in Thailand and is planned for Paiton in Indonesia and Sual in the Philippines, the technology is still considered expensive and its application is likely to remain limited. Boiler optimisation is the main NO{sub x} abatement method currently used. It is expected that low NO{sub x} burners will be used in the future especially in new plant. 166 refs., 1 fig., 40 tabs.

  20. The world behind electricity from coal. The dubious origin of coal for Dutch coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Five energy companies in the Netherlands want to build additional coal-fired power plants: Essent and Nuon, the German company RWE and E.ON and the Belgian company Electrabel. Coal-fired power plants emit 70 percent more CO2 than gas-fired power plants. Especially because of the threat to the climate Greenpeace believes that no more coal-fired power plants should be built. In this publication Greenpeace explores the pollution, the working conditions and human rights with regard to the exploitation of coal. That has been elaborated for the three countries from which Dutch energy companies import coal: South Africa, Colombia and Indonesia. In addition to information about the origin of coal also insight is given into the coal market (stocks and use), the enormous coal transport and the world trade [nl

  1. Performance of a pellet boiler fired with agricultural fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Lara; Wopienka, Elisabeth; Pointner, Christian; Lundgren, Joakim; Verma, Vijay Kumar; Haslinger, Walter; Schmidl, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Performance evaluation of a pellet boiler operated with different agricultural fuels. ► Agricultural fuels could be burn in the tested boiler for a certain period of time. ► All the fuels (except straw and Sorghum) satisfied the European legal requirements. ► Boilers for burning agricultural fuels should have a flexible control system. - Abstract: The increasing demand for woody biomass increases the price of this limited resource, motivating the growing interest in using woody materials of lower quality as well as non-woody biomass fuels for heat production in Europe. The challenges in using non-woody biomass as fuels are related to the variability of the chemical composition and in certain fuel properties that may induce problems during combustion. The objective of this work has been to evaluate the technical and environmental performance of a 15 kW pellet boiler when operated with different pelletized biomass fuels, namely straw (Triticum aestivum), Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus), maize (Zea mays), wheat bran, vineyard pruning (from Vitis vinifera), hay, Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and wood (from Picea abies) with 5% rye flour. The gaseous and dust emissions as well as the boiler efficiency were investigated and compared with the legal requirements defined in the FprEN 303-5 (final draft of the European standard 303-5). It was found that the boiler control should be improved to better adapt the combustion conditions to the different properties of the agricultural fuels. Additionally, there is a need for a frequent cleaning of the heat exchangers in boilers operated with agricultural fuels to avoid efficiency drops after short term operation. All the agricultural fuels satisfied the legal requirements defined in the FprEN 303-5, with the exception of dust emissions during combustion of straw and Sorghum. Miscanthus and vineyard pruning were the best fuels tested showing comparable emission values to wood combustion

  2. Development of a pulsed coal combustor fired with CWM (coal-water mixture): Phase 3, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, M.N.; Durai-Swamy, K.

    1986-11-01

    This report presents the results of an R and D program aimed at developing a new burner technology for coal-water mixture (CWM) fuels to enable the substitution of these new fuels in utility and industrial boilers and process heaters currently firing oil and gas. The application of pulse combustion to CWM fuels is chosen to alleviate many of the physical plant and environmental constraints presently associated with the direct use of these fuels in equipment designed for oil and gas firing. Pulse combustion has been shown to be capable of high-intensity burning of coal for acceptably complete combustion within relatively small equipment volumes. It also has the inherent capability to agglomerate ash particles, thus rendering ash more easily separable from the combustion gas prior to its entrance into the convective section of the boiler or heater, thereby reducing ash buildup and pluggage. Pulse combustion is also well-suited to staged combustion for NO/sub x/ control and has excellent potential for enhanced in-furnace SO/sub 2/ removal due to the enhanced levels of mass transfer brought about by the vigorous flow oscillations. The primary objective of the Phase 2 work was to develop a detailed program for laboratory development and evaluation of the pulse CWM combustor and system design concepts. 112 refs., 40 figs., 94 tabs.

  3. Main characteristics of the radioactive enrichment in ashes produced in coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, Antonio; Corbacho, Jose A.; Cancio, David; Robles, Beatriz; Mora, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Under contract with the Spain's 'Nuclear Safety Council', a study is being conducted of the nation's largest nominal output coal-fired power stations. Its purpose is to assess the radiological impact on workers and local populations due to this source of NORM activity. One of the aspects of particular interest is the study of the radioactive enrichment in the combustion wastes relative to the different coals used as fuel (usually local bituminous coal or lignite, or imported coal). These wastes consist of fly ash (mostly fine particles collected in electrostatic precipitators), and bottom ash (larger in size, and collected wet or dry in hoppers below the boilers). In general terms, the enrichment factors measured were between 2 and 18 for the radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 210 Po. The magnitude of this enrichment factor depended mainly on the ash content of each coal, and hence on the type of coal used as fuel and the specific operation cycle in the different power stations. For the radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra, and 232 Th, the enrichment was relatively similar in value in the fly and bottom ashes produced by the different types of coal used in the power stations studied. For 210 Po, however, as was expected, the enrichment was much greater in the fly ash than in the bottom ash for each coal analyzed. (author)

  4. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke; Joseph J. Battista

    2001-01-01

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives

  5. Regulator of Dust and Coal Burner of Power Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wujcik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The papers considers problems concerning introduction of neutron regulator into engineering practice. The regulator makes it possible to regulate CO, N0^ and O2 values with the purpose to optimize ejections into environment. The paper contains scheme of automation control of cyclone dust and coal burner with the help of a neutron regulator.

  6. Development and test of small-scale batch-fired straw boilers in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, E.F.; Kristensen, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    In Denmark, government subsidies for the testing and installation of biomass-fired boilers were available for the period from 1995 until 2002. Each boiler type had to pass an official approval test to achieve subsidy. The combustion abilities of the boiler were optimized prior to the test. The main aim of this subsidy was to encourage the development of energy-efficient and environmentally friendly boilers. The scheme was therefore organized in such a way that the greatest subsidies were awarded for boilers with high efficiency and low emissions. This goal has in effect been achieved for batch-fired straw boilers, where the typical efficiency has been increased from about 75% in 1995 to about 87% in 2002. Similarly, the carbon monoxide emissions have been reduced from 5000 ppm (reference value 10% O 2 ) in 1995 to less than 1000 ppm in 2002. These improvements are mainly due to better insulation inside the combustion chamber, more efficient techniques for supplying air to the combustion process, improved cooling of the flue gas, and optimization of the electronic control unit for the air supply

  7. The economics of coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    Coal-fired plants are the most polluting way to produce electricity due to their high CO2 emissions. But are they a good choice from an economic point of view? According to Greenpeace the answer is no: the price of coal is rising, construction costs are increasing and CO2 emissions will be priced. Nevertheless, E.On is developing plans for a new coal-fired plant at the Maasvlakte with the support of the Dutch government. [mk] [nl

  8. Regulation of hazardous air pollutants emitted from fossil-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Daellenbach, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The changes made in section 112 of the Clean Air Act by the 1990 Amendments to the Act will affect the regulation of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted by fossil-fired boilers. The 1990 Amendments designated 189 chemicals/compounds as HAPS. Major and area sources of these pollutants in categories designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will be subject to emission standards set by EPA. Industrial and institutional/commercial boilers are two such categories of HAPs designated by EPA for which emission standards will be issued. Fossil-fired boilers can emit a variety of HAPS. All or a portion of such emissions that exceed designated thresholds are likely to be regulated. This paper discusses how the 1990 amendments impact fossil-fired boilers. The steps are outlined which can be taken by owners of industrial and institutional/commercial boilers before the final emission standards are issued. These steps include participation in EPA's standard setting process, participation in EPA's early reduction program to delay the time when compliance with the maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standard is required, and consideration of any planned modifications to a facility which might subject that facility to a MACT standard set in advance of the EPA-set standard

  9. Application of programmable controllers to oil fired boiler light-off system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, H.C.; Gallaway, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    A programmable controller has been used to improve the reliability of an oil-fired boiler burner control system. An outdated and failing Germanium discrete transistor logic control system was replaced with a modern solid state large scale integrated circuit programmable controller. The ease of making this conversion at a modest expenditure during a limited boiler outage is explained, as well as pitfalls and problems encountered. Light-off reliability with fuel savings were prime objectives. The boiler, rated at 575,000 lb/hr at 450 psig, is used as a backup steam supply for the dual purpose N Reactor at Hanford, Washington, which supplies 860 MWe to the Bonneville Power Administration and weapons grade Plutonium for the Department of Energy. High reliability in light-off and load ascension from standby is required of the boiler which serves as the backup power supply for the reactor

  10. Mathematical modeling and experimental study of biomass combustion in a thermal 108 MW grate-fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren K.

    2008-01-01

    Grate boilers are widely used to fire biomass for heat and power production. However grate-firing systems are often reported to have relatively high un-burnout, low efficiency and high emissions, and need to be optimized and modernized. This paper presents the efforts towards a reliable baseline...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for an industrial biomass-fired grate boiler, which can be used for diagnosis and optimization of the grate boiler as well as design of new grate boilers. First, based on the design conditions, a thorough sensitivity analysis is done to evaluate the relative importance...... of different factors in CFD analysis of the grate boiler. In a late stage, a two-day measuring campaign is carried out to measure the gas temperatures and gas concentrations in the boiler using a fiber optic probe connected to a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A baseline model is then defined...

  11. Combustion zone investigation in fuel flexible suspension fired boilers, Experimental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander; Hvid, Søren Lovmand

    velocities for coal-straw flame were mapped by Laser Doppler velocimetry (LDA) in 235 points. High speed IR-camera with water-cooled endoscope optics has been used to grab images of particle flow patterns and dispersion in flames. The IR-camera was also used with a grating spectrometer to measure gas...... velocity measurements for the coal-straw flame show that the simple gas flow field expected for a single burner is smeared out shortly after start of flame due to interaction with other burners....... and to cut measurement costs. All measurements were carried out on a Mitsui-Babcock Low-NOx wall burner at Studstrup power plant, unit 4, Denmark in October and November 2009. Measurements on a pure coal (reference), coal-straw and coal-wood flame have been obtained. Special attention was paid to the coal...

  12. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF THE FORMS OF MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2001-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) and the Utility Air Toxics Report to Congress (1). The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam-electric generating units. Given the current state of the art, these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required. However, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. In fact, in December 2000, the EPA issued an intent to regulate for mercury from coal-fired boilers. However, it is clear that additional research needs to be done in order to develop economical and effective mercury control strategies. To accomplish this objective, it is necessary to understand mercury behavior in coal-fired power plants. The markedly different chemical and physical properties of the different mercury forms generated during coal combustion appear to impact the effectiveness of various mercury control strategies. The original Characterization and Modeling of the Forms of Mercury from Coal-Fired Power Plants project had two tasks. The first was to collect enough data such that mercury speciation could be predicted based on relatively simple inputs such as coal analyses and plant configuration. The second was to field-validate the Ontario Hydro mercury speciation method (at the time, it had only been validated at the pilot-scale level). However, after sampling at two power plants (the Ontario Hydro method was validated at one of them), the EPA issued

  13. Nature of fireside deposits in a bagasse and groundnut shell fired 20 MW thermal boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srikanth, S.; Das, S.K.; Ravikumar, B.; Rao, D.S.; Nandakumar, K.; Vijayan, P.

    2004-01-01

    The nature of deposit formation on the fireside surfaces of the boiler tubes in the various parts (water walls, platen superheater, final superheater, economizer, electrostatic precipitator etc.) of a commercial 20 MW stoker-fired boiler being fired with a mixture of 80% bagasse and 20% groundnut shell has been analyzed. The deposits in the various portions of the boiler were characterized by particle size analysis, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The deposits were found to be mainly quartz, alkali and alkaline earth silicates and sulfates. From the phase constitution and other microscopic characteristics of the deposit, it can be inferred that the silicates in the deposit formed through inertial impaction and the sulfates formed by vapor phase deposition

  14. Nature of fireside deposits in a bagasse and groundnut shell fired 20 MW thermal boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikanth, S.; Rao, D.S. [National Metallurgical Laboratory Madras Centre, Chennai (India); Swapan, S.K.; Das, K.; Ravikumar, B. [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India). Materials Characterization Division; Nandakumar, K.; Vijayan, P. [Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli (India). Research and Development Section

    2004-10-01

    The nature of deposit formation on the fireside surfaces of the boiler tubes in the various parts (water walls, platen superheater, final superheater, economizer, electrostatic precipitator etc.) of a commercial 20 MW stoker-fired boiler being fired with a mixture of 80% bagasse and 20% groundnut shell has been analyzed. The deposits in the various portions of the boiler were characterized by particle size analysis, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The deposits were found to be mainly quartz, alkali and alkaline earth silicates and sulfates. From the phase constitution and other microscopic characteristics of the deposit, it can be inferred that the silicates in the deposit formed through inertial impaction and the sulfates formed by vapor phase deposition. (author)

  15. Influence of Deposit Formation on Corrosion at a Straw Fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug; Michelsen, Hanne Philbert; Frandsen, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    Straw-fired boilers generally experience severe problems with deposit formation and are expected to suffer from severe superheater corrosion at high steam temperatures due to the large alkali and chlorine content in straw. In this study, deposits collected (1) on air-cooled probes and (2) directly...... at the existing heat transfer surfaces of a straw-fired boiler have been examined. Deposits collected on air-cooled probes were found to consist of an inner layer of KCl and an outer layer of sintered fly ash. Ash deposits formed on the heat transfer surfaces all had a characteristic layered structure......, with a dense layer of K2SO4 present adjacent to the metal surface. It is argued that the K2SO4 layer present adjacent to the metal surface may lead to reduced corrosion rates at this boiler. A discussion of the deposit structure, the K2SO4 layer formation mechanism, and the influence of the inner layer...

  16. Probe Measurements of Ash Deposit Formation Rate and Shedding in a Biomass Suspension-Fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    The aim of this study was to investigate ash deposit formation rate, heat uptake reduction and deposit removal by using advanced online ash deposition and sootblowing probes in a 350 MWth suspension-fired boiler, utilizing wood and straw pellets as fuel. The influence of fuel type (straw share...

  17. Researching the Performance of Dual-Chamber Fire-Tube Boiler Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous heating systems equipped with fire-tube or shell boilers show high effectiveness, consistent performance and great technical parameters. But there is a significant limitation of its thermal productivity due to the complexity of durable large diameter fire-tube bottoms implementation. Optimization of combustion aerodynamics can be the way to expand the fire-tube boilers performance limit. In this case lots of problems connected with reducing emissions of toxic substances, providing of burning stability, local heat stresses and aerodynamic resistances should be solved. To resolve the indicated problems, a modified model of dual-chamber fire-tube boiler furnace is proposed. The performance of suggested flame-tube was simulated using the proven computer-aided engineering software ANSYS Multiphysics. Results display proposed flame tube completely filled with moving medium without stagnant zones. Turbulent vortical combustion is observed even with the straight-through fuel supply. Active flue gas recirculation in suggested dual-chamber furnace reduces emissions of pollutants. Diminution of wall heat fluxes allows boiler operation at lower water treatment costs.

  18. Impact of Coal Fly Ash Addition on Combustion Aerosols (PM2.5) from Full-Scale Suspension-Firing of Pulverized Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Wu, Hao; Frandsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    The formation of combustion aerosols was studied in an 800 MWth suspension-fired power plant boiler, during combustion of pulverized wood pellets with and without addition of coal fly ash as alkali capture additive. The aerosol particles were sampled and characterized by a low-pressure cascade im...

  19. Innovative coupling of cogeneration units with fire tube boilers: thermo-fluid dynamics of the fire tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioccolanti, L.; Arteconi, A.; Bartolini, C. M.; Polonara, F.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays the thermal energy demand in the industrial sector is usually satisfied by means of fire tube boilers while electricity is supplied from the grid. Alternatively cogeneration units could be adopted for thermal and electrical energy self-production, whilst installing boilers only as back-up units. However, even when cogeneration is profitable, it is not widespread because industries are usually unwilling to accept cogeneration plants for reliability and high investment costs issues. In this work a system aimed at overcoming the above mentioned market difficulties is proposed. It consists of an innovative coupling of a combined heat and power unit with a modified fire tube boiler. In particular, a CFD analysis was carried out by the authors in order to address the most critical aspects related with the coupling of the two systems. More precisely, the following aspects were evaluated in detail: (i) pressure losses of the exhausts going from the prime mover to the boiler due to the sudden cross-section area variations; (ii) thermal power recoverable from the exhausts in the tubes of the boiler; (iii) dependence of the system on the final users’ specification.

  20. Cleaning of biomass derived product gas for engine applications and for co-firing in PC-boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E; Staahlberg, P; Laatikainen-Luntama, J [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; and others

    1997-10-01

    The conventional fluidized-bed combustion has become commercially available also to relatively small scale (5 MWe), but this technology has rather low power-to-heat ratio and consequently it`s potential is limited to applications where district or process heat is the main product. Thus, there seems to be a real need to develop more efficient methods for small-scale power production from biomass. Gasification diesel power plant is one alternative for the small-scale power production, which has clearly higher power-to-heat ratio than can be reached in conventional steam cycles. The main technical problem in this process is the gas cleaning from condensable tars. In addition to the diesel-power plants, there are several other interesting applications for atmospheric-pressure clean gas technology. One alternative for cost-effective biomass utilization is co-firing of biomass derived product gas in existing pulverized coal fired boilers (or other types of boilers and furnaces). The aim of the project is to develop dry gas cleaning methods for gasification-diesel power plants and for other atmospheric-pressure applications of biomass and waste gasification. The technical objectives of the project are as follows: To develop and test catalytic gas cleaning methods for engine. To study the removal of problematic ash species of (CFE) gasification with regard to co-combustion of the product gas in PC boilers. To evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of different small-scale power plant concepts based on fixed-bed updraft and circulating fluidized- bed gasification of biomass and waste. (orig.)

  1. Pilot plant experience in electron-beam treatment of iron-ore sintering flue gas and its application to coal boiler flue gas cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, K.

    1984-01-01

    The present development status of the electron-beam flue gas treatment process, which is a dry process capable of removing SOx and NOx simultaneously, is described. The most advanced demonstration of this process was accomplished with a pilot plant in Japan where the maximum gas flow rate of 10,000 Nm 3 /h of an iron-ore sintering machine flue gas was successfully treated. The byproduct produced in this process is collected as a dry powder which is a mixture of ammonia sulfate and ammonium nitrate and is saleable as a fertilizer or a fertilizer component. A preliminary economic projection showed that this process costs less than the lime scrubber which removes SOx but does not remove NOx. Tests using simulated coal combustion gases suggest that this process will be applicable to coal-fired boiler flue gas treatment as well. However, tests on actual coal-fired flue gases are still required for commercial application decisions. A process development unit program consisting of the design, construction and testing of actual coal-fired power station flue gases is underway in the U.S.A. The design and engineering of the test plant is far advanced and the construction phase will be launched in the very near future. (author)

  2. Influence of the overfire air ratio on the NO(x) emission and combustion characteristics of a down-fired 300-MW(e) utility boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feng; Li, Zhengqi; Chen, Zhichao; Fan, Subo; Liu, Guangkui

    2010-08-15

    Down-fired boilers used to burn low-volatile coals have high NO(x) emissions. To find a way of solving this problem, an overfire air (OFA) system was introduced on a 300 MW(e) down-fired boiler. Full-scale experiments were performed on this retrofitted boiler to explore the influence of the OFA ratio (the mass flux ratio of OFA to the total combustion air) on the combustion and NO(x) emission characteristics in the furnace. Measurements were taken of gas temperature distributions along the primary air and coal mixture flows, average gas temperatures along the furnace height, concentrations of gases such as O(2), CO, and NO(x) in the near-wall region and carbon content in the fly ash. Data were compared for five different OFA ratios. The results show that as the OFA ratio increases from 12% to 35%, the NO(x) emission decreases from 1308 to 966 mg/Nm(3) (at 6% O(2) dry) and the carbon content in the fly ash increases from 6.53% to 15.86%. Considering both the environmental and economic effect, 25% was chosen as the optimized OFA ratio.

  3. Effect of water side deposits on the energy performance of coal fired thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, M. Siddhartha

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of water side deposits in the 210 MW coal fired thermal power plant components (viz., boiler, turbine, feed water heaters, condensers and lube oil coolers) on the energy efficiency of these components and that of the overall system at 100% maximum continuous rating (MCR). The origin, composition and rate of build up of deposits on the water side are presented. A linear growth rate of deposits is assumed for simplicity. The effects of the reduction in heat transfer, increased pressure drop and increased pumping power/reduced power output in the components are quantified in the form of curve fits as functions of the deposit thickness (μm). The reduction in heat transfer in the boiler components is in the range of 0.2-2.0% under normal scaling. The increased pumping power is of the order of 0.6-7.6% in the boiler components, 29% in the BFP circuit, 26% in the LPH circuit, 21% in the HPH circuit and 18% in the lube oil cooler circuits. The effects on the overall coal fired plant is quantified through functional relations between the efficiencies and the notional deposit thickness. The sensitivity indices to the notional deposit thickness are: boiler efficiency: -0.0021% points/μm, turbine circuit efficiency: -0.0037% points/μm, auxiliary power efficiency: -0.00129% points/μm, gross overall efficiency: -0.0039% points/μm and net overall efficiency: -0.0040% points/μm. The overall effect of scale build up is either increased power input of ∼68 kW/μm (at a constant power output) or decreased power output ∼25 kW/μm (at a constant power input). Successful contaminant control techniques are highlighted. Capacity reduction effects due to water side deposits are negligible

  4. Refurbishment priorities at the Russian coal-fired power sector for cleaner energy production case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Grammelis; N. Koukouzas; G. Skodras; E. Kakaras; A. Tumanovsky; V. Kotler [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), Ptolemaida (Greece)

    2006-11-15

    The paper reviews the current status of the coal-fired power sector in Russia, the prospects for renovation activities based on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and presents two case studies on potential refurbishment projects. Data were collected for 180 thermoelectric units with capacity higher than 100 MWe and the renovation needs of the power sector, among the retrofitting, repowering and reconstruction options, were estimated through a multi-criteria analysis. The most attractive system to renovate a power plant between the Supercritical Combustion (SC) and the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technologies was evaluated. The application of each of the aforementioned technologies at the Kashirskaya and Shaturskaya power plants was studied and their replication potential in the Russian coal-fired power plant park was examined. Nowadays, the installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the Russian Federation is 29.3 GWe, while they account for about 19% of the total electricity generation in the area. The low efficiency and especially the advanced age are the determinant factors for renovation applications at the Russian units. Even in the more conservative modernization scenario, over 30% of the thermoelectric units have to be repowered or reconstructed. Concrete proposals about the profitable and reliable operation of two Russian thermoelectric units with minimized environmental effects were elaborated. A new unit of 315 MWe with supercritical steam parameters and reburning for NOx abatement is envisaged to upgrade Unit 1 of Kashirskaya power station, while new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers of the same steam generation is the most promising renovation option for the boilers of Unit 1 in Shaturskaya power station. 11 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Co-combustion of gasified contaminated waste wood in a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This project demonstrates the technical and economical feasibility of the producing and cofiring of product gas from demolition waste wood. For this purpose LCV product gas is generated in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification plant, cooled and cleaned and transported to the boiler of a 600 MWe pulverized coal fired power plant. Gas cooling and cleaning takes place in a waste heat boiler and a multi stage wet gas cleaning train. Steam raised in the waste heat boiler is exported to the power plant. On an annual basis 70,000 tons of steam coal are substituted by 150,000 tons of contaminated demolition waste wood (50,000 tons oil equivalent), resulting in a net CO2 emission reduction of 170,000 tons per year, while concurrently generating 205 GWh of electrical power. The wood gasification plant was built by NV EPZ (now incorporated in Essent Energi BV) for Amergas BV, now a 100% subsidiary of Essent Energie BV. The gasification plant is located at the Amer Power Station of NV EPZ Production (now Essent Generation) at Geertruidenberg, The Netherlands. Demonstrating several important design features in wood gasification, the plant started hot service in the Spring of 2000, with first gasification accomplished in the Summer of 2000 and is currently being optimized. (au)

  6. Thermal coal utilization for the ESCAP region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A selection of papers is presented originating from talks to coal utilization workshops for the ASEAN region in 1981. The papers cover: planning aspects - economic and technical aspects of coal usage, long term planning for fuel coal needs, planning and coal selection for coal-fired power plants, coal availability and marketing, and economic aspects of coal usage in developing countries; combustion and plant - changing from coal to oil, principles and problems of coal combustion, use of indigenous and imported coals and their effects on plant design, coal pulverizing mills, ash and dust disposal, environmental aspects of coal combustion, industrial sized coal-fired boilers; transport and storage -ocean shipment, coal receival facilities and associated operations, shipping and rail transport, coal handling and transport, environmental issue in the transport and handling of coal, coal preparation and blending; testing and properties - coal types, characterization properties and classification; training power plant operators; the cement industry and coal, the Australian black coal industry.

  7. Installations of SNCR on bark-fired boilers; Uppfoeljning av SNCR-installationer paa barkpannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjalmarsson, A.K.; Hedin, K. [AaF-Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Lars [AaF-IPK (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Experience has been collected from the twelve bark-fired boilers in Sweden with selective non catalytic reduction (SNCR) installations to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides. Most of the boilers have slope grates, but there are also two boilers with cyclone ovens and two fluidized bed boilers. In addition to oil there are also possibilities to burn other fuel types in most boilers, such as sludge from different parts of the pulp and paper mills, saw dust and wood chips. The SNCR installations seems in general to be of simple design. In most installations the injection nozzles are located in existing holes in the boiler walls. The availability is reported to be good from several of the SNCR installations. There has been tube leakage in several boilers. The urea system has resulted in corrosion and in clogging of one oil burner. This incident has resulted in a decision not to use SNCR system with the present design of the system. The fuel has also caused operational problems with the SNCR system in several of the installations due to variations in the moisture content and often high moisture content in bark and sludge, causing temperature variations. The availability is presented to be high for the SNCR system at several of the plants, in two of them about 90 %. The results in NO{sub x} reduction vary between the installations depending on boiler, fuel and operation. The emissions are between 45 and 100 mg NO{sub 2}/MJ fuel input and the NO{sub x} reduction rates are in most installations between 30 and 40 %, the lowest 20 and the highest 70 %. 13 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Comparison of different testing methods for gas fired domestic boiler efficiency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Paepe, M.; T'Joen, C.; Huisseune, H.; Van Belleghem, M.; Kessen, V.

    2013-01-01

    As the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive is being implemented throughout the European Union, a clear need for certification of boiler and domestic heating devices has arisen. Several ‘Notified Bodies’ exist, spread around the different member states. They are acting as the notified body of that member state and focus on local certification. A boiler manufacturer has its equipment tested according to the ‘Boiler Efficiency directive 92/42/EC’. Recently, tests done by several notified bodies in sequence on an identical unit of a manufacturer showed that results could differ depending on which notified body performed the test. In cooperation with ‘Technigas’ (Notified Body in Belgium) a detailed study was done of the measurement setup and devices for determining boiler efficiencies. Several aspects were studied: measurement devices (absolute or differential types), their location within the test setup (focussing on accuracy and their overall impact on the result) and the measurement strategy (measuring on the primary or the secondary water side). The study was performed for both full load and part load scenarios of a gas fired domestic boiler (smaller than 70 kW [4]). The results clearly indicate that temperature measurements arecritical for assessing boiler efficiency. Secondly the test setup using secondary circuit measurements should be preferred. Tests were performed at ‘Technigas’ on different setups in order to validate the findings. - Highlights: ► Labelling of boiler is now obliged by European standards. ► Error propagation is analysed for different methods of boiler performance testing. ► Secondary water side measurement with separate calibration of has highest quality. ► A sensitivity analysis showed that the water temperatures are important factors.

  9. Fire-Side Corrosion: A Case Study of Failed Tubes of a Fossil Fuel Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Asnavandi, Majid; Kahram, Mohaddeseh; Rezaei, Milad; Rezakhani, Davar

    2017-01-01

    The failures of superheater and reheater boiler tubes operating in a power plant utilizing natural gas or mazut as a fuel have been analysed and the fire-side corrosion has been suggested as the main reason for the failure in boiler tubes. The tubes have been provided by a fossil fuel power plant in Iran and optical and electron microscopy investigations have been performed on the tubes as well as the corrosion products on their surfaces. The results showed that the thickness of the failed tu...

  10. Boiler corrosion (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-Jul 76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.F.

    1976-07-01

    Research on design, improved efficiency, materials, cathodic protection, corrosion inhibiting additives and combustion in coal and fuel oil fired boilers are cited. Corrosion from limestone injection for pollution control, magnetohydrodynamics, ship boilers, and nuclear power plant boilers are included. (This updated bibliography contains 86 abstracts, 9 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  11. Application of Paste Backfill in Underground Coal Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masniyom, M.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires are known from different coalfields worldwide. China, India, USA, Australia, Indonesia and South Africa are the main countries affected by coal fires. The fires is thermally intensive and cause numerous sinkholes, large-scale subsidence, air pollution, global warming, loss of mining productivity and increasing safety risk. The Wuda Inner Mongolia coalfield has been selected as a possible test area for paste backfill. The traditional methods, executed by fire fighting teams, by covering the coalfire areas with soil, blasting burning coal outcrops and injecting water in the subsurface fire pockets are continuously improved and extended. Initiatives to introduce modern techniques, such as backfill placement at fracture and borehole, to cool down the burning coal and cut off the air supply. This study is to investigate backfill materials and techniques suited for underground coal fires. Laboratory tests were carried out on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of different backfill materials and mixtures thereof. Special attention was paid to materials generated as by-products and other cheaply available materials e.g. fly ash from power plants. There is a good chance that one of the different material mixtures investigated can be used as a technically and economically viable backfill for underground coal fires.

  12. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and

  13. Electron beam technology for multipollutant emissions control from heavy fuel oil-fired boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Ostapczuk, Anna; Licki, Janusz

    2010-08-01

    The electron beam treatment technology for purification of exhaust gases from the burning of heavy fuel oil (HFO) mazout with sulfur content approximately 3 wt % was tested at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology laboratory plant. The parametric study was conducted to determine the sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal efficiency as a function of temperature and humidity of irradiated gases, absorbed irradiation dose, and ammonia stoichiometry process parameters. In the test performed under optimal conditions with an irradiation dose of 12.4 kGy, simultaneous removal efficiencies of approximately 98% for SO2, and 80% for NO(x) were recorded. The simultaneous decrease of PAH and one-ringed aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, and xylenes [BTX]) concentrations was observed in the irradiated flue gas. Overall removal efficiencies of approximately 42% for PAHs and 86% for BTXs were achieved with an irradiation dose 5.3 kGy. The decomposition ratio of these compounds increased with an increase of absorbed dose. The decrease of PAH and BTX concentrations was followed by the increase of oxygen-containing aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations. The PAH and BTX decomposition process was initialized through the reaction with hydroxyl radicals that formed in the electron beam irradiated flue gas. Their decomposition process is based on similar principles as the primary reaction concerning SO2 and NO(x) removal; that is, free radicals attack organic compound chains or rings, causing volatile organic compound decomposition. Thus, the electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT) technology ensures simultaneous removal of acid (SO2 and NO(x)) and organic (PAH and BTX) pollutants from flue gas emitted from burning of HFO. This technology is a multipollutant emission control technology that can be applied for treatment of flue gas emitted from coal-, lignite-, and HFO-fired boilers. Other thermal processes such

  14. Process simulation of co-firing torrefied biomass in a 220 MWe coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Xiaolei; Pawlak-Kruczek, Halina; Yang, Weihong; Kruczek, Pawel; Blasiak, Wlodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The performances of torrefaction based co-firing power plant are simulated by using Aspen Plus. • Mass loss properties and released gaseous components have been studied during biomass torrefaction processes. • Mole fractions of CO 2 and CO account for 69–91% and 4–27% in total torrefied gases. • The electrical efficiency reduced when increasing either torrefaction temperature or substitution ratio of biomass. - Abstract: Torrefaction based co-firing in a pulverized coal boiler has been proposed for large percentage of biomass co-firing. A 220 MWe pulverized coal-power plant is simulated using Aspen Plus for full understanding the impacts of an additional torrefaction unit on the efficiency of the whole power plant, the studied process includes biomass drying, biomass torrefaction, mill systems, biomass/coal devolatilization and combustion, heat exchanges and power generation. Palm kernel shells (PKS) were torrefied at same residence time but 4 different temperatures, to prepare 4 torrefied biomasses with different degrees of torrefaction. During biomass torrefaction processes, the mass loss properties and released gaseous components have been studied. In addition, process simulations at varying torrefaction degrees and biomass co-firing ratios have been carried out to understand the properties of CO 2 emission and electricity efficiency in the studied torrefaction based co-firing power plant. According to the experimental results, the mole fractions of CO 2 and CO account for 69–91% and 4–27% in torrefied gases. The predicted results also showed that the electrical efficiency reduced when increasing either torrefaction temperature or substitution ratio of biomass. A deep torrefaction may not be recommended, because the power saved from biomass grinding is less than the heat consumed by the extra torrefaction process, depending on the heat sources

  15. Oxy-coal combustion in an entrained flow reactor: Application of specific char and volatile combustion and radiation models for oxy-firing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez, L.; Yin, Chungen; Riaza, J.

    2013-01-01

    The deployment of oxy-fuel combustion in utility boilers is one of the major options for CO2 capture. However, combustion under oxy-firing conditions differs from conventional air-firing combustion, e.g., in the aspect of radiative heat transfer, coal conversion and pollutants formation....... In this work, a numerical study on pulverised coal combustion was conducted to verify the applicability and accuracy of several sub-models refined for oxy-fuel conditions, e.g., gaseous radiative property model, gas-phase combustion mechanism and heterogeneous char reaction model. The sub-models were...... implemented in CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations of combustion of three coals under air-firing and various oxy-firing (21-35% vol O2 in O2/CO2 mixture) conditions in an EFR (entrained flow reactor). The predicted coal burnouts and gaseous emissions were compared against experimental results...

  16. Nuclear techniques for the on-line bulk analysis of carbon in coal-fired power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowerby, B D

    2009-09-01

    Carbon trading schemes usually require large emitters of CO(2), such as coal-fired power stations, to monitor, report and be audited on their CO(2) emissions. The emission price provides a significant additional incentive for power stations to improve efficiency. In the present paper, previous work on the bulk determination of carbon in coal is reviewed and assessed. The most favourable method is that based on neutron inelastic scattering. The potential role of on-line carbon analysers in improving boiler efficiency and in carbon accounting is discussed.

  17. Coal devolatilization and char conversion under suspension fired conditions in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker Degn; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    have been carried out in an electrically heated entrained flow reactor that is designed to simulate the conditions in a suspension fired boiler. Coal devolatilized in N2 and CO2 atmospheres provided similar results regarding char morphology, char N2-BET surface area and volatile yield. This strongly......The aim of the present investigation is to examine differences between O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres during devolatilization and char conversion of a bituminous coal at conditions covering temperatures between 1173 K and 1673 K and inlet oxygen concentrations between 5 and 28 vol.%. The experiments...

  18. Analysis of an effective solution to excessive heat supply in a city primary heating network using gas-fired boilers for peak-load compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hai-Chao; Jiao, Wen-Ling; Zou, Ping-Hua; Liu, Jing-Cheng [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, mail box 2645, 202 Haihe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Through investigation of the Dengfeng heating network in the city of Daqing, China, for the 2007-2008 heating season, we found serious problems of excessive heat supply in the primary heating network. Therefore, we propose the application of gas-fired boilers in underperforming heating substations as peak-load heat sources to effectively adapt to the regulation demands of seasonal heat-load fluctuations and reduce the excessive heat supply. First, we calculated the excessive heat supply rates (EHSRs) of five substations using detailed investigative data. We then discussed the feasibility of the proposed scheme providing energy savings from both energetic and exergetic points of view. The results showed that the average EHSR of the five substations between January and March was 20.57% of the gross heat production but consequently reduced to 6.24% with the installation of the gas-fired boilers. Therefore, the combined heating scheme with coal as the basic heat-source and gas-fired boilers as peak-load heat sources is energy-efficient to some extent, although requires the use of natural gas. Meanwhile, the exergy decreased by 10.97%, which indicates that the combined heating scheme effectively reduces the primary energy consumption and pollutant emission of the heating systems. (author)

  19. Suspension-firing of wood with coal ash addition: Probe measurements of ash deposit build-up at Avedøre Power Plant (AVV2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood-firing. Investigat...... to the gas phase as HCl(g). Effect of boiler operational parameters on gas emissions has also been investigated.......This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood...... and boiler load on ash deposition propensity was investigated. Results of ash deposition propensity showed increasing trend with increasing flue gas temperature. Video monitoring revealed that the deposits formed were not sticky and could be easily removed, and even at very high flue gas temperatures (> 1350...

  20. Coal-Fired Power Plant Heat Rate Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    View a report that identifies systems and equipment in coal-fired power plants where efficiency improvements can be realized, and provides estimates of the resulting net plant heat rate reductions and costs for implementation.

  1. Control strategies of atmospheric mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hezhong; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Ke; Qu, Yiping; Hao, Jiming; Xue, Zhigang; Chai, Fahe

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) emission from coal is one of the primary sources of anthropogenic discharge and pollution. China is one of the few countries in the world whose coal consumption constitutes about 70% of total primary energy, and over half of coals are burned directly for electricity generation. Atmospheric emissions of Hg and its speciation from coal-fired power plants are of great concern owing to their negative impacts on regional human health and ecosystem risks, as well as long-distance transport. In this paper, recent trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and its species split from coal-fired power plants in China during the period of 2000-2007 are evaluated, by integrating each plant's coal consumption and emission factors, which are classified by different subcategories of boilers, particulate matter (PM) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) control devices. Our results show that the total Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants have begun to decrease from the peak value of 139.19 t in 2005 to 134.55 t in 2007, though coal consumption growing steadily from 1213.8 to 1532.4 Mt, which can be mainly attributed to the co-benefit Hg reduction by electrostatic precipitators/fabric filters (ESPs/FFs) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD), especially the sharp growth in installation of WFGD both in the new and existing power plants since 2005. In the coming 12th five-year-plan, more and more plants will be mandated to install De-NO(x) (nitrogen oxides) systems (mainly selective catalytic reduction [SCR] and selective noncatalytic reduction [SNCR]) for minimizing NO(x) emission, thus the specific Hg emission rate per ton of coal will decline further owing to the much higher co-benefit removal efficiency by the combination of SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD systems. Consequently, SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD configuration will be the main path to abate Hg discharge from coal-fired power plants in China in the near future. However advanced specific Hg removal technologies are necessary

  2. Study of flue-gas temperature difference in supercritical once-through boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yanchang; Li, Bing; Song, Ang

    2018-02-01

    The 600 MW coal-fired once-through Boilers with opposed firing at a power plant are found to experience marked temperature variation and even overtemperature on the wall of the heating surface as a result of flue-gas temperature (FGT) variation in the boiler. In this study, operational adjustments were made to the pulverizing, combustion, and secondary air box systems in these boilers, in order to solve problems in internal combustion. The adjustments were found to reduce FGT difference and optimize the boiler’ combustion conditions. The results of this study can provide a reference for optimization of coal-fired boiler of the same type in similar conditions.

  3. Oxidation and carbonisation of coals: a case study of coal fire affected coals from the Wuda coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Jolanta; Meyer, Uwe; Ma, Jianwei; Chen-Brauchler, Dai

    2010-05-01

    At the coalfield of Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China) extensive underground coal fires cause widespread thermal and oxidative effects in coal seams. Within phase B of the Coal Fire Research Project of the Sino-German Initiative, methods for innovative fire-extinguishing technologies were investigated in multifaceted research approaches. Extensive investigations of oxidative and thermally affected coal seams in coal fire zone 18 were conducted in 2008 prior to application of new fire-extinguishing methods. We present results from the outcrop of coal seam No. 4 in the fire zone 18. The coal of seam No. 4 is of Early Permian age and belongs stratigraphically to the Shanxi Formation. The unaffected coal displays a high volatile bituminous A rank with a background value of random vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.90 to 0.96 % Rr. Coal channel samples were coallected at actively extracted coal faces along multiple profiles with surface temperatures ranging from about 50° to 600°C. Microscopic examinations revealed a variety of products of coal exposure to the fire. Within coal samples, a marked rise in vitrinite reflectance from background values to 5.55% Rr (6.00 % Rmax) is encountered. In addition, a number of coal samples showed suppressed vitrinite reflectances ranging between 0.82 to 0.88% Rr. Further, seemingly heat unaffected coal samples display intensive development of oxidations rims at coal grain edges and cracks as well as shrinkage cracks and formation of iron oxides/hydroxides. Instead, thermally affected coal samples with higher coalification grade are further characterised by development of macropores (devolatilisation pores) in vitrinitic streaks, transformation of liptinite to meta-liptinite and micrinite as well as by natural coke particles of mostly porous nature and fine to coarse grained anisotropic mosaic. Coal petrographic investigations confirmed a hypothesis that both, oxidations as well as low temperature carbonisation govern the thermal

  4. Fire-tube boiler optimization criteria and efficiency indicators rational values defining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrakov, P. A.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Ignatov, V. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Technical and economic calculations problems solving with the aim of identifying the opportunity to recommend the project for industrial implementation are represented in the paper. One of the main determining factors impacting boiler energy efficiency is the exhaust gases temperature, as well as the furnace volume thermal stress. Fire-tube boilers with different types of furnaces are considered in the study. The fullest analysis of the boiler performance thermal and technical indicators for the following engineering problem: Q=idem, M=idem and evaluation according to η, B is presented. The furnace with the finned ellipse profile application results in the fuel consumption decrease due to a more efficient heat exchange surface of the furnace compared to other examined ones.

  5. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Li, G. H.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J. M.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2010-02-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  6. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. X. Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR, electrostatic precipitators (ESP, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM. The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92–27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66–94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  7. Exergetic and Parametric Study of a Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Hu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A solar-aided coal-fired power plant realizes the integration of a fossil fuel (coal or gas and clean energy (solar. In this paper, a conventional 600 MW coal-fired power plant and a 600 MW solar-aided coal-fired power plant have been taken as the study case to understand the merits of solar-aided power generation (SAPG technology. The plants in the case study have been analyzed by using the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics principles. The solar irradiation and load ratio have been considered in the analysis. We conclude that if the solar irradiation was 925 W/m2 and load ratio of the SAPG plant was 100%, the exergy efficiency would be 44.54% and the energy efficiency of the plant (46.35%. It was found that in the SAPG plant the largest exergy loss was from the boiler, which accounted for about 76.74% of the total loss. When the load ratio of the unit remains at 100%, and the solar irradiation varies from 500 W/m2 to 1,100 W/m2, the coal savings would be in the range of 8.6 g/kWh to 15.8 g/kWh. If the solar irradiation were kept at 925 W/m2 while the load ratio of the plant changed from 30% to 100%, the coal savings could be in the range of 11.99 g/kWh to 13.75 g/kWh.

  8. Natural radioactivity level in coal and ash collected from Baoji coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xiaodan; Lu Xinwei

    2006-01-01

    Specific activities of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were assessed in coal (3 samples), fly ash (17 samples) and bottom ash (6 samples) collected from Baoji coal-fired power plant. This paper analyzed the characteristics of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K contents in bottom ash and fly ash, and studied the concentration factors of these radionuclides in ash in relation to those in coal. The level of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K of coal collected from Baoji coal-fired power plant are in the range of radionuclides contents of Chinese coal. The natural radioactivity level of fly ash collected from Baoji coal-fired power plant is close to Beijing and Shanghai coal-fired power plants. The paper farther assessed the possibility of fly ash of Baoji coal-fired power plant used as building materials according to the state standard. The results show that there are 29% samples exceeding the state limit when fly ash used as building materials. So the usage of fly ash in building material should be controlled. (authors)

  9. Operation corrosion test of austenitic steel bends for supercritical coal boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cizner J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion tests of both annealed and not annealed bends of HR3C and S304H steels in operation conditions of black and brown coal combustion boilers in EPRU and EDE. After a long-term exposure, the samples were assessed gravimetrically and metallographically. The comparison of annealed and unannealed states showed higher corrosion rates in the annealed state; corrosion of the sample surface did not essentially differ for compression and tensile parts of the beams. Detailed assessment of both steels is described in detail in this study.

  10. Coal-fired CCS demonstration plants, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The present report reviews activities taking place focused on the eventual large-scale deployment of carbon capture systems on coal-fired power plants. With this aim in mind, there are three main CO2 capture technology streams currently being developed and tested; these comprise pre-combustion capture, post-combustion capture, and systems based on oxyfuel technology. Although numerous other capture systems have been proposed, these three are currently the focus of most RD&D efforts and this report concentrates on these. More speculative technologies still at early stages in their development are not addressed. The overall aims of this report are to provide an update of recent technological developments in each of the main categories of CO2 capture, and to review the current state of development of each, primarily through an examination of larger-scale development activities taking place or proposed. However, where appropriate, data generated by smaller-scale testing is noted, especially where this is feeding directly into ongoing programmes aimed at developing further, or scaling-up the particular technology. Each is reviewed and the status of individual coal-based projects and proposals described. These are limited mainly to what are generally described as pilot and/or demonstration scale. Where available, learning experiences and operational data being generated by these projects is noted. Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) of individual projects have been used to provide an indication of technology scale and maturity. For pre-combustion capture, post-combustion capture and oxyfuel systems, an attempt has been made to identify the technological challenges and gaps in the knowledge that remain, and to determine what technology developers are doing in terms of RD&D to address these. However, issues of commercial confidentiality have meant that in some cases, information in the public domain is limited, hence it has only been possible to identify overarching

  11. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 2: Residual-fired nocogeneration process boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Computer generated data on the performance of the cogeneration energy conversion system are presented. Performance parameters included fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics, and emissions of residual fired process boilers.

  12. PM1 particles at coal- and gas-fired power plant work areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jeffrey B; McCarthy, Sheila A; Mezei, Gabor; Sayes, Christie M

    2012-03-01

    With the increased interest in the possible adverse health effects attributed to inhalation of fine particle matter, this study was conducted to gather preliminary information about workplace exposures at coal- and gas-fired power plants to fine particles (PM(1); i.e. <1 μm) and ultrafine particles (i.e. <0.1 μm). Combustion of fossil fuel is known to produce fine particles, and due to their proximity and durations of exposure, power plant workers could be a group of individuals who experience high chronic exposures to these types of particles. The results of a series of real-time instrument measurements showed that concentrations of PM(1) were elevated in some locations in power plants. The highest concentrations were in locations near combustion sources, indicating that combustion materials were leaking from conventional fossil fuel-fired boilers or it was associated with emission plume downwash. Concentrations were the lowest inside air-conditioned control rooms where PM(1) were present at levels similar to or lower than upwind concentrations. Microscopic examinations indicate that PM(1) at the coal-fired plants are dominated by vitrified spheres, although there were also unusual elongated particles. Most of the PM(1) were attached to larger coal fly ash particles that may affect where and how they could be deposited in the lung.

  13. Radiation doses from coal-fired plants in Oxfordshire and Berkshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, S.L.; Wrixon, A.D.

    1988-12-01

    This report contains an assessment of the radiation doses to members of the public living in Oxfordshire and Berkshire from the releases to atmosphere of natural radioactivity from Didcot Power Station and the coal-fired boilers that operate at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston and the Harwell Laboratory of UKAEA. The calculated annual effective dose equivalents to adults from the emissions from Didcot Power Station and the coal-fired plants at AWE, Aldermaston, and UKAEA, Harwell, at 5 km from the sites are, respectively, 0.3, 0.06 and 0.01 μSv. The dose to red bone marrow are broadly comparable with these values. The doses to the other age groups considered (1-year-old and 10-year-old children) are similar to those to the adults. The conclusion is therefore drawn that the discharges from the coal-fired plants make a negligible contribution to the total radiation doses received by the population living around the sites. (author)

  14. Exergetic analysis of a steam power plant using coal and rice straw in a co-firing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, Alvaro; Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], e-mails: arestrep@labcet.ufsc.br, miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia S.A., Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil). U.O. Usina Termeletrica Jorge Lacerda C.], e-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an exergetic analysis concerning an existing 50 M We steam power plant, which operates with pulverized coal from Santa Catarina- Brazil. In this power plant, a co-firing rice straw is proposed, replacing up to 10% of the pulverized coal in energy basis required for the boiler. Rice straw has been widely regarded as an important source for bio-ethanol, animal feedstock and organic chemicals. The use of rice straw as energy source for electricity generation in a co-firing process with low rank coal represents a new application as well as a new challenge to overcome. Considering both scenarios, the change in the second law efficiency, exergy destruction, influence of the auxiliary equipment and the greenhouse gases emissions such as CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} were considered for analysis. (author)

  15. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  16. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  17. Radiative heat transfer in coal-fired furnaces and oxycoal retrofit considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfurth, Jens

    2012-07-01

    Oxycoal combustion is the combustion of coal using a mixture of oxygen and cooled recycled flue gas in place of air. In the last years it has gained interest as a means of CO{sub 2} capture from stationary point sources. In particular, under emission mitigation regimes the retrofit of existing coal-fired power plants may help avoid ''stranded assets'' through lower emissions and thus costs if certain technical criteria can be met. Among these is the need to keep total heat transfer in the boiler constant while not raising the furnace exit temperature. The altered gas composition in oxycoal combustion leads to changes in both convective and radiative heat transfer, of which the latter, while of overwhelming importance in the furnace, poses a particular challenge to modellers. This work is thus primarily concerned with the simulation of radiative heat transfer. After a short introduction to oxycoal combustion, a general discussion of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models for coal combustion is given. Emphasis is placed on the physics of molecular gas band radiation, respective modelling approaches and their application within a CFD context. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that for the purposes of this work, a non-grey CFD implementation of the Exponential Wide Band Model is most suitable. Then the results of CFD simulations of the furnace of a state-of-the-art coal-fired USC boiler with a thermal power of 1,210 MW are presented, which were carried out using the commercial software FLUENT {sup registered} 6.3, combined with some User-Defined Functions. In addition to air combustion, the cases studied include variations of the burner oxygen concentration and the mode of flue gas recycling (wet and dry), the two additional parameters that present themselves in oxycoal combustion to meet the retrofit criteria. The same burner geometry optimised for oxycoal combustion was used in all cases, while the overall boiler geometry designed for air

  18. Qualitative analysis of coal combusted in boilers of the thermal power plants in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Slavko N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have looked into the qualitative analysis of coals in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B-H. The analysis includes the following characteristics: moisture (W, ash (A, combustible matter (Vg and lower heating value (Hd. From the statistic parameters we have determined: absolute range (R, arithmetic mean (X, standard deviation (S and variations coefficient (Cv. It has been shown that the coal characteristics (W, A, Vg, Hd have normal distribution. The analysis show that there are considerable deviations of ash characteristics: moisture (36.23%, ash (34.21%, combustible matter (16.15% and lower heating value (25.16% from the mean value which is shown by the variations coefficient (Cv. Large oscilations of mass portions: W, A, Vg and Hd around the mean value can adversely influence the function of a boiler plant and an electric filter plant in thermal power plants in B-H in which the mentioned types of coal burn. Large ash oscilations (34.21% around the mean value point out to the inability of application of dry procedures of desulphurisation of smoke gasses (FGD due to the additional quantity of ash. It has been shown that the characteristics of Bosnian types of coal do not deviate a lot from the characteristics of coal in the surrounding countries (coals of Serbia and Monte Negro. The results can be used in analysis of coal combustion in thermal power plants, optimisation of electrical-filtre, reduction of SO2 in smoke gas and other practical problems.

  19. Novel Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Coatings for Metal Alloys in Coal-fired Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Zak Fang; H. Y. Sohn

    2009-08-31

    Intermetallic coatings (iron aluminide and nickel aluminide) were prepared by a novel reaction process. In the process, the aluminide coating is formed by an in-situ reaction between the aluminum powder fed through a plasma transferred arc (PTA) torch and the metal substrate (steel or Ni-base alloy). Subjected to the high temperature within an argon plasma zone, aluminum powder and the surface of the substrate melt and react to form the aluminide coatings. The prepared coatings were found to be aluminide phases that are porosity-free and metallurgically bonded to the substrate. The coatings also exhibit excellent high-temperature corrosion resistance under the conditions which simulate the steam-side and fire-side environments in coal-fired boilers. It is expected that the principle demonstrated in this process can be applied to the preparation of other intermetallic and alloy coatings.

  20. Characterizing and modeling of an 88 MW grate-fired boiler burning wheat straw: Experience and lessons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Clausen, Sønnik

    2012-01-01

    and availability. To better understand grate-firing of biomass and to establish a reliable but relatively simple Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling methodology for industrial applications, biomass combustion in a number of different grate boilers has been measured and modeled. As one of the case studies......, modeling effort on an 88 MW grate-fired boiler burning wheat straw is presented in this paper. Different modeling issues and their expected impacts on CFD analysis of the kind of grate boilers are discussed. The modeling results are compared with in-flame measurements in the 88 MW boiler, which shows...... measures will be tested in a modern 500 kW grate boiler rig...

  1. Co-Combustion of Municipal Sewage Sludge and Hard Coal on Fluidized Bed Boiler WF-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajczyk Rafał

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to data of the Central Statistical Office, the amount of sludge produced in municipal wastewater treatment plants in 2010 amounted to 526000 Mg d.m. The forecast of municipal sewage sludge amount in 2015 according to KPGO2014 will reach 642400 Mg d.m. and is expected to increase in subsequent years. Significant amounts of sludge will create problems due to its utilization. In order to solve this problem the use of thermal methods for sludge utilization is expected. According to the National Waste Management Plan nearly 30% of sewage sludge mass should be thermally utilized by 2022. The article presents the results of co-combustion of coal and municipal sewage sludge in a bubbling fluidized bed boiler made by SEFAKO and located in the Municipal Heating Company in Morag. Four tests of hard coal and sewage sludge co-combustion have been conducted. Boiler performance, emissions and ash quality were investigated.

  2. A Study of Coal Fire Propagation with Remotely Sensed Thermal Infrared Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyuan Huo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires are a common and serious problem in most coal-bearing countries. Thus, it is very important to monitor changes in coal fires. Remote sensing provides a useful technique for investigating coal fields at a large scale and for detecting coal fires. In this study, the spreading direction of a coal fire in the Wuda Coal Field (WCF, northwest China, was analyzed using multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ thermal infrared (TIR data. Using an automated method and based on the land surface temperatures (LST that were retrieved from these thermal data, coal fires related to thermal anomalies were identified; the locations of these fires were validated using a coal fire map (CFM that was developed via field surveys; and the cross-validation of the results was also carried out using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER thermal infrared images. Based on the results from longtime series of satellite TIR data set, the spreading directions of the coal fires were determined and the coal fire development on the scale of the entire coal field was predicted. The study delineated the spreading direction using the results of the coal fire dynamics analysis, and a coal fire spreading direction map was generated. The results showed that the coal fires primarily spread north or northeast in the central part of the WCF and south or southwest in the southern part of the WCF. In the northern part of the WCF, some coal fires were spreading north, perhaps coinciding with the orientation of the coal belt. Certain coal fires scattered in the northern and southern parts of the WCF were extending in bilateral directions. A quantitative analysis of the coal fires was also performed; the results indicate that the area of the coal fires increased an average of approximately 0.101 km2 per year.

  3. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the coal combustion in a boiler of a thermal power plant using different kinds of the manufactured coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cristiano Vitorino da; Lazzari, Luis Carlos; Ziemniczak, Aline; Beskow, Arthur Bortolin [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)], E-mails: cristiano@uricer.edu.br, arthur@uricer.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The state of the art in computational fluid dynamics and the availability of commercial codes encourage numerical studies of combustion processes. In the present work the commercial software CFX Ansys Europe Ltd. has been used to study the combustion of pulverized coal into the boiler of a thermal power plant. The objective of this work is to obtain new information for process optimization. Different kinds of manufactured coals were numerically tested in a thermal power plant installed at the southeast region of Brazil. The simulations were made using the actual burning conditions of the boiler. Results include the residence time of the fuel into the combustion chamber, temperature fields, flow fluid mechanics, heat transfer and pollutant formation, as well as the CO and NOx concentrations, aiming to determinate the best conditions to burn the investigated coals. The numerical investigation of the phenomena involved on the coal combustion processes are used to complete the experimental information obtained in operational tests. Considering the characteristics of different kinds of manufactured coals used, with this study is possible to achieve the most efficient boiler operation parameters, with decreasing costs of electricity production and reduction of environmentally harmful emissions. It was verified that the different kinds of manufactured coals demand different operation conditions, and the kind of manufactured coal used on the combustion process has a significant effect on the pollutant formation, mainly in rel action with ash concentration. (author)

  4. Relations between combustion, deposition, flue gas temperatures and corrosion in straw-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Additives trials in three different plants, Sønderborg waste incineration plant and Ensted woodchip and straw firing boiler, are described. Both aluminium silicate containing additives and ammonium sulphate was tested. At Sønderborg, there was a drastic decrease in Cl deposition when...... using an aluminium silicate additive, however the relative chlorine content of the deposits was unchanged. At Ensted woodchip plant, a dosage level of additives was reached which reduced the chlorine flux. For straw firing where the chlorine level in the fuel is higher and the fuel load is greater...

  5. Physical characterization of biomass fuels prepared for suspension firing in utility boilers for CFD modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 1.2 kg Danish wheat straw (Jutland, 1997) prepared for suspension firing in a PF boiler has been analyzed for the purpose of generating size and shape distribution functions applicable to numerical modelling of combustion processes involving biomass, characterised by highly anisotropic...... shapes. The sample is subdivided by straw type, and coherent size, type and mass distribution parameters are reported for the entire sample. This type of data is necessary in order to use CFD reliably as a design and retrofit tool for co-firing biomass with fossil fuels, as the combustion processes...

  6. Detection and delineation of coal mine fire in Jharia coal field (JCF ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    71

    Africa, Indonesia, Poland (Zhang et al. 2005; Kuenzer et al. .... is about 8 Km in west direction from Dhanbad Rrailway station. The location of the ...... International conference on Spontaneous coal seam fires: Mitigating a global. 543 disaster at ...

  7. Sintering in Biofuel and Coal-Biofuel Fired FBC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Weigang; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of systematic experiments conducted in a laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor in order to study agglomeration phenomena during firing straw and co-firing straw with coal. The influence of operating conditions on ag-glomeration was investigated. The effect of co......-firing straw with coal on agglomeration was also examined. The results show that temperature has the most pronounced effect on the agglomeration tendency. As bed temperature increases, the defluidiza-tion time decreases sharply, which indicates an increasing tendency of agglomera-tion. When co-firing straw...... with coal, the defluidization time can be extended signifi-cantly. Examination of the agglomerates sampled during combustion by various analytical techniques indicates that the high potassium content in straw is the main cause for the formation of agglomerates. In the combustion process, potassium...

  8. Development of a fire detector for underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemingway, M.A.; Walsh, P.T.; Hunneyball, S.R.; Williams, M.; Jobling, S.; Pell, B.; West, N.G. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Buxton (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Current fire detectors in use in UK coal mines, based on semiconductor sensors which detect gaseous products of combustion, are under-utilised, are not user-friendly, have performance limitations due to interferences and are obsolete. A joint research project was therefore instigated to develop an improved fire detector. This paper describes tests performed in an experimental mine roadway on various types of sensor. The sensors were exposed to smouldering conveyor belt, coal, wood, oil and grease, and diesel exhaust fume. A potential advanced detector is based on the combination of blue and infrared optical smoke sensors which distinguish fires and diesel exhaust from coal dust, nitric oxide or nitrogen dioxide sensors to distinguish smoulderi8ng fires form diesel exhaust, and carbon monoxide sensors for general body monitoring. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, T.

    2006-11-15

    Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-01-01

    This Topical Report outlines guidelines and key considerations for design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers for oxy-combustion. The scope addressed includes only the boiler island, not the entire oxy-fired CO{sub 2} capture plant. These guidelines are primarily developed for tangential-fired boilers and focus on designs capable of dual air and oxy-fired operation. The guidelines and considerations discussed are applicable to both new units and existing boiler retrofits. These guidelines are largely based on the findings from the extensive 15 MW{sub th} pilot testing and design efforts conducted under this project. A summary level description is provided for each major aspect of boiler design impacted by oxy-combustion, and key considerations are discussed for broader application to different utility and industrial designs. Guidelines address the boiler system arrangement, firing system, boiler thermal design, ducting, materials, control system, and other key systems.

  11. Performance of casting aluminum-silicon alloy condensing heating exchanger for gas-fired boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weixue; Liu, Fengguo; You, Xue-yi

    2018-01-01

    Condensing gas boilers are widely used due to their high heat efficiency, which comes from their ability to use the recoverable sensible heat and latent heat in flue gas. The condensed water of the boiler exhaust has strong corrosion effect on the heat exchanger, which restricts the further application of the condensing gas boiler. In recent years, a casting aluminum-silicon alloy (CASA), which boasts good anti-corrosion properties, has been introduced to condensing hot water boilers. In this paper, the heat transfer performance, CO and NOx emission concentrations and CASA corrosion resistance of a heat exchanger are studied by an efficiency bench test of the gas-fired boiler. The experimental results are compared with heat exchangers produced by Honeywell and Beka. The results show that the excess air coefficient has a significant effect on the heat efficiency and CO and NOx emission of the CASA water heater. When the excess air coefficient of the CASA gas boiler is 1.3, the CO and NOx emission concentration of the flue gas satisfies the design requirements, and the heat efficiency of water heater is 90.8%. In addition, with the increase of heat load rate, the heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger and the heat efficiency of the water heater are increased. However, when the heat load rate is at 90%, the NOx emission in the exhaust gas is the highest. Furthermore, when the temperature of flue gas is below 57 °C, the condensation of water vapor occurs, and the pH of condensed water is in the 2.5 5.5 range. The study shows that CASA water heater has good corrosion resistance and a high heat efficiency of 88%. Compared with the heat exchangers produced by Honeywell and Beka, there is still much work to do in optimizing and improving the water heater.

  12. A novel solar energy integrated low-rank coal fired power generation using coal pre-drying and an absorption heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Cheng; Bai, Pu; Xin, Tuantuan; Hu, Yue; Xu, Gang; Yang, Yongping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An improved solar energy integrated LRC fired power generation is proposed. •High efficient and economic feasible solar energy conversion is achieved. •Cold-end losses of the boiler and condenser are reduced. •The energy and exergy efficiencies of the overall system are improved. -- Abstract: A novel solar energy integrated low-rank coal (LRC) fired power generation using coal pre-drying and an absorption heat pump (AHP) was proposed. The proposed integrated system efficiently utilizes the solar energy collected from the parabolic trough to drive the AHP to absorb the low-grade waste heat of the steam cycle, achieving larger amount of heat with suitable temperature for coal’s moisture removal prior to the furnace. Through employing the proposed system, the solar energy could be partially converted into the high-grade coal’s heating value and the cold-end losses of the boiler and the steam cycle could be reduced simultaneously, leading to a high-efficient solar energy conversion together with a preferable overall thermal efficiency of the power generation. The results of the detailed thermodynamic and economic analyses showed that, using the proposed integrated concept in a typical 600 MW LRC-fired power plant could reduce the raw coal consumption by 4.6 kg/s with overall energy and exergy efficiencies improvement of 1.2 and 1.8 percentage points, respectively, as 73.0 MW th solar thermal energy was introduced. The cost of the solar generated electric power could be as low as $0.044/kW h. This work provides an improved concept to further advance the solar energy conversion and utilisation in solar-hybrid coal-fired power generation.

  13. Experimental analysis of a combustion reactor under co-firing coal with biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabyo Luiz; Bazzo, Edson; Oliveira Junior, Amir Antonio Martins de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). LabCET], e-mail: ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia S.A., Complexo Termeletrico Jorge Lacerda, Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Mitigation of greenhouse gases emission is one of the most important issues in energy engineering. Biomass is a potential renewable source but with limited use in large scale energy production because of the relative smaller availability as compared to fossil fuels, mainly to coal. Besides, the costs concerning transportation must be well analysed to determine its economic viability. An alternative for the use of biomass as a primary source of energy is the co-firing, that is the possibility of using two or more types of fuels combined in the combustion process. Biomass can be co-fired with coal in a fraction between 10 to 25% in mass basis (or 4 to 10% in heat-input basis) without seriously impacting the heat release characteristics of most boilers. Another advantage of cofiring, besides the significant reductions in fossil CO{sub 2} emissions, is the reduced emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}. As a result, co-firing is becoming attractive for power companies worldwide. This paper presents results of some experimental analysis on co-firing coal with rice straw in a combustion reactor. The influence of biomass thermal share in ash composition is also discussed, showing that alkali and earth alkaline compounds play the most important role on the fouling and slagging behavior when co-firing. Some fusibility correlations that can assist in the elucidation of these behavior are presented and discussed, and then applied to the present study. Results show that for a biomass thermal share up to 20%, significant changes are not expected in fouling and slagging behavior of ash. (author)

  14. The future of coal-fired generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G. [Sherritt International Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The 3 features that will ensure coal's place as a primary energy source are its affordability, availability and its abundance. Coal reserves represent more than 200 years of supply. Graphs depicting coal consumption in North America, Central and South America, Western Europe, Easter Europe, Middle East, Africa, and Asia show that coal use is expected to grow 1.5 per cent annually. Asia is the greatest consumer of coal, while the consumption of coal in Eastern Europe is steadily declining. About half of the electricity supply in the United States will continue to be generated by coal and non-electrical utilization is also expected to grow. Emerging technologies that are promoting efficiency of coal utilization include combustion technology, clean coal technology, conversion technology and emissions technology. These technologies also address environmental concerns regarding coal combustion, such as removal of carbon dioxide through sequestration and reduction in nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and particulates. Mercury mitigation technologies are also being developed. It was noted that the use of coal is mitigated by other available supply such as nuclear, natural gas and hydro which provide the base load generation. Renewable energy supply can meet up to 20 per cent of the base load, while coal can fill be gap between base load and peak loads. It was noted that the use of coal in direct industrial processes allows for synergies such as syngas for bitumen upgrading, coal as a chemical feedstock with electricity as a by-product, combined heat and power and cogeneration. tabs., figs.

  15. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. acme: The Amendable Coal-Fire Modeling Exercise. A C++ Class Library for the Numerical Simulation of Coal-Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Manfred W.

    2017-04-01

    At LIAG, we use numerical models to develop and enhance understanding of coupled transport processes and to predict the dynamics of the system under consideration. Topics include geothermal heat utilization, subrosion processes, and spontaneous underground coal fires. Although the details make it inconvenient if not impossible to apply a single code implementation to all systems, their investigations go along similar paths: They all depend on the solution of coupled transport equations. We thus saw a need for a modular code system with open access for the various communities to maximize the shared synergistic effects. To this purpose we develop the oops! ( open object-oriented parallel solutions) - toolkit, a C++ class library for the numerical solution of mathematical models of coupled thermal, hydraulic and chemical processes. This is used to develop problem-specific libraries like acme( amendable coal-fire modeling exercise), a class library for the numerical simulation of coal-fires and applications like kobra (Kohlebrand, german for coal-fire), a numerical simulation code for standard coal-fire models. Basic principle of the oops!-code system is the provision of data types for the description of space and time dependent data fields, description of terms of partial differential equations (pde), their discretisation and solving methods. Coupling of different processes, described by their particular pde is modeled by an automatic timescale-ordered operator-splitting technique. acme is a derived coal-fire specific application library, depending on oops!. If specific functionalities of general interest are implemented and have been tested they will be assimilated into the main oops!-library. Interfaces to external pre- and post-processing tools are easily implemented. Thus a construction kit which can be arbitrarily amended is formed. With the kobra-application constructed with acme we study the processes and propagation of shallow coal seam fires in particular in

  17. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination

  18. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  19. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  20. Clean coal reference plants: Pulverized coal boiler with flue gas desulfurization. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the U.S. energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. To achieve this goal, a multiphased effort consisting of five separate solicitations has been completed. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which, in general, correspond to the center`s areas of technology development. Primarily the categories of METC CCT projects are: atmospheric fluid bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications.

  1. Effect of Thermal Storage on the Performance of a Wood Pellet-fired Residential Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Butcher [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Sustainable Energy Technologies Dept.

    2017-08-31

    Interest in the direct use of biomass for thermal applications as a renewable technology is increasing as is also focus on air pollutant emissions from these sources and methods to minimize the impact. This work has focused on wood pellet-fired residential boilers, which are the cleanest fuel in this category. In the residential application the load varies strongly over the course of a year and a high fraction of the load is typically under 15% of the maximum boiler capacity. Thermal storage can be used even with boilers which have modulation capacity typically to 30% of the boiler maximum. One common pellet boiler was tested at full load and also at the minimum load used in the U.S. certification testing (15%). In these tests the load was steady over the test period. Testing was also done with an emulated load profile for a home in Albany, N.Y. on a typical January, March, and April day. In this case the load imposed on the boiler varied hourly under computer control, based on the modeled load for the example case used. The boiler used has a nominal output of 25 kW and a common mixed hardwood/softwood commercial pellet was used. Moisture content was 3.77%. A dilution tunnel approach was used for the measurement of particulate emissions, in accordance with U.S. certification testing requirements. The test results showed that the use of storage strongly reduces cycling rates under part load conditions. The transients which occur as these boilers cycle contribute to increased particulate emissions and reduced efficiency. The time period of a full cycle at a given load condition can be increased by increasing the storage tank volume and/or increasing the control differential range. It was shown that increasing the period strongly increased the measured efficiency and reduced the particulate emission (relative to the no storage case). The impact was most significant at the low load levels. Storage tank heat loss is shown to be a significant factor in thermal efficiency

  2. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system introduction support project. Verification project on the circulating fluidized bed boiler; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo. Junkan ryudosho boiler ni kakawaru jissho jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    In relation to the circulating fluidized bed boiler which reduces the amount of sulfur oxides emitted in coal utilization, a verification project was carried out on installation of the equipment and spread activity in China and the Philippines contributing to the control of environmental pollutant associated with coal utilization and the effective use of energy. At the Fanshan area, installed was a 10t/h internal circulating fluidized bed boiler. At the performance test, coal includes around 7% of impurities such as stone, and the impurities should be excluded continuously at the time of actual run. Therefore, the boiler efficiency had to be changed from 89.5% to 85.8%. Further, power generation facilities have not yet been finished, and the overall operation of boiler turbine has not been executed. At the Zibo area, a 30t/h external circulating fluidized bed boiler was installed. The boiler efficiency reached 86.1%, over the targeted value. At the Batangas area in the Philippines, a 10t/h internal circulating fluidized bed boiler was installed. The boiler efficiency reached 85.8%, over the designed value. About the coal produced in the Philippines, slagging was feared, but the combustion state was favorable. 82 figs., 21 tabs.

  3. Utilization of coal ash from fluidized-bed combustion boilers as road base material; Sekitandaki ryudoso boiler kara no sekitanbai no robanzai to shite no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Y. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Kozasa, K. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Tsuzura, K. [Naruto Salt Mfg. Co. Ltd., Tokushima (Japan); Izumi, H. [Nippon Hodo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Coal ash from the fluidized bed boiler is evaluated for its properties as is, as solidified or granulated, and as the roadbed material. The coal ash tested in the experiment is a mixture of ash from the fluidized bed boiler bottom, ash from the cyclone separator, and ash from the bag filter. In the manufacture of solid or granulated bodies, coal ashes are kneaded in water whose amount puts the mixture near the plasticization limit, are pressed in a low-pressure press and made into solid bodies by a 15-hour curing in 60degC saturated steam, and the solid bodies are crushed into solid granules. A content release test is conducted about the release of dangerous substances, and road paving experiments are conducted to learn the workability and serviceability of the granulated material as a road paving material. A study of the experimental results discloses what is mentioned below. Coal ash containing 10-20vol% of CaO and 15vol% or less of unburnt carbon turns into a high-strength solid after curing in saturated steam whose temperature is not higher than 60degC. The granulated solid satisfies the standards that an upper subbase material is expected to satisfy. It also meets the environmental standards in a release content test for soil set forth by Environment Agency notification No.46. 8 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Planning new coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benesch, W.A. [STEAG encotec GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    When considering fossil energy sources, it can be seen that natural gas and oil will become much scarcer than coal. Therefore, one practical option is to investigate and further develop coal-based energy supplies for the future. However, the existing coal stocks must be used very sparingly. Consequently, the conversion efficiency of the chemically-bonded energy in power and heat needs to be improved. By these means, and also by modern environmental engineering, power can be generated from coal without harming the environment. (orig.)

  5. Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Wu, Yining; Deng, Shimin; Wei, Shirang

    2004-02-01

    The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC is carried out. The effects of coal gasifying rate, pre-heating air temperature, and coal gas temperature on the performances of the power system are studied. In order to repower the power plant rated 100 MW by using the PGACC, a conceptual design is suggested. The computational results show that the PGACC is feasible for modernizing the old steam power plants and building the new cleaning power plants.

  6. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

    2001-01-01

    During the third quarter, important preparatory work was continued so that the experimental activities can begin early in the fourth quarter. Authorization was awaited in response to the letter that was submitted to the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) seeking an R and D variance for the air permit at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP). Verbal authorizations were received from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) for R and D variances for solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Discussions were held with BBP and Energy Systems Associates (ESA) about the test program. Material and energy balances on Boiler No.1 and a plan for data collection were prepared. Presentations describing the University of Pittsburgh Wood/Coal Co-Firing Program were provided to the Pittsburgh Chapter of the Pennsylvania Society of Professional Engineers, and the Upgraded Coal Interest Group and the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). An article describing the program appeared in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. An application was submitted for authorization for a Pennsylvania Switchgrass Energy and Conservation Program

  7. Radioactivity of coals and ash and slag wastes at coal-fired thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, D. A.; Sidorova, G. P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of published data on the content of radioactive nuclides in coals originating from various coal deposits, and in ash and slag wastes produced at coal-fired thermal power plants, as well as in fly ash emitted from thermal power plants into the atmosphere. Problems related to the use of coals with an elevated content of natural radionuclides (NRNs) and methods of their solution implemented at the Urtuyskoe coalfield are dealt with. Data on the analysis of Transbaikal coals for the NRN content, as well as weighted mean content of uranium and thorium in coals from the Siberian Region, are given. In order to reduce irradiation of plant personnel and the population of the areas where coal producers and coal-fired thermal power plants are located, it is necessary to organize very careful control of the NRN content in both coals and products of their combustion that are released into the environment. To solve the problem related to the control of radioactivity, the centralized approach and creation of a proper normative base are needed. Experience gained in developing the Urtuyskoe coalfield shows that it is possible to create an efficient system of coal quality control with respect to the radiation hygiene factor and provide protection of the environment and health of the population.

  8. Effects of new environmental regulations on coal-fired generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaCount, R.

    1999-01-01

    As restructuring of the electricity industry places downward pressure on power production costs, new environmental regulations are having the opposite effect. Although power plants may be subject to a variety of environmental regulations over the next ten years including reductions in mercury, toxics, and carbon dioxide, new regulations for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) are poised to impact the electricity industry in the very short term. The cost for coal-fired power plants to comply with these new regulations has the potential to alter their competitive position. January 1, 2000 marks the beginning of Phase II for the Environmental Protection Agency's SO2 allowance market. Starting in January, all coal and oil plants above 25 MW will be required to comply with the federal SO2 provisions. Regulatory deadlines for NOX are also fast approaching; though the ultimate requirements are still subject to change. On May 1, 1999, a NOX allowance market began for states within the Northeast Ozone Transport Commission (OTC). A second phase of this program is scheduled to begin in 2003 that will lower the overall cap for allowable NOX emissions in the participating states. EPA is also working to expand the reach of regional NOX reductions in 2003 through its NOX SIP call. This program, which is currently subject to litigation, would require NOX reductions in 14 states outside of the OTC. A new study by Resource Data International (RDI), Coal-Fired Generation in Competitive Power Markets, assessed the potential impact that the new SO2 and NOX regulations may have on the competitiveness of coal-fired generation. Overall, the study shows that coal-fired generation will continue to grow despite significant environmental costs and competition from natural gas-fired units. The new environmental regulations have the effect of increasing the dispatch cost of coal-fired units from $0.65/MWh on average in the WSCC to $4.14/MWh on average in the MAAC region. The addition

  9. Fuel quality and its effect on the design of power boilers in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1984-05-01

    Statistical data, taken from Power, Proceedings of the American Power Conference and others, on developments since the 1950s in boiler design caused by the increasing use of lower quality fuel (subbituminous and lignite coals) are presented. The effect of pollution regulations in the USA on boiler design is discussed. The results of a 16 year study by the TVA on the decrease in coal quality fired in its boilers and its effect on boiler efficiency are presented. Methods of transport are surveyed. Descriptions and characteristics of several modern boilers designed by Babcock and Wilcox, Combustion Engineering, Foster-Wheeler and Riley Stoker are given. 13 references.

  10. Technologically enhanced natural radioactivity around the coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, J.; Marovic, G.

    1997-01-01

    In some situations the exposure to natural radiation sources is enhanced as a result to technological developments. Burning of coal is one source of enhanced radiation exposure to naturally occurring elements, particularly radium, thorium and uranium. Most of the radioactive substances are concentrated in the ash and slag, which are heavy and drop to the bottom of a furnace. Lighter fly ash is carried up the chimney and into the atmosphere. The bottom ash and slag are usually deposited in a waste pile, from where some activity may leach into aquifers or be dispersed by wind.The main pathways through which the populations living around coal fired power plants are exposed to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides are inhalation and ingestion of the activity discharged into the Exosphere. For this reason, extensive investigations have been under way for several years in the coal fired power plant in Croatia, which uses an anthracite coal with a higher than usual uranium content. (authors)

  11. Development of a high-performance, coal-fired power generating system with a pyrolysis gas and char-fired high-temperature furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenker, J.

    1995-01-01

    A high-performance power system (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined-cycle plant that will have an efficiency of at least 47 percent, based on the higher heating value of the fuel. The original emissions goal of the project was for NOx and SOx to each be below 0.15 lb/MMBtu. In the Phase 2 RFP this emissions goal was reduced to 0.06 lb/MMBtu. The ultimate goal of HIPPS is to have an all-coal-fueled system, but initial versions of the system are allowed up to 35 percent heat input from natural gas. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is currently leading a team effort with AlliedSignal, Bechtel, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Research-Cottrell, TRW and Westinghouse. Previous work on the project was also done by General Electric. The HIPPS plant will use a high-Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) to achieve combined-cycle operation with coal as the primary fuel. The HITAF is an atmospheric-pressure, pulverized-fuel-fired boiler/air heater. The HITAF is used to heat air for the gas turbine and also to transfer heat to the steam cycle. its design and functions are very similar to conventional PC boilers. Some important differences, however, arise from the requirements of the combined cycle operation

  12. Development of a high-performance, coal-fired power generating system with a pyrolysis gas and char-fired high-temperature furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenker, J.

    1995-11-01

    A high-performance power system (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined-cycle plant that will have an efficiency of at least 47 percent, based on the higher heating value of the fuel. The original emissions goal of the project was for NOx and SOx to each be below 0.15 lb/MMBtu. In the Phase 2 RFP this emissions goal was reduced to 0.06 lb/MMBtu. The ultimate goal of HIPPS is to have an all-coal-fueled system, but initial versions of the system are allowed up to 35 percent heat input from natural gas. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is currently leading a team effort with AlliedSignal, Bechtel, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Research-Cottrell, TRW and Westinghouse. Previous work on the project was also done by General Electric. The HIPPS plant will use a high-Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) to achieve combined-cycle operation with coal as the primary fuel. The HITAF is an atmospheric-pressure, pulverized-fuel-fired boiler/air heater. The HITAF is used to heat air for the gas turbine and also to transfer heat to the steam cycle. its design and functions are very similar to conventional PC boilers. Some important differences, however, arise from the requirements of the combined cycle operation.

  13. Detection of coal mine fires in the Jharia coal field using NOAA/AVHRR data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, R.; Singh, D.; Chauhan, D.S.; Singh, K.P. [Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur (India)

    2006-09-15

    Coal fires represent a major problem in most coal producing countries. The Jharia coal field (JCF) has been affected by surface and sub-surface coal fires since the beginning of mining in the region in the mid 1800s. Currently research is focused on using freely available satellite data such as NOAA/AVHRR, MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) etc for various applications. The potential of National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images for detecting coal fires and monitoring their progress and associated environmental hazards and risks to the local communities in the JCF has been reviewed. Three models, namely the thresholding model, the contextual model and the fuel mask model have been used to determine the potential fire pixels. Due to the coarse resolution of the NOAA/AVHRR data it was essential to determine sub-pixel fires as well. Results of this study have been verified using the MODIS active fires product, MOD14 (Terra). We have used ten images of NOAA/AVHRR for the year 2004 in this study, and the results are in broad agreement with the ground truth data.

  14. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions representthe mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies.

  15. Deposit formation in a full-scale pulverized wood-fired power plant with and without coal fly ash addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Ash transformation and deposition in a pulverized wood-fired power plant boiler of 800 MWth were studied with and without the addition of coal fly ash. The transient ash deposition behavior was investigated by using an advanced deposit probe system at two different boiler locations with flue gas...... at the low-temperature location showed a slow initial build-up and a stable mass of deposits after approximately 1-5 h. The deposits collected during pulverized wood combustion contained a considerable amount of K2SO4, KCl, and KOH/K2CO3. With the addition of coal fly ash (~4 times of the mass flow of wood...... ash) to the boiler, these alkali species were effectively removed both in the fly ash and in the deposits, and a more frequent shedding of the deposits was observed. The results imply that coal fly ash can be an effective additive to reduce ash deposition and corrosion problems in a pulverized wood...

  16. Numerical simulation of the gasification based biomass cofiring on a 600 MW pulverized coal boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, R.; Dong, C.Q.; Yang, Y.P.; Zhang, J.J. [Key Laboratory of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Security and Clean Energy Technology

    2008-07-01

    Biomass cofiring is the practice of supplementing a base fuel with biomass fuels such as wood waste, short rotation woody crops, short rotation herbaceous crops, alfalfa stems, various types of manure, landfill gas and wastewater treatment gas. The practice began in the 1980s and is becoming commonplace in Europe and the United States. The benefits include reduced carbon dioxide emissions and other airborne emissions such as nitrous oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide and trace metals; potential for reduced fuel cost; and supporting economic development among wood products and agricultural industries in a given service area. However, technical challenges remain when biomass is directly cofired with coal. These include limited percentage of biomass for cofiring; fuel preparation, storage, and delivery; ash deposition and corrosion associated with the high alkali metal and chlorine content in biomass; fly ash utilization; and impacts on the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. This study involved a numerical simulation of cofiring coal and biomass gas in a 600 MWe tangential PC boiler using Fluent software. Combustion behaviour and pollutant formation in the conventional combustion and cofiring cases were compared. The study revealed that reduced NOx emissions can be achieved when producer gas is injected from the lowest layer burner. The nitrogen monoxide (NO) removal rate was between 56.64 and 70.37 per cent. In addition, slagging can be reduced because of the lower temperature. It was concluded that the convection heat transfer area should be increased or the proportion of biomass gas should be decreased to achieve higher boiler efficiency. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  17. Advanced optimisation - coal fired power plant operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turney, D.M.; Mayes, I. [E.ON UK, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this unit optimization project is to develop an integrated approach to unit optimisation and develop an overall optimiser that is able to resolve any conflicts between the individual optimisers. The individual optimisers have been considered during this project are: on-line thermal efficiency package, GNOCIS boiler optimiser, GNOCIS steam side optimiser, ESP optimisation, and intelligent sootblowing system. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Using plasma-fuel systems at Eurasian coal-fired thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, E. I.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2009-06-01

    The development of plasma technology for igniting solid fuels at coal-fired thermal power stations in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and other Eurasian countries is briefly reviewed. Basic layouts and technical and economic characteristics of plasma-fuel systems installed in different coal-fired boiles are considered together with some results from using these systems at coal-fired thermal power stations.

  19. Energy and emission aspects of co-combustion solid recovered fuel with coal in a stoker boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewski, Ryszard; Głód, Krzysztof; Telenga-Kopyczyńska, Jolanta

    2018-01-01

    The results of industrial research on co-combustion of solid recovered fuel (SRF) with hard coal in a stoker boiler type WR-25 has been presented. The share of SRF in the fuel mixture was 10%. During the co-combustion of SRF, no technological disturbances or significant reduction in energy efficiency of the boiler were noted. Obtained SO2, NOx and CO emissions were comparable with coal combustion but dust emissions increased. During combustion of the coal mixture with a 10% share of SRF in the test boiler WR-25, the emission standards established for the combustion of the dedicated fuel were met. However, comparison of obtained emission results with the emission standards established for co-incineration of waste, revealed the exceedance of permissible levels of HCl, dust, heavy metals, dioxins and furans. Additionally, the residence time of flue gases in over 850°C conditions for the test boiler WR-25 was too short (1.3 seconds) in refer to the legislative requirements (2 seconds) for the thermal conversion of waste.

  20. Energy and emission aspects of co-combustion solid recovered fuel with coal in a stoker boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasielewski Ryszard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of industrial research on co-combustion of solid recovered fuel (SRF with hard coal in a stoker boiler type WR-25 has been presented. The share of SRF in the fuel mixture was 10%. During the co-combustion of SRF, no technological disturbances or significant reduction in energy efficiency of the boiler were noted. Obtained SO2, NOx and CO emissions were comparable with coal combustion but dust emissions increased. During combustion of the coal mixture with a 10% share of SRF in the test boiler WR-25, the emission standards established for the combustion of the dedicated fuel were met. However, comparison of obtained emission results with the emission standards established for co-incineration of waste, revealed the exceedance of permissible levels of HCl, dust, heavy metals, dioxins and furans. Additionally, the residence time of flue gases in over 850°C conditions for the test boiler WR-25 was too short (1.3 seconds in refer to the legislative requirements (2 seconds for the thermal conversion of waste.

  1. Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to CO 2 and - under certain circumstances - to spontaneous combustion. Coal fires occur in many countries world wide - however, currently the Chinese coal mining industry faces the biggest problems with coal fires. Coal fires destroy the valuable resource coal and furthermore lead to many environmental degradation phenomena such as the deterioration of surrounding vegetation, land subsidence and the emission of toxic gasses (CO, N 2O). They additionally contribute to the emission of green house relevant gasses such as CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured in-situ during a field campaign to the Wuda coal fire area in south-central Inner Mongolia, China. Thermal characteristics include temperature anomaly measurements at the surface, spatial surface temperature profiles of fire areas and unaffected background areas, diurnal temperature profiles, and temperature measurements inside of coal fire induced cracks in the overlying bedrock. For all the measurements the effects of uneven solar heating through influences of slope and aspect are considered. Our findings show that coal fires result in strong or subtle thermal surface anomalies. Especially the latter can easily be influenced by heating of the surrounding background material through solar influences. Temperature variation of background rocks with different albedo, slope, aspect or vegetation cover can substantially influence the detectability of thermal anomalies. In the worst case coal fire related thermal anomalies can be completely masked by solar patterns during the daytime

  2. Coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals to solve problems of air pollution by coal thermal power stations and boiler plants: An introductory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2018-02-01

    This introductory study presents the analysis of the environmental, economic and energy performance indicators of burning high-potential coal water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP) instead of coal, fuel oil, and natural gas at typical thermal power stations (TPS) and a boiler plant. We focus on the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions of coal power industry: sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The research findings show that these emissions may be several times lower if coal and oil processing wastes are mixed with water as compared to the combustion of traditional pulverized coal, even of high grades. The study focuses on wastes, such as filter cakes, oil sludge, waste industrial oils, heavy coal-tar products, resins, etc., that are produced and stored in abundance. Their deep conversion is very rare due to low economic benefit. Effective ways are necessary to recover such industrial wastes. We present the cost assessment of the changes to the heat and power generation technologies that are required from typical power plants for switching from coal, fuel oil and natural gas to CWSPs based on coal and oil processing wastes. The corresponding technological changes pay off after a short time, ranging from several months to several years. The most promising components for CWSP production have been identified, which provide payback within a year. Among these are filter cakes (coal processing wastes), which are produced as a ready-made coal-water slurry fuel (a mixture of flocculants, water, and fine coal dust). These fuels have the least impact on the environment in terms of the emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides as well as fly ash. An important conclusion of the study is that using CWSPs based on filter cakes is worthwhile both as the main fuel for thermal power stations and boiler plants and as starting fuel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Formulation, Pretreatment, and Densification Options to Improve Biomass Specifications for Co-Firing High Percentages with Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Tyler L. Westover

    2012-06-01

    There is a growing interest internationally to use more biomass for power generation, given the potential for significant environmental benefits and long-term fuel sustainability. However, the use of biomass alone for power generation is subject to serious challenges, such as feedstock supply reliability, quality, and stability, as well as comparative cost, except in situations in which biomass is locally sourced. In most countries, only a limited biomass supply infrastructure exists. Alternatively, co-firing biomass alongwith coal offers several advantages; these include reducing challenges related to biomass quality, buffering the system against insufficient feedstock quantity, and mitigating the costs of adapting existing coal power plants to feed biomass exclusively. There are some technical constraints, such as low heating values, low bulk density, and grindability or size-reduction challenges, as well as higher moisture, volatiles, and ash content, which limit the co-firing ratios in direct and indirect co-firing. To achieve successful co-firing of biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications must be established to direct pretreatment options in order to modify biomass materials into a format that is more compatible with coal co-firing. The impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation, and boiler-tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications, which may include developing new feedstock composition by formulation or blending. Some of the issues, like feeding, co-milling, and fouling, can be overcome by pretreatment methods including washing/leaching, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and torrefaction, and densification methods such as pelletizing and briquetting. Integrating formulation, pretreatment, and densification will help to overcome issues related to physical and chemical composition, storage, and logistics to successfully co-fire higher percentages of biomass ( > 40

  4. Seasonal performance and energy costs of oil or gas-fired boilers and furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlad, A.L.; Lin, H.C.; Batey, J.; Salzano, F.J.; Yu, W.S.; Hoppe, R.J.; Allen, T.

    1977-03-01

    The seasonal operating cost of a small oil or gas-fired boiler or furnace depends upon the intrinsic merits of the device itself, the appropriateness of its capacity and cycle characteristics to the imposed load conditions, the weather characteristics and heat loss characteristics of the building being heated, and the control philosophy employed. The current study provides the bases for comparing quantitatively the seasonal operating costs of various specific space heating and/or domestic hot water systems, as influenced by the device specifics and device interaction with the space conditioned system that it serves. The resulting formalism is applied to various space-heating systems. Quantitative cost comparisons are presented.

  5. Modificaciones en las calderas igneotubulares cubanas // Modifications in the Cuban boilers of fire tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pérez Mallea

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es optimizar y diseñar las calderas igneotubulares nacionales, incluyendo las de inversión de llama yagua caliente. Con este fin se creo un software como soporte científico técnico que permite realizar los diferentes cálculosverificativos a través de los cuales se optimiza._________________________________________________________________________Abstract .The objective of this work is the optimizing and designing of the Cuban boilers of fire tube, including those of inverting offlame and hot water. A software have been developed as technical scientific supper for different calculations and optimizingprocess.

  6. Techniques to determine ignition, flame stability and burnout of blended coals in p.f. power station boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Pohl, J.H.; Holcombe, D.; Hart, J.A. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The blending of coals has become popular to improve the performance of coals, to meet specifications of power plants and to reduce the cost of coals. This article reviews the results and provides new information on ignition, flame stability, and carbon burnout studies of blended coals. The reviewed studies were conducted in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale facilities. The new information was taken in pilot-scale studies. The results generally show that blending a high-volatile coal with a low-volatile coal or anthracite can improve the ignition, flame stability and burnout of the blends. This paper discusses two general methods to predict the performance of blended coals: (1) experiment; and (2) indices. Laboratory- and pilot-scale tests, at least, provide a relative ranking of the combustion performance of coal/blends in power station boilers. Several indices, volatile matter content, heating value and a maceral index, can be used to predict the relative ranking of ignitability and flame stability of coals and blends. The maceral index, fuel ratio, and vitrinite reflectance can also be used to predict the absolute carbon burnout of coal and blends within limits. 59 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Carbon capture from coal fired power plant using pressurized fluid bed technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dennis; Christensen, Tor

    2010-09-15

    This presentation will discuss the use of a pressurized fluid bed boiler system and specialized carbon capture system to burn coal and generagte clean electricity. The paper will present the existing boiler and carbon capture technology and present economics, thermal performance and emissions reduction for a 100Mw module.

  8. Monitoring subsurface coal fires in Jharia coalfield using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing adverse effects on the regional environment ... subsurface coal fires and to study its lateral prop- ... as is the case with the recently developed Persis- .... using Statistical-Cost, Network-Flow Algorithm ..... dence of Kolkata (Calcutta) City, India during the 1990s ... a case study in the east of France; Int. J. Remote Sens.

  9. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-01

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO(sub x) pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising

  10. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-15

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising

  11. Waste generation comparison: Coal-fired versus nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste generation and disposal attract a great deal of attention whenever the nuclear industry is scrutinized by concerned parties, be it the media, the public, or political interests. It is therefore important to the nuclear industry that this issue be put into perspective relative to other current forms of energy production. Most of the country's fossil-fueled power comes from coal-fired plants, with oil and gas as other fuel sources. Most of the generated waste also comes from coal plants. This paper, therefore, compares waste quantities generated by a typical (1150-MW(electric)) pressurized water reactor (PWR) to that of a comparably sized coal-fired power plant

  12. Coal fired steam generation for heavy oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, K.

    1992-01-01

    In Alberta, some 21,000 m 3 /d of heavy oil and bitumen are produced by in-situ recovery methods involving steam injection. The steam generation requirement is met by standardized natural-gas-fired steam generators. While gas is in plentiful supply in Alberta and therefore competitively priced, significant gas price increases could occur in the future. A 1985 study investigating the alternatives to natural gas as a fuel for steam generation concluded that coal was the most economic alternative, as reserves of subbituminous coal are not only abundant in Alberta but also located relatively close to heavy oil and bitumen production areas. The environmental performance of coal is critical to its acceptance as an alternate fuel to natural gas, and proposed steam generator designs which could burn Alberta coal and control emissions satisfactorily are assessed. Considerations for ash removal, sulfur dioxide sorption, nitrogen oxides control, and particulate emission capture are also presented. A multi-stage slagging type of coal-fired combustor has been developed which is suitable for application with oilfield steam generators and is being commissioned for a demonstration project at the Cold Lake deposit. An economic study showed that the use of coal for steam generation in heavy oil in-situ projects in the Peace River and Cold Lake areas would be economic, compared to natural gas, at fuel price projections and design/cost premises for a project timing in the mid-1990s. 7 figs., 3 tabs

  13. FY 1999 report on the potential survey of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Potential survey of the spread of high efficiency coal boiler; 1999 nendo kankyo chowa gata sekitan system kanosei chosa. Kokoritsu sekitan boira fukyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the coal consumption amount and reducing the emission amount of environmental pollutants, study of small stoker boilers in China was made in terms of sampling of the data on changes in boiler efficiency caused by combustion conditions and how to improve efficiency. As objects of survey, one boiler use plant in Beijing city and two in Taiyuan city, Shanxi province, were selected to make site survey on the state of installation and operational management of coal boiler. As a result of the actual measurement of boiler efficiency at the plants, the boiler efficiency was the maximum, about 76%, in Beijing city and the minimum, about 51%, in Taiyuan city. In China, the number of boiler with the Beijing city level was extremely small, and most of the boilers were the same as the Taiyuan city level. As a result of studying how to improve efficiency based on the survey results, the following were cited as the main measures for improvement: selection of coal by boiler type and supply of the secondary air, strengthening of the combustion management by controlling furnace pressure and air amount, etc. For the selection of coal, it is necessary to set up a system to be supported by the whole country or the whole department. (NEDO)

  14. Coal information 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This volume is a comprehensive reference book on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects to 2010. It contains an in-depth analysis of the 1995 international coal market covering prices, demand, trade, supply and production capacity as well as over 450 pages of country specific statistics on OECD and key non-OECD coal producing and consuming countries. The book also includes a summary of environmental policies on climate change and on coal-related air quality issues as well as essential facts on coal-fired power stations in coal-importing regions, on coal ports world-wide and on emission standards for coal-fired boilers in OECD countries. Coal Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Oil and Gas Information and Electricity Information. Coal Information 1995 is published in July 1996. (author)

  15. Improving combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired 350 MW(e) utility boiler with multiple injection and multiple staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Xu, Shantian; Zhu, Qunyi

    2011-04-15

    Within a Mitsui Babcock Energy Limited down-fired pulverized-coal 350 MW(e) utility boiler, in situ experiments were performed, with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner and near the right-wall regions, and of gas concentrations (O(2) and NO) from the near-wall region. Large combustion differences between zones near the front and rear walls and particularly high NO(x) emissions were found in the boiler. With focus on minimizing these problems, a new technology based on multiple-injection and multiple-staging has been developed. Combustion improvements and NO(x) reductions were validated by investigating three aspects. First, numerical simulations of the pulverized-coal combustion process and NO(x) emissions were compared in both the original and new technologies. Good agreement was found between simulations and in situ measurements with the original technology. Second, with the new technology, gas temperature and concentration distributions were found to be symmetric near the front and rear walls. A relatively low-temperature and high-oxygen-concentration zone formed in the near-wall region that helps mitigate slagging in the lower furnace. Third, NO(x) emissions were found to have decreased by as much as 50%, yielding a slight decrease in the levels of unburnt carbon in the fly ash.

  16. Evaluation of AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this program is to expand the use of coal by utilizing CFB (circulating fluidized bed) technology to provide an environmentally safe method for disposing of waste materials. Hospitals are currently experiencing a waste management crisis. In many instances, they are no longer permitted to burn pathological and infectious wastes in incinerators. Older hospital incinerators are not capable of maintaining the stable temperatures and residence times necessary in order to completely destroy toxic substances before release into the atmosphere. In addition, the number of available landfills which can safely handle these substances is decreasing each year. The purpose of this project is to conduct necessary research investigating whether the combustion of the hospital wastes in a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler will effectively destroy dioxins and other hazardous substances before release into the atmosphere. If this is proven feasible, in light of the quantity of hospital wastes generated each year, it would create a new market for coal -- possibly 50 million tons/year.

  17. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III

    2001-01-01

    During the second quarter, important preparatory work was continued so that the experimental activities can begin toward the end of the third quarter or early in the fourth quarter. The Environmental Questionnaire was submitted to the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), after thorough review by the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP). Letters were submitted to the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) to seek R and D variances for permits at the BBP, the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS) for their portion of the project. Memoranda of understanding were executed by the University of Pittsburgh (University) with the BBP, JARC and ETS. Construction wood was collected from Thompson Properties. Discussions were held with the BBP and Energy Systems Associates (ESA), the BBP's engineering consultant. Presentations describing the University of Pittsburgh Wood/Coal Co-Firing Program were provided to the American Chemical Society (ACS), the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Engineering Center for Environment and Energy (ECEE) of the University of Pittsburgh, the Pittsburgh Coal Conference (PCC), the Pennsylvania Ethanol Workshop, BioEnergy 2000 and the Kick-Off Meeting of the Biomass Cofiring Opportunities Solicitation Projects

  18. Opportunities for Decarbonizing Existing U.S. Coal-Fired Power Plants via CO2 Capture, Utilization and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Ou, Yang; Rubin, Edward S

    2015-07-07

    This study employs a power plant modeling tool to explore the feasibility of reducing unit-level emission rates of CO2 by 30% by retrofitting carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) to existing U.S. coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). Our goal is to identify feasible EGUs and their key attributes. The results indicate that for about 60 gigawatts of the existing coal-fired capacity, the implementation of partial CO2 capture appears feasible, though its cost is highly dependent on the unit characteristics and fuel prices. Auxiliary gas-fired boilers can be employed to power a carbon capture process without significant increases in the cost of electricity generation. A complementary CO2 emission trading program can provide additional economic incentives for the deployment of CCS with 90% CO2 capture. Selling and utilizing the captured CO2 product for enhanced oil recovery can further accelerate CCUS deployment and also help reinforce a CO2 emission trading market. These efforts would allow existing coal-fired EGUs to continue to provide a significant share of the U.S. electricity demand.

  19. The coal-fired gas turbine locomotive - A new look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in turbomachine technology and novel methods of coal combustion may have made possible the development of a competitive coal fired gas turbine locomotive engine. Of the combustor, thermodynamic cycle, and turbine combinations presently assessed, an external combustion closed cycle regenerative gas turbine with a fluidized bed coal combustor is judged to be the best suited for locomotive requirements. Some merit is also discerned in external combustion open cycle regenerative systems and internal combustion open cycle regenerative gas turbine systems employing a coal gasifier. The choice of an open or closed cycle depends on the selection of a working fluid and the relative advantages of loop pressurization, with air being the most attractive closed cycle working fluid on the basis of cost.

  20. FY 2000 report on the survey project on potentiality of the environmental harmony coal utilization system. Potential study of the circulating fluidized bed boiler model project in Vietnam; 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa jigyo hokokusho. Vietnam ni okeru junkan ryudosho boiler model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In Vietnam, survey was conducted of the project in which the adoption of circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB) makes energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas reduction possible. CFB makes a marked decrease in SOx emission possible by using limestone as combustion bed material. As a result of the survey, the thermal power plant was not suitable for the model project due to its large size. However, it was found that two cement plants and one fiber plant having coal-fired boiler were suitable for survey. Nghi Son and Bim Son cement plants are typical cement plants in Vietnam. As a result of the hearing, they were eager to adopt CFB equipment. As to environmental improvement effects, in the thermal power plant with power source loads, emissions of SOx and NOx can be reduced by 79.0% and 72.5%, respectively. Further, in Nam Dinh Textile Company, emissions of SOx and NOx can be reduced by 79.8% and 84.6%, respectively, in case of converting boiler from the existing stoker boiler to CFB boiler. (NEDO)

  1. Development of Self-Powered Wireless-Ready High Temperature Electrochemical Sensors for In-Situ Corrosion Monitoring for Boiler Tubes in Next Generation Coal-based Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingbo [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The key innovation of this project is the synergy of the high temperature sensor technology based on the science of electrochemical measurement and state-of-the-art wireless communication technology. A novel self-powered wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor system has been developed for coal-fired boilers used for power generation. An initial prototype of the in-situ sensor demonstrated the capability of the wireless communication system in the laboratory and in a pilot plant (Industrial USC Boiler Setting) environment to acquire electrochemical potential and current signals during the corrosion process. Uniform and localized under-coal ash deposit corrosion behavior of Inconel 740 superalloy has been studied at different simulated coal ash hot corrosion environments using the developed sensor. Two typical potential noise patterns were found to correlate with the oxidation and sulfidation stages in the hot coal ash corrosion process. Two characteristic current noise patterns indicate the extent of the corrosion. There was a good correlation between the responses of electrochemical test data and the results from corroded surface analysis. Wireless electrochemical potential and current noise signals from a simulated coal ash hot corrosion process were concurrently transmitted and recorded. The results from the performance evaluation of the sensor confirm a high accuracy in the thermodynamic and kinetic response represented by the electrochemical noise and impedance test data.

  2. Co-firing Bosnian coals with woody biomass: Experimental studies on a laboratory-scale furnace and 110 MWe power unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of research into cofiring two Bosnian cola types, brown coal and lignite, with woody biomass, in this case spruce sawdust. The aim of the research was to find the optimal blend of coal and sawdust that may be substituted for 100% coal in large coal-fired power stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Two groups of experimental tests were performed in this study: laboratory testing of co-firing and trial runs on a large-scale plant based on the laboratory research results. A laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated and entrained pulverized-fuel flow furnace. Coal-sawdust blends of 93:7% by weight and 80:20% by weight were tested. Co-firing trials were conducted over a range of the following process variables: process temperature, excess air ratio and air distribution. Neither of the two coal-sawdust blends used produced any significant ash-related problems provided the blend volume was 7% by weight sawdust and the process temperature did not exceed 1250ºC. It was observed that in addition to the nitrogen content in the co-fired blend, the volatile content and particle size distribution of the mixture also influenced the level of NOx emissions. The brown coal-sawdust blend generated a further reduction of SO2 due to the higher sulphur capture rate than for coal alone. Based on and following the laboratory research findings, a trial run was carried out in a large-scale utility - the Kakanj power station, Unit 5 (110 MWe, using two mixtures; one in which 5%/wt and one in which 7%/wt of brown coal was replaced with sawdust. Compared to a reference firing process with 100% coal, these co-firing trials produced a more intensive redistribution of the alkaline components in the slag in the melting chamber, with a consequential beneficial effect on the deposition of ash on the superheater surfaces of the boiler. The outcome of the tests confirms the feasibility of using 7%wt of sawdust in combination

  3. Pulverized coal vs. circulating fluidized bed: An economic comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    As the power industry looks to the 1990s for expanded steam generation capacity, boiler owners will continue on their long-standing assignment to evaluate and select the best, lowest cost alternative to meet their energy needs. For coal-fired plants, this evaluation process includes pulverized coal-fired boilers (PC) and circulating fluidized bed boilers (CFB). The cost difference between these products is site specific and depends on several variables, including: Boiler size, pressure, and temperature; Operating variables, such as the cost for fuel, auxiliary power, SO 2 reagent, and ash disposal; Capital cost; and Financial variables, such as evaluation period and interest rate. This paper provides a technical and economic comparison between a pulverized coal-fired boiler and circulating fluidized bed boiler

  4. Refurbishment priorities at the Russian coal-fired power sector for cleaner energy production-Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grammelis, P.; Koukouzas, N.; Skodras, G.; Kakaras, E.; Tumanovsky, A.; Kotler, V.

    2006-01-01

    The paper aims to present the current status of the coal-fired power sector in Russia, the prospects for renovation activities based on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and two case studies on potential refurbishment projects. Data were collected for 180 thermoelectric units with capacity higher than 100 MWe and the renovation needs of the power sector, among the retrofitting, repowering and reconstruction options, were estimated through a multi-criteria analysis. The most attractive system to renovate a power plant between the Supercritical Combustion (SC) and the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technologies was evaluated. The application of each of the aforementioned technologies at the Kashirskaya and Shaturskaya power plants was studied and their replication potential in the Russian coal-fired power plant park was examined. Nowadays, the installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the Russian Federation is 29.3 GWe, while they account for about 19% of the total electricity generation in the area. The low efficiency and especially the advanced age are the determinant factors for renovation applications at the Russian units. Even in the more conservative modernization scenario, over 30% of the thermoelectric units have to be repowered or reconstructed. Concrete proposals about the profitable and reliable operation of two Russian thermoelectric units with minimized environmental effects were elaborated. A new unit of 315 MWe with supercritical steam parameters and reburning for NO x abatement is envisaged to upgrade Unit 1 of Kashirskaya power station, while new Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers of the same steam generation is the most promising renovation option for the boilers of Unit 1 in Shaturskaya power station

  5. Refurbishment priorities at the Russian coal-fired power sector for cleaner energy production-Case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grammelis, P. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece) and Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: pgra@central.ntua.gr; Koukouzas, N. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece); Skodras, G. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece); Kakaras, E. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4 km N.R. Ptolemaida-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, Ptolemaida 50200 (Greece); Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Tumanovsky, A. [VTI All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (Russian Federation); Kotler, V. [VTI All Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)

    2006-11-15

    The paper aims to present the current status of the coal-fired power sector in Russia, the prospects for renovation activities based on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and two case studies on potential refurbishment projects. Data were collected for 180 thermoelectric units with capacity higher than 100 MWe and the renovation needs of the power sector, among the retrofitting, repowering and reconstruction options, were estimated through a multi-criteria analysis. The most attractive system to renovate a power plant between the Supercritical Combustion (SC) and the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technologies was evaluated. The application of each of the aforementioned technologies at the Kashirskaya and Shaturskaya power plants was studied and their replication potential in the Russian coal-fired power plant park was examined. Nowadays, the installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the Russian Federation is 29.3 GWe, while they account for about 19% of the total electricity generation in the area. The low efficiency and especially the advanced age are the determinant factors for renovation applications at the Russian units. Even in the more conservative modernization scenario, over 30% of the thermoelectric units have to be repowered or reconstructed. Concrete proposals about the profitable and reliable operation of two Russian thermoelectric units with minimized environmental effects were elaborated. A new unit of 315 MWe with supercritical steam parameters and reburning for NO {sub x} abatement is envisaged to upgrade Unit 1 of Kashirskaya power station, while new Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers of the same steam generation is the most promising renovation option for the boilers of Unit 1 in Shaturskaya power station.

  6. Natural radionuclides in coal and waste material originating from coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, Gordana; Franic, Zdenko; Sencar, Jasminka; Petrinec, Branko; Bituh, Tomislav; Kovac, Jadranka

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents long-term investigations of natural radioactivity in coal, used for power production in the coal-fired power plant (CFPP) situated on the Adriatic coast, and resulting slag and ash. Activity concentrations of 40 K, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 238 U in used coal and resulting waste material have been measured for 25 years. As expected, it was demonstrated that the content of radionuclides in deposited bottom and filter ash material are closely related with radionuclide activity concentrations and mineral matter fraction in used coals. The external hazard index has been calculated and discussed for the slag and ash depository. During the first decade of operation of the CFPP has been used domestic coal produced in nearby area characterized by higher background radiation compared with the rest of Croatia. Therefore, the coal itself had relatively high 226 Ra and 238 U activity concentrations while potassium and thorium content was very low, 40 K activity concentrations being 2-9% and those of 232 Th 1-3% of total activity. As, in addition, the sulphur concentrations in coal were very high use of domestic coal was gradually abandoned till it was completely substituted by imported coal originated from various sources and of low natural radioactivity. Upon this, activity concentrations of uranium series radionuclides in deposited waste materials decreased significantly. Consequently, waste material i.e., slag and ash, generated in the last several years of coal fired power plant operation could be readily used in cement industry and as additive to other building materials, without any special restrictions according to the Croatian regulations dealing with building materials and European directives. (author)

  7. Particle Emission Characteristics of Modern and Old-Type Residential Boilers Fired with Wood Logs and Wood Pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.S.; Gustavsson, L.; Tullin, C.; Potter, A.; Leckner, B.

    2005-01-01

    Residential biofuel combustion for heating can be performed in two ways: in a stove heating the surrounding room, or in a boiler heating water to be circulated through a piping system to heat an entire house. In contrast to stoves, wood boilers can be connected to heat storage tanks, which is an advantage from an emission point of view. The present work focuses on comparing emissions from old-type and modern boilers by means of systematic variation of combustion device, fuel quality, firing behaviour, and the influence of heat storage tank. User habits are simulated in a schematic way. The purpose of the comparison is to determine the emission differences between old-type and modern residential biofuel boilers and to quantify emission characteristics of different kind of biofuel combustion

  8. Emission Characteristics of Gas-Fired Boilers based on Category-Specific Emission Factor from Field Measurements in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itahashi, S.; Yan, X.; Song, G.; Yan, J.; Xue, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Gas-fired boilers will become the main stationary sources of NOx in Beijing. However, the knowledge of gas-fired boilers in Beijing is limited. In the present study, the emission characteristics of NOx, SO2, and CO from gas-fired boilers in Beijing were established using category-specific emission factors (EFs) from field measurements. In order to obtain category-specific EFs, boilers were classified through influence analysis. Factors such as combustion mode, boiler type, and installed capacity were considered critical for establishing EFs because they play significant roles in pollutant formation. The EFs for NOx, CO, and SO2 ranged from 1.42-6.86 g m-3, 0.05-0.67 g m-3 and 0.03-0.48 g m-3. The emissions of NOx, SO2, and CO for gas-fired boilers in Beijing were 11121 t, 468 t, and 222 t in 2014, respectively. The emissions were spatially allocated into grid cells with a resolution of 1 km × 1 km, and the results indicated that top emitters were in central Beijing. The uncertainties were quantified using a Monte Carlo simulation. The results indicated high uncertainties in CO (-157% to 154%) and SO2 (-127% to 182%) emissions, and relatively low uncertainties (-34% to 34%) in NOx emission. Furthermore, approximately 61.2% and 96.8% of the monitored chamber combustion boilers (CCBs) met the standard limits for NOx and SO2, respectively. Concerning NOx, low-NOx burners and NOx emission control measures are urgently needed for implementing of stricter standards. Adopting terminal control measures is unnecessary for SO2, although its concentration occasionally exceeds standard limits, because reduction of its concentration can be achieved thorough control of the sulfur content of natural gas at a stable low level. Furthermore, the atmospheric combustion boilers (ACBs) should be substituted with CCBs, because ACBs have a higher emission despite lower gross installed capacity. The results of this study will enable in understanding and controlling emissions from gas-fired

  9. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  10. Economic aspects of advanced coal-fired gas turbine locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Houser, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Increases in the price of such conventional fuels as Diesel No. 2, as well as advancements in turbine technology, have prompted the present economic assessment of coal-fired gas turbine locomotive engines. A regenerative open cycle internal combustion gas turbine engine may be used, given the development of ceramic hot section components. Otherwise, an external combustion gas turbine engine appears attractive, since although its thermal efficiency is lower than that of a Diesel engine, its fuel is far less expensive. Attention is given to such a powerplant which will use a fluidized bed coal combustor. A life cycle cost analysis yields figures that are approximately half those typical of present locomotive engines.

  11. Coal fires in Northwest China. Detection, monitoring, and prediction using remote sensing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiangmin

    1998-01-01

    Coal fires in China occur within a region that stretches over 5,000 km in the east- western part and 750 km. in the north-southern part. These fires cause an economic and environmental threat by making a significant contribution to the global CO2 budget. The studies made in this thesis can be divided into two parts. Part one is based on field work and laboratory analysis that includes the dating of the paleo coal fires; part two concerns remote sensing applications for the active coal fires. In Chapter 2, the evolution of the paleo coal fires in Toutunhe and Xinjiang areas are studied. Several age groups of burnt rock have been recognized and their relationships with the river terraces will be discussed. The causes of the paleo coal fires are addressed, and the areas of coal fires with different ages have been dated. In Chapter 3, the physical basis of thermal infrared remote sensing for the detection and measurement of coal fires are addressed with an emphasis on the spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution. In Chapter 4, a method to reduce the effect of solar heating, the main factor of confusion when investigating the thermal anomalies of coal fires, is discussed with the help of a DEM. In Chapter 5, as the coal fires normally occupy only part of one pixel of the Landsat TM thermal channel data, the capability of sub pixel coal fire detection is addressed. In Chapter 6, the airborne data from different wavelengths acquired at different times are studied to analyze the spatial thermal characteristics of the coal fires. Spreading direction and different types of coal fires are studied. Chapter 7 presents, based on multi-sensor data fusion techniques, a hierarchical methodology for detection and monitoring of the coal fires. 120 refs

  12. Application of an empirical model in CFD simulations to predict the local high temperature corrosion potential in biomass fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Thomas; Scharler, Robert; Obernberger, Ingwald

    2015-01-01

    To gain reliable data for the development of an empirical model for the prediction of the local high temperature corrosion potential in biomass fired boilers, online corrosion probe measurements have been carried out. The measurements have been performed in a specially designed fixed bed/drop tube reactor in order to simulate a superheater boiler tube under well-controlled conditions. The investigated boiler steel 13CrMo4-5 is commonly used as steel for superheater tube bundles in biomass fired boilers. Within the test runs the flue gas temperature at the corrosion probe has been varied between 625 °C and 880 °C, while the steel temperature has been varied between 450 °C and 550 °C to simulate typical current and future live steam temperatures of biomass fired steam boilers. To investigate the dependence on the flue gas velocity, variations from 2 m·s −1 to 8 m·s −1 have been considered. The empirical model developed fits the measured data sufficiently well. Therefore, the model has been applied within a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of flue gas flow and heat transfer to estimate the local corrosion potential of a wood chips fired 38 MW steam boiler. Additionally to the actual state analysis two further simulations have been carried out to investigate the influence of enhanced steam temperatures and a change of the flow direction of the final superheater tube bundle from parallel to counter-flow on the local corrosion potential. - Highlights: • Online corrosion probe measurements in a fixed bed/drop tube reactor. • Development of an empirical corrosion model. • Application of the model in a CFD simulation of flow and heat transfer. • Variation of boundary conditions and their effects on the corrosion potential

  13. Physical and combustion characteristics of biomass particles prepared by different milling processes for suspension firing in utility boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Momenikouchaksaraei, Maryam; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    close to suspension-fired boilers. The ignition, devolatilization and burnout times of the milled particles under different combustion conditions are analysed. A one-dimensional transient model, properly accounting for the particle-ambient flow interaction and appropriately addressing the key sub...

  14. Quantification of Ash Deposit Build-up and Removal in a Straw and Wood Suspension-Fired Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate ash deposit formation rate, heat uptake reduction and deposit removal by using advanced online ash deposition and sootblowing probes in a 350 MWth suspension­fired boiler, utilizing wood and straw pellets as fuel. The influence of fuel type (straw share...

  15. Recommendations for conversions of grate fired boilers to fluidising beds; Anvisningar foer konvertering av rosterpannor till fluidiserad baeddteknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lars; Ingman, Rolf [AaF Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    This report gives advice and recommendations for retrofitting of grate fired boilers to fluidising beds. Nine plants have been visited and experiences from these conversion projects have been gathered and analysed. Among the important points planning, fuel specification, heat balance calculations and clarifying of delivery limits can be mentioned. It is also important not to underestimate the need for education of the operational staff.

  16. Combustion performance of pyrolysis oil/ethanol blends in a residential-scale oil-fired boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 40 kWth oil-fired commercial boiler was fueled with blends of biomass pyrolysis oil (py-oil) and ethanol to determine the feasibility of using these blends as a replacement for fuel oil in home heating applications. An optimal set of test parameters was determined for the combustion of these blend...

  17. Emission and properties of NO{sub x} generated during coal grate-fired in O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Li; Gao, Jian-min; Zhao, Lai-fu; Zhao, Guang-bo; Wu, Shaohua [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). Combustion Engineering Research Inst.

    2013-07-01

    With the improvement of environmental protection requirements, the problems of NO{sub x} emission from industrial boiler become more and more notable. Flue gas recirculation is a low-NO{sub x} combustion technology. It draws out a part of the flue gas from rear flue and forces it into boiler. So the flue gas can serve the combustion or flow field integration. The drawn flue gas can be forced into the boiler directly, or mixed with the primary air or secondary air. To explore a real effective method of low NO{sub x} combustion, the article discusses the influence of flue gas recirculation on the formation of NO{sub x} in the process of coal grate-fired, in the way of using the unit-boiler, measuring the temperature of coal surface and composition and other important influential parameters. Experimental studies show that under the condition of grate-fired, taking Flue gas recirculation in main combustion zone, coke combustion zone and burn-out zone could notably diminish the amount of NO. And with the promotion of flue gas recirculation rate, the effect can be more noticeable.

  18. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  19. 77 FR 58170 - Proposed Renewal of Existing Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Renewal of Existing Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety... INFORMATION: I. Background Fire protection standards for underground coal mines are based on section 311(a) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (Mine Act). 30 CFR 75.1100 requires that each coal mine...

  20. Natural desulfurization in coal-fired units using Greek lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konidaris, Dimitrios N

    2010-10-01

    This paper analyzes the natural desulfurization process taking place in coal-fired units using Greek lignite. The dry scrubbing capability of Greek lignite appears to be extremely high under special conditions, which can make it possible for the units to operate within the legislative limits of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. According to this study on several lignite-fired power stations in northern Greece, it was found that sulfur oxide emissions depend on coal rank, sulfur content, and calorific value. On the other hand, SO2 emission is inversely proportional to the parameter gammaCO2(max), which is equal to the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) content by volume of dry flue gas under stoichiometric combustion. The desulfurization efficiency is positively correlated to the molar ratio of decomposed calcium carbonate to sulfur and negatively correlated to the free calcium oxide content of fly ash.

  1. A probe into informatisation management in coal-fired enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenghai

    2003-01-01

    Starting from an analysis of the current situation and the reason about the application of MIS in the power plant, this paper is intended to expound some new way to informatisation management and positioning of MIS in the power plant from the designer. In addition, it probes into the idea and requirement about how to update the management efficiency in the coal-fired enterprises with the informatisation technology. What is more, the ways to choose the core applied platform in the power plant according to different management methods are discussed, thus, some suggestions about how to implement the informatisation are made in and attempt to offer an informatisation management model for the coal-fired enterprises. (authors)

  2. Desulphurization in peat-fired circulating and bubbling fluidized bed boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouvo, P. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Salmenoja, K. [Kvaerner Pulping Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The new emission limit values for large combustion plants are under consideration both at the EU level and in Finland. Peat and wood are the only indigenous fuels of Finland. In 1995 appr. 8 % of electricity was produced with peat. The lower heating value of peat is around 10 MJ/kg. The moisture content varies between 35-55 % and sulphur content in dry solids between 0.15-0.35 %. The total peat power capacity of Finland in 1995 was 1400 MW. Because there was not enough information available about the desulphurization of the flue gases from peat-fired fluidized bed boilers, a group of Finnish companies and Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to carry out the full-scale desulphurisation study. In the project the desulphurization with limestone injection into the furnace of two types of peat-fired boilers were studied. The goal of the project was to investigate: what the technically and economically feasible emission level is by limestone injection in the fluidized bed combustion; how the limestone injection affects the other flue gas emissions and the fouling of the boiler and, what the economy of desulphurisation is. The tests were carried out at Kokkola and Kemi power plants in Finland. At Kokkola (108 MW{sub f}) circulating fluidized bed boiler, the emission limit of 200 mg/m{sup 3}n was leached at a Ca/S-molar ratio of appr. 10, with limestone containing 92 % of calcium carbonate, CaCO{sub 3}. At Kemi (267 MW{sub f}) bubbling fluidized bed boiler, the emission limit of 280 mg/m{sup 3}n with limestone containing appr. 95 % of CaCO{sub 3} was reached at a Ca/S-molar ratio of appr. 7.0. Emissions of NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3} and dust after the ESP were not elevated due to the limestone feed. At the Kokkola power plant the NO{sub x} emissions varied from 300 to 400 mg/m{sup 3}n, and, at the Kemi power station the NO{sub x} emissions were around 200 mg/m{sup 3}n. The fouling of the Kemi boiler was found to be significant in the scheduled outage after the test

  3. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    degradation in Polaris membrane performance during two months of continuous operation in a simulated flue gas environment containing up to 1,000 ppm SO{sub 2}. A successful slipstream field test at the APS Cholla power plant was conducted with commercialsize Polaris modules during this project. This field test is the first demonstration of stable performance by commercial-sized membrane modules treating actual coal-fired power plant flue gas. Process design studies show that selective recycle of CO{sub 2} using a countercurrent membrane module with air as a sweep stream can double the concentration of CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas with little energy input. This pre-concentration of CO{sub 2} by the sweep membrane reduces the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation in the capture unit by up to 40% for coal flue gas. Variations of this design may be even more promising for CO{sub 2} capture from NGCC flue gas, in which the CO{sub 2} concentration can be increased from 4% to 20% by selective sweep recycle. EPRI and WP conducted a systems and cost analysis of a base case MTR membrane CO{sub 2} capture system retrofitted to the AEP Conesville Unit 5 boiler. Some of the key findings from this study and a sensitivity analysis performed by MTR include: The MTR membrane process can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas and produce high-purity CO{sub 2} (>99%) ready for sequestration. CO{sub 2} recycle to the boiler appears feasible with minimal impact on boiler performance; however, further study by a boiler OEM is recommended. For a membrane process built today using a combination of slight feed compression, permeate vacuum, and current compression equipment costs, the membrane capture process can be competitive with the base case MEA process at 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a coal-fired power plant. The incremental LCOE for the base case membrane process is about equal to that of a base case MEA process, within the uncertainty in the analysis. With advanced membranes (5,000 gpu for

  4. The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI summarizes the results of a multi-task research and development project directed toward the development of the technology for the commercialization of the steam bottoming plant for the MHD steam combined cycle power plant. The report covers the final test in a 2000-hour proof-of-concept (POC) test series on eastern coal, the plans and progress for the facility modifications and the conduct of the POC tests to be conducted with western coal. Results summarized in the report include chloride emissions from the particle removal (ESP/BH) processes, nitrogen and sulfur oxide emissions for various tests conditions, measurements of particulate control efficiency and management of the facility holding ponds during testing. Activities relating to corrosion and deposition probe measurements during testing and the fouling of heat transfer tubes and interaction with sootblowing cycles are summarized. The performance of both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) advanced diagnostic systems is reported. Significant administrative and contractual actions are included. 2 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Sulfation of corrosive alkali chlorides by ammonium sulfate in a biomass fired CFB boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brostroem, Markus; Backman, Rainer; Nordin, Anders [Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Kassman, Haakan [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Box 1046, SE-611 29 Nykoeping (Sweden); Helgesson, Anna; Berg, Magnus; Andersson, Christer [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    Biomass and waste derived fuels contain relatively high amounts of alkali and chlorine, but contain very little sulfur. Combustion of such fuels can result in increased deposit formation and superheater corrosion. These problems can be reduced by using a sulfur containing additive, such as ammonium sulfate, which reacts with the alkali chlorides and forms less corrosive sulfates. Ammonium sulfate injection together with a so-called in situ alkali chloride monitor (IACM) is patented and known as ''ChlorOut''. IACM measures the concentrations of alkali chlorides (mainly KCl in biomass combustion) at superheater temperatures. Tests with and without spraying ammonium sulfate into the flue gases have been performed in a 96MW{sub th}/25MW{sub e} circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The boiler was fired mainly with bark and a chlorine containing waste. KCl concentration was reduced from more than 15 ppm to approximately 2 ppm during injection of ammonium sulfate. Corrosion probe measurements indicated that both deposit formation and material loss due to corrosion were decreased using the additive. Analysis of the deposits showed significantly higher concentration of sulfur and almost no chlorine in the case with ammonium sulfate. Results from impactor measurements supported that KCl was sulfated to potassium sulfate by the additive. (author)

  6. Homogenous and heterogeneous combustion in the secondary chamber of a straw-fired batch boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szubel Mateusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the attention of the producers of biomass batch boilers is mostly focused on the problem of the total efficiency of energy conversion, CO emissions as well as particulate matter emissions. Due to the regulations of the European Union, the emissions referred to above have to be kept at certain levels because of health considerations, but also because of the necessity to increase the efficiency of the devices. The paper presents the process of analysis of a straw-fired small-scale boiler. In this study, the early stage CFD model presented in a previous paper [1] has been improved and evaluated. Based on [2], an additional set of specimens participating in homogeneous gas reactions was assumed to describe the combustion process sufficiently. Associated Arrhenius parameters have been applied for the description of these reactions. ANSYS Fluent 16 has been used to perform the analysis and the analysis was focused on the CO emissions level as well as on the impact of the modelling approach on the result of the computing. Moreover, losses related to incomplete combustion have been calculated for each of the considered cases.

  7. Particulate and un burned carbon emissions reduction from oil fired boilers using combustion promoters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsiger, Andreas; Carvalho, Jose Guilherme de [ACOTEQ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the results obtained in the tests carried out with a combustion promoter on a 530 MW utility boiler, in order to reduce solid particle emissions in steady state and transient operations. Tests have been performed at Unit II of Bahia de Algeciras Power Station, owned by Sevillana de Electricidad. Sevillana de Electricidad activities include the production, transmission and distribution of electric power. The distribution area is 40000 square miles (aprox. 20% of peninsular Spains territory).Companys total capacity is 4400 MW, of which 1476 are fuel-oil fired. The demand for electricity in the market served by Sevillana has been 18345 GWh in 1989. Fuel-oil plants output was only 1,6% of total demand in accordance with Spanish energy policy guidelines. Along tests described in this paper, steady state emission, are expected to be reduced due to depletion of the un burned carbon content in particulates. Transient operation emissions should also be reduced if the boiler is kept clean to eliminating soot blowing requirements. (author) 9 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  9. Review of biomass fired space heating/domestic hot water boilers' application, operation and design parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring exercises have been carried out for ETSU, by a number of contractors, on a number of wood fired heating schemes; feasibility studies on proposed schemes have also been carried out. Monitoring reports and feasibility studies have been reviewed to try and establish the suitability and economic viability of the various types of plant used (or proposed) and their application. Of the sixteen schemes reviewed just over 30% showed a reasonable return on the incremental capital cost of plant compared to gas oil fired plant. These schemes had one or more of the following attributes: - Low wood fuel cost -Long operating hours -Relatively low incremental capital cost of wood plant over gas oil plant. Small systems with low operating hours (e.g. short weekday occupancy premises, like schools) and relatively high incremental operating and maintenance costs and capital costs exhibited no advantage over equivalent fossil fuel fired plant. The unit fuel cost advantage to wood, in these cases, was insufficient to outweigh the increased O and M and capital costs, because of the comparatively low annual fuel consumption. Most of the plants reviewed had low thermal efficiencies due to the simplicity of the fuel to air control systems and the wide range of heating demand over which they had to operate. The former can be increased by improved combustion control systems and the latter by correct sizing of boilers and/or the installation of hybrid systems. (Author)

  10. Digital bus technology in new coal-fired plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaney, J.; Murray, J. [Emerson Process Management (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The main issues associated with including digital bus technology such as Foundation fieldbus, Profibus-DP or DeviceNet, in a coal-fired power plant are deciding which systems to install and determining how to implement it. Although still new, digital bus experiences to date have shown that the technology performs solidly and when wiring best practices are followed a significantly shorted commissioning cycle can be achieved. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Natural radioactivity around the coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, J.; Bajlo, M.

    1996-01-01

    By far the greatest part of the radiation received by the worlds population comes from natural sources, in some situations the exposure to natural radiation sources is enhanced as a result of technological developments. Burning of coal is one source of enhanced radiation exposure to naturally occurring elements, particularly radium, thorium and uranium. Extensive investigations have been performed in the coal-fired power plant (CFPP) Plomin in Croatia, using an anthracite coal with a higher than usual uranium content and normal thorium content. A network of TL dosimeters (TLD), working levels (WL) measurements, air pollution monitoring and monitoring of waste pile were organized. Some of the measurements have been repeated, and the results have shown decreased contamination. (author)

  12. Engineering bed models for solid fuel conversion process in grate-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, M.; Massarotti, N.; Indrizzi, V.

    2014-01-01

    of the syngas predicted by the two models is equal to about 7%. The application to different types of biomass shows that the difference in the predictions increases as the carbon content grows. The phenomenological model, in fact, generally considers higher conversion rates of this element to volatiles......A comparison between two numerical models describing the thermo-chemical conversion process of a solid fuel bed in a grate-fired boiler is presented. Both models consider the incoming biomass as subjected to drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion. In the first approach the biomass bed...... is treated as a 0D system, where the thermo-chemical processes are divided in two successive sections: drying and conversion. Phenomenological laws are written to characterize the syngas release as a function of the main governing parameters. The second model is an empirical 1D approach. Temperature, species...

  13. Bed models for solid fuel conversion process in grate-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, M.; Massarotti, N.; Indrizzi, V.

    2013-01-01

    -chemical processes are divided in two successive sections: drying and conversion (which includes pyrolysis, gasification and combustion). The second model is an empirical 1D approach. The two models need input data such as composition, temperature and feeding rate of biomass and primary air. Temperature, species...... to describe the thermo-chemical conversion process of a solid fuel bed in a grate-fired boiler is presented. In this work both models consider the incoming solid fuel as subjected to drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion. In the first approach the biomass bed is treated as a 0D system, but the thermo...... concentrations and velocity of the producer gas leaving the fuel bed provided by the two models are compared. A sensitivity analysis with respect to mass flow rate of the primary air is also performed, as well as a further comparison regarding the dependence of the producer gas properties on the initial moisture...

  14. Energy economics of nuclear and coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kee Won; Cho, Joo Hyun; Kim, Sung Rae; Choi, Hae Yoon

    1995-01-01

    The upturn of Korean nuclear power program can be considered to have started in early 70's while future plants for the construction of new nuclear power plants virtually came to a halt in United States. It is projected that power plant systems from combination of nuclear and coal fired types might shift to all coal fired type, considering the current trend of construction on the new plants in the United States. However, with the depletion of natural resources, it is desirable to understand the utilization of two competitive utility technologies in terms of of invested energy. Presented in this paper is a comparison between two systems, nuclear power plant and coal fired steam power plant in terms of energy investment. The method of comparison is Net Energy Analysis (NEA). In doing so, Input-Output Analysis (IOA) among industries and commodities is done. Using these information, net energy ratios are calculated and compared. NEA is conducted for power plants in U.S. because the availability of necessary data are limited in Korea. Although NEA does not offer conclusive solution, this method can work as a screening process in decision making. When considering energy systems, results from such analysis can be used as a general guideline. 2 figs., 12 tabs., 5 refs. (Author)

  15. Cleaning up coal-fired plants : multi-pollutant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granson, E.

    2009-06-15

    Coal is the source of 41 per cent of the world's electricity. Emission reduction technologies are needed to address the rapid growth of coal-fired plants in developing countries. This article discussed a multi-pollutant technology currently being developed by Natural Resources Canada's CANMET Energy Technology Centre. The ECO technology was designed to focus on several types of emissions, including sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), mercury and particulates, as well as acid gases and other metals from the exhaust gas of coal-fired plants. The ECO process converts and absorbs incoming pollutants in a wet electrostatic precipitator while at the same time producing a valuable fertilizer. The ECO system is installed as part of the plant's existing particulate control device and treats flue gas in 3 process steps: (1) a dielectric barrier discharge reactor oxidizes gaseous pollutants to higher oxides; (2) an ammonia scrubber then removes sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) not converted by the reactor while also removing the NOx; and (3) the wet electrostatic precipitator captures acid aerosols produced by the discharge reactor. A diagram of the ECO process flow was included. It was concluded that the systems will be installed in clean coal plants by 2015. 2 figs.

  16. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere

  17. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  18. The performance of oil-fired boilers: The influence of fuel sulfur on emissions and appliance integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    ASHRAE research project RP-757 examined the impact of distillate fuel sulfur content on the energy and emission performance of oil-f